TITLE 6—DOMESTIC SECURITY

Chap.
Sec.
1.
Homeland Security Organization
101
2.
National Emergency Management
701
3.
Security and Accountability for Every Port
901
4.
Transportation Security
1101
5.
Border Infrastructure and Technology Modernization
1401
6.
Cybersecurity
1501

        

Prior Provisions

A prior Title 6, Surety Bonds, was enacted by act July 30, 1947, ch. 390, §1, 61 Stat. 646, and was repealed by act Sept. 13, 1982, Pub. L. 97–258, §5(b), 96 Stat. 1068, 1085.

Sections 1 to 5 were repealed by Pub. L. 92–310, title II, §203(1), June 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 202.

Section 1, acts July 30, 1947, ch. 390, 61 Stat. 646; Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 655, §13, 65 Stat. 715, related to custody of official bonds.

Section 2, act July 30, 1947, ch. 390, 61 Stat. 647, directed examination at least once every two years of sufficiency of sureties on official bonds.

Section 3, acts July 30, 1947, ch. 390, 61 Stat. 647; Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1263, §15, 68 Stat. 1231, related to renewal of bonds and continuance of liability.

Section 4, act July 30, 1947, ch. 390, 61 Stat. 647, related to notice of delinquency of principal. The provisions of the section were reenacted by section 260 of Pub. L. 92–310, which was classified to section 497a of former Title 31. See section 3532 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

Section 5, act July 30, 1947, ch. 390, 61 Stat. 648, related to limitation of actions against sureties.

Sections 6 to 13 were repealed by Pub. L. 97–258, §5(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1068, 1085.

Section 6, acts July 30, 1947, ch. 390, 61 Stat. 648; Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 683, §2, 69 Stat. 620; June 6, 1972, Pub. L. 92–310, title II, §203(2), 86 Stat. 202, related to surety companies as sureties. See section 9304 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

Section 7, act July 30, 1947, ch. 390, 61 Stat. 648, related to appointment of agents and service of process with regards to surety companies as sureties. See section 9306 of Title 31.

Section 8, act July 30, 1947, ch. 390, 61 Stat. 649, related to deposit of copy of charter of surety company before transacting business under sections 6 to 13 of this title. See section 9305 of Title 31.

Section 9, act July 30, 1947, ch. 390, 61 Stat. 649, related to quarterly statements of surety companies filed with Secretary of the Treasury. See section 9305 of Title 31.

Section 10, act July 30, 1947, ch. 390, 61 Stat. 649, related to jurisdiction over surety companies with regards to suits on bonds. See section 9307 of Title 31.

Section 11, act July 30, 1947, ch. 390, 61 Stat. 649, provided sanctions for nonpayment of a judgment by surety company. See section 9305 of Title 31.

Section 12, act July 30, 1947, ch. 390, 61 Stat. 649, estopped a surety company to deny its corporate powers, etc. See section 9307 of Title 31.

Section 13, act July 30, 1947, ch. 390, 61 Stat. 650, provided for fining of surety companies for their failure to comply with law. See section 9308 of Title 31.

Section 14, acts July 30, 1947, ch. 390, 61 Stat. 650; Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 683, §1, 69 Stat. 618, which related to purchase of bonds to cover officers and employees of Federal Government, was repealed by Pub. L. 92–310, title II, §203(1), June 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 202.

Section 15, act July 30, 1947, ch. 390, 61 Stat. 650, which related to bonds and notes of United States in lieu of recognizance, stipulation, bond, guarantee, or undertaking and contractors' bonds, was repealed by Pub. L. 97–258, §5(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1068, 1085. See sections 9301 and 9303 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

CHAPTER 1—HOMELAND SECURITY ORGANIZATION

Sec.
101.
Definitions.
102.
Construction; severability.
103.
Use of appropriated funds.
104.
National biodefense strategy.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY

111.
Executive department; mission.
112.
Secretary; functions.
113.
Other officers.
114.
Sensitive Security Information.
115.
Trade and customs revenue functions of the Department.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—INFORMATION ANALYSIS

Part A—Information and Analysis; Access to Information

121.
Information and Analysis.
121a.
Homeland Security Intelligence Program.
122.
Access to information.
123.
Terrorist travel program.
124.
Homeland Security Advisory System.
124a.
Homeland security information sharing.
124b.
Comprehensive information technology network architecture.
124c.
Coordination with information sharing environment.
124d.
Intelligence components.
124e.
Training for employees of intelligence components.
124f.
Intelligence training development for State and local government officials.
124g.
Information sharing incentives.
124h.
Department of Homeland Security State, Local, and Regional Fusion Center Initiative.
124i.
Homeland Security Information Sharing Fellows Program.
124j.
Rural Policing Institute.
124k.
Interagency Threat Assessment and Coordination Group.
124l.
Transferred.
124m.
Classified Information Advisory Officer.
124n.
Protection of certain facilities and assets from unmanned aircraft.
125.
Annual report on intelligence activities of the Department of Homeland Security.
126.
Department of Homeland Security data framework.

        

Part B—Information Security

131 to 134.
Transferred.
141.
Procedures for sharing information.
142.
Privacy officer.
143 to 145.Transferred.
146.
Cybersecurity workforce assessment and strategy.
147 to 151.
Transferred.

        

Part C—Office of Science and Technology

161.
Establishment of Office; Director.
162.
Mission of Office; duties.
163.
Definition of law enforcement technology.
164.
Abolishment of Office of Science and Technology of National Institute of Justice; transfer of functions.
165.
National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Centers.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN SUPPORT OF HOMELAND SECURITY

181.
Under Secretary for Science and Technology.
182.
Responsibilities and authorities of the Under Secretary for Science and Technology.
183.
Functions transferred.
184.
Conduct of certain public health-related activities.
185.
Federally funded research and development centers.
186.
Miscellaneous provisions.
187.
Homeland Security Advanced Research Projects Agency.
188.
Conduct of research, development, demonstration, testing and evaluation.
189.
Utilization of Department of Energy national laboratories and sites in support of homeland security activities.
190.
Transfer of Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Department of Agriculture.
191.
Homeland Security Science and Technology Advisory Committee.
192.
Homeland Security Institute.
193.
Technology clearinghouse to encourage and support innovative solutions to enhance homeland security.
194.
Enhancement of public safety communications interoperability.
195.
Office for Interoperability and Compatibility.
195a.
Emergency communications interoperability research and development.
195b.
National Biosurveillance Integration Center.
195c.
Promoting antiterrorism through international cooperation program.
195d.
Social media working group.
195e.
Transparency in research and development.
195f.
EMP and GMD mitigation research and development.

        

SUBCHAPTER IV—BORDER, MARITIME, AND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY

Part A—Border, Maritime, and Transportation Security Responsibilities and Functions

201.
Repealed.
202.
Border, maritime, and transportation responsibilities.
203.
Functions transferred.
204.
Surface Transportation Security Advisory Committee.

        

Part B—U.S. Customs and Border Protection

211.
Establishment of U.S. Customs and Border Protection; Commissioner, Deputy Commissioner, and operational offices.
212.
Retention of Customs revenue functions by Secretary of the Treasury.
213.
Preservation of Customs funds.
214.
Separate budget request for Customs.
215.
Definition.
216.
Repealed.
217.
Allocation of resources by the Secretary.
218.
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Business Travel Cards.
220.
Methamphetamine and methamphetamine precursor chemicals.
221.
Requirements with respect to administering polygraph examinations to law enforcement personnel of U.S. Customs and Border Protection.
222.
Advanced Training Center Revolving Fund.
223.
Border security metrics.

        

Part C—Miscellaneous Provisions

231.
Transfer of certain agricultural inspection functions of the Department of Agriculture.
232.
Functions of Administrator of General Services.
233.
Functions of Transportation Security Administration.
234.
Preservation of Transportation Security Administration as a distinct entity.
235.
Coordination of information and information technology.
236.
Visa issuance.
237.
Information on visa denials required to be entered into electronic data system.
238.
Office for Domestic Preparedness.
239.
Office of Cargo Security Policy.
240.
Border Enforcement Security Task Force.
241.
Prevention of international child abduction.
242.
Department of Homeland Security Blue Campaign.
243.
Maritime operations coordination plan.
244.
Maritime security capabilities assessments.

        

Part D—Immigration Enforcement Functions

251.
Transfer of functions.
252.
Establishment of Bureau of Border Security.
253.
Professional responsibility and quality review.
254.
Employee discipline.
255.
Report on improving enforcement functions.
256.
Sense of Congress regarding construction of fencing near San Diego, California.
257.
Report.

        

Part E—Citizenship and Immigration Services

271.
Establishment of Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services.
272.
Citizenship and Immigration Services Ombudsman.
273.
Professional responsibility and quality review.
274.
Employee discipline.
275.
Transition.
276.
Report on improving immigration services.
277.
Report on responding to fluctuating needs.
278.
Application of Internet-based technologies.
279.
Children's affairs.

        

Part F—General Immigration Provisions

291.
Abolishment of INS.
292.
Voluntary separation incentive payments.
293.
Authority to conduct a demonstration project relating to disciplinary action.
294.
Sense of Congress.
295.
Director of Shared Services.
296.
Separation of funding.
297.
Reports and implementation plans.
298.
Immigration functions.

        

Part G—U.S. Customs and Border Protection Public Private Partnerships

301.
Fee agreements for certain services at ports of entry.
301a.
Port of entry donation authority.
301b.
Current and proposed agreements.
301c.
Definitions.

        

SUBCHAPTER V—NATIONAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT

311.
Definitions.
312.
Definition.
313.
Federal Emergency Management Agency.
314.
Authority and responsibilities.
314a.
FEMA programs.
315.
Functions transferred.
316.
Preserving the Federal Emergency Management Agency.
317.
Regional offices.
318.
National Advisory Council.
319.
National Integration Center.
320.
Credentialing and typing.
321.
The National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center.
321a.
Evacuation plans and exercises.
321b.
Disability Coordinator.
321c.
Department and Agency officials.
321d.
National Operations Center.
321e.
Repealed.
321f.
Nuclear incident response.
321g.
Conduct of certain public health-related activities.
321h.
Use of national private sector networks in emergency response.
321i.
Use of commercially available technology, goods, and services.
321j.
Procurement of security countermeasures for Strategic National Stockpile.
321k.
Model standards and guidelines for critical infrastructure workers.
321l.
Guidance and recommendations.
321m.
Voluntary private sector preparedness accreditation and certification program.
321n.
Acceptance of gifts.
321o.
Integrated public alert and warning system modernization.
321p.
National planning and education.
321q.
Coordination of Department of Homeland Security efforts related to food, agriculture, and veterinary defense against terrorism.

        

SUBCHAPTER VI—TREATMENT OF CHARITABLE TRUSTS FOR MEMBERS OF THE ARMED FORCES OF THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

331.
Treatment of charitable trusts for members of the Armed Forces of the United States and other governmental organizations.

        

SUBCHAPTER VII—MANAGEMENT

341.
Under Secretary for Management.
342.
Chief Financial Officer.
343.
Chief Information Officer.
344.
Chief Human Capital Officer.
345.
Establishment of Officer for Civil Rights and Civil Liberties.
346.
Consolidation and co-location of offices.
347.
Quadrennial homeland security review.
348.
Joint task forces.
349.
Office of Strategy, Policy, and Plans.
350.
Workforce health and medical support.

        

SUBCHAPTER VIII—COORDINATION WITH NON-FEDERAL ENTITIES; INSPECTOR GENERAL; UNITED STATES SECRET SERVICE; COAST GUARD; GENERAL PROVISIONS

Part A—Coordination with Non-Federal Entities

361.
Office for State and Local Government Coordination.

        

Part B—Inspector General

371.
Repealed.

        

Part C—United States Secret Service

381.
Functions transferred.
382.
Use of proceeds derived from criminal investigations.
383.
National Computer Forensics Institute.

        

Part D—Acquisitions

391.
Research and development projects.
392.
Personal services.
393.
Special streamlined acquisition authority.
394.
Unsolicited proposals.
395.
Prohibition on contracts with corporate expatriates.
396.
Lead system integrator; financial interests.

        

Part E—Human Resources Management

411.
Establishment of human resources management system.
412.
Labor-management relations.
413.
Use of counternarcotics enforcement activities in certain employee performance appraisals.
414.
Homeland Security Rotation Program.
415.
Homeland Security Education Program.
416.
Use of protective equipment or measures by employees.

        

Part F—Federal Emergency Procurement Flexibility

421.
Definition.
422.
Procurements for defense against or recovery from terrorism or nuclear, biological, chemical, or radiological attack.
423.
Increased simplified acquisition threshold for procurements in support of humanitarian or peacekeeping operations or contingency operations.
424.
Increased micro-purchase threshold for certain procurements.
425.
Application of certain commercial items authorities to certain procurements.
426.
Use of streamlined procedures.
427.
Review and report by Comptroller General.
428.
Identification of new entrants into the Federal marketplace.

        

Part G—Support Anti-Terrorism by Fostering Effective Technologies

441.
Administration.
442.
Litigation management.
443.
Risk management.
444.
Definitions.

        

Part H—Miscellaneous Provisions

451.
Advisory committees.
452.
Reorganization.
453.
Use of appropriated funds.
453a.
Additional uses of appropriated funds.
453b.
Requirement to buy certain items related to national security interests from American sources; exceptions.
453c.
Disposition of equines unfit for service.
454.
Future Years Homeland Security Program.
455.
Miscellaneous authorities.
456.
Military activities.
457.
Regulatory authority and preemption.
458.
Office of Counternarcotics Enforcement.
459.
Office of International Affairs.
460.
Prohibition of the Terrorism Information and Prevention System.
461.
Review of pay and benefit plans.
462.
Office of National Capital Region Coordination.
463.
Requirement to comply with laws protecting equal employment opportunity and providing whistleblower protections.
464.
Federal Law Enforcement Training Centers.
464a.
Repealed.
464b.
Staffing accreditation function.
464c.
Student housing.
464d.
Additional funds for training.
464e.
Short-term medical services for students.
465.
Joint Interagency Task Force.
466.
Sense of Congress reaffirming the continued importance and applicability of the Posse Comitatus Act.
467.
Coordination with the Department of Health and Human Services under the Public Health Service Act.
468.
Preserving Coast Guard mission performance.
469.
Fees for credentialing and background investigations in transportation.
469a.
Collection of fees from non-Federal participants in meetings.
470.
Disclosures regarding homeland security grants.
471.
Annual ammunition report.
472.
Annual weaponry report.
473.
Cyber Crimes Center, Child Exploitation Investigations Unit, Computer Forensics Unit, and Cyber Crimes Unit.

        

Part I—Information Sharing

481.
Short title; findings; and sense of Congress.
482.
Facilitating homeland security information sharing procedures.
483.
Report.
484.
Authorization of appropriations.
485.
Information sharing.
486.
Limitation of liability.

        

Part J—Secure Handling of Ammonium Nitrate

488.
Definitions.
488a.
Regulation of the sale and transfer of ammonium nitrate.
488b.
Inspection and auditing of records.
488c.
Administrative provisions.
488d.
Theft reporting requirement.
488e.
Prohibitions and penalty.
488f.
Protection from civil liability.
488g.
Preemption of other laws.
488h.
Deadlines for regulations.
488i.
Authorization of appropriations.

        

SUBCHAPTER IX—NATIONAL HOMELAND SECURITY COUNCIL

491.
National Homeland Security Council.
492.
Function.
493.
Membership.
494.
Other functions and activities.
495.
Staff composition.
496.
Relation to the National Security Council.

        

SUBCHAPTER X—CONSTRUCTION

511.
Information security responsibilities of certain agencies.
512.
Construction.
513.
Federal air marshal program.

        

SUBCHAPTER XI—DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DIVISIONS

Part A—Executive Office for Immigration Review

521.
Legal status of EOIR.
522.
Statutory construction.

        

Part B—Transfer of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms to the Department of Justice

531.
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives.
532.
Explosives Training and Research Facility.
533.
Transferred.

        

SUBCHAPTER XII—TRANSITION

Part A—Reorganization Plan

541.
Definitions.
542.
Reorganization plan.
543.
Review of congressional committee structures.

        

Part B—Transitional Provisions

551.
Transitional authorities.
552.
Savings provisions.
552a.
Savings provision of certain transfers made under the Homeland Security Act of 2002.
553.
Terminations.
554.
National identification system not authorized.
555.
Continuity of Inspector General oversight.
556.
Incidental transfers.
557.
Reference.

        

SUBCHAPTER XII–A—TRANSPORTATION SECURITY

Part A—General Provisions

561.
Definitions.

        

Part B—Transportation Security Administration Acquisition Improvements

563.
5-year technology investment plan.
563a.
Acquisition justification and reports.
563b.
Acquisition baseline establishment and reports.
563c.
Inventory utilization.
563d.
Small business contracting goals.
563e.
Consistency with the Federal Acquisition Regulation and departmental policies and directives.
563f.
Diversified security technology industry marketplace.

        

Part C—Maintenance of Security-related Technology

565.
Maintenance validation and oversight.

        

SUBCHAPTER XIII—EMERGENCY COMMUNICATIONS

571.
Emergency Communications Division.
572.
National Emergency Communications Plan.
573.
Assessments and reports.
574.
Coordination of Department emergency communications grant programs.
575.
Regional emergency communications coordination.
576.
Emergency Communications Preparedness Center.
577.
Urban and other high risk area communications capabilities.
578.
Definition.
579.
Interoperable Emergency Communications Grant Program.
580.
Border interoperability demonstration project.

        

SUBCHAPTER XIV—COUNTERING WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION OFFICE

590.
Definitions.

        

Part A—Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction

591.
Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction Office.

        

Part B—Mission of the Office

591g.
Mission of the Office.
591h.
Relationship to other Department components and Federal agencies.
592.
Responsibilities.
592a.
Technology research and development investment strategy for nuclear and radiological detection.
593.
Hiring authority.
594.
Testing authority.
595.
Repealed.
596.
Contracting and grant making authorities.
596a.
Joint annual interagency review of global nuclear detection architecture.
596b.
Securing the Cities program.

        

Part C—Chief Medical Officer

597.
Chief Medical Officer.

        

SUBCHAPTER XV—HOMELAND SECURITY GRANTS

601.
Definitions.

        

Part A—Grants to States and High-Risk Urban Areas

603.
Homeland security grant programs.
604.
Urban Area Security Initiative.
605.
State Homeland Security Grant Program.
606.
Grants to directly eligible tribes.
607.
Terrorism prevention.
608.
Prioritization.
609.
Use of funds.

        

Part B—Grants Administration

611.
Administration and coordination.
612.
Accountability.
613.
Identification of reporting redundancies and development of performance metrics.

        

SUBCHAPTER XVI—CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS

621.
Definitions.
622.
Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards Program.
623.
Protection and sharing of information.
624.
Civil enforcement.
625.
Whistleblower protections.
626.
Relationship to other laws.
627.
CFATS regulations.
628.
Small covered chemical facilities.
629.
Outreach to chemical facilities of interest.

        

SUBCHAPTER XVII—ANTI-TRAFFICKING TRAINING FOR DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PERSONNEL

641.
Definitions.
642.
Training for Department personnel to identify human trafficking.
643.
Certification and report to Congress.
644.
Assistance to non-Federal entities.
645.
Victim protection training for the Department of Homeland Security.
645a.
Human trafficking assessment.

        

SUBCHAPTER XVIII—CYBERSECURITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE SECURITY AGENCY

Part A—Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security

651.
Definitions.
652.
Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency.
653.
Cybersecurity Division.
654.
Infrastructure Security Division.
655.
Enhancement of Federal and non-Federal cybersecurity.
656.
NET Guard.
657.
Cyber Security Enhancement Act of 2002.
658.
Cybersecurity recruitment and retention.
659.
National cybersecurity and communications integration center.
660.
Cybersecurity plans.
661.
Cybersecurity strategy.
662.
Clearances.
663.
Federal intrusion detection and prevention system.
664.
National asset database.

        

Part B—Critical Infrastructure Information

671.
Definitions.
672.
Designation of critical infrastructure protection program.
673.
Protection of voluntarily shared critical infrastructure information.
674.
No private right of action.

        

§101. Definitions

In this chapter, the following definitions apply:

(1) Each of the terms "American homeland" and "homeland" means the United States.

(2) The term "appropriate congressional committee" means any committee of the House of Representatives or the Senate having legislative or oversight jurisdiction under the Rules of the House of Representatives or the Senate, respectively, over the matter concerned.

(3) The term "assets" includes contracts, facilities, property, records, unobligated or unexpended balances of appropriations, and other funds or resources (other than personnel).

(4) The term "critical infrastructure" has the meaning given that term in section 5195c(e) of title 42.

(5) The term "Department" means the Department of Homeland Security.

(6) The term "emergency response providers" includes Federal, State, and local governmental and nongovernmental emergency public safety, fire, law enforcement, emergency response, emergency medical (including hospital emergency facilities), and related personnel, agencies, and authorities.

(7) The term "EMP" means an electromagnetic pulse caused by a nuclear device or nonnuclear device, including such a pulse caused by an act of terrorism.

(8) The term "executive agency" means an executive agency and a military department, as defined, respectively, in sections 105 and 102 of title 5.

(9) The term "functions" includes authorities, powers, rights, privileges, immunities, programs, projects, activities, duties, and responsibilities.

(10) The term "GMD" means a geomagnetic disturbance caused by a solar storm or another naturally occurring phenomenon.

(11) The term "intelligence component of the Department" means any element or entity of the Department that collects, gathers, processes, analyzes, produces, or disseminates intelligence information within the scope of the information sharing environment, including homeland security information, terrorism information, and weapons of mass destruction information, or national intelligence, as defined under section 3003(5) of title 50, except—

(A) the United States Secret Service; and

(B) the Coast Guard, when operating under the direct authority of the Secretary of Defense or Secretary of the Navy pursuant to section 3 1 of title 14, except that nothing in this paragraph shall affect or diminish the authority and responsibilities of the Commandant of the Coast Guard to command or control the Coast Guard as an armed force or the authority of the Director of National Intelligence with respect to the Coast Guard as an element of the intelligence community (as defined under section 3003(4) of title 50.2


(12) The term "key resources" means publicly or privately controlled resources essential to the minimal operations of the economy and government.

(13) The term "local government" means—

(A) a county, municipality, city, town, township, local public authority, school district, special district, intrastate district, council of governments (regardless of whether the council of governments is incorporated as a nonprofit corporation under State law), regional or interstate government entity, or agency or instrumentality of a local government;

(B) an Indian tribe or authorized tribal organization, or in Alaska a Native village or Alaska Regional Native Corporation; and

(C) a rural community, unincorporated town or village, or other public entity.


(14) The term "major disaster" has the meaning given in section 5122(2) of title 42.

(15) The term "personnel" means officers and employees.

(16) The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Homeland Security.

(17) The term "State" means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and any possession of the United States.

(18) The term "terrorism" means any activity that—

(A) involves an act that—

(i) is dangerous to human life or potentially destructive of critical infrastructure or key resources; and

(ii) is a violation of the criminal laws of the United States or of any State or other subdivision of the United States; and


(B) appears to be intended—

(i) to intimidate or coerce a civilian population;

(ii) to influence the policy of a government by intimidation or coercion; or

(iii) to affect the conduct of a government by mass destruction, assassination, or kidnapping.


(19)(A) The term "United States", when used in a geographic sense, means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, any possession of the United States, and any waters within the jurisdiction of the United States.

(B) Nothing in this paragraph or any other provision of this chapter shall be construed to modify the definition of "United States" for the purposes of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.] or any other immigration or nationality law.

(20) The term "voluntary preparedness standards" means a common set of criteria for preparedness, disaster management, emergency management, and business continuity programs, such as the American National Standards Institute's National Fire Protection Association Standard on Disaster/Emergency Management and Business Continuity Programs (ANSI/NFPA 1600).

(Pub. L. 107–296, §2, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2140; Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, §612(d), Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1410; Pub. L. 109–347, title VI, §613, Oct. 13, 2006, 120 Stat. 1943; Pub. L. 110–53, title V, §502(a), title IX, §901(d), Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 310, 371; Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title XIX, §1913(a)(1), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2684.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 107–296, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2135, known as the Homeland Security Act of 2002, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out below and Tables.

Section 3 of title 14, referred to in par. (11)(B), was redesignated section 103 of title 14 by Pub. L. 115–282, title I, §103(b), Dec. 4, 2018, 132 Stat. 4195, and references to section 3 of title 14 deemed to refer to such redesignated section, see section 123(b)(1) of Pub. L. 115–282, set out as a References to Sections of Title 14 as Redesignated by Pub. L. 115–282 note preceding section 101 of Title 14, Coast Guard.

The Immigration and Nationality Act, referred to in par. (19)(B), is act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, 66 Stat. 163, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 12 (§1101 et seq.) of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1101 of Title 8 and Tables.

Amendments

2016—Pars. (7) to (20). Pub. L. 114–328 added par. (7), redesignated former pars. (7) and (8) as (8) and (9), respectively, added par. (10), and redesignated former pars. (9) to (18) as (11) to (20), respectively.

2007—Pars. (9) to (17). Pub. L. 110–53, §502(a), added par. (9) and redesignated former pars. (9) to (16) as (10) to (17), respectively.

Par. (18). Pub. L. 110–53, §901(d), added par. (18).

2006—Par. (6). Pub. L. 109–347 inserted "governmental and nongovernmental" after "local".

Pub. L. 109–295 inserted "fire," after "safety,".

Effective Date

Pub. L. 107–296, §4, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2142, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] shall take effect 60 days after the date of enactment [Nov. 25, 2002]."

Short Title of 2018 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–387, §1, Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5162, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 350, 590, 591, 591g, 591h, 596b, and 597 of this title, amending sections 113, 195b, 195c, 315, 321q, 592, 593, 594, 596, and 596a of this title, repealing sections 321e, 591, and 595 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 591 of this title] may be cited as the 'Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction Act of 2018'."

Pub. L. 115–331, §1, Dec. 19, 2018, 132 Stat. 4484, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 126 of this title] may be cited as the 'Department of Homeland Security Data Framework Act of 2018'."

Pub. L. 115–278, §1, Nov. 16, 2018, 132 Stat. 4168, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency Act of 2018'."

Pub. L. 115–254, div. H, §1601, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3522, provided that: "This division [enacting section 124 of this title and section 104 of Title 14, Coast Guard] may be cited as the 'Preventing Emerging Threats Act of 2018'."

Pub. L. 115–125, §1, Feb. 14, 2018, 132 Stat. 315, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 242 of this title and provisions set out as a note under section 242 of this title] may be cited as the 'Department of Homeland Security Blue Campaign Authorization Act'."

Short Title of 2017 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–79, §1, Nov. 2, 2017, 131 Stat. 1258, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 218 of this title, amending section 211 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under section 218 of this title and section 1185 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 1185 of Title 8] may be cited as the 'Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Business Travel Cards Act of 2017'."

Pub. L. 115–43, §1, June 30, 2017, 131 Stat. 884, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 321q of this title] may be cited as the 'Securing our Agriculture and Food Act'."

Pub. L. 115–38, §1, June 6, 2017, 131 Stat. 855, provided that: "This Act [amending section 341 of this title] may be cited as the 'DHS Stop Asset and Vehicle Excess Act' or the 'DHS SAVE Act'."

Short Title of 2016 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–321, §1, Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1623, provided that: "This Act [amending section 318 of this title] may be cited as the 'RESPONSE Act of 2016'."

Pub. L. 114–304, §1, Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1519, provided that: "This Act [amending section 195c of this title and section 8606 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse] may be cited as the 'United States-Israel Advanced Research Partnership Act of 2016'."

Pub. L. 114–285, §1, Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1453, provided that: "This Act [amending section 464 of this title] may be cited as the 'Federal Law Enforcement Training Centers Reform and Improvement Act of 2015'."

Pub. L. 114–279, §1, Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1413, provided that: "This Act [enacting part G of subchapter IV of this chapter, amending section 221 of this title and section 4451 of Title 19, Customs Duties, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 211 of this title] may be cited as the 'Cross-Border Trade Enhancement Act of 2016'."

Pub. L. 114–143, §1, Apr. 11, 2016, 130 Stat. 327, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 321o of this title and provisions set out as a note under section 321o of this title] may be cited as the 'Integrated Public Alert and Warning System Modernization Act of 2015'."

Short Title of 2015 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–113, div. N, title II, §201, Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 2956, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle A (§§201–211) of title II of div. N of Pub. L. 114–113, amending sections 131, 148, and 149 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 131 of this title] may be cited as the 'National Cybersecurity Protection Advancement Act of 2015'."

Pub. L. 114–80, §1, Nov. 5, 2015, 129 Stat. 646, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 195d of this title] may be cited as the 'DHS Social Media Improvement Act of 2015'."

Pub. L. 114–22, title III, §301, May 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 251, provided that: "This title [enacting section 473 of this title and section 2421 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, amending section 187 of this title, repealing former section 2421 of Title 18, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 473 of this title] may be cited as the 'Human Exploitation Rescue Operations Act of 2015' or the 'HERO Act of 2015'."

Short Title of 2014 Amendment

Pub. L. 113–284, §1, Dec. 18, 2014, 128 Stat. 3089, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 468 and 612 of this title, enacting provisions set out as a note under section 612 of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 70101 of Title 46, Shipping] may be cited as the 'DHS OIG Mandates Revision Act of 2014'."

Pub. L. 113–282, §1, Dec. 18, 2014, 128 Stat. 3066, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 148 to 150 of this title and provisions set out as notes under sections 148 and 149 of this title and formerly set out as a note under section 3543 of Title 44, Public Printing and Documents] may be cited as the 'National Cybersecurity Protection Act of 2014'."

Pub. L. 113–254, §1, Dec. 18, 2014, 128 Stat. 2898, provided that: "This Act [enacting subchapter XVI of this chapter and enacting and repealing provisions set out as notes under section 121 of this title] may be cited as the 'Protecting and Securing Chemical Facilities from Terrorist Attacks Act of 2014'."

Pub. L. 113–246, §1, Dec. 18, 2014, 128 Stat. 2880, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 146 of this title and provisions set out as a note under section 146 of this title] may be cited as the 'Cybersecurity Workforce Assessment Act'."

Pub. L. 113–245, §1, Dec. 18, 2014, 128 Stat. 2871, provided that: "This Act [enacting subchapter XII–A of this chapter and provisions set out as notes under section 561 of this title] may be cited as the 'Transportation Security Acquisition Reform Act'."

Short Title of 2013 Amendment

Pub. L. 112–265, §1, Jan. 14, 2013, 126 Stat. 2435, provided that: "This Act [amending section 455 of this title and section 530C of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure] may be cited as the 'Investigative Assistance for Violent Crimes Act of 2012'."

Short Title of 2012 Amendment

Pub. L. 112–205, §1, Dec. 7, 2012, 126 Stat. 1487, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 240 of this title and provisions set out as a note under section 240 of this title] may be cited as the 'Jaime Zapata Border Enforcement Security Task Force Act'."

Short Title of 2011 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–376, §1, Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 4104, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 221 of this title and provisions set out as a note under section 221 of this title] may be cited as the 'Anti-Border Corruption Act of 2010'."

Short Title of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–271, §1, Oct. 12, 2010, 124 Stat. 2852, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 613 of this title] may be cited as the 'Redundancy Elimination and Enhanced Performance for Preparedness Grants Act'."

Pub. L. 111–258, §1, Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2648, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 124m of this title and section 435d of Title 50, War and National Defense, amending sections 121 and 124k of this title and section 403–1 of Title 50, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 124m of this title and sections 435 and 435d of Title 50] may be cited as the 'Reducing Over-Classification Act'."

Pub. L. 111–245, §1, Sept. 30, 2010, 124 Stat. 2620, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 321n of this title, amending sections 453 and 464 of this title, and repealing section 464a of this title] may be cited as the 'First Responder Anti-Terrorism Training Resources Act'."

Pub. L. 111–140, §1, Feb. 16, 2010, 124 Stat. 31, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 592 and 596a of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 592 of this title] may be cited as the 'Nuclear Forensics and Attribution Act'."

Short Title of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–412, §1, Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4336, provided that: "This Act [amending section 609 of this title] may be cited as the 'Personnel Reimbursement for Intelligence Cooperation and Enhancement of Homeland Security Act of 2008' or the 'PRICE of Homeland Security Act'."

Short Title of 2007 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–53, §1(a), Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 266, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007'."

Short Title of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, §671(a), Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1433, provided that: "This section [enacting subchapter XIII of this chapter] may be cited as the '21st Century Emergency Communications Act of 2006'."

Short Title of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–458, title VII, §7001, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3775, provided that: "This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the '9/11 Commission Implementation Act of 2004'."

Pub. L. 108–458, title VIII, §8301, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3867, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle C (§§8301–8306) of title VIII of Pub. L. 108–458, amending sections 111, 142, and 345 of this title and section 8I of the Inspector General Act of 1978, Pub. L. 95–452, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 112 of this title] may be cited as the 'Homeland Security Civil Rights and Civil Liberties Protection Act of 2004'."

Pub. L. 108–330, §1, Oct. 16, 2004, 118 Stat. 1275, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 113, 342, and 454 of this title and sections 901 and 3516 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 342 of this title and sections 901 and 3516 of Title 31] may be cited as 'Department of Homeland Security Financial Accountability Act'."

Short Title of 2003 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–7, div. L, Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. 532, provided in part that: "This division [enacting sections 103 and 552a of this title and section 8I of the Inspector General Act of 1978, Pub. L. 95–452, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, amending sections 113, 162, 164, 188, 395, 453, and 551 of this title, section 8D of the Inspector General Act of 1978, sections 1103 and 1356 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality, and section 300aa–33 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, redesignating section 8I of the Inspector General Act of 1978 as section 8J, repealing section 371 of this title and former section 8J of the Inspector General Act of 1978, enacting provisions set out as notes under section 521 of this title, section 1356 of Title 8, and section 300aa–33 of Title 42, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 300aa–33 of Title 42] may be cited as the 'Homeland Security Act Amendments of 2003'."

Short Title

Pub. L. 107–296, §1(a), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2135, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Homeland Security Act of 2002'."

Pub. L. 107–296, title XXII, §2221, formerly title II, §211, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2150; renumbered §2221, Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(H), Nov. 16, 2018, 132 Stat. 4178, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle B (§§2221–2225) of title XXII of Pub. L. 107–296, enacting part B of subchapter XVIII of this chapter] may be cited as the 'Critical Infrastructure Information Act of 2002'."

Pub. L. 107–296, title VIII, §861, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2238, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle G (§§861–865) of title VIII of Pub. L. 107–296, enacting part G of subchapter VIII of this chapter] may be cited as the 'Support Anti-terrorism by Fostering Effective Technologies Act of 2002' or the 'SAFETY Act'."

For short title of part I of subchapter VIII of this chapter as the "Homeland Security Information Sharing Act", see section 481(a) of this title.

Pub. L. 107–296, title X, §1001(a), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2259, provided that: "This title [enacting subchapter X of this chapter and sections 3531 to 3537 and 3538 of Title 44, Public Printing and Documents, amending section 2224 of Title 10, Armed Forces, sections 278g–3 and 278g–4 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, section 11331 of Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works, and sections 3504 to 3506 of Title 44, and repealing section 11332 of Title 40 and provisions set out as notes under section 3531 of Title 44] may be cited as the 'Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002'."

[For another Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002, see section 301(a) of Pub. L. 107–347, title III, Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 2946, set out as a note under section 101 of Title 44, Public Printing and Documents.]

Prohibition on Regulatory Authority

Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title XIX, §1913(e), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2687, provided that: "Nothing in this section [enacting sections 195f and 321p of this title, amending this section, sections 121 and 311 of this title, and section 712 of Title 14, Coast Guard, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 121 of this title], including the amendments made by this section, shall be construed to grant any regulatory authority."

National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States

Pub. L. 107–306, title VI, Nov. 27, 2002, 116 Stat. 2408, as amended by Pub. L. 108–207, §1, Mar. 16, 2004, 118 Stat. 556, provided that:

"SEC. 601. ESTABLISHMENT OF COMMISSION.

"There is established in the legislative branch the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (in this title referred to as the 'Commission').

"SEC. 602. PURPOSES.

"The purposes of the Commission are to—

"(1) examine and report upon the facts and causes relating to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, occurring at the World Trade Center in New York, New York, in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, and at the Pentagon in Virginia;

"(2) ascertain, evaluate, and report on the evidence developed by all relevant governmental agencies regarding the facts and circumstances surrounding the attacks;

"(3) build upon the investigations of other entities, and avoid unnecessary duplication, by reviewing the findings, conclusions, and recommendations of—

"(A) the Joint Inquiry of the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives regarding the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, (hereinafter in this title referred to as the 'Joint Inquiry'); and

"(B) other executive branch, congressional, or independent commission investigations into the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, other terrorist attacks, and terrorism generally;

"(4) make a full and complete accounting of the circumstances surrounding the attacks, and the extent of the United States' preparedness for, and immediate response to, the attacks; and

"(5) investigate and report to the President and Congress on its findings, conclusions, and recommendations for corrective measures that can be taken to prevent acts of terrorism.

"SEC. 603. COMPOSITION OF COMMISSION.

"(a) Members.—The Commission shall be composed of 10 members, of whom—

"(1) 1 member shall be appointed by the President, who shall serve as chairman of the Commission;

"(2) 1 member shall be appointed by the leader of the Senate (majority or minority leader, as the case may be) of the Democratic Party, in consultation with the leader of the House of Representatives (majority or minority leader, as the case may be) of the Democratic Party, who shall serve as vice chairman of the Commission;

"(3) 2 members shall be appointed by the senior member of the Senate leadership of the Democratic Party;

"(4) 2 members shall be appointed by the senior member of the leadership of the House of Representatives of the Republican Party;

"(5) 2 members shall be appointed by the senior member of the Senate leadership of the Republican Party; and

"(6) 2 members shall be appointed by the senior member of the leadership of the House of Representatives of the Democratic Party.

"(b) Qualifications; Initial Meeting.—

"(1) Political party affiliation.—Not more than 5 members of the Commission shall be from the same political party.

"(2) Nongovernmental appointees.—An individual appointed to the Commission may not be an officer or employee of the Federal Government or any State or local government.

"(3) Other qualifications.—It is the sense of Congress that individuals appointed to the Commission should be prominent United States citizens, with national recognition and significant depth of experience in such professions as governmental service, law enforcement, the armed services, law, public administration, intelligence gathering, commerce (including aviation matters), and foreign affairs.

"(4) Deadline for appointment.—All members of the Commission shall be appointed on or before December 15, 2002.

"(5) Initial meeting.—The Commission shall meet and begin the operations of the Commission as soon as practicable.

"(c) Quorum; Vacancies.—After its initial meeting, the Commission shall meet upon the call of the chairman or a majority of its members. Six members of the Commission shall constitute a quorum. Any vacancy in the Commission shall not affect its powers, but shall be filled in the same manner in which the original appointment was made.

"SEC. 604. FUNCTIONS OF COMMISSION.

"(a) In General.—The functions of the Commission are to—

"(1) conduct an investigation that—

"(A) investigates relevant facts and circumstances relating to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, including any relevant legislation, Executive order, regulation, plan, policy, practice, or procedure; and

"(B) may include relevant facts and circumstances relating to—

"(i) intelligence agencies;

"(ii) law enforcement agencies;

"(iii) diplomacy;

"(iv) immigration, nonimmigrant visas, and border control;

"(v) the flow of assets to terrorist organizations;

"(vi) commercial aviation;

"(vii) the role of congressional oversight and resource allocation; and

"(viii) other areas of the public and private sectors determined relevant by the Commission for its inquiry;

"(2) identify, review, and evaluate the lessons learned from the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, regarding the structure, coordination, management policies, and procedures of the Federal Government, and, if appropriate, State and local governments and nongovernmental entities, relative to detecting, preventing, and responding to such terrorist attacks; and

"(3) submit to the President and Congress such reports as are required by this title containing such findings, conclusions, and recommendations as the Commission shall determine, including proposing organization, coordination, planning, management arrangements, procedures, rules, and regulations.

"(b) Relationship to Intelligence Committees' Inquiry.—When investigating facts and circumstances relating to the intelligence community, the Commission shall—

"(1) first review the information compiled by, and the findings, conclusions, and recommendations of, the Joint Inquiry; and

"(2) after that review pursue any appropriate area of inquiry if the Commission determines that—

"(A) the Joint Inquiry had not investigated that area;

"(B) the Joint Inquiry's investigation of that area had not been complete; or

"(C) new information not reviewed by the Joint Inquiry had become available with respect to that area.

"SEC. 605. POWERS OF COMMISSION.

"(a) In General.—

"(1) Hearings and evidence.—The Commission or, on the authority of the Commission, any subcommittee or member thereof, may, for the purpose of carrying out this title—

"(A) hold such hearings and sit and act at such times and places, take such testimony, receive such evidence, administer such oaths; and

"(B) subject to paragraph (2)(A), require, by subpoena or otherwise, the attendance and testimony of such witnesses and the production of such books, records, correspondence, memoranda, papers, and documents, as the Commission or such designated subcommittee or designated member may determine advisable.

"(2) Subpoenas.—

"(A) Issuance.—

"(i) In general.—A subpoena may be issued under this subsection only—

     "(I) by the agreement of the chairman and the vice chairman; or

     "(II) by the affirmative vote of 6 members of the Commission.

"(ii) Signature.—Subject to clause (i), subpoenas issued under this subsection may be issued under the signature of the chairman or any member designated by a majority of the Commission, and may be served by any person designated by the chairman or by a member designated by a majority of the Commission.

"(B) Enforcement.—

"(i) In general.—In the case of contumacy or failure to obey a subpoena issued under subsection (a), the United States district court for the judicial district in which the subpoenaed person resides, is served, or may be found, or where the subpoena is returnable, may issue an order requiring such person to appear at any designated place to testify or to produce documentary or other evidence. Any failure to obey the order of the court may be punished by the court as a contempt of that court.

"(ii) Additional enforcement.—In the case of any failure of any witness to comply with any subpoena or to testify when summoned under authority of this section, the Commission may, by majority vote, certify a statement of fact constituting such failure to the appropriate United States attorney, who may bring the matter before the grand jury for its action, under the same statutory authority and procedures as if the United States attorney had received a certification under sections 102 through 104 of the Revised Statutes of the United States (2 U.S.C. 192 through 194).

"(b) Contracting.—The Commission may, to such extent and in such amounts as are provided in appropriation Acts, enter into contracts to enable the Commission to discharge its duties under this title.

"(c) Information From Federal Agencies.—

"(1) In general.—The Commission is authorized to secure directly from any executive department, bureau, agency, board, commission, office, independent establishment, or instrumentality of the Government, information, suggestions, estimates, and statistics for the purposes of this title. Each department, bureau, agency, board, commission, office, independent establishment, or instrumentality shall, to the extent authorized by law, furnish such information, suggestions, estimates, and statistics directly to the Commission, upon request made by the chairman, the chairman of any subcommittee created by a majority of the Commission, or any member designated by a majority of the Commission.

"(2) Receipt, handling, storage, and dissemination.—Information shall only be received, handled, stored, and disseminated by members of the Commission and its staff consistent with all applicable statutes, regulations, and Executive orders.

"(d) Assistance From Federal Agencies.—

"(1) General services administration.—The Administrator of General Services shall provide to the Commission on a reimbursable basis administrative support and other services for the performance of the Commission's functions.

"(2) Other departments and agencies.—In addition to the assistance prescribed in paragraph (1), departments and agencies of the United States may provide to the Commission such services, funds, facilities, staff, and other support services as they may determine advisable and as may be authorized by law.

"(e) Gifts.—The Commission may accept, use, and dispose of gifts or donations of services or property.

"(f) Postal Services.—The Commission may use the United States mails in the same manner and under the same conditions as departments and agencies of the United States.

"SEC. 606. NONAPPLICABILITY OF FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ACT.

"(a) In General.—The Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) shall not apply to the Commission.

"(b) Public Meetings and Release of Public Versions of Reports.—The Commission shall—

"(1) hold public hearings and meetings to the extent appropriate; and

"(2) release public versions of the reports required under section 610(a) and (b).

"(c) Public Hearings.—Any public hearings of the Commission shall be conducted in a manner consistent with the protection of information provided to or developed for or by the Commission as required by any applicable statute, regulation, or Executive order.

"SEC. 607. STAFF OF COMMISSION.

"(a) In General.—

"(1) Appointment and compensation.—The chairman, in consultation with vice chairman, in accordance with rules agreed upon by the Commission, may appoint and fix the compensation of a staff director and such other personnel as may be necessary to enable the Commission to carry out its functions, without regard to the provisions of title 5, United States Code, governing appointments in the competitive service, and without regard to the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of such title relating to classification and General Schedule pay rates, except that no rate of pay fixed under this subsection may exceed the equivalent of that payable for a position at level V of the Executive Schedule under section 5316 of title 5, United States Code.

"(2) Personnel as federal employees.—

"(A) In general.—The executive director and any personnel of the Commission who are employees shall be employees under section 2105 of title 5, United States Code, for purposes of chapters 63, 81, 83, 84, 85, 87, 89, and 90 of that title.

"(B) Members of commission.—Subparagraph (A) shall not be construed to apply to members of the Commission.

"(b) Detailees.—Any Federal Government employee may be detailed to the Commission without reimbursement from the Commission, and such detailee shall retain the rights, status, and privileges of his or her regular employment without interruption.

"(c) Consultant Services.—The Commission is authorized to procure the services of experts and consultants in accordance with section 3109 of title 5, United States Code, but at rates not to exceed the daily rate paid a person occupying a position at level IV of the Executive Schedule under section 5315 of title 5, United States Code.

"SEC. 608. COMPENSATION AND TRAVEL EXPENSES.

"(a) Compensation.—Each member of the Commission may be compensated at not to exceed the daily equivalent of the annual rate of basic pay in effect for a position at level IV of the Executive Schedule under section 5315 of title 5, United States Code, for each day during which that member is engaged in the actual performance of the duties of the Commission.

"(b) Travel Expenses.—While away from their homes or regular places of business in the performance of services for the Commission, members of the Commission shall be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, in the same manner as persons employed intermittently in the Government service are allowed expenses under section 5703(b) [5703] of title 5, United States Code.

"SEC. 609. SECURITY CLEARANCES FOR COMMISSION MEMBERS AND STAFF.

"The appropriate Federal agencies or departments shall cooperate with the Commission in expeditiously providing to the Commission members and staff appropriate security clearances to the extent possible pursuant to existing procedures and requirements, except that no person shall be provided with access to classified information under this title without the appropriate security clearances.

"SEC. 610. REPORTS OF COMMISSION; TERMINATION.

"(a) Interim Reports.—The Commission may submit to the President and Congress interim reports containing such findings, conclusions, and recommendations for corrective measures as have been agreed to by a majority of Commission members.

"(b) Final Report.—Not later than 20 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 27, 2002], the Commission shall submit to the President and Congress a final report containing such findings, conclusions, and recommendations for corrective measures as have been agreed to by a majority of Commission members.

"(c) Termination.—

"(1) In general.—The Commission, and all the authorities of this title, shall terminate 30 days after the date on which the final report is submitted under subsection (b).

"(2) Administrative activities before termination.—The Commission may use the 30-day period referred to in paragraph (1) for the purpose of concluding its activities, including providing testimony to committees of Congress concerning its reports and disseminating the final report.

"SEC. 611. FUNDING.

"(a) Transfer From the National Foreign Intelligence Program.—Of the amounts authorized to be appropriated by this Act [see Tables for classification] and made available in public law 107–248 [see Tables for classification] (Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2003) for the National Foreign Intelligence Program, not to exceed $3,000,000 shall be available for transfer to the Commission for purposes of the activities of the Commission under this title.

"(b) Additional Funding.—In addition to the amounts made available to the Commission under subsection (a) and under chapter 2 of title II of the Emergency Wartime Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2003 (Public Law 108–11; 117 Stat. 591), of the amounts appropriated for the programs and activities of the Federal Government for fiscal year 2004 that remain available for obligation, not more than $1,000,000 shall be available for transfer to the Commission for purposes of the activities of the Commission under this title.

"(c) Duration of Availability.—Amounts made available to the Commission under this section shall remain available until the termination of the Commission."

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original. A closing parenthesis probably should precede the period.

§102. Construction; severability

Any provision of this chapter held to be invalid or unenforceable by its terms, or as applied to any person or circumstance, shall be construed so as to give it the maximum effect permitted by law, unless such holding shall be one of utter invalidity or unenforceability, in which event such provision shall be deemed severable from this chapter and shall not affect the remainder thereof, or the application of such provision to other persons not similarly situated or to other, dissimilar circumstances.

(Pub. L. 107–296, §3, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2141.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 107–296, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2135, known as the Homeland Security Act of 2002, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title and Tables.

§103. Use of appropriated funds

Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, any report, notification, or consultation addressing directly or indirectly the use of appropriated funds and stipulated by this chapter to be submitted to, or held with, the Congress or any Congressional committee shall also be submitted to, or held with, the Committees on Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives under the same conditions and with the same restrictions as stipulated by this chapter.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title XVII, §1714, as added Pub. L. 108–7, div. L, §103(5), Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. 529.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 107–296, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2135, known as the Homeland Security Act of 2002, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1714 of Pub. L. 107–296 amended section 300aa–33 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 108–7, div. L, §102(a), Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. 528.

Notifications for Reprogramming or Transfer of Funds

Pub. L. 109–90, title V, §503(e), Oct. 18, 2005, 119 Stat. 2082, provided that: "Hereafter, notwithstanding any other provision of law, notifications pursuant to this section or any other authority for reprogramming or transfer of funds shall be made solely to the Committees on Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives."

§104. National biodefense strategy

(a) Strategy and implementation plan required

The Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, the Secretary of Homeland Security, and the Secretary of Agriculture shall jointly develop a national biodefense strategy and associated implementation plan, which shall include a review and assessment of biodefense policies, practices, programs and initiatives. Such Secretaries shall review and, as appropriate, revise the strategy biennially.

(b) Elements

The strategy and associated implementation plan required under subsection (a) shall include each of the following:

(1) An inventory and assessment of all existing strategies, plans, policies, laws, and interagency agreements related to biodefense, including prevention, deterrence, preparedness, detection, response, attribution, recovery, and mitigation.

(2) A description of the biological threats, including biological warfare, bioterrorism, naturally occurring infectious diseases, and accidental exposures.

(3) A description of the current programs, efforts, or activities of the United States Government with respect to preventing the acquisition, proliferation, and use of a biological weapon, preventing an accidental or naturally occurring biological outbreak, and mitigating the effects of a biological epidemic.

(4) A description of the roles and responsibilities of the Executive Agencies, including internal and external coordination procedures, in identifying and sharing information related to, warning of, and protection against, acts of terrorism using biological agents and weapons and accidental or naturally occurring biological outbreaks.

(5) An articulation of related or required interagency capabilities and whole-of-Government activities required to support the national biodefense strategy.

(6) Recommendations for strengthening and improving the current biodefense capabilities, authorities, and command structures of the United States Government.

(7) Recommendations for improving and formalizing interagency coordination and support mechanisms with respect to providing a robust national biodefense.

(8) Any other matters the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, the Secretary of Homeland Security, and the Secretary of Agriculture determine necessary.

(c) Submittal to Congress

Not later than 275 days after December 23, 2016, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, the Secretary of Homeland Security, and the Secretary of Agriculture shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees the strategy and associated implementation plan required by subsection (a). The strategy and implementation plan shall be submitted in unclassified form, but may include a classified annex.

(d) Briefings

Not later than March 1, 2017, and annually thereafter until March 1, 2019, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, the Secretary of Homeland Security, and the Secretary of Agriculture shall provide to the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives a joint briefing on the strategy developed under subsection (a) and the status of the implementation of such strategy.

(e) GAO Review

Not later than 180 days after the date of the submittal of the strategy and implementation plan under subsection (c), the Comptroller General of the United States shall conduct a review of the strategy and implementation plan to analyze gaps and resources mapped against the requirements of the National Biodefense Strategy and existing United States biodefense policy documents.

(f) Appropriate congressional committees defined

In this section, the term "appropriate congressional committees" means the following:

(1) The congressional defense committees.

(2) The Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate.

(3) The Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate.

(4) The Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate.

(Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title X, §1086, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2423.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017, and not as part of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 which comprises this chapter.

"Congressional Defense Committees" Defined

Congressional defense committees means the Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives, see section 3 of Pub. L. 114–328, 130 Stat. 2025. See note under section 101 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

SUBCHAPTER I—DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY

§111. Executive department; mission

(a) Establishment

There is established a Department of Homeland Security, as an executive department of the United States within the meaning of title 5.

(b) Mission

(1) In general

The primary mission of the Department is to—

(A) prevent terrorist attacks within the United States;

(B) reduce the vulnerability of the United States to terrorism;

(C) minimize the damage, and assist in the recovery, from terrorist attacks that do occur within the United States;

(D) carry out all functions of entities transferred to the Department, including by acting as a focal point regarding natural and manmade crises and emergency planning;

(E) ensure that the functions of the agencies and subdivisions within the Department that are not related directly to securing the homeland are not diminished or neglected except by a specific explicit Act of Congress;

(F) ensure that the overall economic security of the United States is not diminished by efforts, activities, and programs aimed at securing the homeland;

(G) ensure that the civil rights and civil liberties of persons are not diminished by efforts, activities, and programs aimed at securing the homeland; and

(H) monitor connections between illegal drug trafficking and terrorism, coordinate efforts to sever such connections, and otherwise contribute to efforts to interdict illegal drug trafficking.

(2) Responsibility for investigating and prosecuting terrorism

Except as specifically provided by law with respect to entities transferred to the Department under this chapter, primary responsibility for investigating and prosecuting acts of terrorism shall be vested not in the Department, but rather in Federal, State, and local law enforcement agencies with jurisdiction over the acts in question.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title I, §101, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2142; Pub. L. 108–458, title VIII, §8302, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3867.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 107–296, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2135, known as the Homeland Security Act of 2002, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (b)(1)(G), (H). Pub. L. 108–458 added subpar. (G) and redesignated former subpar. (G) as (H).

Transfer of Certain OPM Authority to Department of Homeland Security

Pub. L. 109–295, title V, §513, Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1378, provided that: "Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the authority of the Office of Personnel Management to conduct personnel security and suitability background investigations, update investigations, and periodic reinvestigations of applicants for, or appointees in, positions in the Office of the Secretary and Executive Management, the Office of the Under Secretary for Management, Analysis and Operations, Immigration and Customs Enforcement, the Directorate for Preparedness, and the Directorate of Science and Technology of the Department of Homeland Security is transferred to the Department of Homeland Security: Provided, That on request of the Department of Homeland Security, the Office of Personnel Management shall cooperate with and assist the Department in any investigation or reinvestigation under this section: Provided further, That this section shall cease to be effective at such time as the President has selected a single agency to conduct security clearance investigations pursuant to section 3001(c) of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (Public Law 108–458; 50 U.S.C. 435b [now 50 U.S.C. 3341]) and the entity selected pursuant to section 3001(b) of such Act has reported to Congress that the agency selected pursuant to such section 3001(c) is capable of conducting all necessary investigations in a timely manner or has authorized the entities within the Department of Homeland Security covered by this section to conduct their own investigations pursuant to section 3001 of such Act."

[For transfer of all functions, personnel, assets, components, authorities, grant programs, and liabilities of the Directorate for Preparedness, as constituted on June 1, 2006, including the functions of the Under Secretary for Preparedness relating thereto, to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, with certain exceptions, see section 315(a)(2), (b) of this title.]

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 109–90, title V, §516, Oct. 18, 2005, 119 Stat. 2084.

Pub. L. 108–334, title V, §518, Oct. 18, 2004, 118 Stat. 1318.

Ex. Ord. No. 13286. Amendment of Executive Orders, and Other Actions, in Connection With the Transfer of Certain Functions to the Secretary of Homeland Security

Ex. Ord. No. 13286, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10619, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13442, §1, Aug. 13, 2007, 72 F.R. 45877; Ex. Ord. No. 13753, §1, Dec. 9, 2016, 81 F.R. 90667, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Homeland Security Act of 2002 (Public Law 107–296) [see Tables for classification] and section 301 of title 3, United States Code, and in order to reflect the transfer of certain functions to, and other responsibilities vested in, the Secretary of Homeland Security, the transfer of certain agencies and agency components to the Department of Homeland Security, and the delegation of appropriate responsibilities to the Secretary of Homeland Security, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 13276, set out as a note under section 1182 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.]

Sec. 2. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 13274, set out as a note under section 301 of Title 49, Transportation.]

Sec. 3. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 13271, formerly set out as a note under section 509 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.]

Sec. 4. [Amended and revoked Ex. Ord. No. 13260, set out as a note under section 3021 of Title 50, War and National Defense.]

Sec. 5. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 13257, set out as a note under section 7103 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.]

Sec. 6. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 13254, set out as a note under section 12501 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.]

Sec. 7. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 13231, set out as a note under section 121 of this title.]

Sec. 8. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 13228, set out as a note under section 3021 of Title 50, War and National Defense.]

Sec. 9. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 13223, set out as a note under section 12302 of Title 10, Armed Forces.]

Sec. 10. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 13212, set out as a note under section 13201 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.]

Sec. 11. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 13165, set out as a note under section 1701 of Title 21, Food and Drugs.]

Sec. 12. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 13154.]

Sec. 13. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 13133.]

Sec. 14. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 13120, set out as a note under section 12304 of Title 10, Armed Forces.]

Sec. 15. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 13112, set out as a note under section 4321 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.]

Sec. 16. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 13100, set out as a note under section 341 of Title 21, Food and Drugs.]

Sec. 17. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 13076, set out as a note under section 12304 of Title 10, Armed Forces.]

Sec. 18. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 13011, set out as a note under section 11101 of Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works.]

Sec. 19. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12989, set out as a note under section 1324a of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.]

Sec. 20. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12985, set out as a note preceding section 1121 of Title 10, Armed Forces.]

Sec. 21. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12982, set out as a note under section 12304 of Title 10, Armed Forces.]

Sec. 22. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12978, listed in a table under section 1701 of Title 50, War and National Defense.]

Sec. 23. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12977, set out as a note under section 121 of Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works.]

Sec. 24. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12919, formerly set out as a note under section 2153 of the former Appendix to Title 50, War and National Defense.]

Sec. 25. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12906, set out as a note under section 1457 of Title 43, Public Lands.]

Sec. 26. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12870, set out as a note under section 4727 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.]

Sec. 27. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12835, set out as a note under section 1023 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.]

Sec. 28. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12830, set out as a note preceding section 1121 of Title 10, Armed Forces.]

Sec. 29. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12824, set out as a note under section 2736 of Title 14, Coast Guard.]

Sec. 30. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12807, set out as a note under section 1182 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.]

Sec. 31. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12793, set out as a note preceding section 1121 of Title 10, Armed Forces.]

Sec. 32. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12789, set out as a note under section 1364 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.]

Sec. 33. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12788, set out as a note under section 2391 of Title 10, Armed Forces.]

Sec. 34. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12777, set out as a note under section 1321 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters.]

Sec. 35. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12743, formerly set out as a note under section 12302 of Title 10, Armed Forces.]

Sec. 36. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12742, set out as a note under section 82 of Title 50, War and National Defense.]

Sec. 37. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12733, set out as a note under section 12304 of Title 10, Armed Forces.]

Sec. 38. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12728, set out as a note under section 12305 of Title 10, Armed Forces.]

Sec. 39. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12727, set out as a note under section 12304 of Title 10, Armed Forces.]

Sec. 40. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12699, set out as a note under section 7704 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.]

Sec. 41. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12657, set out as a note under section 5195 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.]

Sec. 42. [(a) to (i) amended Ex. Ord. No. 12656, set out as a note under section 5195 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.]

Without prejudice to subsections (a) through (i) of this section, all responsibilities assigned to specific Federal officials pursuant to Executive Order 12656 that are substantially the same as any responsibility assigned to, or function transferred to, the Secretary of Homeland Security pursuant to the Homeland Security Act of 2002 (regardless of whether such responsibility or function is expressly required to be carried out through another official of the Department of Homeland Security or not pursuant to such Act), or intended or required to be carried out by an agency or an agency component transferred to the Department of Homeland Security pursuant to such Act, are hereby reassigned to the Secretary of Homeland Security.

Sec. 43. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12580, set out as a note under section 9615 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.]

Sec. 44. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12555, set out as a note under section 2602 of Title 19, Customs Duties.]

Sec. 45. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12501, set out as a note under section 4101 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.]

Sec. 46. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12472, formerly set out as a note under section 5195 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.]

Sec. 47. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12382, set out as a note under section 901 of Title 47, Telecommunications.]

Sec. 48. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12341, set out as a note under section 1522 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.]

Sec. 49. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12208, set out as a note under section 1157 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.]

Sec. 50. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12188, set out as a note under section 2171 of Title 19, Customs Duties.]

Sec. 51. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12160, set out as a note under section 3501 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.]

Sec. 52. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12148, set out as a note under section 5195 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.]

Sec. 53. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12146, set out as a note under section 509 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedures.]

Sec. 54. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12002, set out as a note under former section 4603 of Title 50, War and National Defense.]

Sec. 55. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 11965, set out as a note preceding section 1121 of Title 10, Armed Forces.]

Sec. 56. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 11926, set out as a note preceding section 1121 of Title 10, Armed Forces.]

Sec. 57. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 11858, set out as a note under section 4565 of Title 50, War and National Defense.]

Sec. 58. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 11800, formerly set out as a note under section 301a of Title 37, Pay and Allowances of the Uniformed Services.]

Sec. 59. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 11645, set out as a note under section 2943 of Title 14, Coast Guard.]

Sec. 60. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 11623, set out as a note under section 3809 of Title 50, War and National Defense.]

Sec. 61. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 11448, set out as a note preceding section 1121 of Title 10, Armed Forces.]

Sec. 62. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 11446, set out as a note under section 7342 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.]

Sec. 63. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 11438, set out as a note under section 1124 of Title 10, Armed Forces.]

Sec. 64. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 11366, set out as a note under section 12303 of Title 10, Armed Forces.]

Sec. 65. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 11239, set out as a note under former section 1051 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters.]

Sec. 66. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 11231.]

Sec. 67. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 11190, set out as a note under section 10149 of Title 10, Armed Forces.]

Sec. 68. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 11139.]

Sec. 69. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 11079, set out as a note under section 2603 of Title 10, Armed Forces.]

Sec. 70. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 11046, set out as a note under section 7276 of Title 10, Armed Forces.]

Sec. 71. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 11016, set out as a note under section 1129 of Title 10, Armed Forces.]

Sec. 72. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 10977.]

Sec. 73. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 10789, set out as a note under section 1431 of Title 50, War and National Defense.]

Sec. 74. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 10694.]

Sec. 75. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 10637, set out as a note under section 301 of Title 3, The President.]

Sec. 76. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 10631, set out as a note under section 802 of Title 10, Armed Forces.]

Sec. 77. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 10554, set out as a note under section 772 of Title 10, Armed Forces.]

Sec. 78. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 10499.]

Sec. 79. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 10448.]

Sec. 80. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 10271, set out as a note under section 3819 of Title 50, War and National Defense.]

Sec. 81. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 10179.]

Sec. 82. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 10163.]

Sec. 83. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 10113, set out as a note under section 418 of Title 37, Pay and Allowances of the Uniformed Services.]

Sec. 84. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 4601.]

Sec. 85. Designation as a Defense Agency of the United States.

I hereby designate the Department of Homeland Security as a defense agency of the United States for the purposes of chapter 17 of title 35 of the United States Code.

