Within 12 months after September 17, 1976, the Secretary of Energy shall develop data characterizing the present state-of-the-art with respect to electric and hybrid vehicles. The data so developed shall serve as baseline data to be utilized in order (1) to compare improvements in electric and hybrid vehicle technologies; (2) to assist in establishing the performance standards under subsection (b)(1); and (3) to otherwise assist in carrying out the purposes of this section. In developing any such data, the Secretary of Energy shall purchase or lease a reasonable number of such vehicles or enter into such other arrangements as the Secretary of Energy deems necessary to carry out the purposes of this subsection.
(1) Within 15 months after September 17, 1976, the Secretary of Energy shall promulgate rules establishing performance standards for electric and hybrid vehicles to be purchased or leased pursuant to subsection (c)(1). The standards so developed shall take into account the factors of energy conservation, urban traffic characteristics, patterns of use for "second" vehicles, consumer preferences, maintenance needs, battery recharging characteristics, agricultural requirements, materials demand and their ability to be recycled, vehicle safety and insurability, cost, and other relevant considerations, as such factors and considerations particularly apply to or affect vehicles with electric or hybrid propulsion systems. Such standards are to be developed taking into account (A) the best current state-of-the-art, and (B) reasonable estimates as to the future state-of-the-art, based on projections of results from the research and development conducted under section 2505 of this title. In developing such standards, the Secretary of Energy shall consult with appropriate experts concerning design needs for electric and hybrid vehicles which are compatible with long-range urban planning, traffic management, and vehicle safety.
(2) Separate performance standards shall be established under subsection (b)(1) with respect to (A) electric or hybrid vehicles for personal use, and (B) commercial electric or hybrid vehicles. Such performance standards shall represent the minimum level of performance which is required with respect to any vehicles purchased or leased pursuant to subsection (c). Initial performance standards under subsection (b)(1) shall be set at such levels as the Secretary of Energy determines are necessary to promote the acquisition and use of such vehicles for transportation purposes which are within the capability (as determined by the Secretary of Energy) of electric and hybrid vehicles.
(3) Such performance standards shall be revised, by rule, periodically as the state-of-the-art improves.
(4) The Secretary of Energy shall transmit to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the President of the Senate, and to the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate, the performance standards developed under paragraph (1) and all revised performance standards established in connection with the demonstrations specified in subsection (c)(2).
(1) The Secretary of Energy shall, within 6 months after the date of promulgation of performance standards pursuant to subsection (b)(1), institute the first contracts for the purchase or lease of electric or hybrid vehicles which satisfy the performance standards set forth under subsection (b)(1). The delivery of such vehicles shall be completed according to the expedited best effort of the administering agency and the selected manufacturer. To the extent practicable, vehicles purchased or leased under such contracts shall represent a cross-section of the available technologies and of actual or potential vehicle use.
(2) Thereafter, according to a planned schedule, the Secretary of Energy shall contract for the purchase or lease of additional electric or hybrid vehicles which satisfy amended performance standards and represent continuing improvements in state-of-the-art. In conducting demonstrations, the Secretary of Energy shall consider—
(A) the need and intent of the Congress to stimulate and encourage private sector production as well as public knowledge, acceptance, and use of electric and hybrid vehicles; and
(B) demonstration of varying degrees of vehicle operations, management, and control for maximum widespread effectiveness and exposure to public use.
(3) The demonstration period shall extend through the fiscal year 1986, with purchase or leasing continuing through the fiscal year 1984. During the demonstration period the Secretary of Energy shall demonstrate 7,500 to 10,000 electric and hybrid vehicles. No more than 400 vehicles may be procured for this purpose during fiscal year 1978. In order to allow industry time for advanced planning, the size and nature of projected electric and hybrid vehicle leasing and procurements will be made public by the administering agency. Publications under the preceding sentence (each covering a period of two years) shall be released annually starting at an appropriate time in the fiscal year 1978.
The Secretary of Energy, in supervising the demonstration of vehicles acquired under subsection (c), shall make such arrangements as may be necessary or appropriate—
(1)(A) to make such vehicles available to Federal agencies and to State or local governments and other persons for individual or business use (including farms). The individuals and businesses involved shall be selected by an equitable process which assures that the Secretary of Energy will receive accurate and adequate data on vehicle performance, including representative geographical and climatological information and data on user reaction to the utilization of electric and hybrid vehicles. Such individuals and businesses shall be given the option of purchasing or leasing such vehicles under terms and conditions which will promote their widespread use;
(B) to pay the differential operating costs of such vehicles to the extent necessary to assure the adequate demonstration of such vehicles;
(2) for demonstration maintenance projects, including maintenance organization and equipment needs and model training projects for maintenance procedures; and
(3) for the dissemination of data on electric and hybrid vehicle safety and operating characteristics (including nontechnical descriptive data which shall be made available by the Government Publishing Office) (A) to Federal, State, and local consumer affairs agencies and groups; (B) to Federal, State, and local agricultural and rural agencies and groups; and (C) to the public.
