10 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2018 Edition
Title 10 - ARMED FORCES
Subtitle A - General Military Law
PART IV - SERVICE, SUPPLY, AND PROCUREMENT
CHAPTER 137 - PROCUREMENT GENERALLY
From the U.S. Government Publishing Office, www.gpo.gov

CHAPTER 137—PROCUREMENT GENERALLY

Sec.
[2301.
Repealed.]
2302.
Definitions.
2302a.
Simplified acquisition threshold.
2302b.
Implementation of simplified acquisition procedures.
[2302c.
Repealed.]
2302d.
Major system: definitional threshold amounts.
2302e.
Contract authority for advanced development of initial or additional prototype units.
2303.
Applicability of chapter.
[2303a.
Repealed.]
2304.
Contracts: competition requirements.
2304a.
Task and delivery order contracts: general authority.
2304b.
Task order contracts: advisory and assistance services.
2304c.
Task and delivery order contracts: orders.
2304d.
Task and delivery order contracts: definitions.
2304e.
Contracts: prohibition on competition between Department of Defense and small businesses and certain other entities.
2305.
Contracts: planning, solicitation, evaluation, and award procedures.
2305a.
Design-build selection procedures.
2306.
Kinds of contracts.
2306a.
Cost or pricing data: truth in negotiations.
2306b.
Multiyear contracts: acquisition of property.
2306c.
Multiyear contracts: acquisition of services.
2307.
Contract financing.
2308.
Buy-to-budget acquisition: end items.
2309.
Allocation of appropriations.
2310.
Determinations and decisions.
2311.
Assignment and delegation of procurement functions and responsibilities.
2312.
Remission of liquidated damages.
2313.
Examination of records of contractor.
2313a.
Defense Contract Audit Agency: annual report.
2313b.
Performance of incurred cost audits.
2314.
Laws inapplicable to agencies named in section 2303 of this title.
2315.
Law inapplicable to the procurement of automatic data processing equipment and services for certain defense purposes.
2316.
Disclosure of identity of contractor.
[2317.
Repealed.]
2318.
Advocates for competition.
2319.
Encouragement of new competitors.
2320.
Rights in technical data.
2321.
Validation of proprietary data restrictions.
2322.
Management of intellectual property matters within the Department of Defense.
2322a.
Requirement for consideration of certain matters during acquisition of noncommercial computer software.
[2323.
Repealed.]
2323a.
Credit for Indian contracting in meeting certain subcontracting goals for small disadvantaged businesses and certain institutions of higher education.
2324.
Allowable costs under defense contracts.
2325.
Restructuring costs.
2326.
Undefinitized contractual actions: restrictions.
2327.
Contracts: consideration of national security objectives.
2328.
Release of technical data under Freedom of Information Act: recovery of costs.
2329.
Procurement of services: data analysis and requirements validation.
2330.
Procurement of contract services: management structure.
2330a.
Procurement of services: tracking of purchases.
2331.
Procurement of services: contracts for professional and technical services.
[2332.
Repealed.]
2333.
Joint policies on requirements definition, contingency program management, and contingency contracting.
2334.
Independent cost estimation and cost analysis.
2335.
Prohibition on collection of political information.
[2336.
Repealed.]
2337.
Life-cycle management and product support.
2337a.
Assessment, management, and control of operating and support costs for major weapon systems.
2338.
Micro-purchase threshold.
[2339.
Repealed.]
2339a.
Requirements for information relating to supply chain risk.

        

Amendments

2018—Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §§812(a)(2)(B), (3)(B), 821(c)(2), 881(a)(2), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1846, 1847, 1853, 1913, struck out items 2323 "Contract goal for small disadvantaged businesses and certain institutions of higher education", 2332 "Share-in-savings contracts", and 2339 "Micro-purchase threshold for basic research programs and activities of the Department of Defense science and technology reinvention laboratories" and added item 2339a.

2017—Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title X, §1081(d)(1), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1599, amended directory language of Pub. L. 114–328, §217(a)(2), effective Dec. 23, 2016, and as if included in Pub. L. 114–328 as enacted. See 2016 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title VIII, §§803(b), 836(a)(2), 851(a)(2), 861(a)(2), 871(a)(2), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1455, 1473, 1492, 1494, 1497, added items 2302e, 2313b, 2322a, 2329, and 2337a.

Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title VIII, §802(a)(2), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1451, which directed amendment of the table of sections for this chapter by adding item 2322 at the end, was executed by adding item 2322 after item 2321, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

2016—Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title VIII, §§821(b), 833(b)(5)(B), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2276, 2285, added item 2338 and struck out item 2302c "Implementation of electronic commerce capability".

Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title II, §217(a)(2), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2051, as amended by Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title X, §1081(d)(1), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1599, added item 2339.

2014—Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title III, §351(c)(1), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3347, struck out item 2336 "Intergovernmental support agreements with State and local governments".

2013—Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title III, §331(b), title VIII, §823(a)(2), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1697, 1832, added items 2336 and 2337.

2011—Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title VIII, §805(b), 823(b), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1486, 1503, added items 2313a and 2335.

2009—Pub. L. 111–23, title I, §101(b)(2), May 22, 2009, 123 Stat. 1709, added item 2334.

2008—Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title X, §1063(a)(10), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 322, added item 2333 and struck out former item 2333 "Joint policies on requirements definition, contingency contracting, and program management".

2006—Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title VIII, §854(a)(2), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2346, added item 2333.

Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title VIII, §812(a)(2), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3378, substituted "Procurement of contract services: management structure" for "Procurement of services: management structure" in item 2330.

2002—Pub. L. 107–347, title II, §210(a)(2), Dec. 17, 2002, 116 Stat. 2934, added item 2332.

Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title VIII, §801(a)(2), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2602, added item 2308.

2001—Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title VIII, §801(g)(2), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1178, added items 2330, 2330a, and 2331 and struck out former item 2331 "Contracts for professional and technical services".

2000—Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title VIII, §802(a)(2)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–205, added item 2306c.

1998—Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title X, §1069(a)(3), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2135, substituted "electronic commerce capability" for "FACNET capability" in item 2302c.

1997—Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title VIII, §804(a)(2), title X, §1073(a)(48)(B), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1833, 1903, substituted "contracts: acquisition of property" for "contracts" in item 2306b and added item 2325.

1996—Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title VIII, §805(b), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2606, added item 2302d.

Pub. L. 104–106, div. D, title XLI, §4105(a)(2), title XLIII, §4321(b)(6)(B), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 647, 672, redesignated item 2304a, relating to contracts: prohibition on competition between Department of Defense and small businesses and certain other entities, as 2304e and added item 2305a.

1994—Pub. L. 103–355, title I, §§1004(a)(2), 1022(a)(2), 1501(b), 1503(a)(2), (b)(2), 1506(b), title II, §§2001(i), 2201(a)(2), title IV, §§4002(b), 4203(a)(2), title VIII, §8104(b)(2), title IX, §9002(b), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3253, 3260, 3296–3298, 3303, 3318, 3338, 3346, 3391, 3402, struck out items 2301 "Congressional defense procurement policy", 2308 "Assignment and delegation of procurement functions and responsibilities", 2325 "Preference for nondevelopmental items", and 2329 "Production special tooling and production special test equipment: contract terms and conditions", added items 2302a to 2302c, 2304a relating to task and delivery order contracts: general authority, 2304b to 2304d, and 2306b, and substituted "Contract financing" for "Advance payments" in item 2307, "Assignment and delegation of procurement functions and responsibilities" for "Delegation" in item 2311, and "Examination of records of contractor" for "Examination of books and records of contractor" in item 2313.

1993—Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title VIII, §§828(a)(1), 848(a)(2), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1713, 1725, added item 2304a and struck out item 2317 "Encouragement of competition and cost savings".

1992—Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title VIII, §801(a)(2), (g)(2), title X, §1052(25)(B), div. D, title XLII, §4271(b)(2), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2442, 2445, 2500, 2695, struck out items 2322 "Limitation on small business set-asides" and 2330 "Integrated financing policy" and added items 2323 and 2323a.

1990—Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title VIII, §§804(b), 834(a)(2), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1591, 1614, struck out item 2323 "Commercial pricing for spare or repair parts" and added item 2331.

1988—Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title VIII, §801(a)(2), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2007, added item 2330.

1987—Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title VIII, §810(a)(2), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1132, added item 2329.

Pub. L. 100–26, §7(a)(7)(B)(ii), (b)(9)(B), Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 278, 280, transferred item 2305a "Major programs: competitive alternative sources", to chapter 144 as item 2438 and substituted "Release of technical data under Freedom of Information Act: recovery of costs" for "Release of technical data" in item 2328.

Pub. L. 100–26, §5(4), (6), made technical amendments to directory language of sections 926(a)(2) and 954(a)(2), respectively, of Pub. L. 99–500, Pub. L. 99–591, and Pub. L. 99–661. See 1986 Amendment note below.

1986—Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title XIII, §1343(a)(12), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3993, substituted "competitors" for "competition" in item 2319.

Pub. L. 99–500, §101(c) [title X, §§907(a)(2), 908(d)(1)(B), 926(a)(2), 951(a)(2), 952(c)(2), 954(a)(2)], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–82, 1783–138, 1783–141, 1783–155, 1783–165, 1783–169, 1783–173, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [title X, §§907(a)(2), 908(d)(1)(B), 926(a)(2), 951(a)(2), 952(c)(2), 954(a)(2)], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–82, 3341–138, 3341–141, 3341–155, 3341–165, 3341–169, 3341–173; Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title IX, formerly title IV, §§907(a)(2), 908(d)(1)(B), 926(a)(2), 951(a)(2), 952(c)(2), 954(a)(2), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3917, 3921, 3935, 3945, 3949, 3953, renumbered title IX, Pub. L. 100–26, §3(5), Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 273; as amended by Pub. L. 100–26, §5(4), (6), Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 274, amended chapter analysis identically striking out ": cost or pricing data: truth in negotiations" after "contracts" in item 2306, substituting "spare or repair parts" for "supplies" in item 2323, and adding items 2306a and 2325 to 2328.

1985—Pub. L. 99–145, title IX, §§911(a)(2), 912(a)(2), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 685, 686, added items 2305a and 2324.

1984—Pub. L. 98–577, title III, §302(c)(2), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3077, struck out item 2303a "Publication of proposed regulations".

Pub. L. 98–525, title XII, §1217, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2599, added items 2303a and 2317 to 2323.

Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title VII, §2727(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1194, substituted "Congressional defense procurement policy" for "Declaration of policy" in item 2301, "Contracts: competition requirements" for "Purchases and contracts: formal advertising; exceptions" in item 2304, "Contracts: planning, solicitation, evaluation, and award procedures" for "Formal advertisements for bids; time; opening; award; rejection" in item 2305, and "Kinds of contracts; cost or pricing data: truth in negotiation" for "Kinds of contracts" in item 2306.

1982—Pub. L. 97–295, §1(26)(B), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1291, added item 2316.

1981—Pub. L. 97–86, title IX, §908(a)(2), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1118, added item 2315.

1980—Pub. L. 96–513, title V, §511(75), Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2926, inserted "formal" before "advertising" in item 2304.

[§2301. Repealed. Pub. L. 103–355, title I, §1501(a), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3296]

Section, acts Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 127; Dec. 1, 1981, Pub. L. 97–86, title IX, §909(a), 95 Stat. 1118; July 18, 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title VII, §2721, 98 Stat. 1185; Oct. 18, 1986, Pub. L. 99–500, §101(c) [title X, §925(a)], 100 Stat. 1783–82, 1783–153, and Oct. 30, 1986, Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [title X, §925(a)], 100 Stat. 3341–82, 3341–153; Nov. 14, 1986, Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title IX, formerly title IV, §925(a), 100 Stat. 3933, renumbered title IX, Apr. 21, 1987, Pub. L. 100–26, §3(5), 101 Stat. 273; Oct. 23, 1992, Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title VIII, §808(a), 106 Stat. 2449, related to Congressional defense procurement policy.

Effective Date of Repeal

For effective date and applicability of repeal, see section 10001 of Pub. L. 103–355, set out as an Effective Date of 1994 Amendment note under section 2302 of this title.

§2302. Definitions

In this chapter:

(1) The term "head of an agency" means the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of the Army, the Secretary of the Navy, the Secretary of the Air Force, the Secretary of Homeland Security, and the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

(2) The term "competitive procedures" means procedures under which the head of an agency enters into a contract pursuant to full and open competition. Such term also includes—

(A) procurement of architectural or engineering services conducted in accordance with chapter 11 of title 40;

(B) the competitive selection for award of science and technology proposals resulting from a general solicitation and the peer review or scientific review (as appropriate) of such proposals;

(C) the procedures established by the Administrator of General Services for the multiple award schedule program of the General Services Administration if—

(i) participation in the program has been open to all responsible sources; and

(ii) orders and contracts under such program result in the lowest overall cost alternative to meet the needs of the United States;


(D) procurements conducted in furtherance of section 15 of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 644) as long as all responsible business concerns that are entitled to submit offers for such procurements are permitted to compete; and

(E) a competitive selection of research proposals resulting from a general solicitation and peer review or scientific review (as appropriate) solicited pursuant to section 9 of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 638).


(3) The following terms have the meanings provided such terms in chapter 1 of title 41:

(A) The term "procurement".

(B) The term "procurement system".

(C) The term "standards".

(D) The term "full and open competition".

(E) The term "responsible source".

(F) The term "item".

(G) The term "item of supply".

(H) The term "supplies".

(I) The term "commercial item".

(J) The term "nondevelopmental item".

(K) The term "commercial component".

(L) The term "component".


(4) The term "technical data" means recorded information (regardless of the form or method of the recording) of a scientific or technical nature (including computer software documentation) relating to supplies procured by an agency. Such term does not include computer software or financial, administrative, cost or pricing, or management data or other information incidental to contract administration.

(5) The term "major system" means a combination of elements that will function together to produce the capabilities required to fulfill a mission need. The elements may include hardware, equipment, software or any combination thereof, but excludes construction or other improvements to real property. A system shall be considered a major system if (A) the conditions of section 2302d of this title are satisfied, or (B) the system is designated a "major system" by the head of the agency responsible for the system.

(6) The term "Federal Acquisition Regulation" means the Federal Acquisition Regulation issued pursuant to section 1303(a)(1) of title 41.

(7) The term "simplified acquisition threshold" has the meaning provided that term in section 134 of title 41, except that, in the case of any contract to be awarded and performed, or purchase to be made, outside the United States in support of a contingency operation or a humanitarian or peacekeeping operation, the term means an amount equal to two times the amount specified for that term in such section.

(8) The term "humanitarian or peacekeeping operation" means a military operation in support of the provision of humanitarian or foreign disaster assistance or in support of a peacekeeping operation under chapter VI or VII of the Charter of the United Nations. The term does not include routine training, force rotation, or stationing.

(9) The term "nontraditional defense contractor", with respect to a procurement or with respect to a transaction authorized under section 2371(a) or 2371b of this title, means an entity that is not currently performing and has not performed, for at least the one-year period preceding the solicitation of sources by the Department of Defense for the procurement or transaction, any contract or subcontract for the Department of Defense that is subject to full coverage under the cost accounting standards prescribed pursuant to section 1502 of title 41 and the regulations implementing such section.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 127; Pub. L. 85–568, title III, §301(b), July 29, 1958, 72 Stat. 432; Pub. L. 85–861, §1(43A), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1457; Pub. L. 96–513, title V, §511(74), Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2926; Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title VII, §2722(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1186; Pub. L. 98–525, title XII, §1211, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2589; Pub. L. 98–577, title V, §504(b)(3), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3087; Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title XIII, §1343(a)(13), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3993; Pub. L. 100–26, §7(k)(2), Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 284; Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title VIII, §853(b)(1), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1518; Pub. L. 102–25, title VII, §701(d)(1), Apr. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 113; Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title VIII, §805, Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1417; Pub. L. 103–355, title I, §1502, Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3296; Pub. L. 104–106, div. D, title XLIII, §4321(b)(3), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 672; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title VIII, §§805(a)(1), 807(a), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2605, 2606; Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title VIII, §803(b), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1832; Pub. L. 107–217, §3(b)(2), Aug. 21, 2002, 116 Stat. 1295; Pub. L. 107–296, title XVII, §1704(b)(1), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2314; Pub. L. 111–350, §5(b)(8), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3842; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title VIII, §866(g)(1), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4298; Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title X, §1071(a)(2), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3504; Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title VIII, §815(b), Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 896; Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title II, §221, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1333; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §836(c)(1), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1864.)

Amendment of Paragraph (3)

Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §836(c)(1), (h), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1864, 1874, provided that, effective Jan. 1, 2020, subject to a savings provision, paragraph (3) of this section is amended as follows:

(1) by redesignating subparagraphs (J), (K), and (L) as subparagraphs (K), (L), and (M); and

(2) by striking subparagraph (I) and inserting the following new subparagraphs (I) and (J):

(I) The term "commercial product".

(J) The term "commercial service".

See 2018 Amendment note below.

Historical and Revision Notes
1956 Act
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
2302 41:158 (less clause (b)). Feb. 19, 1948, ch. 65, §9 (less clause (b)), 62 Stat. 24.

In clause (1), the words "(if any)" are omitted as surplusage. The words "Secretary of the Treasury" are substituted for the words "Commandant, United States Coast Guard, Treasury Department", since the functions of the Coast Guard and its officers, while operating under the Department of the Treasury, were vested in the Secretary of the Treasury by 1950 Reorganization Plan No. 26, effective July 31, 1950, 64 Stat. 1280. Under that plan the Secretary of the Treasury was authorized to delegate any of those functions to the agencies and employees of the Department of the Treasury.

Clauses (2) and (3) are inserted for clarity, and are based on the usage of those terms throughout the revised chapter.

1958 Act
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
2302(3) [No source]. [No source].

The amendments reflect section 1(44) of the bill [amending section 2305 of Title 10].

Amendments

2018—Par. (3)(I) to (M). Pub. L. 115–232 added subpars. (I) and (J), redesignated former subpars. (J) to (L) as (K) to (M), respectively, and struck out former subpar. (I) which read as follows: "The term 'commercial item'."

2017—Par. (2)(B). Pub. L. 115–91 substituted "science and technology" for "basic research".

2015—Par. (9). Pub. L. 114–92 amended par. (9) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (9) read as follows: "The term 'nontraditional defense contractor', with respect to a procurement or with respect to a transaction authorized under section 2371(a) of this title, means an entity that is not currently performing and has not performed, for at least the one-year period preceding the solicitation of sources by the Department of Defense for the procurement or transaction, any of the following for the Department of Defense:

"(A) Any contract or subcontract that is subject to full coverage under the cost accounting standards prescribed pursuant to chapter 15 of title 41 and the regulations implementing such chapter.

"(B) Any other contract in excess of $500,000 under which the contractor is required to submit certified cost or pricing data under section 2306a of this title."

2014—Par. (7). Pub. L. 113–291, §1071(a)(2)(A), substituted "such section" for "section 4 of such Act".

Par. (9)(A). Pub. L. 113–291, §1071(a)(2)(B), substituted "chapter 15 of title 41" for "section 26 of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act (41 U.S.C. 422)" and "such chapter" for "such section".

2011—Par. (3). Pub. L. 111–350, §5(b)(8)(A), substituted "chapter 1 of title 41" for "section 4 of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act (41 U.S.C. 403)" in introductory provisions.

Par. (6). Pub. L. 111–350, §5(b)(8)(B), substituted "section 1303(a)(1) of title 41" for "section 25(c)(1) of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act (41 U.S.C. 421(c)(1))".

Par. (7). Pub. L. 111–350, §5(b)(8)(C), substituted "section 134 of title 41" for "section 4 of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act (41 U.S.C. 403)".

Par. (9). Pub. L. 111–383 added par. (9).

2002—Par. (1). Pub. L. 107–296 substituted "of Homeland Security" for "of Transportation".

Par. (2)(A). Pub. L. 107–217 substituted "chapter 11 of title 40" for "title IX of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949 (40 U.S.C. 541 et seq.)".

1997—Pars. (7), (8). Pub. L. 105–85 struck out "(A)" before "The term 'simplified" in par. (7), redesignated par. (7)(B) as par. (8), and substituted "The" for "In subparagraph (A), the" in that par.

1996—Par. (3)(K). Pub. L. 104–106 inserted period at end.

Par. (5). Pub. L. 104–201, §805(a)(1), substituted "A system shall be considered a major system if (A) the conditions of section 2302d of this title are satisfied, or (B) the system is designated a 'major system' by the head of the agency responsible for the system." for "A system shall be considered a major system if (A) the Department of Defense is responsible for the system and the total expenditures for research, development, test, and evaluation for the system are estimated to be more than $75,000,000 (based on fiscal year 1980 constant dollars) or the eventual total expenditure for procurement of more than $300,000,000 (based on fiscal year 1980 constant dollars); (B) a civilian agency is responsible for the system and total expenditures for the system are estimated to exceed $750,000 (based on fiscal year 1980 constant dollars) or the dollar threshold for a 'major system' established by the agency pursuant to Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A–109, entitled 'Major Systems Acquisitions', whichever is greater; or (C) the system is designated a 'major system' by the head of the agency responsible for the system."

Par. (7). Pub. L. 104–201, §807(a), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), inserted "or a humanitarian or peacekeeping operation" after "contingency operation", and added subpar. (B).

1994—Par. (3). Pub. L. 103–355, §1502(1), added par. (3) and struck out former par. (3) which read as follows: "The terms 'full and open competition' and 'responsible source' have the same meanings provided such terms in section 4 of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act (41 U.S.C. 403)."

Par. (7). Pub. L. 103–355, §1502(2), added par. (7) and struck out former par. (7) which read as follows: "The term 'small purchase threshold' has the meaning given that term in section 4(11) of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act (41 U.S.C. 403(11)), except that, in the case of any contract to be awarded and performed, or purchase to be made, outside the United States in support of a contingency operation, the term means $100,000."

1991—Par. (7). Pub. L. 102–190 inserted before period ", except that, in the case of any contract to be awarded and performed, or purchase to be made, outside the United States in support of a contingency operation, the term means $100,000".

Pub. L. 102–25 added par. (7).

1989—Par. (6). Pub. L. 101–189 added par. (6).

1987—Pub. L. 100–26, §7(k)(2)(A), inserted "The term" after each par. designation except par. (3) and struck out uppercase letter of first word after first quotation marks in each par. and substituted lowercase letter.

1986—Par. (2)(A). Pub. L. 99–661 substituted "(40 U.S.C." for "(41 U.S.C.".

1984—Pub. L. 98–369 amended section generally, substituting in cl. (1) "the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of the Army, the Secretary of the Navy, the Secretary of the Air Force" for "the Secretary, the Under Secretary, or any Assistant Secretary, of the Army, Navy, or Air Force", in cl. (2) definition of "competitive procedures" for a definition of "negotiate", and in cl. (3) definition of the terms "full and open competition" and "responsible source" for a definition of "formal advertising".

Cl. (2)(D), (E). Pub. L. 98–577 added subpars. (D) and (E).

Cls. (4), (5). Pub. L. 98–525 added cls. (4) and (5).

1980—Cl. (1). Pub. L. 96–513 substituted "Secretary of Transportation" for "Secretary of the Treasury".

1958—Cl. (1). Pub. L. 85–568 substituted "Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration" for "Executive Secretary of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics", in cl. (1).

Cl. (3). Pub. L. 85–861 substituted "section 2305 of this title" for "section 2305(a) and (b) of this title".

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–232 effective Jan. 1, 2020, subject to a savings provision, see section 836(h) of Pub. L. 115–232, set out as an Effective Date of 2018 Amendment; Savings Provision note under section 453b of Title 6, Domestic Security.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective on the date of transfer of the Coast Guard to the Department of Homeland Security, see section 1704(g) of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–106, div. D, title XLIV, §4401, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 678, provided that:

"(a) Effective Date.—Except as otherwise provided in this division [div. D (§§4001–4402) of Pub. L. 104–106, see Tables for classification], this division and the amendments made by this division shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Feb. 10, 1996].

"(b) Applicability of Amendments.—

"(1) Solicitations, unsolicited proposals, and related contracts.—An amendment made by this division shall apply, in the manner prescribed in the final regulations promulgated pursuant to section 4402 [110 Stat. 678] to implement such amendment, with respect to any solicitation that is issued, any unsolicited proposal that is received, and any contract entered into pursuant to such a solicitation or proposal, on or after the date described in paragraph (3).

"(2) Other matters.—An amendment made by this division shall also apply, to the extent and in the manner prescribed in the final regulations promulgated pursuant to section 4402 to implement such amendment, with respect to any matter related to—

"(A) a contract that is in effect on the date described in paragraph (3);

"(B) an offer under consideration on the date described in paragraph (3); or

"(C) any other proceeding or action that is ongoing on the date described in paragraph (3).

"(3) Demarcation date.—The date referred to in paragraphs (1) and (2) is the date specified in such final regulations. The date so specified shall be January 1, 1997, or any earlier date that is not within 30 days after the date on which such final regulations are published."

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–355, title X, §10001, Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3404, provided that:

"(a) Effective Date.—Except as otherwise provided in this Act, this Act [see Tables for classification] and the amendments made by this Act shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 13, 1994].

"(b) Applicability of Amendments.—(1) An amendment made by this Act shall apply, in the manner prescribed in the final regulations promulgated pursuant to section 10002 [108 Stat. 3404, formerly set out as a Regulations note under section 251 of former Title 41, Public Contracts] to implement such amendment, with respect to any solicitation that is issued, any unsolicited proposal that is received, and any contract entered into pursuant to such a solicitation or proposal, on or after the date described in paragraph (3).

"(2) An amendment made by this Act shall also apply, to the extent and in the manner prescribed in the final regulations promulgated pursuant to section 10002 to implement such amendment, with respect to any matter related to—

"(A) a contract that is in effect on the date described in paragraph (3);

"(B) an offer under consideration on the date described in paragraph (3); or

"(C) any other proceeding or action that is ongoing on the date described in paragraph (3).

