(A) a railroad carrier to conduct preemployment, reasonable suspicion, random, and post-accident testing of all railroad employees responsible for safety-sensitive functions (as decided by the Secretary) for the use of a controlled substance in violation of law or a United States Government regulation, and to conduct reasonable suspicion, random, and post-accident testing of such employees for the use of alcohol in violation of law or a United States Government regulation; the regulations shall permit such railroad carriers to conduct preemployment testing of such employees for the use of alcohol; and
(B) when the Secretary considers it appropriate, disqualification for an established period of time or dismissal of any employee found—
(i) to have used or been impaired by alcohol when on duty; or
(ii) to have used a controlled substance, whether or not on duty, except as allowed for medical purposes by law or a regulation or order under this chapter.
(2) When the Secretary of Transportation considers it appropriate in the interest of safety, the Secretary may prescribe regulations and issue orders requiring railroad carriers to conduct periodic recurring testing of railroad employees responsible for safety-sensitive functions (as decided by the Secretary) for the use of alcohol or a controlled substance in violation of law or a Government regulation.
(1) promote, to the maximum extent practicable, individual privacy in the collection of specimens;
(2) for laboratories and testing procedures for controlled substances, incorporate the Department of Health and Human Services scientific and technical guidelines dated April 11, 1988, and any amendments to those guidelines, including mandatory guidelines establishing—
(A) comprehensive standards for every aspect of laboratory controlled substances testing and laboratory procedures to be applied in carrying out this section, including standards requiring the use of the best available technology to ensure the complete reliability and accuracy of controlled substances tests and strict procedures governing the chain of custody of specimens collected for controlled substances testing;
(B) the minimum list of controlled substances for which individuals may be tested; and
(C) appropriate standards and procedures for periodic review of laboratories and criteria for certification and revocation of certification of laboratories to perform controlled substances testing in carrying out this section;
(3) require that a laboratory involved in controlled substances testing under this section have the capability and facility, at the laboratory, of performing screening and confirmation tests;
(4) provide that all tests indicating the use of alcohol or a controlled substance in violation of law or a Government regulation be confirmed by a scientifically recognized method of testing capable of providing quantitative information about alcohol or a controlled substance;
(5) provide that each specimen be subdivided, secured, and labeled in the presence of the tested individual and that a part of the specimen be retained in a secure manner to prevent the possibility of tampering, so that if the individual's confirmation test results are positive the individual has an opportunity to have the retained part tested by a 2d confirmation test done independently at another certified laboratory if the individual requests the 2d confirmation test not later than 3 days after being advised of the results of the first confirmation test;
(6) ensure appropriate safeguards for testing to detect and quantify alcohol in breath and body fluid samples, including urine and blood, through the development of regulations that may be necessary and in consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services;
(7) provide for the confidentiality of test results and medical information (other than information about alcohol or a controlled substance) of employees, except that this clause does not prevent the use of test results for the orderly imposition of appropriate sanctions under this section; and
(8) ensure that employees are selected for tests by nondiscriminatory and impartial methods, so that no employee is harassed by being treated differently from other employees in similar circumstances.
(1) shall establish only requirements that are consistent with international obligations of the United States; and
(2) shall consider applicable laws and regulations of foreign countries.
(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 876; Pub. L. 104–59, title III, §342(b), Nov. 28, 1995, 109 Stat. 609.)
|Source (U.S. Code)||Source (Statutes at Large)|
|20140(a)||45:431(r)(5).||Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §202(r); added Oct. 28, 1991, Pub. L. 102–143, §4, 105 Stat. 957.|
|20140(b)||45:431(r)(1) (1st–3d sentences).|
|20140(f)||45:431(r)(1) (last sentence).|
In subsection (b)(1), before clause (A), the words "controlled substances" are substituted for "drug" for consistency in this section. In clauses (B) and (C), the word "found" is substituted for "determined" for consistency in the revised title.
In subsection (c)(3), the words "of any employee" are omitted as surplus.
In subsection (c)(4), the words "by any employee" are omitted as surplus.
In subsection (c)(5), the word "tested" is substituted for "assayed" for consistency. The words "2d confirmation test" are substituted for "independent test" for clarity and consistency.
1995—Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 104–59 amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: "a railroad carrier to conduct preemployment, reasonable suspicion, random, and post-accident testing of all railroad employees responsible for safety-sensitive functions (as decided by the Secretary) for the use of alcohol or a controlled substance in violation of law or a United States Government regulation; and".
Pub. L. 115–271, title VIII, §8102, Oct. 24, 2018, 132 Stat. 4104, provided that:
Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title IV, §412, Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4889, as amended by Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11316(j)(6), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1678, provided that: "Not later than 2 years following the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 16, 2008], the Secretary shall complete a rulemaking proceeding to revise the regulations prescribed under section 20140 of title 49, United States Code, to cover all employees of railroad carriers and contractors or subcontractors to railroad carriers who perform maintenance-of-way activities."
[For definition of "railroad carrier", as used in section 412 of Pub. L. 110–432, set out above, see section 2(a) of Pub. L. 110–432, set out as a note under section 20102 of this title.]'