Sec. 86. Exception from the Provisions of the Government Employees Training Act.

Those elements of the Department of Homeland Security that are supervised by the Under Secretary of Homeland Security for Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection through the Department's Assistant Secretary for Information Analysis are, pursuant to section 4102(b)(1) of title 5, United States Code, and in the public interest, excepted from the following provisions of the Government Employees Training Act as codified in title 5: sections 4103(a)(1), 4108, 4115, 4117, and 4118, and that part of 4109(a) that provides "under the regulations prescribed under section 4118(a)(8) of this title and".

Sec. 87. Functions of Certain Officials in the Coast Guard.

The Commandant and the Assistant Commandant for Intelligence of the Coast Guard each shall be considered a "Senior Official of the Intelligence Community" for purposes of Executive Order 12333 of December 4, 1981 [50 U.S.C. 3001 note], and all other relevant authorities.

Sec. 88. Order of Succession.

Subject to the provisions of subsection (b) of this section, the officers named in subsection (a) of this section, in the order listed, shall act as, and perform the functions and duties of the office of, the Secretary of Homeland Security (Secretary), if they are eligible to act as Secretary under the provisions of the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, 5 U.S.C. 3345 et seq. (Vacancies Act), during any period in which the Secretary has died, resigned, or otherwise become unable to perform the functions and duties of the office of Secretary.

(a) Order of Succession.

(i) Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security;

(ii) Under Secretary for Management;

(iii) Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency;

(iv) Under Secretary for National Protection and Programs;

(v) Under Secretary for Science and Technology;

(vi) Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis;

(vii) Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection;

(viii) Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration;

(ix) Director of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement;

(x) Director of U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services;

(xi) Assistant Secretary for Policy;

(xii) General Counsel;

(xiii) Deputy Under Secretary for Management;

(xiv) Deputy Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection;

(xv) Deputy Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration;

(xvi) Deputy Director of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement;

(xvii) Deputy Director of U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services; and

(xviii) Director of the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center.

(b) Exceptions.

(i) No individual who is serving in an office listed in subsection (a) in an acting capacity, by virtue of so serving, shall act as Secretary pursuant to this section.

(ii) Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, the President retains discretion, to the extent permitted by the Vacancies Act, to depart from this order in designating an acting Secretary.

Sec. 89. Savings Provision.

Except as otherwise specifically provided above or in Executive Order 13284 of January 23, 2003 ("Amendment of Executive Orders, and Other Actions, in Connection With the Establishment of the Department of Homeland Security") [6 U.S.C. 121 note], references in any prior Executive Order relating to an agency or an agency component that is transferred to the Department of Homeland Security ("the Department"), or relating to a function that is transferred to the Secretary of Homeland Security, shall be deemed to refer, as appropriate, to the Department or its officers, employees, agents, organizational units, or functions.

Sec. 90. Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect the authority of the Secretary of Defense with respect to the Department of Defense, including the chain of command for the armed forces of the United States under section 162(b) of title 10, United States Code, and the authority of the Secretary of Defense with respect to the Department of Defense under section 113(b) of that title.

Sec. 91. Nothing in this order shall be construed to limit or restrict the authorities of the Central Intelligence Agency and the Director of Central Intelligence pursuant to the National Security Act of 1947 [act July 26, 1947, ch. 343; see Tables for classification] and the CIA Act of 1949 [probably means the Central Intelligence Agency Act of 1949, act June 20, 1949, ch. 227; see Tables for classification].

Sec. 92. This order shall become effective on March 1, 2003.

Sec. 93. This order does not create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity, against the United States, its departments, agencies, or other entities, its officers or employees, or any other person.

[Reference to the Director of Central Intelligence or the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency in the Director's capacity as the head of the intelligence community deemed to be a reference to the Director of National Intelligence. Reference to the Director of Central Intelligence or the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency in the Director's capacity as the head of the Central Intelligence Agency deemed to be a reference to the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. See section 1081(a) and (b) of Pub. L. 108–458, set out as a note under section 3001 of Title 50, War and National Defense.]

Executive Order No. 13362

Ex. Ord. No. 13362, Nov. 29, 2004, 69 F.R. 70173, which designated additional officers for the Department of Homeland Security order of succession, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 13442, §2, Aug. 13, 2007, 72 F.R. 45878.

§112. Secretary; functions

(a) Secretary

(1) In general

There is a Secretary of Homeland Security, appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

(2) Head of Department

The Secretary is the head of the Department and shall have direction, authority, and control over it.

(3) Functions vested in Secretary

All functions of all officers, employees, and organizational units of the Department are vested in the Secretary.

(b) Functions

The Secretary—

(1) except as otherwise provided by this chapter, may delegate any of the Secretary's functions to any officer, employee, or organizational unit of the Department;

(2) shall have the authority to make contracts, grants, and cooperative agreements, and to enter into agreements with other executive agencies, as may be necessary and proper to carry out the Secretary's responsibilities under this chapter or otherwise provided by law; and

(3) shall take reasonable steps to ensure that information systems and databases of the Department are compatible with each other and with appropriate databases of other Departments.

(c) Coordination with non-Federal entities

With respect to homeland security, the Secretary shall coordinate through the Office of State and Local Coordination 1 (established under section 361 of this title) (including the provision of training and equipment) with State and local government personnel, agencies, and authorities, with the private sector, and with other entities, including by—

(1) coordinating with State and local government personnel, agencies, and authorities, and with the private sector, to ensure adequate planning, equipment, training, and exercise activities;

(2) coordinating and, as appropriate, consolidating, the Federal Government's communications and systems of communications relating to homeland security with State and local government personnel, agencies, and authorities, the private sector, other entities, and the public; and

(3) distributing or, as appropriate, coordinating the distribution of, warnings and information to State and local government personnel, agencies, and authorities and to the public.

(d) Meetings of National Security Council

The Secretary may, subject to the direction of the President, attend and participate in meetings of the National Security Council.

(e) Issuance of regulations

The issuance of regulations by the Secretary shall be governed by the provisions of chapter 5 of title 5, except as specifically provided in this chapter, in laws granting regulatory authorities that are transferred by this chapter, and in laws enacted after November 25, 2002.

(f) Special Assistant to the Secretary

The Secretary shall appoint a Special Assistant to the Secretary who shall be responsible for—

(1) creating and fostering strategic communications with the private sector to enhance the primary mission of the Department to protect the American homeland;

(2) advising the Secretary on the impact of the Department's policies, regulations, processes, and actions on the private sector;

(3) interfacing with other relevant Federal agencies with homeland security missions to assess the impact of these agencies' actions on the private sector;

(4) creating and managing private sector advisory councils composed of representatives of industries and associations designated by the Secretary to—

(A) advise the Secretary on private sector products, applications, and solutions as they relate to homeland security challenges;

(B) advise the Secretary on homeland security policies, regulations, processes, and actions that affect the participating industries and associations; and

(C) advise the Secretary on private sector preparedness issues, including effective methods for—

(i) promoting voluntary preparedness standards to the private sector; and

(ii) assisting the private sector in adopting voluntary preparedness standards;


(5) working with Federal laboratories, federally funded research and development centers, other federally funded organizations, academia, and the private sector to develop innovative approaches to address homeland security challenges to produce and deploy the best available technologies for homeland security missions;

(6) promoting existing public-private partnerships and developing new public-private partnerships to provide for collaboration and mutual support to address homeland security challenges;

(7) assisting in the development and promotion of private sector best practices to secure critical infrastructure;

(8) providing information to the private sector regarding voluntary preparedness standards and the business justification for preparedness and promoting to the private sector the adoption of voluntary preparedness standards;

(9) coordinating industry efforts, with respect to functions of the Department of Homeland Security, to identify private sector resources and capabilities that could be effective in supplementing Federal, State, and local government agency efforts to prevent or respond to a terrorist attack;

(10) coordinating with the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection and the Assistant Secretary for Trade Development of the Department of Commerce on issues related to the travel and tourism industries; and

(11) consulting with the Office of State and Local Government Coordination and Preparedness on all matters of concern to the private sector, including the tourism industry.

(g) Standards policy

All standards activities of the Department shall be conducted in accordance with section 12(d) of the National Technology Transfer Advancement Act of 1995 (15 U.S.C. 272 note) and Office of Management and Budget Circular A–119.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title I, §102, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2142; Pub. L. 108–458, title VII, §7402, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3850; Pub. L. 110–53, title IX, §902, Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 371; Pub. L. 114–125, title VIII, §802(g)(1)(A)(i), Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 210.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (b)(1), (2), and (e), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 107–296, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2135, known as the Homeland Security Act of 2002, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title and Tables.

Section 12(d) of the National Technology Transfer Advancement Act of 1995, referred to in subsec. (g), probably means section 12(d) of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995, which is section 12(d) of Pub. L. 104–113, and which is set out as a note under section 272 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (f)(10). Pub. L. 114–125 substituted "the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection" for "the Directorate of Border and Transportation Security".

2007—Subsec. (f)(4)(C). Pub. L. 110–53, §902(b), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (f)(8) to (11). Pub. L. 110–53, §902(a), added par. (8) and redesignated former pars. (8) to (10) as (9) to (11), respectively.

2004—Subsec. (f)(8) to (10). Pub. L. 108–458 added pars. (8) to (10).

Required Coordination

Pub. L. 108–458, title VII, §7405, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3851, provided that: "The Secretary of Homeland Security shall ensure that there is effective and ongoing coordination of Federal efforts to prevent, prepare for, and respond to acts of terrorism and other major disasters and emergencies among the divisions of the Department of Homeland Security, including the Directorate of Emergency Preparedness and Response and the Office for State and Local Government Coordination and Preparedness."

Protections for Human Research Subjects of the Department of Homeland Security

Pub. L. 108–458, title VIII, §8306, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3869, provided that: "The Secretary of Homeland Security shall ensure that the Department of Homeland Security complies with the protections for human research subjects, as described in part 46 of title 45, Code of Federal Regulations, or in equivalent regulations as promulgated by such Secretary, with respect to research that is conducted or supported by the Department."

1 So in original. Probably should be "Office for State and Local Government Coordination".

§113. Other officers

(a) Deputy Secretary; Under Secretaries

(1) In general

Except as provided under paragraph (2), there are the following officers, appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate:

(A) A Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security, who shall be the Secretary's first assistant for purposes of subchapter III of chapter 33 of title 5.

(B) An Under Secretary for Science and Technology.

(C) A Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection.

(D) An Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency.

(E) A Director of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services.

(F) An Under Secretary for Management, who shall be first assistant to the Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security for purposes of subchapter III of chapter 33 of title 5.

(G) A Director of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement.

(H) A Director of the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency.

(I) Not more than 12 Assistant Secretaries.

(J) A General Counsel, who shall be the chief legal officer of the Department.

(K) An Under Secretary for Strategy, Policy, and Plans.

(2) Assistant Secretaries

If any of the Assistant Secretaries referred to under paragraph (1)(I) is designated to be the Assistant Secretary for Health Affairs, the Assistant Secretary for Legislative Affairs, or the Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs, that Assistant Secretary shall be appointed by the President without the advice and consent of the Senate.

(b) Inspector General

There shall be in the Department an Office of Inspector General and an Inspector General at the head of such office, as provided in the Inspector General Act of 1978 (5 U.S.C. App.).

(c) Commandant of the Coast Guard

To assist the Secretary in the performance of the Secretary's functions, there is a Commandant of the Coast Guard, who shall be appointed as provided in section 44 1 of title 14 and who shall report directly to the Secretary. In addition to such duties as may be provided in this chapter and as assigned to the Commandant by the Secretary, the duties of the Commandant shall include those required by section 2 1 of title 14.

(d) Other officers

To assist the Secretary in the performance of the Secretary's functions, there are the following officers, appointed by the President:

(1) A Director of the Secret Service.

(2) A Chief Information Officer.

(3) An Officer for Civil Rights and Civil Liberties.

(4) An Assistant Secretary for the Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction Office.

(5) Any Director of a Joint Task Force under section 348 of this title.

(e) Chief Financial Officer

There shall be in the Department a Chief Financial Officer, as provided in chapter 9 of title 31.

(f) Performance of specific functions

Subject to the provisions of this chapter, every officer of the Department shall perform the functions specified by law for the official's office or prescribed by the Secretary.

(g) Vacancies

(1) Absence, disability, or vacancy of Secretary or Deputy Secretary

Notwithstanding chapter 33 of title 5, the Under Secretary for Management shall serve as the Acting Secretary if by reason of absence, disability, or vacancy in office, neither the Secretary nor Deputy Secretary is available to exercise the duties of the Office of the Secretary.

(2) Further order of succession

Notwithstanding chapter 33 of title 5, the Secretary may designate such other officers of the Department in further order of succession to serve as Acting Secretary.

(3) Notification of vacancies

The Secretary shall notify the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives of any vacancies that require notification under sections 3345 through 3349d of title 5 (commonly known as the "Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998").

(Pub. L. 107–296, title I, §103, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2144; Pub. L. 108–7, div. L, §104(a), Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. 529; Pub. L. 108–330, §3(d)(1)(A), Oct. 16, 2004, 118 Stat. 1276; Pub. L. 108–458, title VII, §7407(b), Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3853; Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, §612(b), Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1410; Pub. L. 109–347, title V, §501(b)(1), Oct. 13, 2006, 120 Stat. 1935; Pub. L. 110–53, title V, §531(b)(2), Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 334; Pub. L. 110–388, §1, Oct. 10, 2008, 122 Stat. 4144; Pub. L. 112–166, §2(f)(5), Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1285; Pub. L. 114–125, title VIII, §802(g)(1)(A)(ii), Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 211; Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title XIX, §§1901(a), 1903(a), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2665, 2672; Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(1), Nov. 16, 2018, 132 Stat. 4176; Pub. L. 115–387, §2(f)(1), Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5168.)

References in Text

The Inspector General Act of 1978, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 95–452, Oct. 12, 1978, 92 Stat. 1101, as amended, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Sections 2 and 44 of title 14, referred to in subsec. (c), redesignated sections 102 and 302, respectively, of title 14 by Pub. L. 115–282, title I, §§103(b), 104(b), Dec. 4, 2018, 132 Stat. 4195, 4196, and references to sections 2 and 44 of title 14 deemed to refer to such redesignated sections, see section 123(b)(1) of Pub. L. 115–282, set out as a References to Sections of Title 14 as Redesignated by Pub. L. 115–282 note preceding section 101 of Title 14, Coast Guard.

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (c) and (f), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 107–296, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2135, known as the Homeland Security Act of 2002, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title and Tables.

The Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, referred to in subsec. (g)(3), is section 151(a) of title I of div. C of Pub. L. 105–277, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–611, which enacted sections 3345 to 3349d of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, repealed former sections 3345 to 3349 of Title 5, and enacted provisions set out as a note under section 3345 of Title 5. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1998 Amendment note set out under section 3301 of Title 5 and Tables.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a)(1)(H). Pub. L. 115–278 amended subpar. (H) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (H) read as follows: "An Under Secretary responsible for overseeing critical infrastructure protection, cybersecurity, and other related programs of the Department."

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 115–387 substituted "An Assistant Secretary for the Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction Office" for "A Director for Domestic Nuclear Detection".

2016—Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Pub. L. 114–125, §802(g)(1)(A)(ii)(I), substituted "A Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection." for "An Under Secretary for Border and Transportation Security."

Subsec. (a)(1)(F). Pub. L. 114–328, §1903(a)(1)(A), inserted ", who shall be first assistant to the Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security for purposes of subchapter III of chapter 33 of title 5" before period at end.

Subsec. (a)(1)(G). Pub. L. 114–125, §802(g)(1)(A)(ii)(II), substituted "A Director of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement." for "A Director of the Office of Counternarcotics Enforcement."

Subsec. (a)(1)(K). Pub. L. 114–328, §1903(a)(1)(B), added subpar. (K).

Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 114–328, §1901(a), added par. (5).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 114–328, §1903(a)(2), added subsec. (g).

2012—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 112–166 redesignated introductory provisions as introductory provisions of par. (1), inserted par. (1) heading, substituted "Except as provided under paragraph (2), there" for "There", redesignated pars. (1) to (10) as subpars. (A) to (J), respectively, of par. (1), and added par. (2).

2008—Subsec. (d)(3) to (5). Pub. L. 110–388 redesignated pars. (4) and (5) as (3) and (4), respectively, and struck out former par. (3) which read as follows: "A Chief Human Capital Officer."

2007—Subsec. (a)(8) to (10). Pub. L. 110–53 added par. (8) and redesignated former pars. (8) and (9) as (9) and (10), respectively.

2006—Subsec. (a)(2) to (4). Pub. L. 109–295, §612(b)(2), (3), redesignated pars. (3) to (5) as (2) to (4), respectively, and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: "An Under Secretary for Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection."

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 109–295, §612(b)(3), redesignated par. (6) as (5). Former par. (5) redesignated (4).

Pub. L. 109–295, §612(b)(1), added par. (5) and struck out former par. (5) which read as follows: "An Under Secretary for Emergency Preparedness and Response."

Subsec. (a)(6) to (10). Pub. L. 109–295, §612(b)(3), redesignated pars. (7) to (10) as (6) to (9), respectively. Former par. (6) redesignated (5).

Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 109–347 added par. (5).

2004—Subsec. (a)(8) to (10). Pub. L. 108–458 added par. (8) and redesignated former pars. (8) and (9) as (9) and (10), respectively.

Subsec. (d)(4), (5). Pub. L. 108–330, §3(d)(1)(A)(i), redesignated par. (5) as (4) and struck out former par. (4) which read as follows: "A Chief Financial Officer."

Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 108–330, §3(d)(1)(A)(ii), (iii), added subsec. (e) and redesignated former subsec. (e) as (f).

2003—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 108–7 reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "There is an Inspector General, who shall be appointed as provided in section 3(a) of the Inspector General Act of 1978."

Change of Name

Any reference to the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency in title VI of Pub. L. 109–295 or an amendment by title VI to be considered to refer and apply to the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency until Mar. 31, 2007, see section 612(f)(2) of Pub. L. 109–295, set out as a note under section 313 of this title.

Effective Date of 2012 Amendment

Pub. L. 112–166, §6(a), Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1295, provided that: "The amendments made by section 2 [see Tables for classification] shall take effect 60 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 10, 2012] and apply to appointments made on and after that effective date, including any nomination pending in the Senate on that date."

Under Secretary Responsible for Overseeing Critical Infrastructure Protection, Cybersecurity and Related Programs Authorized To Serve as Director of Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security

For authorization of individual serving as Under Secretary responsible for overseeing critical infrastructure protection, cybersecurity and related programs on the day before Nov. 16, 2018, to continue to serve as Director of Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security on and after such date, see section 2(b)(1) of Pub. L. 115–278, Nov. 16, 2018, 132 Stat. 4175, set out as a note under section 652 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§114. Sensitive Security Information

Using funds made available in this Act, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall provide that each office within the Department that handles documents marked as Sensitive Security Information (SSI) shall have at least one employee in that office with authority to coordinate and make determinations on behalf of the agency that such documents meet the criteria for marking as SSI: Provided, That not later than December 31, 2005, the Secretary shall submit to the Committees on Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives: (1) Department-wide policies for designating, coordinating and marking documents as SSI; (2) Department-wide auditing and accountability procedures for documents designated and marked as SSI; (3) the total number of SSI Coordinators within the Department; and (4) the total number of staff authorized to designate SSI documents within the Department: Provided further, That not later than January 31, 2006, the Secretary shall provide to the Committees on Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives the title of all DHS documents that are designated as SSI in their entirety during the period October 1, 2005, through December 31, 2005: Provided further, That not later than January 31 of each succeeding year, starting on January 31, 2007, the Secretary shall provide annually a similar report to the Committees on Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives on the titles of all DHS documents that are designated as SSI in their entirety during the period of January 1 through December 31 for the preceding year: Provided further, That the Secretary shall promulgate guidance that includes common but extensive examples of SSI that further define the individual categories of information cited under 49 CFR 1520(b)(1) through (16) and eliminates judgment by covered persons in the application of the SSI marking: Provided further, That such guidance shall serve as the primary basis and authority for the marking of DHS information as SSI by covered persons.

(Pub. L. 109–90, title V, §537, Oct. 18, 2005, 119 Stat. 2088.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 109–90, Oct. 18, 2005, 119 Stat. 2064, known as the Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act, 2006. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act, 2006, and not as part of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 which comprises this chapter.

Applicability of Third Proviso

Pub. L. 114–113, div. F, title V, §510(b), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 2514, provided that: "The third proviso of section 537 of the Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act, 2006 (6 U.S.C. 114), shall hereafter not apply with respect to funds made available in this or any other Act."

§115. Trade and customs revenue functions of the Department

(a) Trade and customs revenue functions

(1) Designation of appropriate official

The Secretary shall designate an appropriate senior official in the office of the Secretary who shall—

(A) ensure that the trade and customs revenue functions of the Department are coordinated within the Department and with other Federal departments and agencies, and that the impact on legitimate trade is taken into account in any action impacting the functions; and

(B) monitor and report to Congress on the Department's mandate to ensure that the trade and customs revenue functions of the Department are not diminished, including how spending, operations, and personnel related to these functions have kept pace with the level of trade entering the United States.

(2) Director of Trade Policy

There shall be a Director of Trade Policy (in this subsection referred to as the "Director"), who shall be subject to the direction and control of the official designated pursuant to paragraph (1). The Director shall—

(A) advise the official designated pursuant to paragraph (1) regarding all aspects of Department policies relating to the trade and customs revenue functions of the Department;

(B) coordinate the development of Department-wide policies regarding trade and customs revenue functions and trade facilitation; and

(C) coordinate the trade and customs revenue-related policies of the Department with the policies of other Federal departments and agencies.

(b) Study; report

(1) In general

The Comptroller General of the United States shall conduct a study evaluating the extent to which the Department of Homeland Security is meeting its obligations under section 212(b) of this title with respect to the maintenance of customs revenue functions.

(2) Analysis

The study shall include an analysis of—

(A) the extent to which the customs revenue functions carried out by the former United States Customs Service have been consolidated with other functions of the Department (including the assignment of noncustoms revenue functions to personnel responsible for customs revenue collection), discontinued, or diminished following the transfer of the United States Customs Service to the Department;

(B) the extent to which staffing levels or resources attributable to customs revenue functions have decreased since the transfer of the United States Customs Service to the Department; and

(C) the extent to which the management structure created by the Department ensures effective trade facilitation and customs revenue collection.

(3) Report

Not later than 180 days after October 13, 2006, the Comptroller General shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report on the results of the study conducted under subsection (a).

(4) Maintenance of functions

Not later than September 30, 2007, the Secretary shall ensure that the requirements of section 212(b) of this title are fully satisfied and shall report to the Committee on Finance of the Senate and the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives regarding implementation of this paragraph.

(5) Definition

In this section, the term "customs revenue functions" means the functions described in section 212(b)(2) of this title.

(c) Consultation on trade and customs revenue functions

(1) Business community consultations

The Secretary shall consult with representatives of the business community involved in international trade, including seeking the advice and recommendations of the Commercial Operations Advisory Committee, not later than 30 days after proposing, and not later than 30 days before finalizing, any Department policies, initiatives, or actions that will have a significant impact on international trade and customs revenue functions.

(2) Congressional consultation and notification

(A) In general

Subject to subparagraph (B), the Secretary shall notify the appropriate congressional committees not later than 60 days before proposing, and not later than 60 days before finalizing, any Department policies, initiatives, or actions that will have a major impact on trade and customs revenue functions. Such notifications shall include a description of the proposed policies, initiatives, or actions and any comments or recommendations provided by the Commercial Operations Advisory Committee and other relevant groups regarding the proposed policies, initiatives, or actions.

(B) Exception

If the Secretary determines that it is important to the national security interest of the United States to finalize any Department policies, initiatives, or actions prior to the consultation described in subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall—

(i) notify and provide any recommendations of the Commercial Operations Advisory Committee received to the appropriate congressional committees not later than 45 days after the date on which the policies, initiatives, or actions are finalized; and

(ii) to the extent appropriate, modify the policies, initiatives, or actions based upon the consultations with the appropriate congressional committees.

(d) Notification of reorganization of customs revenue functions

(1) In general

Not less than 45 days prior to any change in the organization of any of the customs revenue functions of the Department, the Secretary shall notify the Committee on Appropriations, the Committee on Finance, and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate, and the Committee on Appropriations, the Committee on Homeland Security, and the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives of the specific assets, functions, or personnel to be transferred as part of such reorganization, and the reason for such transfer. The notification shall also include—

(A) an explanation of how trade enforcement functions will be impacted by the reorganization;

(B) an explanation of how the reorganization meets the requirements of section 212(b) of this title that the Department not diminish the customs revenue and trade facilitation functions formerly performed by the United States Customs Service; and

(C) any comments or recommendations provided by the Commercial Operations Advisory Committee regarding such reorganization.

(2) Analysis

Any congressional committee referred to in paragraph (1) may request that the Commercial Operations Advisory Committee provide a report to the committee analyzing the impact of the reorganization and providing any recommendations for modifying the reorganization.

(3) Report

Not later than 1 year after any reorganization referred to in paragraph (1) takes place, the Secretary, in consultation with the Commercial Operations Advisory Committee, shall submit a report to the Committee on Finance of the Senate and the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives. Such report shall include an assessment of the impact of, and any suggested modifications to, such reorganization.

(Pub. L. 109–347, title IV, §401, Oct. 13, 2006, 120 Stat. 1921; Pub. L. 114–125, title IX, §902, Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 223.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Security and Accountability For Every Port Act of 2006, also known as the SAFE Port Act, and not as part of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 114–125, §902(1), substituted "not later than 30 days after proposing, and not later than 30 days before finalizing, any Department policies, initiatives, or actions that will have" for "on Department policies and actions that have".

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 114–125, §902(2), substituted "not later than 60 days before proposing, and not later than 60 days before finalizing," for "not later than 30 days prior to the finalization of".

Definitions

For definitions of terms used in this section, see section 901 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER II—INFORMATION ANALYSIS

Codification

Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(A), Nov. 16, 2018, 132 Stat. 4176, struck out "AND INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION" after "INFORMATION ANALYSIS" in subchapter heading.

Part A—Information and Analysis; Access to Information

Codification

Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(B), Nov. 16, 2018, 132 Stat. 4177, struck out "and Infrastructure Protection" after "Information and Analysis" in part heading.

Pub. L. 110–53, title V, §531(b)(3), Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 334, substituted "Information and" for "Directorate for Information" in part heading.

§121. Information and Analysis

(a) Intelligence and analysis

There shall be in the Department an Office of Intelligence and Analysis.

(b) Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis

(1) Office of Intelligence and Analysis

The Office of Intelligence and Analysis shall be headed by an Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis, who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

(2) Chief Intelligence Officer

The Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis shall serve as the Chief Intelligence Officer of the Department.

(c) Discharge of responsibilities

The Secretary shall ensure that the responsibilities of the Department relating to information analysis, including those described in subsection (d), are carried out through the Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis.

(d) Responsibilities of Secretary relating to intelligence and analysis

The responsibilities of the Secretary relating to intelligence and analysis shall be as follows:

(1) To access, receive, and analyze law enforcement information, intelligence information, and other information from agencies of the Federal Government, State and local government agencies (including law enforcement agencies), and private sector entities, and to integrate such information, in support of the mission responsibilities of the Department and the functions of the National Counterterrorism Center established under section 119 of the National Security Act of 1947 [50 U.S.C. 3056], in order to—

(A) identify and assess the nature and scope of terrorist threats to the homeland;

(B) detect and identify threats of terrorism against the United States; and

(C) understand such threats in light of actual and potential vulnerabilities of the homeland.


(2) To carry out comprehensive assessments of the vulnerabilities of the key resources and critical infrastructure of the United States, including the performance of risk assessments to determine the risks posed by particular types of terrorist attacks within the United States (including an assessment of the probability of success of such attacks and the feasibility and potential efficacy of various countermeasures to such attacks).

(3) To integrate relevant information, analysis, and vulnerability assessments (regardless of whether such information, analysis or assessments are provided by or produced by the Department) in order to—

(A) identify priorities for protective and support measures regarding terrorist and other threats to homeland security by the Department, other agencies of the Federal Government, State, and local government agencies and authorities, the private sector, and other entities; and

(B) prepare finished intelligence and information products in both classified and unclassified formats, as appropriate, whenever reasonably expected to be of benefit to a State, local, or tribal government (including a State, local, or tribal law enforcement agency) or a private sector entity.


(4) To ensure, pursuant to section 122 of this title, the timely and efficient access by the Department to all information necessary to discharge the responsibilities under this section, including obtaining such information from other agencies of the Federal Government.

(5) To review, analyze, and make recommendations for improvements to the policies and procedures governing the sharing of information within the scope of the information sharing environment established under section 485 of this title, including homeland security information, terrorism information, and weapons of mass destruction information, and any policies, guidelines, procedures, instructions, or standards established under that section.

(6) To disseminate, as appropriate, information analyzed by the Department within the Department, to other agencies of the Federal Government with responsibilities relating to homeland security, and to agencies of State and local governments and private sector entities with such responsibilities in order to assist in the deterrence, prevention, preemption of, or response to, terrorist attacks against the United States.

(7) To consult with the Director of National Intelligence and other appropriate intelligence, law enforcement, or other elements of the Federal Government to establish collection priorities and strategies for information, including law enforcement-related information, relating to threats of terrorism against the United States through such means as the representation of the Department in discussions regarding requirements and priorities in the collection of such information.

(8) To consult with State and local governments and private sector entities to ensure appropriate exchanges of information, including law enforcement-related information, relating to threats of terrorism against the United States.

(9) To ensure that—

(A) any material received pursuant to this chapter is protected from unauthorized disclosure and handled and used only for the performance of official duties; and

(B) any intelligence information under this chapter is shared, retained, and disseminated consistent with the authority of the Director of National Intelligence to protect intelligence sources and methods under the National Security Act of 1947 [50 U.S.C. 3001 et seq.] and related procedures and, as appropriate, similar authorities of the Attorney General concerning sensitive law enforcement information.


(10) To request additional information from other agencies of the Federal Government, State and local government agencies, and the private sector relating to threats of terrorism in the United States, or relating to other areas of responsibility assigned by the Secretary, including the entry into cooperative agreements through the Secretary to obtain such information.

(11) To establish and utilize, in conjunction with the chief information officer of the Department, a secure communications and information technology infrastructure, including data-mining and other advanced analytical tools, in order to access, receive, and analyze data and information in furtherance of the responsibilities under this section, and to disseminate information acquired and analyzed by the Department, as appropriate.

(12) To ensure, in conjunction with the chief information officer of the Department, that any information databases and analytical tools developed or utilized by the Department—

(A) are compatible with one another and with relevant information databases of other agencies of the Federal Government; and

(B) treat information in such databases in a manner that complies with applicable Federal law on privacy.


(13) To coordinate training and other support to the elements and personnel of the Department, other agencies of the Federal Government, and State and local governments that provide information to the Department, or are consumers of information provided by the Department, in order to facilitate the identification and sharing of information revealed in their ordinary duties and the optimal utilization of information received from the Department.

(14) To coordinate with elements of the intelligence community and with Federal, State, and local law enforcement agencies, and the private sector, as appropriate.

(15) To provide intelligence and information analysis and support to other elements of the Department.

(16) To coordinate and enhance integration among the intelligence components of the Department, including through strategic oversight of the intelligence activities of such components.

(17) To establish the intelligence collection, processing, analysis, and dissemination priorities, policies, processes, standards, guidelines, and procedures for the intelligence components of the Department, consistent with any directions from the President and, as applicable, the Director of National Intelligence.

(18) To establish a structure and process to support the missions and goals of the intelligence components of the Department.

(19) To ensure that, whenever possible, the Department—

(A) produces and disseminates unclassified reports and analytic products based on open-source information; and

(B) produces and disseminates such reports and analytic products contemporaneously with reports or analytic products concerning the same or similar information that the Department produced and disseminated in a classified format.


(20) To establish within the Office of Intelligence and Analysis an internal continuity of operations plan.

(21) Based on intelligence priorities set by the President, and guidance from the Secretary and, as appropriate, the Director of National Intelligence—

(A) to provide to the heads of each intelligence component of the Department guidance for developing the budget pertaining to the activities of such component; and

(B) to present to the Secretary a recommendation for a consolidated budget for the intelligence components of the Department, together with any comments from the heads of such components.


(22) To perform such other duties relating to such responsibilities as the Secretary may provide.

(23)(A) Not later than six months after December 23, 2016, to conduct an intelligence-based review and comparison of the risks and consequences of EMP and GMD facing critical infrastructure, and submit to the Committee on Homeland Security and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate—

(i) a recommended strategy to protect and prepare the critical infrastructure of the homeland against threats of EMP and GMD; and

(ii) not less frequently than every two years thereafter for the next six years, updates of the recommended strategy.


(B) The recommended strategy under subparagraph (A) shall—

(i) be based on findings of the research and development conducted under section 195f of this title;

(ii) be developed in consultation with the relevant Federal sector-specific agencies (as defined under Presidential Policy Directive-21) for critical infrastructure;

(iii) be developed in consultation with the relevant sector coordinating councils for critical infrastructure;

(iv) be informed, to the extent practicable, by the findings of the intelligence-based review and comparison of the risks and consequences of EMP and GMD facing critical infrastructure conducted under subparagraph (A); and

(v) be submitted in unclassified form, but may include a classified annex.


(C) The Secretary may, if appropriate, incorporate the recommended strategy into a broader recommendation developed by the Department to help protect and prepare critical infrastructure from terrorism, cyber attacks, and other threats if, as incorporated, the recommended strategy complies with subparagraph (B).

(e) Staff

(1) In general

The Secretary shall provide the Office of Intelligence and Analysis with a staff of analysts having appropriate expertise and experience to assist such offices in discharging responsibilities under this section.

(2) Private sector analysts

Analysts under this subsection may include analysts from the private sector.

(3) Security clearances

Analysts under this subsection shall possess security clearances appropriate for their work under this section.

(f) Detail of personnel

(1) In general

In order to assist the Office of Intelligence and Analysis in discharging responsibilities under this section, personnel of the agencies referred to in paragraph (2) may be detailed to the Department for the performance of analytic functions and related duties.

(2) Covered agencies

The agencies referred to in this paragraph are as follows:

(A) The Department of State.

(B) The Central Intelligence Agency.

(C) The Federal Bureau of Investigation.

(D) The National Security Agency.

(E) The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency.

(F) The Defense Intelligence Agency.

(G) Any other agency of the Federal Government that the President considers appropriate.

(3) Cooperative agreements

The Secretary and the head of the agency concerned may enter into cooperative agreements for the purpose of detailing personnel under this subsection.

(4) Basis

The detail of personnel under this subsection may be on a reimbursable or non-reimbursable basis.

(g) Functions transferred

In accordance with subchapter XII, there shall be transferred to the Secretary, for assignment to the Office of Intelligence and Analysis and the Office of Infrastructure Protection under this section, the functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the following:

(1) The National Infrastructure Protection Center of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (other than the Computer Investigations and Operations Section), including the functions of the Attorney General relating thereto.

(2) The National Communications System of the Department of Defense, including the functions of the Secretary of Defense relating thereto.

(3) The Critical Infrastructure Assurance Office of the Department of Commerce, including the functions of the Secretary of Commerce relating thereto.

(4) The National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center of the Department of Energy and the energy security and assurance program and activities of the Department, including the functions of the Secretary of Energy relating thereto.

(5) The Federal Computer Incident Response Center of the General Services Administration, including the functions of the Administrator of General Services relating thereto.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §201, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2145; Pub. L. 110–53, title V, §§501(a)(2)(A), (b), 531(a), title X, §1002(a), Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 309, 332, 374; Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title IX, §931(b)(5), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4575; Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title X, §1073(c)(9), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2475; Pub. L. 111–258, §5(b)(1), Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2650; Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title XIX, §1913(a)(2), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2685; Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(C), Nov. 16, 2018, 132 Stat. 4177.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (d)(9), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 107–296, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2135, known as the Homeland Security Act of 2002, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title and Tables.

The National Security Act of 1947, referred to in subsec. (d)(9)(B), is act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, 61 Stat. 495, which was formerly classified principally to chapter 15 (§401 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense, prior to editorial reclassification in Title 50, and is now classified principally to chapter 44 (§3001 et seq.) of Title 50. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

Section is comprised of section 201 of Pub. L. 107–296. Subsec. (h) of section 201 of Pub. L. 107–296 amended section 3003 of Title 50, War and National Defense.

Amendments

2018—Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(C)(i), struck out "and Infrastructure Protection" after "Information and Analysis" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(C)(ii), struck out "and infrastructure protection" after "Intelligence and analysis" in heading and "and an Office of Infrastructure Protection" after "Office of Intelligence and Analysis" in text.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(C)(iii)(I), struck out "and Assistant Secretary for Infrastructure Protection" after "Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis" in heading.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(C)(iii)(II), struck out par. (3). Text read as follows: "The Office of Infrastructure Protection shall be headed by an Assistant Secretary for Infrastructure Protection, who shall be appointed by the President."

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(C)(iv), struck out "and infrastructure protection" after "information analysis" and "or the Assistant Secretary for Infrastructure Protection, as appropriate" after "the Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(C)(v)(I), (II), struck out "and infrastructure protection" after "intelligence and analysis" in heading and introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d)(5) to (22). Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(C)(v)(III), (IV), redesignated pars. (7) to (24) as (5) to (22), respectively, and struck out former pars. (5) and (6). Prior to amendment, pars. (5) and (6) read as follows:

"(5) To develop a comprehensive national plan for securing the key resources and critical infrastructure of the United States, including power production, generation, and distribution systems, information technology and telecommunications systems (including satellites), electronic financial and property record storage and transmission systems, emergency preparedness communications systems, and the physical and technological assets that support such systems.

"(6) To recommend measures necessary to protect the key resources and critical infrastructure of the United States in coordination with other agencies of the Federal Government and in cooperation with State and local government agencies and authorities, the private sector, and other entities."

Subsec. (d)(23). Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(C)(v)(V), redesignated par. (26) as (23). Former par. (23) redesignated (21).

Subsec. (d)(23)(B)(i). Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(C)(v)(VI), made technical amendment to reference in original act which appears in text as reference to section 195f of this title.

Subsec. (d)(24). Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(C)(v)(IV), redesignated par. (24) as (22).

Subsec. (d)(25). Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(C)(v)(III), struck out par. (25) which read as follows: "To prepare and submit to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Homeland Security in the House of Representatives, and to other appropriate congressional committees having jurisdiction over the critical infrastructure or key resources, for each sector identified in the National Infrastructure Protection Plan, a report on the comprehensive assessments carried out by the Secretary of the critical infrastructure and key resources of the United States, evaluating threat, vulnerability, and consequence, as required under this subsection. Each such report—

"(A) shall contain, if applicable, actions or countermeasures recommended or taken by the Secretary or the head of another Federal agency to address issues identified in the assessments;

"(B) shall be required for fiscal year 2007 and each subsequent fiscal year and shall be submitted not later than 35 days after the last day of the fiscal year covered by the report; and

"(C) may be classified."

Subsec. (d)(26). Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(C)(v)(V), redesignated par. (26) as (23).

Subsecs. (e)(1), (f)(1). Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(C)(vi), (vii), struck out "and the Office of Infrastructure Protection" after "the Office of Intelligence and Analysis".

2016—Subsec. (d)(26). Pub. L. 114–328 added par. (26).

2010—Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 111–258 amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows: "To integrate relevant information, analyses, and vulnerability assessments (whether such information, analyses, or assessments are provided or produced by the Department or others) in order to identify priorities for protective and support measures by the Department, other agencies of the Federal Government, State and local government agencies and authorities, the private sector, and other entities."

2009—Subsec. (f)(2)(E). Pub. L. 111–84 made technical amendment to directory language of Pub. L. 110–417. See 2008 amendment note below.

2008—Subsec. (f)(2)(E). Pub. L. 110–417, §931(b)(5), as amended by Pub. L. 111–84, substituted "National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency" for "National Imagery and Mapping Agency".

2007—Pub. L. 110–53, §531(a)(1), substituted "Information and" for "Directorate for Information" in section catchline.

Subsecs. (a) to (c). Pub. L. 110–53, §531(a)(2), added subsecs. (a) to (c) and struck out former subsecs. (a) to (c) which related to, in subsec. (a), establishment and responsibilities of Directorate for Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection, in subsec. (b), positions of Assistant Secretary for Information Analysis and Assistant Secretary for Infrastructure Protection, and, in subsec. (c), Secretary's duty to ensure that responsibilities regarding information analysis and infrastructure protection would be carried out through the Under Secretary for Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 110–53, §531(a)(3), substituted "Secretary relating to intelligence and analysis and infrastructure protection" for "Under Secretary" in heading and "The responsibilities of the Secretary relating to intelligence and analysis and infrastructure protection" for "Subject to the direction and control of the Secretary, the responsibilities of the Under Secretary for Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 110–53, §501(b)(1), inserted ", in support of the mission responsibilities of the Department and the functions of the National Counterterrorism Center established under section 119 of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 404o)," after "to integrate such information" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d)(7). Pub. L. 110–53, §501(b)(2), added par. (7) and struck out former par. (7) which read as follows: "To review, analyze, and make recommendations for improvements in the policies and procedures governing the sharing of law enforcement information, intelligence information, intelligence-related information, and other information relating to homeland security within the Federal Government and between the Federal Government and State and local government agencies and authorities."

Pub. L. 110–53, §501(a)(2)(A), redesignated par. (8) as (7) and struck out former par. (7) which read as follows: "To administer the Homeland Security Advisory System, including—

"(A) exercising primary responsibility for public advisories related to threats to homeland security; and

"(B) in coordination with other agencies of the Federal Government, providing specific warning information, and advice about appropriate protective measures and countermeasures, to State and local government agencies and authorities, the private sector, other entities, and the public."

Subsec. (d)(8). Pub. L. 110–53, §501(a)(2)(A)(ii), redesignated par. (9) as (8). Former par. (8) redesignated (7).

Subsec. (d)(9). Pub. L. 110–53, §531(a)(3)(C), substituted "Director of National Intelligence" for "Director of Central Intelligence".

Pub. L. 110–53, §501(a)(2)(A)(ii), redesignated par. (10) as (9). Former par. (9) redesignated (8).

Subsec. (d)(10). Pub. L. 110–53, §501(a)(2)(A)(ii), redesignated par. (11) as (10). Former par. (10) redesignated (9).

Subsec. (d)(11). Pub. L. 110–53, §501(a)(2)(A)(ii), redesignated par. (12) as (11). Former par. (11) redesignated (10).

Subsec. (d)(11)(B). Pub. L. 110–53, §531(a)(3)(D), substituted "Director of National Intelligence" for "Director of Central Intelligence".

Subsec. (d)(12) to (17). Pub. L. 110–53, §501(a)(2)(A)(ii), redesignated pars. (13) to (18) as (12) to (17), respectively. Former par. (12) redesignated (11).

Subsec. (d)(18). Pub. L. 110–53, §531(a)(3)(E), (F), added par. (18) and redesignated former par. (18) as (24).

Pub. L. 110–53, §501(a)(2)(A)(ii), redesignated par. (19) as (18). Former par. (18) redesignated (17).

Subsec. (d)(19). Pub. L. 110–53, §531(a)(3)(F), added par. (19).

Pub. L. 110–53, §501(a)(2)(A)(ii), redesignated par. (19) as (18).

Subsec. (d)(20) to (23). Pub. L. 110–53, §531(a)(3)(F), added pars. (20) to (23).

Subsec. (d)(24). Pub. L. 110–53, §531(a)(3)(E), redesignated par. (18) as (24).

Subsec. (d)(25). Pub. L. 110–53, §1002(a), added par. (25).

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 110–53, §531(a)(4), substituted "provide the Office of Intelligence and Analysis and the Office of Infrastructure Protection" for "provide the Directorate" and "assist such offices in discharging" for "assist the Directorate in discharging".

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 110–53, §531(a)(5), substituted "Office of Intelligence and Analysis and the Office of Infrastructure Protection" for "Directorate".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 110–53, §531(a)(6), substituted "Office of Intelligence and Analysis and the Office of Infrastructure Protection" for "Under Secretary for Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection" in introductory provisions.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title X, §1073(c), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2474, provided that the amendment by section 1073(c)(9) is effective as of Oct. 14, 2008, and as if included in Pub. L. 110–417 as enacted.

Regulations

Pub. L. 109–295, title V, §550, Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1388, as amended by Pub. L. 110–161, div. E, title V, §534, Dec. 26, 2007, 121 Stat. 2075; Pub. L. 111–83, title V, §550, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2177; Pub. L. 112–10, div. B, title VI, §1650, Apr. 15, 2011, 125 Stat. 146; Pub. L. 112–74, div. D, title V, §540, Dec. 23, 2011, 125 Stat. 976; Pub. L. 113–6, div. D, title V, §537, Mar. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 373; Pub. L. 113–76, div. F, title V, §536, Jan. 17, 2014, 128 Stat. 275, required interim final regulations establishing risk-based performance standards for security of chemical facilities and requiring vulnerability assessments and the development and implementation of site security plans for chemical facilities, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 113–254, §4(b), Dec. 18, 2014, 128 Stat. 2919. See section 627 of this title.

[Pub. L. 113–254, §4(b), Dec. 18, 2014, 128 Stat. 2919, provided that the repeal of section 550 of Pub. L. 109–295, formerly set out above, is effective as of the effective date of Pub. L. 113–254, which is the date that is 30 days after Dec. 18, 2014. See section 4(a) of Pub. L. 113–254, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates note under section 621 of this title.]

Deadline for Initial Recommended Strategy

Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title XIX, §1913(c), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2687, provided that: "Not later than one year after the date of the enactment of this section [Dec. 23, 2016], the Secretary of Homeland Security shall submit the recommended strategy required under paragraph (26) of section 201(d) of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 (6 U.S.C. 121(d)), as added by this section."

Enhanced Grid Security

Pub. L. 114–94, div. F, §61003(c), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1778, provided that:

"(1) Definitions.—In this subsection:

"(A) Critical electric infrastructure; critical electric infrastructure information.—The terms 'critical electric infrastructure' and 'critical electric infrastructure information' have the meanings given those terms in section 215A of the Federal Power Act [16 U.S.C. 824o–1].

"(B) Sector-specific agency.—The term 'Sector-Specific Agency' has the meaning given that term in the Presidential Policy Directive entitled 'Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience', numbered 21, and dated February 12, 2013.

"(2) Sector-specific agency for cybersecurity for the energy sector.—

"(A) In general.—The Department of Energy shall be the lead Sector-Specific Agency for cybersecurity for the energy sector.

"(B) Duties.—As head of the designated Sector-Specific Agency for cybersecurity, the duties of the Secretary of Energy shall include—

"(i) coordinating with the Department of Homeland Security and other relevant Federal departments and agencies;

"(ii) collaborating with—

"(I) critical electric infrastructure owners and operators; and

"(II) as appropriate—

     "(aa) independent regulatory agencies; and

     "(bb) State, local, tribal, and territorial entities;

     "(cc) serving as a day-to-day Federal interface for the dynamic prioritization and coordination of sector-specific activities;

     "(dd) carrying out incident management responsibilities consistent with applicable law (including regulations) and other appropriate policies or directives;

     "(ee) providing, supporting, or facilitating technical assistance and consultations for the energy sector to identify vulnerabilities and help mitigate incidents, as appropriate; and

     "(ff) supporting the reporting requirements of the Department of Homeland Security under applicable law by providing, on an annual basis, sector-specific critical electric infrastructure information."

Cybersecurity Collaboration Between the Department of Defense and the Department of Homeland Security

Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title X, §1090, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1603, provided that:

"(a) Interdepartmental Collaboration.—

"(1) In general.—The Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall provide personnel, equipment, and facilities in order to increase interdepartmental collaboration with respect to—

"(A) strategic planning for the cybersecurity of the United States;

"(B) mutual support for cybersecurity capabilities development; and

"(C) synchronization of current operational cybersecurity mission activities.

"(2) Efficiencies.—The collaboration provided for under paragraph (1) shall be designed—

"(A) to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of requirements formulation and requests for products, services, and technical assistance for, and coordination and performance assessment of, cybersecurity missions executed across a variety of Department of Defense and Department of Homeland Security elements; and

"(B) to leverage the expertise of each individual Department and to avoid duplicating, replicating, or aggregating unnecessarily the diverse line organizations across technology developments, operations, and customer support that collectively execute the cybersecurity mission of each Department.

"(b) Responsibilities.—

"(1) Department of homeland security.—The Secretary of Homeland Security shall identify and assign, in coordination with the Department of Defense, a Director of Cybersecurity Coordination within the Department of Homeland Security to undertake collaborative activities with the Department of Defense.

"(2) Department of defense.—The Secretary of Defense shall identify and assign, in coordination with the Department of Homeland Security, one or more officials within the Department of Defense to coordinate, oversee, and execute collaborative activities and the provision of cybersecurity support to the Department of Homeland Security."

Cybersecurity Oversight

Pub. L. 111–259, title III, §336, Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2689, which related to cybersecurity oversight and provided for notification of cybersecurity programs, program and information sharing reports, provisions for the detailing of personnel, and provisions for further planning to recruit, retain, and train a highly-qualified workforce to secure the networks of the intelligence community, terminated on Dec. 31, 2013.

Treatment of Incumbent Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis

Pub. L. 110–53, title V, §531(c), Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 335, provided that: "The individual administratively performing the duties of the Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis as of the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 3, 2007] may continue to perform such duties after the date on which the President nominates an individual to serve as the Under Secretary pursuant to section 201 of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 [6 U.S.C. 121], as amended by this section, and until the individual so appointed assumes the duties of the position."

Reports To Be Submitted to Certain Committees

Pub. L. 110–53, title XXIV, §2403, Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 547, provided that: "The Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate shall receive the reports required by the following provisions of law in the same manner and to the same extent that the reports are to be received by the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate:

"(1) Section 1016(j)(1) of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorist [Terrorism] Prevention Act of 2004 (6 U.S.C. 485(j)(1)).

"(2) Section 511(d) of this Act [121 Stat. 323].

"(3) [Former] [s]ubsection (a)(3)(D) of section 2022 of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 [former 6 U.S.C. 612(a)(3)(D)], as added by section 101 of this Act.

"(4) Section 7215(d) of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (6 U.S.C. 123(d)).

"(5) Section 7209(b)(1)(C) of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 [Pub. L. 108–458] (8 U.S.C. 1185 note).

"(6) Section 804(c) of this Act [42 U.S.C. 2000ee–3(c)].

"(7) Section 901(b) of this Act [121 Stat. 370].

"(8) Section 1002(a) of this Act [amending this section].

"(9) Title III of this Act [enacting sections 579 and 580 of this title and amending sections 194 and 572 of this title]."

Security Management Systems Demonstration Project

Pub. L. 110–53, title XXIV, §2404, Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 548, provided that:

"(a) Demonstration Project Required.—Not later than 120 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 3, 2007], the Secretary of Homeland Security shall—

"(1) establish a demonstration project to conduct demonstrations of security management systems that—

"(A) shall use a management system standards approach; and

"(B) may be integrated into quality, safety, environmental and other internationally adopted management systems; and

"(2) enter into one or more agreements with a private sector entity to conduct such demonstrations of security management systems.

"(b) Security Management System Defined.—In this section, the term 'security management system' means a set of guidelines that address the security assessment needs of critical infrastructure and key resources that are consistent with a set of generally accepted management standards ratified and adopted by a standards making body."

Ex. Ord. No. 13231. Critical Infrastructure Protection in the Information Age

Ex. Ord. No. 13231, Oct. 16, 2001, 66 F.R. 53063, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13284, §2, Jan. 23, 2003, 68 F.R. 4075; Ex. Ord. No. 13286, §7, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10620; Ex. Ord. No. 13385, §5, Sept. 29, 2005, 70 F.R. 57990; Ex. Ord. No. 13652, §6, Sept. 30, 2013, 78 F.R. 61818, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and in order to ensure protection of information systems for critical infrastructure, including emergency preparedness communications and the physical assets that support such systems, in the information age, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Policy. The information technology revolution has changed the way business is transacted, government operates, and national defense is conducted. Those three functions now depend on an interdependent network of critical information infrastructures. It is the policy of the United States to protect against disruption of the operation of information systems for critical infrastructure and thereby help to protect the people, economy, essential human and government services, and national security of the United States, and to ensure that any disruptions that occur are infrequent, of minimal duration, and manageable, and cause the least damage possible. The implementation of this policy shall include a voluntary public-private partnership, involving corporate and nongovernmental organizations.

Sec. 2. Continuing Authorities. This order does not alter the existing authorities or roles of United States Government departments and agencies. Authorities set forth in 44 U.S.C. chapter 35, and other applicable law, provide senior officials with responsibility for the security of Federal Government information systems.

(a) Executive Branch Information Systems Security. The Director of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has the responsibility to develop and oversee the implementation of government-wide policies, principles, standards, and guidelines for the security of information systems that support the executive branch departments and agencies, except those noted in section 2(b) of this order. The Director of OMB shall advise the President and the appropriate department or agency head when there is a critical deficiency in the security practices within the purview of this section in an executive branch department or agency.

(b) National Security Information Systems. The Secretary of Defense and the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) shall have responsibility to oversee, develop, and ensure implementation of policies, principles, standards, and guidelines for the security of information systems that support the operations under their respective control. In consultation with the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs and the affected departments and agencies, the Secretary of Defense and the DCI shall develop policies, principles, standards, and guidelines for the security of national security information systems that support the operations of other executive branch departments and agencies with national security information.

(i) Policies, principles, standards, and guidelines developed under this subsection may require more stringent protection than those developed in accordance with section 2(a) of this order.

(ii) The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs shall advise the President and the appropriate department or agency when there is a critical deficiency in the security practices of a department or agency within the purview of this section.

(iii) National Security Systems. The National Security Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Committee, as established by and consistent with NSD–42 and chaired by the Department of Defense, shall be designated as the "Committee on National Security Systems."

(c) Additional Responsibilities. The heads of executive branch departments and agencies are responsible and accountable for providing and maintaining adequate levels of security for information systems, including emergency preparedness communications systems, for programs under their control. Heads of such departments and agencies shall ensure the development and, within available appropriations, funding of programs that adequately address these mission systems, especially those critical systems that support the national security and other essential government programs. Additionally, security should enable, and not unnecessarily impede, department and agency business operations.

Sec. 3. The National Infrastructure Advisory Council. The National Infrastructure Advisory Council (NIAC), established on October 16, 2001, shall provide the President, through the Secretary of Homeland Security, with advice on the security and resilience of the critical infrastructure sectors and their functional systems, physical assets, and cyber networks.

(a) Membership. The NIAC shall be composed of not more than 30 members appointed by the President, taking appropriate account of the benefits of having members:

(i) from the private sector, including individuals with experience in banking and finance, transportation, energy, water, communications, health care services, food and agriculture, government facilities, emergency services organizations, institutions of higher education, environmental and climate resilience, and State, local, and tribal governments;

(ii) with senior executive leadership responsibilities for the availability and reliability, including security and resilience, of critical infrastructure sectors;

(iii) with expertise relevant to the functions of the NIAC; and

(iv) with experience equivalent to that of a chief executive of an organization.

Unless otherwise determined by the President, no full-time officer or employee of the executive branch shall be appointed to serve as a member of the NIAC. The President shall designate from among the members of the NIAC a Chair and a Vice Chair, who shall perform the functions of the Chair if the Chair is absent or disabled, or in the instance of a vacancy in the Chair.

(b) Functions of the NIAC. The NIAC shall meet periodically to:

(i) enhance the partnership of the public and private sectors in securing and enhancing the security and resilience of critical infrastructure and their supporting functional systems, physical assets, and cyber networks, and provide reports on this issue to the President, through the Secretary of Homeland Security, as appropriate;

(ii) propose and develop ways to encourage private industry to perform periodic risk assessments and implement risk-reduction programs;

(iii) monitor the development and operations of critical infrastructure sector coordinating councils and their information-sharing mechanisms and provide recommendations to the President, through the Secretary of Homeland Security, on how these organizations can best foster improved cooperation among the sectors, the Department of Homeland Security, and other Federal Government entities;

(iv) report to the President through the Secretary of Homeland Security, who shall ensure appropriate coordination with the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism, the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy, and the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs under the terms of this order; and

(v) advise sector-specific agencies with critical infrastructure responsibilities to include issues pertaining to sector and government coordinating councils and their information sharing mechanisms.

In implementing this order, the NIAC shall not advise or otherwise act on matters pertaining to National Security and Emergency Preparedness (NS/EP) Communications and, with respect to any matters to which the NIAC is authorized by this order to provide advice or otherwise act on that may depend on or affect NS/EP Communications, shall coordinate with the National Security and Telecommunications Advisory Committee established by Executive Order 12382 of September 13, 1982, as amended.

(c) Administration of the NIAC.

(i) The NIAC may hold hearings, conduct inquiries, and establish subcommittees, as appropriate.

(ii) Upon request of the Chair, and to the extent permitted by law, the heads of the executive departments and agencies shall provide the NIAC with information and advice relating to its functions.

(iii) Senior Federal Government officials may participate in the meetings of the NIAC, as appropriate.

(iv) Members shall serve without compensation for their work on the NIAC. However, members may be reimbursed for travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, as authorized by law for persons serving intermittently in Federal Government service (5 U.S.C. 5701–5707).

(v) To the extent permitted by law and subject to the availability of appropriations, the Department of Homeland Security shall provide the NIAC with administrative services, staff, and other support services, and such funds as may be necessary for the performance of the NIAC's functions.

Sec. 4. Judicial Review. This order does not create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity, against the United States, its departments, agencies, or other entities, its officers or employees, or any other person.

Extension of Term of National Infrastructure Advisory Council

Term of National Infrastructure Advisory Council extended until Sept. 30, 2019, by Ex. Ord. No. 13811, Sept. 29, 2017, 82 F.R. 46363, set out as a note under section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Previous extensions of term of National Infrastructure Advisory Council were contained in the following prior Executive Orders:

Ex. Ord. No. 13708, Sept. 30, 2015, 80 F.R. 60271, extended term until Sept. 30, 2017.

Ex. Ord. No. 13652, Sept. 30, 2013, 78 F.R. 61817, extended term until Sept. 30, 2015.

Ex. Ord. No. 13585, Sept. 30, 2011, 76 F.R. 62281, extended term until Sept. 30, 2013.

Ex. Ord. No. 13511, Sept. 29, 2009, 74 F.R. 50909, extended term until Sept. 30, 2011.

Ex. Ord. No. 13446, Sept. 28, 2007, 72 F.R. 56175, extended term until Sept. 30, 2009.

Ex. Ord. No. 13385, Sept. 29, 2005, 70 F.R. 57989, extended term until Sept. 30, 2007.

Ex. Ord. No. 13316, Sept. 17, 2003, 68 F.R. 55255, extended term until Sept. 30, 2005.

Ex. Ord. No. 13284. Amendment of Executive Orders, and Other Actions, in Connection With the Establishment of the Department of Homeland Security

Ex. Ord. No. 13284, Jan. 23, 2003, 68 F.R. 4075, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the Homeland Security Act of 2002 (Public Law 107–296) [see Tables for classification], and the National Security Act of 1947, as amended (50 U.S.C. 401 et seq.) [now 50 U.S.C. 3001 et seq.], and in order to reflect responsibilities vested in the Secretary of Homeland Security and take other actions in connection with the establishment of the Department of Homeland Security, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 13234.]

Sec. 2. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 13231, set out above.]

Sec. 3. Executive Order 13228 of October 8, 2001 ("Establishing the Office of Homeland Security and the Homeland Security Council") [50 U.S.C. 3021 note], is amended by inserting "the Secretary of Homeland Security," after "the Secretary of Transportation," in section 5(b). Further, during the period from January 24, 2003, until March 1, 2003, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall have the responsibility for coordinating the domestic response efforts otherwise assigned to the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security pursuant to section 3(g) of Executive Order 13228.

Sec. 4. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 13224, listed in a table under section 1701 of Title 50, War and National Defense.]

Sec. 5. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 13151, set out as a note under section 5195 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.]

Sec. 6. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 13122, set out as a note under section 3121 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.]

Sec. 7. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 13048, set out as a note under section 501 of Title 31, Money and Finance.]

Sec. 8. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12992, set out as a note under section 1708 of Title 21, Food and Drugs.]

Sec. 9. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12881, set out as a note under section 6601 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.]

Sec. 10. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12859, set out as a note preceding section 101 of Title 3, The President.]

Sec. 11. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12590, set out as a note under former section 1201 of Title 21, Food and Drugs.]

Sec. 12. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12260, set out as a note under section 2511 of Title 19, Customs Duties.]

Sec. 13. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 11958, set out as a note under section 2751 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.]

Sec. 14. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 11423, set out as a note under section 301 of Title 3, The President.]

Sec. 15. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 10865, set out as a note under section 3161 of Title 50, War and National Defense.]

Sec. 16. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 13011, set out as a note under section 11101 of Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works.]

Sec. 17. Those elements of the Department of Homeland Security that are supervised by the Department's Under Secretary for Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection through the Department's Assistant Secretary for Information Analysis, with the exception of those functions that involve no analysis of foreign intelligence information, are designated as elements of the Intelligence Community under section 201(h) of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 [Pub. L. 107–296, amending 50 U.S.C. 3003] and section 3(4) of the National Security Act of 1947, as amended (50 U.S.C. 401a[(4)]) [now 50 U.S.C. 3003(4)].

Sec. 18. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12333, set out as a note under section 3001 of title 50, War and National Defense.]

Sec. 19. Functions of Certain Officials in the Department of Homeland Security.

The Secretary of Homeland Security, the Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security, the Under Secretary for Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection, Department of Homeland Security, and the Assistant Secretary for Information Analysis, Department of Homeland Security, each shall be considered a "Senior Official of the Intelligence Community" for purposes of Executive Order 12333 [50 U.S.C. 3001 note], and all other relevant authorities, and shall:

(a) recognize and give effect to all current clearances for access to classified information held by those who become employees of the Department of Homeland Security by operation of law pursuant to the Homeland Security Act of 2002 or by Presidential appointment;

(b) recognize and give effect to all current clearances for access to classified information held by those in the private sector with whom employees of the Department of Homeland Security may seek to interact in the discharge of their homeland security-related responsibilities;

(c) make all clearance and access determinations pursuant to Executive Order 12968 of August 2, 1995 [50 U.S.C. 3161 note], or any successor Executive Order, as to employees of, and applicants for employment in, the Department of Homeland Security who do not then hold a current clearance for access to classified information; and

(d) ensure all clearance and access determinations for those in the private sector with whom employees of the Department of Homeland Security may seek to interact in the discharge of their homeland security-related responsibilities are made in accordance with Executive Order 12829 of January 6, 1993 [50 U.S.C. 3161 note].

Sec. 20. Pursuant to the provisions of section 1.4 of [former] Executive Order 12958 of April 17, 1995 ("Classified National Security Information"), I hereby authorize the Secretary of Homeland Security to classify information originally as "Top Secret." Any delegation of this authority shall be in accordance with section 1.4 of that order or any successor Executive Orders.

Sec. 21. This order shall become effective on January 24, 2003.

Sec. 22. This order does not create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or equity, against the United States, its departments, agencies, or other entities, its officers or employees, or any other person.

George W. Bush.      

