The owner or operator of a facility subject to the requirements of this section shall complete a toxic chemical release form as published under subsection (g) for each toxic chemical listed under subsection (c) that was manufactured, processed, or otherwise used in quantities exceeding the toxic chemical threshold quantity established by subsection (f) during the preceding calendar year at such facility. Such form shall be submitted to the Administrator and to an official or officials of the State designated by the Governor on or before July 1, 1988, and annually thereafter on July 1 and shall contain data reflecting releases during the preceding calendar year.
(A) The requirements of this section shall apply to owners and operators of facilities that have 10 or more full-time employees and that are in Standard Industrial Classification Codes 20 through 39 (as in effect on July 1, 1985) and that manufactured, processed, or otherwise used a toxic chemical listed under subsection (c) in excess of the quantity of that toxic chemical established under subsection (f) during the calendar year for which a release form is required under this section.
(B) The Administrator may add or delete Standard Industrial Classification Codes for purposes of subparagraph (A), but only to the extent necessary to provide that each Standard Industrial Code to which this section applies is relevant to the purposes of this section.
(C) For purposes of this section—
(i) The term "manufacture" means to produce, prepare, import, or compound a toxic chemical.
(ii) The term "process" means the preparation of a toxic chemical, after its manufacture, for distribution in commerce—
(I) in the same form or physical state as, or in a different form or physical state from, that in which it was received by the person so preparing such chemical, or
(II) as part of an article containing the toxic chemical.
The Administrator, on his own motion or at the request of a Governor of a State (with regard to facilities located in that State), may apply the requirements of this section to the owners and operators of any particular facility that manufactures, processes, or otherwise uses a toxic chemical listed under subsection (c) if the Administrator determines that such action is warranted on the basis of toxicity of the toxic chemical, proximity to other facilities that release the toxic chemical or to population centers, the history of releases of such chemical at such facility, or such other factors as the Administrator deems appropriate.
The toxic chemicals subject to the requirements of this section are those chemicals on the list in Committee Print Number 99–169 of the Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, titled "Toxic Chemicals Subject to Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act of 1986" [42 U.S.C. 11023] (including any revised version of the list as may be made pursuant to subsection (d) or (e)).
The Administrator may by rule add or delete a chemical from the list described in subsection (c) at any time.
A chemical may be added if the Administrator determines, in his judgment, that there is sufficient evidence to establish any one of the following:
(A) The chemical is known to cause or can reasonably be anticipated to cause significant adverse acute human health effects at concentration levels that are reasonably likely to exist beyond facility site boundaries as a result of continuous, or frequently recurring, releases.
(B) The chemical is known to cause or can reasonably be anticipated to cause in humans—
(i) cancer or teratogenic effects, or
(ii) serious or irreversible—
(I) reproductive dysfunctions,
(II) neurological disorders,
(III) heritable genetic mutations, or
(IV) other chronic health effects.
(C) The chemical is known to cause or can reasonably be anticipated to cause, because of—
(i) its toxicity,
(ii) its toxicity and persistence in the environment, or
(iii) its toxicity and tendency to bioaccumulate in the environment,
a significant adverse effect on the environment of sufficient seriousness, in the judgment of the Administrator, to warrant reporting under this section. The number of chemicals included on the list described in subsection (c) on the basis of the preceding sentence may constitute in the aggregate no more than 25 percent of the total number of chemicals on the list.
A determination under this paragraph shall be based on generally accepted scientific principles or laboratory tests, or appropriately designed and conducted epidemiological or other population studies, available to the Administrator.
A chemical may be deleted if the Administrator determines there is not sufficient evidence to establish any of the criteria described in paragraph (2).
Any revision made on or after January 1 and before December 1 of any calendar year shall take effect beginning with the next calendar year. Any revision made on or after December 1 of any calendar year and before January 1 of the next calender 1 year shall take effect beginning with the calendar year following such next calendar year.