"(3) The date referred to in paragraphs (1) and (2) is the date specified in such final regulations [Oct. 1, 1995, see 60 F.R. 48231, Sept. 18, 1995]. The date so specified shall be October 1, 1995, or any earlier date that is not within 30 days after the date on which such final regulations are published.

"(c) Immediate Applicability of Certain Amendments.—Notwithstanding subsection (b), the amendments made by the following provisions of this Act apply on and after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 13, 1994]: sections 1001, 1021, 1031, 1051, 1071, 1092, 1201, 1506(a), 1507, 1554, 2002(a), 2191, 3062(a), 3063, 3064, 3065(a)(1), 3065(b), 3066, 3067, 6001(a), 7101, 7103, 7205, and 7206, the provisions of subtitles A, B, and C of title III [§§3001–3025], and the provisions of title V [see Tables for classification]."

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title VII, §2751, July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1203, provided that:

"(a) Except as provided in subsection (b), the amendments made by this title [see Tables for classification] shall apply with respect to any solicitation for bids or proposals issued after March 31, 1985.

"(b) The amendments made by section 2713 [amending section 759 of former Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 759 of former Title 40] and subtitle D [enacting sections 3551 to 3556 of Title 31, Money and Finance] shall apply with respect to any protest filed after January 14, 1985."

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–513 effective Dec. 12, 1980, see section 701(b)(3) of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Pub. L. 85–568, title III, §301(e), July 29, 1958, 72 Stat. 433, provided that: "This section [amending this section, section 2303 of this title, section 22–1 of former Title 5, and sections 511 to 513 and 515 of Title 50, War and National Defense, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 2472 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] shall take effect ninety days after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 29, 1958], or on any earlier date on which the Administrator [of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration] shall determine, and announce by proclamation published in the Federal Register, that the Administration has been organized and is prepared to discharge the duties and exercise the powers conferred upon it by this Act."

Short Title of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–500, §101(c) [title X, §900], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–82, 1783–130, Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [title X, §900], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–82, 3341–130, and Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title IX, formerly title IV, §900, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3910, renumbered title IX, Pub. L. 100–26, §3(5), Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 273, provided that: "This title [enacting sections 133a, 2306a, 2325–2328, 2365–2367, 2397b, 2397c, 2408, 2409, 2416, and 2435–2437 of this title, amending sections 133, 134, 135, 138, 171, 1622, 2301, 2304, 2305, 2306, 2320, 2321, 2323, 2384, 2406, 2411, 2413, 2432, and 2433 of this title, sections 5314 and 5315 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, sections 632, 637, and 644 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, and section 416 of Title 41, Public Contracts, renumbering section 2416 as 2417 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 113, 1621, 2304, 2305, 2306a, 2320, 2323, 2325–2328, 2365–2367, 2384, 2397b, 2406, 2408, 2409, 2416, 2432, 2435–2437 of this title and section 632 of Title 15, amending provisions set out as a note under this section, and repealing provisions set out as notes under section 2304 and 2397a of this title] may be cited as the 'Defense Acquisition Improvement Act of 1986'."

Short Title of 1985 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–145, title IX, §901, Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 682, provided that: "This title [enacting sections 1621 to 1624, 2305a, 2324, 2397a, and 2406 of this title, amending sections 2304, 2313, 2320, 2323, 2397, and 2411 to 2415 of this title, section 759 of former Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works, sections 253 and 418a of Title 41, Public Contracts, and former section 2168 of the former Appendix to Title 50, War and National Defense, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 139, 139c, 1622 to 1624, 2304, 2305a, 2307, 2324, 2397a, and 2411 of this title, section 287 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, section 3729 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and former section 2168 of the former Appendix to Title 50, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 418a of Title 41] may be cited as the 'Defense Procurement Improvement Act of 1985'."

Short Title of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–525, title XII, §1201, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2588, provided that: "This title [enacting sections 2303a, 2317 to 2323, 2384a, 2402 to 2405, and 2411 to 2416 of this title, amending sections 139a, 139b, 2302, 2305, 2311, 2384, and 2401 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 139, 139a, 2303a, 2305, 2318, 2319, 2322, 2323, 2384, 2384a, 2392, and 2402 of this title, amending provisions set out as notes under sections 2392, 2401, and 2452 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as notes under section 2304 of this title] may be cited as the 'Defense Procurement Reform Act of 1984'."

Armored Commercial Passenger-Carrying Vehicles

Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title I, §154, Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1672, provided that:

"(a) Implementation of GAO Recommendations.—In accordance with the recommendations of the Government Accountability Office in the report titled 'Armored Commercial Vehicles: DOD Has Procurement Guidance, but Army Could Take Actions to Enhance Inspections and Oversight' (GAO-17-513), not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 13, 2018], the Secretary of Army shall—

"(1) ensure that in-progress inspections are conducted at the armoring vendor's facility for each procurement of an armored commercial passenger-carrying vehicles [sic] until the date on which the Secretary of Defense approves and implements an updated armoring and inspection standard for such vehicles; and

"(2) designate a central point of contact for collecting and reporting information on armored commercial passenger-carrying vehicles (such as information on contracts execution and vehicle inspections).

"(b) Briefing Required.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary of Defense shall provide to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a briefing on the progress of the Secretary in implementing Department of Defense Instruction O–2000.16 Volume 1, dated November 2016, with respect to armored commercial passenger-carrying vehicles, including—

"(1) whether criteria for the procurement of such vehicles have been established and distributed to the relevant components of the Department; and

"(2) whether a process is in place for ensuring that the relevant components of the Department incorporate those criteria into contracts for such vehicles."

Activities on Identification and Development of Enhanced Personal Protective Equipment Against Blast Injury

Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title II, §226, Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1685, provided that:

"(a) Activities Required.—During calendar year 2019, the Secretary of the Army shall, in consultation with the Director of Operational Test and Evaluation, carry out a set of activities to identify and develop personal equipment to provide enhanced protection against injuries caused by blasts in combat and training.

"(b) Activities.—

"(1) Continuous evaluation process.—For purposes of the activities required by subsection (a), the Secretary shall establish a process to continuously solicit from government, industry, academia, and other appropriate entities personal protective equipment that is ready for testing and evaluation in order to identify and evaluate equipment or clothing that is more effective in protecting members of the Armed Forces from the harmful effects of blast injuries, including traumatic brain injuries, and would be suitable for expedited procurement and fielding.

"(2) Goals.—The goals of the activities shall include:

"(A) Development of streamlined requirements for procurement of personal protective equipment.

"(B) Appropriate testing of personal protective equipment prior to procurement and fielding.

"(C) Development of expedited mechanisms for deployment of effective personal protective equipment.

"(D) Identification of areas of research in which increased investment has the potential to improve the quality of personal protective equipment and the capability of the industrial base to produce such equipment.

"(E) Such other goals as the Secretary considers appropriate.

"(3) Partnerships for certain assessments.—As part of the activities, the Secretary should continue to establish partnerships with appropriate academic institutions for purposes of assessing the following:

"(A) The ability of various forms of personal protective equipment to protect against common blast injuries, including traumatic brain injuries.

"(B) The value of real-time data analytics to track the effectiveness of various forms of personal protective equipment to protect against common blast injuries, including traumatic brain injuries.

"(C) The availability of commercial-off [sic] the-shelf personal protective technology to protect against traumatic brain injury resulting from blasts.

"(D) The extent to which the equipment determined through the assessment to be most effective to protect against common blast injuries is readily modifiable for different body types and to provide lightweight material options to enhance maneuverability.

"(c) Authorities.—In carrying out activities under subsection (a), the Secretary may use any authority as follows:

"(1) Experimental procurement authority under section 2373 of title 10, United States Code.

"(2) Other transactions authority under section 2371 and 2371b of title 10, United States Code.

"(3) Authority to award technology prizes under section 2374a of title 10, United States Code.

"(4) Authority under the Defense Acquisition Challenge Program under section 2359b of title 10, United States Code.

"(5) Any other authority on acquisition, technology transfer, and personnel management that the Secretary considers appropriate.

"(d) Certain Treatment of Activities.—Any activities under this section shall be deemed to have been through the use of competitive procedures for the purposes of section 2304 of title 10, United States Code.

"(e) On-going Assessment Following Activities.—After the completion of activities under subsection (a), the Secretary shall, on an on-going basis, do the following:

"(1) Evaluate the extent to which personal protective equipment identified through the activities would—

"(A) enhance survivability of personnel from blasts in combat and training; and

"(B) enhance prevention of brain damage, and reduction of any resultant chronic brain dysfunction, from blasts in combat and training.

"(2) In the case of personal protective equipment so identified that would provide enhancements as described in paragraph (1), estimate the costs that would be incurred to procure such enhanced personal protective equipment, and develop a schedule for the procurement of such equipment.

"(3) Estimate the potential health care cost savings that would occur from expanded use of personal protective equipment described in paragraph (2).

"(f) Report.—Not later than December 1, 2019, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives a report on the activities under subsection (a) as of the date of the report.

"(g) Funding.—Of the amount authorized to be appropriated for fiscal year 2019 by this Act for research, development, test, and evaluation, as specified in the funding tables in division D [div. D of Pub. L. 115–232, 132 Stat. 2328], $10,000,000 may be used to carry out this section."

Pilot Program To Test Machine-Vision Technologies To Determine the Authenticity and Security of Microelectronic Parts in Weapon Systems

Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §843, Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1878, provided that:

"(a) Pilot Program Authorized.—The Undersecretary of Defense for Research and Engineering, in coordination with the Defense Microelectronics Activity, shall establish a pilot program to test the feasibility and reliability of using machine-vision technologies to determine the authenticity and security of microelectronic parts in weapon systems.

"(b) Objectives of Pilot Program.—The Undersecretary of Defense for Research and Engineering, in coordination with the Defense Microelectronics Activity, shall design any pilot program conducted under this section to determine the following:

"(1) The effectiveness and technology readiness level of machine-vision technologies to determine the authenticity of microelectronic parts at the time of the creation of such part through final insertion of such part into weapon systems.

"(2) The best method of incorporating machine-vision technologies into the process of developing, transporting, and inserting microelectronics into weapon systems.

"(3) The rules, regulations, or processes that hinder the development and incorporation of machine-vision technologies, and the application of such rules, regulations, or processes to mitigate counterfeit microelectronics proliferation throughout the Department of Defense.

"(c) Consultation.—To develop the pilot program under this section, the Undersecretary of Defense for Research and Engineering, in coordination with the Defense Microelectronics Activity, may consult with the following entities:

"(1) Manufacturers of semiconductors or electronics.

"(2) Industry associations relating to semiconductors or electronics.

"(3) Original equipment manufacturers of products for the Department of Defense.

"(4) Nontraditional defense contractors (as defined in section 2302(9) of title 10, United States Code) that are machine vision companies.

"(5) Federal laboratories (as defined in section 2500(5) of title 10, United States Code).

"(6) Other elements of the Department of Defense that fall under the authority of the Undersecretary of Defense for Research and Engineering.

"(d) Commencement and Duration.—The pilot program established under this section shall be established not later than April 1, 2019, and all activities under such pilot program shall terminate not later than December 31, 2020."

Authority for Explosive Ordnance Disposal Units To Acquire New or Emerging Technologies and Capabilities

Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title I, §142, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1320, provided that: "The Secretary of Defense, after consultation with the head of each military service, may provide to an explosive ordnance disposal unit the authority to acquire new or emerging technologies and capabilities that are not specifically provided for in the authorized equipment allowance for the unit, as such allowance is set forth in the table of equipment and table of allowance for the unit."

Annual Report on Military Working Dogs Used by the Department of Defense

Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title III, §334, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1356, provided that:

"(a) Capacity.—The Secretary of Defense, acting through the Executive Agent for Military Working Dogs (hereinafter in this section referred to as the 'Executive Agent'), shall—

"(1) identify the number of military working dogs required to fulfill the various missions of the Department of Defense for which such dogs are used, including force protection, facility and check point security, and explosives and drug detection;

"(2) take such steps as are practicable to ensure an adequate number of military working dog teams are available to meet and sustain the mission requirements identified in paragraph (1);

"(3) ensure that the Department's needs and performance standards with respect to military working dogs are readily available to dog breeders and trainers; and

"(4) coordinate with other Federal, State, and local agencies, nonprofit organizations, universities, and private sector entities, as appropriate, to increase the training capacity for military working dog teams.

"(b) Military Working Dog Procurement.—The Secretary, acting through the Executive Agent, shall work to ensure that military working dogs are procured as efficiently as possible and at the best value to the Government, while maintaining the necessary level of quality and encouraging increased domestic breeding.

"(c) Annual Report.—Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 12, 2017], and annually thereafter until September 30, 2021, the Secretary, acting through the Executive Agent, shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a report on the procurement and retirement of military working dogs for the fiscal year preceding the fiscal year during which the report is submitted. Each report under this subsection shall include the following for the fiscal year covered by the report:

"(1) The number of military working dogs procured, by source, by each military department or Defense Agency.

"(2) The cost of procuring military working dogs incurred by each military department or Defense Agency.

"(3) The number of domestically-bred and sourced military working dogs procured by each military department or Defense Agency, including a list of vendors, their location, cost, and the quantity of dogs procured from each vendor.

"(4) The number of non-domestically-bred military working dogs procured from non-domestic sources by each military department or Defense Agency, including a list of vendors, their location, cost, and the quantity of dogs procured from each vendor.

"(5) The cost of procuring pre-trained and green dogs for force protection, facility and checkpoint security, and improvised explosive device, other explosives, and drug detection.

"(6) An analysis of the procurement practices of each military department or Defense Agency that limit market access for domestic canine vendors and breeders.

"(7) The total cost of procuring domestically-bred military working dogs versus the total cost of procuring dogs from non-domestic sources.

"(8) The total number of domestically-bred dogs and the number of dogs from foreign sources procured by each military department or Defense Agency and the number and percentage of those dogs that are ultimately deployed for their intended use.

"(9) An explanation for any significant difference in the cost of procuring military working dogs from different sources.

"(10) An estimate of the number of military working dogs expected to retire annually and an identification of the primary cause of the retirement of such dogs.

"(11) An identification of the final disposition of military working dogs no longer in service.

"(d) Military Working Dog Defined.—For purposes of this section, the term 'military working dog' means a dog used in any official military capacity, as defined by the Secretary of Defense."

Cost-Benefit Analysis of Uniform Specifications for Afghan Military or Security Forces

Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title III, §344, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1362, provided that: "Beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 12, 2017], whenever the Secretary of Defense enters into a contract for the provision of uniforms for Afghan military or security forces, the Secretary shall conduct a cost-benefit analysis of the uniform specification for the Afghan military or security forces uniform. Such analysis shall determine—

"(1) whether there is a more effective alternative uniform specification, considering both operational environment and cost, available to the Afghan military or security forces;

"(2) the efficacy of the existing pattern compared to other alternatives (both proprietary and non-proprietary patterns); and

"(3) the costs and feasibility of transitioning the uniforms of the Afghan military or security forces to a pattern owned by the United States, using existing excess inventory where available, and acquiring the rights to the Spec4ce Forest pattern."

Statements of Purpose for Department of Defense Acquisition

Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title VIII, §801, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1449, provided that: "Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 12, 2017], the Secretary of Defense shall revise the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement to include the following statements of purpose:

"(1) The defense acquisition system (as defined in section 2545 of title 10, United States Code) exists to manage the investments of the United States in technologies, programs, and product support necessary to achieve the national security strategy prescribed by the President pursuant to section 108 of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 3043) and to support the United States Armed Forces.

"(2) The investment strategy of the Department of Defense shall be postured to support not only the current United States Armed Forces, but also future Armed Forces of the United States.

"(3) The primary objective of Department of Defense acquisition is to acquire quality products that satisfy user needs with measurable improvements to mission capability and operational support, in a timely manner, and at a fair and reasonable price."

Process for Enhanced Supply Chain Scrutiny

Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title VIII, §807, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1456, provided that:

"(a) Process.—Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 12, 2017], the Secretary of Defense shall establish a process for enhancing scrutiny of acquisition decisions in order to improve the integration of supply chain risk management into the overall acquisition decision cycle.

"(b) Elements.—The process under subsection (a) shall include the following elements:

"(1) Designation of a senior official responsible for overseeing the development and implementation of the process.

"(2) Development or integration of tools to support commercial due-diligence, business intelligence, or otherwise analyze and monitor commercial activity to understand business relationships with entities determined to be threats to the United States.

"(3) Development of risk profiles of products or services based on commercial due-diligence tools and data services.

"(4) Development of education and training curricula for the acquisition workforce that supports the process.

"(5) Integration, as needed, with intelligence sources to develop threat profiles of entities determined to be threats to the United States.

"(6) Periodic review and assessment of software products and services on computer networks of the Department of Defense to remove prohibited products or services.

"(7) Synchronization of the use of current authorities for making supply chain decisions, including section 806 of Public Law 111–383 (10 U.S.C. 2304 note) or improved use of suspension and debarment officials.

"(8) Coordination with interagency, industrial, and international partners, as appropriate, to share information, develop Government-wide strategies for dealing with significant entities determined to be significant threats to the United States, and effectively use authorities in other departments and agencies to provide consistent, Government-wide approaches to supply chain threats.

"(9) Other matters as the Secretary considers necessary.

"(c) Notification.—Not later than 90 days after establishing the process required by subsection (a), the Secretary shall provide a written notification to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives that the process has been established. The notification also shall include the following:

"(1) Identification of the official designated under subsection (b)(1).

"(2) Identification of tools and services currently available to the Department of Defense under subsection (b)(2).

"(3) Assessment of additional tools and services available under subsection (b)(2) that the Department of Defense should evaluate.

"(4) Identification of, or recommendations for, any statutory changes needed to improve the effectiveness of the process.

"(5) Projected resource needs for implementing any recommendations made by the Secretary."

Prototype Projects To Digitize Defense Acquisition Regulations, Policies, and Guidance, and Empower User Tailoring of Acquisition Process

Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title VIII, §868, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1495, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Secretary of Defense, acting through the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering, shall conduct development efforts to develop prototypes to digitize defense acquisition regulations, policies, and guidance and to develop a digital decision support tool that facilitates the ability of users to tailor programs in accordance with existing laws, regulations, and guidance.

"(b) Elements.—Under the prototype projects, the Secretary shall—

"(1) convert existing acquisition policies, guides, memos, templates, and reports to an online, interactive digital format to create a dynamic, integrated, and authoritative knowledge environment for purposes of assisting program managers and the acquisition workforce of the Department of Defense to navigate the complex lifecycle for each major type of acquisition program or activity of the Department;

"(2) as part of this digital environment, create a digital decision support capability that uses decision trees and tailored acquisition models to assist users to develop strategies and facilitate coordination and approvals; and

"(3) as part of this environment, establish a foundational data layer to enable advanced data analytics on the acquisition enterprise of the Department, to include business process reengineering to improve productivity.

"(c) Use of Prototypes in Acquisition Activities.—The Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering shall encourage the use of these prototypes to model, develop, and test any procedures, policies, instructions, or other forms of direction and guidance that may be required to support acquisition training, practices, and policies of the Department of Defense.

"(d) Funding.—The Secretary may use the authority under section 1705(e)(4)(B) of title 10, United States Code, to develop acquisition support prototypes and tools under this program."

Software Development Pilot Program Using Agile Best Practices

Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title VIII, §874, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1500, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 12, 2017], the Secretary of Defense shall identify no fewer than four and up to eight software development activities within the Department of Defense or military departments to be developed in a pilot program using agile acquisition methods.

"(b) Streamlined Processes.—Software development activities identified under subsection (a) shall be selected for the pilot program and developed without incorporation of the following contract or transaction requirements:

"(1) Earned value management (EVM) or EVM-like reporting.

"(2) Development of integrated master schedule.

"(3) Development of integrated master plan.

"(4) Development of technical requirement document.

"(5) Development of systems requirement documents.

"(6) Use of information technology infrastructure library agreements.

"(7) Use of software development life cycle (methodology).

"(c) Roles and Responsibilities.—

"(1) In general.—Selected activities shall include the following roles and responsibilities:

"(A) A program manager that is authorized to make all programmatic decisions within the overarching activity objectives, including resources, funding, personnel, and contract or transaction termination recommendations.

"(B) A product owner that reports directly to the program manager and is responsible for the overall design of the product, prioritization of roadmap elements and interpretation of their acceptance criteria, and prioritization of the list of all features desired in the product.

"(C) An engineering lead that reports directly to the program manager and is responsible for the implementation and operation of the software.

"(D) A design lead that reports directly to the program manager and is responsible for identifying, communicating, and visualizing user needs through a human-centered design process.

"(2) Qualifications.—The Secretary shall establish qualifications for personnel filling the positions described in paragraph (1) prior to their selection. The qualifications may not include a positive education requirement and must be based on technical expertise or experience in delivery of software products, including agile concepts.

"(3) Coordination plan for testing and certification organizations.—The program manager shall ensure the availability of resources for test and certification organizations support of iterative development processes.

"(d) Plan.—The Secretary of Defense shall develop a plan for each selected activity under the pilot program. The plan shall include the following elements:

"(1) Definition of a product vision, identifying a succinct, clearly defined need the software will address.

"(2) Definition of a product road map, outlining a noncontractual plan that identifies short-term and long-term product goals and specific technology solutions to help meet those goals and adjusts to mission and user needs at the product owner's discretion.

"(3) The use of a broad agency announcement, other transaction authority, or other rapid merit-based solicitation procedure.

"(4) Identification of, and continuous engagement with, end users.

"(5) Frequent and iterative end user validation of features and usability consistent with the principles outlined in the Digital Services Playbook of the U.S. Digital Service.

"(6) Use of commercial best practices for advanced computing systems, including, where applicable—

"(A) Automated testing, integration, and deployment;

"(B) compliance with applicable commercial accessibility standards;

"(C) capability to support modern versions of multiple, common web browsers;

"(D) capability to be viewable across commonly used end user devices, including mobile devices; and

"(E) built-in application monitoring.

"(e) Program Schedule.—The Secretary shall ensure that each selected activity includes—

"(1) award processes that take no longer than three months after a requirement is identified;

"(2) planned frequent and iterative end user validation of implemented features and their usability;

"(3) delivery of a functional prototype or minimally viable product in three months or less from award; and

"(4) follow-on delivery of iterative development cycles no longer than four weeks apart, including security testing and configuration management as applicable.

"(f) Oversight Metrics.—The Secretary shall ensure that the selected activities—

"(1) use a modern tracking tool to execute requirements backlog tracking; and

"(2) use agile development metrics that, at a minimum, track—

"(A) pace of work accomplishment;

"(B) completeness of scope of testing activities (such as code coverage, fault tolerance, and boundary testing);

"(C) product quality attributes (such as major and minor defects and measures of key performance attributes and quality attributes);

"(D) delivery progress relative to the current product roadmap; and

"(E) goals for each iteration.

"(g) Restrictions.—

"(1) Use of funds.—No funds made available for the selected activities may be expended on estimation or evaluation using source lines of code methodologies.

"(2) Contract types.—The Secretary of Defense may not use lowest price technically acceptable contracting methods or cost plus contracts to carry out selected activities under this section, and shall encourage the use of existing streamlined and flexible contracting arrangements.

"(h) Reports.—

"(1) Software development activity commencement.—

"(A) In general.—Not later than 30 days before the commencement of a software development activity under the pilot program under subsection (a), the Secretary shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a report on the activity (in this subsection referred to as a 'pilot activity').

"(B) Elements.—The report on a pilot activity under this paragraph shall set forth a description of the pilot activity, including the following information:

"(i) The purpose of the pilot activity.

"(ii) The duration of the pilot activity.

"(iii) The efficiencies and benefits anticipated to accrue to the Government under the pilot program.

"(2) Software development activity completion.—

"(A) In general.—Not later than 60 days after the completion of a pilot activity, the Secretary shall submit to the congressional defense committees a report on the pilot activity.

"(B) Elements.—The report on a pilot activity under this paragraph shall include the following elements:

"(i) A description of results of the pilot activity.

"(ii) Such recommendations for legislative or administrative action as the Secretary considers appropriate in light of the pilot activity.

"(i) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) Agile acquisition.—The term 'agile acquisition' means acquisition using agile or iterative development.

"(2) Agile or iterative development.—The term 'agile or iterative development', with respect to software—

"(A) means acquisition pursuant to a method for delivering multiple, rapid, incremental capabilities to the user for operational use, evaluation, and feedback not exclusively linked to any single, proprietary method or process; and

"(B) involves—

"(i) the incremental development and fielding of capabilities, commonly called 'spirals', 'spins', or 'sprints', which can be measured in a few weeks or months; and

"(ii) continuous participation and collaboration by users, testers, and requirements authorities."

Development of Procurement Administrative Lead Time

Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title VIII, §886, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1505, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 12, 2017], the Secretary of Defense shall develop, make available for public comment, and finalize—

"(1) a definition of the term 'Procurement Administrative Lead Time' or 'PALT', to be applied Department of Defense-wide, that describes the amount of time from the date on which a solicitation is issued to the date of an initial award of a contract or task order of the Department of Defense; and

"(2) a plan for measuring and publicly reporting data on PALT for Department of Defense contracts and task orders above the simplified acquisition threshold.

"(b) Requirement for Definition.—Unless the Secretary determines otherwise, the amount of time in the definition of PALT developed under subsection (a) shall—

"(1) begin on the date on which the initial solicitation is issued for a contract or task order of the Department of Defense by the Secretary of a military department or head of a Defense Agency; and

"(2) end on the date of the award of the contract or task order.

"(c) Coordination.—In developing the definition of PALT, the Secretary shall coordinate with—

"(1) the senior contracting official of each military department and Defense Agency to determine the variations of the definition in use across the Department of Defense and each military department and Defense Agency; and

"(2) the Administrator of the General Services Administration on modifying the existing data system of the Federal Government to determine the date on which the initial solicitation is issued.

"(d) Use of Existing Procurement Data Systems.—In developing the plan for measuring and publicly reporting data on PALT required by subsection (a), the Secretary shall, to the maximum extent practicable, rely on the information contained in the Federal procurement data system established pursuant to section 1122(a)(4) of title 41, United States Code, including any modifications to that system."