Ex. Ord. No. 13636. Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity

Ex. Ord. No. 13636, Feb. 12, 2013, 78 F.R. 11739, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Policy. Repeated cyber intrusions into critical infrastructure demonstrate the need for improved cybersecurity. The cyber threat to critical infrastructure continues to grow and represents one of the most serious national security challenges we must confront. The national and economic security of the United States depends on the reliable functioning of the Nation's critical infrastructure in the face of such threats. It is the policy of the United States to enhance the security and resilience of the Nation's critical infrastructure and to maintain a cyber environment that encourages efficiency, innovation, and economic prosperity while promoting safety, security, business confidentiality, privacy, and civil liberties. We can achieve these goals through a partnership with the owners and operators of critical infrastructure to improve cybersecurity information sharing and collaboratively develop and implement risk-based standards.

Sec. 2. Critical Infrastructure. As used in this order, the term critical infrastructure means systems and assets, whether physical or virtual, so vital to the United States that the incapacity or destruction of such systems and assets would have a debilitating impact on security, national economic security, national public health or safety, or any combination of those matters.

Sec. 3. Policy Coordination. Policy coordination, guidance, dispute resolution, and periodic in-progress reviews for the functions and programs described and assigned herein shall be provided through the interagency process established in Presidential Policy Directive–1 of February 13, 2009 (Organization of the National Security Council System), or any successor.

Sec. 4. Cybersecurity Information Sharing. (a) It is the policy of the United States Government to increase the volume, timeliness, and quality of cyber threat information shared with U.S. private sector entities so that these entities may better protect and defend themselves against cyber threats. Within 120 days of the date of this order, the Attorney General, the Secretary of Homeland Security (the "Secretary"), and the Director of National Intelligence shall each issue instructions consistent with their authorities and with the requirements of section 12(c) of this order to ensure the timely production of unclassified reports of cyber threats to the U.S. homeland that identify a specific targeted entity. The instructions shall address the need to protect intelligence and law enforcement sources, methods, operations, and investigations.

(b) The Secretary and the Attorney General, in coordination with the Director of National Intelligence, shall establish a process that rapidly disseminates the reports produced pursuant to section 4(a) of this order to the targeted entity. Such process shall also, consistent with the need to protect national security information, include the dissemination of classified reports to critical infrastructure entities authorized to receive them. The Secretary and the Attorney General, in coordination with the Director of National Intelligence, shall establish a system for tracking the production, dissemination, and disposition of these reports.

(c) To assist the owners and operators of critical infrastructure in protecting their systems from unauthorized access, exploitation, or harm, the Secretary, consistent with [former] 6 U.S.C. 143 [now 6 U.S.C. 655] and in collaboration with the Secretary of Defense, shall, within 120 days of the date of this order, establish procedures to expand the Enhanced Cybersecurity Services program to all critical infrastructure sectors. This voluntary information sharing program will provide classified cyber threat and technical information from the Government to eligible critical infrastructure companies or commercial service providers that offer security services to critical infrastructure.

(d) The Secretary, as the Executive Agent for the Classified National Security Information Program created under Executive Order 13549 of August 18, 2010 (Classified National Security Information Program for State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Entities), shall expedite the processing of security clearances to appropriate personnel employed by critical infrastructure owners and operators, prioritizing the critical infrastructure identified in section 9 of this order.

(e) In order to maximize the utility of cyber threat information sharing with the private sector, the Secretary shall expand the use of programs that bring private sector subject-matter experts into Federal service on a temporary basis. These subject matter experts should provide advice regarding the content, structure, and types of information most useful to critical infrastructure owners and operators in reducing and mitigating cyber risks.

Sec. 5. Privacy and Civil Liberties Protections. (a) Agencies shall coordinate their activities under this order with their senior agency officials for privacy and civil liberties and ensure that privacy and civil liberties protections are incorporated into such activities. Such protections shall be based upon the Fair Information Practice Principles and other privacy and civil liberties policies, principles, and frameworks as they apply to each agency's activities.

(b) The Chief Privacy Officer and the Officer for Civil Rights and Civil Liberties of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) shall assess the privacy and civil liberties risks of the functions and programs undertaken by DHS as called for in this order and shall recommend to the Secretary ways to minimize or mitigate such risks, in a publicly available report, to be released within 1 year of the date of this order. Senior agency privacy and civil liberties officials for other agencies engaged in activities under this order shall conduct assessments of their agency activities and provide those assessments to DHS for consideration and inclusion in the report. The report shall be reviewed on an annual basis and revised as necessary. The report may contain a classified annex if necessary. Assessments shall include evaluation of activities against the Fair Information Practice Principles and other applicable privacy and civil liberties policies, principles, and frameworks. Agencies shall consider the assessments and recommendations of the report in implementing privacy and civil liberties protections for agency activities.

(c) In producing the report required under subsection (b) of this section, the Chief Privacy Officer and the Officer for Civil Rights and Civil Liberties of DHS shall consult with the Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board and coordinate with the Office of Management and Budget (OMB).

(d) Information submitted voluntarily in accordance with [former] 6 U.S.C. 133 [now 6 U.S.C. 673] by private entities under this order shall be protected from disclosure to the fullest extent permitted by law.

Sec. 6. Consultative Process. The Secretary shall establish a consultative process to coordinate improvements to the cybersecurity of critical infrastructure. As part of the consultative process, the Secretary shall engage and consider the advice, on matters set forth in this order, of the Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council; Sector Coordinating Councils; critical infrastructure owners and operators; Sector-Specific Agencies; other relevant agencies; independent regulatory agencies; State, local, territorial, and tribal governments; universities; and outside experts.

Sec. 7. Baseline Framework to Reduce Cyber Risk to Critical Infrastructure. (a) The Secretary of Commerce shall direct the Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (the "Director") to lead the development of a framework to reduce cyber risks to critical infrastructure (the "Cybersecurity Framework"). The Cybersecurity Framework shall include a set of standards, methodologies, procedures, and processes that align policy, business, and technological approaches to address cyber risks. The Cybersecurity Framework shall incorporate voluntary consensus standards and industry best practices to the fullest extent possible. The Cybersecurity Framework shall be consistent with voluntary international standards when such international standards will advance the objectives of this order, and shall meet the requirements of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Act, as amended (15 U.S.C. 271 et seq.), the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (Public Law 104–113), and OMB Circular A–119, as revised.

(b) The Cybersecurity Framework shall provide a prioritized, flexible, repeatable, performance-based, and cost-effective approach, including information security measures and controls, to help owners and operators of critical infrastructure identify, assess, and manage cyber risk. The Cybersecurity Framework shall focus on identifying cross-sector security standards and guidelines applicable to critical infrastructure. The Cybersecurity Framework will also identify areas for improvement that should be addressed through future collaboration with particular sectors and standards-developing organizations. To enable technical innovation and account for organizational differences, the Cybersecurity Framework will provide guidance that is technology neutral and that enables critical infrastructure sectors to benefit from a competitive market for products and services that meet the standards, methodologies, procedures, and processes developed to address cyber risks. The Cybersecurity Framework shall include guidance for measuring the performance of an entity in implementing the Cybersecurity Framework.

(c) The Cybersecurity Framework shall include methodologies to identify and mitigate impacts of the Cybersecurity Framework and associated information security measures or controls on business confidentiality, and to protect individual privacy and civil liberties.

(d) In developing the Cybersecurity Framework, the Director shall engage in an open public review and comment process. The Director shall also consult with the Secretary, the National Security Agency, Sector-Specific Agencies and other interested agencies including OMB, owners and operators of critical infrastructure, and other stakeholders through the consultative process established in section 6 of this order. The Secretary, the Director of National Intelligence, and the heads of other relevant agencies shall provide threat and vulnerability information and technical expertise to inform the development of the Cybersecurity Framework. The Secretary shall provide performance goals for the Cybersecurity Framework informed by work under section 9 of this order.

(e) Within 240 days of the date of this order, the Director shall publish a preliminary version of the Cybersecurity Framework (the "preliminary Framework"). Within 1 year of the date of this order, and after coordination with the Secretary to ensure suitability under section 8 of this order, the Director shall publish a final version of the Cybersecurity Framework (the "final Framework").

(f) Consistent with statutory responsibilities, the Director will ensure the Cybersecurity Framework and related guidance is reviewed and updated as necessary, taking into consideration technological changes, changes in cyber risks, operational feedback from owners and operators of critical infrastructure, experience from the implementation of section 8 of this order, and any other relevant factors.

Sec. 8. Voluntary Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity Program. (a) The Secretary, in coordination with Sector-Specific Agencies, shall establish a voluntary program to support the adoption of the Cybersecurity Framework by owners and operators of critical infrastructure and any other interested entities (the "Program").

(b) Sector-Specific Agencies, in consultation with the Secretary and other interested agencies, shall coordinate with the Sector Coordinating Councils to review the Cybersecurity Framework and, if necessary, develop implementation guidance or supplemental materials to address sector-specific risks and operating environments.

(c) Sector-Specific Agencies shall report annually to the President, through the Secretary, on the extent to which owners and operators notified under section 9 of this order are participating in the Program.

(d) The Secretary shall coordinate establishment of a set of incentives designed to promote participation in the Program. Within 120 days of the date of this order, the Secretary and the Secretaries of the Treasury and Commerce each shall make recommendations separately to the President, through the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism and the Assistant to the President for Economic Affairs, that shall include analysis of the benefits and relative effectiveness of such incentives, and whether the incentives would require legislation or can be provided under existing law and authorities to participants in the Program.

(e) Within 120 days of the date of this order, the Secretary of Defense and the Administrator of General Services, in consultation with the Secretary and the Federal Acquisition Regulatory Council, shall make recommendations to the President, through the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism and the Assistant to the President for Economic Affairs, on the feasibility, security benefits, and relative merits of incorporating security standards into acquisition planning and contract administration. The report shall address what steps can be taken to harmonize and make consistent existing procurement requirements related to cybersecurity.

Sec. 9. Identification of Critical Infrastructure at Greatest Risk. (a) Within 150 days of the date of this order, the Secretary shall use a risk-based approach to identify critical infrastructure where a cybersecurity incident could reasonably result in catastrophic regional or national effects on public health or safety, economic security, or national security. In identifying critical infrastructure for this purpose, the Secretary shall use the consultative process established in section 6 of this order and draw upon the expertise of Sector-Specific Agencies. The Secretary shall apply consistent, objective criteria in identifying such critical infrastructure. The Secretary shall not identify any commercial information technology products or consumer information technology services under this section. The Secretary shall review and update the list of identified critical infrastructure under this section on an annual basis, and provide such list to the President, through the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism and the Assistant to the President for Economic Affairs.

(b) Heads of Sector-Specific Agencies and other relevant agencies shall provide the Secretary with information necessary to carry out the responsibilities under this section. The Secretary shall develop a process for other relevant stakeholders to submit information to assist in making the identifications required in subsection (a) of this section.

(c) The Secretary, in coordination with Sector-Specific Agencies, shall confidentially notify owners and operators of critical infrastructure identified under subsection (a) of this section that they have been so identified, and ensure identified owners and operators are provided the basis for the determination. The Secretary shall establish a process through which owners and operators of critical infrastructure may submit relevant information and request reconsideration of identifications under subsection (a) of this section.

Sec. 10. Adoption of Framework. (a) Agencies with responsibility for regulating the security of critical infrastructure shall engage in a consultative process with DHS, OMB, and the National Security Staff to review the preliminary Cybersecurity Framework and determine if current cybersecurity regulatory requirements are sufficient given current and projected risks. In making such determination, these agencies shall consider the identification of critical infrastructure required under section 9 of this order. Within 90 days of the publication of the preliminary Framework, these agencies shall submit a report to the President, through the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism, the Director of OMB, and the Assistant to the President for Economic Affairs, that states whether or not the agency has clear authority to establish requirements based upon the Cybersecurity Framework to sufficiently address current and projected cyber risks to critical infrastructure, the existing authorities identified, and any additional authority required.

(b) If current regulatory requirements are deemed to be insufficient, within 90 days of publication of the final Framework, agencies identified in subsection (a) of this section shall propose prioritized, risk-based, efficient, and coordinated actions, consistent with Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993 (Regulatory Planning and Review), Executive Order 13563 of January 18, 2011 (Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review), and Executive Order 13609 of May 1, 2012 (Promoting International Regulatory Cooperation), to mitigate cyber risk.

(c) Within 2 years after publication of the final Framework, consistent with Executive Order 13563 and Executive Order 13610 of May 10, 2012 (Identifying and Reducing Regulatory Burdens), agencies identified in subsection (a) of this section shall, in consultation with owners and operators of critical infrastructure, report to OMB on any critical infrastructure subject to ineffective, conflicting, or excessively burdensome cybersecurity requirements. This report shall describe efforts made by agencies, and make recommendations for further actions, to minimize or eliminate such requirements.

(d) The Secretary shall coordinate the provision of technical assistance to agencies identified in subsection (a) of this section on the development of their cybersecurity workforce and programs.

(e) Independent regulatory agencies with responsibility for regulating the security of critical infrastructure are encouraged to engage in a consultative process with the Secretary, relevant Sector-Specific Agencies, and other affected parties to consider prioritized actions to mitigate cyber risks for critical infrastructure consistent with their authorities.

Sec. 11. Definitions. (a) "Agency" means any authority of the United States that is an "agency" under 44 U.S.C. 3502(1), other than those considered to be independent regulatory agencies, as defined in 44 U.S.C. 3502(5).

(b) "Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council" means the council established by DHS under 6 U.S.C. 451 to facilitate effective interaction and coordination of critical infrastructure protection activities among the Federal Government; the private sector; and State, local, territorial, and tribal governments.

(c) "Fair Information Practice Principles" means the eight principles set forth in Appendix A of the National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace.

(d) "Independent regulatory agency" has the meaning given the term in 44 U.S.C. 3502(5).

(e) "Sector Coordinating Council" means a private sector coordinating council composed of representatives of owners and operators within a particular sector of critical infrastructure established by the National Infrastructure Protection Plan or any successor.

(f) "Sector-Specific Agency" has the meaning given the term in Presidential Policy Directive–21 of February 12, 2013 (Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience), or any successor.

Sec. 12. General Provisions. (a) This order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations. Nothing in this order shall be construed to provide an agency with authority for regulating the security of critical infrastructure in addition to or to a greater extent than the authority the agency has under existing law. Nothing in this order shall be construed to alter or limit any authority or responsibility of an agency under existing law.

(b) Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect the functions of the Director of OMB relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(c) All actions taken pursuant to this order shall be consistent with requirements and authorities to protect intelligence and law enforcement sources and methods. Nothing in this order shall be interpreted to supersede measures established under authority of law to protect the security and integrity of specific activities and associations that are in direct support of intelligence and law enforcement operations.

(d) This order shall be implemented consistent with U.S. international obligations.

(e) This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

Barack Obama.      

[Reference to the National Security Staff deemed to be a reference to the National Security Council Staff, see Ex. Ord. No. 13657, set out as a note under section 3021 of Title 50, War and National Defense.]

Executive Order No. 13650

Ex. Ord. No. 13650, Aug. 1, 2013, 78 F.R. 48029, was transferred to a note set out under section 621 of this title.

Ex. Ord. No. 13691. Promoting Private Sector Cybersecurity Information Sharing

Ex. Ord. No. 13691, Feb. 13, 2015, 80 F.R. 9349, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Policy. In order to address cyber threats to public health and safety, national security, and economic security of the United States, private companies, nonprofit organizations, executive departments and agencies (agencies), and other entities must be able to share information related to cybersecurity risks and incidents and collaborate to respond in as close to real time as possible.

Organizations engaged in the sharing of information related to cybersecurity risks and incidents play an invaluable role in the collective cybersecurity of the United States. The purpose of this order is to encourage the voluntary formation of such organizations, to establish mechanisms to continually improve the capabilities and functions of these organizations, and to better allow these organizations to partner with the Federal Government on a voluntary basis.

Such information sharing must be conducted in a manner that protects the privacy and civil liberties of individuals, that preserves business confidentiality, that safeguards the information being shared, and that protects the ability of the Government to detect, investigate, prevent, and respond to cyber threats to the public health and safety, national security, and economic security of the United States.

This order builds upon the foundation established by Executive Order 13636 of February 12, 2013 (Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity), and Presidential Policy Directive–21 (PPD–21) of February 12, 2013 (Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience).

Policy coordination, guidance, dispute resolution, and periodic in-progress reviews for the functions and programs described and assigned herein shall be provided through the interagency process established in Presidential Policy Directive–l [sic] (PPD–l [PPD–1]) of February 13, 2009 (Organization of the National Security Council System), or any successor.

Sec. 2. Information Sharing and Analysis Organizations. (a) The Secretary of Homeland Security (Secretary) shall strongly encourage the development and formation of Information Sharing and Analysis Organizations (ISAOs).

(b) ISAOs may be organized on the basis of sector, sub-sector, region, or any other affinity, including in response to particular emerging threats or vulnerabilities. ISAO membership may be drawn from the public or private sectors, or consist of a combination of public and private sector organizations. ISAOs may be formed as for-profit or nonprofit entities.

(c) The National Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center (NCCIC), established under section 226(b) of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 (the "Act"), shall engage in continuous, collaborative, and inclusive coordination with ISAOs on the sharing of information related to cybersecurity risks and incidents, addressing such risks and incidents, and strengthening information security systems consistent with sections 212 and 226 of the Act.

(d) In promoting the formation of ISAOs, the Secretary shall consult with other Federal entities responsible for conducting cybersecurity activities, including Sector-Specific Agencies, independent regulatory agencies at their discretion, and national security and law enforcement agencies.

Sec. 3. ISAO Standards Organization. (a) The Secretary, in consultation with other Federal entities responsible for conducting cybersecurity and related activities, shall, through an open and competitive process, enter into an agreement with a nongovernmental organization to serve as the ISAO Standards Organization (SO), which shall identify a common set of voluntary standards or guidelines for the creation and functioning of ISAOs under this order. The standards shall further the goal of creating robust information sharing related to cybersecurity risks and incidents with ISAOs and among ISAOs to create deeper and broader networks of information sharing nationally, and to foster the development and adoption of automated mechanisms for the sharing of information. The standards will address the baseline capabilities that ISAOs under this order should possess and be able to demonstrate. These standards shall address, but not be limited to, contractual agreements, business processes, operating procedures, technical means, and privacy protections, such as minimization, for ISAO operation and ISAO member participation.

(b) To be selected, the SO must demonstrate the ability to engage and work across the broad community of organizations engaged in sharing information related to cybersecurity risks and incidents, including ISAOs, and associations and private companies engaged in information sharing in support of their customers.

(c) The agreement referenced in section 3(a) shall require that the SO engage in an open public review and comment process for the development of the standards referenced above, soliciting the viewpoints of existing entities engaged in sharing information related to cybersecurity risks and incidents, owners and operators of critical infrastructure, relevant agencies, and other public and private sector stakeholders.

(d) The Secretary shall support the development of these standards and, in carrying out the requirements set forth in this section, shall consult with the Office of Management and Budget, the National Institute of Standards and Technology in the Department of Commerce, Department of Justice, the Information Security Oversight Office in the National Archives and Records Administration, the Office of the Director of National Intelligence, Sector-Specific Agencies, and other interested Federal entities. All standards shall be consistent with voluntary international standards when such international standards will advance the objectives of this order, and shall meet the requirements of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (Public Law 104–113), and OMB Circular A–119, as revised.

Sec. 4. Critical Infrastructure Protection Program. (a) Pursuant to sections 213 and 214(h) of the Critical Infrastructure Information Act of 2002, I hereby designate the NCCIC as a critical infrastructure protection program and delegate to it authority to enter into voluntary agreements with ISAOs in order to promote critical infrastructure security with respect to cybersecurity.

(b) Other Federal entities responsible for conducting cybersecurity and related activities to address threats to the public health and safety, national security, and economic security, consistent with the objectives of this order, may participate in activities under these agreements.

(c) The Secretary will determine the eligibility of ISAOs and their members for any necessary facility or personnel security clearances associated with voluntary agreements in accordance with Executive Order 13549 of August 18, 2010 (Classified National Security Information Programs for State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Entities), and Executive Order 12829 of January 6, 1993 (National Industrial Security Program), as amended, including as amended by this order.

Sec. 5. Privacy and Civil Liberties Protections. (a) Agencies shall coordinate their activities under this order with their senior agency officials for privacy and civil liberties and ensure that appropriate protections for privacy and civil liberties are incorporated into such activities. Such protections shall be based upon the Fair Information Practice Principles and other privacy and civil liberties policies, principles, and frameworks as they apply to each agency's activities.

(b) Senior privacy and civil liberties officials for agencies engaged in activities under this order shall conduct assessments of their agency's activities and provide those assessments to the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Chief Privacy Officer and the DHS Office for Civil Rights and Civil Liberties for consideration and inclusion in the Privacy and Civil Liberties Assessment report required under Executive Order 13636.

Sec. 6. National Industrial Security Program. [Amended Ex. Ord. No. 12829, set out as a note under section 3161 of Title 50, War and National Defense.]

Sec. 7. Definitions. (a) "Critical infrastructure information" has the meaning given the term in section 212(3) of the Critical Infrastructure Information Act of 2002.

(b) "Critical infrastructure protection program" has the meaning given the term in section 212(4) of the Critical Infrastructure Information Act of 2002.

(c) "Cybersecurity risk" has the meaning given the term in section 226(a)(1) of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 (as amended by the National Cybersecurity Protection Act of 2014).

(d) "Fair Information Practice Principles" means the eight principles set forth in Appendix A of the National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace.

(e) "Incident" has the meaning given the term in section 226(a)(2) of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 (as amended by the National Cybersecurity Protection Act of 2014).

(f) "Information Sharing and Analysis Organization" has the meaning given the term in section 212(5) of the Critical Infrastrucure Information Act of 2002.

(g) "Sector-Specific Agency" has the meaning given the term in PPD–21, or any successor.

Sec. 8. General Provisions. (a) Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

(i) the authority granted by law or Executive Order to an agency, or the head thereof; or

(ii) the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(b) This order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations. Nothing in this order shall be construed to alter or limit any authority or responsibility of an agency under existing law including those activities conducted with the private sector relating to criminal and national security threats. Nothing in this order shall be construed to provide an agency with authority for regulating the security of critical infrastructure in addition to or to a greater extent than the authority the agency has under existing law.

(c) All actions taken pursuant to this order shall be consistent with requirements and authorities to protect intelligence and law enforcement sources and methods.

(d) This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

Barack Obama.      

§121a. Homeland Security Intelligence Program

There is established within the Department of Homeland Security a Homeland Security Intelligence Program. The Homeland Security Intelligence Program constitutes the intelligence activities of the Office of Intelligence and Analysis of the Department that serve predominantly departmental missions.

(Pub. L. 112–277, title V, §501, Jan. 14, 2013, 126 Stat. 2476.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013, and not as part of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 which comprises this chapter.

§122. Access to information

(a) In general

(1) Threat and vulnerability information

Except as otherwise directed by the President, the Secretary shall have such access as the Secretary considers necessary to all information, including reports, assessments, analyses, and unevaluated intelligence relating to threats of terrorism against the United States and to other areas of responsibility assigned by the Secretary, and to all information concerning infrastructure or other vulnerabilities of the United States to terrorism, whether or not such information has been analyzed, that may be collected, possessed, or prepared by any agency of the Federal Government.

(2) Other information

The Secretary shall also have access to other information relating to matters under the responsibility of the Secretary that may be collected, possessed, or prepared by an agency of the Federal Government as the President may further provide.

(b) Manner of access

Except as otherwise directed by the President, with respect to information to which the Secretary has access pursuant to this section—

(1) the Secretary may obtain such material upon request, and may enter into cooperative arrangements with other executive agencies to provide such material or provide Department officials with access to it on a regular or routine basis, including requests or arrangements involving broad categories of material, access to electronic databases, or both; and

(2) regardless of whether the Secretary has made any request or entered into any cooperative arrangement pursuant to paragraph (1), all agencies of the Federal Government shall promptly provide to the Secretary—

(A) all reports (including information reports containing intelligence which has not been fully evaluated), assessments, and analytical information relating to threats of terrorism against the United States and to other areas of responsibility assigned by the Secretary;

(B) all information concerning the vulnerability of the infrastructure of the United States, or other vulnerabilities of the United States, to terrorism, whether or not such information has been analyzed;

(C) all other information relating to significant and credible threats of terrorism against the United States, whether or not such information has been analyzed; and

(D) such other information or material as the President may direct.

(c) Treatment under certain laws

The Secretary shall be deemed to be a Federal law enforcement, intelligence, protective, national defense, immigration, or national security official, and shall be provided with all information from law enforcement agencies that is required to be given to the Director of National Intelligence, under any provision of the following:

(1) The USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 (Public Law 107–56).

(2) Section 2517(6) of title 18.

(3) Rule 6(e)(3)(C) of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure.

(d) Access to intelligence and other information

(1) Access by elements of Federal Government

Nothing in this subchapter shall preclude any element of the intelligence community (as that term is defined in section 3003(4) of title 50,1 or any other element of the Federal Government with responsibility for analyzing terrorist threat information, from receiving any intelligence or other information relating to terrorism.

(2) Sharing of information

The Secretary, in consultation with the Director of National Intelligence, shall work to ensure that intelligence or other information relating to terrorism to which the Department has access is appropriately shared with the elements of the Federal Government referred to in paragraph (1), as well as with State and local governments, as appropriate.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §202, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2149; Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(D), Nov. 16, 2018, 132 Stat. 4177.)

References in Text

The USA PATRIOT Act of 2001, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), is Pub. L. 107–56, Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 272, known as the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 or the USA PATRIOT Act. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2001 Amendment note set out under section 1 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, and Tables.

The Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, referred to in subsec. (c)(3), are set out in the Appendix to Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

This subchapter, referred to in subsec. (d)(1), was in the original "this title", meaning title II of Pub. L. 107–296, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2145, which enacted this subchapter, amended sections 1030, 2511, 2512, 2520, 2701 to 2703, and 3125 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, sections 10102 and 10122 of Title 34, Crime Control and Law Enforcement, and section 3003 of Title 50, War and National Defense, and enacted provisions set out as a note under section 101 of this title and listed in a Provisions for Review, Promulgation, or Amendment of Federal Sentencing Guidelines Relating to Specific Offenses table set out under section 994 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure. For complete classification of title II to the Code, see Tables.

Amendments

2018—Subsecs. (c), (d)(2). Pub. L. 115–278 substituted "Director of National Intelligence" for "Director of Central Intelligence".

1 So in original. There probably should be a closing parenthesis after "50".

§123. Terrorist travel program

(a) Requirement to establish

Not later than 90 days after August 3, 2007, the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Director of the National Counterterrorism Center and consistent with the strategy developed under section 7201,1 shall establish a program to oversee the implementation of the Secretary's responsibilities with respect to terrorist travel.

(b) Head of the program

The Secretary of Homeland Security shall designate an official of the Department of Homeland Security to be responsible for carrying out the program. Such official shall be—

(1) the Assistant Secretary for Policy of the Department of Homeland Security; or

(2) an official appointed by the Secretary who reports directly to the Secretary.

(c) Duties

The official designated under subsection (b) shall assist the Secretary of Homeland Security in improving the Department's ability to prevent terrorists from entering the United States or remaining in the United States undetected by—

(1) developing relevant strategies and policies;

(2) reviewing the effectiveness of existing programs and recommending improvements, if necessary;

(3) making recommendations on budget requests and on the allocation of funding and personnel;

(4) ensuring effective coordination, with respect to policies, programs, planning, operations, and dissemination of intelligence and information related to terrorist travel—

(A) among appropriate subdivisions of the Department of Homeland Security, as determined by the Secretary and including—

(i) United States Customs and Border Protection;

(ii) United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement;

(iii) United States Citizenship and Immigration Services;

(iv) the Transportation Security Administration; and

(v) the United States Coast Guard; and


(B) between the Department of Homeland Security and other appropriate Federal agencies; and


(5) serving as the Secretary's primary point of contact with the National Counterterrorism Center for implementing initiatives related to terrorist travel and ensuring that the recommendations of the Center related to terrorist travel are carried out by the Department.

(d) Report

Not later than 180 days after August 3, 2007, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall submit to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives a report on the implementation of this section.

(Pub. L. 108–458, title VII, §7215, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3832; Pub. L. 110–53, title VII, §722, Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 348.)

References in Text

Section 7201, referred to in subsec. (a), is section 7201 of Pub. L. 108–458, title VII, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3808, which enacted section 1776 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality, and provisions set out as notes under section 1776 of Title 8 and sections 3024 and 3056 of Title 50, War and National Defense.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, and also as part of the 9/11 Commission Implementation Act of 2004, and not as part of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

2007—Pub. L. 110–53 reenacted section catchline without change and amended text generally, substituting provisions relating to establishment of a program to oversee the implementation of the Secretary's responsibilities with respect to terrorist travel not later than 90 days after Aug. 3, 2007, and relating to the head of the program, such official's duties, and report on implementation for provisions relating to establishment of a program to oversee the implementation of the Department's responsibilities with respect to terrorist travel.

National Strategy To Combat Terrorist Travel

Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title XIX, §1908, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2678, provided that:

"(a) Sense of Congress.—It is the sense of Congress that it should be the policy of the United States to—

"(1) continue to regularly assess the evolving terrorist threat to the United States;

"(2) catalog existing Federal Government efforts to obstruct terrorist and foreign fighter travel into, out of, and within the United States, and overseas;

"(3) identify such efforts that may benefit from reform or consolidation, or require elimination;

"(4) identify potential security vulnerabilities in United States defenses against terrorist travel; and

"(5) prioritize resources to address any such security vulnerabilities in a risk-based manner.

"(b) National Strategy and Updates.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 23, 2016], the President shall submit to the majority leader of the Senate, the minority leader of the Senate, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the majority leader of the House of Representatives, the minority leader of the House of Representatives, and the appropriate congressional committees a national strategy to combat terrorist travel. The strategy shall address efforts to intercept terrorists and foreign fighters and constrain the domestic and international travel of such persons. Consistent with the protection of classified information, the strategy shall be submitted in unclassified form, including, as appropriate, a classified annex.

"(2) Updated strategies.—Not later than 180 days after the date on which a new President is inaugurated, the President shall submit to the majority leader of the Senate, the minority leader of the Senate, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the majority leader of the House of Representatives, the minority leader of the House of Representatives, and the appropriate congressional committees an updated version of the strategy described in paragraph (1).

"(3) Contents.—The strategy and updates required under this subsection shall—

"(A) include an accounting and description of all Federal Government programs, projects, and activities designed to constrain domestic and international travel by terrorists and foreign fighters;

"(B) identify specific security vulnerabilities within the United States and outside of the United States that may be exploited by terrorists and foreign fighters;

"(C) delineate goals for—

"(i) closing the security vulnerabilities identified under subparagraph (B); and

"(ii) enhancing the ability of the Federal Government to constrain domestic and international travel by terrorists and foreign fighters; and

"(D) describe the actions that will be taken to achieve the goals delineated under subparagraph (C) and the means needed to carry out such actions, including—

"(i) steps to reform, improve, and streamline existing Federal Government efforts to align with the current threat environment;

"(ii) new programs, projects, or activities that are requested, under development, or undergoing implementation;

"(iii) new authorities or changes in existing authorities needed from Congress;

"(iv) specific budget adjustments being requested to enhance United States security in a risk-based manner; and

"(v) the Federal departments and agencies responsible for the specific actions described in this subparagraph.

"(4) Sunset.—The requirement to submit updated national strategies under this subsection shall terminate on the date that is seven years after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 23, 2016].

"(c) Development of Implementation Plans.—For each national strategy required under subsection (b), the President shall direct the heads of relevant Federal agencies to develop implementation plans for each such agency.

"(d) Implementation Plans.—

"(1) In general.—The President shall submit to the majority leader of the Senate, the minority leader of the Senate, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the majority leader of the House of Representatives, the minority leader of the House of Representatives, and the appropriate congressional committees an implementation plan developed under subsection (c) with each national strategy required under subsection (b). Consistent with the protection of classified information, each such implementation plan shall be submitted in unclassified form, but may include a classified annex.

"(2) Annual updates.—The President shall submit to the majority leader of the Senate, the minority leader of the Senate, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the majority leader of the House of Representatives, the minority leader of the House of Representatives, and the appropriate congressional committees an annual updated implementation plan during the ten-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 23, 2016].

"(e) Definition.—In this section, the term 'appropriate congressional committees' means—

"(1) in the House of Representatives—

"(A) the Committee on Homeland Security;

"(B) the Committee on Armed Services;

"(C) the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence;

"(D) the Committee on the Judiciary;

"(E) the Committee on Foreign Affairs;

"(F) the Committee on Appropriations; and

"(2) in the Senate—

"(A) the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs;

"(B) the Committee on Armed Services;

"(C) the Select Committee on Intelligence;

"(D) the Committee on the Judiciary;

"(E) the Committee on Foreign Relations; and

"(F) the Committee on Appropriations.

"(f) Special Rule for Certain Receipt.—The definition under subsection (e) shall be treated as including the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate for purposes of receipt of those portions of—

"(1) the national strategy (including updates thereto), and

"(2) the implementation plan (including updates thereto),

required under this section that relate to maritime travel into and out of the United States."

1 See References in Text note below.

§124. Homeland Security Advisory System

(a) Requirement

The Secretary shall administer the Homeland Security Advisory System in accordance with this section to provide advisories or warnings regarding the threat or risk that acts of terrorism will be committed on the homeland to Federal, State, local, and tribal government authorities and to the people of the United States, as appropriate. The Secretary shall exercise primary responsibility for providing such advisories or warnings.

(b) Required elements

In administering the Homeland Security Advisory System, the Secretary shall—

(1) establish criteria for the issuance and revocation of such advisories or warnings;

(2) develop a methodology, relying on the criteria established under paragraph (1), for the issuance and revocation of such advisories or warnings;

(3) provide, in each such advisory or warning, specific information and advice regarding appropriate protective measures and countermeasures that may be taken in response to the threat or risk, at the maximum level of detail practicable to enable individuals, government entities, emergency response providers, and the private sector to act appropriately;

(4) whenever possible, limit the scope of each such advisory or warning to a specific region, locality, or economic sector believed to be under threat or at risk; and

(5) not, in issuing any advisory or warning, use color designations as the exclusive means of specifying homeland security threat conditions that are the subject of the advisory or warning.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §203, as added Pub. L. 110–53, title V, §501(a)(1), Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 306.)

§124a. Homeland security information sharing

(a) Information sharing

Consistent with section 485 of this title, the Secretary, acting through the Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis, shall integrate the information and standardize the format of the products of the intelligence components of the Department containing homeland security information, terrorism information, weapons of mass destruction information, or national intelligence (as defined in section 3003(5) of title 50) except for any internal security protocols or personnel information of such intelligence components, or other administrative processes that are administered by any chief security officer of the Department.

(b) Information sharing and knowledge management officers

For each intelligence component of the Department, the Secretary shall designate an information sharing and knowledge management officer who shall report to the Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis regarding coordinating the different systems used in the Department to gather and disseminate homeland security information or national intelligence (as defined in section 3003(5) of title 50).

(c) State, local, and private-sector sources of information

(1) Establishment of business processes

The Secretary, acting through the Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis or the Director of the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency, as appropriate, shall—

(A) establish Department-wide procedures for the review and analysis of information provided by State, local, and tribal governments and the private sector;

(B) as appropriate, integrate such information into the information gathered by the Department and other departments and agencies of the Federal Government; and

(C) make available such information, as appropriate, within the Department and to other departments and agencies of the Federal Government.

(2) Feedback

The Secretary shall develop mechanisms to provide feedback regarding the analysis and utility of information provided by any entity of State, local, or tribal government or the private sector that provides such information to the Department.

(d) Training and evaluation of employees

(1) Training

The Secretary, acting through the Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis or the Director of the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency, as appropriate, shall provide to employees of the Department opportunities for training and education to develop an understanding of—

(A) the definitions of homeland security information and national intelligence (as defined in section 3003(5) of title 50); and

(B) how information available to such employees as part of their duties—

(i) might qualify as homeland security information or national intelligence; and

(ii) might be relevant to the Office of Intelligence and Analysis and the intelligence components of the Department.

(2) Evaluations

The Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis shall—

(A) on an ongoing basis, evaluate how employees of the Office of Intelligence and Analysis and the intelligence components of the Department are utilizing homeland security information or national intelligence, sharing information within the Department, as described in this subchapter, and participating in the information sharing environment established under section 485 of this title; and

(B) provide to the appropriate component heads regular reports regarding the evaluations under subparagraph (A).

(Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §204, as added Pub. L. 110–53, title V, §501(a)(1), Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 307; amended Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(E), Nov. 16, 2018, 132 Stat. 4177.)

References in Text

This subchapter, referred to in subsec. (d)(2)(A), was in the original "this title", meaning title II of Pub. L. 107–296, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2145, which enacted this subchapter, amended sections 1030, 2511, 2512, 2520, 2701 to 2703, and 3125 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, sections 10102 and 10122 of Title 34, Crime Control and Law Enforcement, and section 401a of Title 50, War and National Defense, and enacted provisions set out as a note under section 101 of this title and listed in a Provisions for Review, Promulgation, or Amendment of Federal Sentencing Guidelines Relating to Specific Offenses table set out under section 994 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure. For complete classification of title II to the Code, see Tables.

Amendments

2018—Subsecs. (c)(1), (d)(1). Pub. L. 115–278 substituted "Director of the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency" for "Assistant Secretary for Infrastructure Protection" in introductory provisions.

Receipt of Information From United States Secret Service

Pub. L. 110–53, title V, §502(b), Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 311, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis shall receive from the United States Secret Service homeland security information, terrorism information, weapons of mass destruction information (as these terms are defined in Section [sic] 1016 of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (6 U.S.C. 485)), or national intelligence, as defined in Section [sic] 3(5) of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 401a(5)) [now 50 U.S.C. 3003(5)], as well as suspect information obtained in criminal investigations. The United States Secret Service shall cooperate with the Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis with respect to activities under sections 204 and 205 of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 [6 U.S.C. 124a, 124b].

"(2) Savings clause.—Nothing in this Act [see Tables for classification] shall interfere with the operation of Section [sic] 3056(g) of Title 18, United States Code, or with the authority of the Secretary of Homeland Security or the Director of the United States Secret Service regarding the budget of the United States Secret Service."

§124b. Comprehensive information technology network architecture

(a) Establishment

The Secretary, acting through the Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis, shall establish, consistent with the policies and procedures developed under section 485 of this title, and consistent with the enterprise architecture of the Department, a comprehensive information technology network architecture for the Office of Intelligence and Analysis that connects the various databases and related information technology assets of the Office of Intelligence and Analysis and the intelligence components of the Department in order to promote internal information sharing among the intelligence and other personnel of the Department.

(b) Comprehensive information technology network architecture defined

The term "comprehensive information technology network architecture" means an integrated framework for evolving or maintaining existing information technology and acquiring new information technology to achieve the strategic management and information resources management goals of the Office of Intelligence and Analysis.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §205, as added Pub. L. 110–53, title V, §501(a)(1), Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 308.)

§124c. Coordination with information sharing environment

(a) Guidance

All activities to comply with sections 124, 124a, and 124b of this title shall be—

(1) consistent with any policies, guidelines, procedures, instructions, or standards established under section 485 of this title;

(2) implemented in coordination with, as appropriate, the program manager for the information sharing environment established under that section;

(3) consistent with any applicable guidance issued by the Director of National Intelligence; and

(4) consistent with any applicable guidance issued by the Secretary relating to the protection of law enforcement information or proprietary information.

(b) Consultation

In carrying out the duties and responsibilities under this part, the Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis shall take into account the views of the heads of the intelligence components of the Department.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §206, as added Pub. L. 110–53, title V, §501(a)(1), Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 309.)

§124d. Intelligence components

Subject to the direction and control of the Secretary, and consistent with any applicable guidance issued by the Director of National Intelligence, the responsibilities of the head of each intelligence component of the Department are as follows:

(1) To ensure that the collection, processing, analysis, and dissemination of information within the scope of the information sharing environment, including homeland security information, terrorism information, weapons of mass destruction information, and national intelligence (as defined in section 3003(5) of title 50), are carried out effectively and efficiently in support of the intelligence mission of the Department, as led by the Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis.

(2) To otherwise support and implement the intelligence mission of the Department, as led by the Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis.

(3) To incorporate the input of the Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis with respect to performance appraisals, bonus or award recommendations, pay adjustments, and other forms of commendation.

(4) To coordinate with the Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis in developing policies and requirements for the recruitment and selection of intelligence officials of the intelligence component.

(5) To advise and coordinate with the Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis on any plan to reorganize or restructure the intelligence component that would, if implemented, result in realignments of intelligence functions.

(6) To ensure that employees of the intelligence component have knowledge of, and comply with, the programs and policies established by the Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis and other appropriate officials of the Department and that such employees comply with all applicable laws and regulations.

(7) To perform such other activities relating to such responsibilities as the Secretary may provide.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §207, as added Pub. L. 110–53, title V, §503(a), Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 311.)

§124e. Training for employees of intelligence components

The Secretary shall provide training and guidance for employees, officials, and senior executives of the intelligence components of the Department to develop knowledge of laws, regulations, operations, policies, procedures, and programs that are related to the functions of the Department relating to the collection, processing, analysis, and dissemination of information within the scope of the information sharing environment, including homeland security information, terrorism information, and weapons of mass destruction information, or national intelligence (as defined in section 3003(5) of title 50).

(Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §208, as added Pub. L. 110–53, title V, §503(a), Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 312.)

§124f. Intelligence training development for State and local government officials

(a) Curriculum

The Secretary, acting through the Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis, shall—

(1) develop a curriculum for training State, local, and tribal government officials, including law enforcement officers, intelligence analysts, and other emergency response providers, in the intelligence cycle and Federal laws, practices, and regulations regarding the development, handling, and review of intelligence and other information; and

(2) ensure that the curriculum includes executive level training for senior level State, local, and tribal law enforcement officers, intelligence analysts, and other emergency response providers.

(b) Training

To the extent possible, the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center and other existing Federal entities with the capacity and expertise to train State, local, and tribal government officials based on the curriculum developed under subsection (a) shall be used to carry out the training programs created under this section. If such entities do not have the capacity, resources, or capabilities to conduct such training, the Secretary may approve another entity to conduct such training.

(c) Consultation

In carrying out the duties described in subsection (a), the Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis shall consult with the Director of the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center, the Attorney General, the Director of National Intelligence, the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and other appropriate parties, such as private industry, institutions of higher education, nonprofit institutions, and other intelligence agencies of the Federal Government.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §209, as added Pub. L. 110–53, title V, §503(a), Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 312.)

§124g. Information sharing incentives

(a) Awards

In making cash awards under chapter 45 of title 5, the President or the head of an agency, in consultation with the program manager designated under section 485 of this title, may consider the success of an employee in appropriately sharing information within the scope of the information sharing environment established under that section, including homeland security information, terrorism information, and weapons of mass destruction information, or national intelligence (as defined in section 3003(5) of title 50 1, in a manner consistent with any policies, guidelines, procedures, instructions, or standards established by the President or, as appropriate, the program manager of that environment for the implementation and management of that environment.

(b) Other incentives

The head of each department or agency described in section 485(i) of this title, in consultation with the program manager designated under section 485 of this title, shall adopt best practices regarding effective ways to educate and motivate officers and employees of the Federal Government to participate fully in the information sharing environment, including—

(1) promotions and other nonmonetary awards; and

(2) publicizing information sharing accomplishments by individual employees and, where appropriate, the tangible end benefits that resulted.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §210, as added Pub. L. 110–53, title V, §503(a), Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 313.)

1 So in original. A closing parenthesis probably should precede the comma.

§124h. Department of Homeland Security State, Local, and Regional Fusion Center Initiative

(a) Establishment

The Secretary, in consultation with the program manager of the information sharing environment established under section 485 of this title, the Attorney General, the Privacy Officer of the Department, the Officer for Civil Rights and Civil Liberties of the Department, and the Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board established under section 2000ee of title 42, shall establish a Department of Homeland Security State, Local, and Regional Fusion Center Initiative to establish partnerships with State, local, and regional fusion centers.

(b) Department support and coordination

Through the Department of Homeland Security State, Local, and Regional Fusion Center Initiative, and in coordination with the principal officials of participating State, local, or regional fusion centers and the officers designated as the Homeland Security Advisors of the States, the Secretary shall—

(1) provide operational and intelligence advice and assistance to State, local, and regional fusion centers;

(2) support efforts to include State, local, and regional fusion centers into efforts to establish an information sharing environment;

(3) conduct tabletop and live training exercises to regularly assess the capability of individual and regional networks of State, local, and regional fusion centers to integrate the efforts of such networks with the efforts of the Department;

(4) coordinate with other relevant Federal entities engaged in homeland security-related activities;

(5) provide analytic and reporting advice and assistance to State, local, and regional fusion centers;

(6) review information within the scope of the information sharing environment, including homeland security information, terrorism information, and weapons of mass destruction information, that is gathered by State, local, and regional fusion centers, and to incorporate such information, as appropriate, into the Department's own such information;

(7) provide management assistance to State, local, and regional fusion centers;

(8) serve as a point of contact to ensure the dissemination of information within the scope of the information sharing environment, including homeland security information, terrorism information, and weapons of mass destruction information;

(9) facilitate close communication and coordination between State, local, and regional fusion centers and the Department;

(10) provide State, local, and regional fusion centers with expertise on Department resources and operations;

(11) provide training to State, local, and regional fusion centers and encourage such fusion centers to participate in terrorism threat-related exercises conducted by the Department; and

(12) carry out such other duties as the Secretary determines are appropriate.

(c) Personnel assignment

(1) In general

The Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis shall, to the maximum extent practicable, assign officers and intelligence analysts from components of the Department to participating State, local, and regional fusion centers.

(2) Personnel sources

Officers and intelligence analysts assigned to participating fusion centers under this subsection may be assigned from the following Department components, in coordination with the respective component head and in consultation with the principal officials of participating fusion centers:

(A) Office of Intelligence and Analysis.

(B) Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency.

(C) Transportation Security Administration.

(D) United States Customs and Border Protection.

(E) United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement.

(F) United States Coast Guard.

(G) Other components of the Department, as determined by the Secretary.

(3) Qualifying criteria

(A) In general

The Secretary shall develop qualifying criteria for a fusion center to participate in the assigning of Department officers or intelligence analysts under this section.

(B) Criteria

Any criteria developed under subparagraph (A) may include—

(i) whether the fusion center, through its mission and governance structure, focuses on a broad counterterrorism approach, and whether that broad approach is pervasive through all levels of the organization;

(ii) whether the fusion center has sufficient numbers of adequately trained personnel to support a broad counterterrorism mission;

(iii) whether the fusion center has—

(I) access to relevant law enforcement, emergency response, private sector, open source, and national security data; and

(II) the ability to share and analytically utilize that data for lawful purposes;


(iv) whether the fusion center is adequately funded by the State, local, or regional government to support its counterterrorism mission; and

(v) the relevancy of the mission of the fusion center to the particular source component of Department officers or intelligence analysts.

(4) Prerequisite

(A) Intelligence analysis, privacy, and civil liberties training

Before being assigned to a fusion center under this section, an officer or intelligence analyst shall undergo—

(i) appropriate intelligence analysis or information sharing training using an intelligence-led policing curriculum that is consistent with—

(I) standard training and education programs offered to Department law enforcement and intelligence personnel; and

(II) the Criminal Intelligence Systems Operating Policies under part 23 of title 28, Code of Federal Regulations (or any corresponding similar rule or regulation);


(ii) appropriate privacy and civil liberties training that is developed, supported, or sponsored by the Privacy Officer appointed under section 142 of this title and the Officer for Civil Rights and Civil Liberties of the Department, in consultation with the Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board established under section 2000ee of title 42; and

(iii) such other training prescribed by the Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis.

(B) Prior work experience in area

In determining the eligibility of an officer or intelligence analyst to be assigned to a fusion center under this section, the Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis shall consider the familiarity of the officer or intelligence analyst with the State, locality, or region, as determined by such factors as whether the officer or intelligence analyst—

(i) has been previously assigned in the geographic area; or

(ii) has previously worked with intelligence officials or law enforcement or other emergency response providers from that State, locality, or region.

(5) Expedited security clearance processing

The Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis—

(A) shall ensure that each officer or intelligence analyst assigned to a fusion center under this section has the appropriate security clearance to contribute effectively to the mission of the fusion center; and

(B) may request that security clearance processing be expedited for each such officer or intelligence analyst and may use available funds for such purpose.

(6) Further qualifications

Each officer or intelligence analyst assigned to a fusion center under this section shall satisfy any other qualifications the Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis may prescribe.

(d) Responsibilities

An officer or intelligence analyst assigned to a fusion center under this section shall—

(1) assist law enforcement agencies and other emergency response providers of State, local, and tribal governments and fusion center personnel in using information within the scope of the information sharing environment, including homeland security information, terrorism information, and weapons of mass destruction information, to develop a comprehensive and accurate threat picture;

(2) review homeland security-relevant information from law enforcement agencies and other emergency response providers of State, local, and tribal government;

(3) create intelligence and other information products derived from such information and other homeland security-relevant information provided by the Department; and

(4) assist in the dissemination of such products, as coordinated by the Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis, to law enforcement agencies and other emergency response providers of State, local, and tribal government, other fusion centers, and appropriate Federal agencies.

(e) Border intelligence priority

(1) In general

The Secretary shall make it a priority to assign officers and intelligence analysts under this section from United States Customs and Border Protection, United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement, and the Coast Guard to participating State, local, and regional fusion centers located in jurisdictions along land or maritime borders of the United States in order to enhance the integrity of and security at such borders by helping Federal, State, local, and tribal law enforcement authorities to identify, investigate, and otherwise interdict persons, weapons, and related contraband that pose a threat to homeland security.

(2) Border intelligence products

When performing the responsibilities described in subsection (d), officers and intelligence analysts assigned to participating State, local, and regional fusion centers under this section shall have, as a primary responsibility, the creation of border intelligence products that—

(A) assist State, local, and tribal law enforcement agencies in deploying their resources most efficiently to help detect and interdict terrorists, weapons of mass destruction, and related contraband at land or maritime borders of the United States;

(B) promote more consistent and timely sharing of border security-relevant information among jurisdictions along land or maritime borders of the United States; and

(C) enhance the Department's situational awareness of the threat of acts of terrorism at or involving the land or maritime borders of the United States.

(f) Database access

In order to fulfill the objectives described under subsection (d), each officer or intelligence analyst assigned to a fusion center under this section shall have appropriate access to all relevant Federal databases and information systems, consistent with any policies, guidelines, procedures, instructions, or standards established by the President or, as appropriate, the program manager of the information sharing environment for the implementation and management of that environment.

(g) Consumer feedback

(1) In general

The Secretary shall create a voluntary mechanism for any State, local, or tribal law enforcement officer or other emergency response provider who is a consumer of the intelligence or other information products referred to in subsection (d) to provide feedback to the Department on the quality and utility of such intelligence products.

(2) Report

Not later than one year after August 3, 2007, and annually thereafter, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives a report that includes a description of the consumer feedback obtained under paragraph (1) and, if applicable, how the Department has adjusted its production of intelligence products in response to that consumer feedback.

(h) Rule of construction

(1) In general

The authorities granted under this section shall supplement the authorities granted under section 121(d) of this title and nothing in this section shall be construed to abrogate the authorities granted under section 121(d) of this title.

(2) Participation

Nothing in this section shall be construed to require a State, local, or regional government or entity to accept the assignment of officers or intelligence analysts of the Department into the fusion center of that State, locality, or region.

(i) Guidelines

The Secretary, in consultation with the Attorney General, shall establish guidelines for fusion centers created and operated by State and local governments, to include standards that any such fusion center shall—

(1) collaboratively develop a mission statement, identify expectations and goals, measure performance, and determine effectiveness for that fusion center;

(2) create a representative governance structure that includes law enforcement officers and other emergency response providers and, as appropriate, the private sector;

(3) create a collaborative environment for the sharing of intelligence and information among Federal, State, local, and tribal government agencies (including law enforcement officers and other emergency response providers), the private sector, and the public, consistent with any policies, guidelines, procedures, instructions, or standards established by the President or, as appropriate, the program manager of the information sharing environment;

(4) leverage the databases, systems, and networks available from public and private sector entities, in accordance with all applicable laws, to maximize information sharing;

(5) develop, publish, and adhere to a privacy and civil liberties policy consistent with Federal, State, and local law;

(6) provide, in coordination with the Privacy Officer of the Department and the Officer for Civil Rights and Civil Liberties of the Department, appropriate privacy and civil liberties training for all State, local, tribal, and private sector representatives at the fusion center;

(7) ensure appropriate security measures are in place for the facility, data, and personnel;

(8) select and train personnel based on the needs, mission, goals, and functions of that fusion center;

(9) offer a variety of intelligence and information services and products to recipients of fusion center intelligence and information; and

(10) incorporate law enforcement officers, other emergency response providers, and, as appropriate, the private sector, into all relevant phases of the intelligence and fusion process, consistent with the mission statement developed under paragraph (1), either through full time representatives or liaison relationships with the fusion center to enable the receipt and sharing of information and intelligence.

(j) Definitions

In this section—

(1) the term "fusion center" means a collaborative effort of 2 or more Federal, State, local, or tribal government agencies that combines resources, expertise, or information with the goal of maximizing the ability of such agencies to detect, prevent, investigate, apprehend, and respond to criminal or terrorist activity;

(2) the term "information sharing environment" means the information sharing environment established under section 485 of this title;

(3) the term "intelligence analyst" means an individual who regularly advises, administers, supervises, or performs work in the collection, gathering, analysis, evaluation, reporting, production, or dissemination of information on political, economic, social, cultural, physical, geographical, scientific, or military conditions, trends, or forces in foreign or domestic areas that directly or indirectly affect national security;

(4) the term "intelligence-led policing" means the collection and analysis of information to produce an intelligence end product designed to inform law enforcement decision making at the tactical and strategic levels; and

(5) the term "terrorism information" has the meaning given that term in section 485 of this title.

(k) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated $10,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2008 through 2012, to carry out this section, except for subsection (i), including for hiring officers and intelligence analysts to replace officers and intelligence analysts who are assigned to fusion centers under this section.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §210A, as added Pub. L. 110–53, title V, §511(a), Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 317; amended Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(F), Nov. 16, 2018, 132 Stat. 4177.)

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 115–278 substituted "Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency" for "Office of Infrastructure Protection".

Training for Predeployed Officers and Analysts

Pub. L. 110–53, title V, §511(b), Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 323, provided that: "An officer or analyst assigned to a fusion center by the Secretary of Homeland Security before the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 3, 2007] shall undergo the training described in section 210A(c)(4)(A) of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 [6 U.S.C. 124h(c)(4)(A)], as added by subsection (a), by not later than 6 months after such date."

§124i. Homeland Security Information Sharing Fellows Program

(a) Establishment

(1) In general

The Secretary, acting through the Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis, and in consultation with the Chief Human Capital Officer, shall establish a fellowship program in accordance with this section for the purpose of—

(A) detailing State, local, and tribal law enforcement officers and intelligence analysts to the Department in accordance with subchapter VI of chapter 33 of title 5 to participate in the work of the Office of Intelligence and Analysis in order to become familiar with—

(i) the relevant missions and capabilities of the Department and other Federal agencies; and

(ii) the role, programs, products, and personnel of the Office of Intelligence and Analysis; and


(B) promoting information sharing between the Department and State, local, and tribal law enforcement officers and intelligence analysts by assigning such officers and analysts to—

(i) serve as a point of contact in the Department to assist in the representation of State, local, and tribal information requirements;

(ii) identify information within the scope of the information sharing environment, including homeland security information, terrorism information, and weapons of mass destruction information, that is of interest to State, local, and tribal law enforcement officers, intelligence analysts, and other emergency response providers;

(iii) assist Department analysts in preparing and disseminating products derived from information within the scope of the information sharing environment, including homeland security information, terrorism information, and weapons of mass destruction information, that are tailored to State, local, and tribal law enforcement officers and intelligence analysts and designed to prepare for and thwart acts of terrorism; and

(iv) assist Department analysts in preparing products derived from information within the scope of the information sharing environment, including homeland security information, terrorism information, and weapons of mass destruction information, that are tailored to State, local, and tribal emergency response providers and assist in the dissemination of such products through appropriate Department channels.

(2) Program name

The program under this section shall be known as the "Homeland Security Information Sharing Fellows Program".

(b) Eligibility

(1) In general

In order to be eligible for selection as an Information Sharing Fellow under the program under this section, an individual shall—

(A) have homeland security-related responsibilities;

(B) be eligible for an appropriate security clearance;

(C) possess a valid need for access to classified information, as determined by the Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis;

(D) be an employee of an eligible entity; and

(E) have undergone appropriate privacy and civil liberties training that is developed, supported, or sponsored by the Privacy Officer and the Officer for Civil Rights and Civil Liberties, in consultation with the Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board established under section 2000ee of title 42.

(2) Eligible entities

In this subsection, the term "eligible entity" means—

(A) a State, local, or regional fusion center;

(B) a State or local law enforcement or other government entity that serves a major metropolitan area, suburban area, or rural area, as determined by the Secretary;

(C) a State or local law enforcement or other government entity with port, border, or agricultural responsibilities, as determined by the Secretary;

(D) a tribal law enforcement or other authority; or

(E) such other entity as the Secretary determines is appropriate.

(c) Optional participation

No State, local, or tribal law enforcement or other government entity shall be required to participate in the Homeland Security Information Sharing Fellows Program.

(d) Procedures for nomination and selection

(1) In general

The Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis shall establish procedures to provide for the nomination and selection of individuals to participate in the Homeland Security Information Sharing Fellows Program.

(2) Limitations

The Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis shall—

(A) select law enforcement officers and intelligence analysts representing a broad cross-section of State, local, and tribal agencies; and

(B) ensure that the number of Information Sharing Fellows selected does not impede the activities of the Office of Intelligence and Analysis.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §210B, as added Pub. L. 110–53, title V, §512(a), Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 324.)

§124j. Rural Policing Institute

(a) In general

The Secretary shall establish a Rural Policing Institute, which shall be administered by the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center, to target training to law enforcement agencies and other emergency response providers located in rural areas. The Secretary, through the Rural Policing Institute, shall—

(1) evaluate the needs of law enforcement agencies and other emergency response providers in rural areas;

(2) develop expert training programs designed to address the needs of law enforcement agencies and other emergency response providers in rural areas as identified in the evaluation conducted under paragraph (1), including training programs about intelligence-led policing and protections for privacy, civil rights, and civil liberties;

(3) provide the training programs developed under paragraph (2) to law enforcement agencies and other emergency response providers in rural areas; and

(4) conduct outreach efforts to ensure that local and tribal governments in rural areas are aware of the training programs developed under paragraph (2) so they can avail themselves of such programs.

(b) Curricula

The training at the Rural Policing Institute established under subsection (a) shall—

(1) be configured in a manner so as not to duplicate or displace any law enforcement or emergency response program of the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center or a local or tribal government entity in existence on August 3, 2007; and

(2) to the maximum extent practicable, be delivered in a cost-effective manner at facilities of the Department, on closed military installations with adequate training facilities, or at facilities operated by the participants.

(c) Definition

In this section, the term "rural" means an area that is not located in a metropolitan statistical area, as defined by the Office of Management and Budget.

(d) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section (including for contracts, staff, and equipment)—

(1) $10,000,000 for fiscal year 2008; and

(2) $5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2009 through 2013.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §210C, as added Pub. L. 110–53, title V, §513(a), Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 327.)

Rural Area

Pub. L. 112–74, div. D, title V, §546, Dec. 23, 2011, 125 Stat. 977, provided that: "For fiscal year 2012 and thereafter, for purposes of section 210C of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 (6 U.S.C. 124j), a rural area shall also include any area that is located in a metropolitan statistical area and a county, borough, parish, or area under the jurisdiction of an Indian tribe with a population of not more than 50,000."

§124k. Interagency Threat Assessment and Coordination Group

(a) In general

To improve the sharing of information within the scope of the information sharing environment established under section 485 of this title with State, local, tribal, and private sector officials, the Director of National Intelligence, through the program manager for the information sharing environment, in coordination with the Secretary, shall coordinate and oversee the creation of an Interagency Threat Assessment and Coordination Group (referred to in this section as the "ITACG").

(b) Composition of ITACG

The ITACG shall consist of—

(1) an ITACG Advisory Council to set policy and develop processes for the integration, analysis, and dissemination of federally-coordinated information within the scope of the information sharing environment, including homeland security information, terrorism information, and weapons of mass destruction information; and

(2) an ITACG Detail comprised of State, local, and tribal homeland security and law enforcement officers and intelligence analysts detailed to work in the National Counterterrorism Center with Federal intelligence analysts for the purpose of integrating, analyzing, and assisting in the dissemination of federally-coordinated information within the scope of the information sharing environment, including homeland security information, terrorism information, and weapons of mass destruction information, through appropriate channels identified by the ITACG Advisory Council.

(c) Responsibilities of program manager

The program manager shall—

(1) monitor and assess the efficacy of the ITACG;

(2) not later than 180 days after August 3, 2007, and at least annually thereafter, submit to the Secretary, the Attorney General, the Director of National Intelligence, the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives a report on the progress of the ITACG; and

(3) in each report required by paragraph (2) submitted after October 7, 2010, include an assessment of whether the detailees under subsection (d)(5) have appropriate access to all relevant information, as required by subsection (g)(2)(C).

(d) Responsibilities of Secretary

The Secretary, or the Secretary's designee, in coordination with the Director of the National Counterterrorism Center and the ITACG Advisory Council, shall—

(1) create policies and standards for the creation of information products derived from information within the scope of the information sharing environment, including homeland security information, terrorism information, and weapons of mass destruction information, that are suitable for dissemination to State, local, and tribal governments and the private sector;

(2) evaluate and develop processes for the timely dissemination of federally-coordinated information within the scope of the information sharing environment, including homeland security information, terrorism information, and weapons of mass destruction information, to State, local, and tribal governments and the private sector;

(3) establish criteria and a methodology for indicating to State, local, and tribal governments and the private sector the reliability of information within the scope of the information sharing environment, including homeland security information, terrorism information, and weapons of mass destruction information, disseminated to them;

(4) educate the intelligence community about the requirements of the State, local, and tribal homeland security, law enforcement, and other emergency response providers regarding information within the scope of the information sharing environment, including homeland security information, terrorism information, and weapons of mass destruction information;

(5) establish and maintain the ITACG Detail, which shall assign an appropriate number of State, local, and tribal homeland security and law enforcement officers and intelligence analysts to work in the National Counterterrorism Center who shall—

(A) educate and advise National Counterterrorism Center intelligence analysts about the requirements of the State, local, and tribal homeland security and law enforcement officers, and other emergency response providers regarding information within the scope of the information sharing environment, including homeland security information, terrorism information, and weapons of mass destruction information;

(B) assist National Counterterrorism Center intelligence analysts in integrating, analyzing, and otherwise preparing versions of products derived from information within the scope of the information sharing environment, including homeland security information, terrorism information, and weapons of mass destruction information that are unclassified or classified at the lowest possible level and suitable for dissemination to State, local, and tribal homeland security and law enforcement agencies in order to help deter and prevent terrorist attacks;

(C) implement, in coordination with National Counterterrorism Center intelligence analysts, the policies, processes, procedures, standards, and guidelines developed by the ITACG Advisory Council;

(D) assist in the dissemination of products derived from information within the scope of the information sharing environment, including homeland security information, terrorism information, and weapons of mass destruction information, to State, local, and tribal jurisdictions only through appropriate channels identified by the ITACG Advisory Council;

(E) make recommendations, as appropriate, to the Secretary or the Secretary's designee, for the further dissemination of intelligence products that could likely inform or improve the security of a State, local, or tribal government, (including a State, local, or tribal law enforcement agency) or a private sector entity; and

(F) report directly to the senior intelligence official from the Department under paragraph (6);


(6) detail a senior intelligence official from the Department of Homeland Security to the National Counterterrorism Center, who shall—

(A) manage the day-to-day operations of the ITACG Detail;

(B) report directly to the Director of the National Counterterrorism Center or the Director's designee; and

(C) in coordination with the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and subject to the approval of the Director of the National Counterterrorism Center, select a deputy from the pool of available detailees from the Federal Bureau of Investigation in the National Counterterrorism Center;


(7) establish, within the ITACG Advisory Council, a mechanism to select law enforcement officers and intelligence analysts for placement in the National Counterterrorism Center consistent with paragraph (5), using criteria developed by the ITACG Advisory Council that shall encourage participation from a broadly representative group of State, local, and tribal homeland security and law enforcement agencies; and

(8) compile an annual assessment of the ITACG Detail's performance, including summaries of customer feedback, in preparing, disseminating, and requesting the dissemination of intelligence products intended for State, local and tribal government (including State, local, and tribal law enforcement agencies) and private sector entities; and

(9) provide the assessment developed pursuant to paragraph (8) to the program manager for use in the annual reports required by subsection (c)(2).

