It is the purpose of this section—
(1) to authorize and support environmental assessment research to help identify and analyze environmental effects of biotechnology; and
(2) to authorize research to help regulators develop long-term policies concerning the introduction of such technology.
The Secretary of Agriculture shall establish a grant program within the National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the Agricultural Research Service to provide the necessary funding for environmental assessment research concerning the introduction of genetically engineered animals, plants, and microorganisms into the environment.
The following types of research shall be given priority for funding:
(1) Research designed to identify and develop appropriate management practices to minimize physical and biological risks associated with genetically engineered animals, plants, and microorganisms.
(2) Research designed to develop methods to monitor the dispersal of genetically engineered animals, plants, and microorganisms.
(3) Research designed to further existing knowledge with respect to the characteristics, rates, and methods of gene transfer that may occur between genetically engineered animals, plants, and microorganisms and related wild and agricultural organisms.
(4) Environmental assessment research designed to provide analysis which compares the relative impacts of animals, plants, and microorganisms modified through genetic engineering to other types of production systems.
(5) Other areas of research designed to further the purposes of this section.
Grants under this section shall be—
(1) made on the basis of the quality of the proposed research project; and
(2) available to any public or private research or educational institution or organization.
In considering specific areas of research for funding under this section, the Secretary of Agriculture shall consult with the Administrator of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board.
The Secretary of Agriculture shall coordinate research funded under this section with the Office of Research and Development of the Environmental Protection Agency in order to avoid duplication of research activities.
There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as necessary to carry out this section.
The Secretary of Agriculture shall withhold from outlays of the Department of Agriculture for research on biotechnology, as defined and determined by the Secretary, at least 2 percent of such amount for the purpose of making grants under this section for research on biotechnology risk assessment.
Funds made available under this subsection shall be applied, to the maximum extent practicable, to risk assessment research on all categories identified in subsection (c).
(Pub. L. 101–624, title XVI, §1668, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3767; Pub. L. 102–237, title IV, §407(9), Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1865; Pub. L. 107–171, title VII, §7210, May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 446; Pub. L. 110–234, title VII, §7511(c)(21), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1269; Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), title VII, §7511(c)(21), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 2031.)
Pub. L. 110–234 and Pub. L. 110–246 made identical amendments to this section. The amendments by Pub. L. 110–234 were repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110–246.
2008—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 110–246, §7511(c)(21), substituted "National Institute of Food and Agriculture" for "Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service".
2002—Pub. L. 107–171 reenacted section catchline and amended text generally, substituting substantially similar provisions in subsecs. (a), (b), and (d) to (g), and substituting in subsec. (c), provisions relating to research priorities for provisions relating to types of research.
1991—Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 102–237 substituted "Withholdings" for "Witholdings" in heading.
Amendment of this section and repeal of Pub. L. 110–234 by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–234, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of this title.
Amendment by section 7511(c)(21) of Pub. L. 110–246 effective Oct. 1, 2009, see section 7511(c) of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as a note under section 1522 of this title.