Establishment of Set of Activities That Use Data Analysis, Measurement, and Other Evaluation-Related Methods To Improve Acquisition Program Outcomes

Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title IX, §913, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1523, as amended by Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title X, §1081(c)(2), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1985, provided that:

"(a) Establishment Required.—Not later than one year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 12, 2017], the Secretary of Defense shall establish a set of activities that use data analysis, measurement, and other evaluation-related methods to improve the acquisition outcomes of the Department of Defense and enhance organizational learning.

"(b) Types of Activities.—The set of activities established under subsection (a) may include any or all of the following:

"(1) Establishment of data analytics capabilities and organizations within an Armed Force.

"(2) Development of capabilities in Department of Defense laboratories, test centers, and federally funded research and development centers to provide technical support for data analytics activities that support acquisition program management and business process re-engineering activities.

"(3) Increased use of existing analytical capabilities available to acquisition programs and offices to support improved acquisition outcomes.

"(4) Funding of intramural and extramural research and development activities to develop and implement data analytics capabilities in support of improved acquisition outcomes.

"(5) Publication, to the maximum extent practicable, and in a manner that protects classified and proprietary information, of data collected by the Department of Defense related to acquisition program costs and activities for access and analyses by the general public or Department research and education organizations.

"(6) Promulgation by the Chief of Staff of the Army, the Chief of Naval Operations, the Chief of Staff of the Air Force, and the Commandant of the Marine Corps, in coordination with the Deputy Secretary of Defense, the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering, and the Under Secretary for Acquisition and Sustainment, of a consistent policy as to the role of data analytics in establishing budgets and making milestone decisions for major defense acquisition programs.

"(7) Continual assessment, in consultation with the private sector, of the efficiency of current data collection and analyses processes, so as to minimize the requirement for collection and delivery of data by, from, and to Government organizations.

"(8) Promulgation of guidance to acquisition programs and activities on the efficient use, quality, and sharing of enterprise data between programs and organizations to improve acquisition program analytics and outcomes.

"(9) Establishment of focused research and educational activities at the Defense Acquisition University, and appropriate private sector academic institutions, to support enhanced use of data management, data analytics, and other evaluation-related methods to improve acquisition outcomes."

[Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title X, §1081(c), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1985, provided that the amendment made by section 1081(c)(2) to section 913 of Pub. L. 115–91, set out above, is effective as of Dec. 12, 2017, and as if included in Pub. L. 115–91 as enacted.]

Requirements Relating to Multi-Use Sensitive Compartmented Information Facilities

Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title XVI, §1628, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1735, provided that:

"(a) In General.—In order to facilitate access for small business concerns and nontraditional defense contractors to affordable secure spaces, the Secretary of Defense, in consultation with the Director of National Intelligence, shall develop processes and procedures necessary to build, certify, and maintain certifications for multi-use sensitive compartmented information facilities not tied to a single contract and where multiple companies can securely work on multiple projects at different security levels.

"(b) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) The term 'small business concern' has the meaning given that term under section 3 of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 632).

"(2) The term 'nontraditional defense contractors' has the meaning given that term in section 2302 of title 10, United States Code."

Pilot Program on Enhancing Information Sharing for Security of Supply Chain

Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title XVI, §1696, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1793, provided that:

"(a) Establishment.—Not later than June 1, 2019, the Secretary of Defense shall establish a pilot program to enhance information sharing with cleared defense contractors to ensure all source information is appropriately, singularly, and exclusively shared for the purpose of ensuring the security or integrity of the supply chain of covered programs.

"(b) Selection.—The Secretary shall select not more than 10 acquisition or sustainment programs of the Department of Defense to participate in the pilot program under subsection (a), of which—

"(1) not fewer than one program shall be related to nuclear weapons;

"(2) not fewer than one program shall be related to nuclear command, control, and communications;

"(3) not fewer than one program shall be related to continuity of government;

"(4) not fewer than one program shall be related to ballistic missile defense;

"(5) not fewer than one program shall be related to other command and control systems; and

"(6) not fewer than one program shall be related to space systems.

"(c) Report.—Not later than March 1, 2018, the Secretary shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a report that includes—

"(1) details on how the Secretary will establish the pilot program under subsection (a) to ensure all source information is appropriately, singularly, and exclusively shared for the purpose of ensuring the security or integrity of the supply chain of covered programs;

"(2) details of any personnel, funding, or statutory constraints in carrying out the pilot program; and

"(3) the identification of any legislative action or administrative action required to provide the Secretary with specific additional authorities required to fully implement the pilot program.

"(d) Cleared Defense Contractors Defined.—In this section, the term 'cleared defense contractors' means contractors of the Department of Defense who have a security clearance, including contractor facilities that have a security clearance."

Use of Commercial Items in Distributed Common Ground Systems

Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title XVI, §1698, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1794, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The procurement process for each covered Distributed Common Ground System shall be carried out in accordance with section 2377 of title 10, United States Code.

"(b) Certification.—Not later than 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 12, 2017], the service acquisition executive responsible for each covered Distributed Common Ground System shall certify to the appropriate congressional committees that the procurement process for increments of the system procured after the date of the enactment of this Act will be carried out in accordance with section 2377 of title 10, United States Code.

"(c) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) The term 'appropriate congressional committees' means—

"(A) the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives]; and

"(B) the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives.

"(2) The term 'covered Distributed Common Ground System' includes the following:

"(A) The Distributed Common Ground System of the Army.

"(B) The Distributed Common Ground System of the Navy.

"(C) The Distributed Common Ground System of the Marine Corps.

"(D) The Distributed Common Ground System of the Air Force.

"(E) The Distributed Common Ground System of the Special Operations Forces."

Strategy for Assured Access to Trusted Microelectronics

Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title II, §231, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2059, provided that:

"(a) Strategy.—The Secretary of Defense shall develop a strategy to ensure that the Department of Defense has assured access to trusted microelectronics by not later than September 30, 2019.

"(b) Elements.—The strategy under subsection (a) shall include the following:

"(1) Definitions of the various levels of trust required by classes of Department of Defense systems.

"(2) Means of classifying systems of the Department of Defense based on the level of trust such systems are required to maintain with respect to microelectronics.

"(3) Means by which trust in microelectronics can be assured.

"(4) Means to increase the supplier base for assured microelectronics to ensure multiple supply pathways.

"(5) An assessment of the microelectronics needs of the Department of Defense in future years, including the need for trusted, radiation-hardened microelectronics.

"(6) An assessment of the microelectronic needs of the Department of Defense that may not be fulfilled by entities outside the Department of Defense.

"(7) The resources required to assure access to trusted microelectronics, including infrastructure, workforce, and investments in science and technology.

"(8) A research and development strategy to ensure that the Department of Defense can, to the maximum extent practicable, use state of the art commercial microelectronics capabilities or their equivalent, while satisfying the needs for trust.

"(9) Recommendations for changes in authorities, regulations, and practices, including acquisition policies, financial management, public-private partnership policies, or in any other relevant areas, that would support the achievement of the goals of the strategy.

"(c) Submission and Updates.—(1) Not later than one year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 23, 2016], the Secretary shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] the strategy developed under subsection (a). The strategy shall be submitted in unclassified form, but may include a classified annex.

"(2) Not later than two years after submitting the strategy under paragraph (1) and not less frequently than once every two years thereafter until September 30, 2024, the Secretary shall update the strategy as the Secretary considers appropriate to support Department of Defense missions.

"(d) Directive Required.—Not later than September 30, 2019, the Secretary of Defense shall issue a directive for the Department of Defense describing how Department of Defense entities may access assured and trusted microelectronics supply chains for Department of Defense systems.

"(e) Report and Certification.—Not later than September 30, 2020, the Secretary of the Defense shall submit to the congressional defense committees—

"(1) a report on—

"(A) the status of the implementation of the strategy developed under subsection (a);

"(B) the actions being taken to achieve full implementation of such strategy, and a timeline for such implementation; and

"(C) the status of the implementation of the directive required by subsection (d); and

"(2) a certification of whether the Department of Defense has an assured means for accessing a sufficient supply of trusted microelectronics, as required by the strategy developed under subsection (a).

"(f) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) The term 'assured' refers, with respect to microelectronics, to the ability of the Department of Defense to guarantee availability of microelectronics parts at the necessary volumes and with the performance characteristics required to meet the needs of the Department of Defense.

"(2) The terms 'trust' and 'trusted' refer, with respect to microelectronics, to the ability of the Department of Defense to have confidence that the microelectronics function as intended and are free of exploitable vulnerabilities, either intentionally or unintentionally designed or inserted as part of the system at any time during its life cycle."

Utility Data Management for Military Facilities

Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title III, §313, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2073, provided that:

"(a) Pilot Program.—The Secretary of Defense, in consultation with the Secretary of Energy, may carry out a pilot program to investigate the use of utility data management services to perform utility bill aggregation, analysis, third-party payment, storage, and distribution for the Department of Defense.

"(b) Use of Funds.—Of the funds authorized to be appropriated by this Act [see Tables for classification] or otherwise made available for fiscal year 2017 for operation and maintenance, Navy, for enterprise information, not more than $250,000 may be obligated or expended to carry out the pilot program under subsection (a)."

Procurement of Personal Protective Equipment

Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title VIII, §814(a), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2271, as amended by Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title VIII, §882, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1504, provided that:

"(a) Limitation.—Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 23, 2016], the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement shall be revised—

"(1) to prohibit the use by the Department of Defense of reverse auctions or lowest price technically acceptable contracting methods for the procurement of personal protective equipment or an aviation critical safety item (as defined in section 2319(g) of this title [probably means section 2319(g) of title 10, United States Code]) if the level of quality or failure of the equipment or item could result in combat casualties; and

"(2) to establish a preference for the use of best value contracting methods for the procurement of such equipment or item."

Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title VIII, §884, Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 948, which required the Secretary of Defense to ensure that the Secretaries of the Army, Navy, and Air Force, in procuring an item of personal protective equipment or a critical safety item, use source selection criteria that were predominately based on technical qualifications of the item and not predominately based on price to the maximum extent practicable if the level of quality or failure of the item could result in death or severe bodily harm to the user, as determined by the Secretaries, was repealed by Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title VIII, §814(b), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2271.

Contract Closeout Authority

Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title VIII, §836, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2285, as amended by Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title VIII, §824, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1465, provided that:

"(a) Authority.—The Secretary of Defense may close out a contract or group of contracts as described in subsection (b) through the issuance of one or more modifications to such contracts without completing a reconciliation audit or other corrective action. To accomplish closeout of such contracts—

"(1) remaining contract balances may be offset with balances in other contract line items within a contract regardless of the year or type of appropriation obligated to fund each contract line item and regardless of whether the appropriation for such contract line item has closed; and

"(2) remaining contract balances may be offset with balances on other contracts regardless of the year or type of appropriation obligated to fund each contract and regardless of whether the appropriation has closed.

"(b) Covered Contracts.—This section covers any contract or group of contracts between the Department of Defense and a defense contractor, each one of which—

"(1) was entered into on a date that is at least 17 fiscal years before the current fiscal year;

"(2) has no further supplies or services deliverables due under the terms and conditions of the contract; and

"(3) is determined by the Secretary of Defense to be not otherwise reconcilable because—

"(A) the records have been destroyed or lost; or

"(B) the records are available but the Secretary of Defense has determined that the time or effort required to determine the exact amount owed to the United States Government or amount owed to the contractor is disproportionate to the amount at issue.

"(c) Negotiated Settlement Authority.—Any contract or group of contracts covered by this section may be closed out through a negotiated settlement with the contractor.

"(d) Waiver Authority.—

"(1) In general.—The Secretary of Defense is authorized to waive any provision of acquisition law or regulation to carry out the authority under subsection (a).

"(2) Notification requirement.—The Secretary of Defense shall notify the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] not later than 10 days after exercising the authority under subsection (d). The notice shall include an identification of each provision of law or regulation waived.

"(e) Adjustment and Closure of Records.—After closeout of any contract described in subsection (b) using the authority under this section, the payment or accounting offices concerned may adjust and close any open finance and accounting records relating to the contract.

"(f) No Liability.—No liability shall attach to any accounting, certifying, or payment official, or any contracting officer, for any adjustments or closeout made pursuant to the authority under this section.

"(g) Regulations.—The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe regulations for the administration of the authority under this section."

Key Performance Parameter Reduction Pilot Program

Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title VIII, §854, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2297, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Secretary of Defense may carry out a pilot program under which the Secretary may identify at least one acquisition program in each military department for reduction of the total number of key performance parameters established for the program, for purposes of determining whether operational and programmatic outcomes of the program are improved by such reduction.

"(b) Limitation on Key Performance Parameters.—Any acquisition program identified for the pilot program carried out under subsection (a) shall establish no more than three key performance parameters, each of which shall describe a program-specific performance attribute. Any key performance parameters for such a program that are required by statute shall be treated as key system attributes."

Defense Pilot Program for Authority To Acquire Innovative Commercial Items, Technologies, and Services Using General Solicitation Competitive Procedures

Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title VIII, §879, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2312, as amended by Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §836(f)(9), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1872, provided that:

"(a) Authority.—The Secretary of Defense and the Secretaries of the military departments may carry out a pilot program, to be known as the 'defense commercial solutions opening pilot program', under which the Secretary may acquire innovative commercial items, technologies, and services through a competitive selection of proposals resulting from a general solicitation and the peer review of such proposals.

"(b) Treatment as Competitive Procedures.—Use of general solicitation competitive procedures for the pilot program under subsection (a) shall be considered to be use of competitive procedures for purposes of chapter 137 of title 10, United States Code.

"(c) Limitations.—

"(1) In general.—The Secretary may not enter into a contract or agreement under the pilot program for an amount in excess of $100,000,000 without a written determination from the Under Secretary for Acquisition, Logistics, and Technology or the relevant service acquisition executive of the efficacy of the effort to meet mission needs of the Department of Defense or the relevant military department.

"(2) Fixed-price requirement.—Contracts or agreements entered into under the program shall be fixed-price, including fixed-price incentive fee contracts.

"(3) Treatment as commercial items.—Notwithstanding section 2376(1) of title 10, United States Code, items, technologies, and services acquired under the pilot program shall be treated as commercial items.

"(d) Guidance.—Not later than six months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 23, 2016], the Secretary shall issue guidance for the implementation of the pilot program under this section within the Department of Defense. Such guidance shall be issued in consultation with the Director of the Office of Management and Budget and shall be posted for access by the public.

"(e) Congressional Notification Required.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than 45 days after the award of a contract for an amount exceeding $100,000,000 using the authority in subsection (a), the Secretary of Defense shall notify the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] of such award.

"(2) Elements.—Notice of an award under paragraph (1) shall include the following:

"(A) Description of the innovative commercial item, technology, or service acquired.

"(B) Description of the requirement, capability gap, or potential technological advancement with respect to which the innovative commercial item, technology, or service acquired provides a solution or a potential new capability.

"(C) Amount of the contract awarded.

"(D) Identification of contractor awarded the contract.

"(f) Definition.—In this section, the term 'innovative' means—

"(1) any technology, process, or method, including research and development, that is new as of the date of submission of a proposal; or

"(2) any application that is new as of the date of submission of a proposal of a technology, process, or method existing as of such date.

"(g) Sunset.—The authority to enter into contracts under the pilot program shall expire on September 30, 2022."

[Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §836(f)(9), (h), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1872, 1874, provided that, effective Jan. 1, 2020, subject to a savings provision, section 879 of Pub. L. 114–328, set out above, is amended:

[(1) in the section heading, by striking "Commercial Items" and inserting "Commercial Products";

[(2) in subsection (a), by striking "commercial items" and inserting "commercial products";

[(3) in subsection (c)(3), by striking "commercial items" and inserting "commercial products or commercial services" in heading and text; and

[(4) in subsection (e)(2)(A), (B), by striking "item" and inserting "products".]

Pilot Program for Distribution Support and Services for Weapon Systems Contractors

Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title VIII, §883, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2316, provided that:

"(a) Authority.—The Secretary of Defense may carry out a six-year pilot program under which the Secretary may make available storage and distribution services support to a contractor in support of the performance by the contractor of a contract for the production, modification, maintenance, or repair of a weapon system that is entered into by the Department of Defense.

"(b) Support Contracts.—

"(1) In general.—Any storage and distribution services to be provided under the pilot program under this section to a contractor in support of the performance of a contract described in subsection (a) shall be provided under a separate contract that is entered into by the Director of the Defense Logistics Agency with that contractor. The requirements of section 2208(h) of title 10, United States Code, and the regulations prescribed pursuant to such section shall apply to any such separate support contract between the Director of the Defense Logistics Agency and the contractor.

"(2) Limitation.—Not more than five support contracts between the Director and the contractor may be awarded under the pilot program.

"(c) Scope of Support and Services.—The storage and distribution support services that may be provided under this section in support of the performance of a contract described in subsection (a) are storage and distribution of materiel and repair parts necessary for the performance of that contract.

"(d) Regulations.—Before exercising the authority under the pilot program under this section, the Secretary of Defense shall prescribe in regulations such requirements, conditions, and restrictions as the Secretary determines appropriate to ensure that storage and distribution services are provided under the pilot program only when it is in the best interests of the United States to do so. The regulations shall include, at a minimum, the following:

"(1) A requirement for the solicitation of offers for a contract described in subsection (a), for which storage and distribution services are to be made available under the pilot program, including—

"(A) a statement that the storage and distribution services are to be made available under the authority of the pilot program under this section to any contractor awarded the contract, but only on a basis that does not require acceptance of the support and services; and

"(B) a description of the range of the storage and distribution services that are to be made available to the contractor.

"(2) A requirement for the rates charged a contractor for storage and distribution services provided to a contractor under the pilot program to reflect the full cost to the United States of the resources used in providing the support and services, including the costs of resources used, but not paid for, by the Department of Defense.

"(3) With respect to a contract described in subsection (a) that is being performed for a department or agency outside the Department of Defense, a prohibition, in accordance with applicable contracting procedures, on the imposition of any charge on that department or agency for any effort of Department of Defense personnel or the contractor to correct deficiencies in the performance of such contract.

"(4) A prohibition on the imposition of any charge on a contractor for any effort of the contractor to correct a deficiency in the performance of storage and distribution services provided to the contractor under this section.

"(5) A requirement that storage and distribution services provided under the pilot program may not interfere with the mission of the Defense Logistics Agency or of any military department involved with the pilot program.

"(6) A requirement that any support contract for storage and distribution services entered into under the pilot program shall include a clause to indemnify the Government against any failure by the contractor to perform the support contract, and to remain responsible for performance of the primary contract.

"(e) Relationship to Treaty Obligations.—The Secretary shall ensure that the exercise of authority under the pilot program under this section does not conflict with any obligation of the United States under any treaty or other international agreement.

"(f) Reports.—

"(1) Secretary of defense.—Not later than the end of the fourth year of operation of the pilot program, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives a report describing—

"(A) the cost effectiveness for both the Government and industry of the pilot program; and

"(B) how support contracts under the pilot program affected meeting the requirements of primary contracts.

"(2) Comptroller general.—Not later than the end of the fifth year of operation of the pilot program, the Comptroller General of the United States shall review the report of the Secretary under paragraph (1) for sufficiency and provide such recommendations in a report to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives as the Comptroller General considers appropriate.

"(g) Sunset.—The authority to enter into contracts under the pilot program shall expire six years after the date of the enactment of this Act. Any contracts entered into before such date shall continue in effect according to their terms."

Nontraditional and Small Contractor Innovation Prototyping Program

Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title VIII, §884, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2318, as amended by Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title VIII, §865, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1495, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Secretary of Defense shall conduct a pilot program for nontraditional defense contractors and small business concerns to design, develop, and demonstrate innovative prototype military platforms of significant scope for the purpose of demonstrating new capabilities that could provide alternatives to existing acquisition programs and assets. The Secretary shall establish the pilot program within the Departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force, the Missile Defense Agency, and the United States Special Operations Command.

"(b) Funding.—There is authorized to be made available $250,000,000 from the Rapid Prototyping Fund established under section 804(d) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016 (Public Law 114–92; 10 U.S.C. 2302 note) to carry out the pilot program.

"(c) Plan.—

"(1) In general.—The Secretary of Defense shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives], concurrent with the budget for the Department of Defense for fiscal year 2018, as submitted to Congress pursuant to section 1105 of title 31, United States Code, a plan to fund and carry out the pilot program in future years.

"(2) Elements.—The plan submitted under paragraph (1) shall consider maximizing use of—

"(A) broad agency announcements or other merit-based selection procedures;

"(B) the Department of Defense Acquisition Challenge Program authorized under section 2359b of title 10, United States Code;

"(C) the foreign comparative test program;

"(D) projects carried out under the Rapid Innovation Program of the Department of Defense or pursuant to a Phase III agreement (as defined in section 9(r)(2) of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 638(r)(2))); and

"(E) streamlined procedures for acquisition provided under section 804 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016 (Public Law 114–92; 10 U.S.C. 2302 note) and procedures for alternative acquisition pathways established under section 805 of such Act (10 U.S.C. 2302 note).

"(d) Programs To Be Included.—As part of the pilot program, the Secretary of Defense shall allocate up to $50,000,000 on a fixed price contractual basis for fiscal year 2017 or pursuant to the plan submitted under subsection (c) for demonstrations of the following capabilities:

"(1) Swarming of multiple unmanned air vehicles.

"(2) Unmanned, modular fixed-wing aircraft that can be rapidly adapted to multiple missions and serve as a fifth generation weapons augmentation platform.

"(3) Vertical takeoff and landing tiltrotor aircraft.

"(4) Integration of a directed energy weapon on an air, sea, or ground platform.

"(5) Swarming of multiple unmanned underwater vehicles.

"(6) Commercial small synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellites with on-board machine learning for automated, real-time feature extraction and predictive analytics.

"(7) Active protection system to defend against rocket-propelled grenades and anti-tank missiles.

"(8) Defense against hypersonic weapons, including sensors.

"(9) Unmanned ground logistics and unmanned air logistics capabilities enhancement.

"(10) Other systems as designated by the Secretary.

"(e) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) Nontraditional defense contractor.—The term 'nontraditional defense contractor' has the meaning given the term in section 2302(9) of title 10, United States Code.

"(2) Small business concern.—The term 'small business concern' has the meaning given the term in section 3 of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 632).

"(f) Sunset.—The authority under this section expires at the close of September 30, 2026."

Establishment of Panel on Department of Defense and AbilityOne Contracting Oversight, Accountability, and Integrity; Defense Acquisition University Training

Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title VIII, §898, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2327, provided that:

"(a) Establishment of Panel on Department of Defense and AbilityOne Contracting Oversight, Accountability, and Integrity.—

"(1) In general.—The Secretary of Defense shall establish a panel to be known as the 'Panel on Department of Defense and AbilityOne Contracting Oversight, Accountability, and Integrity' (hereafter in this section referred to as the 'Panel'). The Panel shall be supported by the Defense Acquisition University, established under section 1746 of title 10, United States Code, and the National Defense University, including administrative support.

"(2) Composition.—The Panel shall be composed of the following:

"(A) A representative of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, who shall be the chairman of the Panel.

"(B) A representative from the AbilityOne Commission.

"(C) A representative of the service acquisition executive of each military department and Defense Agency (as such terms are defined, respectively, in section 101 of title 10, United States Code).

"(D) A representative of the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller).

"(E) A representative of the Inspector General of the Department of Defense and the AbilityOne Commission.

"(F) A representative from each of the Army Audit Agency, the Navy Audit Service, the Air Force Audit Agency, and the Defense Contract Audit Agency.

"(G) The President of the Defense Acquisition University, or a designated representative.

"(H) One or more subject matter experts on veterans employment from a veterans service organization.

"(I) A representative of the Commission Directorate of Veteran Employment of the AbilityOne Commission whose duties include maximizing opportunities to employ significantly disabled veterans in accordance with the regulations of the AbilityOne Commission.

"(J) One or more representatives from the Department of Justice who are subject matter experts on compliance with disability rights laws applicable to contracts of the Department of Defense and the AbilityOne Commission.

"(K) One or more representatives from the Department of Justice who are subject matter experts on Department of Defense contracts, Federal Prison Industries, and the requirements of the Javits-Wagner-O'Day Act [see 41 U.S.C. 8501 et seq.].

"(L) Such other representatives as may be determined appropriate by the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics.

"(b) Meetings.—The Panel shall meet as determined necessary by the chairman of the Panel, but not less often than once every three months.

"(c) Duties.—The Panel shall—

"(1) review the status of and progress relating to the implementation of the recommendations of report number DODIG–2016–097 of the Inspector General of the Department of Defense titled 'DoD Generally Provided Effective Oversight of AbilityOne Contracts', published on June 17, 2016;

"(2) recommend actions the Department of Defense and the AbilityOne Commission may take to eliminate waste, fraud, and abuse with respect to contracts of the Department of Defense and the AbilityOne Commission;

"(3) recommend actions the Department of Defense and the AbilityOne Commission may take to ensure opportunities for the employment of significantly disabled veterans and the blind and other severely disabled individuals;

"(4) recommend changes to law, regulations, and policy that the Panel determines necessary to eliminate vulnerability to waste, fraud, and abuse with respect to the performance of contracts of the Department of Defense;

"(5) recommend criteria for veterans with disabilities to be eligible for employment opportunities through the programs of the AbilityOne Commission that considers the definitions of disability used by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs and the AbilityOne Commission;

"(6) recommend ways the Department of Defense and the AbilityOne Commission may explore opportunities for competition among qualified nonprofit agencies or central nonprofit agencies and ensure an equitable selection and allocation of work to qualified nonprofit agencies;

"(7) recommend changes to business practices, information systems, and training necessary to ensure that—

"(A) the AbilityOne Commission complies with regulatory requirements related to the establishment and maintenence of the procurement list established pursuant to section 8503 of title 41, United States Code; and

"(B) the Department of Defense complies with the statutory and regulatory requirements for use of such procurement list; and

"(8) any other duties determined necessary by the Secretary of Defense.