(e) Membership

The Secretary, or the Secretary's designee, shall serve as the chair of the ITACG Advisory Council, which shall include—

(1) representatives of—

(A) the Department;

(B) the Federal Bureau of Investigation;

(C) the National Counterterrorism Center;

(D) the Department of Defense;

(E) the Department of Energy;

(F) the Department of State; and

(G) other Federal entities as appropriate;


(2) the program manager of the information sharing environment, designated under section 485(f) of this title, or the program manager's designee; and

(3) executive level law enforcement and intelligence officials from State, local, and tribal governments.

(f) Criteria

The Secretary, in consultation with the Director of National Intelligence, the Attorney General, and the program manager of the information sharing environment established under section 485 of this title, shall—

(1) establish procedures for selecting members of the ITACG Advisory Council and for the proper handling and safeguarding of products derived from information within the scope of the information sharing environment, including homeland security information, terrorism information, and weapons of mass destruction information, by those members; and

(2) ensure that at least 50 percent of the members of the ITACG Advisory Council are from State, local, and tribal governments.

(g) Operations

(1) In general

Beginning not later than 90 days after August 3, 2007, the ITACG Advisory Council shall meet regularly, but not less than quarterly, at the facilities of the National Counterterrorism Center of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence.

(2) Management

Pursuant to section 3056(f)(E) 1 of title 50, the Director of the National Counterterrorism Center, acting through the senior intelligence official from the Department of Homeland Security detailed pursuant to subsection (d)(6), shall ensure that—

(A) the products derived from information within the scope of the information sharing environment, including homeland security information, terrorism information, and weapons of mass destruction information, prepared by the National Counterterrorism Center and the ITACG Detail for distribution to State, local, and tribal homeland security and law enforcement agencies reflect the requirements of such agencies and are produced consistently with the policies, processes, procedures, standards, and guidelines established by the ITACG Advisory Council;

(B) in consultation with the ITACG Advisory Council and consistent with sections 3024(f)(1)(B)(iii) and 3056(f)(E) 1 of title 50, all products described in subparagraph (A) are disseminated through existing channels of the Department and the Department of Justice and other appropriate channels to State, local, and tribal government officials and other entities;

(C) all detailees under subsection (d)(5) have appropriate access to all relevant information within the scope of the information sharing environment, including homeland security information, terrorism information, and weapons of mass destruction information, available at the National Counterterrorism Center in order to accomplish the objectives under that paragraph;

(D) all detailees under subsection (d)(5) have the appropriate security clearances and are trained in the procedures for handling, processing, storing, and disseminating classified products derived from information within the scope of the information sharing environment, including homeland security information, terrorism information, and weapons of mass destruction information; and

(E) all detailees under subsection (d)(5) complete appropriate privacy and civil liberties training.

(h) Inapplicability of the Federal Advisory Committee Act

The Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) shall not apply to the ITACG or any subsidiary groups thereof.

(i) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary for each of fiscal years 2008 through 2012 to carry out this section, including to obtain security clearances for the State, local, and tribal participants in the ITACG.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §210D, as added Pub. L. 110–53, title V, §521(a), Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 328; amended Pub. L. 111–258, §5(b)(2), (c), Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2650, 2651.)

References in Text

The Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec. (h), is Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 111–258, §5(c)(1), struck out ", in consultation with the Information Sharing Council," after "program manager" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 111–258, §5(c)(2)–(4), added par. (3).

Subsec. (d)(5)(E), (F). Pub. L. 111–258, §5(b)(2)(A), added subpar. (E) and redesignated former subpar. (E) as (F).

Subsec. (d)(8), (9). Pub. L. 111–258, §5(b)(2)(B)–(D), added pars. (8) and (9).

1 So in original. Probably should be section "3056(f)(1)(E)".

§124l. Transferred

Codification

Section, Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §210E, as added Pub. L. 110–53, title X, §1001(a), Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 372, which related to national asset database, was renumbered section 2214 of Pub. L. 107–296 by Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(G), Nov. 16, 2018, 132 Stat. 4178, and transferred to section 664 of this title.

§124m. Classified Information Advisory Officer

(a) Requirement to establish

The Secretary shall identify and designate within the Department a Classified Information Advisory Officer, as described in this section.

(b) Responsibilities

The responsibilities of the Classified Information Advisory Officer shall be as follows:

(1) To develop and disseminate educational materials and to develop and administer training programs to assist State, local, and tribal governments (including State, local, and tribal law enforcement agencies) and private sector entities—

(A) in developing plans and policies to respond to requests related to classified information without communicating such information to individuals who lack appropriate security clearances;

(B) regarding the appropriate procedures for challenging classification designations of information received by personnel of such entities; and

(C) on the means by which such personnel may apply for security clearances.


(2) To inform the Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis on policies and procedures that could facilitate the sharing of classified information with such personnel, as appropriate.

(c) Initial designation

Not later than 90 days after October 7, 2010, the Secretary shall—

(1) designate the initial Classified Information Advisory Officer; and

(2) submit to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives a written notification of the designation.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §210E, formerly §210F, as added Pub. L. 111–258, §4(a), Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2649; renumbered §210E, Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(J), Nov. 16, 2018, 132 Stat. 4178.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 210E of Pub. L. 107–296, title II, as added Pub. L. 110–53, title X, §1001(a), Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 372, was renumbered section 2214 of Pub. L. 107–296 by Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(G), Nov. 16, 2018, 132 Stat. 4178, and transferred to section 664 of this title.

Findings

Pub. L. 111–258, §2, Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2648, provided that: "Congress finds the following:

"(1) The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (commonly known as the '9/11 Commission') concluded that security requirements nurture over-classification and excessive compartmentation of information among agencies.

"(2) The 9/11 Commission and others have observed that the over-classification of information interferes with accurate, actionable, and timely information sharing, increases the cost of information security, and needlessly limits stakeholder and public access to information.

"(3) Over-classification of information causes considerable confusion regarding what information may be shared with whom, and negatively affects the dissemination of information within the Federal Government and with State, local, and tribal entities, and with the private sector.

"(4) Over-classification of information is antithetical to the creation and operation of the information sharing environment established under section 1016 of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (6 U.S.C. 485).

"(5) Federal departments or agencies authorized to make original classification decisions or that perform derivative classification of information are responsible for developing, implementing, and administering policies, procedures, and programs that promote compliance with applicable laws, executive orders, and other authorities pertaining to the proper use of classification markings and the policies of the National Archives and Records Administration."

§124n. Protection of certain facilities and assets from unmanned aircraft

(a) Authority

Notwithstanding section 46502 of title 49 or sections 32, 1030, 1367 and chapters 119 and 206 of title 18, the Secretary and the Attorney General may, for their respective Departments, take, and may authorize personnel with assigned duties that include the security or protection of people, facilities, or assets, to take such actions as are described in subsection (b)(1) that are necessary to mitigate a credible threat (as defined by the Secretary or the Attorney General, in consultation with the Secretary of Transportation) that an unmanned aircraft system or unmanned aircraft poses to the safety or security of a covered facility or asset.

(b) Actions described

(1) In general

The actions authorized in subsection (a) are the following:

(A) During the operation of the unmanned aircraft system, detect, identify, monitor, and track the unmanned aircraft system or unmanned aircraft, without prior consent, including by means of intercept or other access of a wire communication, an oral communication, or an electronic communication used to control the unmanned aircraft system or unmanned aircraft.

(B) Warn the operator of the unmanned aircraft system or unmanned aircraft, including by passive or active, and direct or indirect physical, electronic, radio, and electromagnetic means.

(C) Disrupt control of the unmanned aircraft system or unmanned aircraft, without prior consent, including by disabling the unmanned aircraft system or unmanned aircraft by intercepting, interfering, or causing interference with wire, oral, electronic, or radio communications used to control the unmanned aircraft system or unmanned aircraft.

(D) Seize or exercise control of the unmanned aircraft system or unmanned aircraft.

(E) Seize or otherwise confiscate the unmanned aircraft system or unmanned aircraft.

(F) Use reasonable force, if necessary, to disable, damage, or destroy the unmanned aircraft system or unmanned aircraft.

(2) Required coordination

The Secretary and the Attorney General shall develop for their respective Departments the actions described in paragraph (1) in coordination with the Secretary of Transportation.

(3) Research, testing, training, and evaluation

The Secretary and the Attorney General shall conduct research, testing, training on, and evaluation of any equipment, including any electronic equipment, to determine its capability and utility prior to the use of any such technology for any action described in subsection (b)(1).

(4) Coordination

The Secretary and the Attorney General shall coordinate with the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration when any action authorized by this section might affect aviation safety, civilian aviation and aerospace operations, aircraft airworthiness, or the use of the airspace.

(c) Forfeiture

Any unmanned aircraft system or unmanned aircraft described in subsection (a) that is seized by the Secretary or the Attorney General is subject to forfeiture to the United States.

(d) Regulations and guidance

(1) In general

The Secretary, the Attorney General, and the Secretary of Transportation may prescribe regulations and shall issue guidance in the respective areas of each Secretary or the Attorney General to carry out this section.

(2) Coordination

(A) Coordination with Department of Transportation

The Secretary and the Attorney General shall coordinate the development of their respective guidance under paragraph (1) with the Secretary of Transportation.

(B) Effect on aviation safety

The Secretary and the Attorney General shall respectively coordinate with the Secretary of Transportation and the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration before issuing any guidance, or otherwise implementing this section, if such guidance or implementation might affect aviation safety, civilian aviation and aerospace operations, aircraft airworthiness, or the use of airspace.

(e) Privacy protection

The regulations or guidance issued to carry out actions authorized under subsection (b) by each Secretary or the Attorney General, as the case may be, shall ensure that—

(1) the interception or acquisition of, or access to, or maintenance or use of, communications to or from an unmanned aircraft system under this section is conducted in a manner consistent with the First and Fourth Amendments to the Constitution of the United States and applicable provisions of Federal law;

(2) communications to or from an unmanned aircraft system are intercepted or acquired only to the extent necessary to support an action described in subsection (b)(1);

(3) records of such communications are maintained only for as long as necessary, and in no event for more than 180 days, unless the Secretary of Homeland Security or the Attorney General determine 1 that maintenance of such records is necessary to investigate or prosecute a violation of law, directly support an ongoing security operation, is required under Federal law, or for the purpose of any litigation;

(4) such communications are not disclosed outside the Department of Homeland Security or the Department of Justice unless the disclosure—

(A) is necessary to investigate or prosecute a violation of law;

(B) would support the Department of Defense, a Federal law enforcement agency, or the enforcement activities of a regulatory agency of the Federal Government in connection with a criminal or civil investigation of, or any regulatory, statutory, or other enforcement action relating to an action described in subsection (b)(1);

(C) is between the Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Justice in the course of a security or protection operation of either agency or a joint operation of such agencies; or

(D) is otherwise required by law; and


(5) to the extent necessary, the Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Justice are authorized to share threat information, which shall not include communications referred to in subsection (b), with State, local, territorial, or tribal law enforcement agencies in the course of a security or protection operation.

(f) Budget

The Secretary and the Attorney General shall submit to Congress, as a part of the homeland security or justice budget materials for each fiscal year after fiscal year 2019, a consolidated funding display that identifies the funding source for the actions described in subsection (b)(1) within the Department of Homeland Security or the Department of Justice. The funding display shall be in unclassified form, but may contain a classified annex.

(g) Semiannual briefings and notifications

(1) In general

On a semiannual basis during the period beginning 6 months after October 5, 2018, and ending on the date specified in subsection (i), the Secretary and the Attorney General shall, respectively, provide a briefing to the appropriate congressional committees on the activities carried out pursuant to this section.

(2) Requirement

Each briefing required under paragraph (1) shall be conducted jointly with the Secretary of Transportation.

(3) Content

Each briefing required under paragraph (1) shall include—

(A) policies, programs, and procedures to mitigate or eliminate impacts of such activities to the National Airspace System;

(B) a description of instances in which actions described in subsection (b)(1) have been taken, including all such instances that may have resulted in harm, damage, or loss to a person or to private property;

(C) a description of the guidance, policies, or procedures established to address privacy, civil rights, and civil liberties issues implicated by the actions allowed under this section, as well as any changes or subsequent efforts that would significantly affect privacy, civil rights or civil liberties;

(D) a description of options considered and steps taken to mitigate any identified impacts to the national airspace system related to the use of any system or technology, including the minimization of the use of any technology that disrupts the transmission of radio or electronic signals, for carrying out the actions described in subsection (b)(1);

(E) a description of instances in which communications intercepted or acquired during the course of operations of an unmanned aircraft system were held for more than 180 days or shared outside of the Department of Justice or the Department of Homeland Security;

(F) how the Secretary, the Attorney General, and the Secretary of Transportation have informed the public as to the possible use of authorities under this section; 2

(G) how the Secretary, the Attorney General, and the Secretary of Transportation have engaged with Federal, State, and local law enforcement agencies to implement and use such authorities.

(4) Unclassified form

Each briefing required under paragraph (1) shall be in unclassified form, but may be accompanied by an additional classified briefing.

(5) Notification

Within 30 days of deploying any new technology to carry out the actions described in subsection (b)(1), the Secretary and the Attorney General shall, respectively, submit a notification to the appropriate congressional committees. Such notification shall include a description of options considered to mitigate any identified impacts to the national airspace system related to the use of any system or technology, including the minimization of the use of any technology that disrupts the transmission of radio or electronic signals, for carrying out the actions described in subsection (b)(1).

(h) Rule of construction

Nothing in this section may be construed to—

(1) vest in the Secretary or the Attorney General any authority of the Secretary of Transportation or the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration;

(2) vest in the Secretary of Transportation or the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration any authority of the Secretary or the Attorney General;

(3) vest in the Secretary of Homeland Security any authority of the Attorney General;

(4) vest in the Attorney General any authority of the Secretary of Homeland Security; or

(5) provide a new basis of liability for any State, local, territorial, or tribal law enforcement officers who participate in the protection of a mass gathering identified by the Secretary or Attorney General under subsection (k)(3)(C)(iii)(II), act within the scope of their authority, and do not exercise the authority granted to the Secretary and Attorney General by this section.

(i) Termination

The authority to carry out this section with respect to a covered facility or asset specified in subsection (k)(3) shall terminate on the date that is 4 years after October 5, 2018.

(j) Scope of authority

Nothing in this section shall be construed to provide the Secretary or the Attorney General with additional authorities beyond those described in subsections (a) and (k)(3)(C)(iii).

(k) Definitions

In this section:

(1) The term "appropriate congressional committees" means—

(A) the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, and the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate; and

(B) the Committee on Homeland Security, the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, the Committee on Energy and Commerce, and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives.


(2) The term "budget", with respect to a fiscal year, means the budget for that fiscal year that is submitted to Congress by the President under section 1105(a) of title 31.

(3) The term "covered facility or asset" means any facility or asset that—

(A) is identified as high-risk and a potential target for unlawful unmanned aircraft activity by the Secretary or the Attorney General, in coordination with the Secretary of Transportation with respect to potentially impacted airspace, through a risk-based assessment for purposes of this section (except that in the case of the missions described in subparagraph (C)(i)(II) and (C)(iii)(I), such missions shall be presumed to be for the protection of a facility or asset that is assessed to be high-risk and a potential target for unlawful unmanned aircraft activity);

(B) is located in the United States (including the territories and possessions, territorial seas or navigable waters of the United States); and

(C) directly relates to one or more—

(i) missions authorized to be performed by the Department of Homeland Security, consistent with governing statutes, regulations, and orders issued by the Secretary, pertaining to—

(I) security or protection functions of the U.S. Customs and Border Protection, including securing or protecting facilities, aircraft, and vessels, whether moored or underway;

(II) United States Secret Service protection operations pursuant to sections 3056(a) and 3056A(a) of title 18 and the Presidential Protection Assistance Act of 1976 (18 U.S.C. 3056 note); or

(III) protection of facilities pursuant to section 1315(a) of title 40;


(ii) missions authorized to be performed by the Department of Justice, consistent with governing statutes, regulations, and orders issued by the Attorney General, pertaining to—

(I) personal protection operations by—

(aa) the Federal Bureau of Investigation as specified in section 533 of title 28; and

(bb) the United States Marshals Service of Federal jurists, court officers, witnesses, and other threatened persons in the interests of justice, as specified in section 566(e)(1)(A) of title 28;


(II) protection of penal, detention, and correctional facilities and operations conducted by the Federal Bureau of Prisons; or

(III) protection of the buildings and grounds leased, owned, or operated by or for the Department of Justice, and the provision of security for Federal courts, as specified in section 566(a) of title 28;


(iii) missions authorized to be performed by the Department of Homeland Security or the Department of Justice, acting together or separately, consistent with governing statutes, regulations, and orders issued by the Secretary or the Attorney General, respectively, pertaining to—

(I) protection of a National Special Security Event and Special Event Assessment Rating event;

(II) the provision of support to State, local, territorial, or tribal law enforcement, upon request of the chief executive officer of the State or territory, to ensure protection of people and property at mass gatherings, that is limited to a specified timeframe and location, within available resources, and without delegating any authority under this section to State, local, territorial, or tribal law enforcement; or

(III) protection of an active Federal law enforcement investigation, emergency response, or security function, that is limited to a specified timeframe and location; and 3


(iv) missions authorized to be performed by the United States Coast Guard, including those described in clause (iii) as directed by the Secretary, and as further set forth in section 104 4 of title 14, and consistent with governing statutes, regulations, and orders issued by the Secretary of the Department in which the Coast Guard is operating.


(4) The terms "electronic communication", "intercept", "oral communication", and "wire communication" have the meaning 5 given those terms in section 2510 of title 18.

(5) The term "homeland security or justice budget materials", with respect to a fiscal year, means the materials submitted to Congress by the Secretary and the Attorney General in support of the budget for that fiscal year.

(6) For purposes of subsection (a), the term "personnel" means officers and employees of the Department of Homeland Security or the Department of Justice.

(7) The terms "unmanned aircraft" and "unmanned aircraft system" have the meanings given those terms in section 44801, 6 of title 49.

(8) For purposes of this section, the term "risk-based assessment" includes an evaluation of threat information specific to a covered facility or asset and, with respect to potential impacts on the safety and efficiency of the national airspace system and the needs of law enforcement and national security at each covered facility or asset identified by the Secretary or the Attorney General, respectively, of each of the following factors:

(A) Potential impacts to safety, efficiency, and use of the national airspace system, including potential effects on manned aircraft and unmanned aircraft systems, aviation safety, airport operations, infrastructure, and air navigation services related to the use of any system or technology for carrying out the actions described in subsection (b)(1).

(B) Options for mitigating any identified impacts to the national airspace system related to the use of any system or technology, including minimizing when possible the use of any technology which disrupts the transmission of radio or electronic signals, for carrying out the actions described in subsection (b)(1).

(C) Potential consequences of the impacts of any actions taken under subsection (b)(1) to the national airspace system and infrastructure if not mitigated.

(D) The ability to provide reasonable advance notice to aircraft operators consistent with the safety of the national airspace system and the needs of law enforcement and national security.

(E) The setting and character of any covered facility or asset, including whether it is located in a populated area or near other structures, whether the facility is open to the public, whether the facility is also used for nongovernmental functions, and any potential for interference with wireless communications or for injury or damage to persons or property.

(F) The setting, character, timeframe, and national airspace system impacts of National Special Security Event and Special Event Assessment Rating events.

(G) Potential consequences to national security, public safety, or law enforcement if threats posed by unmanned aircraft systems are not mitigated or defeated.

(l) Department of Homeland Security assessment

(1) Report

Not later than 1 year after October 5, 2018, the Secretary shall conduct, in coordination with the Attorney General and the Secretary of Transportation, an assessment to the appropriate congressional committees, including—

(A) an evaluation of the threat from unmanned aircraft systems to United States critical infrastructure (as defined in this chapter) and to domestic large hub airports (as defined in section 40102 of title 49);

(B) an evaluation of current Federal and 7 State, local, territorial, or tribal law enforcement authorities to counter the threat identified in subparagraph (A), and recommendations, if any, for potential changes to existing authorities to allow State, local, territorial, and tribal law enforcement to assist Federal law enforcement to counter the threat where appropriate;

(C) an evaluation of the knowledge of, efficiency of, and effectiveness of current procedures and resources available to owners of critical infrastructure and domestic large hub airports when they believe a threat from unmanned aircraft systems is present and what additional actions, if any, the Department of Homeland Security or the Department of Transportation could implement under existing authorities to assist these entities to counter the threat identified in subparagraph (A);

(D) an assessment of what, if any, additional authorities are needed by each Department and law enforcement to counter the threat identified in subparagraph (A); and

(E) an assessment of what, if any, additional research and development the Department needs to counter the threat identified in subparagraph (A).

(2) Unclassified form

The report required under paragraph (1) shall be submitted in unclassified form, but may contain a classified annex.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §210G, as added Pub. L. 115–254, div. H, §1602(a), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3522.)

References in Text

The Presidential Protection Assistance Act of 1976, referred to in subsec. (k)(3)(C)(i)(II), is Pub. L. 94–524, Oct. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 2475, which enacted and amended provisions set out as notes under section 3056 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Section 104 of title 14, referred to in subsec. (k)(3)(C)(iv), was redesignated section 528 of title 14 by Pub. L. 115–282, title I, §105(b), Dec. 4, 2018, 132 Stat. 4200, and references to section 104 of title 14 deemed to refer to such redesignated section, see section 123(b)(1) of Pub. L. 115–282, set out as a References to Sections of Title 14 as Redesignated by Pub. L. 115–282 note preceding section 101 of Title 14, Coast Guard.

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (l)(1)(A), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 107–296, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2135, known as the Homeland Security Act of 2002, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title and Tables.

1 So in original. Probably should be "determines".

2 So in original. Probably should be followed by "and".

3 So in original. Probably should be "or".

4 See References in Text note below.

5 So in original. Probably should be "meanings".

6 So in original. The comma probably should not appear.

7 So in original. Probably should be "Federal,".

§125. Annual report on intelligence activities of the Department of Homeland Security

(a) In general

For each fiscal year and along with the budget materials submitted in support of the budget of the Department of Homeland Security pursuant to section 1105(a) of title 31, the Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis of the Department shall submit to the congressional intelligence committees a report for such fiscal year on each intelligence activity of each intelligence component of the Department, as designated by the Under Secretary, that includes the following:

(1) The amount of funding requested for each such intelligence activity.

(2) The number of full-time employees funded to perform each such intelligence activity.

(3) The number of full-time contractor employees (or the equivalent of full-time in the case of part-time contractor employees) funded to perform or in support of each such intelligence activity.

(4) A determination as to whether each such intelligence activity is predominantly in support of national intelligence or departmental missions.

(5) The total number of analysts of the Intelligence Enterprise of the Department that perform—

(A) strategic analysis; or

(B) operational analysis.

(b) Feasibility and advisability report

Not later than 120 days after December 19, 2014, the Secretary of Homeland Security, acting through the Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis, shall submit to the congressional intelligence committees a report that—

(1) examines the feasibility and advisability of including the budget request for all intelligence activities of each intelligence component of the Department that predominantly support departmental missions, as designated by the Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis, in the Homeland Security Intelligence Program; and

(2) includes a plan to enhance the coordination of department-wide intelligence activities to achieve greater efficiencies in the performance of the Department of Homeland Security intelligence functions.

(c) Intelligence component of the Department

In this section, the term "intelligence component of the Department" has the meaning given that term in section 101 of this title.

(Pub. L. 113–293, title III, §324, Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4004.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2015, and not as part of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 which comprises this chapter.

Definitions

"Congressional intelligence committees" means the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives, see section 2 of Pub. L. 113–293, set out as a note under section 3003 of Title 50, War and National Defense.

§126. Department of Homeland Security data framework

(a) In general

(1) Development

The Secretary of Homeland Security shall develop a data framework to integrate existing Department of Homeland Security datasets and systems, as appropriate, for access by authorized personnel in a manner consistent with relevant legal authorities and privacy, civil rights, and civil liberties policies and protections.

(2) Requirements

In developing the framework required under paragraph (1), the Secretary of Homeland Security shall ensure, in accordance with all applicable statutory and regulatory requirements, the following information is included:

(A) All information acquired, held, or obtained by an office or component of the Department of Homeland Security that falls within the scope of the information sharing environment, including homeland security information, terrorism information, weapons of mass destruction information, and national intelligence.

(B) Any information or intelligence relevant to priority mission needs and capability requirements of the homeland security enterprise, as determined appropriate by the Secretary.

(b) Data framework access

(1) In general

The Secretary of Homeland Security shall ensure that the data framework required under this section is accessible to employees of the Department of Homeland Security who the Secretary determines—

(A) have an appropriate security clearance;

(B) are assigned to perform a function that requires access to information in such framework; and

(C) are trained in applicable standards for safeguarding and using such information.

(2) Guidance

The Secretary of Homeland Security shall—

(A) issue guidance for Department of Homeland Security employees authorized to access and contribute to the data framework pursuant to paragraph (1); and

(B) ensure that such guidance enforces a duty to share between offices and components of the Department when accessing or contributing to such framework for mission needs.

(3) Efficiency

The Secretary of Homeland Security shall promulgate data standards and instruct components of the Department of Homeland Security to make available information through the data framework required under this section in a machine-readable standard format, to the greatest extent practicable.

(c) Exclusion of information

The Secretary of Homeland Security may exclude information from the data framework required under this section if the Secretary determines inclusion of such information may—

(1) jeopardize the protection of sources, methods, or activities;

(2) compromise a criminal or national security investigation;

(3) be inconsistent with other Federal laws or regulations; or

(4) be duplicative or not serve an operational purpose if included in such framework.

(d) Safeguards

The Secretary of Homeland Security shall incorporate into the data framework required under this section systems capabilities for auditing and ensuring the security of information included in such framework. Such capabilities shall include the following:

(1) Mechanisms for identifying insider threats.

(2) Mechanisms for identifying security risks.

(3) Safeguards for privacy, civil rights, and civil liberties.

(e) Deadline for implementation

Not later than 2 years after December 19, 2018, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall ensure the data framework required under this section has the ability to include appropriate information in existence within the Department of Homeland Security to meet the critical mission operations of the Department of Homeland Security.

(f) Notice to Congress

(1) Status updates

The Secretary of Homeland Security shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees regular updates on the status of the data framework until the framework is fully operational.

(2) Operational notification

Not later than 60 days after the date on which the data framework required under this section is fully operational, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall provide notice to the appropriate congressional committees that the data framework is fully operational.

(3) Value added

The Secretary of Homeland Security shall annually brief Congress on component use of the data framework required under this section to support operations that disrupt terrorist activities and incidents in the homeland.

(g) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Appropriate congressional committee; homeland

The terms "appropriate congressional committee" and "homeland" have the meaning given those terms in section 101 of this title.

(2) Homeland security information

The term "homeland security information" has the meaning given such term in section 482 of this title.

(3) National intelligence

The term "national intelligence" has the meaning given such term in section 3003(5) of title 50.

(4) Terrorism information

The term "terrorism information" has the meaning given such term in section 485 of this title.

(Pub. L. 115–331, §2, Dec. 19, 2018, 132 Stat. 4484.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Department of Homeland Security Data Framework Act of 2018, and not as part of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 which comprises this chapter.

Part B—Information Security

Codification

Subtitle C of title II of Pub. L. 107–296, which was classified to part C of this subchapter, was redesignated subtitle B of title II of Pub. L. 107–296 by Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(K), Nov. 16, 2018, 132 Stat. 4178, and transferred to this part.

Prior Provisions

A prior subtitle B of title II of Pub. L. 107–296, which was classified to this part, was redesignated subtitle B of title XXII of Pub. L. 107–296 by Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(H), Nov. 16, 2018, 132 Stat. 4178, and transferred to part B (§671 et seq.) of subchapter XVIII of this chapter.

§§131 to 134. Transferred

Codification

Section 131, Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §212, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2150; Pub. L. 114–113, div. N, title II, §204, Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 2961, which related to definitions, was renumbered section 2222 of Pub. L. 107–296 by Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(H), Nov. 16, 2018, 132 Stat. 4178, and transferred to section 671 of this title.

Section 132, Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §213, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2152, which related to designation of critical infrastructure protection program, was renumbered section 2223 of Pub. L. 107–296 by Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(H), Nov. 16, 2018, 132 Stat. 4178, and transferred to section 672 of this title.

Section 133, Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §214, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2152; Pub. L. 108–271, §8(b), July 7, 2004, 118 Stat. 814; Pub. L. 112–199, title I, §111, Nov. 27, 2012, 126 Stat. 1472, which related to protection of voluntarily shared critical infrastructure information, was renumbered section 2224 of Pub. L. 107–296 by Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(H), Nov. 16, 2018, 132 Stat. 4178, and transferred to section 673 of this title.

Section 134, Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §215, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2155, which prohibited the construction of former part B as creating a private right of action for enforcement of any provision of this chapter, was renumbered section 2225 of Pub. L. 107–296 by Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(H), Nov. 16, 2018, 132 Stat. 4178, and transferred to section 674 of this title.

§141. Procedures for sharing information

The Secretary shall establish procedures on the use of information shared under this subchapter that—

(1) limit the redissemination of such information to ensure that it is not used for an unauthorized purpose;

(2) ensure the security and confidentiality of such information;

(3) protect the constitutional and statutory rights of any individuals who are subjects of such information; and

(4) provide data integrity through the timely removal and destruction of obsolete or erroneous names and information.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §221, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2155.)

References in Text

This subchapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this title", meaning title II of Pub. L. 107–296, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2145, which enacted this subchapter, amended sections 1030, 2511, 2512, 2520, 2701 to 2703, and 3125 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, sections 10102 and 10122 of Title 34, Crime Control and Law Enforcement, and section 401a of Title 50, War and National Defense, and enacted provisions set out as a note under section 101 of this title and listed in a Provisions for Review, Promulgation, or Amendment of Federal Sentencing Guidelines Relating to Specific Offenses table set out under section 994 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure. For complete classification of title II to the Code, see Tables.

§142. Privacy officer

(a) Appointment and responsibilities

The Secretary shall appoint a senior official in the Department, who shall report directly to the Secretary, to assume primary responsibility for privacy policy, including—

(1) assuring that the use of technologies sustain, and do not erode, privacy protections relating to the use, collection, and disclosure of personal information;

(2) assuring that personal information contained in Privacy Act systems of records is handled in full compliance with fair information practices as set out in the Privacy Act of 1974 [5 U.S.C. 552a];

(3) evaluating legislative and regulatory proposals involving collection, use, and disclosure of personal information by the Federal Government;

(4) conducting a privacy impact assessment of proposed rules of the Department or that of the Department on the privacy of personal information, including the type of personal information collected and the number of people affected;

(5) coordinating with the Officer for Civil Rights and Civil Liberties to ensure that—

(A) programs, policies, and procedures involving civil rights, civil liberties, and privacy considerations are addressed in an integrated and comprehensive manner; and

(B) Congress receives appropriate reports on such programs, policies, and procedures; and


(6) preparing a report to Congress on an annual basis on activities of the Department that affect privacy, including complaints of privacy violations, implementation of the Privacy Act of 1974 [5 U.S.C. 552a], internal controls, and other matters.

(b) Authority to investigate

(1) In general

The senior official appointed under subsection (a) may—

(A) have access to all records, reports, audits, reviews, documents, papers, recommendations, and other materials available to the Department that relate to programs and operations with respect to the responsibilities of the senior official under this section;

(B) make such investigations and reports relating to the administration of the programs and operations of the Department as are, in the senior official's judgment, necessary or desirable;

(C) subject to the approval of the Secretary, require by subpoena the production, by any person other than a Federal agency, of all information, documents, reports, answers, records, accounts, papers, and other data and documentary evidence necessary to performance of the responsibilities of the senior official under this section; and

(D) administer to or take from any person an oath, affirmation, or affidavit, whenever necessary to performance of the responsibilities of the senior official under this section.

(2) Enforcement of subpoenas

Any subpoena issued under paragraph (1)(C) shall, in the case of contumacy or refusal to obey, be enforceable by order of any appropriate United States district court.

(3) Effect of oaths

Any oath, affirmation, or affidavit administered or taken under paragraph (1)(D) by or before an employee of the Privacy Office designated for that purpose by the senior official appointed under subsection (a) shall have the same force and effect as if administered or taken by or before an officer having a seal of office.

(c) Supervision and coordination

(1) In general

The senior official appointed under subsection (a) shall—

(A) report to, and be under the general supervision of, the Secretary; and

(B) coordinate activities with the Inspector General of the Department in order to avoid duplication of effort.

(2) Coordination with the Inspector General

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the senior official appointed under subsection (a) may investigate any matter relating to possible violations or abuse concerning the administration of any program or operation of the Department relevant to the purposes under this section.

(B) Coordination

(i) Referral

Before initiating any investigation described under subparagraph (A), the senior official shall refer the matter and all related complaints, allegations, and information to the Inspector General of the Department.

(ii) Determinations and notifications by the Inspector General

(I) In general

Not later than 30 days after the receipt of a matter referred under clause (i), the Inspector General shall—

(aa) make a determination regarding whether the Inspector General intends to initiate an audit or investigation of the matter referred under clause (i); and

(bb) notify the senior official of that determination.

(II) Investigation not initiated

If the Inspector General notifies the senior official under subclause (I)(bb) that the Inspector General intended to initiate an audit or investigation, but does not initiate that audit or investigation within 90 days after providing that notification, the Inspector General shall further notify the senior official that an audit or investigation was not initiated. The further notification under this subclause shall be made not later than 3 days after the end of that 90-day period.

(iii) Investigation by senior official

The senior official may investigate a matter referred under clause (i) if—

(I) the Inspector General notifies the senior official under clause (ii)(I)(bb) that the Inspector General does not intend to initiate an audit or investigation relating to that matter; or

(II) the Inspector General provides a further notification under clause (ii)(II) relating to that matter.

(iv) Privacy training

Any employee of the Office of Inspector General who audits or investigates any matter referred under clause (i) shall be required to receive adequate training on privacy laws, rules, and regulations, to be provided by an entity approved by the Inspector General in consultation with the senior official appointed under subsection (a).

(d) Notification to Congress on removal

If the Secretary removes the senior official appointed under subsection (a) or transfers that senior official to another position or location within the Department, the Secretary shall—

(1) promptly submit a written notification of the removal or transfer to Houses of Congress; and

(2) include in any such notification the reasons for the removal or transfer.

(e) Reports by senior official to Congress

The senior official appointed under subsection (a) shall—

(1) submit reports directly to the Congress regarding performance of the responsibilities of the senior official under this section, without any prior comment or amendment by the Secretary, Deputy Secretary, or any other officer or employee of the Department or the Office of Management and Budget; and

(2) inform the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives not later than—

(A) 30 days after the Secretary disapproves the senior official's request for a subpoena under subsection (b)(1)(C) or the Secretary substantively modifies the requested subpoena; or

(B) 45 days after the senior official's request for a subpoena under subsection (b)(1)(C), if that subpoena has not either been approved or disapproved by the Secretary.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §222, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2155; Pub. L. 108–458, title VIII, §8305, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3868; Pub. L. 110–53, title VIII, §802, Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 358.)

References in Text

The Privacy Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), (6), is Pub. L. 93–579, Dec. 31, 1974, 88 Stat. 1896, as amended, which enacted section 552a of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and provisions set out as notes under section 552a of Title 5. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1974 Amendment note set out under section 552a of Title 5 and Tables.

Amendments

2007—Pub. L. 110–53 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, and added subsecs. (b) to (e).

2004—Pub. L. 108–458, §8305(1), inserted ", who shall report directly to the Secretary," after "in the Department" in introductory provisions.

Pars. (5), (6). Pub. L. 108–458, §8305(2)–(4), added par. (5) and redesignated former par. (5) as (6).

§§143 to 145. Transferred

Codification

Section 143, Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §223, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2156; Pub. L. 110–53, title V, §531(b)(1)(A), Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 334; Pub. L. 113–283, §2(e)(3)(A), Dec. 18, 2014, 128 Stat. 3086, which related to enhancement of Federal and non-Federal cybersecurity, was renumbered section 2205 of Pub. L. 107–296 by Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(I), Nov. 16, 2018, 132 Stat. 4178, and transferred to section 655 of this title.

Section 144, Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §224, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2156; Pub. L. 110–53, title V, §531(b)(1)(B), Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 334, which related to NET Guard, was renumbered section 2206 of Pub. L. 107–296 by Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(I), Nov. 16, 2018, 132 Stat. 4178, and transferred to section 656 of this title.

Section 145, Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §225, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2156, which related to Cyber Security Enhancement Act of 2002, was renumbered section 2207 of Pub. L. 107–296 by Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(I), Nov. 16, 2018, 132 Stat. 4178, and transferred to section 657 of this title.

§146. Cybersecurity workforce assessment and strategy

(a) Workforce assessment

(1) In general

Not later than 180 days after December 18, 2014, and annually thereafter for 3 years, the Secretary shall assess the cybersecurity workforce of the Department.

(2) Contents

The assessment required under paragraph (1) shall include, at a minimum—

(A) an assessment of the readiness and capacity of the workforce of the Department to meet its cybersecurity mission;

(B) information on where cybersecurity workforce positions are located within the Department;

(C) information on which cybersecurity workforce positions are—

(i) performed by—

(I) permanent full-time equivalent employees of the Department, including, to the greatest extent practicable, demographic information about such employees;

(II) independent contractors; and

(III) individuals employed by other Federal agencies, including the National Security Agency; or


(ii) vacant; and


(D) information on—

(i) the percentage of individuals within each Cybersecurity Category and Specialty Area who received essential training to perform their jobs; and

(ii) in cases in which such essential training was not received, what challenges, if any, were encountered with respect to the provision of such essential training.

(b) Workforce strategy

(1) In general

The Secretary shall—

(A) not later than 1 year after December 18, 2014, develop a comprehensive workforce strategy to enhance the readiness, capacity, training, recruitment, and retention of the cybersecurity workforce of the Department; and

(B) maintain and, as necessary, update the comprehensive workforce strategy developed under subparagraph (A).

(2) Contents

The comprehensive workforce strategy developed under paragraph (1) shall include a description of—

(A) a multi-phased recruitment plan, including with respect to experienced professionals, members of disadvantaged or underserved communities, the unemployed, and veterans;

(B) a 5-year implementation plan;

(C) a 10-year projection of the cybersecurity workforce needs of the Department;

(D) any obstacle impeding the hiring and development of a cybersecurity workforce in the Department; and

(E) any gap in the existing cybersecurity workforce of the Department and a plan to fill any such gap.

(c) Updates

The Secretary submit 1 to the appropriate congressional committees annual updates on—

(1) the cybersecurity workforce assessment required under subsection (a); and

(2) the progress of the Secretary in carrying out the comprehensive workforce strategy required to be developed under subsection (b).

(Pub. L. 113–246, §3, Dec. 18, 2014, 128 Stat. 2880.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Cybersecurity Workforce Assessment Act, and not as part of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 which comprises this chapter.

Homeland Security Cybersecurity Workforce Assessment

Pub. L. 113–277, §4, Dec. 18, 2014, 128 Stat. 3008, provided that:

"(a) Short Title.—This section may be cited as the 'Homeland Security Cybersecurity Workforce Assessment Act'.

"(b) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) Appropriate congressional committees.—The term 'appropriate congressional committees' means—

"(A) the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate;

"(B) the Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives; and

"(C) the Committee on House Administration of the House of Representatives.

"(2) Cybersecurity work category; data element code; specialty area.—The terms 'Cybersecurity Work Category', 'Data Element Code', and 'Specialty Area' have the meanings given such terms in the Office of Personnel Management's Guide to Data Standards.

"(3) Department.—The term 'Department' means the Department of Homeland Security.

"(4) Director.—The term 'Director' means the Director of the Office of Personnel Management.

"(5) Secretary.—The term 'Secretary' means the Secretary of Homeland Security.

"(c) National Cybersecurity Workforce Measurement Initiative.—

"(1) In general.—The Secretary shall—

"(A) identify all cybersecurity workforce positions within the Department;

"(B) determine the primary Cybersecurity Work Category and Specialty Area of such positions; and

"(C) assign the corresponding Data Element Code, as set forth in the Office of Personnel Management's Guide to Data Standards which is aligned with the National Initiative for Cybersecurity Education's National Cybersecurity Workforce Framework report, in accordance with paragraph (2).

"(2) Employment codes.—

"(A) Procedures.—Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 18, 2014], the Secretary shall establish procedures—

"(i) to identify open positions that include cybersecurity functions (as defined in the OPM Guide to Data Standards); and

"(ii) to assign the appropriate employment code to each such position, using agreed standards and definitions.

"(B) Code assignments.—Not later than 9 months after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall assign the appropriate employment code to—

"(i) each employee within the Department who carries out cybersecurity functions; and

"(ii) each open position within the Department that have been identified as having cybersecurity functions.

"(3) Progress report.—Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Director shall submit a progress report on the implementation of this subsection to the appropriate congressional committees.

"(d) Identification of Cybersecurity Specialty Areas of Critical Need.—

"(1) In general.—Beginning not later than 1 year after the date on which the employment codes are assigned to employees pursuant to subsection (c)(2)(B), and annually through 2021, the Secretary, in consultation with the Director, shall—

"(A) identify Cybersecurity Work Categories and Specialty Areas of critical need in the Department's cybersecurity workforce; and

"(B) submit a report to the Director that—

"(i) describes the Cybersecurity Work Categories and Specialty Areas identified under subparagraph (A); and

"(ii) substantiates the critical need designations.

"(2) Guidance.—The Director shall provide the Secretary with timely guidance for identifying Cybersecurity Work Categories and Specialty Areas of critical need, including—

"(A) current Cybersecurity Work Categories and Specialty Areas with acute skill shortages; and

"(B) Cybersecurity Work Categories and Specialty Areas with emerging skill shortages.

"(3) Cybersecurity critical needs report.—Not later than 18 months after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary, in consultation with the Director, shall—

"(A) identify Specialty Areas of critical need for cybersecurity workforce across the Department; and

"(B) submit a progress report on the implementation of this subsection to the appropriate congressional committees.

"(e) Government Accountability Office Status Reports.—The Comptroller General of the United States shall—

"(1) analyze and monitor the implementation of subsections (c) and (d); and

"(2) not later than 3 years after the date of the enactment of this Act, submit a report to the appropriate congressional committees that describes the status of such implementation."

Definitions

Pub. L. 113–246, §2, Dec. 18, 2014, 128 Stat. 2880, provided that: "In this Act [enacting this section and provisions set out as a note under section 101 of this title]—

"(1) the term 'Cybersecurity Category' means a position's or incumbent's primary work function involving cybersecurity, which is further defined by Specialty Area;

"(2) the term 'Department' means the Department of Homeland Security;

"(3) the term 'Secretary' means the Secretary of Homeland Security; and

"(4) the term 'Specialty Area' means any of the common types of cybersecurity work as recognized by the National Initiative for Cybersecurity Education's National Cybersecurity Workforce Framework report."

1 So in original.

§§147 to 151. Transferred

Codification

Section 147, Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §226, as added Pub. L. 113–277, §3(a), Dec. 18, 2014, 128 Stat. 3005, which related to cybersecurity recruitment and retention, was renumbered section 2208 of Pub. L. 107–296 by Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(I), Nov. 16, 2018, 132 Stat. 4178, and transferred to section 658 of this title.

Section 148, Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §227, formerly §226, as added Pub. L. 113–282, §3(a), Dec. 18, 2014, 128 Stat. 3066; renumbered §227 and amended Pub. L. 114–113, div. N, title II, §§203, 223(a)(3), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 2957, 2963; Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title XVIII, §1841(b), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2663, which related to national cybersecurity and communications integration center, was renumbered section 2209 of Pub. L. 107–296 by Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(I), Nov. 16, 2018, 132 Stat. 4178, and transferred to section 659 of this title.

A prior section 227 of Pub. L. 107–296, as added by Pub. L. 113–282, §7(a), Dec. 18, 2014, 128 Stat. 3070, was classified to section 149 of this title prior to redesignation by Pub. L. 114–113 as section 228(c) of Pub. L. 107–296, and was classified to section 149(c) of this title prior to further redesignation by Pub. L. 115–278 as section 2210(c) of Pub. L. 107–296, which is classified to section 660(c) of this title.

Section 149, Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §228, as added and amended Pub. L. 114–113, div. N, title II, §§205, 223(a)(2), (4), (5), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 2961, 2963, 2964, which related to cybersecurity plans, was renumbered section 2210 of Pub. L. 107–296 by Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(I), Nov. 16, 2018, 132 Stat. 4178, and transferred to section 660 of this title.

A prior section 228 of Pub. L. 107–296 was renumbered section 229 and was classified to section 150 of this title prior to renumbering as section 2212, which is classified to section 662 of this title.

Section 149a, Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §228A, as added Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title XIX, §1912(a), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2683, which related to cybersecurity strategy, was renumbered section 2211 of Pub. L. 107–296 by Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(I), Nov. 16, 2018, 132 Stat. 4178, and transferred to section 661 of this title.

Section 150, Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §229, formerly §228, as added Pub. L. 113–282, §7(a), Dec. 18, 2014, 128 Stat. 3070; renumbered §229, Pub. L. 114–113, div. N, title II, §223(a)(1), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 2963, which related to clearances, was renumbered section 2212 of Pub. L. 107–296 by Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(I), Nov. 16, 2018, 132 Stat. 4178, and transferred to section 662 of this title.

Section 151, Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §230, as added Pub. L. 114–113, div. N, title II, §223(a)(6), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 2964, which related to Federal intrusion detection and prevention system, was renumbered section 2213 of Pub. L. 107–296 by Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(I), Nov. 16, 2018, 132 Stat. 4178, and transferred to section 663 of this title.

Part C—Office of Science and Technology

Codification

Subtitle D of title II of Pub. L. 107–296, which was classified to part D of this subchapter, was redesignated subtitle C of title II of Pub. L. 107–296 by Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(K), Nov. 16, 2018, 132 Stat. 4178, and transferred to this part.

Prior Provisions

A prior subtitle C of title II of Pub. L. 107–296, which was classified to this part, was redesignated subtitle B of title II of Pub. L. 107–296 by Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(2)(K), Nov. 16, 2018, 132 Stat. 4178, and transferred to part B (§141 et seq.) of this subchapter.

§161. Establishment of Office; Director

(a) Establishment

(1) In general

There is hereby established within the Department of Justice an Office of Science and Technology (hereinafter in this subchapter referred to as the "Office").

(2) Authority

The Office shall be under the general authority of the Assistant Attorney General, Office of Justice Programs, and shall be established within the National Institute of Justice.

(b) Director

The Office shall be headed by a Director, who shall be an individual appointed based on approval by the Office of Personnel Management of the executive qualifications of the individual.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §231, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2159.)

References in Text

This subchapter, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), was in the original "this title", meaning title II of Pub. L. 107–296, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2145, which enacted this subchapter, amended sections 1030, 2511, 2512, 2520, 2701 to 2703, and 3125 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, sections 10102 and 10122 of Title 34, Crime Control and Law Enforcement, and section 401a of Title 50, War and National Defense, and enacted provisions set out as a note under section 101 of this title and listed in a Provisions for Review, Promulgation, or Amendment of Federal Sentencing Guidelines Relating to Specific Offenses table set out under section 994 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure. For complete classification of title II to the Code, see Tables.

§162. Mission of Office; duties

(a) Mission

The mission of the Office shall be—

(1) to serve as the national focal point for work on law enforcement technology; and

(2) to carry out programs that, through the provision of equipment, training, and technical assistance, improve the safety and effectiveness of law enforcement technology and improve access to such technology by Federal, State, and local law enforcement agencies.

(b) Duties

In carrying out its mission, the Office shall have the following duties:

(1) To provide recommendations and advice to the Attorney General.

(2) To establish and maintain advisory groups (which shall be exempt from the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.)) to assess the law enforcement technology needs of Federal, State, and local law enforcement agencies.

(3) To establish and maintain performance standards in accordance with the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (Public Law 104–113) for, and test and evaluate law enforcement technologies that may be used by, Federal, State, and local law enforcement agencies.

(4) To establish and maintain a program to certify, validate, and mark or otherwise recognize law enforcement technology products that conform to standards established and maintained by the Office in accordance with the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (Public Law 104–113). The program may, at the discretion of the Office, allow for supplier's declaration of conformity with such standards.

(5) To work with other entities within the Department of Justice, other Federal agencies, and the executive office of the President to establish a coordinated Federal approach on issues related to law enforcement technology.

(6) To carry out research, development, testing, evaluation, and cost-benefit analyses in fields that would improve the safety, effectiveness, and efficiency of law enforcement technologies used by Federal, State, and local law enforcement agencies, including, but not limited to—

(A) weapons capable of preventing use by unauthorized persons, including personalized guns;

(B) protective apparel;

(C) bullet-resistant and explosion-resistant glass;

(D) monitoring systems and alarm systems capable of providing precise location information;

(E) wire and wireless interoperable communication technologies;

(F) tools and techniques that facilitate investigative and forensic work, including computer forensics;

(G) equipment for particular use in counterterrorism, including devices and technologies to disable terrorist devices;

(H) guides to assist State and local law enforcement agencies;

(I) DNA identification technologies; and

(J) tools and techniques that facilitate investigations of computer crime.


(7) To administer a program of research, development, testing, and demonstration to improve the interoperability of voice and data public safety communications.

(8) To serve on the Technical Support Working Group of the Department of Defense, and on other relevant interagency panels, as requested.

(9) To develop, and disseminate to State and local law enforcement agencies, technical assistance and training materials for law enforcement personnel, including prosecutors.

(10) To operate the regional National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Centers and, to the extent necessary, establish additional centers through a competitive process.

(11) To administer a program of acquisition, research, development, and dissemination of advanced investigative analysis and forensic tools to assist State and local law enforcement agencies in combating cybercrime.

(12) To support research fellowships in support of its mission.

(13) To serve as a clearinghouse for information on law enforcement technologies.

(14) To represent the United States and State and local law enforcement agencies, as requested, in international activities concerning law enforcement technology.

(15) To enter into contracts and cooperative agreements and provide grants, which may require in-kind or cash matches from the recipient, as necessary to carry out its mission.

(16) To carry out other duties assigned by the Attorney General to accomplish the mission of the Office.

(c) Competition required

Except as otherwise expressly provided by law, all research and development carried out by or through the Office shall be carried out on a competitive basis.

(d) Information from Federal agencies

Federal agencies shall, upon request from the Office and in accordance with Federal law, provide the Office with any data, reports, or other information requested, unless compliance with such request is otherwise prohibited by law.

(e) Publications

Decisions concerning publications issued by the Office shall rest solely with the Director of the Office.

(f) Transfer of funds

The Office may transfer funds to other Federal agencies or provide funding to non-Federal entities through grants, cooperative agreements, or contracts to carry out its duties under this section: Provided, That any such transfer or provision of funding shall be carried out in accordance with section 605 of Public Law 107–77.

(g) Annual report

The Director of the Office shall include with the budget justification materials submitted to Congress in support of the Department of Justice budget for each fiscal year (as submitted with the budget of the President under section 1105(a) of title 31) a report on the activities of the Office. Each such report shall include the following:

(1) For the period of 5 fiscal years beginning with the fiscal year for which the budget is submitted—

(A) the Director's assessment of the needs of Federal, State, and local law enforcement agencies for assistance with respect to law enforcement technology and other matters consistent with the mission of the Office; and

(B) a strategic plan for meeting such needs of such law enforcement agencies.


(2) For the fiscal year preceding the fiscal year for which such budget is submitted, a description of the activities carried out by the Office and an evaluation of the extent to which those activities successfully meet the needs assessed under paragraph (1)(A) in previous reports.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §232, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2159; Pub. L. 108–7, div. L, §103(1), Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. 529.)

References in Text

The Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), is Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, as amended, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

The National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995, referred to in subsec. (b)(3), (4), is Pub. L. 104–113, Mar. 7, 1996, 110 Stat. 775, as amended. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1996 Amendment note set out under section 3701 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, and Tables.

Section 605 of Public Law 107–77, referred to in subsec. (f), is section 605 of Pub. L. 107–77, title VI, Nov. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 798, which is not classified to the Code.

Amendments

2003—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 108–7 inserted before period at end ": Provided, That any such transfer or provision of funding shall be carried out in accordance with section 605 of Public Law 107–77".

§163. Definition of law enforcement technology

For the purposes of this subchapter, the term "law enforcement technology" includes investigative and forensic technologies, corrections technologies, and technologies that support the judicial process.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §233, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2161.)

References in Text

This subchapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this title", meaning title II of Pub. L. 107–296, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2145, which enacted this subchapter, amended sections 1030, 2511, 2512, 2520, 2701 to 2703, and 3125 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, sections 10102 and 10122 of Title 34, Crime Control and Law Enforcement, and section 401a of Title 50, War and National Defense, and enacted provisions set out as a note under section 101 of this title and listed in a Provisions for Review, Promulgation, or Amendment of Federal Sentencing Guidelines Relating to Specific Offenses table set out under section 994 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure. For complete classification of title II to the Code, see Tables.

§164. Abolishment of Office of Science and Technology of National Institute of Justice; transfer of functions

(a) Authority to transfer functions

The Attorney General may transfer to the Office any other program or activity of the Department of Justice that the Attorney General, in consultation with the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives, determines to be consistent with the mission of the Office.

(b) Transfer of personnel and assets

With respect to any function, power, or duty, or any program or activity, that is established in the Office, those employees and assets of the element of the Department of Justice from which the transfer is made that the Attorney General determines are needed to perform that function, power, or duty, or for that program or activity, as the case may be, shall be transferred to the Office: Provided, That any such transfer shall be carried out in accordance with section 605 of Public Law 107–77.

(c) Report on implementation

Not later than 1 year after November 25, 2002, the Attorney General shall submit to the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives a report on the implementation of this subchapter. The report shall—

(1) provide an accounting of the amounts and sources of funding available to the Office to carry out its mission under existing authorizations and appropriations, and set forth the future funding needs of the Office; and

(2) include such other information and recommendations as the Attorney General considers appropriate.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §234, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2161; Pub. L. 108–7, div. L, §103(2), Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. 529.)

References in Text

Section 605 of Public Law 107–77, referred to in subsec. (b), is section 605 of Pub. L. 107–77, title VI, Nov. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 798, which is not classified to the Code.

This subchapter, referred to in subsec. (c), was in the original "this title", meaning title II of Pub. L. 107–296, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2145, which enacted this subchapter, amended sections 1030, 2511, 2512, 2520, 2701 to 2703, and 3125 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, sections 10102 and 10122 of Title 34, Crime Control and Law Enforcement, and section 401a of Title 50, War and National Defense, and enacted provisions set out as a note under section 101 of this title and listed in a Provisions for Review, Promulgation, or Amendment of Federal Sentencing Guidelines Relating to Specific Offenses table set out under section 994 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure. For complete classification of title II to the Code, see Tables.

Amendments

2003—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 108–7 inserted before period at end ": Provided, That any such transfer shall be carried out in accordance with section 605 of Public Law 107–77".

§165. National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Centers

(a) In general

The Director of the Office shall operate and support National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Centers (hereinafter in this section referred to as "Centers") and, to the extent necessary, establish new centers through a merit-based, competitive process.

(b) Purpose of Centers

The purpose of the Centers shall be to—

(1) support research and development of law enforcement technology;

(2) support the transfer and implementation of technology;

(3) assist in the development and dissemination of guidelines and technological standards; and

(4) provide technology assistance, information, and support for law enforcement, corrections, and criminal justice purposes.

(c) Annual meeting

Each year, the Director shall convene a meeting of the Centers in order to foster collaboration and communication between Center participants.

(d) Report

Not later than 12 months after November 25, 2002, the Director shall transmit to the Congress a report assessing the effectiveness of the existing system of Centers and identify the number of Centers necessary to meet the technology needs of Federal, State, and local law enforcement in the United States.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title II, §235, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2162.)

SUBCHAPTER III—SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN SUPPORT OF HOMELAND SECURITY

§181. Under Secretary for Science and Technology

There shall be in the Department a Directorate of Science and Technology headed by an Under Secretary for Science and Technology.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title III, §301, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2163.)

§182. Responsibilities and authorities of the Under Secretary for Science and Technology

The Secretary, acting through the Under Secretary for Science and Technology, shall have the responsibility for—

(1) advising the Secretary regarding research and development efforts and priorities in support of the Department's missions;

(2) developing, in consultation with other appropriate executive agencies, a national policy and strategic plan for, identifying priorities, goals, objectives and policies for, and coordinating the Federal Government's civilian efforts to identify and develop countermeasures to chemical, biological, and other emerging terrorist threats, including the development of comprehensive, research-based definable goals for such efforts and development of annual measurable objectives and specific targets to accomplish and evaluate the goals for such efforts;

(3) supporting the Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis and the Director of the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency, by assessing and testing homeland security vulnerabilities and possible threats;

(4) conducting basic and applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities that are relevant to any or all elements of the Department, through both intramural and extramural programs, except that such responsibility does not extend to human health-related research and development activities;

(5) establishing priorities for, directing, funding, and conducting national research, development, test and evaluation, and procurement of technology and systems for—

(A) preventing the importation of chemical, biological, and related weapons and material; and

(B) detecting, preventing, protecting against, and responding to terrorist attacks;


(6) establishing a system for transferring homeland security developments or technologies to Federal, State, local government, and private sector entities;

(7) entering into work agreements, joint sponsorships, contracts, or any other agreements with the Department of Energy regarding the use of the national laboratories or sites and support of the science and technology base at those facilities;

(8) collaborating with the Secretary of Agriculture and the Attorney General as provided in section 8401 of title 7;

(9) collaborating with the Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Attorney General in determining any new biological agents and toxins that shall be listed as "select agents" in Appendix A of part 72 of title 42, Code of Federal Regulations, pursuant to section 262a of title 42;

(10) supporting United States leadership in science and technology;

(11) establishing and administering the primary research and development activities of the Department, including the long-term research and development needs and capabilities for all elements of the Department;

(12) coordinating and integrating all research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities of the Department;

(13) coordinating with other appropriate executive agencies in developing and carrying out the science and technology agenda of the Department to reduce duplication and identify unmet needs; and

(14) developing and overseeing the administration of guidelines for merit review of research and development projects throughout the Department, and for the dissemination of research conducted or sponsored by the Department.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title III, §302, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2163; Pub. L. 109–347, title V, §501(b)(2), Oct. 13, 2006, 120 Stat. 1935; Pub. L. 110–53, title V, §531(b)(1)(C), Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 334; Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(3)(A), Nov. 16, 2018, 132 Stat. 4178.)

Amendments

2018—Par. (2). Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(3)(A)(i), substituted "biological," for "biological,,".

Par. (3). Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(3)(A)(ii), substituted "Director of the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency" for "Assistant Secretary for Infrastructure Protection".

Par. (5)(A). Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(3)(A)(i), substituted "biological," for "biological,,".

2007—Par. (3). Pub. L. 110–53 substituted "Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis and the Assistant Secretary for Infrastructure Protection" for "Under Secretary for Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection".

2006—Pars. (2), (5)(A). Pub. L. 109–347 struck out "radiological, nuclear" after "biological,".

§183. Functions transferred

In accordance with subchapter XII, there shall be transferred to the Secretary the functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the following entities:

(1) The following programs and activities of the Department of Energy, including the functions of the Secretary of Energy relating thereto (but not including programs and activities relating to the strategic nuclear defense posture of the United States):

(A) The chemical and biological national security and supporting programs and activities of the nonproliferation and verification research and development program.

(B) The nuclear smuggling programs and activities within the proliferation detection program of the nonproliferation and verification research and development program. The programs and activities described in this subparagraph may be designated by the President either for transfer to the Department or for joint operation by the Secretary and the Secretary of Energy.

(C) The nuclear assessment program and activities of the assessment, detection, and cooperation program of the international materials protection and cooperation program.

(D) Such life sciences activities of the biological and environmental research program related to microbial pathogens as may be designated by the President for transfer to the Department.

(E) The Environmental Measurements Laboratory.

(F) The advanced scientific computing research program and activities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.


(2) The National Bio-Weapons Defense Analysis Center of the Department of Defense, including the functions of the Secretary of Defense related thereto.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title III, §303, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2164.)

§184. Conduct of certain public health-related activities

(a) In general

With respect to civilian human health-related research and development activities relating to countermeasures for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear and other emerging terrorist threats carried out by the Department of Health and Human Services (including the Public Health Service), the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall set priorities, goals, objectives, and policies and develop a coordinated strategy for such activities in collaboration with the Secretary of Homeland Security to ensure consistency with the national policy and strategic plan developed pursuant to section 182(2) of this title.

(b) Evaluation of progress

In carrying out subsection (a), the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall collaborate with the Secretary in developing specific benchmarks and outcome measurements for evaluating progress toward achieving the priorities and goals described in such subsection.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title III, §304, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2165.)

Codification

Section is comprised of section 304 of Pub. L. 107–296. Subsec. (c) of section 304 of Pub. L. 107–296 amended section 233 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

§185. Federally funded research and development centers

The Secretary, acting through the Under Secretary for Science and Technology, shall have the authority to establish or contract with 1 or more federally funded research and development centers to provide independent analysis of homeland security issues, or to carry out other responsibilities under this chapter, including coordinating and integrating both the extramural and intramural programs described in section 188 of this title.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title III, §305, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2168.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 107–296, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2135, known as the Homeland Security Act of 2002, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title and Tables.

§186. Miscellaneous provisions

(a) Classification

To the greatest extent practicable, research conducted or supported by the Department shall be unclassified.

(b) Construction

Nothing in this subchapter shall be construed to preclude any Under Secretary of the Department from carrying out research, development, demonstration, or deployment activities, as long as such activities are coordinated through the Under Secretary for Science and Technology.

(c) Regulations

The Secretary, acting through the Under Secretary for Science and Technology, may issue necessary regulations with respect to research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities of the Department, including the conducting, funding, and reviewing of such activities.

(d) Notification of Presidential life sciences designations

Not later than 60 days before effecting any transfer of Department of Energy life sciences activities pursuant to section 183(1)(D) of this title, the President shall notify the appropriate congressional committees of the proposed transfer and shall include the reasons for the transfer and a description of the effect of the transfer on the activities of the Department of Energy.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title III, §306, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2168.)

§187. Homeland Security Advanced Research Projects Agency

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Fund

The term "Fund" means the Acceleration Fund for Research and Development of Homeland Security Technologies established in subsection (c).

