The purpose of this chapter is to enable the Government of the United States to increase mutual understanding between the people of the United States and the people of other countries by means of educational and cultural exchange; to strengthen the ties which unite us with other nations by demonstrating the educational and cultural interests, developments, and achievements of the people of the United States and other nations, and the contributions being made toward a peaceful and more fruitful life for people throughout the world; to promote international cooperation for educational and cultural advancement; and thus to assist in the development of friendly, sympathetic, and peaceful relations between the United States and the other countries of the world.
(Pub. L. 87–256, §101, Sept. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 527.)
This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 87–256, Sept. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 527, as amended, known as the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out below and Tables.
Pub. L. 87–256, §1, Sept. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 527, provided: "That this Act [enacting this chapter, amending sections 1101, 1182 and 1258 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality, sections 117, 871, 872, 1441, 3121, 3306, 3401 and 3402 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, and section 410 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, repealing sections 1431(2), 1434, 1439, 1440, 1446, 1448, 1466 to 1468 and 1991 to 2001 of this title, sections 222 to 224 of Title 20, Education, and former section 1641(b)(2) of the former Appendix to Title 50, War and National Defense, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and under sections 117, 1441, 3121 and 3401 of Title 26] may be cited as the 'Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961'."
Pub. L. 87–256 is also popularly known as the "Fulbright-Hays Act".
Functions vested in President, Secretary of State, Department of State, United States Information Agency or Director thereof under this chapter transferred to Director of International Communication Agency by Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1977, §7(a)(2), 42 F.R. 62461, 91 Stat. 1637, set out under section 1461 of this title, effective on or before July 1, 1978, at such time as specified by President, except (A) for such functions as are vested by sections 2452(b)(6), (10), 2454(a), (e)(1), (2), (f), (g), 2455(a), (b), (c), 2456(a) and 2458 of this title, (B) for such functions as are vested by sections 2454(b), 2455(d)(2), (f), and 2456(d), (f) of this title, to extent that such functions were assigned to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare [now Secretary of Education] immediately prior to effective date of Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1977, and (C) for such functions as are vested by section 2456(b), (c) of this title to extent that any such function therein is vested in President or Secretary of State. International Communication Agency, and Director thereof, redesignated United States Information Agency, and Director thereof, by section 303 of Pub. L. 97–241, title III, Aug. 24, 1982, 96 Stat. 291, set out as a note under section 1461 of this title. United States Information Agency (other than Broadcasting Board of Governors and International Broadcasting Bureau) abolished and functions transferred to Secretary of State, see sections 6531 and 6532 of this title. References to United States Information Agency or International Communication Agency deemed to refer to Department of State, see section 6551 of this title.
Pub. L. 108–458, title VII, §7112, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3796, provided that:
"(1) Exchange, scholarship, and library programs are effective ways for the United States Government to promote internationally the values and ideals of the United States.
"(2) Exchange, scholarship, and library programs can expose young people from other countries to United States values and offer them knowledge and hope.
"(1) the United States should commit to a long-term and sustainable investment in promoting engagement with people of all levels of society in countries with predominantly Muslim populations, particularly with youth and those who influence youth;
"(2) such an investment should make use of the talents and resources in the private sector and should include programs to increase the number of people who can be exposed to the United States and its fundamental ideas and values in order to dispel misconceptions; and
"(3) such programs should include youth exchange programs, young ambassadors programs, international visitor programs, academic and cultural exchange programs, American Corner programs, library programs, journalist exchange programs, sister city programs, and other programs related to people-to-people diplomacy.
Pub. L. 107–228, div. A, title II, §224, Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1368, provided for the establishment of an advisory committee on cultural diplomacy to advise the Secretary of State on programs and policies to advance the use of cultural diplomacy in United States foreign policy and for the termination of the committee on Sept. 30, 2005.
Pub. L. 87–256, §111(b), Sept. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 538, provided that: "All Executive orders, agreements, determinations, regulations, contracts, appointments, and other actions issued, concluded, or taken under authority of any provisions of law repealed by subsection (a) of this section [repealing sections 1431(2), 1434, 1439, 1440, 1446, 1448, 1466 to 1468, and 1991 to 2001 of this title, sections 222 to 224 of Title 20, Education, and former section 1641(b)(2) of the former Appendix to Title 50, War and National Defense] shall continue in full force and effect, and shall be applicable to the appropriate provisions of this Act [this chapter] until modified or superseded by appropriate authority."
Pub. L. 87–256, §111(c), Sept. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 538, provided that: "Any reference in any other Act to the provisions of law listed in subsection (a) [repealing sections 1431(2), 1434, 1439, 1440, 1446, 1448, 1466 to 1468, and 1991 to 2001 of this title, sections 222 to 224 of Title 20, Education, and former section 1641(b)(2) of the former Appendix to Title 50, War and National Defense] shall hereafter be considered to be references to the appropriate provisions of this Act [this chapter]."