"(d) Consultation.—To carry out the duties described in subsection (c), the Panel may consult or contract with other executive agencies and with experts from qualified nonprofit agencies or central nonprofit agencies on—

"(1) compliance with disability rights laws applicable to contracts of the Department of Defense and the AbilityOne Commission;

"(2) employment of significantly disabled veterans; and

"(3) vocational rehabilitation.

"(e) Authority.—To carry out the duties described in subsection (c), the Panel may request documentation or other information needed from the AbilityOne Commission, central nonprofit agencies, and qualified nonprofit agencies.

"(f) Panel Recommendations and Milestone Dates.—

"(1) Milestone dates for implementing recommendations.—After consulting with central nonprofit agencies and qualified nonprofit agencies, the Panel shall suggest milestone dates for the implementation of the recommendations made under subsection (c) and shall notify the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives], the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate, qualified nonprofit agencies, and central nonprofit agencies of such dates.

"(2) Notification of implementation of recommendations.—After the establishment of milestone dates under paragraph (1), the Panel may review the activities, including contracts, of the AbilityOne Commission, the central nonprofit agencies, and the relevant qualified nonprofit agencies to determine if the recommendations made under subsection (c) are being substantially implemented in good faith by the AbilityOne Commission or such agencies. If the Panel determines that the AbilityOne Commission or any such agency is not implementing the recommendations, the Panel shall notify the Secretary of Defense, the congressional defense committees, the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate.

"(g) Remedies.—

"(1) In general.—Upon receiving notification under subsection (f)(2) and subject to the limitation in paragraph (2), the Secretary of Defense may take one of the following actions:

"(A) With respect to a notification relating to the AbilityOne Commission, the Secretary may suspend compliance with the requirement to procure a product or service in section 8504 of title 41, United States Code, until the date on which the Secretary notifies Congress, in writing, that the AbilityOne Commission is substantially implementing the recommendations made under subsection (c).

"(B) With respect to a notification relating to a qualified nonprofit agency, the Secretary may terminate a contract with such agency that is in existence on the date of receipt of such notification, or elect to not enter into a contract with such agency after such date, until the date on which the AbilityOne Commission certifies to the Secretary that such agency is substantially implementing the recommendations made under subsection (c).

"(C) With respect to a notification relating to a central nonprofit agency, the Secretary may include a term in a contract entered into after the date of receipt of such notification with a qualified nonprofit agency that is under such central nonprofit agency that states that such qualified nonprofit agency shall not pay a fee to such central nonprofit agency until the date on which the AbilityOne Commission certifies to the Secretary that such central nonprofit agency is substantially implementing the recommendations made under subsection (c).

"(2) Limitation.—If the Secretary of Defense takes any of the actions described in paragraph (1), the Secretary shall coordinate with the AbilityOne Commission or the relevant central nonprofit agency, as appropriate, to fully implement the recommendations made under subsection (c). On the date on which such recommendations are fully implemented, the Secretary shall notify Congress, in writing, and the Secretary's authority under paragraph (1) shall terminate.

"(h) Progress Reports.—

"(1) Consultation on recommendations.—Before submitting the progress report required under paragraph (2), the Panel shall consult with the AbilityOne Commission on draft recommendations made pursuant to subsection (c). The Panel shall include any recommendations of the AbilityOne Commission in the progress report submitted under paragraph (2).

"(2) Progress report.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 23, 2016], the Panel shall submit to the Secretary of Defense, the Chairman of the AbilityOne Commission, the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives], the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate a progress report on the activities of the Panel.

"(i) Annual Report.—

"(1) Consultation on report.—Before submitting the annual report required under paragraph (2), the Panel shall consult with the AbilityOne Commission on the contents of the report. The Panel shall include any recommendations of the AbilityOne Commission in the report submitted under paragraph (2).

"(2) Report.—Not later than September 30, 2017, and annually thereafter for the next three years, the Panel shall submit to the Secretary of Defense, the Chairman of the AbilityOne Commission, the congressional defense committees, the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate a report that includes—

"(A) a summary of findings and recommendations for the year covered by the report;

"(B) a summary of the progress of the relevant qualified nonprofit agencies or central nonprofit agencies in implementing recommendations of the previous year's report, if applicable;

"(C) an examination of the current structure of the AbilityOne Commission to eliminate waste, fraud, and abuse and to ensure contracting integrity and accountability for any violations of law or regulations;

"(D) recommendations for any changes to the acquisition and contracting practices of the Department of Defense and the AbilityOne Commission to improve the delivery of goods and services to the Department of Defense; and

"(E) recommendations for administrative safeguards to ensure the Department of Defense and the AbilityOne Commission are in compliance with the requirements of the Javits-Wagner-O'Day Act [see 41 U.S.C. 8501 et seq.], Federal civil rights law, and regulations and policy related to the performance of contracts of the Department of Defense with qualified nonprofit agencies and the contracts of the AbilityOne Commission with central nonprofit agencies.

"(j) Sunset.—The Panel shall terminate on the date of submission of the last annual report required under subsection (i).

"(k) Inapplicability of FACA.—The requirements of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) shall not apply to the Panel established pursuant to subsection (a).

"(l) Defense Acquisition University Training.—

"(1) In general.—The Secretary of Defense shall establish a training program at the Defense Acquisition University established under section 1746 of title 10, United States Code. Such training shall include—

"(A) information about—

"(i) the mission of the AbilityOne Commission;

"(ii) the employment of significantly disabled veterans through contracts from the procurement list maintained by the AbilityOne Commission;

"(iii) reasonable accommodations and accessibility requirements for the blind and other severely disabled individuals; and

"(iv) Executive orders and other subjects related to the blind and other severely disabled individuals, as determined by the Secretary of Defense; and

"(B) procurement, acquisition, program management, and other training specific to procuring goods and services for the Department of Defense pursuant to the Javits-Wagner-O'Day Act.

"(2) Acquisition workforce assignment.—Members of the acquisition workforce (as defined in section 101 of title 10, United States Code) who have participated in the training described in paragraph (1) are eligible for a detail to the AbilityOne Commission.

"(3) Abilityone commission assignment.—Career employees of the AbilityOne Commission may participate in the training program described in paragraph (1) on a non-reimbursable basis for up to three years and on a non-reimbursable or reimbursable basis thereafter.

"(4) Funding.—Amounts from the Department of Defense Acquisition Workforce Development Fund established under section 1705 of title 10, United States Code, are authorized for use for the detail of members of the acquisition workforce to the AbilityOne Commission.

"(m) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) The term 'AbilityOne Commission' means the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled established under section 8502 of title 41, United States Code.

"(2) The terms 'blind', 'qualified nonprofit agency for the blind', 'qualified nonprofit agency for other severely disabled', and 'severely disabled individual' have the meanings given such terms under section 8501 of such title.

"(3) The term 'central nonprofit agency' means a central nonprofit agency designated under section 8503(c) of such title.

"(4) The term 'executive agency' has the meaning given such term in section 133 of such title.

"(5) The term 'Javits-Wagner-O'Day Act' means chapter 85 of such title.

"(6) The term 'qualified nonprofit agency' means—

"(A) a qualified nonprofit agency for the blind; or

"(B) a qualified nonprofit agency for other severely disabled.

"(7) The term 'significantly disabled veteran' means a veteran (as defined in section 101 of title 38, United States Code) who is a severely disabled individual."

Enhanced Authority To Acquire Products and Services Produced in Africa in Support of Certain Activities

Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title VIII, §899A(a)–(e), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2336, 2337, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Except as provided in subsection (c), in the case of a product or service to be acquired in support of covered activities in a covered African country for which the Secretary of Defense makes a determination described in subsection (b), the Secretary may conduct a procurement in which—

"(1) competition is limited to products or services from the host nation;

"(2) a preference is provided for products or services from the host nation; or

"(3) a preference is provided for products or services from a covered African country, other than the host nation.

"(b) Determination.—

"(1) In general.—A determination described in this subsection is a determination by the Secretary of any of the following:

"(A) That the product or service concerned is to be used only in support of covered activities.

"(B) That it is in the national security interests of the United States to limit competition or provide a preference as described in subsection (a) because such limitation or preference is necessary—

"(i) to reduce overall United States transportation costs and risks in shipping products in support of operations, exercises, theater security cooperation activities, and other missions in the African region;

"(ii) to reduce delivery times in support of covered activities; or

"(iii) to promote regional security and stability in Africa.

"(C) That the product or service is of equivalent quality to a product or service that would have otherwise been acquired without such limitation or preference.

"(2) Requirement for effectiveness of any particular determination.—A determination under paragraph (1) shall not be effective for purposes of a limitation or preference under subsection (a) unless the Secretary also determines that—

"(A) the limitation or preference will not adversely affect—

"(i) United States military operations or stability operations in the African region; or

"(ii) the United States industrial base; and

"(B) in the case of air transportation, an air carrier holding a certificate under section 41102 of title 49, United States Code, is not reasonably available to provide the air transportation.

"(c) Inapplicability of Authority to Procurement of Items on Abilityone Procurement Catalog.—The authority under subsection (a) may not be used for the procurement of any good that is contained in the procurement list described in section 8503(a) of title 41, United States Code, if such good can be produced and delivered by a qualified non profit agency for the blind or a nonprofit agency for other severely disabled in a timely fashion to support mission requirements.

"(d) Report on Use of Authority.—Not later than December 31, 2017, the Secretary shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a report on the use of the authority in subsection (a). The report shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

"(1) The number of determinations made by the Secretary pursuant to subsection (b).

"(2) A list of the countries providing products or services as a result of determinations made pursuant to subsection (b).

"(3) A description of the products and services acquired using the authority.

"(4) The extent to which the use of the authority has met the one or more of the objectives specified in clause (i), (ii), or (iii) of subsection (b)(1)(B).

"(5) Such recommendations for improvements to the authority as the Secretary considers appropriate.

"(6) Such other matters as the Secretary considers appropriate.

"(e) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) Covered activities.—The term 'covered activities' means Department of Defense activities in the African region or a regional neighbor.

"(2) Covered african country.—The term 'covered African country' means a country in Africa that has signed a long-term agreement with the United States related to the basing or operational needs of the United States Armed Forces.

"(3) Host nation.—The term 'host nation' means a nation that allows the Armed Forces and supplies of the United States to be located on, to operate in, or to be transported through its territory.

"(4) Product or service of a covered african country.—The term 'product or service of a covered African country' means the following:

"(A) A product from a covered African country that is wholly grown, mined, manufactured, or produced in the covered African country.

"(B) A service from a covered African country that is performed by a person or entity that—

"(i) is properly licensed or registered by appropriate authorities of the covered African country; and

"(ii) as determined by the Chief of Mission concerned—

     "(I) is operating primarily in the covered African country; or

     "(II) is making a significant contribution to the economy of the covered African country through payment of taxes or use of products, materials, or labor that are primarily grown, mined, manufactured, produced, or sourced from the covered African country."

Middle Tier of Acquisition for Rapid Prototyping and Rapid Fielding

Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title VIII, §804, Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 882, as amended by Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title VIII, §§849(a), 864(b), 897, title X, §1081(c)(2), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2293, 2304, 2327, 2419; Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title VIII, §866, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1495, provided that:

"(a) Guidance Required.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 25, 2015], the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, in consultation with the Comptroller of the Department of Defense and the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, shall establish guidance for a 'middle tier' of acquisition programs that are intended to be completed in a period of two to five years.

"(b) Acquisition Pathways.—The guidance required by subsection (a) shall cover the following two acquisition pathways:

"(1) Rapid prototyping.—The rapid prototyping pathway shall provide for the use of innovative technologies to rapidly develop fieldable prototypes to demonstrate new capabilities and meet emerging military needs. The objective of an acquisition program under this pathway shall be to field a prototype that can be demonstrated in an operational environment and provide for a residual operational capability within five years of the development of an approved requirement.

"(2) Rapid fielding.—The rapid fielding pathway shall provide for the use of proven technologies to field production quantities of new or upgraded systems with minimal development required. The objective of an acquisition program under this pathway shall be to begin production within six months and complete fielding within five years of the development of an approved requirement.

"(c) Expedited Process.—

"(1) In general.—The guidance required by subsection (a) shall provide for a streamlined and coordinated requirements, budget, and acquisition process that results in the development of an approved requirement for each program in a period of not more than six months from the time that the process is initiated. Programs that are subject to the guidance shall not be subject to the Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System Manual and Department of Defense Directive 5000.01, except to the extent specifically provided in the guidance.

"(2) Rapid prototyping.—With respect to the rapid prototyping pathway, the guidance shall include—

"(A) a merit-based process for the consideration of innovative technologies and new capabilities to meet needs communicated by the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the combatant commanders;

"(B) a process for developing and implementing acquisition and funding strategies for the program;

"(C) a process for demonstrating and evaluating the performance of fieldable prototypes developed pursuant to the program in an operational environment; and

"(D) a process for transitioning successful prototypes to new or existing acquisition programs for production and fielding under the rapid fielding pathway or the traditional acquisition system.

"(3) Rapid fielding.—With respect to the rapid fielding pathway, the guidance shall include—

"(A) a merit-based process for the consideration of existing products and proven technologies to meet needs communicated by the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the combatant commanders;

"(B) a process for demonstrating performance and evaluating for current operational purposes the proposed products and technologies;

"(C) a process for developing and implementing acquisition and funding strategies for the program;

"(D) a process for considering lifecycle costs and addressing issues of logistics support and system interoperability; and

"(E) a process for identifying and exploiting opportunities to use the rapid fielding pathway to reduce total ownership costs.

"(4) Streamlined procedures.—The guidance for the programs may provide for any of the following streamlined procedures:

"(A) The service acquisition executive of the military department concerned shall appoint a program manager for such program from among candidates from among civilian employees or members of the Armed Forces who have significant and relevant experience managing large and complex programs.

"(B) The program manager for each program shall report with respect to such program directly, without intervening review or approval, to the service acquisition executive of the military department concerned.

"(C) The service acquisition executive of the military department concerned shall evaluate the job performance of such manager on an annual basis. In conducting an evaluation under this paragraph, a service acquisition executive shall consider the extent to which the manager has achieved the objectives of the program for which the manager is responsible, including quality, timeliness, and cost objectives.

"(D) The program manager of a defense streamlined program shall be authorized staff positions for a technical staff, including experts in business management, contracting, auditing, engineering, testing, and logistics, to enable the manager to manage the program without the technical assistance of another organizational unit of an agency to the maximum extent practicable.

"(E) The program manager of a defense streamlined program shall be authorized, in coordination with the users of the equipment and capability to be acquired and the test community, to make trade-offs among life-cycle costs, requirements, and schedules to meet the goals of the program.

"(F) The service acquisition executive, acting in coordination with the defense acquisition executive, shall serve as the milestone decision authority for the program.

"(G) The program manager of a defense streamlined program shall be provided a process to expeditiously seek a waiver from Congress from any statutory or regulatory requirement that the program manager determines adds little or no value to the management of the program.

"(d) Rapid Prototyping Funds.—

"(1)Department of defense rapid prototyping fund.—

"(A) In general.—The Secretary of Defense shall establish a fund to be known as the 'Department of Defense Rapid Prototyping Fund' to provide funds, in addition to other funds that may be available, for acquisition programs under the rapid prototyping pathway established pursuant to this section and other purposes specified in law. The Fund shall be managed by a senior official of the Department of Defense designated by the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics. The Fund shall consist of—

"(i) amounts appropriated to the Fund;

"(ii) amounts credited to the Fund pursuant to section 828 of this Act [set out as a note under section 2430 of this title]; and

"(iii) any other amounts appropriated to, credited to, or transferred to the Fund.

"(B) Transfer authority.—Amounts available in the Fund may be transferred to a military department for the purpose of carrying out an acquisition program under the rapid prototyping pathway established pursuant to this section. Any amount so transferred shall be credited to the account to which it is transferred. The transfer authority provided in this paragraph is in addition to any other transfer authority available to the Department of Defense.

"(C) Congressional notice.—The senior official designated to manage the Fund shall notify the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] of all transfers under paragraph (2) within 5 business days after such transfer. Each notification shall specify the amount transferred, the purpose of the transfer, and the total projected cost and estimated cost to complete the acquisition program to which the funds were transferred."

"(2) Rapid prototyping funds for the military departments.—The Secretary of each military department may establish a military department-specific fund (and, in the case of the Secretary of the Navy, including the Marine Corps) to provide funds, in addition to other funds that may be available to the military department concerned, for acquisition programs under the rapid fielding and prototyping pathways established pursuant to this section. Each military department-specific fund shall consist of amounts appropriated or credited to the fund.

[Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title X, §1081(c), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2419, provided that the amendment made by section 1081(c)(2) to section 804 of Pub. L. 114–92, set out above, is effective as of Nov. 25, 2015, and as if included in Pub. L. 114–92 as enacted.]

Use of Alternative Acquisition Paths To Acquire Critical National Security Capabilities

Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title VIII, §805, Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 885, as amended by Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title VIII, §849(b), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2293, provided that: "Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 25, 2015], the Secretary of Defense shall establish procedures for alternative acquisition pathways to acquire capital assets and services that meet critical national security needs. The procedures shall—

"(1) be separate from existing acquisition procedures;

"(2) be supported by streamlined contracting, budgeting, life-cycle cost management, and requirements processes;

"(3) establish alternative acquisition paths based on the capabilities being bought and the time needed to deploy these capabilities; and

"(4) maximize the use of flexible authorities in existing law and regulation."

Secretary of Defense Waiver of Acquisition Laws To Acquire Vital National Security Capabilities

Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title VIII, §806, Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 885, as amended by Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title VIII, §819, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2273, provided that:

"(a) Waiver Authority.—The Secretary of Defense is authorized to waive any provision of acquisition law or regulation described in subsection (c) for the purpose of acquiring a capability that would not otherwise be available to the Armed Forces of the United States, upon a determination that—

"(1) the acquisition of the capability is in the vital national security interest of the United States;

"(2) the application of the law or regulation to be waived would impede the acquisition of the capability in a manner that would undermine the national security of the United States; and

"(3) the underlying purpose of the law or regulation to be waived can be addressed in a different manner or at a different time.

"(b) Designation of Responsible Official.—Whenever the Secretary of Defense makes a determination under subsection (a)(1) that the acquisition of a capability is in the vital national security interest of the United States, the Secretary shall designate a senior official of the Department of Defense who shall be personally responsible and accountable for the rapid and effective acquisition and deployment of the needed capability. The Secretary shall provide the designated official such authority as the Secretary determines necessary to achieve this objective, and may use the waiver authority in subsection (a) for this purpose.

"(c) Acquisition Laws and Regulations.—

"(1) In general.—Upon a determination described in subsection (a), the Secretary of Defense is authorized to waive any provision of law or regulation addressing—

"(A) the establishment of a requirement or specification for the capability to be acquired;

"(B) research, development, test, and evaluation of the capability to be acquired;

"(C) production, fielding, and sustainment of the capability to be acquired; or

"(D) solicitation, selection of sources, and award of contracts for the capability to be acquired.

"(2) Limitations.—Nothing in this subsection authorizes the waiver of—

"(A) the requirements of this section;

"(B) any provision of law imposing civil or criminal penalties; or

"(C) any provision of law governing the proper expenditure of appropriated funds.

"(d) Notification Requirement.—Not later than 10 days after exercising the waiver authority under subsection (a), the Secretary of Defense shall provide a written notification to Congress providing the details of the waiver and the expected benefits it provides to the Department of Defense.

"(e) Nondelegation.—The authority of the Secretary to waive provisions of laws and regulations under subsection (a) is nondelegable."

Consideration of Potential Program Cost Increases and Schedule Delays Resulting From Oversight of Defense Acquisition Programs

Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title VIII, §881, Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 942, as amended by Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title X, §1081(f)(1)(A)(iv), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1986, provided that:

"(a) Avoidance of Unnecessary Cost Increases and Schedule Delays.—The Director of Operational Test and Evaluation, the Chief Management Officer, the Director of the Defense Contract Management Agency, the Director of the Defense Contract Audit Agency, the Inspector General of the Department of Defense, and the heads of other defense audit, testing, acquisition, and management agencies shall ensure that policies, procedures, and activities implemented by their offices and agencies in connection with defense acquisition program oversight do not result in unnecessary increases in program costs or cost estimates or delays in schedule or schedule estimates.

"(b) Consideration of Private Sector Best Practices.—In considering potential cost increases and schedule delays as a result of oversight efforts pursuant to subsection (a), the officials described in such subsection shall consider private sector best practices with respect to oversight implementation."

Prohibition on Contracting With the Enemy

Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title VIII, subtitle E, Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3450, as amended by Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §872, title XII, §1251(b)(2), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1905, 2053, provided that:

"SEC. 841. PROHIBITION ON PROVIDING FUNDS TO THE ENEMY.

"(a) Identification of Persons and Entities.—The Secretary of Defense shall, in conjunction with the Director of National Intelligence and in consultation with the Secretary of State, establish in each covered combatant command a program to identify persons and entities within the area of responsibility of such command that—

"(1) provide funds, including goods and services, received under a covered contract, grant, or cooperative agreement of an executive agency directly or indirectly to a covered person or entity; or

"(2) fail to exercise due diligence to ensure that none of the funds, including goods and services, received under a covered contract, grant, or cooperative agreement of an executive agency are provided directly or indirectly to a covered person or entity.

"(b) Notice of Identified Persons and Entities.—

"(1) Notice.—Upon the identification of a person or entity as being described by subsection (a), the head of the executive agency concerned (or the designee of such head) and the commander of the covered combatant command concerned (or the specified deputies of the commander) shall be notified, in writing, of such identification of the person or entity.

"(2) Responsive actions.—Upon receipt of a notice under paragraph (1), the head of the executive agency concerned (or the designee of such head) and the commander of the covered combatant command concerned (or the specified deputies of the commander) may notify the heads of contracting activities, or other appropriate officials of the agency or command, in writing of such identification.

"(3) Making of notifications.—Any written notification pursuant to this subsection shall be made in accordance with procedures established to implement the revisions of regulations required by this section.

"(c) Authority to Terminate or Void Contracts, Grants, and Cooperative Agreements and to Restrict Future Award.—Not later than 270 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 19, 2014], the Federal Acquisition Regulation, the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement, and the Uniform Administrative Requirements, Cost Principles, and Audit Requirements for Federal Awards shall be revised to provide that, upon notice from the head of an executive agency (or the designee of such head) or the commander of a covered combatant command (or the specified deputies of the commander) pursuant to subsection (b), the head of contracting activity of an executive agency, or other appropriate official, may do the following:

"(1) Restrict the award of contracts, grants, or cooperative agreements of the executive agency concerned upon a written determination by the head of contracting activity or other appropriate official that the contract, grant, or cooperative agreement would provide funds received under such contract, grant, or cooperative agreement directly or indirectly to a covered person or entity.

"(2) Terminate for default any contract, grant, or cooperative agreement of the executive agency concerned upon a written determination by the head of contracting activity or other appropriate official that the contractor, or the recipient of the grant or cooperative agreement, has failed to exercise due diligence to ensure that none of the funds received under the contract, grant, or cooperative agreement are provided directly or indirectly to a covered person or entity.

"(3) Void in whole or in part any contract, grant, or cooperative agreement of the executive agency concerned upon a written determination by the head of contracting activity or other appropriate official that the contract, grant, or cooperative agreement provides funds directly or indirectly to a covered person or entity.

"(d) Clause.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than 270 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Federal Acquisition Regulation, the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement, and the Uniform Administrative Requirements, Cost Principles, and Audit Requirements for Federal Awards shall be revised to require that—

"(A) the clause described in paragraph (2) shall be included in each covered contract, grant, and cooperative agreement of an executive agency that is awarded on or after the date that is 270 days after the date of the enactment of this Act; and

"(B) to the maximum extent practicable, each covered contract, grant, and cooperative agreement of an executive agency that is awarded before the date of the enactment of this Act shall be modified to include the clause described in paragraph (2).

"(2) Clause described.—The clause described in this paragraph is a clause that—

"(A) requires the contractor, or the recipient of the grant or cooperative agreement, to exercise due diligence to ensure that none of the funds, including goods and services, received under the contract, grant, or cooperative agreement are provided directly or indirectly to a covered person or entity; and

"(B) notifies the contractor, or the recipient of the grant or cooperative agreement, of the authority of the head of contracting activity, or other appropriate official, to terminate or void the contract, grant, or cooperative agreement, in whole or in part, as provided in subsection (c).

"(3) Treatment as void.—For purposes of this section:

"(A) A contract, grant, or cooperative agreement that is void is unenforceable as contrary to public policy.

"(B) A contract, grant, or cooperative agreement that is void in part is unenforceable as contrary to public policy with regard to a segregable task or effort under the contract, grant, or cooperative agreement.

"(4) Public comment.—The President shall ensure that the process for revising regulations required by paragraph (1) shall include an opportunity for public comment, including an opportunity for comment on standards of due diligence required by this section.

"(e) Requirements Following Contract Actions.—Not later than 270 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Federal Acquisition Regulation, the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement, and the Uniform Administrative Requirements, Cost Principles, and Audit Requirements for Federal Awards shall be revised as follows:

"(1) To require that any head of contracting activity, or other appropriate official, taking an action under subsection (c) to terminate, void, or restrict a contract, grant, or cooperative agreement notify in writing the contractor or recipient of the grant or cooperative agreement, as applicable, of the action.

"(2) To permit the contractor or recipient of a grant or cooperative agreement subject to an action taken under subsection (c) to terminate or void the contract, grant, or cooperative agreement, as the case may be, an opportunity to challenge the action by requesting an administrative review of the action under the procedures of the executive agency concerned not later than 30 days after receipt of notice of the action.

"(f) Annual Review; Protection of Classified Information.—

"(1) Annual review.—The Secretary of Defense, in conjunction with the Director of National Intelligence and in consultation with the Secretary of State shall, on an annual basis, review the lists of persons and entities previously covered by a notice under subsection (b) as having been identified as described by subsection (a) in order to determine whether or not such persons and entities continue to warrant identification as described by subsection (a). If a determination is made pursuant to such a review that a person or entity no longer warrants identification as described by subsection (a), the Secretary of Defense shall notify the head of the executive agency concerned (or the designee of such head) and the commander of the covered combatant command concerned (or the specified deputies of the commander) in writing of such determination.