Any person may petition the Administrator to add or delete a chemical from the list described in subsection (c) on the basis of the criteria in subparagraph (A) or (B) of subsection (d)(2). Within 180 days after receipt of a petition, the Administrator shall take one of the following actions:
(A) Initiate a rulemaking to add or delete the chemical to the list, in accordance with subsection (d)(2) or (d)(3).
(B) Publish an explanation of why the petition is denied.
A State Governor may petition the Administrator to add or delete a chemical from the list described in subsection (c) on the basis of the criteria in subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) of subsection (d)(2). In the case of such a petition from a State Governor to delete a chemical, the petition shall be treated in the same manner as a petition received under paragraph (1) to delete a chemical. In the case of such a petition from a State Governor to add a chemical, the chemical will be added to the list within 180 days after receipt of the petition, unless the Administrator—
(A) initiates a rulemaking to add the chemical to the list, in accordance with subsection (d)(2), or
(B) publishes an explanation of why the Administrator believes the petition does not meet the requirements of subsection (d)(2) for adding a chemical to the list.
The threshold amounts for purposes of reporting toxic chemicals under this section are as follows:
(A) With respect to a toxic chemical used at a facility, 10,000 pounds of the toxic chemical per year.
(B) With respect to a toxic chemical manufactured or processed at a facility—
(i) For the toxic chemical release form required to be submitted under this section on or before July 1, 1988, 75,000 pounds of the toxic chemical per year.
(ii) For the form required to be submitted on or before July 1, 1989, 50,000 pounds of the toxic chemical per year.
(iii) For the form required to be submitted on or before July 1, 1990, and for each form thereafter, 25,000 pounds of the toxic chemical per year.
The Administrator may establish a threshold amount for a toxic chemical different from the amount established by paragraph (1). Such revised threshold shall obtain reporting on a substantial majority of total releases of the chemical at all facilities subject to the requirements of this section. The amounts established under this paragraph may, at the Administrator's discretion, be based on classes of chemicals or categories of facilities.
Not later than June 1, 1987, the Administrator shall publish a uniform toxic chemical release form for facilities covered by this section. If the Administrator does not publish such a form, owners and operators of facilities subject to the requirements of this section shall provide the information required under this subsection by letter postmarked on or before the date on which the form is due. Such form shall—
(A) provide for the name and location of, and principal business activities at, the facility;
(B) include an appropriate certification, signed by a senior official with management responsibility for the person or persons completing the report, regarding the accuracy and completeness of the report; and
(C) provide for submission of each of the following items of information for each listed toxic chemical known to be present at the facility:
(i) Whether the toxic chemical at the facility is manufactured, processed, or otherwise used, and the general category or categories of use of the chemical.
(ii) An estimate of the maximum amounts (in ranges) of the toxic chemical present at the facility at any time during the preceding calendar year.
(iii) For each wastestream, the waste treatment or disposal methods employed, and an estimate of the treatment efficiency typically achieved by such methods for that wastestream.
(iv) The annual quantity of the toxic chemical entering each environmental medium.
In order to provide the information required under this section, the owner or operator of a facility may use readily available data (including monitoring data) collected pursuant to other provisions of law, or, where such data are not readily available, reasonable estimates of the amounts involved. Nothing in this section requires the monitoring or measurement of the quantities, concentration, or frequency of any toxic chemical released into the environment beyond that monitoring and measurement required under other provisions of law or regulation. In order to assure consistency, the Administrator shall require that data be expressed in common units.
The release forms required under this section are intended to provide information to the Federal, State, and local governments and the public, including citizens of communities surrounding covered facilities. The release form shall be available, consistent with section 11044(a) of this title, to inform persons about releases of toxic chemicals to the environment; to assist governmental agencies, researchers, and other persons in the conduct of research and data gathering; to aid in the development of appropriate regulations, guidelines, and standards; and for other similar purposes.