(2) Homeland security research

The term "homeland security research" means research relevant to the detection of, prevention of, protection against, response to, attribution of, and recovery from homeland security threats, particularly acts of terrorism.

(3) HSARPA

The term "HSARPA" means the Homeland Security Advanced Research Projects Agency established in subsection (b).

(4) Under Secretary

The term "Under Secretary" means the Under Secretary for Science and Technology.

(b) Homeland Security Advanced Research Projects Agency

(1) Establishment

There is established the Homeland Security Advanced Research Projects Agency.

(2) Director

HSARPA shall be headed by a Director, who shall be appointed by the Secretary. The Director shall report to the Under Secretary.

(3) Responsibilities

The Director shall administer the Fund to award competitive, merit-reviewed grants, cooperative agreements or contracts to public or private entities, including businesses, federally funded research and development centers, and universities. The Director shall administer the Fund to—

(A) support basic and applied homeland security research to promote revolutionary changes in technologies that would promote homeland security;

(B) advance the development, testing and evaluation, and deployment of critical homeland security technologies;

(C) accelerate the prototyping and deployment of technologies that would address homeland security vulnerabilities; and

(D) conduct research and development for the purpose of advancing technology for the investigation of child exploitation crimes, including child victim identification, trafficking in persons, and child pornography, and for advanced forensics.

(4) Targeted competitions

The Director may solicit proposals to address specific vulnerabilities identified by the Director.

(5) Coordination

The Director shall ensure that the activities of HSARPA are coordinated with those of other relevant research agencies, and may run projects jointly with other agencies.

(6) Personnel

In hiring personnel for HSARPA, the Secretary shall have the hiring and management authorities described in section 1101 1 of the Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1999 (5 U.S.C. 3104 note; Public Law 105–261). The term of appointments for employees under subsection (c)(1) of that section may not exceed 5 years before the granting of any extension under subsection (c)(2) of that section.

(7) Demonstrations

The Director, periodically, shall hold homeland security technology demonstrations to improve contact among technology developers, vendors and acquisition personnel.

(c) Fund

(1) Establishment

There is established the Acceleration Fund for Research and Development of Homeland Security Technologies, which shall be administered by the Director of HSARPA.

(2) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated $500,000,000 to the Fund for fiscal year 2003 and such sums as may be necessary thereafter.

(3) Coast Guard

Of the funds authorized to be appropriated under paragraph (2), not less than 10 percent of such funds for each fiscal year through fiscal year 2005 shall be authorized only for the Under Secretary, through joint agreement with the Commandant of the Coast Guard, to carry out research and development of improved ports, waterways and coastal security surveillance and perimeter protection capabilities for the purpose of minimizing the possibility that Coast Guard cutters, aircraft, helicopters, and personnel will be diverted from non-homeland security missions to the ports, waterways and coastal security mission.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title III, §307, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2168; Pub. L. 114–22, title III, §302(c), formerly §302(d), May 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 255; renumbered §302(d), Pub. L. 115–392, §23(c)(2), Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5264.)

References in Text

Section 1101 of the Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1999, referred to in subsec. (b)(6), is section 1101 of Pub. L. 105–261, which was formerly set out as a note under section 3104 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title XI, §1121(b), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2452. See section 1599h of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (b)(3)(D). Pub. L. 114–22 added subpar. (D).

1 See References in Text note below.

§188. Conduct of research, development, demonstration, testing and evaluation

(a) In general

The Secretary, acting through the Under Secretary for Science and Technology, shall carry out the responsibilities under section 182(4) of this title through both extramural and intramural programs.

(b) Extramural programs

(1) In general

The Secretary, acting through the Under Secretary for Science and Technology, shall operate extramural research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation programs so as to—

(A) ensure that colleges, universities, private research institutes, and companies (and consortia thereof) from as many areas of the United States as practicable participate;

(B) ensure that the research funded is of high quality, as determined through merit review processes developed under section 182(14) of this title; and

(C) distribute funds through grants, cooperative agreements, and contracts.

(2) University-based centers for homeland security

(A) Designation

The Secretary, acting through the Under Secretary for Science and Technology, shall designate a university-based center or several university-based centers for homeland security. The purpose of the center or these centers shall be to establish a coordinated, university-based system to enhance the Nation's homeland security.

(B) Criteria for designation

Criteria for the designation of colleges or universities as a center for homeland security, shall include, but are not limited to, demonstrated expertise in—

(i) The training of first responders.

(ii) Responding to incidents involving weapons of mass destruction and biological warfare.

(iii) Emergency and diagnostic medical services.

(iv) Chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear countermeasures or detection.

(v) Animal and plant health and diagnostics.

(vi) Food safety.

(vii) Water and wastewater operations.

(viii) Port and waterway security.

(ix) Multi-modal transportation.

(x) Information security and information engineering.

(xi) Engineering.

(xii) Educational outreach and technical assistance.

(xiii) Border transportation and security.

(xiv) The public policy implications and public dissemination of homeland security related research and development.

(C) Discretion of Secretary

To the extent that exercising such discretion is in the interest of homeland security, and with respect to the designation of any given university-based center for homeland security, the Secretary may except certain criteria as specified in subparagraph (B) and consider additional criteria beyond those specified in subparagraph (B). Upon designation of a university-based center for homeland security, the Secretary shall that day publish in the Federal Register the criteria that were excepted or added in the selection process and the justification for the set of criteria that were used for that designation.

(D) Report to Congress

The Secretary shall report annually, from the date of enactment, to Congress concerning the implementation of this section. That report shall indicate which center or centers have been designated and how the designation or designations enhance homeland security, as well as report any decisions to revoke or modify such designations.

(E) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out this paragraph.

(c) Intramural programs

(1) Consultation

In carrying out the duties under section 182 of this title, the Secretary, acting through the Under Secretary for Science and Technology, may draw upon the expertise of any laboratory of the Federal Government, whether operated by a contractor or the Government.

(2) Laboratories

The Secretary, acting through the Under Secretary for Science and Technology, may establish a headquarters laboratory for the Department at any laboratory or site and may establish additional laboratory units at other laboratories or sites.

(3) Criteria for headquarters laboratory

If the Secretary chooses to establish a headquarters laboratory pursuant to paragraph (2), then the Secretary shall do the following:

(A) Establish criteria for the selection of the headquarters laboratory in consultation with the National Academy of Sciences, appropriate Federal agencies, and other experts.

(B) Publish the criteria in the Federal Register.

(C) Evaluate all appropriate laboratories or sites against the criteria.

(D) Select a laboratory or site on the basis of the criteria.

(E) Report to the appropriate congressional committees on which laboratory was selected, how the selected laboratory meets the published criteria, and what duties the headquarters laboratory shall perform.

(4) Limitation on operation of laboratories

No laboratory shall begin operating as the headquarters laboratory of the Department until at least 30 days after the transmittal of the report required by paragraph (3)(E).

(Pub. L. 107–296, title III, §308, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2170; Pub. L. 108–7, div. L, §101(1), Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. 526.)

References in Text

The date of enactment, referred to in subsec. (b)(2)(D), probably means the date of enactment of this section by Pub. L. 107–296, which was approved Nov. 25, 2002.

Amendments

2003—Subsecs. (a) to (c)(1). Pub. L. 108–7 added subsecs. (a) to (c)(1) and struck out former subsecs. (a) to (c)(1) which related to the responsibilities of the Secretary, acting through the Under Secretary for Science and Technology, to carry out the responsibilities under section 182(4) of this title through both extramural and intramural programs, to operate extramural research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation programs, to establish a coordinated, university-based system to enhance the Nation's homeland security, and to draw upon the expertise of any laboratory of the Federal Government.

§189. Utilization of Department of Energy national laboratories and sites in support of homeland security activities

(a) Authority to utilize national laboratories and sites

(1) In general

In carrying out the missions of the Department, the Secretary may utilize the Department of Energy national laboratories and sites through any 1 or more of the following methods, as the Secretary considers appropriate:

(A) A joint sponsorship arrangement referred to in subsection (b).

(B) A direct contract between the Department and the applicable Department of Energy laboratory or site, subject to subsection (c).

(C) Any "work for others" basis made available by that laboratory or site.

(D) Any other method provided by law.

(2) Acceptance and performance by labs and sites

Notwithstanding any other law governing the administration, mission, use, or operations of any of the Department of Energy national laboratories and sites, such laboratories and sites are authorized to accept and perform work for the Secretary, consistent with resources provided, and perform such work on an equal basis to other missions at the laboratory and not on a noninterference basis with other missions of such laboratory or site.

(b) Joint sponsorship arrangements

(1) Laboratories

The Department may be a joint sponsor, under a multiple agency sponsorship arrangement with the Department of Energy, of 1 or more Department of Energy national laboratories in the performance of work.

(2) Sites

The Department may be a joint sponsor of a Department of Energy site in the performance of work as if such site were a federally funded research and development center and the work were performed under a multiple agency sponsorship arrangement with the Department.

(3) Primary sponsor

The Department of Energy shall be the primary sponsor under a multiple agency sponsorship arrangement referred to in paragraph (1) or (2).

(4) Lead agent

The Secretary of Energy shall act as the lead agent in coordinating the formation and performance of a joint sponsorship arrangement under this subsection between the Department and a Department of Energy national laboratory or site.

(5) Federal Acquisition Regulation

Any work performed by a Department of Energy national laboratory or site under a joint sponsorship arrangement under this subsection shall comply with the policy on the use of federally funded research and development centers under the Federal Acquisition Regulations.

(6) Funding

The Department shall provide funds for work at the Department of Energy national laboratories or sites, as the case may be, under a joint sponsorship arrangement under this subsection under the same terms and conditions as apply to the primary sponsor of such national laboratory under section 3303(a)(1)(C) of title 41 or of such site to the extent such section applies to such site as a federally funded research and development center by reason of this subsection.

(c) Separate contracting

To the extent that programs or activities transferred by this chapter from the Department of Energy to the Department of Homeland Security are being carried out through direct contracts with the operator of a national laboratory or site of the Department of Energy, the Secretary of Homeland Security and the Secretary of Energy shall ensure that direct contracts for such programs and activities between the Department of Homeland Security and such operator are separate from the direct contracts of the Department of Energy with such operator.

(d) Authority with respect to cooperative research and development agreements and licensing agreements

In connection with any utilization of the Department of Energy national laboratories and sites under this section, the Secretary may permit the director of any such national laboratory or site to enter into cooperative research and development agreements or to negotiate licensing agreements with any person, any agency or instrumentality, of the United States, any unit of State or local government, and any other entity under the authority granted by section 3710a of title 15. Technology may be transferred to a non-Federal party to such an agreement consistent with the provisions of sections 3710 and 3710a of title 15.

(e) Reimbursement of costs

In the case of an activity carried out by the operator of a Department of Energy national laboratory or site in connection with any utilization of such laboratory or site under this section, the Department of Homeland Security shall reimburse the Department of Energy for costs of such activity through a method under which the Secretary of Energy waives any requirement for the Department of Homeland Security to pay administrative charges or personnel costs of the Department of Energy or its contractors in excess of the amount that the Secretary of Energy pays for an activity carried out by such contractor and paid for by the Department of Energy.

(f) Laboratory directed research and development by the Department of Energy

No funds authorized to be appropriated or otherwise made available to the Department in any fiscal year may be obligated or expended for laboratory directed research and development activities carried out by the Department of Energy unless such activities support the missions of the Department of Homeland Security.

(g) Office for National Laboratories

There is established within the Directorate of Science and Technology an Office for National Laboratories, which shall be responsible for the coordination and utilization of the Department of Energy national laboratories and sites under this section in a manner to create a networked laboratory system for the purpose of supporting the missions of the Department.

(h) Department of Energy coordination on homeland security related research

The Secretary of Energy shall ensure that any research, development, test, and evaluation activities conducted within the Department of Energy that are directly or indirectly related to homeland security are fully coordinated with the Secretary to minimize duplication of effort and maximize the effective application of Federal budget resources.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title III, §309, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2172.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (c), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 107–296, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2135, known as the Homeland Security Act of 2002, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title and Tables.

Codification

In subsec. (b)(6), "section 3303(a)(1)(C) of title 41" substituted for "section 303(b)(1)(C) of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949 (41 U.S.C. 253(b)(1)(C))" on authority of Pub. L. 111–350, §6(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3854, which Act enacted Title 41, Public Contracts.

§190. Transfer of Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Department of Agriculture

(a) In general

In accordance with subchapter XII, the Secretary of Agriculture shall transfer to the Secretary of Homeland Security the Plum Island Animal Disease Center of the Department of Agriculture, including the assets and liabilities of the Center.

(b) Continued Department of Agriculture access

On completion of the transfer of the Plum Island Animal Disease Center under subsection (a), the Secretary of Homeland Security and the Secretary of Agriculture shall enter into an agreement to ensure that the Department of Agriculture is able to carry out research, diagnostic, and other activities of the Department of Agriculture at the Center.

(c) Direction of activities

The Secretary of Agriculture shall continue to direct the research, diagnostic, and other activities of the Department of Agriculture at the Center described in subsection (b).

(d) Notification

(1) In general

At least 180 days before any change in the biosafety level at the Plum Island Animal Disease Center, the President shall notify Congress of the change and describe the reasons for the change.

(2) Limitation

No change described in paragraph (1) may be made earlier than 180 days after the completion of the transition period (as defined in section 541 of this title).

(Pub. L. 107–296, title III, §310, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2174.)

Disposition of Plum Island Property and Transportation Assets

Pub. L. 112–74, div. D, title V, §538, Dec. 23, 2011, 125 Stat. 976, provided that:

"(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law during fiscal year 2012 or any subsequent fiscal year, if the Secretary of Homeland Security determines that the National Bio- and Agro-defense Facility should be located at a site other than Plum Island, New York, the Secretary shall ensure that the Administrator of General Services sells through public sale all real and related personal property and transportation assets which support Plum Island operations, subject to such terms and conditions as may be necessary to protect Government interests and meet program requirements.

"(b) The proceeds of such sale described in subsection (a) shall be deposited as offsetting collections into the Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology 'Research, Development, Acquisition, and Operations' account and, subject to appropriation, shall be available until expended, for site acquisition, construction, and costs related to the construction of the National Bio- and Agro-defense Facility, including the costs associated with the sale, including due diligence requirements, necessary environmental remediation at Plum Island, and reimbursement of expenses incurred by the General Services Administration."

§191. Homeland Security Science and Technology Advisory Committee

(a) Establishment

There is established within the Department a Homeland Security Science and Technology Advisory Committee (in this section referred to as the "Advisory Committee"). The Advisory Committee shall make recommendations with respect to the activities of the Under Secretary for Science and Technology, including identifying research areas of potential importance to the security of the Nation.

(b) Membership

(1) Appointment

The Advisory Committee shall consist of 20 members appointed by the Under Secretary for Science and Technology, which shall include emergency first-responders or representatives of organizations or associations of emergency first-responders. The Advisory Committee shall also include representatives of citizen groups, including economically disadvantaged communities. The individuals appointed as members of the Advisory Committee—

(A) shall be eminent in fields such as emergency response, research, engineering, new product development, business, and management consulting;

(B) shall be selected solely on the basis of established records of distinguished service;

(C) shall not be employees of the Federal Government; and

(D) shall be so selected as to provide representation of a cross-section of the research, development, demonstration, and deployment activities supported by the Under Secretary for Science and Technology.

(2) National Research Council

The Under Secretary for Science and Technology may enter into an arrangement for the National Research Council to select members of the Advisory Committee, but only if the panel used by the National Research Council reflects the representation described in paragraph (1).

(c) Terms of office

(1) In general

Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the term of office of each member of the Advisory Committee shall be 3 years.

(2) Original appointments

The original members of the Advisory Committee shall be appointed to three classes. One class of six shall have a term of 1 year, one class of seven a term of 2 years, and one class of seven a term of 3 years.

(3) Vacancies

A member appointed to fill a vacancy occurring before the expiration of the term for which the member's predecessor was appointed shall be appointed for the remainder of such term.

(d) Eligibility

A person who has completed two consecutive full terms of service on the Advisory Committee shall thereafter be ineligible for appointment during the 1-year period following the expiration of the second such term.

(e) Meetings

The Advisory Committee shall meet at least quarterly at the call of the Chair or whenever one-third of the members so request in writing. Each member shall be given appropriate notice of the call of each meeting, whenever possible not less than 15 days before the meeting.

(f) Quorum

A majority of the members of the Advisory Committee not having a conflict of interest in the matter being considered by the Advisory Committee shall constitute a quorum.

(g) Conflict of interest rules

The Advisory Committee shall establish rules for determining when 1 of its members has a conflict of interest in a matter being considered by the Advisory Committee.

(h) Reports

(1) Annual report

The Advisory Committee shall render an annual report to the Under Secretary for Science and Technology for transmittal to Congress on or before January 31 of each year. Such report shall describe the activities and recommendations of the Advisory Committee during the previous year.

(2) Additional reports

The Advisory Committee may render to the Under Secretary for transmittal to Congress such additional reports on specific policy matters as it considers appropriate.

(i) Federal Advisory Committee Act exemption

Section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act shall not apply to the Advisory Committee.

(j) Termination

The Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Advisory Committee shall terminate on December 31, 2008.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title III, §311, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2174; Pub. L. 108–334, title V, §520, Oct. 18, 2004, 118 Stat. 1318; Pub. L. 109–347, title III, §302(a), Oct. 13, 2006, 120 Stat. 1920.)

References in Text

Section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec. (i), is section 14 of Pub. L. 92–463, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 109–347 substituted "on December 31, 2008" for "3 years after the effective date of this chapter".

2004—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 108–334 amended heading and text of par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The original members of the Advisory Committee shall be appointed to three classes of three members each. One class shall have a term of 1 year, 1 a term of 2 years, and the other a term of 3 years."

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–347, title III, §302(b), Oct. 13, 2006, 120 Stat. 1921, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall be effective as if enacted on the date of the enactment of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 (6 U.S.C. 101 et seq.) [Nov. 25, 2002]."

§192. Homeland Security Institute

(a) Establishment

The Secretary shall establish a federally funded research and development center to be known as the "Homeland Security Institute" (in this section referred to as the "Institute").

(b) Administration

The Institute shall be administered as a separate entity by the Secretary.

(c) Duties

The duties of the Institute shall be determined by the Secretary, and may include the following:

(1) Systems analysis, risk analysis, and simulation and modeling to determine the vulnerabilities of the Nation's critical infrastructures and the effectiveness of the systems deployed to reduce those vulnerabilities.

(2) Economic and policy analysis to assess the distributed costs and benefits of alternative approaches to enhancing security.

(3) Evaluation of the effectiveness of measures deployed to enhance the security of institutions, facilities, and infrastructure that may be terrorist targets.

(4) Identification of instances when common standards and protocols could improve the interoperability and effective utilization of tools developed for field operators and first responders.

(5) Assistance for Federal agencies and departments in establishing testbeds to evaluate the effectiveness of technologies under development and to assess the appropriateness of such technologies for deployment.

(6) Design of metrics and use of those metrics to evaluate the effectiveness of homeland security programs throughout the Federal Government, including all national laboratories.

(7) Design of and support for the conduct of homeland security-related exercises and simulations.

(8) Creation of strategic technology development plans to reduce vulnerabilities in the Nation's critical infrastructure and key resources.

(d) Consultation on Institute activities

In carrying out the duties described in subsection (c), the Institute shall consult widely with representatives from private industry, institutions of higher education, nonprofit institutions, other Government agencies, and federally funded research and development centers.

(e) Use of centers

The Institute shall utilize the capabilities of the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center.

(f) Annual reports

The Institute shall transmit to the Secretary and Congress an annual report on the activities of the Institute under this section.

(g) Termination

The Homeland Security Institute shall terminate 5 years after its establishment.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title III, §312, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2176; Pub. L. 108–334, title V, §519, Oct. 18, 2004, 118 Stat. 1318.)

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 108–334 amended heading and text of subsec. (g) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The Homeland Security Institute shall terminate 3 years after the effective date of this chapter."

§193. Technology clearinghouse to encourage and support innovative solutions to enhance homeland security

(a) Establishment of program

The Secretary, acting through the Under Secretary for Science and Technology, shall establish and promote a program to encourage technological innovation in facilitating the mission of the Department (as described in section 111 of this title).

(b) Elements of program

The program described in subsection (a) shall include the following components:

(1) The establishment of a centralized Federal clearinghouse for information relating to technologies that would further the mission of the Department for dissemination, as appropriate, to Federal, State, and local government and private sector entities for additional review, purchase, or use.

(2) The issuance of announcements seeking unique and innovative technologies to advance the mission of the Department.

(3) The establishment of a technical assistance team to assist in screening, as appropriate, proposals submitted to the Secretary (except as provided in subsection (c)(2)) to assess the feasibility, scientific and technical merits, and estimated cost of such proposals, as appropriate.

(4) The provision of guidance, recommendations, and technical assistance, as appropriate, to assist Federal, State, and local government and private sector efforts to evaluate and implement the use of technologies described in paragraph (1) or (2).

(5) The provision of information for persons seeking guidance on how to pursue proposals to develop or deploy technologies that would enhance homeland security, including information relating to Federal funding, regulation, or acquisition.

(c) Miscellaneous provisions

(1) In general

Nothing in this section shall be construed as authorizing the Secretary or the technical assistance team established under subsection (b)(3) to set standards for technology to be used by the Department, any other executive agency, any State or local government entity, or any private sector entity.

(2) Certain proposals

The technical assistance team established under subsection (b)(3) shall not consider or evaluate proposals submitted in response to a solicitation for offers for a pending procurement or for a specific agency requirement.

(3) Coordination

In carrying out this section, the Secretary shall coordinate with the Technical Support Working Group (organized under the April 1982 National Security Decision Directive Numbered 30).

(Pub. L. 107–296, title III, §313, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2176.)

§194. Enhancement of public safety communications interoperability

(a) Coordination of public safety interoperable communications programs

(1) Program

The Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Secretary of Commerce and the Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission, shall establish a program to enhance public safety interoperable communications at all levels of government. Such program shall—

(A) establish a comprehensive national approach to achieving public safety interoperable communications;

(B) coordinate with other Federal agencies in carrying out subparagraph (A);

(C) develop, in consultation with other appropriate Federal agencies and State and local authorities, appropriate minimum capabilities for communications interoperability for Federal, State, and local public safety agencies;

(D) accelerate, in consultation with other Federal agencies, including the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the private sector, and nationally recognized standards organizations as appropriate, the development of national voluntary consensus standards for public safety interoperable communications, recognizing—

(i) the value, life cycle, and technical capabilities of existing communications infrastructure;

(ii) the need for cross-border interoperability between States and nations;

(iii) the unique needs of small, rural communities; and

(iv) the interoperability needs for daily operations and catastrophic events;


(E) encourage the development and implementation of flexible and open architectures incorporating, where possible, technologies that currently are commercially available, with appropriate levels of security, for short-term and long-term solutions to public safety communications interoperability;

(F) assist other Federal agencies in identifying priorities for research, development, and testing and evaluation with regard to public safety interoperable communications;

(G) identify priorities within the Department of Homeland Security for research, development, and testing and evaluation with regard to public safety interoperable communications;

(H) establish coordinated guidance for Federal grant programs for public safety interoperable communications;

(I) provide technical assistance to State and local public safety agencies regarding planning, acquisition strategies, interoperability architectures, training, and other functions necessary to achieve public safety communications interoperability;

(J) develop and disseminate best practices to improve public safety communications interoperability; and

(K) develop appropriate performance measures and milestones to systematically measure the Nation's progress toward achieving public safety communications interoperability, including the development of national voluntary consensus standards.

(2) Office for Interoperability and Compatibility

(A) Establishment of Office

The Secretary may establish an Office for Interoperability and Compatibility within the Directorate of Science and Technology to carry out this subsection.

(B) Functions

If the Secretary establishes such office, the Secretary shall, through such office—

(i) carry out Department of Homeland Security responsibilities and authorities relating to the SAFECOM Program; and

(ii) carry out section 321 1 of this title.

(3) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out this subsection—

(A) $22,105,000 for fiscal year 2005;

(B) $22,768,000 for fiscal year 2006;

(C) $23,451,000 for fiscal year 2007;

(D) $24,155,000 for fiscal year 2008; and

(E) $24,879,000 for fiscal year 2009.

(b) Report

Not later than 120 days after December 17, 2004, the Secretary shall report to the Congress on Department of Homeland Security plans for accelerating the development of national voluntary consensus standards for public safety interoperable communications, a schedule of milestones for such development, and achievements of such development.

(c) International interoperability

Not later than 18 months after December 17, 2004, the President shall establish a mechanism for coordinating cross-border interoperability issues between—

(1) the United States and Canada; and

(2) the United States and Mexico.

(d) Omitted

(e) Multiyear interoperability grants

(1) Multiyear commitments

In awarding grants to any State, region, local government, or Indian tribe for the purposes of enhancing interoperable communications capabilities for emergency response providers, the Secretary may commit to obligate Federal assistance beyond the current fiscal year, subject to the limitations and restrictions in this subsection.

(2) Restrictions

(A) Time limit

No multiyear interoperability commitment may exceed 3 years in duration.

(B) Amount of committed funds

The total amount of assistance the Secretary has committed to obligate for any future fiscal year under paragraph (1) may not exceed $150,000,000.

(3) Letters of intent

(A) Issuance

Pursuant to paragraph (1), the Secretary may issue a letter of intent to an applicant committing to obligate from future budget authority an amount, not more than the Federal Government's share of the project's cost, for an interoperability communications project (including interest costs and costs of formulating the project).

(B) Schedule

A letter of intent under this paragraph shall establish a schedule under which the Secretary will reimburse the applicant for the Federal Government's share of the project's costs, as amounts become available, if the applicant, after the Secretary issues the letter, carries out the project before receiving amounts under a grant issued by the Secretary.

(C) Notice to Secretary

An applicant that is issued a letter of intent under this subsection shall notify the Secretary of the applicant's intent to carry out a project pursuant to the letter before the project begins.

(D) Notice to Congress

The Secretary shall transmit a written notification to the Congress no later than 3 days before the issuance of a letter of intent under this section.

(E) Limitations

A letter of intent issued under this section is not an obligation of the Government under section 1501 of title 31 and is not deemed to be an administrative commitment for financing. An obligation or administrative commitment may be made only as amounts are provided in authorization and appropriations laws.

(F) Statutory construction

Nothing in this subsection shall be construed—

(i) to prohibit the obligation of amounts pursuant to a letter of intent under this subsection in the same fiscal year as the letter of intent is issued; or

(ii) to apply to, or replace, Federal assistance intended for interoperable communications that is not provided pursuant to a commitment under this subsection.

(f) Interoperable communications plans

Any applicant requesting funding assistance from the Secretary for interoperable communications for emergency response providers shall submit an Interoperable Communications Plan to the Secretary for approval. Such a plan shall—

(1) describe the current state of communications interoperability in the applicable jurisdictions among Federal, State, and local emergency response providers and other relevant private resources;

(2) describe the available and planned use of public safety frequency spectrum and resources for interoperable communications within such jurisdictions;

(3) describe how the planned use of spectrum and resources for interoperable communications is compatible with surrounding capabilities and interoperable communications plans of Federal, State, and local governmental entities, military installations, foreign governments, critical infrastructure, and other relevant entities;

(4) include a 5-year plan for the dedication of Federal, State, and local government and private resources to achieve a consistent, secure, and effective interoperable communications system, including planning, system design and engineering, testing and technology development, procurement and installation, training, and operations and maintenance;

(5) describe how such 5-year plan meets or exceeds any applicable standards and grant requirements established by the Secretary;

(6) include information on the governance structure used to develop the plan, including such information about all agencies and organizations that participated in developing the plan and the scope and timeframe of the plan; and

(7) describe the method by which multi-jurisdictional, multidisciplinary input is provided from all regions of the jurisdiction, including any high-threat urban areas located in the jurisdiction, and the process for continuing to incorporate such input.

(g) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Interoperable communications

The term "interoperable communications" means the ability of emergency response providers and relevant Federal, State, and local government agencies to communicate with each other as necessary, through a dedicated public safety network utilizing information technology systems and radio communications systems, and to exchange voice, data, and video with one another on demand, in real time, as necessary.

(2) Emergency response providers

The term "emergency response providers" has the meaning that term has under section 101 of this title.

(h) Omitted

(i) Sense of Congress regarding interoperable communications

(1) Finding

The Congress finds that—

(A) many first responders working in the same jurisdiction or in different jurisdictions cannot effectively and efficiently communicate with one another; and

(B) their inability to do so threatens the public's safety and may result in unnecessary loss of lives and property.

(2) Sense of Congress

It is the sense of Congress that interoperable emergency communications systems and radios should continue to be deployed as soon as practicable for use by the first responder community, and that upgraded and new digital communications systems and new digital radios must meet prevailing national, voluntary consensus standards for interoperability.

(Pub. L. 108–458, title VII, §7303, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3843; Pub. L. 110–53, title III, §301(c), Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 299.)

References in Text

Section 321 of this title, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(B)(ii), was in the original a reference to section 510 of the Homeland Security Act of 2002, as added by section 7303(d) of Pub. L. 108–458, which was repealed by Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, §611(5), Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1395.

Codification

Section is comprised of section 7303 of Pub. L. 108–458. Subsec. (d) of section 7303 of Pub. L. 108–458 enacted section 321 of this title. Subsec. (h) of section 7303 of Pub. L. 108–458 amended sections 238 and 314 of this title.

Section was enacted as part of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, and also as part of the 9/11 Commission Implementation Act of 2004, and not as part of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 which comprises this chapter.

Section 301(c) of Pub. L. 110–53, which directed the amendment of section 7303 of the "Intelligence Reform and Terrorist Prevention Act of 2004", was executed to this section, which is section 7303 of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, to reflect the probable intent of Congress. See 2007 Amendment notes below.

Amendments

2007—Subsec. (f)(6), (7). Pub. L. 110–53, §301(c)(1), added pars. (6) and (7). See Codification note above.

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 110–53, §301(c)(2), substituted "and video" for "or video". See Codification note above.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 108–458, title VII, §7308, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3849, provided that: "Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act [see Tables for classification], this subtitle [subtitle C (§§7301–7308) of title VII of Pub. L. 108–458, enacting this section and section 321 of this title, amending sections 238 and 312 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and section 5196 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 17, 2004]."

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of the SAFECOM Program, excluding elements related to research, development, testing, and evaluation and standards, to the Assistant Director for Emergency Communications, see section 571(d)(1) of this title.

Department of Homeland Security Interoperable Communications

Pub. L. 114–120, title II, §212, Feb. 8, 2016, 130 Stat. 42, provided that:

"(a) In General.—If the Secretary of Homeland Security determines that there are at least two communications systems described under paragraph (1)(B) and certified under paragraph (2), the Secretary shall establish and carry out a pilot program across not less than three components of the Department of Homeland Security to assess the effectiveness of a communications system that—

"(1) provides for—

"(A) multiagency collaboration and interoperability; and

"(B) wide-area, secure, and peer-invitation- and-acceptance-based multimedia communications;

"(2) is certified by the Department of Defense Joint Interoperability Test Center; and

"(3) is composed of commercially available, off-the-shelf technology.

"(b) Assessment.—Not later than 6 months after the date on which the pilot program is completed, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure and the Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the Committee [on] Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate an assessment of the pilot program, including the impacts of the program with respect to interagency and Coast Guard response capabilities.

"(c) Strategy.—The pilot program shall be consistent with the strategy required by the Department of Homeland Security Interoperable Communications Act (Public Law 114–29) [set out below].

"(d) Timing.—The pilot program shall commence within 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Feb. 8, 2016] or within 60 days after the completion of the strategy required by the Department of Homeland Security Interoperable Communications Act (Public Law 114–29), whichever is later."

Pub. L. 114–29, July 6, 2015, 129 Stat. 421, provided that:

"SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

"This Act may be cited as the 'Department of Homeland Security Interoperable Communications Act' or the 'DHS Interoperable Communications Act'.

"SEC. 2. DEFINITIONS.

"In this Act—

"(1) the term 'Department' means the Department of Homeland Security;

"(2) the term 'interoperable communications' has the meaning given that term in section 701(d) [now 701(e)] of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 [6 U.S.C. 341(e)], as added by section 3; and

"(3) the term 'Under Secretary for Management' means the Under Secretary for Management of the Department of Homeland Security.

"SEC. 3. INCLUSION OF INTEROPERABLE COMMUNICATIONS CAPABILITIES IN RESPONSIBILITIES OF UNDER SECRETARY FOR MANAGEMENT.

[Amended section 341 of this title.]

"SEC. 4. STRATEGY.

"(a) In General.—Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [July 6, 2015], the Under Secretary for Management shall submit to the Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate a strategy, which shall be updated as necessary, for achieving and maintaining interoperable communications among the components of the Department, including for daily operations, planned events, and emergencies, with corresponding milestones, that includes the following:

"(1) An assessment of interoperability gaps in radio communications among the components of the Department, as of the date of enactment of this Act.

"(2) Information on efforts and activities, including current and planned policies, directives, and training, of the Department since November 1, 2012, to achieve and maintain interoperable communications among the components of the Department, and planned efforts and activities of the Department to achieve and maintain such interoperable communications.

"(3) An assessment of obstacles and challenges to achieving and maintaining interoperable communications among the components of the Department.

"(4) Information on, and an assessment of, the adequacy of mechanisms available to the Under Secretary for Management to enforce and compel compliance with interoperable communications policies and directives of the Department.

"(5) Guidance provided to the components of the Department to implement interoperable communications policies and directives of the Department.

"(6) The total amount of funds expended by the Department since November 1, 2012, and projected future expenditures, to achieve interoperable communications, including on equipment, infrastructure, and maintenance.

"(7) Dates upon which Department-wide interoperability is projected to be achieved for voice, data, and video communications, respectively, and interim milestones that correspond to the achievement of each such mode of communication.

"(b) Supplementary Material.—Together with the strategy required under subsection (a), the Under Secretary for Management shall submit to the Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate information on—

"(1) any intra-agency effort or task force that has been delegated certain responsibilities by the Under Secretary for Management relating to achieving and maintaining interoperable communications among the components of the Department by the dates referred to in subsection (a)(7); and

"(2) who, within each such component, is responsible for implementing policies and directives issued by the Under Secretary for Management to so achieve and maintain such interoperable communications.

"SEC. 5. REPORT.

"Not later than 100 days after the date on which the strategy required under section 4(a) is submitted, and every 2 years thereafter for 6 years, the Under Secretary for Management shall submit to the Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate a report on the status of efforts to implement the strategy required under section 4(a), including the following:

"(1) Progress on each interim milestone referred to in section 4(a)(7) toward achieving and maintaining interoperable communications among the components of the Department.

"(2) Information on any policies, directives, guidance, and training established by the Under Secretary for Management.

"(3) An assessment of the level of compliance, adoption, and participation among the components of the Department with the policies, directives, guidance, and training established by the Under Secretary for Management to achieve and maintain interoperable communications among the components.

"(4) Information on any additional resources or authorities needed by the Under Secretary for Management.

"SEC. 6. APPLICABILITY.

"Sections 4 and 5 shall only apply with respect to the interoperable communications capabilities within the Department and components of the Department to communicate within the Department."

Cross Border Interoperability Reports

Pub. L. 110–53, title XXII, §2203, Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 541, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 3, 2007], the Federal Communications Commission, in consultation with the Department of Homeland Security's Office of Emergency Communications [now Emergency Communications Division], the Office of Management of [sic] Budget, and the Department of State shall report to the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the House of Representatives Committee on Energy and Commerce on—

"(1) the status of the mechanism established by the President under section 7303(c) of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (6 U.S.C. 194(c)) for coordinating cross border interoperability issues between—

"(A) the United States and Canada; and

"(B) the United States and Mexico;

"(2) the status of treaty negotiations with Canada and Mexico regarding the coordination of the re-banding of 800 megahertz radios, as required under the final rule of the Federal Communication Commission in the 'Private Land Mobile Services; 800 MHz Public Safety Interface Proceeding' (WT Docket No. 02–55; ET Docket No. 00–258; ET Docket No. 95–18, RM–9498; RM–10024; FCC 04–168) including the status of any outstanding issues in the negotiations between—

"(A) the United States and Canada; and

"(B) the United States and Mexico;

"(3) communications between the Commission and the Department of State over possible amendments to the bilateral legal agreements and protocols that govern the coordination process for license applications seeking to use channels and frequencies above Line A;

"(4) the annual rejection rate for the last 5 years by the United States of applications for new channels and frequencies by Canadian private and public entities; and

"(5) any additional procedures and mechanisms that can be taken by the Commission to decrease the rejection rate for applications by United States private and public entities seeking licenses to use channels and frequencies above Line A.

"(b) Updated Reports to Be Filed on the Status of Treaty of [sic] Negotiations.—The Federal Communications Commission, in conjunction with the Department of Homeland Security, the Office of Management of Budget, and the Department of State shall continually provide updated reports to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives on the status of treaty negotiations under subsection (a)(2) until the appropriate United States treaty has been revised with each of—

"(1) Canada; and

"(2) Mexico.

"(c) International Negotiations To Remedy Situation.—Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 3, 2007], the Secretary of the Department of State shall report to Congress on—

"(1) the current process for considering applications by Canada for frequencies and channels by United States communities above Line A;

"(2) the status of current negotiations to reform and revise such process;

"(3) the estimated date of conclusion for such negotiations;

"(4) whether the current process allows for automatic denials or dismissals of initial applications by the Government of Canada, and whether such denials or dismissals are currently occurring; and

"(5) communications between the Department of State and the Federal Communications Commission pursuant to subsection (a)(3)."

Submission of Reports to Appropriate Congressional Committees

Pub. L. 110–53, title XXII, §2205, Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 543, provided that: "In addition to the committees specifically enumerated to receive reports under this title [enacting provisions set out as note under this section, section 701 of this title, and section 247d–3a of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 309 of Title 47, Telecommunications], any report transmitted under the provisions of this title shall also be transmitted to the appropriate congressional committees (as defined in section 2(2) of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 (6 U.S.C. 101(2)))."

Regional Model Strategic Plan Pilot Projects

Pub. L. 108–458, title VII, §7304, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3847, directed the Secretary of Homeland Security, not later than 90 days after Dec. 17, 2004, to establish not fewer than 2 pilot projects in high threat urban areas or regions likely to implement a national model strategic plan in order to develop a regional strategic plan to foster interagency communication and coordinate the gathering of all Federal, State, and local first responders in that area, consistent with the national strategic plan developed by the Department of Homeland Security, and to submit to Congress an interim report regarding the progress of the interagency communications pilot projects 6 months after Dec. 17, 2004, and a final report 18 months after Dec. 17, 2004.

1 See References in Text note below.

§195. Office for Interoperability and Compatibility

(a) Clarification of responsibilities

The Director of the Office for Interoperability and Compatibility shall—

(1) assist the Secretary in developing and implementing the science and technology aspects of the program described in subparagraphs (D), (E), (F), and (G) of section 194(a)(1) of this title;

(2) in coordination with the Federal Communications Commission, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and other Federal departments and agencies with responsibility for standards, support the creation of national voluntary consensus standards for interoperable emergency communications;

(3) establish a comprehensive research, development, testing, and evaluation program for improving interoperable emergency communications;

(4) establish, in coordination with the Director for Emergency Communications,1 requirements for interoperable emergency communications capabilities, which shall be nonproprietary where standards for such capabilities exist, for all public safety radio and data communications systems and equipment purchased using homeland security assistance administered by the Department, excluding any alert and warning device, technology, or system;

(5) carry out the Department's responsibilities and authorities relating to research, development, testing, evaluation, or standards-related elements of the SAFECOM Program;

(6) evaluate and assess new technology in real-world environments to achieve interoperable emergency communications capabilities;

(7) encourage more efficient use of existing resources, including equipment, to achieve interoperable emergency communications capabilities;

(8) test public safety communications systems that are less prone to failure, support new nonvoice services, use spectrum more efficiently, and cost less than existing systems;

(9) coordinate with the private sector to develop solutions to improve emergency communications capabilities and achieve interoperable emergency communications capabilities; and

(10) conduct pilot projects, in coordination with the Director for Emergency Communications,1 to test and demonstrate technologies, including data and video, that enhance—

(A) the ability of emergency response providers and relevant government officials to continue to communicate in the event of natural disasters, acts of terrorism, and other man-made disasters; and

(B) interoperable emergency communications capabilities.

(b) Coordination

The Director of the Office for Interoperability and Compatibility shall coordinate with the Director for Emergency Communications 1 with respect to the SAFECOM program.

(c) Sufficiency of resources

The Secretary shall provide the Office for Interoperability and Compatibility the resources and staff necessary to carry out the responsibilities under this section.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title III, §314, as added Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, §672(a), Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1441.)

Change of Name

Reference to Director for Emergency Communications deemed to be a reference to Assistant Director for Emergency Communications, see section 2(c)(2) of Pub. L. 115–278, set out as a note under section 571 of this title.

1 See Change of Name note below.

§195a. Emergency communications interoperability research and development

(a) In general

The Under Secretary for Science and Technology, acting through the Director of the Office for Interoperability and Compatibility, shall establish a comprehensive research and development program to support and promote—

(1) the ability of emergency response providers and relevant government officials to continue to communicate in the event of natural disasters, acts of terrorism, and other man-made disasters; and

(2) interoperable emergency communications capabilities among emergency response providers and relevant government officials, including by—

(A) supporting research on a competitive basis, including through the Directorate of Science and Technology and Homeland Security Advanced Research Projects Agency; and

(B) considering the establishment of a Center of Excellence under the Department of Homeland Security Centers of Excellence Program focused on improving emergency response providers' communication capabilities.

(b) Purposes

The purposes of the program established under subsection (a) include—

(1) supporting research, development, testing, and evaluation on emergency communication capabilities;

(2) understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the public safety communications systems in use;

(3) examining how current and emerging technology can make emergency response providers more effective, and how Federal, State, local, and tribal government agencies can use this technology in a coherent and cost-effective manner;

(4) investigating technologies that could lead to long-term advancements in emergency communications capabilities and supporting research on advanced technologies and potential systemic changes to dramatically improve emergency communications; and

(5) evaluating and validating advanced technology concepts, and facilitating the development and deployment of interoperable emergency communication capabilities.

(c) Definitions

For purposes of this section, the term "interoperable", with respect to emergency communications, has the meaning given the term in section 578 of this title.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title III, §315, as added Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, §673(a), Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1443.)

§195b. National Biosurveillance Integration Center

(a) Establishment

The Secretary, acting through the Assistant Secretary for the Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction Office, shall establish, operate, and maintain a National Biosurveillance Integration Center (referred to in this section as the "NBIC"), which shall be headed by a Directing Officer, under an office or directorate of the Department that is in existence as of August 3, 2007.

(b) Primary mission

The primary mission of the NBIC is to—

(1) enhance the capability of the Federal Government to—

(A) rapidly identify, characterize, localize, and track a biological event of national concern by integrating and analyzing data relating to human health, animal, plant, food, and environmental monitoring systems (both national and international); and

(B) disseminate alerts and other information to Member Agencies and, in coordination with (and where possible through) Member Agencies, to agencies of State, local, and tribal governments, as appropriate, to enhance the ability of such agencies to respond to a biological event of national concern; and


(2) oversee development and operation of the National Biosurveillance Integration System.

(c) Requirements

The NBIC shall detect, as early as possible, a biological event of national concern that presents a risk to the United States or the infrastructure or key assets of the United States, including by—

(1) consolidating data from all relevant surveillance systems maintained by Member Agencies to detect biological events of national concern across human, animal, and plant species;

(2) seeking private sources of surveillance, both foreign and domestic, when such sources would enhance coverage of critical surveillance gaps;

(3) using an information technology system that uses the best available statistical and other analytical tools to identify and characterize biological events of national concern in as close to real-time as is practicable;

(4) providing the infrastructure for such integration, including information technology systems and space, and support for personnel from Member Agencies with sufficient expertise to enable analysis and interpretation of data;

(5) working with Member Agencies to create information technology systems that use the minimum amount of patient data necessary and consider patient confidentiality and privacy issues at all stages of development and apprise the Privacy Officer of such efforts; and

(6) alerting Member Agencies and, in coordination with (and where possible through) Member Agencies, public health agencies of State, local, and tribal governments regarding any incident that could develop into a biological event of national concern.

(d) Responsibilities of the Directing Officer of the NBIC

(1) In general

The Directing Officer of the NBIC shall—

(A) on an ongoing basis, monitor the availability and appropriateness of surveillance systems used by the NBIC and those systems that could enhance biological situational awareness or the overall performance of the NBIC;

(B) on an ongoing basis, review and seek to improve the statistical and other analytical methods used by the NBIC;

(C) receive and consider other relevant homeland security information, as appropriate; and

(D) provide technical assistance, as appropriate, to all Federal, regional, State, local, and tribal government entities and private sector entities that contribute data relevant to the operation of the NBIC.

(2) Assessments

The Directing Officer of the NBIC shall—

(A) on an ongoing basis, evaluate available data for evidence of a biological event of national concern; and

(B) integrate homeland security information with NBIC data to provide overall situational awareness and determine whether a biological event of national concern has occurred.

(3) Information sharing

(A) In general

The Directing Officer of the NBIC shall—

(i) establish a method of real-time communication with the National Operations Center;

(ii) in the event that a biological event of national concern is detected, notify the Secretary and disseminate results of NBIC assessments relating to that biological event of national concern to appropriate Federal response entities and, in coordination with relevant Member Agencies, regional, State, local, and tribal governmental response entities in a timely manner;

(iii) provide any report on NBIC assessments to Member Agencies and, in coordination with relevant Member Agencies, any affected regional, State, local, or tribal government, and any private sector entity considered appropriate that may enhance the mission of such Member Agencies, governments, or entities or the ability of the Nation to respond to biological events of national concern; and

(iv) share NBIC incident or situational awareness reports, and other relevant information, consistent with the information sharing environment established under section 485 of this title and any policies, guidelines, procedures, instructions, or standards established under that section.

(B) Consultation

The Directing Officer of the NBIC shall implement the activities described in subparagraph (A) consistent with the policies, guidelines, procedures, instructions, or standards established under section 485 of this title and in consultation with the Director of National Intelligence, the Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis, and other offices or agencies of the Federal Government, as appropriate.

(e) Responsibilities of the NBIC member agencies

(1) 1 In general

Each Member Agency shall—

(A) use its best efforts to integrate biosurveillance information into the NBIC, with the goal of promoting information sharing between Federal, State, local, and tribal governments to detect biological events of national concern;

(B) provide timely information to assist the NBIC in maintaining biological situational awareness for accurate detection and response purposes;

(C) enable the NBIC to receive and use biosurveillance information from member agencies to carry out its requirements under subsection (c);

(D) connect the biosurveillance data systems of that Member Agency to the NBIC data system under mutually agreed protocols that are consistent with subsection (c)(5);

(E) participate in the formation of strategy and policy for the operation of the NBIC and its information sharing;

(F) provide personnel to the NBIC under an interagency personnel agreement and consider the qualifications of such personnel necessary to provide human, animal, and environmental data analysis and interpretation support to the NBIC; and

(G) retain responsibility for the surveillance and intelligence systems of that department or agency, if applicable.

(f) Administrative authorities

(1) Hiring of experts

The Directing Officer of the NBIC shall hire individuals with the necessary expertise to develop and operate the NBIC.

(2) Detail of personnel

Upon the request of the Directing Officer of the NBIC, the head of any Federal department or agency may detail, on a reimbursable basis, any of the personnel of that department or agency to the Department to assist the NBIC in carrying out this section.

(g) NBIC interagency working group

The Directing Officer of the NBIC shall—

(1) establish an interagency working group to facilitate interagency cooperation and to advise the Directing Officer of the NBIC regarding recommendations to enhance the biosurveillance capabilities of the Department; and

(2) invite Member Agencies to serve on that working group.

(h) Relationship to other departments and agencies

The authority of the Directing Officer of the NBIC under this section shall not affect any authority or responsibility of any other department or agency of the Federal Government with respect to biosurveillance activities under any program administered by that department or agency.

(i) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to carry out this section.

(j) Definitions

In this section:

(1) The terms "biological agent" and "toxin" have the meanings given those terms in section 178 of title 18.

(2) The term "biological event of national concern" means—

(A) an act of terrorism involving a biological agent or toxin; or

(B) a naturally occurring outbreak of an infectious disease that may result in a national epidemic.


(3) The term "homeland security information" has the meaning given that term in section 482 of this title.

(4) The term "Member Agency" means any Federal department or agency that, at the discretion of the head of that department or agency, has entered a memorandum of understanding regarding participation in the NBIC.

(5) The term "Privacy Officer" means the Privacy Officer appointed under section 142 of this title.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title III, §316, as added Pub. L. 110–53, title XI, §1101(a), Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 375; amended Pub. L. 115–387, §2(f)(2), Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5168.)

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–387 substituted "Secretary, acting through the Assistant Secretary for the Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction Office, shall" for "Secretary shall".

Deadline for Implementation

Pub. L. 110–53, title XI, §1101(c), Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 378, provided that: "The National Biosurveillance Integration Center under section 316 of the Homeland Security Act [of 2002, 6 U.S.C. 195b], as added by subsection (a), shall be fully operational by not later than September 30, 2008."

1 So in original. No par. (2) has been enacted.

§195c. Promoting antiterrorism through international cooperation program

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Director

The term "Director" means the Director selected under subsection (b)(2).

(2) International cooperative activity

The term "international cooperative activity" includes—

(A) coordinated research projects, joint research projects, or joint ventures;

(B) joint studies or technical demonstrations;

(C) coordinated field exercises, scientific seminars, conferences, symposia, and workshops;

(D) training of scientists and engineers;

(E) visits and exchanges of scientists, engineers, or other appropriate personnel;

(F) exchanges or sharing of scientific and technological information; and

(G) joint use of laboratory facilities and equipment.

(b) Science and Technology Homeland Security International Cooperative Programs Office

(1) Establishment

The Under Secretary shall establish the Science and Technology Homeland Security International Cooperative Programs Office.

(2) Director

The Office shall be headed by a Director, who—

(A) shall be selected, in consultation with the Assistant Secretary for International Affairs, by and shall report to the Under Secretary; and

(B) may be an officer of the Department serving in another position.

(3) Responsibilities

(A) Development of mechanisms

The Director shall be responsible for developing, in coordination with the Department of State and, as appropriate, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, and other Federal agencies, understandings and agreements to allow and to support international cooperative activity in support of homeland security.

(B) Priorities

The Director shall be responsible for developing, in coordination with the Office of International Affairs and other Federal agencies, strategic priorities for international cooperative activity for the Department in support of homeland security.

(C) Activities

The Director shall facilitate the planning, development, and implementation of international cooperative activity to address the strategic priorities developed under subparagraph (B) through mechanisms the Under Secretary considers appropriate, including grants, cooperative agreements, or contracts to or with foreign public or private entities, governmental organizations, businesses (including small businesses and socially and economically disadvantaged small businesses (as those terms are defined in sections 632 and 637 of title 15, respectively)), federally funded research and development centers, and universities.

(D) Identification of partners

The Director shall facilitate the matching of United States entities engaged in homeland security research with non-United States entities engaged in homeland security research so that they may partner in homeland security research activities.

(4) Coordination

The Director shall ensure that the activities under this subsection are coordinated with the Office of International Affairs and the Department of State and, as appropriate, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, and other relevant Federal agencies or interagency bodies. The Director may enter into joint activities with other Federal agencies.

(c) Matching funding

(1) In general

(A) Equitability

The Director shall ensure that funding and resources expended in international cooperative activity will be equitably matched by the foreign partner government or other entity through direct funding, funding of complementary activities, or the provision of staff, facilities, material, or equipment.

(B) Grant matching and repayment

(i) In general

The Secretary may require a recipient of a grant under this section—

(I) to make a matching contribution of not more than 50 percent of the total cost of the proposed project for which the grant is awarded; and

(II) to repay to the Secretary the amount of the grant (or a portion thereof), interest on such amount at an appropriate rate, and such charges for administration of the grant as the Secretary determines appropriate.

(ii) Maximum amount

The Secretary may not require that repayment under clause (i)(II) be more than 150 percent of the amount of the grant, adjusted for inflation on the basis of the Consumer Price Index.

(2) Foreign partners

Partners may include Israel, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Singapore, and other allies in the global war on terrorism as determined to be appropriate by the Secretary of Homeland Security and the Secretary of State.

(3) Loans of equipment

The Director may make or accept loans of equipment for research and development and comparative testing purposes.

(d) Foreign reimbursements

If the Science and Technology Homeland Security International Cooperative Programs Office participates in an international cooperative activity with a foreign partner on a cost-sharing basis, any reimbursements or contributions received from that foreign partner to meet its share of the project may be credited to appropriate current appropriations accounts of the Directorate of Science and Technology.

(e) Report to Congress on international cooperative activities

Not later than one year after August 3, 2007, and every 5 years thereafter, the Under Secretary, acting through the Director, shall submit to Congress a report containing—

(1) a brief description of each grant, cooperative agreement, or contract made or entered into under subsection (b)(3)(C), including the participants, goals, and amount and sources of funding;

(2) a list of international cooperative activities underway, including the participants, goals, expected duration, and amount and sources of funding, including resources provided to support the activities in lieu of direct funding; and 1

(3) for international cooperative activities identified in the previous reporting period, a status update on the progress of such activities, including whether goals were realized, explaining any lessons learned, and evaluating overall success; and

(4) a discussion of obstacles encountered in the course of forming, executing, or implementing agreements for international cooperative activities, including administrative, legal, or diplomatic challenges or resource constraints.

(f) Animal and zoonotic diseases

As part of the international cooperative activities authorized in this section, the Under Secretary, in coordination with the Assistant Secretary for the Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction Office, the Department of State, and appropriate officials of the Department of Agriculture, the Department of Defense, and the Department of Health and Human Services, may enter into cooperative activities with foreign countries, including African nations, to strengthen American preparedness against foreign animal and zoonotic diseases overseas that could harm the Nation's agricultural and public health sectors if they were to reach the United States.

(g) Cybersecurity

As part of the international cooperative activities authorized in this section, the Under Secretary, in coordination with the Department of State and appropriate Federal officials, may enter into cooperative research activities with Israel to strengthen preparedness against cyber threats and enhance capabilities in cybersecurity.

(h) Construction; authorities of the Secretary of State

Nothing in this section shall be construed to alter or affect the following provisions of law:

(1) Title V of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1979 (22 U.S.C. 2656a et seq.).

(2) Section 112b(c) of title 1.

(3) Section 2651a(e)(2) of title 22.

(4) Sections 2752 and 2767 of title 22.

(5) Section 2382(c) of title 22.

(i) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section such sums as are necessary.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title III, §317, as added Pub. L. 110–53, title XIX, §1901(b)(1), Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 505; amended Pub. L. 114–304, §2(a), Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1519; Pub. L. 115–387, §2(f)(3), Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5168.)

References in Text

The Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1979, referred to in subsec. (h)(1), is Pub. L. 95–426, Oct. 7, 1978, 92 Stat. 963. Title V of the Act is classified generally to sections 2656a to 2656d of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 115–387 substituted "the Assistant Secretary for the Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction Office," for "the Chief Medical Officer,".

2016—Subsec. (e)(3), (4). Pub. L. 114–304, §2(a)(1), added pars. (3) and (4).

Subsecs. (g) to (i). Pub. L. 114–304, §2(a)(2), (3), added subsec. (g) and redesignated former subsecs. (g) and (h) as (h) and (i), respectively.

Findings

Pub. L. 110–53, title XIX, §1901(a), Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 505, provided that: "Congress finds the following:

"(1) The development and implementation of technology is critical to combating terrorism and other high consequence events and implementing a comprehensive homeland security strategy.

"(2) The United States and its allies in the global war on terrorism share a common interest in facilitating research, development, testing, and evaluation of equipment, capabilities, technologies, and services that will aid in detecting, preventing, responding to, recovering from, and mitigating against acts of terrorism.

"(3) Certain United States allies in the global war on terrorism, including Israel, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and Singapore have extensive experience with, and technological expertise in, homeland security.

"(4) The United States and certain of its allies in the global war on terrorism have a history of successful collaboration in developing mutually beneficial equipment, capabilities, technologies, and services in the areas of defense, agriculture, and telecommunications.

"(5) The United States and its allies in the global war on terrorism will mutually benefit from the sharing of technological expertise to combat domestic and international terrorism.

"(6) The establishment of an office to facilitate and support cooperative endeavors between and among government agencies, for-profit business entities, academic institutions, and nonprofit entities of the United States and its allies will safeguard lives and property worldwide against acts of terrorism and other high consequence events."

Transparency of Funds

Pub. L. 110–53, title XIX, §1902, Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 508, provided that: "For each Federal award (as that term is defined in section 2 of the Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006 [Pub. L. 109–282] (31 U.S.C. 6101 note)) under this title [enacting this section and provisions set out as notes under this section] or an amendment made by this title, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall ensure full and timely compliance with the requirements of the Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006 (31 U.S.C. 6101 note)."

1 So in original. The word "and" probably should not appear.

§195d. Social media working group

(a) Establishment

The Secretary shall establish within the Department a social media working group (in this section referred to as the "Group").

(b) Purpose

In order to enhance the dissemination of information through social media technologies between the Department and appropriate stakeholders and to improve use of social media technologies in support of preparedness, response, and recovery, the Group shall identify, and provide guidance and best practices to the emergency preparedness and response community on, the use of social media technologies before, during, and after a natural disaster or an act of terrorism or other man-made disaster.

(c) Membership

(1) In general

Membership of the Group shall be composed of a cross section of subject matter experts from Federal, State, local, tribal, territorial, and nongovernmental organization practitioners, including representatives from the following entities:

(A) The Office of Public Affairs of the Department.

(B) The Office of the Chief Information Officer of the Department.

(C) The Privacy Office of the Department.

(D) The Federal Emergency Management Agency.

(E) The Office of Disability Integration and Coordination of the Federal Emergency Management Agency.

(F) The American Red Cross.

(G) The Forest Service.

(H) The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

(I) The United States Geological Survey.

(J) The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

(2) Chairperson; co-chairperson

(A) Chairperson

The Secretary, or a designee of the Secretary, shall serve as the chairperson of the Group.

(B) Co-chairperson

The chairperson shall designate, on a rotating basis, a representative from a State or local government who is a member of the Group to serve as the co-chairperson of the Group.

(3) Additional members

The chairperson shall appoint, on a rotating basis, qualified individuals to the Group. The total number of such additional members shall—

(A) be equal to or greater than the total number of regular members under paragraph (1); and

(B) include—

(i) not fewer than 3 representatives from the private sector; and

(ii) representatives from—

(I) State, local, tribal, and territorial entities, including from—

(aa) law enforcement;

(bb) fire services;

(cc) emergency management; and

(dd) public health entities;


(II) universities and academia; and

(III) nonprofit disaster relief organizations.

(4) Term limits

The chairperson shall establish term limits for individuals appointed to the Group under paragraph (3).

(d) Consultation with non-members

To the extent practicable, the Group shall work with entities in the public and private sectors to carry out subsection (b).

(e) Meetings

(1) Initial meeting

Not later than 90 days after November 5, 2015, the Group shall hold its initial meeting.

(2) Subsequent meetings

After the initial meeting under paragraph (1), the Group shall meet—

(A) at the call of the chairperson; and

(B) not less frequently than twice each year.

(3) Virtual meetings

Each meeting of the Group may be held virtually.

(f) Reports

During each year in which the Group meets, the Group shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report that includes the following:

(1) A review and analysis of current and emerging social media technologies being used to support preparedness and response activities related to natural disasters and acts of terrorism and other man-made disasters.

(2) A review of best practices and lessons learned on the use of social media technologies during the response to natural disasters and acts of terrorism and other man-made disasters that occurred during the period covered by the report at issue.

(3) Recommendations to improve the Department's use of social media technologies for emergency management purposes.

(4) Recommendations to improve public awareness of the type of information disseminated through social media technologies, and how to access such information, during a natural disaster or an act of terrorism or other man-made disaster.

(5) A review of available training for Federal, State, local, tribal, and territorial officials on the use of social media technologies in response to a natural disaster or an act of terrorism or other man-made disaster.

(6) A review of coordination efforts with the private sector to discuss and resolve legal, operational, technical, privacy, and security concerns.

(g) Duration of group

(1) In general

The Group shall terminate on the date that is 5 years after November 5, 2015, unless the chairperson renews the Group for a successive 5-year period, prior to the date on which the Group would otherwise terminate, by submitting to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives a certification that the continued existence of the Group is necessary to fulfill the purpose described in subsection (b).

(2) Continued renewal

The chairperson may continue to renew the Group for successive 5-year periods by submitting a certification in accordance with paragraph (1) prior to the date on which the Group would otherwise terminate.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title III, §318, as added Pub. L. 114–80, §2(a), Nov. 5, 2015, 129 Stat. 646.)

§195e. Transparency in research and development

(a) Requirement to list research and development programs

(1) In general

The Secretary shall maintain a detailed list of the following:

(A) Each classified and unclassified research and development project, and all appropriate details for each such project, including the component of the Department responsible for each such project.

(B) Each task order for a Federally Funded Research and Development Center not associated with a research and development project.

(C) Each task order for a University-based center of excellence not associated with a research and development project.

(D) The indicators developed and tracked by the Under Secretary for Science and Technology with respect to transitioned projects pursuant to subsection (c).

(2) Exception for certain completed projects

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to a project completed or otherwise terminated before December 23, 2016.

(3) Updates

The list required under paragraph (1) shall be updated as frequently as possible, but not less frequently than once per quarter.

(4) Research and development defined

For purposes of the list required under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall provide a definition for the term "research and development".

(b) Requirement to report to Congress on all projects

Not later than January 1, 2017, and annually thereafter, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate a classified and unclassified report, as applicable, that lists each ongoing classified and unclassified project at the Department, including all appropriate details of each such project.

(c) Indicators of success of transitioned projects

(1) In general

For each project that has been transitioned to practice from research and development, the Under Secretary for Science and Technology shall develop and track indicators to demonstrate the uptake of the technology or project among customers or end-users.

(2) Requirement

To the fullest extent possible, the tracking of a project required under paragraph (1) shall continue for the three-year period beginning on the date on which such project was transitioned to practice from research and development.

(d) Definitions

In this section:

(1) All appropriate details

The term "all appropriate details" means, with respect to a research and development project—

(A) the name of such project, including both classified and unclassified names if applicable;

(B) the name of the component of the Department carrying out such project;

(C) an abstract or summary of such project;

(D) funding levels for such project;

(E) project duration or timeline;

(F) the name of each contractor, grantee, or cooperative agreement partner involved in such project;

(G) expected objectives and milestones for such project; and

(H) to the maximum extent practicable, relevant literature and patents that are associated with such project.

(2) Classified

The term "classified" means anything containing—

(A) classified national security information as defined in section 6.1 of Executive Order 13526 (50 U.S.C. 3161 note) or any successor order;

(B) Restricted Data or data that was formerly Restricted Data, as defined in section 2014(y) of title 42;

(C) material classified at the Sensitive Compartmented Information (SCI) level, as defined in section 3345 of title 50; or

(D) information relating to a special access program, as defined in section 6.1 of Executive Order 13526 (50 U.S.C. 3161 note) or any successor order.

(3) Controlled unclassified information

The term "controlled unclassified information" means information described as "Controlled Unclassified Information" under Executive Order 13556 (50 U.S.C. 3501 note) 1 or any successor order.

