(a) Subject to the provisions and in order to carry out the purposes of the conventions, referred to in section 703 of this title, the Secretary of the Interior is authorized and directed, from time to time, having due regard to the zones of temperature and to the distribution, abundance, economic value, breeding habits, and times and lines of migratory flight of such birds, to determine when, to what extent, if at all, and by what means, it is compatible with the terms of the conventions to allow hunting, taking, capture, killing, possession, sale, purchase, shipment, transportation, carriage, or export of any such bird, or any part, nest, or egg thereof, and to adopt suitable regulations permitting and governing the same, in accordance with such determinations, which regulations shall become effective when approved by the President.
(b) It shall be unlawful for any person to—
(1) take any migratory game bird by the aid of baiting, or on or over any baited area, if the person knows or reasonably should know that the area is a baited area; or
(2) place or direct the placement of bait on or adjacent to an area for the purpose of causing, inducing, or allowing any person to take or attempt to take any migratory game bird by the aid of baiting on or over the baited area.
(i) subject to subparagraph (B), adopt the recommendation of each respective flyway council (as defined in section 20.152 of title 50, Code of Federal Regulations) for the Federal framework if the Secretary determines that the recommendation is consistent with science-based and sustainable harvest management; and
(ii) allow the States to establish the closing date for the hunting season in accordance with the Federal framework.
(i) the days selected—
(I) may only include the hunting of duck, geese, swan, merganser, coot, moorhen, and gallinule species that are eligible for hunting under the applicable annual Federal framework;
(II) are not more than 14 days before or after the Federal framework hunting season for ducks, mergansers, and coots; and
(III) are otherwise consistent with the Federal framework; and
(ii) the total number of days in a hunting season for any migratory bird species, including any days selected under subparagraph (A), is not more than 107 days.
(July 3, 1918, ch. 128, §3, 40 Stat. 755; June 20, 1936, ch. 634, §2, 49 Stat. 1556; 1939 Reorg. Plan No. II, §4(f), eff. July 1, 1939, 4 F.R. 2731, 53 Stat. 1433; Pub. L. 105–312, title I, §102, Oct. 30, 1998, 112 Stat. 2956; Pub. L. 116–9, title IV, §4301, Mar. 12, 2019, 133 Stat. 764.)
2019—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 116–9 added subsec. (c).
1998—Pub. L. 105–312 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).
1936—Act June 20, 1936, substituted "conventions" for "convention" in two places.
Act June 20, 1936, ch. 634, §2, 49 Stat. 1556, provided in part that the amendment by section 2 is effective as of the day aforesaid (June 30, 1937). See note under section 703 of this title.
Transfer of functions of Secretary of Agriculture to Secretary of the Interior by Reorg. Plan, No. II of 1939, see Transfer of Functions note set out under section 701 of this title.
For delegation to Secretary of the Interior of authority vested in President, see Ex. Ord. No. 10752, Feb. 12, 1958, 23 F.R. 973, set out as a note under section 715j of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.
Secretary of the Interior empowered to promulgate regulations under this section without approval, ratification, or other action of President, see section 2(b) of Ex. Ord. No. 10250, June 5, 1951, 16 F.R. 5385, set out as a note under section 301 of Title 3, The President.
Pub. L. 115–334, title XII, §12601, Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 5003, provided that:
"(A) in which the natural disaster occurred; or
"(B) immediately preceding the crop year in which the natural disaster occurred.
"(1) the Secretary of Agriculture shall submit to the Secretary of the Interior a report that describes any changes to normal agricultural operations across the range of crops grown by agricultural producers in each region of the United States in which the official recommendations described in section 20.11(h) of title 50, Code of Federal Regulations (as in effect on the date of enactment of this Act), are provided to agricultural producers; and
"(2) the Secretary of the Interior, in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture and after seeking input from the heads of State departments of fish and wildlife or the Regional Migratory Bird Flyway Councils of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, shall publicly post a report on the impact that rice ratooning and post-disaster flooding have on the behavior of migratory game birds that are hunted in the area in which rice ratooning and post-disaster flooding, respectively, have occurred."
Pub. L. 105–312, title I, §104, Oct. 30, 1998, 112 Stat. 2956, directed that no later than 5 years after Oct. 30, 1998, the Secretary of the Interior submit to the appropriate Senate and House committees a report analyzing the effect of certain amendments made by Pub. L. 105–312, and the general practice of baiting, on migratory bird conservation and law enforcement efforts under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (16 U.S.C. 703 et seq.).