Each department, agency, and instrumentality of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of the Federal Government (1) having jurisdiction over any solid waste management facility or disposal site, or (2) engaged in any activity resulting, or which may result, in the disposal or management of solid waste or hazardous waste shall be subject to, and comply with, all Federal, State, interstate, and local requirements, both substantive and procedural (including any requirement for permits or reporting or any provisions for injunctive relief and such sanctions as may be imposed by a court to enforce such relief), respecting control and abatement of solid waste or hazardous waste disposal and management in the same manner, and to the same extent, as any person is subject to such requirements, including the payment of reasonable service charges. The Federal, State, interstate, and local substantive and procedural requirements referred to in this subsection include, but are not limited to, all administrative orders and all civil and administrative penalties and fines, regardless of whether such penalties or fines are punitive or coercive in nature or are imposed for isolated, intermittent, or continuing violations. The United States hereby expressly waives any immunity otherwise applicable to the United States with respect to any such substantive or procedural requirement (including, but not limited to, any injunctive relief, administrative order or civil or administrative penalty or fine referred to in the preceding sentence, or reasonable service charge). The reasonable service charges referred to in this subsection include, but are not limited to, fees or charges assessed in connection with the processing and issuance of permits, renewal of permits, amendments to permits, review of plans, studies, and other documents, and inspection and monitoring of facilities, as well as any other nondiscriminatory charges that are assessed in connection with a Federal, State, interstate, or local solid waste or hazardous waste regulatory program. Neither the United States, nor any agent, employee, or officer thereof, shall be immune or exempt from any process or sanction of any State or Federal Court with respect to the enforcement of any such injunctive relief. No agent, employee, or officer of the United States shall be personally liable for any civil penalty under any Federal, State, interstate, or local solid or hazardous waste law with respect to any act or omission within the scope of the official duties of the agent, employee, or officer. An agent, employee, or officer of the United States shall be subject to any criminal sanction (including, but not limited to, any fine or imprisonment) under any Federal or State solid or hazardous waste law, but no department, agency, or instrumentality of the executive, legislative, or judicial branch of the Federal Government shall be subject to any such sanction. The President may exempt any solid waste management facility of any department, agency, or instrumentality in the executive branch from compliance with such a requirement if he determines it to be in the paramount interest of the United States to do so. No such exemption shall be granted due to lack of appropriation unless the President shall have specifically requested such appropriation as a part of the budgetary process and the Congress shall have failed to make available such requested appropriation. Any exemption shall be for a period not in excess of one year, but additional exemptions may be granted for periods not to exceed one year upon the President's making a new determination. The President shall report each January to the Congress all exemptions from the requirements of this section granted during the preceding calendar year, together with his reason for granting each such exemption.
(1) The Administrator may commence an administrative enforcement action against any department, agency, or instrumentality of the executive, legislative, or judicial branch of the Federal Government pursuant to the enforcement authorities contained in this chapter. The Administrator shall initiate an administrative enforcement action against such a department, agency, or instrumentality in the same manner and under the same circumstances as an action would be initiated against another person. Any voluntary resolution or settlement of such an action shall be set forth in a consent order.
(2) No administrative order issued to such a department, agency, or instrumentality shall become final until such department, agency, or instrumentality has had the opportunity to confer with the Administrator.
Unless a State law in effect on October 6, 1992, or a State constitution requires the funds to be used in a different manner, all funds collected by a State from the Federal Government from penalties and fines imposed for violation of any substantive or procedural requirement referred to in subsection (a) shall be used by the State only for projects designed to improve or protect the environment or to defray the costs of environmental protection or enforcement.
(Pub. L. 89–272, title II, §6001, as added Pub. L. 94–580, §2, Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2821; amended Pub. L. 95–609, §7(m), Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3082; Pub. L. 102–386, title I, §102(a), (b), Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1505, 1506.)
1992—Pub. L. 102–386 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, inserted in first sentence "and management" before "in the same manner", inserted second to fourth, sixth, and seventh sentences specifying Federal, State, interstate, and local substantive and procedural requirements, waiving sovereign immunity, determining reasonable service charges, and providing no agent, employee, or officer of the United States be personally liable for a civil penalty for an act or omission within the scope of official duties but be subject to criminal sanction, with no department, agency, or instrumentality of the executive, legislative, or judicial branch subject to such sanction, and added subsecs. (b) and (c).
1978—Pub. L. 95–609 inserted "or management" after "disposal" in cl. (2).
Pub. L. 102–386, title I, §102(c), Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1506, provided that:
"(B) With respect to the Department of Energy, the waiver of sovereign immunity referred to in subparagraph (A) shall not apply after the date that is 3 years after the date of the enactment of this Act for violations of section 3004(j) of such Act involving storage of mixed waste, so long as the Department of Energy is in compliance with both—
"(i) a plan that has been submitted and approved pursuant to section 3021(b) of the Solid Waste Disposal Act [42 U.S.C. 6939c(b)] and which is in effect; and
"(ii) an order requiring compliance with such plan which has been issued pursuant to such section 3021(b) and which is in effect.
"(i) that addresses compliance with section 3004(j) of the Solid Waste Disposal Act with respect to mixed waste;
"(ii) that is in effect on the date of enactment of this Act; and
"(iii) to which a department, agency, or instrumentality of the executive branch of the Federal Government is a party."
For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of provisions in subsec. (a) of this section requiring the President to report annually to Congress, see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and the 8th item on page 20 of House Document No. 103–7.
Ex. Ord. No. 12780, Oct. 31, 1991, 56 F.R. 56289, which required Federal agencies to promote cost-effective waste reduction and recycling of reusable materials and established a Council on Federal Recycling and Procurement Policy, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12873, §901, Oct. 20, 1993, 58 F.R. 54911, formerly set out below.
Ex. Ord. No. 12873, Oct. 20, 1993, 58 F.R. 54911, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12995, Mar. 25, 1996, 61 F.R. 13645, which directed Executive agencies to incorporate waste prevention and recycling in daily operations and work and to acquire and use environmentally preferable products and services and which created a Federal Environmental Executive and established high-level Environmental Executive positions within each agency, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 13101, §901, Sept. 14, 1998, 63 F.R. 49651, formerly set out below.
Ex. Ord. No. 13101, Sept. 14, 1998, 63 F.R. 49643, which directed executive agencies to incorporate waste prevention and recycling policies in their daily operations and created a Steering Committee, a Federal Environmental Executive, a Task Force, and Agency Environmental Executive positions responsible for ensuring the implementation of this order, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 13423, §11(a)(i), Jan. 24, 2007, 72 F.R. 3923, formerly set out in a note under section 4321 of this title.