(4) Project

The term "project" means a research or development project, program, or activity administered by the Department, whether ongoing, completed, or otherwise terminated.

(e) Limitation

Nothing in this section overrides or otherwise affects the requirements specified in section 468 of this title.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title III, §319, as added Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title XIX, §1906(a), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2676.)

References in Text

Executive Order 13556, referred to in subsec. (d)(3), is set out as a note under section 3501 of Title 44, Public Printing and Documents.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 319 of Pub. L. 107–296 was renumbered section 320 and is classified to section 195f of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§195f. EMP and GMD mitigation research and development

(a) In general

In furtherance of domestic preparedness and response, the Secretary, acting through the Under Secretary for Science and Technology, and in consultation with other relevant executive agencies, relevant State, local, and tribal governments, and relevant owners and operators of critical infrastructure, shall, to the extent practicable, conduct research and development to mitigate the consequences of threats of EMP and GMD.

(b) Scope

The scope of the research and development under subsection (a) shall include the following:

(1) An objective scientific analysis—

(A) evaluating the risks to critical infrastructure from a range of threats of EMP and GMD; and

(B) which shall—

(i) be conducted in conjunction with the Office of Intelligence and Analysis; and

(ii) include a review and comparison of the range of threats and hazards facing critical infrastructure of the electrical grid.


(2) Determination of the critical utilities and national security assets and infrastructure that are at risk from threats of EMP and GMD.

(3) An evaluation of emergency planning and response technologies that would address the findings and recommendations of experts, including those of the Commission to Assess the Threat to the United States from Electromagnetic Pulse Attack, which shall include a review of the feasibility of rapidly isolating one or more portions of the electrical grid from the main electrical grid.

(4) An analysis of technology options that are available to improve the resiliency of critical infrastructure to threats of EMP and GMD, including an analysis of neutral current blocking devices that may protect high-voltage transmission lines.

(5) The restoration and recovery capabilities of critical infrastructure under differing levels of damage and disruption from various threats of EMP and GMD, as informed by the objective scientific analysis conducted under paragraph (1).

(6) An analysis of the feasibility of a real-time alert system to inform electrical grid operators and other stakeholders within milliseconds of a high-altitude nuclear explosion.

(c) Exemption from disclosure

(1) Information shared with the Federal Government

Section 673 of this title, and any regulations issued pursuant to such section, shall apply to any information shared with the Federal Government under this section.

(2) Information shared by the Federal Government

Information shared by the Federal Government with a State, local, or tribal government under this section shall be exempt from disclosure under any provision of State, local, or tribal freedom of information law, open government law, open meetings law, open records law, sunshine law, or similar law requiring the disclosure of information or records.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title III, §320, formerly §319, as added Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title XIX, §1913(a)(3), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2685; renumbered §320 and amended Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(3)(B), (C), Nov. 16, 2018, 132 Stat. 4178.)

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 115–278, §2(g)(3)(C), substituted "Section 673 of this title" for "Section 133 of this title".

SUBCHAPTER IV—BORDER, MARITIME, AND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY

Codification

Pub. L. 114–125, title VIII, §802(g)(1)(B)(i), Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 211, substituted "BORDER, MARITIME, AND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY" for "DIRECTORATE OF BORDER AND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY" in subchapter heading.

Part A—Border, Maritime, and Transportation Security Responsibilities and Functions

Codification

Pub. L. 114–125, title VIII, §802(g)(1)(B)(ii)(I), Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 211, substituted "Border, Maritime, and Transportation Security Responsibilities and Functions" for "Under Secretary for Border and Transportation Security" in part heading.

§201. Repealed. Pub. L. 114–125, title VIII, §802(g)(2), Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 212

Section, Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §401, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2177, established the Directorate of Border and Transportation Security headed by an Under Secretary for Border and Transportation Security.

§202. Border, maritime, and transportation responsibilities

The Secretary shall be responsible for the following:

(1) Preventing the entry of terrorists and the instruments of terrorism into the United States.

(2) Securing the borders, territorial waters, ports, terminals, waterways, and air, land, and sea transportation systems of the United States, including managing and coordinating those functions transferred to the Department at ports of entry.

(3) Carrying out the immigration enforcement functions vested by statute in, or performed by, the Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization (or any officer, employee, or component of the Immigration and Naturalization Service) immediately before the date on which the transfer of functions specified under section 251 of this title takes effect.

(4) Establishing and administering rules, in accordance with section 236 of this title, governing the granting of visas or other forms of permission, including parole, to enter the United States to individuals who are not a citizen or an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence in the United States.

(5) Establishing national immigration enforcement policies and priorities.

(6) Except as provided in part C of this subchapter, administering the customs laws of the United States.

(7) Conducting the inspection and related administrative functions of the Department of Agriculture transferred to the Secretary of Homeland Security under section 231 of this title.

(8) In carrying out the foregoing responsibilities, ensuring the speedy, orderly, and efficient flow of lawful traffic and commerce.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §402, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2177; Pub. L. 114–125, title VIII, §802(g)(1)(B)(ii)(II), Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 211.)

References in Text

Part C of this subchapter, referred to in par. (6), was in the original "subtitle C", meaning subtitle C (§421 et seq.) of title IV of Pub. L. 107–296, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2182, which enacted part C (§231 et seq.) of this subchapter and amended sections 2279e and 2279f of Title 7, Agriculture, and sections 115, 44901, and 47106 of Title 49, Transportation. For complete classification of subtitle C to the Code, see Tables.

The customs laws of the United States, referred to in par. (6), are classified generally to Title 19, Customs Duties.

Amendments

2016—Pub. L. 114–125 substituted "Border, maritime, and transportation responsibilities" for "Responsibilities" in section catchline and struck out ", acting through the Under Secretary for Border and Transportation Security," after "The Secretary" in introductory provisions.

§203. Functions transferred

In accordance with subchapter XII (relating to transition provisions), there shall be transferred to the Secretary the functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of—

(1) the United States Customs Service of the Department of the Treasury, including the functions of the Secretary of the Treasury relating thereto;

(2) the Transportation Security Administration of the Department of Transportation, including the functions of the Secretary of Transportation, and of the Under Secretary of Transportation for Security, relating thereto;

(3) the Federal Protective Service of the General Services Administration, including the functions of the Administrator of General Services relating thereto;

(4) the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center of the Department of the Treasury; and

(5) the Office for Domestic Preparedness of the Office of Justice Programs, including the functions of the Attorney General relating thereto.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §403, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2178.)

§204. Surface Transportation Security Advisory Committee

(a) Establishment

The Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration (referred to in this section as "Administrator") shall establish within the Transportation Security Administration the Surface Transportation Security Advisory Committee (referred to in this section as the "Advisory Committee").

(b) Duties

(1) In general

The Advisory Committee may advise, consult with, report to, and make recommendations to the Administrator on surface transportation security matters, including the development, refinement, and implementation of policies, programs, initiatives, rulemakings, and security directives pertaining to surface transportation security.

(2) Risk-based security

The Advisory Committee shall consider risk-based security approaches in the performance of its duties.

(c) Membership

(1) Composition

The Advisory Committee shall be composed of—

(A) voting members appointed by the Administrator under paragraph (2); and

(B) nonvoting members, serving in an advisory capacity, who shall be designated by—

(i) the Transportation Security Administration;

(ii) the Department of Transportation;

(iii) the Coast Guard; and

(iv) such other Federal department or agency as the Administrator considers appropriate.

(2) Appointment

The Administrator shall appoint voting members from among stakeholders representing each mode of surface transportation, such as passenger rail, freight rail, mass transit, pipelines, highways, over-the-road bus, school bus industry, and trucking, including representatives from—

(A) associations representing such modes of surface transportation;

(B) labor organizations representing such modes of surface transportation;

(C) groups representing the users of such modes of surface transportation, including asset manufacturers, as appropriate;

(D) relevant law enforcement, first responders, and security experts; and

(E) such other groups as the Administrator considers appropriate.

(3) Chairperson

The Advisory Committee shall select a chairperson from among its voting members.

(4) Term of office

(A) Terms

(i) In general

The term of each voting member of the Advisory Committee shall be 2 years, but a voting member may continue to serve until the Administrator appoints a successor.

(ii) Reappointment

A voting member of the Advisory Committee may be reappointed.

(B) Removal

(i) In general

The Administrator may review the participation of a member of the Advisory Committee and remove such member for cause at any time.

(ii) Access to information

The Administrator may remove any member of the Advisory Committee that the Administrator determines should be restricted from reviewing, discussing, or possessing classified information or sensitive security information.

(5) Prohibition on compensation

The members of the Advisory Committee shall not receive any compensation from the Government by reason of their service on the Advisory Committee.

(6) Meetings

(A) In general

The Administrator shall require the Advisory Committee to meet at least semiannually in person or through web conferencing and may convene additional meetings as necessary.

(B) Public meetings

At least 1 of the meetings of the Advisory Committee each year shall be—

(i) announced in the Federal Register;

(ii) announced on a public website; and

(iii) open to the public.

(C) Attendance

The Advisory Committee shall maintain a record of the persons present at each meeting.

(D) Minutes

(i) In general

Unless otherwise prohibited by other Federal law, minutes of the meetings shall be published on the public website under subsection (e)(5).

(ii) Protection of classified and sensitive information

The Advisory Committee may redact or summarize, as necessary, minutes of the meetings to protect classified or other sensitive information in accordance with law.

(7) Voting member access to classified and sensitive security information

(A) Determinations

Not later than 60 days after the date on which a voting member is appointed to the Advisory Committee and before that voting member may be granted any access to classified information or sensitive security information, the Administrator shall determine if the voting member should be restricted from reviewing, discussing, or possessing classified information or sensitive security information.

(B) Access

(i) Sensitive security information

If a voting member is not restricted from reviewing, discussing, or possessing sensitive security information under subparagraph (A) and voluntarily signs a nondisclosure agreement, the voting member may be granted access to sensitive security information that is relevant to the voting member's service on the Advisory Committee.

(ii) Classified information

Access to classified materials shall be managed in accordance with Executive Order 13526 of December 29, 2009 (75 Fed. Reg. 707), or any subsequent corresponding Executive order.

(C) Protections

(i) Sensitive security information

Voting members shall protect sensitive security information in accordance with part 1520 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations.

(ii) Classified information

Voting members shall protect classified information in accordance with the applicable requirements for the particular level of classification.

(8) Joint committee meetings

The Advisory Committee may meet with 1 or more of the following advisory committees to discuss multimodal security issues and other security-related issues of common concern:

(A) Aviation Security Advisory Committee established under section 44946 of title 49.

(B) Maritime Security Advisory Committee established under section 70112 of title 46.

(C) Railroad Safety Advisory Committee established by the Federal Railroad Administration.

(9) Subject matter experts

The Advisory Committee may request the assistance of subject matter experts with expertise related to the jurisdiction of the Advisory Committee.

(d) Reports

(1) Periodic reports

The Advisory Committee shall periodically submit reports to the Administrator on matters requested by the Administrator or by a majority of the members of the Advisory Committee.

(2) Annual report

(A) Submission

The Advisory Committee shall submit to the Administrator and the appropriate congressional committees an annual report that provides information on the activities, findings, and recommendations of the Advisory Committee during the preceding year.

(B) Publication

Not later than 6 months after the date that the Administrator receives an annual report under subparagraph (A), the Administrator shall publish a public version of the report, in accordance with section 552a(b) of title 5.

(e) Administration response

(1) Consideration

The Administrator shall consider the information, advice, and recommendations of the Advisory Committee in formulating policies, programs, initiatives, rulemakings, and security directives pertaining to surface transportation security.

(2) Feedback

Not later than 90 days after the date that the Administrator receives a recommendation from the Advisory Committee under subsection (d)(2), the Administrator shall submit to the Advisory Committee written feedback on the recommendation, including—

(A) if the Administrator agrees with the recommendation, a plan describing the actions that the Administrator has taken, will take, or recommends that the head of another Federal department or agency take to implement the recommendation; or

(B) if the Administrator disagrees with the recommendation, a justification for that determination.

(3) Notices

Not later than 30 days after the date the Administrator submits feedback under paragraph (2), the Administrator shall—

(A) notify the appropriate congressional committees of the feedback, including the determination under subparagraph (A) or subparagraph (B) of that paragraph, as applicable; and

(B) provide the appropriate congressional committees with a briefing upon request.

(4) Updates

Not later than 90 days after the date the Administrator receives a recommendation from the Advisory Committee under subsection (d)(2) that the Administrator agrees with, and quarterly thereafter until the recommendation is fully implemented, the Administrator shall submit a report to the appropriate congressional committees or post on the public website under paragraph (5) an update on the status of the recommendation.

(5) Website

The Administrator shall maintain a public website that—

(A) lists the members of the Advisory Committee; and

(B) provides the contact information for the Advisory Committee.

(f) Nonapplicability of FACA

The Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) shall not apply to the Advisory Committee or any subcommittee established under this section.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §404, as added Pub. L. 115–254, div. K, title I, §1969(a), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3609.)

References in Text

Executive Order 13526, referred to in subsec. (c)(7)(B)(ii), is set out as a note under section 3161 of Title 50, War and National Defense.

The Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec. (f), is Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Surface Transportation Security Advisory Committee Members

Pub. L. 115–254, div. K, title I, §1969(b), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3612, provided that:

"(1) Voting members.—Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 2018], the Administrator [of the Transportation Security Administration] shall appoint the voting members of the Surface Transportation Security Advisory Committee established under section 404 of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 [6 U.S.C. 204], as added by subsection (a) of this section.

"(2) Nonvoting members.—Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act, each Federal Government department and agency with regulatory authority over a mode of surface or maritime transportation, as the Administrator considers appropriate, shall designate an appropriate representative to serve as a nonvoting member of the Surface Transportation Security Advisory Committee."

Part B—U.S. Customs and Border Protection

Codification

Pub. L. 114–125, title VIII, §802(g)(1)(B)(iii)(I), Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 211, substituted "U.S. Customs and Border Protection" for "United States Customs Service" in part heading.

§211. Establishment of U.S. Customs and Border Protection; Commissioner, Deputy Commissioner, and operational offices

(a) In general

There is established in the Department an agency to be known as U.S. Customs and Border Protection.

(b) Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection

(1) In general

There shall be at the head of U.S. Customs and Border Protection a Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection (in this section referred to as the "Commissioner").

(2) Committee referral

As an exercise of the rulemaking power of the Senate, any nomination for the Commissioner submitted to the Senate for confirmation, and referred to a committee, shall be referred to the Committee on Finance.

(c) Duties

The Commissioner shall—

(1) coordinate and integrate the security, trade facilitation, and trade enforcement functions of U.S. Customs and Border Protection;

(2) ensure the interdiction of persons and goods illegally entering or exiting the United States;

(3) facilitate and expedite the flow of legitimate travelers and trade;

(4) direct and administer the commercial operations of U.S. Customs and Border Protection, and the enforcement of the customs and trade laws of the United States;

(5) detect, respond to, and interdict terrorists, drug smugglers and traffickers, human smugglers and traffickers, and other persons who may undermine the security of the United States, in cases in which such persons are entering, or have recently entered, the United States;

(6) safeguard the borders of the United States to protect against the entry of dangerous goods;

(7) ensure the overall economic security of the United States is not diminished by efforts, activities, and programs aimed at securing the homeland;

(8) in coordination with U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement and United States Citizenship and Immigration Services, enforce and administer all immigration laws, as such term is defined in paragraph (17) of section 1101(a) of title 8, including—

(A) the inspection, processing, and admission of persons who seek to enter or depart the United States; and

(B) the detection, interdiction, removal, departure from the United States, short-term detention, and transfer of persons unlawfully entering, or who have recently unlawfully entered, the United States;


(9) develop and implement screening and targeting capabilities, including the screening, reviewing, identifying, and prioritizing of passengers and cargo across all international modes of transportation, both inbound and outbound;

(10) in coordination with the Secretary, deploy technology to collect the data necessary for the Secretary to administer the biometric entry and exit data system pursuant to section 1365b of title 8;

(11) enforce and administer the laws relating to agricultural import and entry inspection referred to in section 231 of this title;

(12) in coordination with the Under Secretary for Management of the Department, ensure U.S. Customs and Border Protection complies with Federal law, the Federal Acquisition Regulation, and the Department's acquisition management directives for major acquisition programs of U.S. Customs and Border Protection;

(13) ensure that the policies and regulations of U.S. Customs and Border Protection are consistent with the obligations of the United States pursuant to international agreements;

(14) enforce and administer—

(A) the Container Security Initiative program under section 205 of the Security and Accountability for Every Port Act of 2006 (6 U.S.C. 945); and

(B) the Customs–Trade Partnership Against Terrorism program under subtitle B of title II of such Act (6 U.S.C. 961 et seq.);


(15) conduct polygraph examinations in accordance with section 221(1) of this title;

(16) establish the standard operating procedures described in subsection (k);

(17) carry out the training required under subsection (l);

(18) carry out section 218 of this title, relating to the issuance of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Business Travel Cards; and

(19) carry out other duties and powers prescribed by law or delegated by the Secretary.

(d) Deputy Commissioner

There shall be in U.S. Customs and Border Protection a Deputy Commissioner who shall assist the Commissioner in the management of U.S. Customs and Border Protection.

(e) U.S. Border Patrol

(1) In general

There is established in U.S. Customs and Border Protection the U.S. Border Patrol.

(2) Chief

There shall be at the head of the U.S. Border Patrol a Chief, who shall—

(A) be at the level of Executive Assistant Commissioner within U.S. Customs and Border Protection; and

(B) report to the Commissioner.

(3) Duties

The U.S. Border Patrol shall—

(A) serve as the law enforcement office of U.S. Customs and Border Protection with primary responsibility for interdicting persons attempting to illegally enter or exit the United States or goods being illegally imported into or exported from the United States at a place other than a designated port of entry;

(B) deter and prevent the illegal entry of terrorists, terrorist weapons, persons, and contraband; and

(C) carry out other duties and powers prescribed by the Commissioner.

(f) Air and Marine Operations

(1) In general

There is established in U.S. Customs and Border Protection an office known as Air and Marine Operations.

(2) Executive Assistant Commissioner

There shall be at the head of Air and Marine Operations an Executive Assistant Commissioner, who shall report to the Commissioner.

(3) Duties

Air and Marine Operations shall—

(A) serve as the law enforcement office within U.S. Customs and Border Protection with primary responsibility to detect, interdict, and prevent acts of terrorism and the unlawful movement of people, illicit drugs, and other contraband across the borders of the United States in the air and maritime environment;

(B) conduct joint aviation and marine operations with U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement;

(C) conduct aviation and marine operations with international, Federal, State, and local law enforcement agencies, as appropriate;

(D) administer the Air and Marine Operations Center established under paragraph (4); and

(E) carry out other duties and powers prescribed by the Commissioner.

(4) Air and Marine Operations Center

(A) In general

There is established in Air and Marine Operations an Air and Marine Operations Center.

(B) Executive Director

There shall be at the head of the Air and Marine Operations Center an Executive Director, who shall report to the Executive Assistant Commissioner of Air and Marine Operations.

(C) Duties

The Air and Marine Operations Center shall—

(i) manage the air and maritime domain awareness of the Department, as directed by the Secretary;

(ii) monitor and coordinate the airspace for unmanned aerial systems operations of Air and Marine Operations in U.S. Customs and Border Protection;

(iii) detect, identify, and coordinate a response to threats to national security in the air domain, in coordination with other appropriate agencies, as determined by the Executive Assistant Commissioner;

(iv) provide aviation and marine support to other Federal, State, tribal, and local agencies; and

(v) carry out other duties and powers prescribed by the Executive Assistant Commissioner.

(g) Office of Field Operations

(1) In general

There is established in U.S. Customs and Border Protection an Office of Field Operations.

(2) Executive Assistant Commissioner

There shall be at the head of the Office of Field Operations an Executive Assistant Commissioner, who shall report to the Commissioner.

(3) Duties

The Office of Field Operations shall coordinate the enforcement activities of U.S. Customs and Border Protection at United States air, land, and sea ports of entry to—

(A) deter and prevent terrorists and terrorist weapons from entering the United States at such ports of entry;

(B) conduct inspections at such ports of entry to safeguard the United States from terrorism and illegal entry of persons;

(C) prevent illicit drugs, agricultural pests, and contraband from entering the United States;

(D) in coordination with the Commissioner, facilitate and expedite the flow of legitimate travelers and trade;

(E) administer the National Targeting Center established under paragraph (4);

(F) coordinate with the Executive Assistant Commissioner for the Office of Trade with respect to the trade facilitation and trade enforcement activities of U.S. Customs and Border Protection; and

(G) carry out other duties and powers prescribed by the Commissioner.

(4) National Targeting Center

(A) In general

There is established in the Office of Field Operations a National Targeting Center.

(B) Executive Director

There shall be at the head of the National Targeting Center an Executive Director, who shall report to the Executive Assistant Commissioner of the Office of Field Operations.

(C) Duties

The National Targeting Center shall—

(i) serve as the primary forum for targeting operations within U.S. Customs and Border Protection to collect and analyze traveler and cargo information in advance of arrival in the United States to identify and address security risks and strengthen trade enforcement;

(ii) identify, review, and target travelers and cargo for examination;

(iii) coordinate the examination of entry and exit of travelers and cargo;

(iv) develop and conduct commercial risk assessment targeting with respect to cargo destined for the United States;

(v) coordinate with the Transportation Security Administration, as appropriate;

(vi) issue Trade Alerts pursuant to section 4318(b) of title 19; and

(vii) carry out other duties and powers prescribed by the Executive Assistant Commissioner.

(5) Annual report on staffing

(A) In general

Not later than 30 days after February 24, 2016, and annually thereafter, the Executive Assistant Commissioner shall submit to the Committee on Homeland Security and the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs and the Committee on Finance of the Senate a report on the staffing model for the Office of Field Operations, including information on how many supervisors, front-line U.S. Customs and Border Protection officers, and support personnel are assigned to each Field Office and port of entry.

(B) Form

The report required under subparagraph (A) shall, to the greatest extent practicable, be submitted in unclassified form, but may be submitted in classified form, if the Executive Assistant Commissioner determines that such is appropriate and informs the Committee on Homeland Security and the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs and the Committee on Finance of the Senate of the reasoning for such.

(h) Office of Intelligence

(1) In general

There is established in U.S. Customs and Border Protection an Office of Intelligence.

(2) Assistant Commissioner

There shall be at the head of the Office of Intelligence an Assistant Commissioner, who shall report to the Commissioner.

(3) Duties

The Office of Intelligence shall—

(A) develop, provide, coordinate, and implement intelligence capabilities into a cohesive intelligence enterprise to support the execution of the duties and responsibilities of U.S. Customs and Border Protection;

(B) manage the counterintelligence operations of U.S. Customs and Border Protection;

(C) establish, in coordination with the Chief Intelligence Officer of the Department, as appropriate, intelligence-sharing relationships with Federal, State, local, and tribal agencies and intelligence agencies;

(D) conduct risk-based covert testing of U.S. Customs and Border Protection operations, including for nuclear and radiological risks; and

(E) carry out other duties and powers prescribed by the Commissioner.

(i) Office of International Affairs

(1) In general

There is established in U.S. Customs and Border Protection an Office of International Affairs.

(2) Assistant Commissioner

There shall be at the head of the Office of International Affairs an Assistant Commissioner, who shall report to the Commissioner.

(3) Duties

The Office of International Affairs, in collaboration with the Office of Policy of the Department, shall—

(A) coordinate and support U.S. Customs and Border Protection's foreign initiatives, policies, programs, and activities;

(B) coordinate and support U.S. Customs and Border Protection's personnel stationed abroad;

(C) maintain partnerships and information-sharing agreements and arrangements with foreign governments, international organizations, and United States agencies in support of U.S. Customs and Border Protection's duties and responsibilities;

(D) provide necessary capacity building, training, and assistance to foreign customs and border control agencies to strengthen border, global supply chain, and travel security, as appropriate;

(E) coordinate mission support services to sustain U.S. Customs and Border Protection's global activities;

(F) coordinate with customs authorities of foreign countries with respect to trade facilitation and trade enforcement;

(G) coordinate U.S. Customs and Border Protection's engagement in international negotiations;

(H) advise the Commissioner with respect to matters arising in the World Customs Organization and other international organizations as such matters relate to the policies and procedures of U.S. Customs and Border Protection;

(I) advise the Commissioner regarding international agreements to which the United States is a party as such agreements relate to the policies and regulations of U.S. Customs and Border Protection; and

(J) carry out other duties and powers prescribed by the Commissioner.

(j) Office of Professional Responsibility

(1) In general

There is established in U.S. Customs and Border Protection an Office of Professional Responsibility.

(2) Assistant Commissioner

There shall be at the head of the Office of Professional Responsibility an Assistant Commissioner, who shall report to the Commissioner.

(3) Duties

The Office of Professional Responsibility shall—

(A) investigate criminal and administrative matters and misconduct by officers, agents, and other employees of U.S. Customs and Border Protection;

(B) manage integrity-related programs and policies of U.S. Customs and Border Protection;

(C) conduct research and analysis regarding misconduct of officers, agents, and other employees of U.S. Customs and Border Protection; and

(D) carry out other duties and powers prescribed by the Commissioner.

(k) Standard operating procedures

(1) In general

The Commissioner shall establish—

(A) standard operating procedures for searching, reviewing, retaining, and sharing information contained in communication, electronic, or digital devices encountered by U.S. Customs and Border Protection personnel at United States ports of entry;

(B) standard use of force procedures that officers and agents of U.S. Customs and Border Protection may employ in the execution of their duties, including the use of deadly force;

(C) uniform, standardized, and publicly-available procedures for processing and investigating complaints against officers, agents, and employees of U.S. Customs and Border Protection for violations of professional conduct, including the timely disposition of complaints and a written notification to the complainant of the status or outcome, as appropriate, of the related investigation, in accordance with section 552a of title 5 (commonly referred to as the "Privacy Act" or the "Privacy Act of 1974");

(D) an internal, uniform reporting mechanism regarding incidents involving the use of deadly force by an officer or agent of U.S. Customs and Border Protection, including an evaluation of the degree to which the procedures required under subparagraph (B) were followed; and

(E) standard operating procedures, acting through the Executive Assistant Commissioner for Air and Marine Operations and in coordination with the Office for Civil Rights and Civil Liberties and the Office of Privacy of the Department, to provide command, control, communication, surveillance, and reconnaissance assistance through the use of unmanned aerial systems, including the establishment of—

(i) a process for other Federal, State, and local law enforcement agencies to submit mission requests;

(ii) a formal procedure to determine whether to approve or deny such a mission request;

(iii) a formal procedure to determine how such mission requests are prioritized and coordinated; and

(iv) a process regarding the protection and privacy of data and images collected by U.S. Customs and Border Protection through the use of unmanned aerial systems.

(2) Requirements regarding certain notifications

The standard operating procedures established pursuant to subparagraph (A) of paragraph (1) shall require—

(A) in the case of a search of information conducted on an electronic device by U.S. Customs and Border Protection personnel, the Commissioner to notify the individual subject to such search of the purpose and authority for such search, and how such individual may obtain information on reporting concerns about such search; and

(B) in the case of information collected by U.S. Customs and Border Protection through a search of an electronic device, if such information is transmitted to another Federal agency for subject matter assistance, translation, or decryption, the Commissioner to notify the individual subject to such search of such transmission.

(3) Exceptions

The Commissioner may withhold the notifications required under paragraphs (1)(C) and (2) if the Commissioner determines, in the sole and unreviewable discretion of the Commissioner, that such notifications would impair national security, law enforcement, or other operational interests.

(4) Update and review

The Commissioner shall review and update every three years the standard operating procedures required under this subsection.

(5) Audits

The Inspector General of the Department of Homeland Security shall develop and annually administer, during each of the three calendar years beginning in the calendar year that begins after February 24, 2016, an auditing mechanism to review whether searches of electronic devices at or between United States ports of entry are being conducted in conformity with the standard operating procedures required under subparagraph (A) of paragraph (1). Such audits shall be submitted to the Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate and shall include the following:

(A) A description of the activities of officers and agents of U.S. Customs and Border Protection with respect to such searches.

(B) The number of such searches.

(C) The number of instances in which information contained in such devices that were subjected to such searches was retained, copied, shared, or entered in an electronic database.

(D) The number of such devices detained as the result of such searches.

(E) The number of instances in which information collected from such devices was subjected to such searches and was transmitted to another Federal agency, including whether such transmissions resulted in a prosecution or conviction.

(6) Requirements regarding other notifications

The standard use of force procedures established pursuant to subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) shall require—

(A) in the case of an incident of the use of deadly force by U.S. Customs and Border Protection personnel, the Commissioner to notify the Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate; and

(B) the Commissioner to provide to such committees a copy of the evaluation pursuant to subparagraph (D) of such paragraph not later than 30 days after completion of such evaluation.

(7) Report on unmanned aerial systems

The Commissioner shall submit to the Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate an annual report, for each of the three calendar years beginning in the calendar year that begins after February 24, 2016, that reviews whether the use of unmanned aerial systems is being conducted in conformity with the standard operating procedures required under subparagraph (E) of paragraph (1). Such reports—

(A) shall be submitted with the annual budget of the United States Government submitted by the President under section 1105 of title 31;

(B) may be submitted in classified form if the Commissioner determines that such is appropriate; and

(C) shall include—

(i) a detailed description of how, where, and for how long data and images collected through the use of unmanned aerial systems by U.S. Customs and Border Protection are collected and stored; and

(ii) a list of Federal, State, and local law enforcement agencies that submitted mission requests in the previous year and the disposition of such requests.

(l) Training

The Commissioner shall require all officers and agents of U.S. Customs and Border Protection to participate in a specified amount of continuing education (to be determined by the Commissioner) to maintain an understanding of Federal legal rulings, court decisions, and departmental policies, procedures, and guidelines.

(m) Short-term detention standards

(1) Access to food and water

The Commissioner shall make every effort to ensure that adequate access to food and water is provided to an individual apprehended and detained at a United States port of entry or between ports of entry as soon as practicable following the time of such apprehension or during subsequent short-term detention.

(2) Access to information on detainee rights at border patrol processing centers

(A) In general

The Commissioner shall ensure that an individual apprehended by a U.S. Border Patrol agent or an Office of Field Operations officer is provided with information concerning such individual's rights, including the right to contact a representative of such individual's government for purposes of United States treaty obligations.

(B) Form

The information referred to in subparagraph (A) may be provided either verbally or in writing, and shall be posted in the detention holding cell in which such individual is being held. The information shall be provided in a language understandable to such individual.

(3) Short-term detention defined

In this subsection, the term "short-term detention" means detention in a U.S. Customs and Border Protection processing center for 72 hours or less, before repatriation to a country of nationality or last habitual residence.

(4) Daytime repatriation

When practicable, repatriations shall be limited to daylight hours and avoid locations that are determined to have high indices of crime and violence.

(5) Report on procurement process and standards

Not later than 180 days after February 24, 2016, the Comptroller General of the United States shall submit to the Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate a report on the procurement process and standards of entities with which U.S. Customs and Border Protection has contracts for the transportation and detention of individuals apprehended by agents or officers of U.S. Customs and Border Protection. Such report should also consider the operational efficiency of contracting the transportation and detention of such individuals.

(6) Report on inspections of short-term custody facilities

The Commissioner shall—

(A) annually inspect all facilities utilized for short-term detention; and

(B) make publicly available information collected pursuant to such inspections, including information regarding the requirements under paragraphs (1) and (2) and, where appropriate, issue recommendations to improve the conditions of such facilities.

(n) Wait times transparency

(1) In general

The Commissioner shall—

(A) publish live wait times for travelers entering the United States at the 20 United States airports that support the highest volume of international travel (as determined by available Federal flight data);

(B) make information about such wait times available to the public in real time through the U.S. Customs and Border Protection website;

(C) submit to the Committee on Homeland Security and the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs and the Committee on Finance of the Senate, for each of the five calendar years beginning in the calendar year that begins after February 24, 2016, a report that includes compilations of all such wait times and a ranking of such United States airports by wait times; and

(D) provide adequate staffing at the U.S. Customs and Border Protection information center to ensure timely access for travelers attempting to submit comments or speak with a representative about their entry experiences.

(2) Calculation

The wait times referred to in paragraph (1)(A) shall be determined by calculating the time elapsed between an individual's entry into the U.S. Customs and Border Protection inspection area and such individual's clearance by a U.S. Customs and Border Protection officer.

(o) Other authorities

(1) In general

The Secretary may establish such other offices or positions of Assistant Commissioners (or other similar officers or officials) as the Secretary determines necessary to carry out the missions, duties, functions, and authorities of U.S. Customs and Border Protection.

(2) Notification

If the Secretary exercises the authority provided under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall notify the Committee on Homeland Security and the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs and the Committee on Finance of the Senate not later than 30 days before exercising such authority.

(p) Reports to Congress

The Commissioner shall, on and after February 24, 2016, continue to submit to the Committee on Homeland Security and the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs and the Committee on Finance of the Senate any report required, on the day before February 24, 2016, to be submitted under any provision of law.

(q) Other Federal agencies

Nothing in this section may be construed as affecting in any manner the authority, existing on the day before February 24, 2016, of any other Federal agency or component of the Department.

(r) Definitions

In this section, the terms "commercial operations", "customs and trade laws of the United States", "trade enforcement", and "trade facilitation" have the meanings given such terms in section 4301 of title 19.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §411, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2178; Pub. L. 114–125, title VIII, §802(a), Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 199; Pub. L. 115–79, §4(a), Nov. 2, 2017, 131 Stat. 1260.)

References in Text

The Security and Accountability for Every Port Act of 2006, referred to in subsec. (c)(14)(B), is Pub. L. 109–347, Oct. 13, 2006, 120 Stat. 1884, also known as the SAFE Port Act. Subtitle B of title II of the Act is classified generally to part B (§961 et seq.) of subchapter II of chapter 3 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 901 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section is comprised of section 411 of Pub. L. 107–296. Former subsec. (b)(2) of section 411 of Pub. L. 107–296 amended section 5314 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Amendments

2017—Subsec. (c)(18), (19). Pub. L. 115–79 added par. (18) and redesignated former par. (18) as (19).

2016—Pub. L. 114–125 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section established the United States Customs Service headed by a Commissioner of Customs.

Change of Name

Pub. L. 114–125, title VIII, §802(d)(2), Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 210, provided that: "On and after the date of the enactment of this Act [Feb. 24, 2016], any reference in law or regulations to the 'Commissioner of Customs' or the 'Commissioner of the Customs Service' shall be deemed to be a reference to the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection."

Effective Date of 2016 Amendment; Continuity of Functions, Rules, and Actions

Pub. L. 114–125, title VIII, §802(b), Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 209, provided that:

"(1) Treatment.—Section 411 of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 [6 U.S.C. 211], as amended by subsection (a) of this section, shall be treated as if included in such Act [Pub. L. 107–296] as of the date of the enactment of such Act [Nov. 25, 2002], and, in addition to the functions, missions, duties, and authorities specified in such amended section 411, U.S. Customs and Border Protection shall continue to perform and carry out the functions, missions, duties, and authorities under section 411 of such Act as in existence on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act [Feb. 24, 2016], and section 415 of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 [6 U.S.C. 215].

"(2) Rules of construction.—

"(A) Rules and regulations.—Notwithstanding paragraph (1), nothing in this title [see Tables for classification] or any amendment made by this title may be construed as affecting in any manner any rule or regulation issued or promulgated pursuant to any provision of law, including section 411 of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 as in existence on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act [Feb. 24, 2016], and any such rule or regulation shall continue to have full force and effect on and after such date.

"(B) Other actions.—Notwithstanding paragraph (1), nothing in this Act [see Tables for classification] may be construed as affecting in any manner any action, determination, policy, or decision pursuant to section 411 of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 as in existence on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act, and any such action, determination, policy, or decision shall continue to have full force and effect on and after such date."

Ports of Entry Threat and Operational Review

Pub. L. 115–372, Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5107, provided that:

"SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

"This Act may be cited as the 'United States Ports of Entry Threat and Operational Review Act'.

"SEC. 2. PORTS OF ENTRY THREAT AND OPERATIONAL ANALYSIS.

"(a) In General.—

"(1) Requirement.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 21, 2018], the Secretary of Homeland Security, acting through the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection, shall submit to the Committee on Homeland Security and the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs and the Committee on Finance of the Senate a threat and operational analysis of ports of entry.

"(2) Contents.—The threat and operational analysis required under paragraph (1) shall include an assessment of the following:

"(A) Current and potential threats posed by individuals and organized groups seeking—

"(i) to exploit security vulnerabilities at ports of entry; or

"(ii) to unlawfully enter the United States through such ports of entry.

"(B) Methods and pathways used to exploit security vulnerabilities at ports of entry.

"(C) Improvements needed at ports of entry to prevent the unlawful movement of people, illicit drugs, and other contraband across the borders of the United States.

"(D) Improvements needed to enhance travel and trade facilitation and reduce wait times at ports of entry, including—

"(i) security vulnerabilities associated with prolonged wait times;

"(ii) current technology at ports of entry that can be adapted to handle more volume, increase efficiency, and improve accuracy of detection efforts; and

"(iii) infrastructure additions and upgrades.

"(E) Processes conducted at ports of entry that do not require law enforcement training and could be—

"(i) filled with—

     "(I) non-law enforcement staff; or

     "(II) the private sector, for processes or activities determined to not be inherently governmental (as such term is defined in section 5 of the Federal Activities Inventory Reform Act of 1998 (Public Law 105–270; [31 U.S.C. 501 note])); or

"(ii) automated.

"(3) Analysis requirements.—In compiling the threat and operational analysis required under paragraph (1), the Secretary of Homeland Security, acting through the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection, shall consider and examine the following:

"(A) Personnel needs, including K–9 Units, and estimated costs, at each port of entry, including such needs and challenges associated with recruitment and hiring.

"(B) Technology needs, including radiation portal monitors and non-intrusive inspection technology, and estimated costs at each port of entry.

"(C) Infrastructure needs and estimated costs at each port of entry.

"(b) Ports of Entry Strategy and Implementation Plan.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than 270 days after the submission of the threat and operational analysis required under subsection (a) and every 5 years thereafter for 10 years, the Secretary of Homeland Security, acting through the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), shall provide to the Committee on Homeland Security and the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs and the Committee on Finance of the Senate a ports of entry strategy and implementation plan.

"(2) Contents.—The ports of entry strategy and implementation plan required under paragraph (1) shall include a consideration of the following:

"(A) The ports of entry threat and operational analysis required under subsection (a), with an emphasis on efforts to mitigate threats and challenges identified in such analysis.

"(B) Efforts to reduce wait times at ports of entry and standards against which the effectiveness of such efforts may be determined.

"(C) Efforts to prevent the unlawful movement of people, illicit drugs, and other contraband across the borders of the United States at the earliest possible point at ports of entry and standards against which the effectiveness of such efforts may be determined.

"(D) Efforts to focus intelligence collection and information analysis to disrupt transnational criminal organizations attempting to exploit vulnerabilities at ports of entry and standards against which the effectiveness of such efforts may be determined.

"(E) Efforts to verify that any new port of entry technology acquisition can be operationally integrated with existing technologies in use by the Department of Homeland Security.

"(F) Lessons learned from reports on the business transformation initiative under section 802(i)(1) of the Trade Facilitation and Trade Enforcement Act of 2015 (Public Law 114–125).

"(G) CBP staffing requirements for all ports of entry.

"(H) Efforts to identify and detect fraudulent documents at ports of entry and standards against which the effectiveness of such efforts may be determined.

"(I) Efforts to prevent, detect, investigate, and mitigate corruption at ports of entry and standards against which the effectiveness of such efforts may be determined.

"(c) Ports of Entry Described.—In this section, the term 'ports of entry' means United States air, land, and sea ports of entry."

Required Notice of Aircraft Transfers

Pub. L. 115–141, div. F, title II, §203, Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 612, provided that: "Hereafter, no U.S. Customs and Border Protection aircraft or other related equipment, with the exception of aircraft that are one of a kind and have been identified as excess to U.S. Customs and Border Protection requirements and aircraft that have been damaged beyond repair, shall be transferred to any other Federal agency, department, or office outside of the Department of Homeland Security without prior notice to the Committees on Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives."

Detecting Incoming Contraband with Technology

Pub. L. 115–112, Jan. 10, 2018, 131 Stat. 2274, provided that:

"SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

"This Act may be cited as the 'International Narcotics Trafficking Emergency Response by Detecting Incoming Contraband with Technology Act' or the 'INTERDICT Act'.

"SEC. 2. DEFINITIONS.

"In this Act:

"(1) Chemical screening device.—The term 'chemical screening device' means an immunoassay, narcotics field test kit, infrared spectrophotometer, mass spectrometer, nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer, Raman spectrophotometer, or other scientific instrumentation able to collect data that can be interpreted to determine the presence of fentanyl, other synthetic opioids, and other narcotics and psychoactive substances.

"(2) Commissioner.—The term 'Commissioner' means the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection.

"(3) Express consignment operator or carrier.—The term 'express consignment operator or carrier' has the meaning given that term in section 128.1 of title 19, Code of Federal Regulations (or any similar successor regulation).

"SEC. 3. INTERDICTION OF FENTANYL, OTHER SYNTHETIC OPIOIDS, AND OTHER NARCOTICS AND PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCES.

"(a) Chemical Screening Devices.—The Commissioner shall—

"(1) increase the number of chemical screening devices available to U.S. Customs and Border Protection officers over the number of such devices that are available on the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 10, 2018]; and

"(2) make such additional chemical screening devices available to U.S. Customs and Border Protection officers as the Commissioner determines are necessary to interdict fentanyl, other synthetic opioids, and other narcotics and psychoactive substances that are illegally imported into the United States, including such substances that are imported through the mail or by an express consignment operator or carrier.

"(b) Personnel to Interpret Data.—The Commissioner shall dedicate the appropriate number of U.S. Customs and Border Protection personnel, including scientists, so that such personnel are available during all operational hours to interpret data collected by chemical screening devices.

"SEC. 4. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

"There is authorized to be appropriated to the Commissioner $9,000,000 to ensure that U.S. Customs and Border Protection has resources, including chemical screening devices, personnel, and scientists, available during all operational hours to prevent, detect, and interdict the unlawful importation of fentanyl, other synthetic opioids, and other narcotics and psychoactive substances."

Continuation in Office

Pub. L. 114–125, title VIII, §802(c), Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 210, provided that:

"(1) Commissioner.—The individual serving as the Commissioner of Customs on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act [Feb. 24, 2016] may serve as the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection on and after such date of enactment until a Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection is appointed under section 411 of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 [6 U.S.C. 211], as amended by subsection (a) of this section.

"(2) Other positions.—The individual serving as Deputy Commissioner, and the individuals serving as Assistant Commissioners and other officers and officials, under section 411 of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act [Feb. 24, 2016] may serve as the Executive Assistant Commissioners, Deputy Commissioner, Assistant Commissioners, and other officers and officials, as appropriate, under such section 411 as amended by subsection (a) of this section unless the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection determines that another individual should hold such position or positions."

Border Jobs for Veterans

Pub. L. 114–68, Oct. 16, 2015, 129 Stat. 555, provided that:

"SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

"This Act may be cited as the 'Border Jobs for Veterans Act of 2015'.

"SEC. 2. FINDINGS.

"Congress finds the following:

"(1) Customs and Border Protection officers at United States ports of entry carry out critical law enforcement duties associated with screening foreign visitors, returning United States citizens, and imported cargo entering the United States.

"(2) It is in the national interest for United States ports of entry to be adequately staffed with Customs and Border Protection officers in a timely fashion, including meeting the congressionally funded staffing target of 23,775 officers for fiscal year 2015.

"(3) An estimated 250,000 to 300,000 members of the Armed Forces separate from military service every year.

"(4) Recruiting efforts and expedited hiring procedures must be enhanced to ensure that individuals separating from military service are aware of, and partake in, opportunities to fill vacant Customs and Border Protection officer positions.

"SEC. 3. EXPEDITED HIRING OF APPROPRIATE SEPARATING SERVICE MEMBERS.

"The Secretary of Homeland Security shall consider the expedited hiring of qualified candidates who have the ability to perform the essential functions of the position of a Customs and Border Protection officer and who are eligible for a veterans recruitment appointment authorized under section 4214 of title 38, United States Code.

"SEC. 4. ENHANCEMENTS TO EXISTING PROGRAMS TO RECRUIT SERVICE MEMBERS SEPARATING FROM MILITARY SERVICE FOR CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION OFFICER VACANCIES.

"(a) In General.—The Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense, and acting through existing programs, authorities, and agreements, where applicable, shall enhance the efforts of the Department of Homeland Security to recruit members of the Armed Forces who are separating from military service to serve as Customs and Border Protection officers.

"(b) Elements.—The enhanced recruiting efforts under subsection (a) shall—

"(1) include Customs and Border Protection officer opportunities in relevant job assistance efforts under the Transition Assistance Program;

"(2) place U.S. Customs and Border Protection officials or other relevant Department of Homeland Security officials at recruiting events and jobs fairs involving members of the Armed Forces who are separating from military service;

"(3) provide opportunities for local U.S. Customs and Border Protection field offices to partner with military bases in the region;

"(4) include outreach efforts to educate members of the Armed Forces with Military Occupational Specialty Codes and Officer Branches, Air Force Specialty Codes, Naval Enlisted Classifications and Officer Designators, and Coast Guard competencies that are transferable to the requirements, qualifications, and duties assigned to Customs and Border Protection officers of available hiring opportunities to become Customs and Border Protection officers;

"(5) identify shared activities and opportunities for reciprocity related to steps in hiring Customs and Border Protection officers with the goal of minimizing the time required to hire qualified applicants;

"(6) ensure the streamlined interagency transfer of relevant background investigations and security clearances; and

"(7) include such other elements as may be necessary to ensure that members of the Armed Forces who are separating from military service are aware of opportunities to fill vacant Customs and Border Protection officer positions.

"SEC. 5. REPORT TO CONGRESS.

"(a) In General.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 16, 2015], and by December 31 of each of the next 3 years thereafter, the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense, shall submit a report to the Committee on Homeland Security and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs and the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate that includes a description and assessment of the efforts of the Department of Homeland Security to hire members of the Armed Forces who are separating from military service as Customs and Border Protection officers under section 4.

"(b) Content.—The report required under subsection (a) shall include—

"(1) a detailed description of the efforts to implement section 4, including—

"(A) elements of the enhanced recruiting efforts and the goals associated with such elements; and

"(B) a description of how the elements and goals referred to in subparagraph (A) will assist in meeting statutorily mandated staffing levels and agency hiring benchmarks;

"(2) a detailed description of the efforts that have been undertaken under section 4;

"(3) the estimated number of separating service members made aware of Customs and Border Protection officer vacancies;

"(4) the number of Customs and Border Protection officer vacancies filled with separating service members; and

"(5) the number of Customs and Border Protection officer vacancies filled with separating service members under Veterans Recruitment Appointment authorized under section 4214 of title 38, United States Code.

"SEC. 6. RULES OF CONSTRUCTION.

"Nothing in this Act may be construed—

"(1) as superseding, altering, or amending existing Federal veterans' hiring preferences or Federal hiring authorities; or

"(2) to authorize the appropriation of additional amounts to carry out this Act."

Port of Entry Partnership Pilot Program

Pub. L. 113–76, div. F, title V, §559, Jan. 17, 2014, 128 Stat. 279, as amended by Pub. L. 114–4, title V, §552(a), Mar. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 71; Pub. L. 114–113, div. F, title V, §550, Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 2519, which established a pilot program to permit U.S. Customs and Border Protection to enter into partnerships with private sector and government entities at ports of entry for certain services and to accept certain donations, was repealed by Pub. L. 114–279, §4(b), Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1422.

Reducing Passenger Processing Times

Pub. L. 113–76, div. F, title V, §571, Jan. 17, 2014, 128 Stat. 287, provided that:

"(a) The Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection shall develop metrics that support a goal of reducing passenger processing times at air, land, and sea ports of entry, taking into consideration the capacity of an air or land port's physical infrastructure, airline arrival schedules, peak processing periods, and security requirements.

"(b) Not later than 240 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 17, 2014], the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection shall develop and implement operational work plans to meet the goals of subsection (a) at United States air, land, and sea ports with the highest passenger volume and longest wait times. In developing such plans, the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection shall consult with appropriate stakeholders, including, but not limited to, airlines and airport operators, port authorities, and importers."

§212. Retention of Customs revenue functions by Secretary of the Treasury

(a) Retention of Customs revenue functions by Secretary of the Treasury

(1) Retention of authority

Notwithstanding section 203(a)(1) 1 of this title, authority related to Customs revenue functions that was vested in the Secretary of the Treasury by law before the effective date of this chapter under those provisions of law set forth in paragraph (2) shall not be transferred to the Secretary by reason of this chapter, and on and after the effective date of this chapter, the Secretary of the Treasury may delegate any such authority to the Secretary at the discretion of the Secretary of the Treasury. The Secretary of the Treasury shall consult with the Secretary regarding the exercise of any such authority not delegated to the Secretary.

(2) Statutes

The provisions of law referred to in paragraph (1) are the following: the Tariff Act of 1930 [19 U.S.C. 1202 et seq.]; section 249 of the Revised Statutes of the United States (19 U.S.C. 3); section 2 of the Act of March 4, 1923 (19 U.S.C. 6); section 13031 of the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985 (19 U.S.C. 58c); section 251 of the Revised Statutes of the United States (19 U.S.C. 66); section 1 of the Act of June 26, 1930 (19 U.S.C. 68); the Foreign Trade Zones Act (19 U.S.C. 81a et seq.); section 1 of the Act of March 2, 1911 (19 U.S.C. 198); the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2101 et seq.]; the Trade Agreements Act of 1979; the North American Free Trade Area Implementation Act; the Uruguay Round Agreements Act; the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act [19 U.S.C. 2701 et seq.]; the Andean Trade Preference Act [19 U.S.C. 3201 et seq.]; the African Growth and Opportunity Act [19 U.S.C. 3701 et seq.]; and any other provision of law vesting customs revenue functions in the Secretary of the Treasury.

(b) Maintenance of Customs revenue functions

(1) Maintenance of functions

Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, the Secretary may not consolidate, discontinue, or diminish those functions described in paragraph (2) performed by U.S. Customs and Border Protection (as established under section 211 of this title) on or after the effective date of this chapter, reduce the staffing level, or reduce the resources attributable to such functions, and the Secretary shall ensure that an appropriate management structure is implemented to carry out such functions.

(2) Functions

The functions referred to in paragraph (1) are those functions performed by the following personnel, and associated support staff, of U.S. Customs and Border Protection on the day before the effective date of this chapter: Import Specialists, Entry Specialists, Drawback Specialists, National Import Specialist, Fines and Penalties Specialists, attorneys of the Office of Regulations and Rulings, Customs Auditors, International Trade Specialists, Financial Systems Specialists.

(c) New personnel

The Secretary of the Treasury is authorized to appoint up to 20 new personnel to work with personnel of the Department in performing customs revenue functions.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §412, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2179; Pub. L. 114–125, title VIII, §802(g)(1)(B)(iii)(II), Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 211.)

References in Text

The effective date of this chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1) and (b), is 60 days after Nov. 25, 2002, see section 4 of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as an Effective Date note under section 101 of this title.

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1) and (b)(1), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 107–296, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2135, known as the Homeland Security Act of 2002, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title and Tables.

The Tariff Act of 1930, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), is act June 17, 1930, ch. 497, 46 Stat. 590, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 4 (§1202 et seq.) of Title 19, Customs Duties. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1654 of Title 19 and Tables.

The Foreign Trade Zones Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), is act June 18, 1934, ch. 590, 48 Stat. 998, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 1A (§81a et seq.) of Title 19, Customs Duties. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

The Trade Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), is Pub. L. 93–618, Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 1978, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 12 (§2101 et seq.) of Title 19, Customs Duties. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 2101 of Title 19 and Tables.

The Trade Agreements Act of 1979, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), is Pub. L. 96–39, July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 144, as amended. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 2501 of Title 19, Customs Duties, and Tables.

The North American Free Trade Area Implementation Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), probably means the North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act, Pub. L. 103–182, Dec. 8, 1993, 107 Stat. 2057, as amended. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3301 of Title 19, Customs Duties, and Tables.

The Uruguay Round Agreements Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), is Pub. L. 103–465, Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4809, as amended. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3501 of Title 19, Customs Duties, and Tables.

The Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), is title II of Pub. L. 98–67, Aug. 5, 1983, 97 Stat. 384, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 15 (§2701 et seq.) of Title 19, Customs Duties. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2701 of Title 19 and Tables.

The Andean Trade Preference Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), is title II of Pub. L. 102–182, Dec. 4, 1991, 105 Stat. 1236, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 20 (§3201 et seq.) of Title 19, Customs Duties. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3201 of Title 19 and Tables.

The African Growth and Opportunity Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), is title I of Pub. L. 106–200, May 18, 2000, 114 Stat. 252, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 23 (§3701 et seq.) of Title 19, Customs Duties. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3701 of Title 19 and Tables.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 114–125 substituted "U.S. Customs and Border Protection" for "the United States Customs Service" in pars. (1) and (2).

1 So in original. Probably should be section "203(1)".

§213. Preservation of Customs funds

Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, no funds collected under paragraphs (1) through (8) of section 58c(a) of title 19 may be transferred for use by any other agency or office in the Department.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §413, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2180; Pub. L. 114–125, title VIII, §802(g)(1)(B)(iii)(III), Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 211.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 107–296, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2135, known as the Homeland Security Act of 2002, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2016—Pub. L. 114–125 struck out "available to the United States Customs Service or" after "no funds".

§214. Separate budget request for Customs

The President shall include in each budget transmitted to Congress under section 1105 of title 31 a separate budget request for U.S. Customs and Border Protection.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §414, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2180; Pub. L. 114–125, title VIII, §802(g)(1)(B)(iii)(IV), Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 211.)

Amendments

2016—Pub. L. 114–125 substituted "U.S. Customs and Border Protection" for "the United States Customs Service".

Land Border Projects

Pub. L. 112–74, div. D, title II, Dec. 23, 2011, 125 Stat. 949, provided in part: "That for fiscal year 2012 and thereafter, the annual budget submission of U.S. Customs and Border Protection for 'Construction and Facilities Management' shall, in consultation with the General Services Administration, include a detailed 5-year plan for all Federal land border port of entry projects with a yearly update of total projected future funding needs delineated by land port of entry".

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 111–83, title II, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2148.

Pub. L. 110–329, div. D, title II, Sept. 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 3658.

§215. Definition

In this part, the term "customs revenue function" means the following:

(1) Assessing and collecting customs duties (including antidumping and countervailing duties and duties imposed under safeguard provisions), excise taxes, fees, and penalties due on imported merchandise, including classifying and valuing merchandise for purposes of such assessment.

(2) Processing and denial of entry of persons, baggage, cargo, and mail, with respect to the assessment and collection of import duties.

(3) Detecting and apprehending persons engaged in fraudulent practices designed to circumvent the customs laws of the United States.

(4) Enforcing section 1337 of title 19 and provisions relating to import quotas and the marking of imported merchandise, and providing Customs Recordations for copyrights, patents, and trademarks.

(5) Collecting accurate import data for compilation of international trade statistics.

(6) Enforcing reciprocal trade agreements.

(7) Functions performed by the following personnel, and associated support staff, of the United States Customs Service on the day before the effective date of this chapter, and of U.S. Customs and Border Protection on the day before the effective date of the U.S. Customs and Border Protection Authorization Act: Import Specialists, Entry Specialists, Drawback Specialists, National Import Specialist, Fines and Penalties Specialists, attorneys of the Office of Regulations and Rulings, Customs Auditors, International Trade Specialists, Financial Systems Specialists.

(8) Functions performed by the following offices, with respect to any function described in any of paragraphs (1) through (7), and associated support staff, of the United States Customs Service on the day before the effective date of this chapter, and of U.S. Customs and Border Protection on the day before the effective date of the U.S. Customs and Border Protection Authorization Act: the Office of Information and Technology, the Office of Laboratory Services, the Office of the Chief Counsel, the Office of Congressional Affairs, the Office of International Affairs, and the Office of Training and Development.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §415, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2180; Pub. L. 114–125, title VIII, §802(g)(1)(B)(iii)(V), Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 211.)

References in Text

This part, referred to in text, was in the original "this subtitle", meaning subtitle B (§§411–419) of title IV of Pub. L. 107–296, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2178, which enacted this part, amended section 5314 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, section 58c of Title 19, Customs Duties, and provisions set out as a note under section 2075 of Title 19. For complete classification of subtitle B to the Code, see Tables.

The effective date of this chapter, referred to in pars. (7) and (8), is 60 days after Nov. 25, 2002, see section 4 of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as an Effective Date note under section 101 of this title.

The effective date of the U.S. Customs and Border Protection Authorization Act, referred to in pars. (7) and (8), is the effective date of title VIII of Pub. L. 114–125, which is Feb. 24, 2016.

Amendments

2016—Pars. (7), (8). Pub. L. 114–125 inserted ", and of U.S. Customs and Border Protection on the day before the effective date of the U.S. Customs and Border Protection Authorization Act" before the colon.

§216. Repealed. Pub. L. 114–125, title VIII, §802(f), Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 210

Section, Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §416, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2181, related to GAO report to Congress.

§217. Allocation of resources by the Secretary

(a) In general

The Secretary shall ensure that adequate staffing is provided to assure that levels of customs revenue services provided on the day before the effective date of this chapter shall continue to be provided.

(b) Notification of Congress

The Secretary shall notify the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Finance of the Senate at least 90 days prior to taking any action which would—

(1) result in any significant reduction in customs revenue services, including hours of operation, provided at any office within the Department or any port of entry;

(2) eliminate or relocate any office of the Department which provides customs revenue services; or

(3) eliminate any port of entry.

(c) Definition

In this section, the term "customs revenue services" means those customs revenue functions described in paragraphs (1) through (6) and paragraph (8) of section 215 of this title.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §417, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2181.)

References in Text

The effective date of this chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), is 60 days after Nov. 25, 2002, see section 4 of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as an Effective Date note under section 101 of this title.

§218. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Business Travel Cards

(a) In general

The Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection is authorized to issue an Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Business Travel Card (referred to in this section as an "ABT Card") to any individual described in subsection (b).

(b) Card issuance

An individual described in this subsection is an individual who—

(1) is a citizen of the United States;

(2) has been approved and is in good standing in an existing international trusted traveler program of the Department; and

(3) is—

(A) engaged in business in the Asia-Pacific region, as determined by the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection; or

(B) a United States Government official actively engaged in Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation business, as determined by the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection.

(c) Integration with existing travel programs

The Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection shall integrate application procedures for, and issuance, renewal, and revocation of, ABT Cards with existing international trusted traveler programs of the Department.

(d) Cooperation with private entities and nongovernmental organizations

In carrying out this section, the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection may consult with appropriate private sector entities and nongovernmental organizations, including academic institutions.

(e) Fee

(1) In general

The Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection shall—

(A) prescribe and collect a fee for the issuance and renewal of ABT Cards; and

(B) adjust such fee to the extent the Commissioner determines necessary to comply with paragraph (2).

(2) Limitation

The Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection shall ensure that the total amount of the fees collected under paragraph (1) during any fiscal year is sufficient to offset the direct and indirect costs associated with carrying out this section during such fiscal year, including the costs associated with operating and maintaining the ABT Card issuance and renewal processes.

(3) Account for collections

There is established in the Treasury of the United States an "Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Business Travel Card Account" into which the fees collected under paragraph (1) shall be deposited as offsetting receipts.

(4) Use of funds

Amounts deposited into the Asia Pacific 1 Economic Cooperation Business Travel Card Account established under paragraph (3) shall—

(A) be credited to the appropriate account of the 2 U.S. Customs and Border Protection for expenses incurred in carrying out this section; and

(B) remain available until expended.

(f) Notification

The Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection shall notify the Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate not later than 60 days after the expenditures of funds to operate and provide ABT Card services beyond the amounts collected under subsection (e)(1).

(g) Trusted traveler program defined

In this section, the term "trusted traveler program" means a voluntary program of the Department that allows U.S. Customs and Border Protection to expedite clearance of pre-approved, low-risk travelers arriving in the United States.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §418, as added Pub. L. 115–79, §2(a), Nov. 2, 2017, 131 Stat. 1258.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 218, Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §418, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2181, related to reports to Congress from the United States Customs Service and the Secretary of the Treasury, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 114–125, title VIII, §802(f), Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 210.

Transfer of Funds From APEC Business Travel Card Account

Pub. L. 115–79, §3, Nov. 2, 2017, 131 Stat. 1259, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Notwithstanding the repeal of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Business Travel Cards Act of 2011 (Public Law 112–54; 8 U.S.C. 1185 note) pursuant to section 4(b)(1), amounts deposited into the APEC Business Travel Card Account established pursuant to such Act as of the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 2, 2017] are hereby transferred to the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Business Travel Card Account established pursuant to section 418(e) of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 [6 U.S.C. 218(e)] (as added by section 2(a) of this Act), and shall be available without regard to whether such amounts are expended in connection with expenses incurred with respect to an ABT Card issued at any time before or after such date of enactment.

"(b) Availability.—Amounts deposited in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Business Travel Card Account established pursuant to section 418(e) of the Homeland Security Act of 2002, in addition to the purposes for which such amounts are available pursuant to such subsection, shall also be available for expenditure in connection with expenses incurred with respect to ABT Cards issued at any time before the date of the enactment of such section.

"(c) Termination.—After the completion of the transfer described in subsection (a), the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Business Travel Card Account established pursuant to the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Business Travel Cards Act of 2011 shall be closed."

1 So in original. Probably should be "Asia-Pacific".

2 So in original. "The" probably should not appear.

§220. Methamphetamine and methamphetamine precursor chemicals

(a) Compliance with performance plan requirements

As part of the annual performance plan required in the budget submission of the United States Customs and Border Protection under section 1115 of title 31, the Commissioner shall establish performance indicators relating to the seizure of methamphetamine and methamphetamine precursor chemicals in order to evaluate the performance goals of the United States Customs and Border Protection with respect to the interdiction of illegal drugs entering the United States.

(b) Study and report relating to methamphetamine and methamphetamine precursor chemicals

(1) Analysis

The Commissioner shall, on an ongoing basis, analyze the movement of methamphetamine and methamphetamine precursor chemicals into the United States. In conducting the analysis, the Commissioner shall—

(A) consider the entry of methamphetamine and methamphetamine precursor chemicals through ports of entry, between ports of entry, through international mails, and through international courier services;

(B) examine the export procedures of each foreign country where the shipments of methamphetamine and methamphetamine precursor chemicals originate and determine if changes in the country's customs over time provisions would alleviate the export of methamphetamine and methamphetamine precursor chemicals; and

(C) identify emerging trends in smuggling techniques and strategies.

(2) Report

Not later than September 30, 2007, and each 2-year period thereafter, the Commissioner, in the consultation with the Attorney General, United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement, the United States Drug Enforcement Administration, and the United States Department of State, shall submit a report to the Committee on Finance of the Senate, the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate, the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives, the Committee on International Relations of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives, that includes—

(A) a comprehensive summary of the analysis described in paragraph (1); and

(B) a description of how the Untied 1 States Customs and Border Protection utilized the analysis described in paragraph (1) to target shipments presenting a high risk for smuggling or circumvention of the Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005 (Public Law 109–177).

(3) Availability of analysis

The Commissioner shall ensure that the analysis described in paragraph (1) is made available in a timely manner to the Secretary of State to facilitate the Secretary in fulfilling the Secretary's reporting requirements in section 722 of the Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005.