"(2) Protection of classified information.—Classified information relied upon to make an identification in accordance with subsection (a) may not be disclosed to a contractor or a recipient of a grant or cooperative agreement with respect to which an action is taken pursuant to the authority provided in subsection (c), or to their representatives, in the absence of a protective order issued by a court of competent jurisdiction established under Article I or Article III of the Constitution of the United States that specifically addresses the conditions upon which such classified information may be so disclosed.

"(g) Delegation of Certain Responsibilities.—

"(1) Combatant command responsibilities.—The commander of a covered combatant command may delegate the responsibilities in this section to any deputies of the commander specified by the commander for purposes of this section. Any delegation of responsibilities under this paragraph shall be made in writing.

"(2) Nondelegation of responsibility for certain actions.—The authority provided by subsection (c) to terminate, void, or restrict contracts, grants, and cooperative agreements, in whole or in part, may not be delegated below the level of head of contracting activity, or equivalent official for purposes of grants or cooperative agreements.

"(h) Additional Responsibilities of Executive Agencies.—

"(1) Sharing of information on supporters of the enemy.—The Secretary of Defense shall, in consultation with the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, carry out a program through which agency components may provide information to heads of executive agencies (or the designees of such heads) and the commanders of the covered combatant commands (or the specified deputies of the commanders) relating to persons or entities who may be providing funds, including goods and services, received under contracts, grants, or cooperative agreements of the executive agencies directly or indirectly to a covered person or entity. The program shall be designed to facilitate and encourage the sharing of risk and threat information between executive agencies and the covered combatant commands.

"(2) Inclusion of information on contract actions in fapiis and other systems.—Upon the termination, voiding, or restriction of a contract, grant, or cooperative agreement of an executive agency under subsection (c), the head of contracting activity of the executive agency shall provide for the inclusion in the Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information System (FAPIIS), or other formal system of records on contractors or entities, of appropriate information on the termination, voiding, or restriction, as the case may be, of the contract, grant, or cooperative agreement.

"(3) Reports.—The head of contracting activity that receives a notice pursuant to subsection (b) shall submit to the head of the executive agency concerned (or the designee of such head) and the commander of the covered combatant command concerned (or specified deputies) a report on the action, if any, taken by the head of contracting activity pursuant to subsection (c), including a determination not to terminate, void, or restrict the contract, grant, or cooperative agreement as otherwise authorized by subsection (c).

"(i) Reports.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than March 1 of 2016, 2017, and 2018, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a report on the use of the authorities in this section in the preceding calendar year, including the following:

"(A) For each instance in which an executive agency exercised the authority to terminate, void, or restrict a contract, grant, and cooperative agreement pursuant to subsection (c), based on a notification under subsection (b), the following:

"(i) The executive agency taking such action.

"(ii) An explanation of the basis for the action taken.

"(iii) The value of the contract, grant, or cooperative agreement voided or terminated.

"(iv) The value of all contracts, grants, or cooperative agreements of the executive agency in force with the person or entity concerned at the time the contract, grant, or cooperative agreement was terminated or voided.

"(B) For each instance in which an executive agency did not exercise the authority to terminate, void, or restrict a contract, grant, and cooperative agreement pursuant to subsection (c), based on a notification under subsection (b), the following:

"(i) The executive agency concerned.

"(ii) An explanation of the basis for not taking the action.

"(2) Form.—Any report under this subsection may, at the election of the Director—

"(A) be submitted in unclassified form, but with a classified annex; or

"(B) be submitted in classified form.

"(j) Inapplicability to Certain Contracts, Grants, and Cooperative Agreements.—The provisions of this section do not apply to contracts, grants, and cooperative agreements that are performed entirely inside the United States.

"(k) National Security Exception.—Nothing in this section shall apply to the authorized intelligence or law enforcement activities of the United States Government.

"(l) Construction With Other Authorities.—Except as provided in subsection (m), the authorities in this section shall be in addition to, and not to the exclusion of, any other authorities available to executive agencies to implement policies and purposes similar to those set forth in this section.

"(m) Coordination With Current Authorities.—

"(1) Repeal of superseded authority related to centcom.—[Repealed section 841 of Pub. L. 112–81, effective 270 days after Dec. 19, 2014. See below.]

"(2) Repeal of superseded authority related to department of defense.—[Repealed section 831 of Pub. L. 113–66, effective 270 days after Dec. 19, 2014. See below.]

"(3) Use of superseded authorities in implementation of requirements.—In providing for the implementation of the requirements of this section by the Department of Defense, the Secretary of Defense may use and modify for that purpose the regulations and procedures established for purposes of the implementation of the requirements of section 841 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012 [Pub. L. 112–81] and section 831 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014 [Pub. L. 113–66].

"(n) Sunset.—The provisions of this section shall cease to be effective on December 31, 2021.

"SEC. 842. ADDITIONAL ACCESS TO RECORDS.

"(a) Contracts, Grants, and Cooperative Agreements.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than 270 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 19, 2014], applicable regulations shall be revised to provide that, except as provided under subsection (c)(1), the clause described in paragraph (2) may, as appropriate, be included in each covered contract, grant, and cooperative agreement of an executive agency that is awarded on or after the date of the enactment of this Act.

"(2) Clause.—The clause described in this paragraph is a clause authorizing the head of the executive agency concerned, upon a written determination pursuant to paragraph (3), to examine any records of the contractor, the recipient of a grant or cooperative agreement, or any subcontractor or subgrantee under such contract, grant, or cooperative agreement to the extent necessary to ensure that funds, including goods and services, available under the contract, grant, or cooperative agreement are not provided directly or indirectly to a covered person or entity.

"(3) Written determination.—The authority to examine records pursuant to the contract clause described in paragraph (2) may be exercised only upon a written determination by the contracting officer, or comparable official responsible for a grant or cooperative agreement, upon a finding by the commander of a covered combatant command (or the specified deputies of the commander) or the head of an executive agency (or the designee of such head) that there is reason to believe that funds, including goods and services, available under the contract, grant, or cooperative agreement concerned may have been provided directly or indirectly to a covered person or entity.

"(4) Flowdown.—A clause described in paragraph (2) may also be included in any subcontract or subgrant under a covered contract, grant, or cooperative agreement if the subcontract or subgrant has an estimated value in excess of $50,000.

"(b) Reports.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than March 1 of 2016, 2017, and 2018, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a report on the use of the authority provided by this section in the preceding calendar year.

"(2) Elements.—Each report under this subsection shall identify, for the calendar year covered by such report, each instance in which an executive agency exercised the authority provided under this section to examine records, explain the basis for the action taken, and summarize the results of any examination of records so undertaken.

"(3) Form.—Any report under this subsection may be submitted in classified form.

"(c) Relationship to Existing Authorities Applicable to CENTCOM.—

"(1) Applicability.—This section shall not apply to contracts, grants, or cooperative agreements covered under section 842 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012 (Public Law 112–81; 125 Stat. 1513; 10 U.S.C. 2313 note).

"(2) Extension of current authorities applicable to centcom.—[Amended section 842(d)(1) of Pub. L. 112–81, set out as a note under section 2313 of this title.]

"SEC. 843. DEFINITIONS.

"In this subtitle:

"(1) Appropriate committees of congress.—The term 'appropriate committees of Congress' means—

"(A) the Committee on Armed Services, the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, the Committee on Foreign Relations, and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate; and

"(B) the Committee on Armed Services, the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, the Committee on Foreign Affairs, and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives.

"(2) Contingency operation.—The term 'contingency operation' has the meaning given that term in section 101(a)(13) of title 10, United States Code.

"(3) Contract.—The term 'contract' includes a contract for commercial items but is not limited to a contract for commercial items.

"(4) Covered combatant command.—The term 'covered combatant command' means the following:

"(A) The United States Africa Command.

"(B) The United States Central Command.

"(C) The United States European Command.

"(D) United States Indo-Pacific Command.

"(E) The United States Southern Command.

"(F) The United States Transportation Command.

"(5) Covered contract, grant, or cooperative agreement defined.—The term 'covered contract, grant, or cooperative agreement' means a contract, grant, or cooperative agreement with an estimated value in excess of $50,000 that is performed outside the United States, including its possessions and territories, in support of a contingency operation in which members of the Armed Forces are actively engaged in hostilities.

"(6) Covered person or entity.—The term 'covered person or entity' means a person or entity that is actively opposing United States or coalition forces involved in a contingency operation in which members of the Armed Forces are actively engaged in hostilities.

"(7) Executive agency.—The term 'executive agency' has the meaning given that term in section 133 of title 41, United States Code.

"(8) Head of contracting activity.—The term 'head of contracting activity' has the meaning described in section 1.601 of the Federal Acquisition Regulation.

"(9) Uniform administrative requirements, cost principles, and audit requirements for federal awards.—The term 'Uniform Administrative Requirements, Cost Principles, and Audit Requirements for Federal Awards' means the guidance issued by the Office of Management and Budget in part 200 of chapter II of title 2 of the Code of Federal Regulations."

Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title VIII, §831, Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 810, related to prohibition on contracting with the enemy, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title VIII, §841(m)(2), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3454, effective 270 days after Dec. 19, 2014.

Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title VIII, §841, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1510, related to prohibition on contracting with the enemy in the United States Central Command theater of operations, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title VIII, §841(m)(1), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3454, effective 270 days after Dec. 19, 2014.

Rapid Acquisition and Deployment Procedures for United States Special Operations Command

Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title VIII, §851, Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3457, provided that:

"(a) Authority to Establish Procedures.—The Secretary may prescribe procedures for the rapid acquisition and deployment of items for the United States Special Operations Command that are currently under development by the Department of Defense or available from the commercial sector and are—

"(1) urgently needed to react to an enemy threat or to respond to significant and urgent safety situations;

"(2) needed to avoid significant risk of loss of life or mission failure; or

"(3) needed to avoid collateral damage risk where the absence of collateral damage is a requirement for mission success.

"(b) Issues to Be Addressed.—The procedures prescribed under subsection (a) shall include the following:

"(1) A process for streamlined communication between the Commander of the United States Special Operations Command and the acquisition and research and development communities, including—

"(A) a process for the Commander to communicate needs to the acquisition community and the research and development community; and

"(B) a process for the acquisition community and the research and development community to propose items that meet the needs communicated by the Commander.

"(2) Procedures for demonstrating, rapidly acquiring, and deploying items proposed pursuant to paragraph (1)(B), including—

"(A) a process for demonstrating performance and evaluating for current operational purposes the existing capability of an item;

"(B) a process for developing an acquisition and funding strategy for the deployment of an item; and

"(C) a process for making deployment determinations based on information obtained pursuant to subparagraphs (A) and (B).

"(c) Testing Requirement.—

"(1) In general.—The process for demonstrating performance and evaluating for current operational purposes the existing capability of an item prescribed under subsection (b)(2)(A) shall include—

"(A) an operational assessment in accordance with expedited procedures prescribed by the Director of Operational Testing and Evaluation; and

"(B) a requirement to provide information to the deployment decision-making authority about any deficiency of the item in meeting the original requirements for the item (as stated in an operational requirements document or similar document).

"(2) Deficiency not a determining factor.—The process may not include a requirement for any deficiency of an item to be the determining factor in deciding whether to deploy the item.

"(3) Additional requirement in case of deficiency.—In the case of any deficiency of an item, a decision to deploy the item may be made only if the Commander of the United States Special Operations Command determines that, for reasons of national security, the deficiency of the item is acceptable.

"(d) Limitation.—The quantity of items of a system procured using the procedures prescribed pursuant to this section may not exceed the number established for low-rate initial production for the system. Any such items shall be counted for purposes of the number of items of the system that may be procured through low-rate initial production.

"(e) Annual Funding Limitation.—Of the funds available to the Commander of the United States Special Operations Command in any given fiscal year, not more than $50,000,000 may be used to procure items under this section.

"(f) Relationship to Other Rapid Acquisition Authority.—The Commander of the United States Special Operations Command may not use the authority under this section at the same time the Commander uses the authority under section 806 of the Bob Stump National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2003 (Public Law 107–314; 10 U.S.C. 2302 note).

"(g) Congressional Notifications.—

"(1) Notification before procedures go into effect.—The Secretary of Defense shall notify the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] at least 30 days before the procedures prescribed pursuant to this section are made effective.

"(2) Notification after use of procedures.—The Secretary of Defense shall notify the congressional defense committees not later than 48 hours after each use of the procedures prescribed pursuant to this section."

Consideration of Corrosion Control in Preliminary Design Review

Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title VIII, §852, Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3458, provided that: "The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics shall ensure that Department of Defense Instruction 5000.02 and other applicable guidance require full consideration, during preliminary design review for a product, of metals, materials, and technologies that effectively prevent or control corrosion over the life cycle of the product."

Equipment Disposal

Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title XV, §1531(d), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 938, as amended by Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title XV, §1532(d), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3614, provided that:

"(1) Acceptance of certain equipment.—The Secretary of Defense may accept equipment procured using funds authorized under this Act [see Tables for classification] or prior Acts that was transferred to the security forces of Afghanistan and returned by such forces to the United States if the Secretary provides written notification to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] of the Secretary's intention to accept such equipment.

"(2) Treatment as department of defense stocks.—The equipment described in paragraph (1), and equipment not yet transferred to the security forces of Afghanistan that is determined by the Commander, Combined Security Transition Command-Afghanistan (or the Commander's designee) to no longer be required for transfer to such forces, may be treated as stocks of the Department of Defense upon notification to the congressional defense committees of such treatment."

Department of Defense Policy on Contractor Profits

Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title VIII, §804, Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1826, which required the Secretary to review profit guidelines to ensure an appropriate link between contractor profit and contractor performance, was repealed by Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §812(b)(3), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1848.

Extension of Contractor Conflict of Interest Limitations

Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title VIII, §829, Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1841, which related to extending existing guidance on personal conflicts of interest to certain contractor personnel, was repealed by Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §812(b)(4), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1848.

Responsibility Within Department of Defense for Operational Contract Support

Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title VIII, §843, Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1845, provided that:

"(a) Guidance Required.—Not later than one year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 2, 2013], the Secretary of Defense shall develop and issue guidance establishing the chain of authority and responsibility within the Department of Defense for policy, planning, and execution of operational contract support.

"(b) Elements.—The guidance under subsection (a) shall, at a minimum—

"(1) specify the officials, offices, and components of the Department within the chain of authority and responsibility described in subsection (a);

"(2) identify for each official, office, and component specified under paragraph (1)—

"(A) requirements for policy, planning, and execution of contract support for operational contract support, including, at a minimum, requirements in connection with—

"(i) coordination of functions, authorities, and responsibilities related to operational contract support, including coordination with relevant Federal agencies;

"(ii) assessments of total force data in support of Department force planning scenarios, including the appropriateness of and necessity for the use of contractors for identified functions;

"(iii) determinations of capability requirements for nonacquisition community operational contract support, and identification of resources required for planning, training, and execution to meet such requirements; and

"(iv) determinations of policy regarding the use of contractors by function, and identification of the training exercises that will be required for operational contract support (including an assessment [of] whether or not such exercises will include contractors); and

"(B) roles, authorities, responsibilities, and lines of supervision for the achievement of the requirements identified under subparagraph (A); and

"(3) ensure that the chain of authority and responsibility described in subsection (a) is appropriately aligned with, and appropriately integrated into, the structure of the Department for the conduct of overseas contingency operations, including the military departments, the Joint Staff, and the commanders of the unified combatant commands."

Data Collection on Contract Support for Future Overseas Contingency Operations Involving Combat Operations

Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title VIII, §844, Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1846, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than one year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 2, 2013], the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of State, and the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development shall each issue guidance regarding data collection on contract support for future contingency operations outside the United States that involve combat operations.

"(b) Elements.—The guidance required by subsection (a) shall ensure that the Department of Defense, the Department of State, and the United States Agency for International Development take the steps necessary to ensure that each agency has the capability to collect and report, at a minimum, the following data regarding such contract support:

"(1) The total number of contracts entered into as of the date of any report.

"(2) The total number of such contracts that are active as of such date.

"(3) The total value of contracts entered into as of such date.

"(4) The total value of such contracts that are active as of such date.

"(5) An identification of the extent to which the contracts entered into as of such date were entered into using competitive procedures.

"(6) The total number of contractor personnel working under contracts entered into as of the end of each calendar quarter during the one-year period ending on such date.

"(7) The total number of contractor personnel performing security functions under contracts entered into as of the end of each calendar quarter during the one-year period ending on such date.

"(8) The total number of contractor personnel killed or wounded under any contracts entered into.

"(c) Comptroller General Review and Report.—

"(1) Review.—The Comptroller General of the United States shall review the data system or systems established to track contractor data pursuant to subsections (a) and (b). The review shall, with respect to each such data system, at a minimum—

"(A) identify each such data system and assess the resources needed to sustain such system;

"(B) determine if all such data systems are interoperable, use compatible data standards, and meet the requirements of section 2222 of title 10, United States Code; and

"(C) make recommendations on the steps that the Department of Defense, the Department of State, and the United States Agency for International Development should take to ensure that all such data systems—

"(i) meet the requirements of the guidance issued pursuant to subsections (a) and (b);

"(ii) are interoperable, use compatible data standards, and meet the requirements of section 2222 of such title; and

"(iii) are supported by appropriate business processes and rules to ensure the timeliness and reliability of data.

"(2) Report.—Not later than two years after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Comptroller General shall submit a report on the review required by paragraph (1) to the following committees:

"(A) The congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives].

"(B) The Committee on Foreign Relations and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate.

"(C) The Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform of the House of Representatives."

Requirements for Risk Assessments Related to Contractor Performance

Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title VIII, §846, Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1848, provided that:

"(a) Risk Assessments for Contractor Performance in Operational or Contingency Plans.—The Secretary of Defense shall require that a risk assessment on reliance on contractors be included in operational or contingency plans developed by a commander of a combatant command in executing the responsibilities prescribed in section 164 of title 10, United States Code. Such risk assessments shall address, at a minimum, the potential risks listed in subsection (c).

"(b) Comprehensive Risk Assessments and Mitigation Plans for Contractor Performance in Support of Overseas Contingency Operations.—

"(1) In general.—Subject to paragraphs (2) and (3), not later than six months after the commencement or designation of a contingency operation outside the United States that includes or is expected to include combat operations, the head of each covered agency shall perform a comprehensive risk assessment and develop a risk mitigation plan for operational and political risks associated with contractor performance of critical functions in support of the operation for such covered agency.

"(2) Exceptions.—Except as provided in paragraph (3), a risk assessment and risk mitigation plan shall not be required under paragraph (1) for an overseas contingency operation if—

"(A) the operation is not expected to continue for more than one year; and

"(B) the total amount of obligations for contracts for support of the operation for the covered agency is not expected to exceed $250,000,000.

"(3) Termination of exceptions.—Notwithstanding paragraph (2), the head of a covered agency shall perform a risk assessment and develop a risk mitigation plan under paragraph (1) for an overseas contingency operation with regard to which a risk assessment and risk mitigation plan has not previously been performed under paragraph (1) not later than 60 days after the date on which—

"(A) the operation has continued for more than one year; or

"(B) the total amount of obligations for contracts for support of the operation for the covered agency exceeds $250,000,000.

"(c) Comprehensive Risk Assessments.—A comprehensive risk assessment under subsection (b) shall consider, at a minimum, risks relating to the following:

"(1) The goals and objectives of the operation (such as risks from contractor behavior or performance that may injure innocent members of the local population or offend their sensibilities).

"(2) The continuity of the operation (such as risks from contractors refusing to perform or being unable to perform when there may be no timely replacements available).

"(3) The safety of military and civilian personnel of the United States if the presence or performance of contractor personnel creates unsafe conditions or invites attack.

"(4) The safety of contractor personnel employed by the covered agency.

"(5) The managerial control of the Government over the operation (such as risks from over-reliance on contractors to monitor other contractors or inadequate means for Government personnel to monitor contractor performance).

"(6) The critical organic or core capabilities of the Government, including critical knowledge or institutional memory of key operations areas and subject-matter expertise.

"(7) The ability of the Government to control costs, avoid organizational or personal conflicts of interest, and minimize waste, fraud, and abuse.

"(d) Risk Mitigation Plans.—A risk mitigation plan under subsection (b) shall include, at a minimum, the following:

"(1) For each high-risk area identified in the comprehensive risk assessment for the operation performed under subsection (b)—

"(A) specific actions to mitigate or reduce such risk, including the development of alternative capabilities to reduce reliance on contractor performance of critical functions;

"(B) measurable milestones for the implementation of planned risk mitigation or risk reduction measures; and

"(C) a process for monitoring, measuring, and documenting progress in mitigating or reducing risk.

"(2) A continuing process for identifying and addressing new and changed risks arising in the course of the operation, including the periodic reassessment of risks and the development of appropriate risk mitigation or reduction plans for any new or changed high-risk area identified.

"(e) Critical Functions.—For purposes of this section, critical functions include, at a minimum, the following:

"(1) Private security functions, as that term is defined in section 864(a)(6) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 [Pub. L. 110–181] (10 U.S.C. 2302 note).

"(2) Training and advising Government personnel, including military and security personnel, of a host nation.

"(3) Conducting intelligence or information operations.

"(4) Any other functions that are closely associated with inherently governmental functions, including the functions set forth in section 7.503(d) of the Federal Acquisition Regulation.

"(5) Any other functions that are deemed critical to the success of the operation.

"(f) Covered Agency.—In this section, the term 'covered agency' means the Department of Defense, the Department of State, and the United States Agency for International Development."

Requirement for Focus on Urgent Operational Needs and Rapid Acquisition

Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title IX, §902, Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1865, which related to the designation and responsibilities of the senior official responsible for leading the Department's actions on urgent operational needs and rapid acquisition, was repealed by Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §811(g), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1846.

Procurement of Tents or Other Temporary Structures

Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title III, §368, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1381, provided that:

"(a) In General.—In procuring tents or other temporary structures for use by the Armed Forces, and in establishing or maintaining an alternative source for such tents and structures, the Secretary of Defense shall award contracts that provide the best value to the United States. In determining the best value to the United States under this section, the Secretary shall consider the total life-cycle costs of such tents or structures, including the costs associated with any equipment or fuel needed to heat or cool such tents or structures.

"(b) Interagency Procurement.—The requirements of this section shall apply to any agency or department of the United States that procures tents or other temporary structures on behalf of the Department of Defense."

Inclusion of Data on Contractor Performance in Past Performance Databases for Source Selection Decisions

Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title VIII, §806, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1487, as amended by Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1076(a)(11), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1948, provided that:

"(a) Strategy on Inclusion Required.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 31, 2011], the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics shall develop a strategy for ensuring that timely, accurate, and complete information on contractor performance is included in past performance databases used for making source selection decisions.

"(b) Elements.—The strategy required by subsection (a) shall, at a minimum—

"(1) establish standards for the timeliness and completeness of past performance submissions for purposes of databases described in subsection (a);

"(2) assign responsibility and management accountability for the completeness of past performance submissions for such purposes; and

"(3) ensure that past performance submissions for such purposes are consistent with award fee evaluations in cases where such evaluations have been conducted.

"(c) Contractor Comments.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 31, 2011], the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics shall revise the Defense Supplement to the Federal Acquisition Regulation to require the following:

"(1) That affected contractors are provided, in a timely manner, information on contractor performance to be included in past performance databases in accordance with subsection (a).

"(2) That such contractors are afforded up to 14 calendar days, from the date of delivery of the information provided in accordance with paragraph (1), to submit comments, rebuttals, or additional information pertaining to past performance for inclusion in such databases.

"(3) That agency evaluations of contractor past performance, including any information submitted under paragraph (2), are included in the relevant past performance database not later than the date that is 14 days after the date of delivery of the information provided in accordance with paragraph (1).

"(d) Construction.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit a contractor from submitting comments, rebuttals, or additional information pertaining to past performance after the period described in subsection (c)(2) has elapsed or to prohibit a contractor from challenging a past performance evaluation in accordance with applicable laws, regulations, or procedures.

"(e) Comptroller General Report.—Not later than 18 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 31, 2011], the Comptroller General of the United States shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a report on the actions taken by the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics pursuant to this section, including an assessment of the extent to which such actions have achieved the objectives of this section."

Detection and Avoidance of Counterfeit Electronic Parts

Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title VIII, §818(a)–(g), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1493–1496, as amended by Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title VIII, §833, Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1844; Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title VIII, §817, Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3432; Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title VIII, §885, Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 948; Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title VIII, §815, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2271; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §812(b)(5), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1848, provided that:

"(a) Assessment of Department of Defense Policies and Systems.—The Secretary of Defense shall conduct an assessment of Department of Defense acquisition policies and systems for the detection and avoidance of counterfeit electronic parts.

"(b) Actions Following Assessment.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of the [probably should be "this"] Act [Dec. 31, 2011], the Secretary shall, based on the results of the assessment required by subsection (a)—

"(1) establish Department-wide definitions of the terms 'counterfeit electronic part' and 'suspect counterfeit electronic part', which definitions shall include previously used parts represented as new;

"(2) issue or revise guidance applicable to Department components engaged in the purchase of electronic parts to implement a risk-based approach to minimize the impact of counterfeit electronic parts or suspect counterfeit electronic parts on the Department, which guidance shall address requirements for training personnel, making sourcing decisions, ensuring traceability of parts, inspecting and testing parts, reporting and quarantining counterfeit electronic parts and suspect counterfeit electronic parts, and taking corrective actions (including actions to recover costs as described in subsection (c)(2));

"(3) issue or revise guidance applicable to the Department on remedial actions to be taken in the case of a supplier who has repeatedly failed to detect and avoid counterfeit electronic parts or otherwise failed to exercise due diligence in the detection and avoidance of such parts, including consideration of whether to suspend or debar a supplier until such time as the supplier has effectively addressed the issues that led to such failures;

"(4) establish processes for ensuring that Department personnel who become aware of, or have reason to suspect, that any end item, component, part, or material contained in supplies purchased by or for the Department contains counterfeit electronic parts or suspect counterfeit electronic parts provide a report in writing within 60 days to appropriate Government authorities and to the Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (or a similar program designated by the Secretary); and

"(5) establish a process for analyzing, assessing, and acting on reports of counterfeit electronic parts and suspect counterfeit electronic parts that are submitted in accordance with the processes under paragraph (4).