The Administrator may modify the frequency of submitting a report under this section, but the Administrator may not modify the frequency to be any more often than annually. A modification may apply, either nationally or in a specific geographic area, to the following:
(A) All toxic chemical release forms required under this section.
(B) A class of toxic chemicals or a category of facilities.
(C) A specific toxic chemical.
(D) A specific facility.
A modification may be made under paragraph (1) only if the Administrator—
(A) makes a finding that the modification is consistent with the provisions of subsection (h), based on—
(i) experience from previously submitted toxic chemical release forms, and
(ii) determinations made under paragraph (3), and
(B) the finding is made by a rulemaking in accordance with section 553 of title 5.
The Administrator shall make the following determinations with respect to a proposed modification before making a modification under paragraph (1):
(A) The extent to which information relating to the proposed modification provided on the toxic chemical release forms has been used by the Administrator or other agencies of the Federal Government, States, local governments, health professionals, and the public.
(B) The extent to which the information is (i) readily available to potential users from other sources, such as State reporting programs, and (ii) provided to the Administrator under another Federal law or through a State program.
(C) The extent to which the modification would impose additional and unreasonable burdens on facilities subject to the reporting requirements under this section.
Any modification made under this subsection shall be reviewed at least once every 5 years. Such review shall examine the modification and ensure that the requirements of paragraphs (2) and (3) still justify continuation of the modification. Any change to a modification reviewed under this paragraph shall be made in accordance with this subsection.
The Administrator shall notify Congress of an intention to initiate a rulemaking for a modification under this subsection. After such notification, the Administrator shall delay initiation of the rulemaking for at least 12 months, but no more than 24 months, after the date of such notification.
In any judicial review of a rulemaking which establishes a modification under this subsection, a court may hold unlawful and set aside agency action, findings, and conclusions found to be unsupported by substantial evidence.
A modification under this subsection may apply to a calendar year or other reporting period beginning no earlier than January 1, 1993.
Any modification made on or after January 1 and before December 1 of any calendar year shall take effect beginning with the next calendar year. Any modification made on or after December 1 of any calendar year and before January 1 of the next calendar year shall take effect beginning with the calendar year following such next calendar year.
The Administrator shall establish and maintain in a computer data base a national toxic chemical inventory based on data submitted to the Administrator under this section. The Administrator shall make these data accessible by computer telecommunication and other means to any person on a cost reimbursable basis.
Not later than June 30, 1991, the Comptroller General, in consultation with the Administrator and appropriate officials in the States, shall submit to the Congress a report including each of the following:
(1) A description of the steps taken by the Administrator and the States to implement the requirements of this section, including steps taken to make information collected under this section available to and accessible by the public.
(2) A description of the extent to which the information collected under this section has been used by the Environmental Protection Agency, other Federal agencies, the States, and the public, and the purposes for which the information has been used.
(3) An identification and evaluation of options for modifications to the requirements of this section for the purpose of making information collected under this section more useful.
The Administrator shall arrange for a mass balance study to be carried out by the National Academy of Sciences using mass balance information collected by the Administrator under paragraph (3). The Administrator shall submit to Congress a report on such study no later than 5 years after October 17, 1986.
The purposes of the study are as follows:
(A) To assess the value of mass balance analysis in determining the accuracy of information on toxic chemical releases.
(B) To assess the value of obtaining mass balance information, or portions thereof, to determine the waste reduction efficiency of different facilities, or categories of facilities, including the effectiveness of toxic chemical regulations promulgated under laws other than this chapter.
(C) To assess the utility of such information for evaluating toxic chemical management practices at facilities, or categories of facilities, covered by this section.
(D) To determine the implications of mass balance information collection on a national scale similar to the mass balance information collection carried out by the Administrator under paragraph (3), including implications of the use of such collection as part of a national annual quantity toxic chemical release program.