(c) Definition

In this section, the term "methamphetamine precursor chemicals" means the chemicals ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine, including each of the salts, optical isomers, and salts of optical isomers of such chemicals.

(Pub. L. 109–347, title VII, §707, Oct. 13, 2006, 120 Stat. 1946.)

References in Text

The Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005, referred to in subsec. (b)(2)(B), is Pub. L. 109–177, title VII, Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 256. Section 722 of the Act amended sections 2291h, 2291j, and 2291j–1 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, and enacted provisions set out as a note under section 2291h of Title 22. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 801 of Title 21, Food and Drugs, and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Security and Accountability For Every Port Act of 2006, also known as the SAFE Port Act, and not as part of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 which comprises this chapter.

Change of Name

Committee on International Relations of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Foreign Affairs of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Jan. 5, 2007.

Definitions

For definition of "Commissioner" as used in this section, see section 901 of this title.

1 So in original.

§221. Requirements with respect to administering polygraph examinations to law enforcement personnel of U.S. Customs and Border Protection

(a) In general

The Secretary of Homeland Security shall ensure that—

(1) by not later than 2 years after January 4, 2011, all applicants for law enforcement positions with U.S. Customs and Border Protection (except as provided in subsection (b)) receive polygraph examinations before being hired for such a position; and

(2) by not later than 180 days after January 4, 2011, U.S. Customs and Border Protection initiates all periodic background reinvestigations for all law enforcement personnel of U.S. Customs and Border Protection that should receive periodic background reinvestigations pursuant to relevant policies of U.S. Customs and Border Protection in effect on the day before January 4, 2011.

(b) Waiver

The Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection may waive the polygraph examination requirement under subsection (a)(1) for any applicant who—

(1) is deemed suitable for employment;

(2) holds a current, active Top Secret/Sensitive Compartmented Information Clearance;

(3) has a current Single Scope Background Investigation;

(4) was not granted any waivers to obtain his or her clearance; and

(5) is a veteran (as defined in section 2108 of title 5).

(Pub. L. 111–376, §3, Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 4104; Pub. L. 114–279, §5, Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1422.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Anti-Border Corruption Act of 2010, and not as part of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

2016—Pub. L. 114–279 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, in par. (1) inserted "(except as provided in subsection (b))" after "Border Protection", and added subsec. (b).

Waiver of Certain Polygraph Examination Requirements

Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title X, §1049, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2396, provided that: "The Secretary of Homeland Security, acting through the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection, may waive the polygraph examination requirement under section 3 of the Anti-Border Corruption Act of 2010 (Public Law 111–376) [6 U.S.C. 221] for any applicant who—

"(1) the Commissioner determines is suitable for employment;

"(2) holds a current, active Top Secret clearance and is able to access sensitive compartmented information;

"(3) has a current single scope background investigation;

"(4) was not granted any waivers to obtain the clearance; and

"(5) is a veteran (as such term is defined in section 2108 or 2109a [probably should be "2108a"] of title 5, United States Code)."

Findings

Pub. L. 111–376, §2, Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 4104, provided that: "Congress makes the following findings:

"(1) According to the Office of the Inspector General of the Department of Homeland Security, since 2003, 129 U.S. Customs and Border Protection officials have been arrested on corruption charges and, during 2009, 576 investigations were opened on allegations of improper conduct by U.S. Customs and Border Protection officials.

"(2) To foster integrity in the workplace, established policy of U.S. Customs and Border Protection calls for—

"(A) all job applicants for law enforcement positions at U.S. Customs and Border Protection to receive a polygraph examination and a background investigation before being offered employment; and

"(B) relevant employees to receive a periodic background reinvestigation every 5 years.

"(3) According to the Office of Internal Affairs of U.S. Customs and Border Protection—

"(A) in 2009, less than 15 percent of applicants for jobs with U.S. Customs and Border Protection received polygraph examinations;

"(B) as of March 2010, U.S. Customs and Border Protection had a backlog of approximately 10,000 periodic background reinvestigations of existing employees; and

"(C) without additional resources, by the end of fiscal year 2010, the backlog of periodic background reinvestigations will increase to approximately 19,000."

§222. Advanced Training Center Revolving Fund

For fiscal year 2012 and thereafter, U.S. Customs and Border Protection's Advanced Training Center is authorized to charge fees for any service and/or thing of value it provides to Federal Government or non-government entities or individuals, so long as the fees charged do not exceed the full costs associated with the service or thing of value provided: Provided, That notwithstanding section 3302(b) of title 31, fees collected by the Advanced Training Center are to be deposited into a separate account entitled "Advanced Training Center Revolving Fund", and be available, without further appropriations, for necessary expenses of the Advanced Training Center program, and are to remain available until expended.

(Pub. L. 112–74, div. D, title V, §557, Dec. 23, 2011, 125 Stat. 979.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act, 2012, and also as part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012, and not as part of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 which comprises this chapter.

§223. Border security metrics

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Appropriate congressional committees

The term "appropriate congressional committees" means—

(A) the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate; and

(B) the Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives.

(2) Consequence Delivery System

The term "Consequence Delivery System" means the series of consequences applied by U.S. Border Patrol in collaboration with other Federal agencies to persons unlawfully entering the United States, in order to prevent unlawful border crossing recidivism.

(3) Got away

The term "got away" means an unlawful border crosser who—

(A) is directly or indirectly observed making an unlawful entry into the United States;

(B) is not apprehended; and

(C) is not a turn back.

(4) Known maritime migrant flow

The term "known maritime migrant flow" means the sum of the number of undocumented migrants—

(A) interdicted in the waters over which the United States has jurisdiction;

(B) identified at sea either directly or indirectly, but not interdicted;

(C) if not described in subparagraph (A) or (B), who were otherwise reported, with a significant degree of certainty, as having entered, or attempted to enter, the United States through the maritime border.

(5) Major violator

The term "major violator" means a person or entity that has engaged in serious criminal activities at any land, air, or sea port of entry, including the following:

(A) Possession of illicit drugs.

(B) Smuggling of prohibited products.

(C) Human smuggling.

(D) Possession of illegal weapons.

(E) Use of fraudulent documents.

(F) Any other offense that is serious enough to result in an arrest.

(6) Secretary

The term "the Secretary" means the Secretary of Homeland Security.

(7) Situational awareness

The term "situational awareness" means knowledge and understanding of current unlawful cross-border activity, including the following:

(A) Threats and trends concerning illicit trafficking and unlawful crossings.

(B) The ability to forecast future shifts in such threats and trends.

(C) The ability to evaluate such threats and trends at a level sufficient to create actionable plans.

(D) The operational capability to conduct persistent and integrated surveillance of the international borders of the United States.

(8) Transit zone

The term "transit zone" means the sea corridors of the western Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean Sea, and the eastern Pacific Ocean through which undocumented migrants and illicit drugs transit, either directly or indirectly, to the United States.

(9) Turn back

The term "turn back" means an unlawful border crosser who, after making an unlawful entry into the United States, responds to United States enforcement efforts by returning promptly to the country from which such crosser entered.

(10) Unlawful border crossing effectiveness rate

The term "unlawful border crossing effectiveness rate" means the percentage that results from dividing the number of apprehensions and turn backs by the sum of the number of apprehensions, estimated undetected unlawful entries, turn backs, and got aways.

(11) Unlawful entry

The term "unlawful entry" means an unlawful border crosser who enters the United States and is not apprehended by a border security component of the Department of Homeland Security.

(b) Metrics for securing the border between ports of entry

(1) In general

Not later than 180 days after December 23, 2016, the Secretary shall develop metrics, informed by situational awareness, to measure the effectiveness of security between ports of entry. The Secretary shall annually implement the metrics developed under this subsection, which shall include the following:

(A) Estimates, using alternative methodologies where appropriate, including recidivism data, survey data, known-flow data, and technologically-measured data, of the following:

(i) The rate of apprehension of attempted unlawful border crossers.

(ii) The number of detected unlawful entries.

(iii) The number of estimated undetected unlawful entries.

(iv) Turn backs.

(v) Got aways.


(B) A measurement of situational awareness achieved in each U.S. Border Patrol sector.

(C) An unlawful border crossing effectiveness rate in each U.S. Border Patrol sector.

(D) A probability of detection rate, which compares the estimated total unlawful border crossing attempts not detected by U.S. Border Patrol to the unlawful border crossing effectiveness rate under subparagraph (C), as informed by subparagraph (A).

(E) The number of apprehensions in each U.S. Border Patrol sector.

(F) The number of apprehensions of unaccompanied alien children, and the nationality of such children, in each U.S. Border Patrol sector.

(G) The number of apprehensions of family units, and the nationality of such family units, in each U.S. Border Patrol sector.

(H) An illicit drugs seizure rate for drugs seized by U.S. Border Patrol between ports of entry, which compares the ratio of the amount and type of illicit drugs seized between ports of entry in any fiscal year to the average of the amount and type of illicit drugs seized between ports of entry in the immediately preceding five fiscal years.

(I) Estimates of the impact of the Consequence Delivery System on the rate of recidivism of unlawful border crossers over multiple fiscal years.

(J) An examination of each consequence under the Consequence Delivery System referred to in subparagraph (I), including the following:

(i) Voluntary return.

(ii) Warrant of arrest or notice to appear.

(iii) Expedited removal.

(iv) Reinstatement of removal.

(v) Alien transfer exit program.

(vi) Criminal consequence program.

(vii) Standard prosecution.

(viii) Operation Against Smugglers Initiative on Safety and Security.

(2) Metrics consultation

To ensure that authoritative data sources are utilized in the development of the metrics described in paragraph (1), the Secretary shall—

(A) consult with the heads of the appropriate components of the Department of Homeland Security; and

(B) where appropriate, with the heads of other agencies, including the Office of Refugee Resettlement of the Department of Health and Human Services and the Executive Office for Immigration Review of the Department of Justice.

(3) Manner of collection

The data collected to inform the metrics developed in accordance with paragraph (1) shall be collected and reported in a consistent and standardized manner across all U.S. Border Patrol sectors, informed by situational awareness.

(c) Metrics for securing the border at ports of entry

(1) In general

Not later than 180 days after December 23, 2016, the Secretary shall develop metrics, informed by situational awareness, to measure the effectiveness of security at ports of entry. The Secretary shall annually implement the metrics developed under this subsection, which shall include the following:

(A) Estimates, using alternative methodologies where appropriate, including recidivism data, survey data, and randomized secondary screening data, of the following:

(i) Total inadmissible travelers who attempt to, or successfully, enter the United States at a port of entry.

(ii) The rate of refusals and interdictions for travelers who attempt to, or successfully, enter the United States at a port of entry.

(iii) The number of unlawful entries at a port of entry.


(B) The amount and type of illicit drugs seized by the Office of Field Operations of U.S. Customs and Border Protection at ports of entry during the previous fiscal year.

(C) An illicit drugs seizure rate for drugs seized by the Office of Field Operations, which compares the ratio of the amount and type of illicit drugs seized by the Office of Field Operations in any fiscal year to the average of the amount and type of illicit drugs seized by the Office of Field Operations in the immediately preceding five fiscal years.

(D) The number of infractions related to travelers and cargo committed by major violators who are interdicted by the Office of Field Operations at ports of entry, and the estimated number of such infractions committed by major violators who are not so interdicted.

(E) In consultation with the heads of the Office of National Drug Control Policy and the United States Southern Command, a cocaine seizure effectiveness rate, which is the percentage resulting from dividing the amount of cocaine seized by the Office of Field Operations by the total estimated cocaine flow rate at ports of entry along the United States land border with Mexico and Canada.

(F) A measurement of how border security operations affect crossing times, including the following:

(i) A wait time ratio that compares the average wait times to total commercial and private vehicular traffic volumes at each land port of entry.

(ii) An infrastructure capacity utilization rate that measures traffic volume against the physical and staffing capacity at each land port of entry.

(iii) A secondary examination rate that measures the frequency of secondary examinations at each land port of entry.

(iv) An enforcement rate that measures the effectiveness of such secondary examinations at detecting major violators.


(G) A seaport scanning rate that includes the following:

(i) The number of all cargo containers that are considered potentially "high-risk", as determined by the Executive Assistant Commissioner of the Office of Field Operations.

(ii) A comparison of the number of potentially high-risk cargo containers scanned by the Office of Field Operations at each sea port of entry during a fiscal year to the total number of high-risk cargo containers entering the United States at each such sea port of entry during the previous fiscal year.

(iii) The number of potentially high-risk cargo containers scanned upon arrival at a United States sea port of entry.

(iv) The number of potentially high-risk cargo containers scanned before arrival at a United States sea port of entry.

(2) Metrics consultation

To ensure that authoritative data sources are utilized in the development of the metrics described in paragraph (1), the Secretary shall—

(A) consult with the heads of the appropriate components of the Department of Homeland Security; and

(B) where appropriate, work with heads of other appropriate agencies, including the Office of Refugee Resettlement of the Department of Health and Human Services and the Executive Office for Immigration Review of the Department of Justice.

(3) Manner of collection

The data collected to inform the metrics developed in accordance with paragraph (1) shall be collected and reported in a consistent and standardized manner across all United States ports of entry, informed by situational awareness.

(d) Metrics for securing the maritime border

(1) In general

Not later than 180 days after December 23, 2016, the Secretary shall develop metrics, informed by situational awareness, to measure the effectiveness of security in the maritime environment. The Secretary shall annually implement the metrics developed under this subsection, which shall include the following:

(A) Situational awareness achieved in the maritime environment.

(B) A known maritime migrant flow rate.

(C) An illicit drugs removal rate for drugs removed inside and outside of a transit zone, which compares the amount and type of illicit drugs removed, including drugs abandoned at sea, by the maritime security components of the Department of Homeland Security in any fiscal year to the average of the amount and type of illicit drugs removed by such maritime components for the immediately preceding five fiscal years.

(D) In consultation with the heads of the Office of National Drug Control Policy and the United States Southern Command, a cocaine removal effectiveness rate for cocaine removed inside a transit zone and outside a transit zone, which compares the amount of cocaine removed by the maritime security components of the Department of Homeland Security by the total documented cocaine flow rate, as contained in Federal drug databases.

(E) A response rate, which compares the ability of the maritime security components of the Department of Homeland Security to respond to and resolve known maritime threats, whether inside or outside a transit zone, by placing assets on-scene, to the total number of events with respect to which the Department has known threat information.

(F) An intergovernmental response rate, which compares the ability of the maritime security components of the Department of Homeland Security or other United States Government entities to respond to and resolve actionable maritime threats, whether inside or outside a transit zone, with the number of such threats detected.

(2) Metrics consultation

To ensure that authoritative data sources are utilized in the development of the metrics described in paragraph (1), the Secretary shall—

(A) consult with the heads of the appropriate components of the Department of Homeland Security; and

(B) where appropriate, work with the heads of other agencies, including the Drug Enforcement Agency, the Department of Defense, and the Department of Justice.

(3) Manner of collection

The data used by the Secretary shall be collected and reported in a consistent and standardized manner by the maritime security components of the Department of Homeland Security, informed by situational awareness.

(e) Air and Marine security metrics in the land domain

(1) In general

Not later than 180 days after December 23, 2016, the Secretary shall develop metrics, informed by situational awareness, to measure the effectiveness of the aviation assets and operations of Air and Marine Operations of U.S. Customs and Border Protection. The Secretary shall annually implement the metrics developed under this subsection, which shall include the following:

(A) A flight hour effectiveness rate, which compares Air and Marine Operations flight hours requirements to the number of flight hours flown by Air and Marine Operations.

(B) A funded flight hour effectiveness rate, which compares the number of funded flight hours appropriated to Air and Marine Operations to the number of actual flight hours flown by Air and Marine Operations.

(C) A readiness rate, which compares the number of aviation missions flown by Air and Marine Operations to the number of aviation missions cancelled by Air and Marine Operations due to maintenance, operations, or other causes.

(D) The number of missions cancelled by Air and Marine Operations due to weather compared to the total planned missions.

(E) The number of individuals detected by Air and Marine Operations through the use of unmanned aerial systems and manned aircraft.

(F) The number of apprehensions assisted by Air and Marine Operations through the use of unmanned aerial systems and manned aircraft.

(G) The number and quantity of illicit drug seizures assisted by Air and Marine Operations through the use of unmanned aerial systems and manned aircraft.

(H) The number of times that actionable intelligence related to border security was obtained through the use of unmanned aerial systems and manned aircraft.

(2) Metrics consultation

To ensure that authoritative data sources are utilized in the development of the metrics described in paragraph (1), the Secretary shall—

(A) consult with the heads of the appropriate components of the Department of Homeland Security; and

(B) as appropriate, work with the heads of other departments and agencies, including the Department of Justice.

(3) Manner of collection

The data collected to inform the metrics developed in accordance with paragraph (1) shall be collected and reported in a consistent and standardized manner by Air and Marine Operations, informed by situational awareness.

(f) Data transparency

The Secretary shall—

(1) in accordance with applicable privacy laws, make data related to apprehensions, inadmissible aliens, drug seizures, and other enforcement actions available to the public, law enforcement communities, and academic research communities; and

(2) provide the Office of Immigration Statistics of the Department of Homeland Security with unfettered access to the data referred to in paragraph (1).

(g) Evaluation by the Government Accountability Office and the Secretary

(1) Metrics report

(A) Mandatory disclosures

The Secretary shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees and the Comptroller General of the United States an annual report containing the metrics required under this section and the data and methodology used to develop such metrics.

(B) Permissible disclosures

The Secretary, for the purpose of validation and verification, may submit the annual report described in subparagraph (A) to—

(i) the Center for Borders, Trade, and Immigration Research of the Centers of Excellence network of the Department of Homeland Security;

(ii) the head of a national laboratory within the Department of Homeland Security laboratory network with prior expertise in border security; and

(iii) a Federally Funded Research and Development Center.

(2) GAO report

Not later than 270 days after receiving the first report under paragraph (1)(A) and biennially thereafter for the following ten years with respect to every other such report, the Comptroller General of the United States shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report that—

(A) analyzes the suitability and statistical validity of the data and methodology contained in each such report; and

(B) includes recommendations on—

(i) the feasibility of other suitable metrics that may be used to measure the effectiveness of border security; and

(ii) improvements that need to be made to the metrics being used to measure the effectiveness of border security.

(3) State of the Border report

Not later than 60 days after the end of each fiscal year through fiscal year 2026, the Secretary shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a "State of the Border" report that—

(A) provides trends for each metric under this section for the last ten fiscal years, to the greatest extent possible;

(B) provides selected analysis into related aspects of illegal flow rates, including undocumented migrant flows and stock estimation techniques;

(C) provides selected analysis into related aspects of legal flow rates; and

(D) includes any other information that the Secretary determines appropriate.

(4) Metrics update

(A) In general

After submitting the tenth report to the Comptroller General under paragraph (1), the Secretary may reevaluate and update any of the metrics developed in accordance with this section to ensure that such metrics are suitable to measure the effectiveness of border security.

(B) Congressional notification

Not later than 30 days before updating the metrics pursuant to subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall notify the appropriate congressional committees of such updates.

(Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title X, §1092, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2429.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017, and not as part of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 which comprises this chapter.

Part C—Miscellaneous Provisions

§231. Transfer of certain agricultural inspection functions of the Department of Agriculture

(a) Transfer of agricultural import and entry inspection functions

There shall be transferred to the Secretary the functions of the Secretary of Agriculture relating to agricultural import and entry inspection activities under the laws specified in subsection (b).

(b) Covered animal and plant protection laws

The laws referred to in subsection (a) are the following:

(1) The Act commonly known as the Virus-Serum-Toxin Act (the eighth paragraph under the heading "Bureau of Animal Industry" in the Act of March 4, 1913; 21 U.S.C. 151 et seq.).

(2) Section 1 of the Act of August 31, 1922 (commonly known as the Honeybee Act; 7 U.S.C. 281).

(3) Title III of the Federal Seed Act (7 U.S.C. 1581 et seq.).

(4) The Plant Protection Act (7 U.S.C. 7701 et seq.).

(5) The Animal Health Protection Act (subtitle E of title X of Public Law 107–171; 7 U.S.C. 8301 et seq.).

(6) The Lacey Act Amendments of 1981 (16 U.S.C. 3371 et seq.).

(7) Section 11 of the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1540).

(c) Exclusion of quarantine activities

For purposes of this section, the term "functions" does not include any quarantine activities carried out under the laws specified in subsection (b).

(d) Effect of transfer

(1) Compliance with Department of Agriculture regulations

The authority transferred pursuant to subsection (a) shall be exercised by the Secretary in accordance with the regulations, policies, and procedures issued by the Secretary of Agriculture regarding the administration of the laws specified in subsection (b).

(2) Rulemaking coordination

The Secretary of Agriculture shall coordinate with the Secretary whenever the Secretary of Agriculture prescribes regulations, policies, or procedures for administering the functions transferred under subsection (a) under a law specified in subsection (b).

(3) Effective administration

The Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture, may issue such directives and guidelines as are necessary to ensure the effective use of personnel of the Department of Homeland Security to carry out the functions transferred pursuant to subsection (a).

(e) Transfer agreement

(1) Agreement required; revision

Before the end of the transition period, as defined in section 541 of this title, the Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary shall enter into an agreement to effectuate the transfer of functions required by subsection (a) of this section. The Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary may jointly revise the agreement as necessary thereafter.

(2) Required terms

The agreement required by this subsection shall specifically address the following:

(A) The supervision by the Secretary of Agriculture of the training of employees of the Secretary to carry out the functions transferred pursuant to subsection (a).

(B) The transfer of funds to the Secretary under subsection (f).

(3) Cooperation and reciprocity

The Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary may include as part of the agreement the following:

(A) Authority for the Secretary to perform functions delegated to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service of the Department of Agriculture regarding the protection of domestic livestock and plants, but not transferred to the Secretary pursuant to subsection (a).

(B) Authority for the Secretary of Agriculture to use employees of the Department of Homeland Security to carry out authorities delegated to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service regarding the protection of domestic livestock and plants.

(f) Periodic transfer of funds to Department of Homeland Security

(1) Transfer of funds

Out of funds collected by fees authorized under sections 136 and 136a of title 21, the Secretary of Agriculture shall transfer, from time to time in accordance with the agreement under subsection (e), to the Secretary funds for activities carried out by the Secretary for which such fees were collected.

(2) Limitation

The proportion of fees collected pursuant to such sections that are transferred to the Secretary under this subsection may not exceed the proportion of the costs incurred by the Secretary to all costs incurred to carry out activities funded by such fees.

(g) Transfer of Department of Agriculture employees

Not later than the completion of the transition period defined under section 541 of this title, the Secretary of Agriculture shall transfer to the Secretary not more than 3,200 full-time equivalent positions of the Department of Agriculture.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §421, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2182.)

References in Text

The Virus-Serum-Toxin Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), is the eighth paragraph under the heading "Bureau of Animal Industry" in act Mar. 4, 1913, ch. 145, 37 Stat. 832, 833, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 5 (§151 et seq.) of Title 21, Food and Drugs. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 151 of Title 21 and Tables.

The Federal Seed Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(3), is act Aug. 9, 1939, ch. 615, 53 Stat. 1275, as amended. Title III of the Act is classified generally to subchapter III (§1581 et seq.) of chapter 37 of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1551 of Title 7 and Tables.

The Plant Protection Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(4), is title IV of Pub. L. 106–224, June 20, 2000, 114 Stat. 438, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 104 (§7701 et seq.) of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 7701 of Title 7 and Tables.

The Animal Health Protection Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(5), is subtitle E (§§10401–10418) of title X of Pub. L. 107–171, May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 494, which is classified principally to chapter 109 (§8301 et seq.) of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 8301 of Title 7 and Tables.

The Lacey Act Amendments of 1981, referred to in subsec. (b)(6), is Pub. L. 97–79, Nov. 16, 1981, 95 Stat. 1073, as amended, which enacted chapter 53 (§3371 et seq.) of Title 16, Conservation, amended section 1540 of Title 16 and section 42 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, repealed sections 667e and 851 to 856 of Title 16 and sections 43, 44, 3054, and 3112 of Title 18, and enacted provisions set out as notes under sections 1540 and 3371 of Title 16. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3371 of Title 16 and Tables.

Codification

Section is comprised of section 421 of Pub. L. 107–296. Subsec. (h) of section 421 of Pub. L. 107–296 amended sections 2279e and 2279f of Title 7, Agriculture.

§232. Functions of Administrator of General Services

(a) Operation, maintenance, and protection of Federal buildings and grounds

Nothing in this chapter may be construed to affect the functions or authorities of the Administrator of General Services with respect to the operation, maintenance, and protection of buildings and grounds owned or occupied by the Federal Government and under the jurisdiction, custody, or control of the Administrator. Except for the law enforcement and related security functions transferred under section 203(3) of this title, the Administrator shall retain all powers, functions, and authorities vested in the Administrator under chapter 1, except section 121(e)(2)(A), and chapters 5 to 11 of title 40 and other provisions of law that are necessary for the operation, maintenance, and protection of such buildings and grounds.

(b) Collection of rents and fees; Federal Buildings Fund

(1) Statutory construction

Nothing in this chapter may be construed—

(A) to direct the transfer of, or affect, the authority of the Administrator of General Services to collect rents and fees, including fees collected for protective services; or

(B) to authorize the Secretary or any other official in the Department to obligate amounts in the Federal Buildings Fund established by section 592 of title 40.

(2) Use of transferred amounts

Any amounts transferred by the Administrator of General Services to the Secretary out of rents and fees collected by the Administrator shall be used by the Secretary solely for the protection of buildings or grounds owned or occupied by the Federal Government.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §422, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2184.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b)(1), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 107–296, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2135, known as the Homeland Security Act of 2002, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title and Tables.

Codification

"Chapter 1, except section 121(e)(2)(A), and chapters 5 to 11 of title 40" substituted in subsec. (a) for "chapter 10 of title 40" and "section 592 of title 40" substituted in subsec. (b)(1)(B) for "section 490(f) of title 40" on authority of Pub. L. 107–217, §5(c), Aug. 21, 2002, 116 Stat. 1303, the first section of which enacted Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works.

§233. Functions of Transportation Security Administration

(a) Consultation with Federal Aviation Administration

The Secretary and other officials in the Department shall consult with the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration before taking any action that might affect aviation safety, air carrier operations, aircraft airworthiness, or the use of airspace. The Secretary shall establish a liaison office within the Department for the purpose of consulting with the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration.

(b) Report to Congress

Not later than 60 days after November 25, 2002, the Secretary of Transportation shall transmit to Congress a report containing a plan for complying with the requirements of section 44901(d) of title 49.

(c) Limitations on statutory construction

(1) Grant of authority

Nothing in this chapter may be construed to vest in the Secretary or any other official in the Department any authority over transportation security that is not vested in the Under Secretary of Transportation for Security, or in the Secretary of Transportation under chapter 449 of title 49 on the day before November 25, 2002.

(2) Obligation of AIP funds

Nothing in this chapter may be construed to authorize the Secretary or any other official in the Department to obligate amounts made available under section 48103 of title 49.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §423, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2185.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (c), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 107–296, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2135, known as the Homeland Security Act of 2002, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title and Tables.

Change of Name

Reference to Under Secretary of Transportation for Security deemed to refer to Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration, see section 1994 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out as a note under section 114 of Title 49, Transportation.

§234. Preservation of Transportation Security Administration as a distinct entity

Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, the Transportation Security Administration shall be maintained as a distinct entity within the Department.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §424, as added Pub. L. 114–125, title VIII, §802(g)(1)(B)(iv)(I), Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 212.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 107–296, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2135, known as the Homeland Security Act of 2002, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 234, Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §424, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2185, provided for the preservation of the Transportation Security Administration as a distinct entity applicable until 2 years after Nov. 25, 2002, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 114–125, title VIII, §802(g)(1)(B)(iv)(I), Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 212.

§235. Coordination of information and information technology

(a) Definition of affected agency

In this section, the term "affected agency" means—

(1) the Department;

(2) the Department of Agriculture;

(3) the Department of Health and Human Services; and

(4) any other department or agency determined to be appropriate by the Secretary.

(b) Coordination

The Secretary, in coordination with the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, and the head of each other department or agency determined to be appropriate by the Secretary, shall ensure that appropriate information (as determined by the Secretary) concerning inspections of articles that are imported or entered into the United States, and are inspected or regulated by 1 or more affected agencies, is timely and efficiently exchanged between the affected agencies.

(c) Report and plan

Not later than 18 months after November 25, 2002, the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, and the head of each other department or agency determined to be appropriate by the Secretary, shall submit to Congress—

(1) a report on the progress made in implementing this section; and

(2) a plan to complete implementation of this section.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §427, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2187.)

§236. Visa issuance

(a) Definition

In this subsection,1 the term "consular office" 2 has the meaning given that term under section 101(a)(9) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(9)).

(b) In general

Notwithstanding section 104(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1104(a)) or any other provision of law, and except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, the Secretary—

(1) shall be vested exclusively with all authorities to issue regulations with respect to, administer, and enforce the provisions of such Act [8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.], and of all other immigration and nationality laws, relating to the functions of consular officers of the United States in connection with the granting or refusal of visas, and shall have the authority to refuse visas in accordance with law and to develop programs of homeland security training for consular officers (in addition to consular training provided by the Secretary of State), which authorities shall be exercised through the Secretary of State, except that the Secretary shall not have authority to alter or reverse the decision of a consular officer to refuse a visa to an alien; and

(2) shall have authority to confer or impose upon any officer or employee of the United States, with the consent of the head of the executive agency under whose jurisdiction such officer or employee is serving, any of the functions specified in paragraph (1).

(c) Authority of the Secretary of State

(1) In general

Notwithstanding subsection (b), the Secretary of State may direct a consular officer to refuse a visa to an alien if the Secretary of State deems such refusal necessary or advisable in the foreign policy or security interests of the United States.

(2) Construction regarding authority

Nothing in this section, consistent with the Secretary of Homeland Security's authority to refuse visas in accordance with law, shall be construed as affecting the authorities of the Secretary of State under the following provisions of law:

(A) Section 101(a)(15)(A) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(15)(A)).

(B) Section 204(d)(2) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1154) (as it will take effect upon the entry into force of the Convention on Protection of Children and Cooperation in Respect to Inter-Country adoption).

(C) Section 212(a)(3)(B)(i)(IV)(bb) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1182(a)(3)(B)(i)(IV)(bb)).

(D) Section 212(a)(3)(B)(i)(VI) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1182(a)(3)(B)(i)(VI)).

(E) Section 212(a)(3)(B)(vi)(II) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1182(a)(3)(B)(vi)(II)).

(F) Section 212(a)(3)(C) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1182(a)(3)(C)).

(G) Section 212(a)(10)(C) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1182(a)(10)(C)).

(H) Section 212(f) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1182(f)).

(I) Section 219(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1189(a)).

(J) Section 237(a)(4)(C) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1227(a)(4)(C)).

(K) Section 401 of the Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (LIBERTAD) Act of 1996 [22 U.S.C. 6091].

(L) Section 613 of the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1999 3 (as contained in section 101(b) of division A of Public Law 105–277) (Omnibus Consolidated and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act, 1999); 112 Stat. 2681; H.R. 4328 (originally H.R. 4276) as amended by section 617 of Public Law 106–553.

(M) Section 103(f) of the Chemical Weapon Convention Implementation Act of 1998 [22 U.S.C. 6713(f)] (112 Stat. 2681–865).

(N) Section 801 of H.R. 3427, the Admiral James W. Nance and Meg Donovan Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 2000 and 2001 [8 U.S.C. 1182e], as enacted by reference in Public Law 106–113.

(O) Section 568 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2002 (Public Law 107–115).

(P) Section 51 of the State Department Basic Authorities Act of 1956 (22 U.S.C. 2723).

(d) Consular officers and chiefs of missions

(1) In general

Nothing in this section may be construed to alter or affect—

(A) the employment status of consular officers as employees of the Department of State; or

(B) the authority of a chief of mission under section 207 of the Foreign Service Act of 1980 (22 U.S.C. 3927).

(2) Construction regarding delegation of authority

Nothing in this section shall be construed to affect any delegation of authority to the Secretary of State by the President pursuant to any proclamation issued under section 212(f) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1182(f)), consistent with the Secretary of Homeland Security's authority to refuse visas in accordance with law.

(e) Assignment of Homeland Security employees to diplomatic and consular posts

(1) In general

The Secretary is authorized to assign employees of the Department to each diplomatic and consular post at which visas are issued, unless the Secretary determines that such an assignment at a particular post would not promote homeland security.

(2) Functions

Employees assigned under paragraph (1) shall perform the following functions:

(A) Provide expert advice and training to consular officers regarding specific security threats relating to the adjudication of individual visa applications or classes of applications.

(B) Review any such applications, either on the initiative of the employee of the Department or upon request by a consular officer or other person charged with adjudicating such applications.

(C) Conduct investigations with respect to consular matters under the jurisdiction of the Secretary.

(3) Evaluation of consular officers

The Secretary of State shall evaluate, in consultation with the Secretary, as deemed appropriate by the Secretary, the performance of consular officers with respect to the processing and adjudication of applications for visas in accordance with performance standards developed by the Secretary for these procedures.

(4) Report

The Secretary shall, on an annual basis, submit a report to Congress that describes the basis for each determination under paragraph (1) that the assignment of an employee of the Department at a particular diplomatic post would not promote homeland security.

(5) Permanent assignment; participation in terrorist lookout committee

When appropriate, employees of the Department assigned to perform functions described in paragraph (2) may be assigned permanently to overseas diplomatic or consular posts with country-specific or regional responsibility. If the Secretary so directs, any such employee, when present at an overseas post, shall participate in the terrorist lookout committee established under section 304 of the Enhanced Border Security and Visa Entry Reform Act of 2002 (8 U.S.C. 1733).

(6) Training and hiring

(A) In general

The Secretary shall ensure, to the extent possible, that any employees of the Department assigned to perform functions under paragraph (2) and, as appropriate, consular officers, shall be provided the necessary training to enable them to carry out such functions, including training in foreign languages, interview techniques, and fraud detection techniques, in conditions in the particular country where each employee is assigned, and in other appropriate areas of study.

(B) Use of Center

The Secretary is authorized to use the National Foreign Affairs Training Center, on a reimbursable basis, to obtain the training described in subparagraph (A).

(7) Report

Not later than 1 year after November 25, 2002, the Secretary and the Secretary of State shall submit to Congress—

(A) a report on the implementation of this subsection; and

(B) any legislative proposals necessary to further the objectives of this subsection.

(8) Effective date

This subsection shall take effect on the earlier of—

(A) the date on which the President publishes notice in the Federal Register that the President has submitted a report to Congress setting forth a memorandum of understanding between the Secretary and the Secretary of State governing the implementation of this section; or

(B) the date occurring 1 year after November 25, 2002.

(f) No creation of private right of action

Nothing in this section shall be construed to create or authorize a private right of action to challenge a decision of a consular officer or other United States official or employee to grant or deny a visa.

(g) Study regarding use of foreign nationals

(1) In general

The Secretary of Homeland Security shall conduct a study of the role of foreign nationals in the granting or refusal of visas and other documents authorizing entry of aliens into the United States. The study shall address the following:

(A) The proper role, if any, of foreign nationals in the process of rendering decisions on such grants and refusals.

(B) Any security concerns involving the employment of foreign nationals.

(C) Whether there are cost-effective alternatives to the use of foreign nationals.

(2) Report

Not later than 1 year after November 25, 2002, the Secretary shall submit a report containing the findings of the study conducted under paragraph (1) to the Committee on the Judiciary, the Committee on International Relations, and the Committee on Government Reform of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on the Judiciary, the Committee on Foreign Relations, and the Committee on Government 4 Affairs of the Senate.

(h) Report

Not later than 120 days after November 25, 2002, the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall submit to Congress a report on how the provisions of this section will affect procedures for the issuance of student visas.

(i) Visa issuance program for Saudi Arabia

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, after November 25, 2002, all third party screening programs in Saudi Arabia shall be terminated. On-site personnel of the Department of Homeland Security shall review all visa applications prior to adjudication.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §428, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2187.)

References in Text

The Immigration and Nationality Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), is act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, 66 Stat. 163, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 12 (§1101 et seq.) of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1101 of Title 8 and Tables.

Section 613 of the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1999, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(L), probably means section 101(b) [title VI, §616] of Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–50, 2681–114, as amended, which prohibits use of funds for issuance of visas to persons alleged to have ordered, carried out, or materially assisted in extrajudicial and political killings in Haiti and to certain others and is not classified to the Code.

Section 103(f) of the Chemical Weapon Convention Implementation Act of 1998, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(M), probably means section 103(f) of the Chemical Weapons Convention Implementation Act of 1998, which is classified to section 6713(f) of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Section 568 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2002, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(O), is section 568 of title V of Pub. L. 107–115, Jan. 10, 2002, 115 Stat. 2166, which is not classified to the Code.

Change of Name

References to National Foreign Affairs Training Center considered to refer to George P. Shultz National Foreign Affairs Training Center, see section 1(b) of Pub. L. 107–132, set out as a note under section 4021 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Committee on International Relations of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Foreign Affairs of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Jan. 5, 2007.

Committee on Government Reform of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Oversight and Government Reform of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Jan. 5, 2007.

Committee on Governmental Affairs of Senate changed to Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of Senate, effective Jan. 4, 2005, by Senate Resolution No. 445, One Hundred Eighth Congress, Oct. 9, 2004.

1 So in original. Probably should be "section".

2 So in original. Probably should be " 'consular officer' ".

3 See References in Text note below.

4 So in original. Probably should be "Governmental".

§237. Information on visa denials required to be entered into electronic data system

(a) In general

Whenever a consular officer of the United States denies a visa to an applicant, the consular officer shall enter the fact and the basis of the denial and the name of the applicant into the interoperable electronic data system implemented under section 1722(a) of title 8.

(b) Prohibition

In the case of any alien with respect to whom a visa has been denied under subsection (a)—

(1) no subsequent visa may be issued to the alien unless the consular officer considering the alien's visa application has reviewed the information concerning the alien placed in the interoperable electronic data system, has indicated on the alien's application that the information has been reviewed, and has stated for the record why the visa is being issued or a waiver of visa ineligibility recommended in spite of that information; and

(2) the alien may not be admitted to the United States without a visa issued in accordance with the procedures described in paragraph (1).

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §429, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2191.)

§238. Office for Domestic Preparedness

(a) Establishment

There is established in the Department an Office for Domestic Preparedness.

(b) Director

There shall be a Director of the Office for Domestic Preparedness, who shall be appointed by the President.

(c) Responsibilities

The Office for Domestic Preparedness shall have the primary responsibility within the executive branch of Government for the preparedness of the United States for acts of terrorism, including—

(1) coordinating preparedness efforts at the Federal level, and working with all State, local, tribal, parish, and private sector emergency response providers on all matters pertaining to combating terrorism, including training, exercises, and equipment support;

(2) coordinating or, as appropriate, consolidating communications and systems of communications relating to homeland security at all levels of government;

(3) directing and supervising terrorism preparedness grant programs of the Federal Government (other than those programs administered by the Department of Health and Human Services) for all emergency response providers;

(4) incorporating the Strategy priorities into planning guidance on an agency level for the preparedness efforts of the Office for Domestic Preparedness;

(5) providing agency-specific training for agents and analysts within the Department, other agencies, and State and local agencies and international entities;

(6) as the lead executive branch agency for preparedness of the United States for acts of terrorism, cooperating closely with the Federal Emergency Management Agency, which shall have the primary responsibility within the executive branch to prepare for and mitigate the effects of nonterrorist-related disasters in the United States;

(7) assisting and supporting the Secretary, in coordination with other Directorates and entities outside the Department, in conducting appropriate risk analysis and risk management activities of State, local, and tribal governments consistent with the mission and functions of the Department;

(8) those elements of the Office of National Preparedness of the Federal Emergency Management Agency which relate to terrorism, which shall be consolidated within the Department in the Office for Domestic Preparedness established under this section; and

(9) helping to ensure the acquisition of interoperable communication technology by State and local governments and emergency response providers.

(d) Fiscal years 2003 and 2004

During fiscal year 2003 and fiscal year 2004, the Director of the Office for Domestic Preparedness established under this section shall manage and carry out those functions of the Office for Domestic Preparedness of the Department of Justice (transferred under this section) before September 11, 2001, under the same terms, conditions, policies, and authorities, and with the required level of personnel, assets, and budget before September 11, 2001.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §430, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2191; Pub. L. 108–458, title VII, §7303(h)(2), Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3847; Pub. L. 112–166, §2(f)(1), Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1284; Pub. L. 114–125, title VIII, §802(g)(1)(B)(iv)(II), Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 212.)

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 114–125, §802(g)(1)(B)(iv)(II)(aa), amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The Office for Domestic Preparedness shall be within the Directorate of Border and Transportation Security."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 114–125, §802(g)(1)(B)(iv)(II)(bb), struck out at end "The Director of the Office for Domestic Preparedness shall report directly to the Under Secretary for Border and Transportation Security."

Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 114–125, §802(g)(1)(B)(iv)(II)(cc), substituted "functions of the Department" for "functions of the Directorate".

2012—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 112–166 struck out ", by and with the advice and consent of the Senate" before period at end of first sentence.

2004—Subsec. (c)(9). Pub. L. 108–458 added par. (9).

Effective Date of 2012 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–166 effective 60 days after Aug. 10, 2012, and applicable to appointments made on and after that effective date, including any nomination pending in the Senate on that date, see section 6(a) of Pub. L. 112–166, set out as a note under section 113 of this title.

§239. Office of Cargo Security Policy

(a) Establishment

There is established within the Department an Office of Cargo Security Policy (referred to in this section as the "Office").

(b) Purpose

The Office shall—

(1) coordinate all Department policies relating to cargo security; and

(2) consult with stakeholders and coordinate with other Federal agencies in the establishment of standards and regulations and to promote best practices.

(c) Director

(1) Appointment

The Office shall be headed by a Director, who shall—

(A) be appointed by the Secretary; and

(B) report to the Assistant Secretary for Policy.

(2) Responsibilities

The Director shall—

(A) advise the Assistant Secretary for Policy in the development of Department-wide policies regarding cargo security;

(B) coordinate all policies relating to cargo security among the agencies and offices within the Department relating to cargo security; and

(C) coordinate the cargo security policies of the Department with the policies of other executive agencies.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §431, as added Pub. L. 109–347, title III, §301(a), Oct. 13, 2006, 120 Stat. 1920.)

Rule of Construction

Pub. L. 109–347, title III, §301(c), Oct. 13, 2006, 120 Stat. 1920, provided that: "Nothing in this section [enacting this section and section 1001 of this title] shall be construed to affect—

"(1) the authorities, functions, or capabilities of the Coast Guard to perform its missions; or

"(2) the requirement under section 888 of the Homeland Security Act (6 U.S.C. 468) that those authorities, functions, and capabilities be maintained intact."

§240. Border Enforcement Security Task Force

(a) Establishment

There is established within the Department a program to be known as the Border Enforcement Security Task Force (referred to in this section as "BEST").

(b) Purpose

The purpose of BEST is to establish units to enhance border security by addressing and reducing border security threats and violence by—

(1) facilitating collaboration among Federal, State, local, tribal, and foreign law enforcement agencies to execute coordinated activities in furtherance of border security, and homeland security; and

(2) enhancing information-sharing, including the dissemination of homeland security information among such agencies.

(c) Composition and establishment of units

(1) Composition

BEST units may be comprised of personnel from—

(A) U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement;

(B) U.S. Customs and Border Protection;

(C) the United States Coast Guard;

(D) other Department personnel, as appropriate 1

(E) other Federal agencies, as appropriate;

(F) appropriate State law enforcement agencies;

(G) foreign law enforcement agencies, as appropriate;

(H) local law enforcement agencies from affected border cities and communities; and

(I) appropriate tribal law enforcement agencies.

(2) Establishment of units

The Secretary is authorized to establish BEST units in jurisdictions in which such units can contribute to BEST missions, as appropriate. Before establishing a BEST unit, the Secretary shall consider—

(A) whether the area in which the BEST unit would be established is significantly impacted by cross-border threats;

(B) the availability of Federal, State, local, tribal, and foreign law enforcement resources to participate in the BEST unit;

(C) the extent to which border security threats are having a significant harmful impact in the jurisdiction in which the BEST unit is to be established, and other jurisdictions in the country; and

(D) whether or not an Integrated Border Enforcement Team already exists in the area in which the BEST unit would be established.

(3) Duplication of efforts

In determining whether to establish a new BEST unit or to expand an existing BEST unit in a given jurisdiction, the Secretary shall ensure that the BEST unit under consideration does not duplicate the efforts of other existing interagency task forces or centers within that jurisdiction.

(d) Operation

After determining the jurisdictions in which to establish BEST units under subsection (c)(2), and in order to provide Federal assistance to such jurisdictions, the Secretary may—

(1) direct the assignment of Federal personnel to BEST, subject to the approval of the head of the department or agency that employs such personnel; and

(2) take other actions to assist Federal, State, local, and tribal entities to participate in BEST, including providing financial assistance, as appropriate, for operational, administrative, and technological costs associated with the participation of Federal, State, local, and tribal law enforcement agencies in BEST.

(e) Report

Not later than 180 days after the date on which BEST is established under this section, and annually thereafter for the following 5 years, the Secretary shall submit a report to Congress that describes the effectiveness of BEST in enhancing border security and reducing the drug trafficking, arms smuggling, illegal alien trafficking and smuggling, violence, and kidnapping along and across the international borders of the United States, as measured by crime statistics, including violent deaths, incidents of violence, and drug-related arrests.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §432, as added Pub. L. 112–205, §3(a), Dec. 7, 2012, 126 Stat. 1488.)

Findings and Declaration of Purposes

Pub. L. 112–205, §2, Dec. 7, 2012, 126 Stat. 1487, provided that: "Congress finds the following:

"(1) The Department of Homeland Security's (DHS) overriding mission is to lead a unified national effort to protect the United States. United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) is the largest investigative agency within DHS and is charged with enforcing a wide array of laws, including laws related to securing the border and combating criminal smuggling.

"(2) Mexico's northern border with the United States has experienced a dramatic surge in border crime and violence in recent years due to intense competition between Mexican drug cartels and criminal smuggling organizations that employ predatory tactics to realize their profits.

"(3) Law enforcement agencies at the United States northern border also face challenges from transnational smuggling organizations.

"(4) In response, DHS has partnered with Federal, State, local, tribal, and foreign law enforcement counterparts to create the Border Enforcement Security Task Force (BEST) initiative as a comprehensive approach to addressing border security threats. These multi-agency teams are designed to increase information-sharing and collaboration among the participating law enforcement agencies.

"(5) BEST teams incorporate personnel from ICE, United States Customs and Border Protection (CBP), the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATFE), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the United States Coast Guard (USCG), and the U.S. Attorney's Office (USAO), along with other key Federal, State and local law enforcement agencies.

"(6) Foreign law enforcement agencies participating in BEST include Mexico's Secretaria de Seguridad Publica (SSP), the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA), the Ontario Provincial Police (OPP), and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP)."

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a semicolon.

§241. Prevention of international child abduction

(a) Program established

The Secretary, through the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection (referred to in this section as "CBP"), in coordination with the Secretary of State, the Attorney General, and the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, shall establish a program that—

(1) seeks to prevent a child (as defined in section 1204(b)(1) of title 18) from departing from the territory of the United States if a parent or legal guardian of such child presents a court order from a court of competent jurisdiction prohibiting the removal of such child from the United States to a CBP Officer in sufficient time to prevent such departure for the duration of such court order; and

(2) leverages other existing authorities and processes to address the wrongful removal and return of a child.

(b) Interagency coordination

(1) In general

The Secretary of State shall convene and chair an interagency working group to prevent international parental child abduction. The group shall be composed of presidentially appointed, Senate confirmed officials from—

(A) the Department of State;

(B) the Department of Homeland Security, including U.S. Customs and Border Protection and U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement; and

(C) the Department of Justice, including the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

(2) Department of Defense

The Secretary of Defense shall designate an official within the Department of Defense—

(A) to coordinate with the Department of State on international child abduction issues; and

(B) to oversee activities designed to prevent or resolve international child abduction cases relating to active duty military service members.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §433, as added Pub. L. 113–150, title III, §301(a), Aug. 8, 2014, 128 Stat. 1822.)

§242. Department of Homeland Security Blue Campaign

(a) Definition

In this section, the term "human trafficking" means an act or practice described in paragraph (9) or (10) of section 7102 of title 22.

(b) Establishment

There is established within the Department a program, which shall be known as the "Blue Campaign". The Blue Campaign shall be headed by a Director, who shall be appointed by the Secretary.

(c) Purpose

The purpose of the Blue Campaign shall be to unify and coordinate Department efforts to address human trafficking.

(d) Responsibilities

The Secretary, working through the Director, shall, in accordance with subsection (e)—

(1) issue Department-wide guidance to appropriate Department personnel;

(2) develop training programs for such personnel;

(3) coordinate departmental efforts, including training for such personnel; and

(4) provide guidance and training on trauma-informed practices to ensure that human trafficking victims are afforded prompt access to victim support service providers, in addition to the assistance required under section 7105 of title 22, to address their immediate and long-term needs.

(e) Guidance and training

The Blue Campaign shall provide guidance and training to Department personnel and other Federal, State, tribal, and law enforcement personnel, as appropriate, regarding—

(1) programs to help identify instances of human trafficking;

(2) the types of information that should be collected and recorded in information technology systems utilized by the Department to help identify individuals suspected or convicted of human trafficking;

(3) systematic and routine information sharing within the Department and among Federal, State, tribal, and local law enforcement agencies regarding—

(A) individuals suspected or convicted of human trafficking; and

(B) patterns and practices of human trafficking;


(4) techniques to identify suspected victims of trafficking along the United States border and at airport security checkpoints;

(5) methods to be used by the Transportation Security Administration and personnel from other appropriate agencies to—

(A) train employees of the Transportation Security Administration to identify suspected victims of trafficking; and

(B) serve as a liaison and resource regarding human trafficking prevention to appropriate State, local, and private sector aviation workers and the traveling public;


(6) utilizing resources, such as indicator cards, fact sheets, pamphlets, posters, brochures, and radio and television campaigns to—

(A) educate partners and stakeholders; and

(B) increase public awareness of human trafficking;


(7) leveraging partnerships with State and local governmental, nongovernmental, and private sector organizations to raise public awareness of human trafficking; and

(8) any other activities the Secretary determines necessary to carry out the Blue Campaign.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §434, as added Pub. L. 115–125, §2(a), Feb. 14, 2018, 132 Stat. 315.)

Information Technology Systems

Pub. L. 115–125, §3, Feb. 14, 2018, 132 Stat. 316, provided that: "Not later than one year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Feb. 14, 2018], the Secretary of Homeland Security shall ensure, in accordance with the Department of Homeland Security-wide guidance required under section 434(d) of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 [6 U.S.C. 242(d)], as added by section 2 of this Act, the integration of information technology systems utilized within the Department to record and track information regarding individuals suspected or convicted of human trafficking (as such term is defined in such section)."

§243. Maritime operations coordination plan

(a) In general

Not later than 180 days after October 5, 2018, and biennially thereafter, the Secretary shall—

(1) update the Maritime Operations Coordination Plan, published by the Department on July 7, 2011, to strengthen coordination, planning, information sharing, and intelligence integration for maritime operations of components and offices of the Department with responsibility for maritime security missions; and

(2) submit each update to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure and the Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives.

(b) Contents

Each update shall address the following:

(1) Coordinating the planning, integration of maritime operations, and development of joint maritime domain awareness efforts of any component or office of the Department with responsibility for maritime security missions.

(2) Maintaining effective information sharing and, as appropriate, intelligence integration, with Federal, State, and local officials and the private sector, regarding threats to maritime security.

(3) Cooperating and coordinating with Federal departments and agencies, and State and local agencies, in the maritime environment, in support of maritime security missions.

(4) Highlighting the work completed within the context of other national and Department maritime security strategic guidance and how that work fits with the Maritime Operations Coordination Plan.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §435, as added Pub. L. 115–254, div. J, §1807(a), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3536.)

§244. Maritime security capabilities assessments

Not later than 180 days after October 5, 2018, and annually thereafter, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure and the Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives, an assessment of the number and type of maritime assets and the number of personnel required to increase the Department's maritime response rate pursuant to section 223 of this title.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §436, as added Pub. L. 115–254, div. J, §1811(a), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3538.)

Part D—Immigration Enforcement Functions

§251. Transfer of functions

In accordance with subchapter XII (relating to transition provisions), there shall be transferred from the Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization to the Secretary all functions performed under the following programs, and all personnel, assets, and liabilities pertaining to such programs, immediately before such transfer occurs:

(1) The Border Patrol program.

(2) The detention and removal program.

(3) The intelligence program.

(4) The investigations program.

(5) The inspections program.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §441, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2192; Pub. L. 114–125, title VIII, §802(g)(1)(B)(v)(I), Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 212.)

Amendments

2016—Pub. L. 114–125 substituted "Transfer of functions" for "Transfer of functions to Under Secretary for Border and Transportation Security" in section catchline and "Secretary" for "Under Secretary for Border and Transportation Security" in introductory provisions.

§252. Establishment of Bureau of Border Security

(a) Establishment of Bureau

(1) In general

There shall be in the Department of Homeland Security a bureau to be known as the "Bureau of Border Security".

(2) Assistant Secretary

The head of the Bureau of Border Security shall be the Assistant Secretary of the Bureau of Border Security, who—

(A) shall report directly to the Under Secretary for Border and Transportation Security; and

(B) shall have a minimum of 5 years professional experience in law enforcement, and a minimum of 5 years of management experience.

(3) Functions

The Assistant Secretary of the Bureau of Border Security—

(A) shall establish the policies for performing such functions as are—

(i) transferred to the Under Secretary for Border and Transportation Security by section 251 of this title and delegated to the Assistant Secretary by the Under Secretary for Border and Transportation Security; or

(ii) otherwise vested in the Assistant Secretary by law;


(B) shall oversee the administration of such policies; and

(C) shall advise the Under Secretary for Border and Transportation Security with respect to any policy or operation of the Bureau of Border Security that may affect the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services established under part E of this subchapter, including potentially conflicting policies or operations.

(4) Program to collect information relating to foreign students

The Assistant Secretary of the Bureau of Border Security shall be responsible for administering the program to collect information relating to nonimmigrant foreign students and other exchange program participants described in section 1372 of title 8, including the Student and Exchange Visitor Information System established under that section, and shall use such information to carry out the enforcement functions of the Bureau.

(5) Managerial rotation program

(A) In general

Not later than 1 year after the date on which the transfer of functions specified under section 251 of this title takes effect, the Assistant Secretary of the Bureau of Border Security shall design and implement a managerial rotation program under which employees of such bureau holding positions involving supervisory or managerial responsibility and classified, in accordance with chapter 51 of title 5, as a GS–14 or above, shall—

(i) gain some experience in all the major functions performed by such bureau; and

(ii) work in at least one local office of such bureau.

(B) Report

Not later than 2 years after the date on which the transfer of functions specified under section 251 of this title takes effect, the Secretary shall submit a report to the Congress on the implementation of such program.

(b) Chief of Policy and Strategy

(1) In general

There shall be a position of Chief of Policy and Strategy for the Bureau of Border Security.

(2) Functions

In consultation with Bureau of Border Security personnel in local offices, the Chief of Policy and Strategy shall be responsible for—

(A) making policy recommendations and performing policy research and analysis on immigration enforcement issues; and

(B) coordinating immigration policy issues with the Chief of Policy and Strategy for the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services (established under part E of this subchapter), as appropriate.

(c) Legal advisor

There shall be a principal legal advisor to the Assistant Secretary of the Bureau of Border Security. The legal advisor shall provide specialized legal advice to the Assistant Secretary of the Bureau of Border Security and shall represent the bureau in all exclusion, deportation, and removal proceedings before the Executive Office for Immigration Review.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §442, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2193.)

References in Text

Part E of this subchapter, referred to in subsecs. (a)(3)(C) and (b)(2)(B), was in the original "subtitle E", meaning subtitle E (§§451–462) of title IV of Pub. L. 107–296, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2195, which enacted part E (§271 et seq.) of this subchapter, amended sections 1356 and 1573 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality, and enacted provisions set out as a note under section 271 of this title. For complete classification of subtitle E to the Code, see Tables.

Change of Name

Bureau of Border Security, referred to in section catchline and text, changed to Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement by Reorganization Plan Modification for the Department of Homeland Security, eff. Mar. 1, 2003, H. Doc. No. 108–32, 108th Congress, 1st Session, set out as a note under section 542 of this title.

§253. Professional responsibility and quality review

The Secretary shall be responsible for—

(1) conducting investigations of noncriminal allegations of misconduct, corruption, and fraud involving any employee of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement that are not subject to investigation by the Inspector General for the Department;

(2) inspecting the operations of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement and providing assessments of the quality of the operations of such bureau as a whole and each of its components; and

(3) providing an analysis of the management of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §443, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2194; Pub. L. 114–125, title VIII, §802(g)(1)(B)(v)(II), Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 212.)

Amendments

2016—Pub. L. 114–125 substituted "Secretary" for "Under Secretary for Border and Transportation Security" in introductory provisions and "U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement" for "the Bureau of Border Security" in pars. (1) to (3).

§254. Employee discipline

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary may impose disciplinary action on any employee of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement and U.S. Customs and Border Protection who willfully deceives Congress or agency leadership on any matter.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §444, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2194; Pub. L. 114–125, title VIII, §802(g)(1)(B)(v)(III), Feb. 24, 2016, 130 Stat. 212.)

Amendments

2016—Pub. L. 114–125 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The Under Secretary for Border and Transportation Security may, notwithstanding any other provision of law, impose disciplinary action, including termination of employment, pursuant to policies and procedures applicable to employees of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, on any employee of the Bureau of Border Security who willfully deceives the Congress or agency leadership on any matter."

§255. Report on improving enforcement functions

(a) In general

The Secretary, not later than 1 year after being sworn into office, shall submit to the Committees on Appropriations and the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and of the Senate a report with a plan detailing how the Bureau of Border Security, after the transfer of functions specified under section 251 of this title takes effect, will enforce comprehensively, effectively, and fairly all the enforcement provisions of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.) relating to such functions.

(b) Consultation

In carrying out subsection (a), the Secretary of Homeland Security shall consult with the Attorney General, the Secretary of State, the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Labor, the Commissioner of Social Security, the Director of the Executive Office for Immigration Review, and the heads of State and local law enforcement agencies to determine how to most effectively conduct enforcement operations.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §445, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2194.)

References in Text

The Immigration and Nationality Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, 66 Stat. 163, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 12 (§1101 et seq.) of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1101 of Title 8 and Tables.

Change of Name

Bureau of Border Security, referred to in subsec. (a), changed to Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement by Reorganization Plan Modification for the Department of Homeland Security, eff. Mar. 1, 2003, H. Doc. No. 108–32, 108th Congress, 1st Session, set out as a note under section 542 of this title.

§256. Sense of Congress regarding construction of fencing near San Diego, California

It is the sense of the Congress that completing the 14-mile border fence project required to be carried out under section 102(b) of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (8 U.S.C. 1103 note) should be a priority for the Secretary.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §446, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2195.)

References in Text

Section 102(b) of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, referred to in text, is section 102(b) of title I of div. C of Pub. L. 104–208, which is set out as a note under section 1103 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

§257. Report

(a) In general

The Secretary of Homeland Security shall submit an annual report to the congressional committees set forth in subsection (b) that includes a description of—

(1) the cross-border tunnels along the border between Mexico and the United States discovered during the preceding fiscal year; and

(2) the needs of the Department of Homeland Security to effectively prevent, investigate and prosecute border tunnel construction along the border between Mexico and the United States.

(b) Congressional committees

The congressional committees set forth in this subsection are—

(1) the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate;

(2) the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate;

(3) the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate;

(4) the Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives;

(5) the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives; and

(6) the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives.

(Pub. L. 112–127, §8, June 5, 2012, 126 Stat. 371.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Border Tunnel Prevention Act of 2012, and not as part of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 which comprises this chapter.

Part E—Citizenship and Immigration Services

§271. Establishment of Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services

(a) Establishment of Bureau

(1) In general

There shall be in the Department a bureau to be known as the "Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services".

(2) Director

The head of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services shall be the Director of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services, who—

(A) shall report directly to the Deputy Secretary;

(B) shall have a minimum of 5 years of management experience; and

(C) shall be paid at the same level as the Assistant Secretary of the Bureau of Border Security.

(3) Functions

The Director of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services—

(A) shall establish the policies for performing such functions as are transferred to the Director by this section or this chapter or otherwise vested in the Director by law;

(B) shall oversee the administration of such policies;

(C) shall advise the Deputy Secretary with respect to any policy or operation of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services that may affect the Bureau of Border Security of the Department, including potentially conflicting policies or operations;

(D) shall establish national immigration services policies and priorities;

(E) shall meet regularly with the Ombudsman described in section 272 of this title to correct serious service problems identified by the Ombudsman; and

(F) shall establish procedures requiring a formal response to any recommendations submitted in the Ombudsman's annual report to Congress within 3 months after its submission to Congress.

(4) Managerial rotation program

(A) In general

Not later than 1 year after the effective date specified in section 455,1 the Director of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services shall design and implement a managerial rotation program under which employees of such bureau holding positions involving supervisory or managerial responsibility and classified, in accordance with chapter 51 of title 5, as a GS–14 or above, shall—

(i) gain some experience in all the major functions performed by such bureau; and

(ii) work in at least one field office and one service center of such bureau.

(B) Report

Not later than 2 years after the effective date specified in section 455,1 the Secretary shall submit a report to Congress on the implementation of such program.

(5) Pilot initiatives for backlog elimination

The Director of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services is authorized to implement innovative pilot initiatives to eliminate any remaining backlog in the processing of immigration benefit applications, and to prevent any backlog in the processing of such applications from recurring, in accordance with section 1573(a) of title 8. Such initiatives may include measures such as increasing personnel, transferring personnel to focus on areas with the largest potential for backlog, and streamlining paperwork.

(b) Transfer of functions from Commissioner

In accordance with subchapter XII (relating to transition provisions), there are transferred from the Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization to the Director of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services the following functions, and all personnel, infrastructure, and funding provided to the Commissioner in support of such functions immediately before the effective date specified in section 455: 1

(1) Adjudications of immigrant visa petitions.

(2) Adjudications of naturalization petitions.

(3) Adjudications of asylum and refugee applications.

(4) Adjudications performed at service centers.

(5) All other adjudications performed by the Immigration and Naturalization Service immediately before the effective date specified in section 455.1

(c) Chief of Policy and Strategy

(1) In general

There shall be a position of Chief of Policy and Strategy for the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services.

(2) Functions

In consultation with Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services personnel in field offices, the Chief of Policy and Strategy shall be responsible for—

(A) making policy recommendations and performing policy research and analysis on immigration services issues; and

(B) coordinating immigration policy issues with the Chief of Policy and Strategy for the Bureau of Border Security of the Department.

(d) Legal advisor

(1) In general

There shall be a principal legal advisor to the Director of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services.

(2) Functions

The legal advisor shall be responsible for—

(A) providing specialized legal advice, opinions, determinations, regulations, and any other assistance to the Director of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services with respect to legal matters affecting the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services; and

(B) representing the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services in visa petition appeal proceedings before the Executive Office for Immigration Review.

(e) Budget Officer

(1) In general

There shall be a Budget Officer for the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services.