(1) At least 60 days prior to entering into any contract for the purchase or lease of any electric or hybrid vehicle under subsection (c)(1) or any advanced electric or hybrid vehicle under subsection (c)(2), the Secretary of Energy shall determine (A) if the purchase or lease of the number of such vehicles specified in such subsection (c)(1) or (c)(2) will, with high probability, displace the normal level of private procurement of such vehicles which would conform to the applicable performance standards promulgated pursuant to subsection (b) and which would be used in the United States, and (B) if such displacement will occur, the necessary extent of such displacement in order to carry out the purposes of this chapter.
(2) The Secretary of Energy shall reduce the number of vehicles for which he shall contract for the purchase or lease under subsection (c)(1) or (c)(2) by the number determined under subsection (e)(1)(A) as modified by subsection (e)(1)(B), except in no event shall he contract for the purchase or lease pursuant to subsection (c)(1) of less than 1,000 electric or hybrid vehicles, and in no event shall he contract for the purchase or lease pursuant to subsection (c)(2) of less than 2,500 advanced electric or hybrid vehicles unless he determines on the basis of responses to the solicitations for proposals for such contracts, under the provisions of subsections (c)(1) and (c)(2) that lesser numbers of such vehicles which satisfy the applicable performance standards will be available within the delivery periods. All other provisions of subsection (c) shall apply.
(Pub. L. 94–413, §7, Sept. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 1263; Pub. L. 95–91, title III, §301(a), Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 577; Pub. L. 95–238, title VI, §601, Feb. 25, 1978, 92 Stat. 91; Pub. L. 96–470, title I, §105, Oct. 19, 1980, 94 Stat. 2238; Pub. L. 97–375, title I, §106(b), Dec. 21, 1982, 96 Stat. 1820; Pub. L. 103–437, §5(d)(1), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4582; Pub. L. 113–235, div. H, title I, §1301(b), Dec. 16, 2014, 128 Stat. 2537.)
1994—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 103–437 substituted "Committee on Science, Space, and Technology" for "Committee on Science and Technology".
1982—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 97–375 struck out provision that at the time any determination on the displacement of private procurement of hybrid vehicles was made, that Secretary of Energy transmit such determination, with relevant supporting information, to the Committee on Science and Technology of the House and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate.
1980—Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 96–470 struck out par. (4) which provided that if the Administrator determines on the basis of his annual review of the program that at least 200 vehicles cannot be added to the project during fiscal year 1978, at least 600 during fiscal year 1979, at least 1,700 during fiscal year 1980, and at least 7,500 in the aggregate during the fiscal years 1981 through 1984, he immediately forward a detailed explanation to Congress.
1978—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 95–238, §601(a), struck out requirement that rules promulgated under par. (1) be amended not later than 6 months prior to the date for contracts specified in subsec. (c)(2) of this section.
Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 95–238, §601(b), substituted provisions relating to transmission of standards developed under par. (1) and all revised standards established in connection with the demonstrations specified in subsec. (c)(2) of this section, for provisions relating to transmission of standards developed under par. (1) as revised and currently in effect prior to contracts for the production of vehicles under subsec. (c)(2) of this section.
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–238, §601(c), in par. (1) substituted provisions relating to the first contracts for purchase or lease of vehicles and delivery of such vehicles, for provisions relating to contracts for the purchase or lease of 2,500 vehicles and delivery of such vehicles within 39 months after Sept. 17, 1976, in par. (2) substituted provisions relating to contracts for the purchase or lease of additional vehicles which satisfy amended performance standards and are improvements in the state-of-the-art and criteria for demonstrations, for provisions relating to contracts for the purchase or lease of 5,000 advanced vehicles and delivery of such vehicles within 72 months after Sept. 17, 1976, with an extention of the delivery period for 6 additional months, and added pars. (3) and (4).
"Government Publishing Office" substituted for "Government Printing Office" in subsec. (d)(3) on authority of section 1301(b) of Pub. L. 113–235, set out as a note preceding section 301 of Title 44, Public Printing and Documents.
"Secretary of Energy" substituted for "Administrator" in subsecs. (a), (b)(1), (2), (d), and (e) pursuant to section 301(a) of Pub. L. 95–91, see Codification note set out under section 2502 of this title.