"(c) Regulations.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than 270 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 31, 2011], the Secretary shall revise the Department of Defense Supplement to the Federal Acquisition Regulation to address the detection and avoidance of counterfeit electronic parts.

"(2) Contractor responsibilities.—The revised regulations issued pursuant to paragraph (1) shall provide that—

"(A) covered contractors who supply electronic parts or products that include electronic parts are responsible for detecting and avoiding the use or inclusion of counterfeit electronic parts or suspect counterfeit electronic parts in such products and for any rework or corrective action that may be required to remedy the use or inclusion of such parts; and

"(B) the cost of counterfeit electronic parts and suspect counterfeit electronic parts and the cost of rework or corrective action that may be required to remedy the use or inclusion of such parts are not allowable costs under Department contracts, unless—

"(i) the covered contractor has an operational system to detect and avoid counterfeit electronic parts and suspect counterfeit electronic parts that has been reviewed and approved by the Department of Defense pursuant to subsection (e)(2)(B);

"(ii) the counterfeit electronic parts or suspect counterfeit electronic parts were provided to the covered contractor as Government property in accordance with part 45 of the Federal Acquisition Regulation or were obtained by the covered contractor in accordance with regulations described in paragraph (3); and

"(iii) the covered contractor discovers the counterfeit electronic parts or suspect counterfeit electronic parts and provides timely notice to the Government pursuant to paragraph (4).

"(3) Suppliers meeting anticounterfeiting requirements.—The revised regulations issued pursuant to paragraph (1) shall—

"(A) require that the Department and Department contractors and subcontractors at all tiers—

"(i) obtain electronic parts that are in production or currently available in stock from the original manufacturers of the parts or their authorized dealers, or from suppliers identified as suppliers that meet anticounterfeiting requirements in accordance with regulations issued pursuant to subparagraph (C) or (D) and that obtain such parts exclusively from the original manufacturers of the parts or their authorized dealers;

"(ii) obtain electronic parts that are not in production or currently available in stock from suppliers identified as suppliers that meet anticounterfeiting requirements in accordance with regulations issued pursuant to subparagraph (C) or (D); and

"(iii) obtain electronic parts from alternate suppliers if such parts are not available from original manufacturers, their authorized dealers, or suppliers identified as suppliers that meet anticounterfeiting requirements in accordance with regulations prescribed pursuant to subparagraph (C) or (D);

"(B) establish requirements for notification of the Department, and for inspection, testing, and authentication of electronic parts that the Department or a Department contractor or subcontractor obtains from any source other than a source described in clause (i) or (ii) of subparagraph (A), if obtaining the electronic parts in accordance with such clauses is not possible;

"(C) establish qualification requirements, consistent with the requirements of section 2319 of title 10, United States Code, pursuant to which the Department may identify suppliers that have appropriate policies and procedures in place to detect and avoid counterfeit electronic parts and suspect counterfeit electronic parts; and

"(D) authorize Department contractors and subcontractors to identify and use additional suppliers that meet anticounterfeiting requirements, provided that—

"(i) the standards and processes for identifying such suppliers comply with established industry standards;

"(ii) the contractor or subcontractor assumes responsibility for the authenticity of parts provided by such suppliers as provided in paragraph (2); and

"(iii) the selection of such suppliers is subject to review, audit, and approval by appropriate Department officials.

"(4) Reporting requirement.—The revised regulations issued pursuant to paragraph (1) shall require that any Department contractor or subcontractor who becomes aware, or has reason to suspect, that any end item, component, part, or material contained in supplies purchased by the Department, or purchased by a contractor or subcontractor for delivery to, or on behalf of, the Department, contains counterfeit electronic parts or suspect counterfeit electronic parts report in writing within 60 days to appropriate Government authorities and the Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (or a similar program designated by the Secretary).

"(5) Construction of compliance with reporting requirement.—A Department contractor or subcontractor that provides a written report required under this subsection shall not be subject to civil liability on the basis of such reporting, provided the contractor or subcontractor made a reasonable effort to determine that the end item, component, part, or material concerned contained counterfeit electronic parts or suspect counterfeit electronic parts.

"(d) Inspection Program.—The Secretary of Homeland Security shall establish and implement a risk-based methodology for the enhanced targeting of electronic parts imported from any country, after consultation with the Secretary of Defense as to sources of counterfeit electronic parts and suspect counterfeit electronic parts in the supply chain for products purchased by the Department of Defense.

"(e) Improvement of Contractor Systems for Detection and Avoidance of Counterfeit Electronic Parts.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than 270 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 31, 2011], the Secretary of Defense shall implement a program to enhance contractor detection and avoidance of counterfeit electronic parts.

"(2) Elements.—The program implemented pursuant to paragraph (1) shall—

"(A) require covered contractors that supply electronic parts or systems that contain electronic parts to establish policies and procedures to eliminate counterfeit electronic parts from the defense supply chain, which policies and procedures shall address—

"(i) the training of personnel;

"(ii) the inspection and testing of electronic parts;

"(iii) processes to abolish counterfeit parts proliferation;

"(iv) mechanisms to enable traceability of parts;

"(v) the use of suppliers that meet applicable anticounterfeiting requirements;

"(vi) the reporting and quarantining of counterfeit electronic parts and suspect counterfeit electronic parts;

"(vii) methodologies to identify suspect counterfeit parts and to rapidly determine if a suspect counterfeit part is, in fact, counterfeit;

"(viii) the design, operation, and maintenance of systems to detect and avoid counterfeit electronic parts and suspect counterfeit electronic parts; and

"(ix) the flow down of counterfeit avoidance and detection requirements to subcontractors; and

"(B) establish processes for the review and approval of contractor systems for the detection and avoidance of counterfeit electronic parts and suspect counterfeit electronic parts, which processes shall be comparable to the processes established for contractor business systems under section 893 of the Ike Skelton National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011 (Public Law 111–383; 124 Stat. 4311; 10 U.S.C. 2302 note).

"(f) Definitions.—In subsections (a) through (e) of this section:

"(1) The term 'covered contractor' has the meaning given that term in section 893(f)(2) of the Ike Skelton National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011.

"(2) The term 'electronic part' means an integrated circuit, a discrete electronic component (including, but not limited to, a transistor, capacitor, resistor, or diode), or a circuit assembly."

[(g) Repealed. Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §812(b)(5), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1848.]

Reach-Back Contracting Authority for Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation New Dawn

Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title VIII, §843, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1514, provided that:

"(a) Authority To Designate Lead Contracting Activity.—The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics may designate a single contracting activity inside the United States to act as the lead contracting activity with authority for use of domestic capabilities in support of overseas contracting for Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation New Dawn. The contracting activity so designated shall be known as the 'lead reach-back contracting authority' for such operations.

"(b) Limited Authority for Use of Outside-the-United-States-thresholds.—The head of the contracting authority designated pursuant to subsection (a) may, when awarding a contract inside the United States for performance in the theater of operations for Operation Enduring Freedom or Operation New Dawn, use the overseas increased micro-purchase threshold and the overseas increased simplified acquisition threshold in the same manner and to the same extent as if the contract were to be awarded and performed outside the United States.

"(c) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) The term 'overseas increased micro-purchase threshold' means the amount specified in paragraph (1)(B) of section 1903(b) of title 41, United States Code.

"(2) The term 'overseas increased simplified acquisition threshold' means the amount specified in paragraph (2)(B) of section 1903(b) of title 41, United States Code."

Competition and Review of Contracts for Property or Services in Support of a Contingency Operation

Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title VIII, §844(a), (b), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1515, provided that:

"(a) Contracting Goals.—Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 31, 2011], the Secretary of Defense shall—

"(1) establish goals for competition in contracts awarded by the Secretary of Defense for the procurement of property or services to be used outside the United States in support of a contingency operation; and

"(2) develop processes by which to measure and monitor such competition, including in task-order categories for services, construction, and supplies.

"(b) Annual Review of Certain Contracts.—For each year the Logistics Civil Augmentation Program contract, or other similar omnibus contract awarded by the Secretary of Defense for the procurement of property or services to be used outside the United States in support of a contingency operation, is in force, the Secretary shall require a competition advocate of the Department of Defense to conduct an annual review of each such contract."

Contracts for Commercial Imaging Satellite Capacities

Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title I, §127, Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4161, provided that:

"(a) Telescope Requirements Under Contracts After 2010.—Except as provided in subsection (b), any contract for additional commercial imaging satellite capability or capacity entered into by the Department of Defense after December 31, 2010, shall require that the imaging telescope providing such capability or capacity under such contract has an aperture of not less than 1.5 meters.

"(b) Waiver.—The Secretary of Defense may waive the limitation in subsection (a) if—

"(1) the Secretary submits to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] written certification that the waiver is in the national security interests of the United States; and

"(2) a period of 30 days has elapsed following the date on which the certification under paragraph (1) is submitted.

"(c) Continuation of Current Contracts.—The limitation in subsection (a) may not be construed to prohibit or prevent the Secretary of Defense from continuing or maintaining current commercial imaging satellite capability or capacity in orbit or under contract by December 31, 2010."

Review of Acquisition Process for Rapid Fielding of Capabilities in Response to Urgent Operational Needs

Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title VIII, §804, Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4256, provided that:

"(a) Review of Rapid Acquisition Process Required.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than one year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 7, 2011], the Secretary of Defense shall complete a review of the process for the fielding of capabilities in response to urgent operational needs and submit a report on the review to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives].

"(2) Review and report requirements.—The review pursuant to this section shall include consideration of various improvements to the acquisition process for rapid fielding of capabilities in response to urgent operational needs. For each improvement, the report on the review shall discuss—

"(A) the Department's review of the improvement;

"(B) if the improvement is being implemented by the Department, a schedule for implementing the improvement; and

"(C) if the improvement is not being implemented by the Department, an explanation of why the improvement is not being implemented.

"(3) Improvements to be considered.—The improvements that shall be considered during the review are the following:

"(A) Providing a streamlined, expedited, and tightly integrated iterative approach to—

"(i) the identification and validation of urgent operational needs;

"(ii) the analysis of alternatives and identification of preferred solutions;

"(iii) the development and approval of appropriate requirements and acquisition documents;

"(iv) the identification and minimization of development, integration, and manufacturing risks;

"(v) the consideration of operation and sustainment costs;

"(vi) the allocation of appropriate funding; and

"(vii) the rapid production and delivery of required capabilities.

"(B) Clearly defining the roles and responsibilities of the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the military departments, and other components of the Department of Defense for carrying out all phases of the process.

"(C) Designating a senior official within the Office of the Secretary of Defense with primary responsibility for making recommendations to the Secretary on the use of the authority provided by subsections (c) and (d) of section 806 of the Bob Stump National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2003 [Pub. L. 107–314] (10 U.S.C. 2302 note), as amended by section 803 of this Act, in appropriate circumstances.

"(D) Establishing a target date for the fielding of a capability pursuant to each validated urgent operational need.

"(E) Implementing a system for—

"(i) documenting key process milestones, such as funding, acquisition, fielding, and assessment decisions and actions; and

"(ii) tracking the cost, schedule, and performance of acquisitions conducted pursuant to the process.

"(F) Establishing a formal feedback mechanism for the commanders of the combatant commands to provide information to the Joint Chiefs of Staff and senior acquisition officials on how well fielded solutions are meeting urgent operational needs.

"(G) Establishing a dedicated source of funding for the rapid fielding of capabilities in response to urgent operational needs.

"(H) Issuing guidance to provide for the appropriate transition of capabilities acquired through rapid fielding into the traditional budget, requirements, and acquisition process for purposes of contracts for follow-on production, sustainment, and logistics support.

"(I) Such other improvements as the Secretary considers appropriate.

"(b) Discriminating Urgent Operational Needs From Traditional Requirements.—

"(1) Expedited review process.—Not later than 270 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall develop and implement an expedited review process to determine whether capabilities proposed as urgent operational needs are appropriate for fielding through the process for the rapid fielding of capabilities or should be fielded through the traditional acquisition process.

"(2) Elements.—The review process developed and implemented pursuant to paragraph (1) shall—

"(A) apply to the rapid fielding of capabilities in response to joint urgent operational need statements and to other urgent operational needs statements generated by the military departments and the combatant commands;

"(B) identify officials responsible for making determinations described in paragraph (1);

"(C) establish appropriate time periods for making such determinations;

"(D) set forth standards and criteria for making such determinations based on considerations of urgency, risk, and life-cycle management;

"(E) establish appropriate thresholds for the applicability of the review process, or of elements of the review process; and

"(F) authorize appropriate officials to make exceptions from standards and criteria established under subparagraph (D) in exceptional circumstances.

"(3) Covered capabilities.—The review process developed and implemented pursuant to paragraph (1) shall provide that, subject to such exceptions as the Secretary considers appropriate for purposes of this section, the acquisition process for rapid fielding of capabilities in response to urgent operational needs is appropriate only for capabilities that—

"(A) can be fielded within a period of two to 24 months;

"(B) do not require substantial development effort;

"(C) are based on technologies that are proven and available; and

"(D) can appropriately be acquired under fixed price contracts.

"(4) Inclusion in report.—The Secretary shall include a description of the expedited review process implemented pursuant to paragraph (1) in the report required by subsection (a)."

Standards and Certification for Private Security Contractors

Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title VIII, §833, Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4276, provided that:

"(a) Review of Third-Party Standards and Certification Processes.—Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 7, 2011], the Secretary of Defense shall—

"(1) determine whether the private sector has developed—

"(A) operational and business practice standards applicable to private security contractors; and

"(B) third-party certification processes for determining whether private security contractors adhere to standards described in subparagraph (A); and

"(2) review any standards and processes identified pursuant to paragraph (1) to determine whether the application of such standards and processes will make a substantial contribution to the successful performance of private security functions in areas of combat operations or other significant military operations.

"(b) Revised Regulations.—Not later than 270 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary of Defense shall revise the regulations promulgated under section 862 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 (Public Law 110–181; 10 U.S.C. 2302 note) to ensure that such regulations—

"(1) establish criteria for defining standard practices for the performance of private security functions, which shall reflect input from industry representatives as well as the Inspector General of the Department of Defense; and

"(2) establish criteria for weapons training programs for contractors performing private security functions, including minimum requirements for weapons training programs of instruction and minimum qualifications for instructors for such programs.

"(c) Inclusion of Third-Party Standards and Certifications in Revised Regulations.—

"(1) Standards.—If the Secretary determines that the application of operational and business practice standards identified pursuant to subsection (a)(1)(A) will make a substantial contribution to the successful performance of private security functions in areas of combat operations or other significant military operations, the revised regulations promulgated pursuant to subsection (b) shall incorporate a requirement to comply with such standards, subject to such exceptions as the Secretary may determine to be necessary.

"(2) Certifications.—If the Secretary determines that the application of a third-party certification process identified pursuant to subsection (a)(1)(B) will make a substantial contribution to the successful performance of private security functions in areas of combat operations or other significant military operations, the revised regulations promulgated pursuant to subsection (b) may provide for the consideration of such certifications as a factor in the evaluation of proposals for award of a covered contract for the provision of private security functions, subject to such exceptions as the Secretary may determine to be necessary.

"(d) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) Covered contract.—The term 'covered contract' means—

"(A) a contract of the Department of Defense for the performance of services;

"(B) a subcontract at any tier under such a contract; or

"(C) a task order or delivery order issued under such a contract or subcontract.

"(2) Contractor.—The term 'contractor' means, with respect to a covered contract, the contractor or subcontractor carrying out the covered contract.

"(3) Private security functions.—The term 'private security functions' means activities engaged in by a contractor under a covered contract as follows:

"(A) Guarding of personnel, facilities, or property of a Federal agency, the contractor or subcontractor, or a third party.

"(B) Any other activity for which personnel are required to carry weapons in the performance of their duties.

"(e) Exception.—The requirements of this section shall not apply to contracts entered into by elements of the intelligence community in support of intelligence activities."

Pilot Program on Acquisition of Military Purpose Nondevelopmental Items

Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title VIII, §866(a)–(f), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4296–4298, as amended by Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title VIII, §814, Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 808; Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title X, §1071(b)(1)(B), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3505; Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title VIII, §892, Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 952; Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title X, §1051(p)(3), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1564, provided that:

"(a) Pilot Program Authorized.—

"(1) In general.—The Secretary of Defense may carry out a pilot program to assess the feasability [sic] and advisability of acquiring military purpose nondevelopmental items in accordance with this section.

"(2) Scope of program.—Under the pilot program, the Secretary may enter into contracts for the acquisition of military purpose nondevelopmental items in accordance with the requirements set forth in subsection (b).

"(b) Contract Requirements.—Each contract entered into under the pilot program—

"(1) shall be a firm, fixed price contract, or a firm, fixed price contract with an economic price adjustment clause;

"(2) shall be in an amount not in excess of $100,000,000, including all options;

"(3) shall provide—

"(A) for the delivery of an initial lot of production quantities of completed items not later than nine months after the date of the award of such contract; and

"(B) that failure to make delivery as provided for under subparagraph (A) may result in the termination of such contract for default; and

"(4) shall be—

"(A) exempt from the requirement to submit certified cost or pricing data under section 2306a of title 10, United States Code, and the cost accounting standards under chapter 15 of title 41, United States Code; and

"(B) subject to the requirement to provide data other than certified cost or pricing data for the purpose of price reasonableness determinations, as provided in section 2306a(d) of title 10, United States Code.

"(c) Regulations.—If the Secretary establishes the pilot program authorized under subsection (a), the Secretary shall prescribe regulations governing such pilot program. Such regulations shall be included in regulations of the Department of Defense prescribed as part of the Federal Acquisition Regulation and shall include the contract clauses and procedures necessary to implement such program.

"(d) Program Assessment.—If the Secretary establishes the pilot program authorized under subsection (a), not later than four years after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Comptroller General of the United States shall submit to the congressional defense committees a report setting forth the assessment of the Comptroller General of the extent to which the pilot program—

"(1) enabled the Department to acquire items that otherwise might not have been available to the Department;

"(2) assisted the Department in the rapid acquisition and fielding of capabilities needed to meet urgent operational needs; and

"(3) protected the interests of the United States in paying fair and reasonable prices for the item or items acquired.

"(e) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) The term 'military purpose nondevelopmental item' means a nondevelopmental item that meets a validated military requirement, as determined in writing by the responsible program manager, and has been developed exclusively at private expense. For purposes of this paragraph, an item shall not be considered to be developed exclusively at private expense if development of the item was paid for in whole or in part through—

"(A) independent research and development costs or bid and proposal costs that have been reimbursed directly or indirectly by a Federal agency or have been submitted to a Federal agency for reimbursement; or

"(B) foreign government funding.

"(2) The term 'nondevelopmental item'—

"(A) has the meaning given that term in section 110 of title 41, United States Code; and

"(B) also includes previously developed items of supply that require modifications other than those customarily available in the commercial marketplace if such modifications are consistent with the requirement in subsection (b)(3)(A).

"(3) The term 'nontraditional defense contractor' has the meaning given that term in section 2302(9) of title 10, United States Code (as added by subsection (g)).

"(4) The terms 'independent research and developments costs' and 'bid and proposal costs' have the meaning given such terms in section 31.205–18 of the Federal Acquisition Regulation.

"(f) Sunset.—

"(1) In general.—The authority to carry out the pilot program shall expire on December 31, 2019.

"(2) Continuation of current contracts.—The expiration under paragraph (1) of the authority to carry out the pilot program shall not affect the validity of any contract awarded under the pilot program before the date of the expiration of the pilot program under that paragraph."

Contractor Business Systems

Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §824(b), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1856, provided that: "Not later than 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 13, 2018], the Secretary of Defense shall revise the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement to conform with the amendments to section 893 of the Ike Skelton National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011 (Public Law 111–383; 10 U.S.C. 2302 note) made by this section."

Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title VIII, §893, Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4311, as amended by Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title VIII, §816, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1493; Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title X, §1071(b)(1)(C), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3505; Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title VIII, §893, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2324; Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title X, §1081(d)(8), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1600; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §824(a), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1856, provided that:

"(a) Improvement Program.—The Secretary of Defense shall develop and initiate a program for the improvement of contractor business systems to ensure that such systems provide timely, reliable information for the management of Department of Defense programs by the contractor and by the Department.

"(b) Approval or Disapproval of Business Systems.—The program developed pursuant to subsection (a) shall—

"(1) include clear and specific business system requirements that are identified and made publicly available for each type of contractor business system covered by the program;

"(2) establish a process for reviewing contractor business systems and identifying significant deficiencies in such systems;

"(3) identify officials of the Department of Defense who are responsible for the approval or disapproval of contractor business systems;

"(4) provide for the approval of any contractor business system that does not have a significant deficiency; and

"(5) provide for—

"(A) the disapproval of any contractor business system that has a significant deficiency; and

"(B) reduced reliance on, and enhanced scrutiny of, data provided by a contractor business system that has been disapproved.

"(c) Review by Third-party Independent Auditors.—The review process for contractor business systems pursuant to subsection (b)(2) shall—

"(1) if a registered public accounting firm attests to the internal control assessment of a contractor, pursuant to section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)), allow the contractor, subject to paragraph (3), to submit certified documentation from such registered public accounting firm that the contractor business systems of the contractor meet the business system requirements referred to in subsection (b)(1) and to thereby eliminate the need for further review of the contractor business systems by the Secretary of Defense;

"(2) limit the review, subject to paragraph (3), of the contractor business systems of a contractor that is not a covered contractor to confirming that the contractor uses the same contractor business system for its Government and commercial work and that the outputs of the contractor business system based on statistical sampling are reasonable; and

"(3) allow a milestone decision authority to require a review of a contractor business system of a contractor that submits documentation pursuant to paragraph (1) or that is not a covered contractor after determining in writing that such a review is necessary to appropriately manage contractual risk.

"(d) Remedial Actions.—The program developed pursuant to subsection (a) shall provide the following:

"(1) In the event a contractor business system is disapproved pursuant to subsection (b)(5), appropriate officials of the Department of Defense will be available to work with the contractor to develop a corrective action plan defining specific actions to be taken to address the significant deficiencies identified in the system and a schedule for the implementation of such actions.

"(2) An appropriate official of the Department of Defense may withhold up to 10 percent of progress payments, performance-based payments, and interim payments under covered contracts from a covered contractor, as needed to protect the interests of the Department and ensure compliance, if one or more of the contractor business systems of the contractor has been disapproved pursuant to subsection (b)(5) and has not subsequently received approval.

"(3) The amount of funds to be withheld under paragraph (2) shall be reduced if a contractor adopts an effective corrective action plan pursuant to paragraph (1) and is effectively implementing such plan.

"(e) Guidance and Training.—The program developed pursuant to subsection (a) shall provide guidance and training to appropriate government officials on the data that is produced by contractor business systems and the manner in which such data should be used to effectively manage Department of Defense programs.

"(f) Rule of Construction.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit an official of the Department of Defense from reviewing, approving, or disapproving a contractor business system pursuant to any applicable law or regulation in force as of the date of the enactment of this Act during the period between the date of the enactment of this Act and the date on which the Secretary implements the requirements of this section with respect to such system.

"(g) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) The term 'contractor business system' means an accounting system, estimating system, purchasing system, earned value management system, material management and accounting system, or property management system of a contractor.

"(2) The term 'covered contractor' means a contractor that has covered contracts with the United States Government accounting for greater than 1 percent of its total gross revenue, except that the term does not include any contractor that is exempt, under section 1502 of title 41, United States Code, or regulations implementing that section, from using full cost accounting standards established in that section.

"(3) The term 'covered contract' means a contract that is subject to the cost accounting standards promulgated pursuant to section 1502 of title 41, United States Code, that could be affected if the data produced by a contractor business system has a significant deficiency.

"(4) The term 'significant deficiency', in the case of a contractor business system, means a shortcoming in the system that materially affects the ability of officials of the Department of Defense and the contractor to rely upon information produced by the system that is needed for management purposes.

"(5) The term 'approved purchasing system' has the meaning given the term in section 44.101 of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (or any similar regulation).

"(h) Defense Contract Audit Agency Legal Resources and Expertise.—

"(1) Requirement.—The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that—

"(A) the Defense Contract Audit Agency has sufficient legal resources and expertise to conduct its work in compliance with applicable Department of Defense policies and procedures; and

"(B) such resources and expertise are provided in a manner that is consistent with the audit independence of the Defense Contract Audit Agency.

"(2) Report.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall submit to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and the House of Representatives a report on the steps taken to comply with the requirements of this subsection.

"(i) Consent to Subcontract.—If the contractor on a Department of Defense contract requiring a contracting officer's written consent prior to the contractor entering into a subcontract has an approved purchasing system, the contracting officer may not withhold such consent without the written approval of the program manager."

[Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title X, §1081(d), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1599, provided that the amendment made by section 1081(d)(8) to section 893(c) of Pub. L. 114–328 (which amended section 893 of Pub. L. 111–383, set out above) is effective as of Dec. 23, 2016, and as if included in Pub. L. 114–328 as enacted.]

Life-Cycle Management and Product Support

Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title VIII, §805, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2403, which directed the Secretary of Defense to issue comprehensive guidance on life-cycle management and the development and implementation of product support strategies for major weapon systems and required each major weapon system to be supported by a product support manager, was repealed by Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title VIII, §823(b), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1832.

Contract Authority for Advanced Component Development or Prototype Units

Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title VIII, §819, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2409, as amended by Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title VIII, §811, Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3428, which authorized certain contracts for advanced component development or prototype units, was repealed by Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title VIII, §861(b), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1494.