(2) Functions

(A) In general

The Budget Officer shall be responsible for—

(i) formulating and executing the budget of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services;

(ii) financial management of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services; and

(iii) collecting all payments, fines, and other debts for the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services.

(f) Chief of Office of Citizenship

(1) In general

There shall be a position of Chief of the Office of Citizenship for the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services.

(2) Functions

The Chief of the Office of Citizenship for the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services shall be responsible for promoting instruction and training on citizenship responsibilities for aliens interested in becoming naturalized citizens of the United States, including the development of educational materials.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §451, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2195; Pub. L. 110–382, §2(a), Oct. 9, 2008, 122 Stat. 4087.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a)(3)(A), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 107–296, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2135, known as the Homeland Security Act of 2002, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title and Tables.

For the effective date specified in section 455, referred to in subsecs. (a)(4) and (b), see Effective Date note below.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 110–382, §§2(a), 4, temporarily added subsec. (g) which established an Office of the FBI Liaison in the Department of Homeland Security, defined its functions, and authorized appropriations. See Termination Date of 2008 Amendment note below.

Change of Name

Bureau of Border Security, referred to in subsecs. (a)(2)(C), (3)(C), and (c)(2)(B), changed to Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement by Reorganization Plan Modification for the Department of Homeland Security, eff. Mar. 1, 2003, H. Doc. No. 108–32, 108th Congress, 1st Session, set out as a note under section 542 of this title.

Termination Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–382, §4, Oct. 9, 2008, 122 Stat. 4089, provided that: "This Act [amending this section and section 1439 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and section 1101 of Title 8] and the amendments made by this Act are repealed on the date that is 5 years after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 9, 2008]."

Effective Date

Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §455, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2200, provided that: "Notwithstanding section 4 [enacting provisions set out as a note under section 101 of this title], sections 451 through 456 [enacting this section and sections 272 to 275 of this title], and the amendments made by such sections, shall take effect on the date on which the transfer of functions specified under section 441 [enacting section 251 of this title] takes effect." [For date on which transfer of functions specified under section 441 takes effect, see section 251 of this title and Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan, Nov. 25, 2002, set out as a note under section 542 of this title.]

Rulemaking

Pub. L. 110–382, §2(b), Oct. 9, 2008, 122 Stat. 4087, which required the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Attorney General, to promulgate rules to carry out the amendment made by section 2(a) of Pub. L. 110–382 no later than 180 days after Oct. 9, 2008, was repealed by Pub. L. 110–382, §4, Oct. 9, 2008, 122 Stat. 4089, effective 5 years after Oct. 9, 2008.

1 See References in Text note below.

§272. Citizenship and Immigration Services Ombudsman

(a) In general

Within the Department, there shall be a position of Citizenship and Immigration Services Ombudsman (in this section referred to as the "Ombudsman"). The Ombudsman shall report directly to the Deputy Secretary. The Ombudsman shall have a background in customer service as well as immigration law.

(b) Functions

It shall be the function of the Ombudsman—

(1) to assist individuals and employers in resolving problems with the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services;

(2) to identify areas in which individuals and employers have problems in dealing with the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services; and

(3) to the extent possible, to propose changes in the administrative practices of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services to mitigate problems identified under paragraph (2).

(c) Annual reports

(1) Objectives

Not later than June 30 of each calendar year, the Ombudsman shall report to the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Senate on the objectives of the Office of the Ombudsman for the fiscal year beginning in such calendar year. Any such report shall contain full and substantive analysis, in addition to statistical information, and—

(A) shall identify the recommendations the Office of the Ombudsman has made on improving services and responsiveness of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services;

(B) shall contain a summary of the most pervasive and serious problems encountered by individuals and employers, including a description of the nature of such problems;

(C) shall contain an inventory of the items described in subparagraphs (A) and (B) for which action has been taken and the result of such action;

(D) shall contain an inventory of the items described in subparagraphs (A) and (B) for which action remains to be completed and the period during which each item has remained on such inventory;

(E) shall contain an inventory of the items described in subparagraphs (A) and (B) for which no action has been taken, the period during which each item has remained on such inventory, the reasons for the inaction, and shall identify any official of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services who is responsible for such inaction;

(F) shall contain recommendations for such administrative action as may be appropriate to resolve problems encountered by individuals and employers, including problems created by excessive backlogs in the adjudication and processing of immigration benefit petitions and applications; and

(G) shall include such other information as the Ombudsman may deem advisable.

(2) Report to be submitted directly

Each report required under this subsection shall be provided directly to the committees described in paragraph (1) without any prior comment or amendment from the Secretary, Deputy Secretary, Director of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services, or any other officer or employee of the Department or the Office of Management and Budget.

(d) Other responsibilities

The Ombudsman—

(1) shall monitor the coverage and geographic allocation of local offices of the Ombudsman;

(2) shall develop guidance to be distributed to all officers and employees of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services outlining the criteria for referral of inquiries to local offices of the Ombudsman;

(3) shall ensure that the local telephone number for each local office of the Ombudsman is published and available to individuals and employers served by the office; and

(4) shall meet regularly with the Director of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services to identify serious service problems and to present recommendations for such administrative action as may be appropriate to resolve problems encountered by individuals and employers.

(e) Personnel actions

(1) In general

The Ombudsman shall have the responsibility and authority—

(A) to appoint local ombudsmen and make available at least 1 such ombudsman for each State; and

(B) to evaluate and take personnel actions (including dismissal) with respect to any employee of any local office of the Ombudsman.

(2) Consultation

The Ombudsman may consult with the appropriate supervisory personnel of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services in carrying out the Ombudsman's responsibilities under this subsection.

(f) Responsibilities of Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services

The Director of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services shall establish procedures requiring a formal response to all recommendations submitted to such director by the Ombudsman within 3 months after submission to such director.

(g) Operation of local offices

(1) In general

Each local ombudsman—

(A) shall report to the Ombudsman or the delegate thereof;

(B) may consult with the appropriate supervisory personnel of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services regarding the daily operation of the local office of such ombudsman;

(C) shall, at the initial meeting with any individual or employer seeking the assistance of such local office, notify such individual or employer that the local offices of the Ombudsman operate independently of any other component of the Department and report directly to Congress through the Ombudsman; and

(D) at the local ombudsman's discretion, may determine not to disclose to the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services contact with, or information provided by, such individual or employer.

(2) Maintenance of independent communications

Each local office of the Ombudsman shall maintain a phone, facsimile, and other means of electronic communication access, and a post office address, that is separate from those maintained by the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services, or any component of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §452, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2197.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the date on which the transfer of functions specified under section 251 of this title takes effect, see section 455 of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as a note under section 271 of this title.

§273. Professional responsibility and quality review

(a) In general

The Director of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services shall be responsible for—

(1) conducting investigations of noncriminal allegations of misconduct, corruption, and fraud involving any employee of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services that are not subject to investigation by the Inspector General for the Department;

(2) inspecting the operations of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services and providing assessments of the quality of the operations of such bureau as a whole and each of its components; and

(3) providing an analysis of the management of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services.

(b) Special considerations

In providing assessments in accordance with subsection (a)(2) with respect to a decision of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services, or any of its components, consideration shall be given to—

(1) the accuracy of the findings of fact and conclusions of law used in rendering the decision;

(2) any fraud or misrepresentation associated with the decision; and

(3) the efficiency with which the decision was rendered.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §453, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2199.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the date on which the transfer of functions specified under section 251 of this title takes effect, see section 455 of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as a note under section 271 of this title.

§274. Employee discipline

The Director of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services may, notwithstanding any other provision of law, impose disciplinary action, including termination of employment, pursuant to policies and procedures applicable to employees of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, on any employee of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services who willfully deceives Congress or agency leadership on any matter.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §454, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2200.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the date on which the transfer of functions specified under section 251 of this title takes effect, see section 455 of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as a note under section 271 of this title.

§275. Transition

(a) References

With respect to any function transferred by this part to, and exercised on or after the effective date specified in section 455 1 by, the Director of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services, any reference in any other Federal law, Executive order, rule, regulation, or delegation of authority, or any document of or pertaining to a component of government from which such function is transferred—

(1) to the head of such component is deemed to refer to the Director of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services; or

(2) to such component is deemed to refer to the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services.

(b) Other transition issues

(1) Exercise of authorities

Except as otherwise provided by law, a Federal official to whom a function is transferred by this part may, for purposes of performing the function, exercise all authorities under any other provision of law that were available with respect to the performance of that function to the official responsible for the performance of the function immediately before the effective date specified in section 455.1

(2) Transfer and allocation of appropriations and personnel

The personnel of the Department of Justice employed in connection with the functions transferred by this part (and functions that the Secretary determines are properly related to the functions of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services), and the assets, liabilities, contracts, property, records, and unexpended balance of appropriations, authorizations, allocations, and other funds employed, held, used, arising from, available to, or to be made available to, the Immigration and Naturalization Service in connection with the functions transferred by this part, subject to section 1531 of title 31, shall be transferred to the Director of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services for allocation to the appropriate component of the Department. Unexpended funds transferred pursuant to this paragraph shall be used only for the purposes for which the funds were originally authorized and appropriated. The Secretary shall have the right to adjust or realign transfers of funds and personnel effected pursuant to this part for a period of 2 years after the effective date specified in section 455.1

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §456, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2200.)

References in Text

This part, referred to in text, was in the original "this subtitle", meaning subtitle E (§§451–462) of title IV of Pub. L. 107–296, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2195, which enacted this part, amended sections 1356 and 1573 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality, and enacted provisions set out as a note under section 271 of this title. For complete classification of subtitle E to the Code, see Tables.

For the effective date specified in section 455, referred to in text, see section 455 of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as an Effective Date note under section 271 of this title.

Codification

In subsec. (b)(2), "section 1531 of title 31" substituted for "section 202 of the Budget and Accounting Procedures Act of 1950" on authority of Pub. L. 97–258, §4(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1067, the first section of which enacted Title 31, Money and Finance.

Effective Date

Section effective on the date on which the transfer of functions specified under section 251 of this title takes effect, see section 455 of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as a note under section 271 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§276. Report on improving immigration services

(a) In general

The Secretary, not later than 1 year after the effective date of this chapter, shall submit to the Committees on the Judiciary and Appropriations of the House of Representatives and of the Senate a report with a plan detailing how the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services, after the transfer of functions specified in this part takes effect, will complete efficiently, fairly, and within a reasonable time, the adjudications described in paragraphs (1) through (5) of section 271(b) of this title.

(b) Contents

For each type of adjudication to be undertaken by the Director of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services, the report shall include the following:

(1) Any potential savings of resources that may be implemented without affecting the quality of the adjudication.

(2) The goal for processing time with respect to the application.

(3) Any statutory modifications with respect to the adjudication that the Secretary considers advisable.

(c) Consultation

In carrying out subsection (a), the Secretary shall consult with the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Labor, the Assistant Secretary of the Bureau of Border Security of the Department, and the Director of the Executive Office for Immigration Review to determine how to streamline and improve the process for applying for and making adjudications described in section 271(b) of this title and related processes.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §459, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2201.)

References in Text

The effective date of this chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), is 60 days after Nov. 25, 2002, see section 4 of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as an Effective Date note under section 101 of this title.

Change of Name

Bureau of Border Security, referred to in subsec. (c), changed to Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement by Reorganization Plan Modification for the Department of Homeland Security, eff. Mar. 1, 2003, H. Doc. No. 108–32, 108th Congress, 1st Session, set out as a note under section 542 of this title.

§277. Report on responding to fluctuating needs

Not later than 30 days after November 25, 2002, the Attorney General shall submit to Congress a report on changes in law, including changes in authorizations of appropriations and in appropriations, that are needed to permit the Immigration and Naturalization Service, and, after the transfer of functions specified in this part takes effect, the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services of the Department, to ensure a prompt and timely response to emergent, unforeseen, or impending changes in the number of applications for immigration benefits, and otherwise to ensure the accommodation of changing immigration service needs.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §460, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2201.)

§278. Application of Internet-based technologies

(a) Establishment of tracking system

The Secretary, not later than 1 year after the effective date of this chapter, in consultation with the Technology Advisory Committee established under subsection (c), shall establish an Internet-based system, that will permit a person, employer, immigrant, or nonimmigrant who has filings with the Secretary for any benefit under the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.), access to online information about the processing status of the filing involved.

(b) Feasibility study for online filing and improved processing

(1) Online filing

The Secretary, in consultation with the Technology Advisory Committee established under subsection (c), shall conduct a feasibility study on the online filing of the filings described in subsection (a). The study shall include a review of computerization and technology of the Immigration and Naturalization Service relating to the immigration services and processing of filings related to immigrant services. The study shall also include an estimate of the timeframe and cost and shall consider other factors in implementing such a filing system, including the feasibility of fee payment online.

(2) Report

A report on the study under this subsection shall be submitted to the Committees on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Senate not later than 1 year after the effective date of this chapter.

(c) Technology Advisory Committee

(1) Establishment

The Secretary shall establish, not later than 60 days after the effective date of this chapter, an advisory committee (in this section referred to as the "Technology Advisory Committee") to assist the Secretary in—

(A) establishing the tracking system under subsection (a); and

(B) conducting the study under subsection (b).


The Technology Advisory Committee shall be established after consultation with the Committees on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Senate.

(2) Composition

The Technology Advisory Committee shall be composed of representatives from high technology companies capable of establishing and implementing the system in an expeditious manner, and representatives of persons who may use the tracking system described in subsection (a) and the online filing system described in subsection (b)(1).

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §461, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2202.)

References in Text

The effective date of this chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a), (b)(2), and (c)(1), is 60 days after Nov. 25, 2002, see section 4 of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as an Effective Date note under section 101 of this title.

The Immigration and Nationality Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, 66 Stat. 163, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 12 (§1101 et seq.) of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1101 of Title 8 and Tables.

Termination of Advisory Committees

Advisory committees established after Jan. 5, 1973, to terminate not later than the expiration of the 2-year period beginning on date of their establishment, unless, in the case of a committee established by the President or an officer of the Federal Government, such committee is renewed by appropriate action prior to expiration of such 2-year period, or in the case of a committee established by Congress, its duration is otherwise provided for by law. See section 14 of Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 776, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§279. Children's affairs

(a) Transfer of functions

There are transferred to the Director of the Office of Refugee Resettlement of the Department of Health and Human Services functions under the immigration laws of the United States with respect to the care of unaccompanied alien children that were vested by statute in, or performed by, the Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization (or any officer, employee, or component of the Immigration and Naturalization Service) immediately before the effective date specified in subsection (d).

(b) Functions

(1) In general

Pursuant to the transfer made by subsection (a), the Director of the Office of Refugee Resettlement shall be responsible for—

(A) coordinating and implementing the care and placement of unaccompanied alien children who are in Federal custody by reason of their immigration status, including developing a plan to be submitted to Congress on how to ensure that qualified and independent legal counsel is timely appointed to represent the interests of each such child, consistent with the law regarding appointment of counsel that is in effect on November 25, 2002;

(B) ensuring that the interests of the child are considered in decisions and actions relating to the care and custody of an unaccompanied alien child;

(C) making placement determinations for all unaccompanied alien children who are in Federal custody by reason of their immigration status;

(D) implementing the placement determinations;

(E) implementing policies with respect to the care and placement of unaccompanied alien children;

(F) identifying a sufficient number of qualified individuals, entities, and facilities to house unaccompanied alien children;

(G) overseeing the infrastructure and personnel of facilities in which unaccompanied alien children reside;

(H) reuniting unaccompanied alien children with a parent abroad in appropriate cases;

(I) compiling, updating, and publishing at least annually a state-by-state list of professionals or other entities qualified to provide guardian and attorney representation services for unaccompanied alien children;

(J) maintaining statistical information and other data on unaccompanied alien children for whose care and placement the Director is responsible, which shall include—

(i) biographical information, such as a child's name, gender, date of birth, country of birth, and country of habitual residence;

(ii) the date on which the child came into Federal custody by reason of his or her immigration status;

(iii) information relating to the child's placement, removal, or release from each facility in which the child has resided;

(iv) in any case in which the child is placed in detention or released, an explanation relating to the detention or release; and

(v) the disposition of any actions in which the child is the subject;


(K) collecting and compiling statistical information from the Department of Justice, the Department of Homeland Security, and the Department of State on each department's actions relating to unaccompanied alien children; and

(L) conducting investigations and inspections of facilities and other entities in which unaccompanied alien children reside, including regular follow-up visits to such facilities, placements, and other entities, to assess the continued suitability of such placements.

(2) Coordination with other entities; no release on own recognizance

In making determinations described in paragraph (1)(C), the Director of the Office of Refugee Resettlement—

(A) shall consult with appropriate juvenile justice professionals, the Director of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services, and the Assistant Secretary of the Bureau of Border Security to ensure that such determinations ensure that unaccompanied alien children described in such subparagraph—

(i) are likely to appear for all hearings or proceedings in which they are involved;

(ii) are protected from smugglers, traffickers, or others who might seek to victimize or otherwise engage them in criminal, harmful, or exploitive activity; and

(iii) are placed in a setting in which they are not likely to pose a danger to themselves or others; and


(B) shall not release such children upon their own recognizance.

(3) Duties with respect to foster care

In carrying out the duties described in paragraph (1), the Director of the Office of Refugee Resettlement is encouraged to use the refugee children foster care system established pursuant to section 412(d) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1522(d)) for the placement of unaccompanied alien children.

(4) Rule of construction

Nothing in paragraph (2)(B) may be construed to require that a bond be posted for an unaccompanied alien child who is released to a qualified sponsor.

(c) Rule of construction

Nothing in this section may be construed to transfer the responsibility for adjudicating benefit determinations under the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.) from the authority of any official of the Department of Justice, the Department of Homeland Security, or the Department of State.

(d) Effective date

Notwithstanding section 4,1 this section shall take effect on the date on which the transfer of functions specified under section 251 of this title takes effect.

(e) References

With respect to any function transferred by this section, any reference in any other Federal law, Executive order, rule, regulation, or delegation of authority, or any document of or pertaining to a component of government from which such function is transferred—

(1) to the head of such component is deemed to refer to the Director of the Office of Refugee Resettlement; or

(2) to such component is deemed to refer to the Office of Refugee Resettlement of the Department of Health and Human Services.

(f) Other transition issues

(1) Exercise of authorities

Except as otherwise provided by law, a Federal official to whom a function is transferred by this section may, for purposes of performing the function, exercise all authorities under any other provision of law that were available with respect to the performance of that function to the official responsible for the performance of the function immediately before the effective date specified in subsection (d).

(2) Savings provisions

Subsections (a), (b), and (c) of section 552 of this title shall apply to a transfer of functions under this section in the same manner as such provisions apply to a transfer of functions under this chapter to the Department of Homeland Security.

(3) Transfer and allocation of appropriations and personnel

The personnel of the Department of Justice employed in connection with the functions transferred by this section, and the assets, liabilities, contracts, property, records, and unexpended balance of appropriations, authorizations, allocations, and other funds employed, held, used, arising from, available to, or to be made available to, the Immigration and Naturalization Service in connection with the functions transferred by this section, subject to section 1531 of title 31, shall be transferred to the Director of the Office of Refugee Resettlement for allocation to the appropriate component of the Department of Health and Human Services. Unexpended funds transferred pursuant to this paragraph shall be used only for the purposes for which the funds were originally authorized and appropriated.

(g) Definitions

As used in this section—

(1) the term "placement" means the placement of an unaccompanied alien child in either a detention facility or an alternative to such a facility; and

(2) the term "unaccompanied alien child" means a child who—

(A) has no lawful immigration status in the United States;

(B) has not attained 18 years of age; and

(C) with respect to whom—

(i) there is no parent or legal guardian in the United States; or

(ii) no parent or legal guardian in the United States is available to provide care and physical custody.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §462, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2202; Pub. L. 110–457, title II, §235(f), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5081.)

References in Text

The Immigration and Nationality Act, referred to in subsec. (c), is act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, 66 Stat. 163, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 12 (§1101 et seq.) of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1101 of Title 8 and Tables.

Section 4, referred to in subsec. (d), is section 4 of Pub. L. 107–296, which is set out as an Effective Date note under section 101 of this title.

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (f)(2), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 107–296, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2135, known as the Homeland Security Act of 2002, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title and Tables.

Codification

In subsec. (f)(3), "section 1531 of title 31" substituted for "section 202 of the Budget and Accounting Procedures Act of 1950" on authority of Pub. L. 97–258, §4(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1067, the first section of which enacted Title 31, Money and Finance.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (b)(1)(L). Pub. L. 110–457, §235(f)(1), substituted ", including regular follow-up visits to such facilities, placements, and other entities, to assess the continued suitability of such placements." for period at end.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 110–457, §235(f)(2)(A), substituted "paragraph (1)," for "paragraph (1)(G),".

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 110–457, §235(f)(2)(B), added par. (4).

Change of Name

Bureau of Border Security, referred to in subsec. (b)(2)(A), changed to Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement by Reorganization Plan Modification for the Department of Homeland Security, eff. Mar. 1, 2003, H. Doc. No. 108–32, 108th Congress, 1st Session, set out as a note under section 542 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

Part F—General Immigration Provisions

§291. Abolishment of INS

(a) In general

Upon completion of all transfers from the Immigration and Naturalization Service as provided for by this chapter, the Immigration and Naturalization Service of the Department of Justice is abolished.

(b) Prohibition

The authority provided by section 542 of this title may be used to reorganize functions or organizational units within the Bureau of Border Security or the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services, but may not be used to recombine the two bureaus into a single agency or otherwise to combine, join, or consolidate functions or organizational units of the two bureaus with each other.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §471, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2205.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 107–296, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2135, known as the Homeland Security Act of 2002, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title and Tables.

Change of Name

Bureau of Border Security, referred to in subsec. (b), changed to Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement by Reorganization Plan Modification for the Department of Homeland Security, eff. Mar. 1, 2003, H. Doc. No. 108–32, 108th Congress, 1st Session, set out as a note under section 542 of this title.

§292. Voluntary separation incentive payments

(a) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) the term "employee" means an employee (as defined by section 2105 of title 5) who—

(A) has completed at least 3 years of current continuous service with 1 or more covered entities; and

(B) is serving under an appointment without time limitation,


but does not include any person under subparagraphs (A)–(G) of section 663(a)(2) of Public Law 104–208 (5 U.S.C. 5597 note);

(2) the term "covered entity" means—

(A) the Immigration and Naturalization Service;

(B) the Bureau of Border Security of the Department of Homeland Security; and

(C) the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services of the Department of Homeland Security; and


(3) the term "transfer date" means the date on which the transfer of functions specified under section 251 of this title takes effect.

(b) Strategic restructuring plan

Before the Attorney General or the Secretary obligates any resources for voluntary separation incentive payments under this section, such official shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a strategic restructuring plan, which shall include—

(1) an organizational chart depicting the covered entities after their restructuring pursuant to this chapter;

(2) a summary description of how the authority under this section will be used to help carry out that restructuring; and

(3) the information specified in section 663(b)(2) of Public Law 104–208 (5 U.S.C. 5597 note).


As used in the preceding sentence, the "appropriate committees of Congress" are the Committees on Appropriations, Government Reform, and the Judiciary of the House of Representatives, and the Committees on Appropriations, Governmental Affairs, and the Judiciary of the Senate.

(c) Authority

The Attorney General and the Secretary may, to the extent necessary to help carry out their respective strategic restructuring plan described in subsection (b), make voluntary separation incentive payments to employees. Any such payment—

(1) shall be paid to the employee, in a lump sum, after the employee has separated from service;

(2) shall be paid from appropriations or funds available for the payment of basic pay of the employee;

(3) shall be equal to the lesser of—

(A) the amount the employee would be entitled to receive under section 5595(c) of title 5; or

(B) an amount not to exceed $25,000, as determined by the Attorney General or the Secretary;


(4) may not be made except in the case of any qualifying employee who voluntarily separates (whether by retirement or resignation) before the end of—

(A) the 3-month period beginning on the date on which such payment is offered or made available to such employee; or

(B) the 3-year period beginning on November 25, 2002,


whichever occurs first;

(5) shall not be a basis for payment, and shall not be included in the computation, of any other type of Government benefit; and

(6) shall not be taken into account in determining the amount of any severance pay to which the employee may be entitled under section 5595 of title 5, based on any other separation.

(d) Additional agency contributions to the retirement fund

(1) In general

In addition to any payments which it is otherwise required to make, the Department of Justice and the Department of Homeland Security shall, for each fiscal year with respect to which it makes any voluntary separation incentive payments under this section, remit to the Office of Personnel Management for deposit in the Treasury of the United States to the credit of the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund the amount required under paragraph (2).

(2) Amount required

The amount required under this paragraph shall, for any fiscal year, be the amount under subparagraph (A) or (B), whichever is greater.

(A) First method

The amount under this subparagraph shall, for any fiscal year, be equal to the minimum amount necessary to offset the additional costs to the retirement systems under title 5 (payable out of the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund) resulting from the voluntary separation of the employees described in paragraph (3), as determined under regulations of the Office of Personnel Management.

(B) Second method

The amount under this subparagraph shall, for any fiscal year, be equal to 45 percent of the sum total of the final basic pay of the employees described in paragraph (3).

(3) Computations to be based on separations occurring in the fiscal year involved

The employees described in this paragraph are those employees who receive a voluntary separation incentive payment under this section based on their separating from service during the fiscal year with respect to which the payment under this subsection relates.

(4) Final basic pay defined

In this subsection, the term "final basic pay" means, with respect to an employee, the total amount of basic pay which would be payable for a year of service by such employee, computed using the employee's final rate of basic pay, and, if last serving on other than a full-time basis, with appropriate adjustment therefor.

(e) Effect of subsequent employment with the Government

An individual who receives a voluntary separation incentive payment under this section and who, within 5 years after the date of the separation on which the payment is based, accepts any compensated employment with the Government or works for any agency of the Government through a personal services contract, shall be required to pay, prior to the individual's first day of employment, the entire amount of the incentive payment. Such payment shall be made to the covered entity from which the individual separated or, if made on or after the transfer date, to the Deputy Secretary or the Under Secretary for Border and Transportation Security (for transfer to the appropriate component of the Department of Homeland Security, if necessary).

(f) Effect on employment levels

(1) Intended effect

Voluntary separations under this section are not intended to necessarily reduce the total number of full-time equivalent positions in any covered entity.

(2) Use of voluntary separations

A covered entity may redeploy or use the full-time equivalent positions vacated by voluntary separations under this section to make other positions available to more critical locations or more critical occupations.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §472, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2205.)

References in Text

Section 663 of Public Law 104–208, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1) and (b)(3), probably means Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(f) [title VI, §663], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–314, 3009–383, which is classified as a note under section 5597 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 107–296, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2135, known as the Homeland Security Act of 2002, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title and Tables.

Change of Name

Bureau of Border Security, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(B), changed to Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement by Reorganization Plan Modification for the Department of Homeland Security, eff. Mar. 1, 2003, H. Doc. No. 108–32, 108th Congress, 1st Session, set out as a note under section 542 of this title.

Committee on Government Reform of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Oversight and Government Reform of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Jan. 5, 2007.

Committee on Governmental Affairs of Senate changed to Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of Senate, effective Jan. 4, 2005, by Senate Resolution No. 445, One Hundred Eighth Congress, Oct. 9, 2004.

§293. Authority to conduct a demonstration project relating to disciplinary action

(a) In general

The Attorney General and the Secretary may each, during a period ending not later than 5 years after November 25, 2002, conduct a demonstration project for the purpose of determining whether one or more changes in the policies or procedures relating to methods for disciplining employees would result in improved personnel management.

(b) Scope

A demonstration project under this section—

(1) may not cover any employees apart from those employed in or under a covered entity; and

(2) shall not be limited by any provision of chapter 43, 75, or 77 of title 5.

(c) Procedures

Under the demonstration project—

(1) the use of alternative means of dispute resolution (as defined in section 571 of title 5) shall be encouraged, whenever appropriate; and

(2) each covered entity under the jurisdiction of the official conducting the project shall be required to provide for the expeditious, fair, and independent review of any action to which section 4303 or subchapter II of chapter 75 of such title 5 would otherwise apply (except an action described in section 7512(5) of such title 5).

(d) Actions involving discrimination

Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, if, in the case of any matter described in section 7702(a)(1)(B) of title 5, there is no judicially reviewable action under the demonstration project within 120 days after the filing of an appeal or other formal request for review (referred to in subsection (c)(2)), an employee shall be entitled to file a civil action to the same extent and in the same manner as provided in section 7702(e)(1) of such title 5 (in the matter following subparagraph (C) thereof).

(e) Certain employees

Employees shall not be included within any project under this section if such employees are—

(1) neither managers nor supervisors; and

(2) within a unit with respect to which a labor organization is accorded exclusive recognition under chapter 71 of title 5.


Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, an aggrieved employee within a unit (referred to in paragraph (2)) may elect to participate in a complaint procedure developed under the demonstration project in lieu of any negotiated grievance procedure and any statutory procedure (as such term is used in section 7121 of such title 5).

(f) Reports

The Government Accountability Office shall prepare and submit to the Committees on Government Reform and the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Committees on Governmental Affairs and the Judiciary of the Senate periodic reports on any demonstration project conducted under this section, such reports to be submitted after the second and fourth years of its operation. Upon request, the Attorney General or the Secretary shall furnish such information as the Government Accountability Office may require to carry out this subsection.

(g) Definition

In this section, the term "covered entity" has the meaning given such term in section 292(a)(2) of this title.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §473, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2208; Pub. L. 108–271, §8(b), July 7, 2004, 118 Stat. 814.)

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 108–271 substituted "Government Accountability Office" for "General Accounting Office" in two places.

Change of Name

Committee on Government Reform of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Oversight and Government Reform of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Jan. 5, 2007.

Committee on Governmental Affairs of Senate changed to Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of Senate, effective Jan. 4, 2005, by Senate Resolution No. 445, One Hundred Eighth Congress, Oct. 9, 2004.

§294. Sense of Congress

It is the sense of Congress that—

(1) the missions of the Bureau of Border Security and the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services are equally important and, accordingly, they each should be adequately funded; and

(2) the functions transferred under this part should not, after such transfers take effect, operate at levels below those in effect prior to November 25, 2002.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §474, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2209.)

Change of Name

Bureau of Border Security, referred to in par. (1), changed to Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement by Reorganization Plan Modification for the Department of Homeland Security, eff. Mar. 1, 2003, H. Doc. No. 108–32, 108th Congress, 1st Session, set out as a note under section 542 of this title.

§295. Director of Shared Services

(a) In general

Within the Office of Deputy Secretary, there shall be a Director of Shared Services.

(b) Functions

The Director of Shared Services shall be responsible for the coordination of resources for the Bureau of Border Security and the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services, including—

(1) information resources management, including computer databases and information technology;

(2) records and file management; and

(3) forms management.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §475, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2209.)

Change of Name

Bureau of Border Security, referred to in subsec. (b), changed to Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement by Reorganization Plan Modification for the Department of Homeland Security, eff. Mar. 1, 2003, H. Doc. No. 108–32, 108th Congress, 1st Session, set out as a note under section 542 of this title.

§296. Separation of funding

(a) In general

There shall be established separate accounts in the Treasury of the United States for appropriated funds and other deposits available for the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services and the Bureau of Border Security.

(b) Separate budgets

To ensure that the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services and the Bureau of Border Security are funded to the extent necessary to fully carry out their respective functions, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall separate the budget requests for each such entity.

(c) Fees

Fees imposed for a particular service, application, or benefit shall be deposited into the account established under subsection (a) that is for the bureau with jurisdiction over the function to which the fee relates.

(d) Fees not transferable

No fee may be transferred between the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services and the Bureau of Border Security for purposes not authorized by section 1356 of title 8.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §476, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2209.)

Change of Name

Bureau of Border Security, referred to in subsecs. (a), (b), and (d), changed to Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement by Reorganization Plan Modification for the Department of Homeland Security, eff. Mar. 1, 2003, H. Doc. No. 108–32, 108th Congress, 1st Session, set out as a note under section 542 of this title.

§297. Reports and implementation plans

(a) Division of funds

The Secretary, not later than 120 days after the effective date of this chapter, shall submit to the Committees on Appropriations and the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and of the Senate a report on the proposed division and transfer of funds, including unexpended funds, appropriations, and fees, between the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services and the Bureau of Border Security.

(b) Division of personnel

The Secretary, not later than 120 days after the effective date of this chapter, shall submit to the Committees on Appropriations and the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and of the Senate a report on the proposed division of personnel between the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services and the Bureau of Border Security.

(c) Implementation plan

(1) In general

The Secretary, not later than 120 days after the effective date of this chapter, and every 6 months thereafter until the termination of fiscal year 2005, shall submit to the Committees on Appropriations and the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and of the Senate an implementation plan to carry out this chapter.

(2) Contents

The implementation plan should include details concerning the separation of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services and the Bureau of Border Security, including the following:

(A) Organizational structure, including the field structure.

(B) Chain of command.

(C) Procedures for interaction among such bureaus.

(D) Fraud detection and investigation.

(E) The processing and handling of removal proceedings, including expedited removal and applications for relief from removal.

(F) Recommendations for conforming amendments to the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.).

(G) Establishment of a transition team.

(H) Methods to phase in the costs of separating the administrative support systems of the Immigration and Naturalization Service in order to provide for separate administrative support systems for the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services and the Bureau of Border Security.

(d) Comptroller General studies and reports

(1) Status reports on transition

Not later than 18 months after the date on which the transfer of functions specified under section 251 of this title takes effect, and every 6 months thereafter, until full implementation of this part has been completed, the Comptroller General of the United States shall submit to the Committees on Appropriations and on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Senate a report containing the following:

(A) A determination of whether the transfers of functions made by parts D and E of this subchapter have been completed, and if a transfer of functions has not taken place, identifying the reasons why the transfer has not taken place.

(B) If the transfers of functions made by parts D and E of this subchapter have been completed, an identification of any issues that have arisen due to the completed transfers.

(C) An identification of any issues that may arise due to any future transfer of functions.

(2) Report on management

Not later than 4 years after the date on which the transfer of functions specified under section 251 of this title takes effect, the Comptroller General of the United States shall submit to the Committees on Appropriations and on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Senate a report, following a study, containing the following:

(A) Determinations of whether the transfer of functions from the Immigration and Naturalization Service to the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services and the Bureau of Border Security have improved, with respect to each function transferred, the following:

(i) Operations.

(ii) Management, including accountability and communication.

(iii) Financial administration.

(iv) Recordkeeping, including information management and technology.


(B) A statement of the reasons for the determinations under subparagraph (A).

(C) Any recommendations for further improvements to the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services and the Bureau of Border Security.

(3) Report on fees

Not later than 1 year after November 25, 2002, the Comptroller General of the United States shall submit to the Committees on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and of the Senate a report examining whether the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services is likely to derive sufficient funds from fees to carry out its functions in the absence of appropriated funds.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §477, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2209.)

References in Text

The effective date of this chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a), (b), and (c)(1), is 60 days after Nov. 25, 2002, see section 4 of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as an Effective Date note under section 101 of this title.

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 107–296, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2135, known as the Homeland Security Act of 2002, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title and Tables.

The Immigration and Nationality Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(F), is act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, 66 Stat. 163, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 12 (§1101 et seq.) of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1101 of Title 8 and Tables.

Parts D and E of this subchapter, referred to in subsec. (d)(1)(A), (B), was in the original "subtitles D and E", meaning subtitles D (§§441–446) and E (§§451–462) of title IV of Pub. L. 107–296, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2192, 2195, which enacted parts D and E of this subchapter, amended sections 1356 and 1573 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality, and enacted provisions set out as a note under section 271 of this title. For complete classification of subtitles D and E to the Code, see Tables.

Change of Name

Bureau of Border Security, referred to in text, changed to Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement by Reorganization Plan Modification for the Department of Homeland Security, eff. Mar. 1, 2003, H. Doc. No. 108–32, 108th Congress, 1st Session, set out as a note under section 542 of this title.

§298. Immigration functions

(a) Annual report

(1) In general

One year after November 25, 2002, and each year thereafter, the Secretary shall submit a report to the President, to the Committees on the Judiciary and Government Reform of the House of Representatives, and to the Committees on the Judiciary and Government Affairs of the Senate, on the impact the transfers made by this part has had on immigration functions.

(2) Matter included

The report shall address the following with respect to the period covered by the report:

(A) The aggregate number of all immigration applications and petitions received, and processed, by the Department.

(B) Region-by-region statistics on the aggregate number of immigration applications and petitions filed by an alien (or filed on behalf of an alien) and denied, disaggregated by category of denial and application or petition type.

(C) The quantity of backlogged immigration applications and petitions that have been processed, the aggregate number awaiting processing, and a detailed plan for eliminating the backlog.

(D) The average processing period for immigration applications and petitions, disaggregated by application or petition type.

(E) The number and types of immigration-related grievances filed with any official of the Department of Justice, and if those grievances were resolved.

(F) Plans to address grievances and improve immigration services.

(G) Whether immigration-related fees were used consistent with legal requirements regarding such use.

(H) Whether immigration-related questions conveyed by customers to the Department (whether conveyed in person, by telephone, or by means of the Internet) were answered effectively and efficiently.

(b) Sense of Congress regarding immigration services

It is the sense of Congress that—

(1) the quality and efficiency of immigration services rendered by the Federal Government should be improved after the transfers made by this part take effect; and

(2) the Secretary should undertake efforts to guarantee that concerns regarding the quality and efficiency of immigration services are addressed after such effective date.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §478, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2211.)

Change of Name

Committee on Government Reform of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Oversight and Government Reform of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Jan. 5, 2007.

Committee on Governmental Affairs of Senate changed to Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of Senate, effective Jan. 4, 2005, by Senate Resolution No. 445, One Hundred Eighth Congress, Oct. 9, 2004.

Part G—U.S. Customs and Border Protection Public Private Partnerships

§301. Fee agreements for certain services at ports of entry

(a) In general

Notwithstanding section 58c(e) of title 19 and section 1451 of title 19, the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection, upon the request of any entity, may enter into a fee agreement with such entity under which—

(1) U.S. Customs and Border Protection shall provide services described in subsection (b) at a United States port of entry or any other facility at which U.S. Customs and Border Protection provides or will provide such services;

(2) such entity shall remit to U.S. Customs and Border Protection a fee imposed under subsection (h) in an amount equal to the full costs that are incurred or will be incurred in providing such services; and

(3) if space is provided by such entity, each facility at which U.S. Customs and Border Protection services are performed shall be maintained and equipped by such entity, without cost to the Federal Government, in accordance with U.S. Customs and Border Protection specifications.

(b) Services described

The services described in this subsection are any activities of any employee or Office of Field Operations contractor of U.S. Customs and Border Protection (except employees of the U.S. Border Patrol, as established under section 211(e) of this title) pertaining to, or in support of, customs, agricultural processing, border security, or immigration inspection-related matters at a port of entry or any other facility at which U.S. Customs and Border Protection provides or will provide services.

(c) Modification of prior agreements

The Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection, at the request of an entity who has previously entered into an agreement with U.S. Customs and Border Protection for the reimbursement of fees in effect on December 16, 2016, may modify such agreement to implement any provisions of this section.

(d) Limitations

(1) Impacts of services

The Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection—

(A) may enter into fee agreements under this section only for services that—

(i) will increase or enhance the operational capacity of U.S. Customs and Border Protection based on available staffing and workload; and

(ii) will not shift the cost of services funded in any appropriations Act, or provided from any account in the Treasury of the United States derived by the collection of fees, to entities under this chapter; and


(B) may not enter into a fee agreement under this section if such agreement would unduly and permanently impact services funded in any appropriations Act, or provided from any account in the Treasury of the United States, derived by the collection of fees.

(2) Number

There shall be no limit to the number of fee agreements that the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection may enter into under this section.

(e) Air ports of entry

(1) Fee agreement

Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, a fee agreement for U.S. Customs and Border Protection services at an air port of entry may only provide for the payment of overtime costs of U.S. Customs and Border Protection officers and salaries and expenses of U.S. Customs and Border Protection employees to support U.S. Customs and Border Protection officers in performing services described in subsection (b).

(2) Small airports

Notwithstanding paragraph (1), U.S. Customs and Border Protection may receive reimbursement in addition to overtime costs if the fee agreement is for services at an air port of entry that has fewer than 100,000 arriving international passengers annually.

(3) Covered services

In addition to costs described in paragraph (1), a fee agreement for U.S. Customs and Border Protection services at an air port of entry referred to in paragraph (2) may provide for the reimbursement of—

(A) salaries and expenses of not more than five full-time equivalent U.S. Customs and Border Protection Officers beyond the number of such officers assigned to the port of entry on the date on which the fee agreement was signed;

(B) salaries and expenses of employees of U.S. Customs and Border Protection, other than the officers referred to in subparagraph (A), to support U.S. Customs and Border Protection officers in performing law enforcement functions; and

(C) other costs incurred by U.S. Customs and Border Protection relating to services described in subparagraph (B), such as temporary placement or permanent relocation of employees, including incentive pay for relocation, as appropriate.

(f) Port of entry size

The Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection shall ensure that each fee agreement proposal is given equal consideration regardless of the size of the port of entry.

(g) Denied application

(1) In general

If the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection denies a proposal for a fee agreement under this section, the Commissioner shall provide the entity submitting such proposal with the reason for the denial unless—

(A) the reason for the denial is law enforcement sensitive; or

(B) withholding the reason for the denial is in the national security interests of the United States.

(2) Judicial review

Decisions of the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection under paragraph (1) are in the discretion of the Commissioner and are not subject to judicial review.

(h) Fee

(1) In general

The amount of the fee to be charged under an agreement authorized under subsection (a) shall be paid by each entity requesting U.S. Customs and Border Protection services, and shall be for the full cost of providing such services, including the salaries and expenses of employees and contractors of U.S. Customs and Border Protection, to provide such services and other costs incurred by U.S. Customs and Border Protection relating to such services, such as temporary placement or permanent relocation of such employees and contractors.

(2) Timing

The Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection may require that the fee referred to in paragraph (1) be paid by each entity that has entered into a fee agreement under subsection (a) with U.S. Customs and Border Protection in advance of the performance of U.S. Customs and Border Protection services.

(3) Oversight of fees

The Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection shall develop a process to oversee the services for which fees are charged pursuant to an agreement under subsection (a), including—

(A) a determination and report on the full costs of providing such services, and a process for increasing such fees, as necessary;

(B) the establishment of a periodic remittance schedule to replenish appropriations, accounts, or funds, as necessary; and

(C) the identification of costs paid by such fees.

(i) Deposit of funds

(1) Account

Funds collected pursuant to any agreement entered into pursuant to subsection (a)—

(A) shall be deposited as offsetting collections;

(B) shall remain available until expended without fiscal year limitation; and

(C) shall be credited to the applicable appropriation, account, or fund for the amount paid out of such appropriation, account, or fund for any expenses incurred or to be incurred by U.S. Customs and Border Protection in providing U.S. Customs and Border Protection services under any such agreement and any other costs incurred or to be incurred by U.S. Customs and Border Protection relating to such services.

(2) Return of unused funds

The Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection shall return any unused funds collected and deposited into the account described in paragraph (1) if a fee agreement entered into pursuant to subsection (a) is terminated for any reason or the terms of such fee agreement change by mutual agreement to cause a reduction of U.S. Customs and Border Protections 1 services. No interest shall be owed upon the return of any such unused funds.

(j) Termination

(1) In general

The Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection shall terminate the services provided pursuant to a fee agreement entered into under subsection (a) with an entity that, after receiving notice from the Commissioner that a fee under subsection (h) is due, fails to pay such fee in a timely manner. If such services are terminated, all costs incurred by U.S. Customs and Border Protection that have not been paid shall become immediately due and payable. Interest on unpaid fees shall accrue based on the rate and amount established under sections 6621 and 6622 of title 26.

(2) Penalty

Any entity that, after notice and demand for payment of any fee under subsection (h), fails to pay such fee in a timely manner shall be liable for a penalty or liquidated damage equal to two times the amount of such fee. Any such amount collected under this paragraph shall be deposited into the appropriate account specified under subsection (i) and shall be available as described in such subsection.

(3) Termination by the entity

Any entity who has previously entered into an agreement with U.S. Customs and Border Protection for the reimbursement of fees in effect on December 16, 2016, or under the provisions of this section, may request that such agreement be amended to provide for termination upon advance notice, length, and terms that are negotiated between such entity and U.S. Customs and Border Protection.

(k) Annual report

The Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection shall—

(1) submit an annual report identifying the activities undertaken and the agreements entered into pursuant to this section to—

(A) the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate;

(B) the Committee on Finance of the Senate;

(C) the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate;

(D) the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate;

(E) the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives;

(F) the Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives;

(G) the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives; and

(H) the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives; and


(2) not later than 15 days before entering into a fee agreement, notify the members of Congress that represent the State or Congressional District in which the affected port of entry or facility is located of such agreement.

(l) Rule of construction

Nothing in this section may be construed as imposing on U.S. Customs and Border Protection any responsibilities, duties, or authorities relating to real property.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §481, as added Pub. L. 114–279, §2(a), Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1413.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (d)(1)(A)(ii), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 107–296, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2135, known as the Homeland Security Act of 2002, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title and Tables.

1 So in original. Probably should be "Protection".

§301a. Port of entry donation authority

(a) Personal property donation authority

(1) In general

The Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection, in consultation with the Administrator of General Services, may enter into an agreement with any entity to accept a donation of personal property, money, or nonpersonal services for the uses described in paragraph (3) only with respect to the following locations at which U.S. Customs and Border Protection performs or will be performing inspection services:

(A) A new or existing sea or air port of entry.

(B) An existing Federal Government-owned land port of entry.

(C) A new Federal Government-owned land port of entry if—

(i) the fair market value of the donation is $50,000,000 or less; and

(ii) the fair market value, including any personal and real property donations in total, of such port of entry when completed, is $50,000,000 or less.

(2) Limitation on monetary donations

Any monetary donation accepted pursuant to this subsection may not be used to pay the salaries of U.S. Customs and Border Protection employees performing inspection services.

(3) Uses

Donations accepted pursuant to this subsection may be used for activities of the Office of Field Operations set forth in subparagraphs (A) through (F) of section 211(g)(3) of this title, which are related to a new or existing sea or air port of entry or a new or existing Federal Government-owned land port of entry described in paragraph (1), including expenses related to—

(A) furniture, fixtures, equipment, or technology, including the installation or deployment of such items; and

(B) the operation and maintenance of such furniture, fixtures, equipment, or technology.

(b) Real property donation authority

(1) In general

Subject to paragraph (3), the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection, and the Administrator of the General Services Administration, as applicable, may enter into an agreement with any entity to accept a donation of real property or money for uses described in paragraph (2) only with respect to the following locations at which U.S. Customs and Border Protection performs or will be performing inspection services:

(A) A new or existing sea or air port of entry.

(B) An existing Federal Government-owned land port of entry.

(C) A new Federal Government-owned land port of entry if—

(i) the fair market value of the donation is $50,000,000 or less; and

(ii) the fair market value, including any personal and real property donations in total, of such port of entry when completed, is $50,000,000 or less.

(2) Use

Donations accepted pursuant to this subsection may be used for activities of the Office of Field Operations set forth in section 211(g) of this title, which are related to the construction, alteration, operation, or maintenance of a new or existing sea or air port of entry or a new or existing a 1 Federal Government-owned land port of entry described in paragraph (1), including expenses related to—

(A) land acquisition, design, construction, repair, or alteration; and

(B) operation and maintenance of such port of entry facility.

(3) Limitation on real property donations

A donation of real property under this subsection at an existing land port of entry owned by the General Services Administration may only be accepted by the Administrator of General Services.

(4) Sunset

(A) In general

The authority to enter into an agreement under this subsection shall terminate on the date that is 4 years after December 16, 2016.

(B) Rule of construction

The termination date referred to in subparagraph (A) shall not apply to carrying out the terms of an agreement under this subsection if such agreement is entered into before such termination date.

(c) General provisions

(1) Duration

An agreement entered into under subsection (a) or (b) (and, in the case of such subsection (b), in accordance with paragraph (4) of such subsection) may last as long as required to meet the terms of such agreement.

(2) Criteria

In carrying out an agreement entered into under subsection (a) or (b), the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection, in consultation with the Administrator of General Services, shall establish criteria regarding—

(A) the selection and evaluation of donors;

(B) the identification of roles and responsibilities between U.S. Customs and Border Protection, the General Services Administration, and donors;

(C) the identification, allocation, and management of explicit and implicit risks of partnering between the Federal Government and donors;

(D) decision-making and dispute resolution processes; and

(E) processes for U.S. Customs and Border Protection, and the General Services Administration, as applicable, to terminate agreements if selected donors are not meeting the terms of any such agreement, including the security standards established by U.S. Customs and Border Protection.

(3) Evaluation procedures

(A) In general

The Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection, in consultation with the Administrator of General Services, as applicable, shall—

(i) establish criteria for evaluating a proposal to enter into an agreement under subsection (a) or (b); and

(ii) make such criteria publicly available.

(B) Considerations

Criteria established pursuant to subparagraph (A) shall consider—

(i) the impact of a proposal referred to in such subparagraph on the land, sea, or air port of entry at issue and other ports of entry or similar facilities or other infrastructure near the location of the proposed donation;

(ii) such proposal's potential to increase trade and travel efficiency through added capacity;

(iii) such proposal's potential to enhance the security of the port of entry at issue;

(iv) the impact of the proposal on reducing wait times at that port of entry or facility and other ports of entry on the same border;

(v) for a donation under subsection (b)—

(I) whether such donation satisfies the requirements of such proposal, or whether additional real property would be required; and

(II) how such donation was acquired, including if eminent domain was used;


(vi) the funding available to complete the intended use of such donation;

(vii) the costs of maintaining and operating such donation;

(viii) the impact of such proposal on U.S. Customs and Border Protection staffing requirements; and

(ix) other factors that the Commissioner or Administrator determines to be relevant.

(C) Determination and notification

(i) Incomplete proposals

(I) In general

Not later than 60 days after receiving the proposals for a donation agreement from an entity, the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection shall notify such entity as to whether such proposal is complete or incomplete.

(II) Resubmission

If the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection determines that a proposal is incomplete, the Commissioner shall—

(aa) notify the appropriate entity and provide such entity with a description of all information or material that is needed to complete review of the proposal; and

(bb) allow the entity to resubmit the proposal with additional information and material described in item (aa) to complete the proposal.

(ii) Complete proposals

Not later than 180 days after receiving a completed proposal to enter into an agreement under subsection (a) or (b), the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection, with the concurrence of the Administrator of General Services, as applicable, shall—

(I) determine whether to approve or deny such proposal; and

(II) notify the entity that submitted such proposal of such determination.

(4) Supplemental funding

Except as required under section 3307 of title 40, real property donations to the Administrator of General Services made pursuant to subsection 1 (a) and 1 (b) at a GSA-owned land port of entry may be used in addition to any other funding for such purpose, including appropriated funds, property, or services.

(5) Return of donations

The Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection, or the Administrator of General Services, as applicable, may return any donation made pursuant to subsection (a) or (b). No interest shall be owed to the donor with respect to any donation provided under such subsections that is returned pursuant to this subsection.

(6) Prohibition on certain funding

(A) In general

Except as provided in subsections (a) and (b) regarding the acceptance of donations, the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection and the Administrator of General Services, as applicable, may not, with respect to an agreement entered into under either of such subsections, obligate or expend amounts in excess of amounts that have been appropriated pursuant to any appropriations Act for purposes specified in either of such subsections or otherwise made available for any of such purposes.

(B) Certification requirement

Before accepting any donations pursuant to an agreement under subsection (a) or (b), the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection shall certify to the congressional committees set forth in paragraph (7) that the donation will not be used for the construction of a detention facility or a border fence or wall.

(7) Annual reports

The Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection, in collaboration with the Administrator of General Services, as applicable, shall submit an annual report identifying the activities undertaken and agreements entered into pursuant to subsections (a) and (b) to—

(A) the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate;

(B) the Committee on Environment and Public Works of the Senate;

(C) the Committee on Finance of the Senate;

(D) the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate;

(E) the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate;

(F) the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives;

(G) the Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives;

(H) the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives;

(I) the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives; and

(J) the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives.

(d) GAO report

The Comptroller General of the United States shall submit an annual report to the congressional committees referred to in subsection (c)(7) that evaluates—

(1) fee agreements entered into pursuant to section 301 of this title;

(2) donation agreements entered into pursuant to subsections (a) and (b); and

(3) the fees and donations received by U.S. Customs and Border Protection pursuant to such agreements.

(e) Judicial review

Decisions of the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection and the Administrator of the General Services Administration under this section regarding the acceptance of real or personal property are in the discretion of the Commissioner and the Administrator and are not subject to judicial review.

(f) Rule of construction

Except as otherwise provided in this section, nothing in this section may be construed as affecting in any manner the responsibilities, duties, or authorities of U.S. Customs and Border Protection or the General Services Administration.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §482, as added Pub. L. 114–279, §2(a), Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1417.)

1 So in original.

§301b. Current and proposed agreements

Nothing in this part or in section 4 of the Cross-Border Trade Enhancement Act of 2016 may be construed as affecting—

(1) any agreement entered into pursuant to section 560 of division D of the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2013 (Public Law 113–6) or section 559 of title V of division F of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014 (6 U.S.C. 211 note; Public Law 113–76), as in existence on the day before December 16, 2016, and any such agreement shall continue to have full force and effect on and after such date; or

(2) a proposal accepted for consideration by U.S. Customs and Border Protection pursuant to such section 559, as in existence on the day before December 16, 2016.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §483, as added Pub. L. 114–279, §2(a), Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1421.)

References in Text

Section 4 of the Cross-Border Trade Enhancement Act of 2016, referred to in text, is section 4 of Pub. L. 114–279, Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1422, which repealed section 560 of division D of Pub. L. 113–6 and section 559 of title V of division F of Pub. L. 113–76. Section 560 of Pub. L. 113–6, was not classified to the Code. Section 559 of Pub. L. 113–76 was classified as a note under section 211 of this title.

§301c. Definitions

In this part:

(1) Donor

The term "donor" means any entity that is proposing to make a donation under this chapter.

(2) Entity

The term "entity" means any—

(A) person;

(B) partnership, corporation, trust, estate, cooperative, association, or any other organized group of persons;

(C) Federal, State or local government (including any subdivision, agency or instrumentality thereof); or

(D) any other private or governmental entity.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §484, as added Pub. L. 114–279, §2(a), Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1421.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in par. (1), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 107–296, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2135, known as the Homeland Security Act of 2002, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title and Tables.

SUBCHAPTER V—NATIONAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT

Codification

Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, §611(1), Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1395, substituted "NATIONAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT" for "EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE" in subchapter heading.

§311. Definitions

In this subchapter—

(1) the term "Administrator" means the Administrator of the Agency;

(2) the term "Agency" means the Federal Emergency Management Agency;

(3) the term "catastrophic incident" means any natural disaster, act of terrorism, or other man-made disaster that results in extraordinary levels of casualties or damage or disruption severely affecting the population (including mass evacuations), infrastructure, environment, economy, national morale, or government functions in an area;

(4) the terms "credentialed" and "credentialing" mean having provided, or providing, respectively, documentation that identifies personnel and authenticates and verifies the qualifications of such personnel by ensuring that such personnel possess a minimum common level of training, experience, physical and medical fitness, and capability appropriate for a particular position in accordance with standards created under section 320 of this title;

(5) the term "Federal coordinating officer" means a Federal coordinating officer as described in section 5143 of title 42;

(6) the term "interoperable" has the meaning given the term "interoperable communications" under section 194(g)(1) of this title;

(7) the term "National Incident Management System" means a system to enable effective, efficient, and collaborative incident management;

(8) the term "National Response Plan" means the National Response Plan or any successor plan prepared under section 314(a)(6) 1 of this title;

(9) the term "Regional Administrator" means a Regional Administrator appointed under section 317 of this title;

(10) the term "Regional Office" means a Regional Office established under section 317 of this title;

(11) the term "resources" means personnel and major items of equipment, supplies, and facilities available or potentially available for responding to a natural disaster, act of terrorism, or other man-made disaster;

(12) the term "surge capacity" means the ability to rapidly and substantially increase the provision of search and rescue capabilities, food, water, medicine, shelter and housing, medical care, evacuation capacity, staffing (including disaster assistance employees), and other resources necessary to save lives and protect property during a catastrophic incident;

(13) the term "tribal government" means the government of any entity described in section 101(13)(B) of this title; and

(14) the terms "typed" and "typing" mean having evaluated, or evaluating, respectively, a resource in accordance with standards created under section 320 of this title.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title V, §501, as added Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, §611(10), Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1395; amended Pub. L. 110–53, title IV, §401(a), title V, §502(c)(1), Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 301, 311; Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title XIX, §1913(b)(2), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2687.)

References in Text

Section 314(a)(6) of this title, referred to in par. (8), was in the original "section 502(a)(6)" and was translated as meaning section 502 of Pub. L. 107–296 prior to its redesignation as section 504 by Pub. L. 109–295, §611(8), and not section 506 which was redesignated section 502 by Pub. L. 109–295, §611(9), and is classified to section 312 of this title, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 311, Pub. L. 107–296, title V, §501, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2212, provided for an Under Secretary for Emergency Preparedness and Response, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, §611(2), Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1395.

Amendments

2016—Par. (13). Pub. L. 114–328 substituted "101(13)(B)" for "101(11)(B)".

2007—Pars. (4) to (12). Pub. L. 110–53, §401(a)(1)–(4), added pars. (4) and (11) and redesignated former pars. (4) to (10) as (5) to (10) and (12), respectively. Former par. (11) redesignated (13).

Par. (13). Pub. L. 110–53, §502(c)(1), substituted "101(11)(B)" for "101(10)(B)".

Pub. L. 110–53, §401(a)(1), redesignated par. (11) as (13).

Par. (14). Pub. L. 110–53, §401(a)(5)–(7), added par. (14).

Change of Name

Any reference to the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency in title VI of Pub. L. 109–295 or an amendment by title VI to be considered to refer and apply to the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency until Mar. 31, 2007, see section 612(f)(2) of Pub. L. 109–295, set out as a note under section 313 of this title.

Interim Actions

Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, §612(f)(1), Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1411, provided that: "During the period beginning on the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 4, 2006] and ending on March 31, 2007, the Secretary [of Homeland Security], the Under Secretary for Preparedness, and the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency shall take such actions as are necessary to provide for the orderly implementation of any amendment under this subtitle [subtitle A (§§611–614) of title VI of Pub. L. 109–295, see Tables for classification] that takes effect on March 31, 2007."

1 See References in Text note below.

§312. Definition

In this subchapter, the term "Nuclear Incident Response Team" means a resource that includes—

(1) those entities of the Department of Energy that perform nuclear or radiological emergency support functions (including accident response, search response, advisory, and technical operations functions), radiation exposure functions at the medical assistance facility known as the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS), radiological assistance functions, and related functions; and

(2) those entities of the Environmental Protection Agency that perform such support functions (including radiological emergency response functions) and related functions.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title V, §502, formerly §506, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2214; renumbered §502, Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, §611(9), Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1395.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 316 of this title prior to renumbering by Pub. L. 109–295.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 502 of Pub. L. 107–296 was renumbered section 504 and is classified to section 314 of this title.

§313. Federal Emergency Management Agency

(a) In general

There is in the Department the Federal Emergency Management Agency, headed by an Administrator.

(b) Mission

(1) Primary mission

The primary mission of the Agency is to reduce the loss of life and property and protect the Nation from all hazards, including natural disasters, acts of terrorism, and other man-made disasters, by leading and supporting the Nation in a risk-based, comprehensive emergency management system of preparedness, protection, response, recovery, and mitigation.

(2) Specific activities

In support of the primary mission of the Agency, the Administrator shall—

(A) lead the Nation's efforts to prepare for, protect against, respond to, recover from, and mitigate against the risk of natural disasters, acts of terrorism, and other man-made disasters, including catastrophic incidents;

(B) partner with State, local, and tribal governments and emergency response providers, with other Federal agencies, with the private sector, and with nongovernmental organizations to build a national system of emergency management that can effectively and efficiently utilize the full measure of the Nation's resources to respond to natural disasters, acts of terrorism, and other man-made disasters, including catastrophic incidents;

(C) develop a Federal response capability that, when necessary and appropriate, can act effectively and rapidly to deliver assistance essential to saving lives or protecting or preserving property or public health and safety in a natural disaster, act of terrorism, or other man-made disaster;

(D) integrate the Agency's emergency preparedness, protection, response, recovery, and mitigation responsibilities to confront effectively the challenges of a natural disaster, act of terrorism, or other man-made disaster;

(E) develop and maintain robust Regional Offices that will work with State, local, and tribal governments, emergency response providers, and other appropriate entities to identify and address regional priorities;

(F) under the leadership of the Secretary, coordinate with the Commandant of the Coast Guard, the Director of Customs and Border Protection, the Director of Immigration and Customs Enforcement, the National Operations Center, and other agencies and offices in the Department to take full advantage of the substantial range of resources in the Department;

(G) provide funding, training, exercises, technical assistance, planning, and other assistance to build tribal, local, State, regional, and national capabilities (including communications capabilities), necessary to respond to a natural disaster, act of terrorism, or other man-made disaster; and

(H) develop and coordinate the implementation of a risk-based, all-hazards strategy for preparedness that builds those common capabilities necessary to respond to natural disasters, acts of terrorism, and other man-made disasters while also building the unique capabilities necessary to respond to specific types of incidents that pose the greatest risk to our Nation.

(c) Administrator

(1) In general

The Administrator shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

(2) Qualifications

The Administrator shall be appointed from among individuals who have—

(A) a demonstrated ability in and knowledge of emergency management and homeland security; and

(B) not less than 5 years of executive leadership and management experience in the public or private sector.

(3) Reporting

The Administrator shall report to the Secretary, without being required to report through any other official of the Department.

(4) Principal advisor on emergency management

(A) In general

The Administrator is the principal advisor to the President, the Homeland Security Council, and the Secretary for all matters relating to emergency management in the United States.

(B) Advice and recommendations

(i) In general

In presenting advice with respect to any matter to the President, the Homeland Security Council, or the Secretary, the Administrator shall, as the Administrator considers appropriate, inform the President, the Homeland Security Council, or the Secretary, as the case may be, of the range of emergency preparedness, protection, response, recovery, and mitigation options with respect to that matter.

(ii) Advice on request

The Administrator, as the principal advisor on emergency management, shall provide advice to the President, the Homeland Security Council, or the Secretary on a particular matter when the President, the Homeland Security Council, or the Secretary requests such advice.

(iii) Recommendations to Congress

After informing the Secretary, the Administrator may make such recommendations to Congress relating to emergency management as the Administrator considers appropriate.

(5) Cabinet status

(A) In general

The President may designate the Administrator to serve as a member of the Cabinet in the event of natural disasters, acts of terrorism, or other man-made disasters.

(B) Retention of authority

Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed as affecting the authority of the Secretary under this chapter.

(Pub. L. 107–296, title V, §503, as added Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, §611(11), Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1396.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (c)(5)(B), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 107–296, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2135, known as the Homeland Security Act of 2002, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 101 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 313, Pub. L. 107–296, title V, §503, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2213; Pub. L. 108–276, §3(c)(3), July 21, 2004, 118 Stat. 853; Pub. L. 109–417, title III, §301(c)(2), Dec. 19, 2006, 120 Stat. 2854, related to the transfer of certain functions to the Secretary of Homeland Security, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 109–295, title VI, §611(3), Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1395.

Change of Name

Pub. L. 109–295, title