(A) The Administrator shall acquire available mass balance information from States which currently conduct (or during the 5 years after October 17, 1986 initiate) a mass balance-oriented annual quantity toxic chemical release program. If information from such States provides an inadequate representation of industry classes and categories to carry out the purposes of the study, the Administrator also may acquire mass balance information necessary for the study from a representative number of facilities in other States.
(B) Any information acquired under this section shall be available to the public, except that upon a showing satisfactory to the Administrator by any person that the information (or a particular part thereof) to which the Administrator or any officer, employee, or representative has access under this section if made public would divulge information entitled to protection under section 1905 of title 18, such information or part shall be considered confidential in accordance with the purposes of that section, except that such information or part may be disclosed to other officers, employees, or authorized representatives of the United States concerned with carrying out this section.
(C) The Administrator may promulgate regulations prescribing procedures for collecting mass balance information under this paragraph.
(D) For purposes of collecting mass balance information under subparagraph (A), the Administrator may require the submission of information by a State or facility.
For purposes of this subsection, the term "mass balance" means an accumulation of the annual quantities of chemicals transported to a facility, produced at a facility, consumed at a facility, used at a facility, accumulated at a facility, released from a facility, and transported from a facility as a waste or as a commercial product or byproduct or component of a commercial product or byproduct.
(Pub. L. 99–499, title III, §313, Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1741.)
Memorandum of President of the United States, Aug. 8, 1995, 60 F.R. 41791, provided:
Memorandum for the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency and the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies
The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986 (42 U.S.C. 11001–11050) ("EPCRA") and the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 13101–13109) provide an innovative approach to protecting public health and the environment by ensuring that communities are informed about the toxic chemicals being released into the air, land, and water by manufacturing facilities. I am committed to the effective implementation of this law, because Community Right-to-Know protections provide a basic informational tool to encourage informed community-based environmental decision making and provide a strong incentive for businesses to find their own ways of preventing pollution.
The laws provide the Environmental Protection Agency with substantial authority to add to the Toxics Release Inventory under EPCRA: (1) new chemicals; (2) new classes of industrial facilities; and (3) additional types of information concerning toxic chemical use at facilities. Community Right-to-Know should be enhanced wherever possible as appropriate. EPA currently is engaged in an on-going process to address potential facility expansion and the collection of use information. I am committed to a full and open process on the policy issues posed by EPA's exercise of these authorities.
So that consideration of these issues can be fully accomplished during this Administration, I am directing the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, in consultation with the Office of Management and Budget and appropriate Federal agencies with applicable technical and functional expertise, as necessary, to take the following actions:
(a) Continuation on an expedited basis of the public notice and comment rulemaking proceedings to consider whether, as appropriate and consistent with section 313(b) of EPCRA, 42 U.S.C. 11023(b), to add to the list of Standard Industrial Classification ("SIC") Code designations of 20 through 39 (as in effect on July 1, 1985). For SIC Code designations, see "Standard Industrial Classification Manual" published by the Office of Management and Budget. EPA shall complete the rulemaking process on an accelerated schedule.
(b) Development and implementation of an expedited, open, and transparent process for consideration of reporting under EPCRA on information on the use of toxic chemicals at facilities, including information on mass balance, materials accounting, or other chemical use date [data], pursuant to section 313(b)(1)(A) of EPCRA, 42 U.S.C. 11023(b)(1)(A). EPA shall report on the progress of this effort by October 1, 1995, with a goal of obtaining sufficient information to be able to make informed judgments concerning implementation of any appropriate program.
These actions should continue unless specifically prohibited by law. The head of each executive department or agency shall assist the Environmental Protection Agency in implementing this directive as quickly as possible.
This directive is for the internal management of the executive branch and does not create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable by any party against the United States, its agencies or instrumentalities, its officers or employees, or any person.
The Director of the Office of Management and Budget is authorized and directed to publish this Memorandum in the Federal Register.
William J. Clinton.
1 So in original. Probably should be "calendar".