Congressional Earmarks

Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title X, §1062, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2468, provided that:

"(a) Report on Recurring Earmarks.—

"(1) Report required.—Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 2009], the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a report regarding covered earmarks.

"(2) Elements.—The report required by paragraph (1) shall include the following:

"(A) An identification of each covered earmark that has been included in a national defense authorization Act for three or more consecutive fiscal years as of the date of the enactment of this Act.

"(B) A description of the extent to which competitive or merit-based procedures were used to award funding, or to enter into a contract, grant, or other agreement, pursuant to each covered earmark.

"(C) An identification of the specific contracting vehicle used for each covered earmark.

"(D) In the case of any covered earmark for which competitive or merit-based procedures were not used to award funding, or to enter into the contract, grant, or other agreement, a statement of the reasons competitive or merit-based procedures were not used.

"(b) DoD Inspector General Audit of Congressional Earmarks.—The Inspector General of the Department of Defense shall conduct an audit of contracts, grants, or other agreements pursuant to congressional earmarks of Department of Defense funds to determine whether or not the recipients of such earmarks are complying with requirements of Federal law on the use of appropriated funds to influence, whether directly or indirectly, congressional action on any legislation or appropriation matter pending before Congress.

"(c) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) The term 'congressional earmark' means any congressionally directed spending item (Senate) or congressional earmark (House of Representatives) on a list published in compliance with rule XLIV of the Standing Rules of the Senate or rule XXI of the Rules of the House of Representatives.

"(2) The term 'covered earmark' means any congressional earmark identified in the joint explanatory statement to accompany the Duncan Hunter National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2009 (Public Law 110–417) that was printed in the Congressional Record on September 23, 2008.

"(3) The term 'national defense authorization Act' means an Act authorizing funds for a fiscal year for the military activities of the Department of Defense, and for other purposes."

Consideration of Trade-Offs Among Cost, Schedule, and Performance Objectives in Department of Defense Acquisition Programs

Pub. L. 111–23, title II, §201(a), May 22, 2009, 123 Stat. 1719, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that mechanisms are developed and implemented to require consideration of trade-offs among cost, schedule, and performance objectives as part of the process for developing requirements for Department of Defense acquisition programs.

"(2) Elements.—The mechanisms required under this subsection shall ensure, at a minimum, that—

"(A) Department of Defense officials responsible for acquisition, budget, and cost estimating functions are provided an appropriate opportunity to develop estimates and raise cost and schedule matters before performance objectives are established for capabilities for which the Chairman of the Joint Requirements Oversight Council is the validation authority; and

"(B) the process for developing requirements is structured to enable incremental, evolutionary, or spiral acquisition approaches, including the deferral of technologies that are not yet mature and capabilities that are likely to significantly increase costs or delay production until later increments or spirals."

Awards for Department of Defense Personnel for Excellence in the Acquisition of Products and Services

Pub. L. 111–23, title III, §301, May 22, 2009, 123 Stat. 1730, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [May 22, 2009], the Secretary of Defense shall commence carrying out a program to recognize excellent performance by individuals and teams of members of the Armed Forces and civilian personnel of the Department of Defense in the acquisition of products and services for the Department of Defense.

"(b) Elements.—The program required by subsection (a) shall include the following:

"(1) Procedures for the nomination by the personnel of the military departments and the Defense Agencies of individuals and teams of members of the Armed Forces and civilian personnel of the Department of Defense for eligibility for recognition under the program.

"(2) Procedures for the evaluation of nominations for recognition under the program by one or more panels of individuals from the Government, academia, and the private sector who have such expertise, and are appointed in such manner, as the Secretary shall establish for purposes of the program.

"(c) Award of Cash Bonuses.—As part of the program required by subsection (a), the Secretary may award to any individual recognized pursuant to the program a cash bonus authorized by any other provision of law to the extent that the performance of such individual so recognized warrants the award of such bonus under such provision of law."

Trusted Defense Systems

Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title II, §254, Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4402, provided that:

"(a) Vulnerability Assessment Required.—The Secretary of Defense shall conduct an assessment of selected covered acquisition programs to identify vulnerabilities in the supply chain of each program's electronics and information processing systems that potentially compromise the level of trust in the systems. Such assessment shall—

"(1) identify vulnerabilities at multiple levels of the electronics and information processing systems of the selected programs, including microcircuits, software, and firmware;

"(2) prioritize the potential vulnerabilities and effects of the various elements and stages of the system supply chain to identify the most effective balance of investments to minimize the effects of compromise;

"(3) provide recommendations regarding ways of managing supply chain risk for covered acquisition programs; and

"(4) identify the appropriate lead person, and supporting elements, within the Department of Defense for the development of an integrated strategy for managing risk in the supply chain for covered acquisition programs.

"(b) Assessment of Methods for Verifying the Trust of Semiconductors Procured From Commercial Sources.—The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, in consultation with appropriate elements of the Department of Defense, the intelligence community, private industry, and academia, shall conduct an assessment of various methods of verifying the trust of semiconductors procured by the Department of Defense from commercial sources for use in mission-critical components of potentially vulnerable defense systems. The assessment shall include the following:

"(1) An identification of various methods of verifying the trust of semiconductors, including methods under development at the Defense Agencies, government laboratories, institutions of higher education, and in the private sector.

"(2) A determination of the methods identified under paragraph (1) that are most suitable for the Department of Defense.

"(3) An assessment of the additional research and technology development needed to develop methods of verifying the trust of semiconductors that meet the needs of the Department of Defense.

"(4) Any other matters that the Under Secretary considers appropriate.

"(c) Strategy Required.—

"(1) In general.—The lead person identified under subsection (a)(4), in cooperation with the supporting elements also identified under such subsection, shall develop an integrated strategy—

"(A) for managing risk—

"(i) in the supply chain of electronics and information processing systems for covered acquisition programs; and

"(ii) in the procurement of semiconductors; and

"(B) that ensures dependable, continuous, long-term access and trust for all mission-critical semiconductors procured from both foreign and domestic sources.

"(2) Requirements.—At a minimum, the strategy shall—

"(A) address the vulnerabilities identified by the assessment under subsection (a);

"(B) reflect the priorities identified by such assessment;

"(C) provide guidance for the planning, programming, budgeting, and execution process in order to ensure that covered acquisition programs have the necessary resources to implement all appropriate elements of the strategy;

"(D) promote the use of verification tools, as appropriate, for ensuring trust of commercially acquired systems;

"(E) increase use of trusted foundry services, as appropriate; and

"(F) ensure sufficient oversight in implementation of the plan.

"(d) Policies and Actions for Assuring Trust in Integrated Circuits.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 14, 2008], the Secretary of Defense shall—

"(1) develop policy requiring that trust assurance be a high priority for covered acquisition programs in all phases of the electronic component supply chain and integrated circuit development and production process, including design and design tools, fabrication of the semiconductors, packaging, final assembly, and test;

"(2) develop policy requiring that programs whose electronics and information systems are determined to be vital to operational readiness or mission effectiveness are to employ trusted foundry services to fabricate their custom designed integrated circuits, unless the Secretary specifically authorizes otherwise;

"(3) incorporate the strategies and policies of the Department of Defense regarding development and use of trusted integrated circuits into all relevant Department directives and instructions related to the acquisition of integrated circuits and programs that use such circuits; and

"(4) take actions to promote the use and development of tools that verify the trust in all phases of the integrated circuit development and production process of mission-critical parts acquired from non-trusted sources.

"(e) Submission to Congress.—Not later than 12 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 14, 2008], the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives]—

"(1) the assessments required by subsections (a) and (b);

"(2) the strategy required by subsection (c); and

"(3) a description of the policies developed and actions taken under subsection (d).

"(f) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) The term 'covered acquisition programs' means an acquisition program of the Department of Defense that is a major system for purposes of section 2302(5) of title 10, United States Code.

"(2) The terms 'trust' and 'trusted' refer, with respect to electronic and information processing systems, to the ability of the Department of Defense to have confidence that the systems function as intended and are free of exploitable vulnerabilities, either intentionally or unintentionally designed or inserted as part of the system at any time during its life cycle.

"(3) The term 'trusted foundry services' means the program of the National Security Agency and the Department of Defense, or any similar program approved by the Secretary of Defense, for the development and manufacture of integrated circuits for critical defense systems in secure industrial environments."

Increase of Domestic Breeding of Military Working Dogs Used by the Department of Defense

Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title III, §358, Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4427, as amended by Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title III, §341, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2260; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title X, §1075(e)(6), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4374; Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title III, §349, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1375; Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title X, §1073(h), Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 996, provided that:

"(a) Increased Capacity.—The Secretary of Defense, acting through the Executive Agent for Military Working Dogs (hereinafter in this section referred to as the 'Executive Agent'), shall—

"(1) identify the number of military working dogs required to fulfill the various missions of the Department of Defense for which such dogs are used, including force protection, facility and check point security, and explosives and drug detection;

"(2) take such steps as are practicable to ensure an adequate number of military working dog teams are available to meet and sustain the mission requirements identified in paragraph (1);

"(3) ensure that the Department's needs and performance standards with respect to military working dogs are readily available to dog breeders and trainers; and

"(4) coordinate with other Federal, State, or local agencies, nonprofit organizations, universities, or private sector entities, as appropriate, to increase the training capacity for military working dog teams.

"(b) Military Working Dog Procurement.—The Secretary, acting through the Executive Agent, shall work to ensure that military working dogs are procured as efficiently as possible and at the best value to the Government, while maintaining the necessary level of quality and encouraging increased domestic breeding.

"(c) Military Working Dog Defined.—For purposes of this section, the term 'military working dog' means a dog used in any official military capacity, as defined by the Secretary of Defense."

Comprehensive Audit of Spare Parts Purchases and Depot Overhaul and Maintenance of Equipment for Operations in Iraq and Afghanistan

Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title VIII, §852, Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4543, provided that:

"(a) Audits Required.—The Army Audit Agency, the Navy Audit Service, and the Air Force Audit Agency shall each conduct thorough audits to identify potential waste, fraud, and abuse in the performance of the following:

"(1) Department of Defense contracts, subcontracts, and task and delivery orders for—

"(A) depot overhaul and maintenance of equipment for the military in Iraq and Afghanistan; and

"(B) spare parts for military equipment used in Iraq and Afghanistan; and

"(2) Department of Defense in-house overhaul and maintenance of military equipment used in Iraq and Afghanistan.

"(b) Comprehensive Audit Plan.—

"(1) Plans.—The Army Audit Agency, the Navy Audit Service, and the Air Force Audit Agency shall, in coordination with the Inspector General of the Department of Defense, develop a comprehensive plan for a series of audits to discharge the requirements of subsection (a).

"(2) Incorporation into required audit plan.—The plan developed under paragraph (1) shall be submitted to the Inspector General of the Department of Defense for incorporation into the audit plan required by section 842(b)(1) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 (Public Law 110–181; 122 Stat. 234; 10 U.S.C. 2302 note).

"(c) Independent Conduct of Audit Functions.—All audit functions performed under this section, including audit planning and coordination, shall be performed in an independent manner.

"(d) Availability of Results.—All audit reports resulting from audits under this section shall be made available to the Commission on Wartime Contracting in Iraq and Afghanistan established pursuant to section 841 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 [Pub. L. 110–181] (122 Stat. 230).

"(e) Construction.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to require any agency of the Federal Government to duplicate audit work that an agency of the Federal Government has already performed."

Motor Carrier Fuel Surcharges

Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title VIII, §884, Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4560, provided that:

"(a) Pass Through to Cost Bearer.—The Secretary of Defense shall take appropriate actions to ensure that, to the maximum extent practicable, in all carriage contracts in which a fuel-related adjustment is provided for, any fuel-related adjustment is passed through to the person who bears the cost of the fuel that the adjustment relates to.

"(b) Use of Contract Clause.—The actions taken by the Secretary under subsection (a) shall include the insertion of a contract clause, with appropriate flow-down requirements, into all contracts with motor carriers, brokers, or freight forwarders providing or arranging truck transportation or services in which a fuel-related adjustment is provided for.

"(c) Disclosure.—The Secretary shall publicly disclose any decision by the Department of Defense to pay fuel-related adjustments under contracts (or a category of contracts) covered by this section.

"(d) Report.—Not later than 270 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 14, 2008], the Secretary shall submit to the committees on Armed Services of the Senate and the House of Representatives a report on the actions taken in accordance with the requirements of subsection (a)."

Sales of Commercial Items to Nongovernmental Entities

Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title VIII, §815(b), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 223, which required modification of commercial item procurement regulations so that the terms "general public" and "nongovernmental entities" would not include the Federal Government or a State, local, or foreign government, was repealed by Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §812(b)(6), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1848.

Investigation of Waste, Fraud, and Abuse in Wartime Contracts and Contracting Processes in Iraq and Afghanistan

Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title VIII, §842, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 234, provided that:

"(a) Audits Required.—Thorough audits shall be performed in accordance with this section to identify potential waste, fraud, and abuse in the performance of—

"(1) Department of Defense contracts, subcontracts, and task and delivery orders for the logistical support of coalition forces in Iraq and Afghanistan; and

"(2) Federal agency contracts, subcontracts, and task and delivery orders for the performance of security and reconstruction functions in Iraq and Afghanistan.

"(b) Audit Plans.—

"(1) The Department of Defense Inspector General shall develop a comprehensive plan for a series of audits of contracts, subcontracts, and task and delivery orders covered by subsection (a)(1), consistent with the requirements of subsection (g), in consultation with other Inspectors General specified in subsection (c) with regard to any contracts, subcontracts, or task or delivery orders over which such Inspectors General have jurisdiction.

"(2) The Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction shall develop a comprehensive plan for a series of audits of contracts, subcontracts, and task and delivery orders covered by subsection (a)(2) relating to Iraq, consistent with the requirements of subsection (h), in consultation with other Inspectors General specified in subsection (c) with regard to any contracts, subcontracts, or task or delivery orders over which such Inspectors General have jurisdiction.

"(3) The Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction shall develop a comprehensive plan for a series of audits of contracts, subcontracts, and task and delivery orders covered by subsection (a)(2) relating to Afghanistan, consistent with the requirements of subsection (h), in consultation with other Inspectors General specified in subsection (c) with regard to any contracts, subcontracts, or task or delivery orders over which such Inspectors General have jurisdiction.

"(c) Performance of Audits by Certain Inspectors General.—The Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction, during such period as such office exists, the Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction, during such period as such office exists, the Inspector General of the Department of Defense, the Inspector General of the Department of State, and the Inspector General of the United States Agency for International Development shall perform such audits as required by subsection (a) and identified in the audit plans developed pursuant to subsection (b) as fall within the respective scope of their duties as specified in law.

"(d) Coordination of Audits.—The Inspectors General specified in subsection (c) shall work to coordinate the performance of the audits required by subsection (a) and identified in the audit plans developed under subsection (b) including through councils and working groups composed of such Inspectors General.

"(e) Joint Audits.—If one or more audits required by subsection (a) and identified in an audit plan developed under subsection (b) falls within the scope of the duties of more than one of the Inspectors General specified in subsection (c), and such Inspectors General agree that such audit or audits are best pursued jointly, such Inspectors General shall enter into a memorandum of understanding relating to the performance of such audit or audits.

"(f) Separate Audits.—If one or more audits required by subsection (a) and identified in an audit plan developed under subsection (b) falls within the scope of the duties of more than one of the Inspectors General specified in subsection (c), and such Inspectors General do not agree that such audit or audits are best pursued jointly, such audit or audits shall be separately performed by one or more of the Inspectors General concerned.

"(g) Scope of Audits of Contracts.—Audits conducted pursuant to subsection (a)(1) shall examine, at a minimum, one or more of the following issues:

"(1) The manner in which contract requirements were developed.

"(2) The procedures under which contracts or task or delivery orders were awarded.

"(3) The terms and conditions of contracts or task or delivery orders.

"(4) The staffing and method of performance of contractors, including cost controls.

"(5) The efficacy of Department of Defense management and oversight, including the adequacy of staffing and training of officials responsible for such management and oversight.

"(6) The flow of information from contractors to officials responsible for contract management and oversight.

"(h) Scope of Audits of Other Contracts.—Audits conducted pursuant to subsection (a)(2) shall examine, at a minimum, one or more of the following issues:

"(1) The manner in which contract requirements were developed and contracts or task and delivery orders were awarded.

"(2) The manner in which the Federal agency exercised control over the performance of contractors.

"(3) The extent to which operational field commanders were able to coordinate or direct the performance of contractors in an area of combat operations.

"(4) The degree to which contractor employees were properly screened, selected, trained, and equipped for the functions to be performed.

"(5) The nature and extent of any incidents of misconduct or unlawful activity by contractor employees.

"(6) The nature and extent of any activity by contractor employees that was inconsistent with the objectives of operational field commanders.

"(7) The extent to which any incidents of misconduct or unlawful activity were reported, documented, investigated, and (where appropriate) prosecuted.

"(i) Independent Conduct of Audit Functions.—All audit functions under this section, including audit planning and coordination, shall be performed by the relevant Inspectors General in an independent manner, without consultation with the Commission established pursuant to section 841 of this Act [122 Stat. 230]. All audit reports resulting from such audits shall be available to the Commission."

Contracts in Iraq and Afghanistan and Private Security Contracts in Areas of Other Significant Military Operations

Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title VIII, §831(b), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4274, provided that:

"(1) Deadline for regulations.—Not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 7, 2011], the Secretary of Defense shall revise the regulations prescribed pursuant to section 862 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 (Public Law 110–181; 10 U.S.C. 2302 note) to incorporate the requirements of the amendments made by subsection (a).

"(2) Commencement of applicability of revisions.—The revision of regulations under paragraph (1) shall apply to the following:

"(A) Any contract that is awarded on or after the date that is 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act.

"(B) Any task or delivery order that is issued on or after the date that is 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act pursuant to a contract that is awarded before, on, or after the date that is 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act.

"(3) Commencement of inclusion of contract clause.—A contract clause that reflects the revision of regulations required by the amendments made by subsection (a) shall be inserted, as required by such section 862, into the following:

"(A) Any contract described in paragraph (2)(A).

"(B) Any task or delivery order described in paragraph (2)(B)."

Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title VIII, §832(b), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4275, provided that:

"(1) Determination required for certain areas.—Not later than 150 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 7, 2011], the Secretary of Defense shall make a written determination for each of the following areas regarding whether or not the area constitutes an area of combat operations or an area of other significant military operations for purposes of designation as such an area under section 862 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 (Public Law 110–181; 10 U.S.C. 2302 note), as amended by this section:

"(A) The Horn of Africa region.

"(B) Yemen.

"(C) The Philippines.

"(2) Submission to congress.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a copy of each written determination under paragraph (1), together with an explanation of the basis for such determination."

Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title VIII, §854(b), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4545, provided that:

"(1) Through memorandum of understanding.—The memorandum of understanding required by section 861(a) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 (Public Law 110–181; 122 Stat. 253; 10 U.S.C. 2302 note) shall be modified to address the requirements under the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending Pub. L. 110–181, §861(b), set out below] not later than 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 14, 2008].

"(2) As condition of current and future contracts.—The requirements under the amendment made by subsection (a) shall be included in each contract in Iraq or Afghanistan (as defined in section 864(a)(2) of Public Law 110–181; [10 U.S.C.] 2302 note) awarded on or after the date that is 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 14, 2008]. Federal agencies shall make best efforts to provide for the inclusion of such requirements in covered contracts awarded before such date."

Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title VIII, §854(c), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4545, provided that: "Beginning not later than 270 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 14, 2008], the Secretary of Defense shall make publicly available a numerical accounting of alleged offenses described in section 861(b)(6) of Public Law 110–181 [set out below] that have been reported under that section that occurred after the date of the enactment of this Act. The information shall be updated no less frequently than semi-annually."

Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title VIII, subtitle F, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 253, as amended by Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title VIII, §§853, 854(a), (d), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4544, 4545; Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title VIII, §813(a)–(c), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2406, 2407; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title VIII, §§831(a), 832(a), (c), 835, title X, §1075(d)(9), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4273, 4275, 4276, 4279, 4373; Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title VIII, §844(c), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1515; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title VIII, §847, Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1850; Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title X, §1071(b)(2)(D), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3506, provided that:

"SEC. 861. MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING ON MATTERS RELATING TO CONTRACTING.

"(a) Memorandum of Understanding Required.—The Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of State, and the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development shall, not later than July 1, 2008, enter into a memorandum of understanding regarding matters relating to contracting for contracts in Iraq or Afghanistan.

"(b) Matters Covered.—The memorandum of understanding required by subsection (a) shall address, at a minimum, the following:

"(1) Identification of the major categories of contracts in Iraq or Afghanistan being awarded by the Department of Defense, the Department of State, or the United States Agency for International Development.

"(2) Identification of the roles and responsibilities of each department or agency for matters relating to contracting for contracts in Iraq or Afghanistan.

"(3) Responsibility for establishing procedures for, and the coordination of, movement of contractor personnel in Iraq or Afghanistan.

"(4) Identification of common databases that will serve as repositories of information on contracts in Iraq or Afghanistan and contractor personnel in Iraq or Afghanistan, including agreement on the elements to be included in the databases, including, at a minimum—

"(A) with respect to each contract—

"(i) a brief description of the contract (to the extent consistent with security considerations);

"(ii) the total value of the contract; and

"(iii) whether the contract was awarded competitively; and

"(B) with respect to contractor personnel—

"(i) the total number of personnel employed on contracts in Iraq or Afghanistan;

"(ii) the total number of personnel performing security functions under contracts in Iraq or Afghanistan; and

"(iii) the total number of personnel working under contracts in Iraq or Afghanistan who have been killed or wounded.

"(5) Responsibility for maintaining and updating information in the common databases identified under paragraph (4).

"(6) Responsibility for the collection and referral to the appropriate Government agency of any information relating to offenses under chapter 47 of title 10, United States Code (the Uniform Code of Military Justice) or chapter 212 of title 18, United States Code (commonly referred to as the Military Extraterritorial Jurisdiction Act), including a clarification of responsibilities under section 802(a)(10) of title 10, United States Code (article 2(a) of the Uniform Code of Military Justice), as amended by section 552 of the John Warner National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2007 (Public Law 109–364).

"(7) Mechanisms for ensuring that contractors are required to report offenses described in paragraph (6) that are alleged to have been committed by or against contractor personnel to appropriate investigative authorities.

"(8) Responsibility for providing victim and witness protection and assistance to contractor personnel in connection with alleged offenses described in paragraph (6).

"(9) Development of a requirement that a contractor shall provide to all contractor personnel who will perform work on a contract in Iraq or Afghanistan, before beginning such work, information on the following:

"(A) How and where to report an alleged offense described in paragraph (6).

"(B) Where to seek the assistance required by paragraph (8).

"(c) Implementation of Memorandum of Understanding.—Not later than 120 days after the memorandum of understanding required by subsection (a) is signed, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of State, and the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development shall issue such policies or guidance and prescribe such regulations as are necessary to implement the memorandum of understanding for the relevant matters pertaining to their respective agencies.

"(d) Copies Provided to Congress.—

"(1) Memorandum of understanding.—Copies of the memorandum of understanding required by subsection (a) shall be provided to the relevant committees of Congress within 30 days after the memorandum is signed.

"(2) Report on implementation.—Not later than 180 days after the memorandum of understanding required by subsection (a) is signed, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of State, and the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development shall each provide a report to the relevant committees of Congress on the implementation of the memorandum of understanding.

"(3) Databases.—The Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of State, or the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development shall provide access to the common databases identified under subsection (b)(4) to the relevant committees of Congress.

"(4) Contracts.—Effective on the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 28, 2008], copies of any contracts in Iraq or Afghanistan awarded after December 1, 2007, shall be provided to any of the relevant committees of Congress within 15 days after the submission of a request for such contract or contracts from such committee to the department or agency managing the contract.

"SEC. 862. CONTRACTORS PERFORMING PRIVATE SECURITY FUNCTIONS IN AREAS OF COMBAT OPERATIONS OR OTHER SIGNIFICANT MILITARY OPERATIONS.

"(a) Regulations on Contractors Performing Private Security Functions.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 28, 2008], the Secretary of Defense, in coordination with the Secretary of State, shall prescribe regulations on the selection, training, equipping, and conduct of personnel performing private security functions under a covered contract in an area of combat operations or other significant military operations.

"(2) Elements.—The regulations prescribed under subsection (a) shall, at a minimum, establish—

"(A) a process for registering, processing, accounting for, and keeping appropriate records of personnel performing private security functions in an area of combat operations or other significant military operations;

"(B) a process for authorizing and accounting for weapons to be carried by, or available to be used by, personnel performing private security functions in an area of combat operations or other significant military operations;

"(C) a process for the registration and identification of armored vehicles, helicopters, and other military vehicles operated by contractors performing private security functions in an area of combat operations or other significant military operations;

"(D) a process under which contractors are required to report all incidents, and persons other than contractors are permitted to report incidents, in which—

"(i) a weapon is discharged by personnel performing private security functions in an area of combat operations or other significant military operations;

"(ii) personnel performing private security functions in an area of combat operations or other significant military operations are killed or injured;

"(iii) persons are killed or injured, or property is destroyed, as a result of conduct by contractor personnel;

"(iv) a weapon is discharged against personnel performing private security functions in an area of combat operations or other significant military operations or personnel performing such functions believe a weapon was so discharged; or

"(v) active, non-lethal countermeasures (other than the discharge of a weapon) are employed by the personnel performing private security functions in an area of combat operations or other significant military operations in response to a perceived immediate threat to such personnel;

"(E) a process for the independent review and, if practicable, investigation of—

"(i) incidents reported pursuant to subparagraph (D); and

"(ii) incidents of alleged misconduct by personnel performing private security functions in an area of combat operations or other significant military operations;

"(F) requirements for qualification, training, screening (including, if practicable, through background checks), and security for personnel performing private security functions in an area of combat operations or other significant military operations;

"(G) guidance to the commanders of the combatant commands on the issuance of—

"(i) orders, directives, and instructions to contractors performing private security functions relating to equipment, force protection, security, health, safety, or relations and interaction with locals;

"(ii) predeployment training requirements for personnel performing private security functions in an area of combat operations or other significant military operations, addressing the requirements of this section, resources and assistance available to contractor personnel, country information and cultural training, and guidance on working with host country nationals and military; and

"(iii) rules on the use of force for personnel performing private security functions in an area of combat operations or other significant military operations;

"(H) a process by which a commander of a combatant command may request an action described in subsection (b)(3); and

"(I) a process by which the training requirements referred to in subparagraph (G)(ii) shall be implemented.

"(3) Availability of orders, directives, and instructions.—The regulations prescribed under subsection (a) shall include mechanisms to ensure the provision and availability of the orders, directives, and instructions referred to in paragraph (2)(G)(i) to contractors referred to in that paragraph, including through the maintenance of a single location (including an Internet website, to the extent consistent with security considerations) at or through which such contractors may access such orders, directives, and instructions.

"(b) Contract Clause on Contractors Performing Private Security Functions.—

"(1) Requirement under far.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 28, 2008], the Federal Acquisition Regulation issued in accordance with section 1303 of title 41, United States Code[,] shall be revised to require the insertion into each covered contract (or, in the case of a task order, the contract under which the task order is issued) of a contract clause addressing the selection, training, equipping, and conduct of personnel performing private security functions under such contract.

"(2) Clause requirement.—The contract clause required by paragraph (1) shall require, at a minimum, that the contractor concerned shall—

"(A) ensure that the contractor and all employees of the contractor or any subcontractor who are responsible for performing private security functions under such contract comply with regulations prescribed under subsection (a), including any revisions or updates to such regulations, and follow the procedures established in such regulations for—

"(i) registering, processing, accounting for, and keeping appropriate records of personnel performing private security functions in an area of combat operations or other significant military operations;

"(ii) authorizing and accounting of weapons to be carried by, or available to be used by, personnel performing private security functions in an area of combat operations or other significant military operations;

"(iii) registration and identification of armored vehicles, helicopters, and other military vehicles operated by contractors and subcontractors performing private security functions in an area of combat operations or other significant military operations; and

"(iv) the reporting of incidents in which—

     "(I) a weapon is discharged by personnel performing private security functions in an area of combat operations or other significant military operations;

     "(II) personnel performing private security functions in an area of combat operations or other significant military operations are killed or injured; or

     "(III) persons are killed or injured, or property is destroyed, as a result of conduct by contractor personnel;

"(B) ensure that the contractor and all employees of the contractor or any subcontractor who are responsible for performing private security functions under such contract comply with—

"(i) qualification, training, screening (including, if practicable, through background checks), and security requirements established by the Secretary of Defense for personnel performing private security functions in an area of combat operations or other significant military operations;

"(ii) applicable laws and regulations of the United States and the host country, and applicable treaties and international agreements, regarding the performance of the functions of the contractor;

"(iii) orders, directives, and instructions issued by the applicable commander of a combatant command relating to equipment, force protection, security, health, safety, or relations and interaction with locals; and

"(iv) rules on the use of force issued by the applicable commander of a combatant command for personnel performing private security functions in an area of combat operations or other significant military operations;

"(C) cooperate with any investigation conducted by the Department of Defense pursuant to subsection (a)(2)(E) by providing access to employees of the contractor and relevant information in the possession of the contractor regarding the incident concerned; and

"(D) ensure that the contract clause is included in subcontracts awarded to any subcontractor at any tier who is responsible for performing private security functions under the contract.

"(3) Noncompliance of personnel with clause.—The contracting officer for a covered contract may direct the contractor, at its own expense, to remove or replace any personnel performing private security functions in an area of combat operations or other significant military operations who violate or fail to comply with applicable requirements of the clause required by this subsection. If the violation or failure to comply is a gross violation or failure or is repeated, the contract may be terminated for default.

"(4) Applicability.—The contract clause required by this subsection shall be included in all covered contracts awarded on or after the date that is 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 28, 2008]. Federal agencies shall make best efforts to provide for the inclusion of the contract clause required by this subsection in covered contracts awarded before such date.

"(5) Inspector general report on pilot program on imposition of fines for noncompliance of personnel with clause.—Not later than March 30, 2008, the Inspector General of the Department of Defense shall submit to Congress a report assessing the feasibility and advisability of carrying out a pilot program for the imposition of fines on contractors for personnel who violate or fail to comply with applicable requirements of the clause required by this section as a mechanism for enhancing the compliance of such personnel with the clause. The report shall include—

"(A) an assessment of the feasibility and advisability of carrying out the pilot program; and

"(B) if the Inspector General determines that carrying out the pilot program is feasible and advisable—

"(i) recommendations on the range of contracts and subcontracts to which the pilot program should apply; and

"(ii) a schedule of fines to be imposed under the pilot program for various types of personnel actions or failures.

"(c) Oversight.—It shall be the responsibility of the head of the contracting activity responsible for each covered contract to ensure that the contracting activity takes appropriate steps to assign sufficient oversight personnel to the contract to—

"(1) ensure that the contractor responsible for performing private security functions under such contract comply with the regulatory requirements prescribed pursuant to subsection (a) and the contract requirements established pursuant to subsection (b); and

"(2) make the determinations required by subsection (d).

"(d) Remedies.—The failure of a contractor under a covered contract to comply with the requirements of the regulations prescribed under subsection (a) or the contract clause inserted in a covered contract pursuant to subsection (b), as determined by the contracting officer for the covered contract—

"(1) shall be included in appropriate databases of past performance and considered in any responsibility determination or evaluation of the past performance of the contractor for the purpose of a contract award decision, as provided in section 1126 of title 41, United States Code;

"(2) in the case of an award fee contract—

"(A) shall be considered in any evaluation of contract performance by the contractor for the relevant award fee period; and

"(B) may be a basis for reducing or denying award fees for such period, or for recovering all or part of award fees previously paid for such period; and

"(3) in the case of a failure to comply that is severe, prolonged, or repeated—

"(A) shall be referred to the suspension or debarment official for the appropriate agency; and

"(B) may be a basis for suspension or debarment of the contractor.

"(e) Rule of Construction.—The duty of a contractor under a covered contract to comply with the requirements of the regulations prescribed under subsection (a) and the contract clause inserted into a covered contract pursuant to subsection (b), and the availability of the remedies provided in subsection (d), shall not be reduced or diminished by the failure of a higher or lower tier contractor under such contract to comply with such requirements, or by a failure of the contracting activity to provide the oversight required by subsection (c).

"(f) Areas of Combat Operations or Other Significant Military Operations.—

"(1) Designation.—The Secretary of Defense shall designate the areas constituting either an area of combat operations or other significant military operations for purposes of this section by not later than 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 28, 2008]. In making designations under this paragraph, the Secretary shall ensure that an area is not designated in whole or part as both an area of combat operations and an area of other significant military operations.

"(2) Other significant military operations.—For purposes of this section, the term 'other significant military operations' means activities, other than combat operations, as part of an overseas contingency operation that are carried out by United States Armed Forces in an uncontrolled or unpredictable high-threat environment where personnel performing security functions may be called upon to use deadly force.

"(3) Particular areas.—Iraq and Afghanistan shall be included in the areas designated as an area of combat operations or other significant military operations under paragraph (1).

"(4) Additional areas.—The Secretary may designate any additional area as an area constituting an area of combat operations or other significant military operations for purposes of this section if the Secretary determines that the presence or potential of combat operations or other significant military operations in such area warrants designation of such area as an area of combat operations or other significant military operations for purposes of this section.

"(5) Modification or elimination of designation.—The Secretary may modify or cease the designation of an area under this subsection as an area of combat operations or other significant military operations if the Secretary determines that combat operations or other significant military operations are no longer ongoing in such area.

"(g) Limitation.—With respect to an area of other significant military operations, the requirements of this section shall apply only upon agreement of the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of State. An agreement of the Secretaries under this subsection may be made only on an area-by-area basis. With respect to an area of combat operations, the requirements of this section shall always apply.

"(h) Exceptions.—

"(1) Intelligence activities.—The requirements of this section shall not apply to contracts entered into by elements of the intelligence community in support of intelligence activities.

"(2) Nongovernmental organizations.—The requirements of this section shall not apply to a nonprofit nongovernmental organization receiving grants or cooperative agreements for activities conducted within an area of other significant military operations if the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of State agree that such organization may be exempted. An exemption may be granted by the agreement of the Secretaries under this paragraph on an organization-by-organization or area-by-area basis. Such an exemption may not be granted with respect to an area of combat operations.

"SEC. 863. ANNUAL JOINT REPORT ON CONTRACTING IN IRAQ AND AFGHANISTAN.

"(a) In General.—Except as provided in subsection (f), every 12 months, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of State, and the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development shall submit to the relevant committees of Congress a joint report on contracts in Iraq or Afghanistan.

"(b) Primary Matters Covered.—A report under this section shall, at a minimum, cover the following with respect to contracts in Iraq and Afghanistan during the reporting period:

"(1) Total number of contracts awarded.

"(2) Total number of active contracts.

"(3) Total value of all contracts awarded.

"(4) Total value of active contracts.

"(5) The extent to which such contracts have used competitive procedures.

"(6) Percentage of contracts awarded on a competitive basis as compared to established goals for competition in contingency contracting actions.

"(7) Total number of contractor personnel working on contracts at the end of each quarter of the reporting period.

"(8) Total number of contractor personnel who are performing security functions at the end of each quarter of the reporting period.

"(9) Total number of contractor personnel killed or wounded.

"(c) Additional Matters Covered.—A report under this section shall also cover the following:

"(1) The sources of information and data used to compile the information required under subsection (b).

"(2) A description of any known limitations of the data reported under subsection (b), including known limitations of the methodology and data sources used to compile the report.

"(3) Any plans for strengthening collection, coordination, and sharing of information on contracts in Iraq and Afghanistan through improvements to the common databases identified under section 861(b)(4).

"(d) Reporting Period.—A report under this section shall cover a period of not less than 12 months.

"(e) Submission of Reports.—The Secretaries and the Administrator shall submit an initial report under this section not later than February 1, 2011, and shall submit an updated report by February 1 of every year thereafter until February 1, 2015.

"(f) Exception.—If the total annual amount of obligations for contracts in Iraq and Afghanistan combined is less than $250,000,000 for the reporting period, for all three agencies combined, the Secretaries and the Administrator may submit, in lieu of a report, a letter stating the applicability of this subsection, with such documentation as the Secretaries and the Administrator consider appropriate.

"(g) Estimates.—In determining the total number of contractor personnel working on contracts under subsection (b)(6), the Secretaries and the Administrator may use estimates for any category of contractor personnel for which they determine it is not feasible to provide an actual count. The report shall fully disclose the extent to which estimates are used in lieu of an actual count.

"SEC. 864. DEFINITIONS AND OTHER GENERAL PROVISIONS.

"(a) Definitions.—In this subtitle:

"(1) Matters relating to contracting.—The term 'matters relating to contracting', with respect to contracts in Iraq and Afghanistan, means all matters relating to awarding, funding, managing, tracking, monitoring, and providing oversight to contracts and contractor personnel.

"(2) Contract in iraq or afghanistan.—The term 'contract in Iraq or Afghanistan' means a contract with the Department of Defense, the Department of State, or the United States Agency for International Development, a subcontract at any tier issued under such a contract, a task order or delivery order at any tier issued under such a contract, a grant, or a cooperative agreement (including a contract, subcontract, task order, delivery order, grant, or cooperative agreement issued by another Government agency for the Department of Defense, the Department of State, or the United States Agency for International Development), if the contract, subcontract, task order, delivery order, grant, or cooperative agreement involves worked [sic] performed in Iraq or Afghanistan for a period longer than 30 days.

"(3) Covered contract.—The term 'covered contract' means—

"(A) a contract of a Federal agency for the performance of services in an area of combat operations, as designated by the Secretary of Defense under subsection (c) of section 862;

"(B) a subcontract at any tier under such a contract;

"(C) a task order or delivery order issued under such a contract or subcontract;

"(D) a grant for the performance of services in an area of combat operations, as designated by the Secretary of Defense under subsection (c) of section 862; or

"(E) a cooperative agreement for the performance of services in such an area of combat operations.

"(4) Contractor.—The term 'contractor', with respect to a covered contract, means—

"(A) in the case of a covered contract that is a contract, subcontract, task order, or delivery order, the contractor or subcontractor carrying out the covered contract;

"(B) in the case of a covered contract that is a grant, the grantee; and

"(C) in the case of a covered contract that is a cooperative agreement, the recipient.

"(5) Contractor personnel.—The term 'contractor personnel' means any person performing work under contract for the Department of Defense, the Department of State, or the United States Agency for International Development, in Iraq or Afghanistan, including individuals and subcontractors at any tier.

"(6) Private security functions.—The term 'private security functions' means activities engaged in by a contractor under a covered contract as follows:

"(A) Guarding of personnel, facilities, or property of a Federal agency, the contractor or subcontractor, or a third party.

"(B) Any other activity for which personnel are required to carry weapons in the performance of their duties.

"(7) Relevant committees of congress.—The term 'relevant committees of Congress' means each of the following committees:

"(A) The Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and the House of Representatives.

"(B) The Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform of the House of Representatives.

"(C) The Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives.

"(D) For purposes of contracts relating to the National Foreign Intelligence Program, the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives.

"(b) Classified Information.—Nothing in this subtitle shall be interpreted to require the handling of classified information or information relating to intelligence sources and methods in a manner inconsistent with any law, regulation, executive order, or rule of the House of Representatives or of the Senate relating to the handling or protection of such information."

Enhanced Authority To Acquire Products and Services Produced in Afghanistan

Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title VIII, §886, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 266, as amended by Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title VIII, §842, Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1845; Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title VIII, §886(a), Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 949, provided that:

"(a) In General.—In the case of a product or service to be acquired in support of military operations or stability operations in Afghanistan (including security, transition, reconstruction, and humanitarian relief activities) for which the Secretary of Defense makes a determination described in subsection (b), and except as provided in subsection (d), the Secretary may conduct a procurement in which—

"(1) competition is limited to products or services that are from Afghanistan;

"(2) procedures other than competitive procedures are used to award a contract to a particular source or sources from Afghanistan; or

"(3) a preference is provided for products or services that are from Afghanistan.

"(b) Determination.—A determination described in this subsection is a determination by the Secretary that—

"(1) the product or service concerned is to be used only by the military forces, police, or other security personnel of Afghanistan; or

"(2) it is in the national security interest of the United States to limit competition, use procedures other than competitive procedures, or provide a preference as described in subsection (a) because—

"(A) such limitation, procedure, or preference is necessary to provide a stable source of jobs in Afghanistan; and

"(B) such limitation, procedure, or preference will not adversely affect—

"(i) military operations or stability operations in Afghanistan; or

"(ii) the United States industrial base.

"(c) Products, Services, and Sources From Afghanistan.—For the purposes of this section:

"(1) A product is from Afghanistan if it is mined, produced, or manufactured in Afghanistan.

"(2) A service is from Afghanistan if it is performed in Afghanistan by citizens or permanent resident aliens of Afghanistan.

"(3) A source is from Afghanistan if it—

"(A) is located in Afghanistan; and

"(B) offers products or services that are from Afghanistan.

"(d) Exclusion of Items on the AbilityOne Procurement Catalog.—The authority under subsection (a) shall not be available for the procurement of any good that is contained in the procurement catalog described in section 8503(a) of title 41, United States Code, in Afghanistan if such good can be produced and delivered by a qualified nonprofit agency for the blind or a nonprofit agency for other severely disabled [sic] in a timely fashion to support mission requirements."

[Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title VIII, §842(1), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1845, which directed amendment of section 886 of Pub. L. 110–181, set out above, by striking "Iraq or" in section heading, was executed by striking "Iraq and", to reflect the probable intent of Congress.]

Prevention of Export Control Violations

Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title VIII, §890, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 269, as amended by Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title X, §1061(b)(6), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4613; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title X, §1075(f)(6), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4376, provided that:

"(a) Prevention of Export Control Violations.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 28, 2008], the Secretary of Defense shall prescribe regulations requiring any contractor under a contract with the Department of Defense to provide goods or technology that is subject to export controls under the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] or the Export Administration Act of 1979 [50 U.S.C. 4601 et seq.] (as continued in effect under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act [50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.]) to comply with those Acts and applicable regulations with respect to such goods and technology, including the International Traffic in Arms Regulations and the Export Administration Regulations. Regulations prescribed under this subsection shall include a contract clause enforcing such requirement.

"(b) Training on Export Controls.—The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that any contractor under a contract with the Department of Defense to provide goods or technology that is subject to export controls under the Arms Export Control Act or the Export Administration Act of 1979 (as continued in effect under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act) is made aware of any relevant resources made available by the Department of State and the Department of Commerce to assist in compliance with the requirement established by subsection (a) and the need for a corporate compliance plan and periodic internal audits of corporate performance under such plan.

"(c) Report.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 28, 2008], the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives a report assessing the utility of—

"(1) requiring defense contractors (or subcontractors at any tier) to periodically report on measures taken to ensure compliance with the International Traffic in Arms Regulations and the Export Administration Regulations;

"(2) requiring periodic audits of defense contractors (or subcontractors at any tier) to ensure compliance with all provisions of the International Traffic in Arms Regulations and the Export Administration Regulations;

"(3) requiring defense contractors to maintain a corporate training plan to disseminate information to appropriate contractor personnel regarding the applicability of the Arms Export Control Act and the Export Administration Act of 1979; and

"(4) requiring a designated corporate liaison, available for training provided by the United States Government, whose primary responsibility would be contractor compliance with the Arms Export Control Act and the Export Administration Act of 1979.

"(d) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) Export administration regulations.—The term 'Export Administration Regulations' means those regulations contained in parts 730 through 774 of title 15, Code of Federal Regulations (or successor regulations).

"(2) International traffic in arms regulations.—The term 'International Traffic in Arms Regulations' means those regulations contained in parts 120 through 130 of title 22, Code of Federal Regulations (or successor regulations)."

Quality Control in Procurement of Ship Critical Safety Items and Related Services

Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title I, §130(a)–(c), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2110, provided that:

"(a) Quality Control Policy.—The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe in regulations a quality control policy for the procurement of the following:

"(1) Ship critical safety items.

"(2) Modifications, repair, and overhaul of ship critical safety items.

"(b) Elements.—The policy required under subsection (a) shall include requirements as follows:

"(1) That the head of the design control activity for ship critical safety items establish processes to identify and manage the procurement, modification, repair, and overhaul of such items.

"(2) That the head of the contracting activity for a ship critical safety item enter into a contract for the procurement, modification, repair, or overhaul of such item only with a source on a qualified manufacturers list or a source approved by the design control activity in accordance with section 2319 of title 10, United States Code (as amended by subsection (d)).

"(3) That the ship critical safety items delivered, and the services performed with respect to such items, meet all technical and quality requirements specified by the design control activity.

"(c) Definitions.—In this section, the terms 'ship critical safety item' and 'design control activity' have the meanings given such terms in subsection (g) of section 2319 of title 10, United States Code (as so amended)."

Pilot Program on Time-Certain Development in Acquisition of Major Weapon Systems

Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title VIII, §812, Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2317, as amended by Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title VIII, §813(d)(3), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4527; Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title X, §1073(c)(5), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2474, provided that:

"(a) Pilot Program Authorized.—The Secretary of Defense may carry out a pilot program on the use of time-certain development in the acquisition of major weapon systems.

"(b) Purpose of Pilot Program.—The purpose of the pilot program authorized by subsection (a) is to assess the feasibility and advisability of utilizing time-certain development in the acquisition of major weapon systems in order to deliver new capabilities to the warfighter more rapidly through—

"(1) disciplined decision-making;

"(2) emphasis on technological maturity; and

"(3) appropriate trade-offs between—

"(A) cost and system performance; and

"(B) program schedule.

"(c) Inclusion of Systems in Pilot Program.—

"(1) In general.—The Secretary of Defense may include a major weapon system in the pilot program only if—

"(A) the major weapon system meets the criteria under paragraph (2) in accordance with that paragraph; and

"(B) the Milestone Decision Authority nominates such program to the Secretary of Defense for inclusion in the program.

"(2) Criteria.—For purposes of paragraph (1) a major weapon system meets the criteria under this paragraph only if the Milestone Decision Authority determines, in consultation with the service acquisition executive for the military department carrying out the acquisition program for the system and one or more combatant commanders responsible for fielding the system, that—

"(A) the certification requirements of section 2366b of title 10, United States Code (as amended by section 805 of this Act), have been met, and no waivers have been granted from such requirements;

"(B) a preliminary design has been reviewed using systems engineering, and the system, as so designed, will meet battlefield needs identified by the relevant combatant commanders after appropriate requirements analysis;

"(C) a representative model or prototype of the system, or key subsystems, has been demonstrated in a relevant environment, such as a well-simulated operational environment;

"(D) an independent cost estimate has been conducted and used as the basis for funding requirements for the acquisition program for the system;

"(E) the budget of the military department responsible for carrying out the acquisition program for the system provides the funding necessary to execute the product development and production plan consistent with the requirements identified pursuant to subparagraph (D);

"(F) an appropriately qualified program manager has entered into a performance agreement with the Milestone Decision Authority that establishes expected parameters for the cost, schedule, and performance of the acquisition program for the system, consistent with a business case for such acquisition program;

"(G) the service acquisition executive and the program manager have developed a strategy to ensure stability in program management until, at a minimum, the delivery of the initial operational capability under the acquisition program for the system has occurred;

"(H) the service acquisition executive, the relevant combatant commanders, and the program manager have agreed that no additional requirements that would be inconsistent with the agreed-upon program schedule will be added during the development phase of the acquisition program for the system; and

"(I) a planned initial operational capability will be delivered to the relevant combatant commanders within a defined period of time as prescribed in regulations by the Secretary of Defense.

"(3) Timing of decision.—The decision whether to include a major weapon system in the pilot program shall be made at the time of milestone approval for the acquisition program for the system.

"(d) Limitation on Number of Weapons Systems in Pilot Program.—The number of major weapon systems included in the pilot program at any time may not exceed six major weapon systems.

"(e) Limitation on Cost of Weapons Systems in Pilot Program.—The Secretary of Defense may include a major weapon system in the pilot program only if, at the time a major weapon system is proposed for inclusion, the total cost for system design and development of the weapon system, as set forth in the cost estimate referred to in subsection (c)(2)(D), does not exceed $1,000,000,000 during the period covered by the current future-years defense program.

"(f) Special Funding Authority.—

"(1) Authority for reserve account.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary of Defense may establish a special reserve account utilizing funds made available for the major weapon systems included in the pilot program.

"(2) Elements.—The special reserve account may include—

"(A) funds made available for any major weapon system included in the pilot program to cover termination liability;

"(B) funds made available for any major weapon system included in the pilot program for award fees that may be earned by contractors; and

"(C) funds appropriated to the special reserve account.

"(3) Availability of funds.—Funds in the special reserve account may be used, in accordance with guidance issued by the Secretary for purposes of this section, for the following purposes:

"(A) To cover termination liability for any major weapon system included in the pilot program.

"(B) To pay award fees that are earned by any contractor for a major weapon system included in the pilot program.

"(C) To address unforeseen contingencies that could prevent a major weapon system included in the pilot program from meeting critical schedule or performance requirements.

"(4) Reports on use of funds.—Not later than 30 days after the use of funds in the special reserve account for the purpose specified in paragraph (3)(C), the Secretary shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a report on the use of funds in the account for such purpose. The report shall set forth the purposes for which the funds were used and the reasons for the use of the funds for such purposes.

"(5) Relationship to appropriations.—Nothing in this subsection may be construed as extending any period of time for which appropriated funds are made available.

"(g) Administration of Pilot Program.—The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe policies and procedures on the administration of the pilot program. Such policies and procedures shall—

"(1) provide for the use of program status reports based on earned value data to track progress on a major weapon system under the pilot program against baseline estimates applicable to such system at each systems engineering technical review point; and

"(2) grant authority, to the maximum extent practicable, to the program manager for the acquisition program for a major weapon system to make key program decisions and trade-offs, subject to management reviews only if cost or schedule deviations exceed the baselines for such acquisition program by 10 percent or more.

"(h) Removal of Weapons Systems From Pilot Program.—The Secretary of Defense shall remove a major weapon system from the pilot program if—

"(1) the weapon system receives Milestone C approval; or

"(2) the Secretary determines that the weapon system is no longer in substantial compliance with the criteria in subsection (c)(2) or is otherwise no longer appropriate for inclusion in the pilot program.

"(i) Expiration of Authority To Include Additional Systems in Pilot Program.—

"(1) Expiration.—A major weapon system may not be included in the pilot program after September 30, 2012.

"(2) Retention of systems.—A major weapon system included in the pilot program before the date specified in paragraph (1) in accordance with the requirements of this section may remain in the pilot program after that date.

"(j) Annual Report.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than one year after including the first major weapon system in the pilot program, and annually thereafter, the Secretary shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a report on the pilot program, and the major weapon systems included in the pilot program, during the one-year period ending on the date of such report.

"(2) Elements.—Each report under this subsection shall include—

"(A) a description of progress under the pilot program, and on each major weapon system included in the pilot program, during the period covered by such report;

"(B) a description of the use of all funds in the special reserve account established under subsection (f); and

"(C) such other matters as the Secretary considers appropriate.

"(k) Major Weapon System Defined.—In this section, the term 'major weapon system' means a weapon system that is treatable as a major system under section 2302(5) of title 10, United States Code."

[Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title X, §1073(c), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2474, provided that the amendment made by section 1073(c)(5) to section 813(d)(3) of Pub. L. 110–417, set out above, is effective as of Oct. 14, 2008, and as if included in Pub. L. 110–417 as enacted.]

Linking of Award and Incentive Fees to Acquisition Outcomes

Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title VIII, §823, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2412, as amended by Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title VIII, §834(a)–(c), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4278, 4279, provided that:

"(a) Authority To Reduce or Deny Award Fees.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 2009], the Secretary of Defense shall revise the guidance issued pursuant to section 814 of the John Warner National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2007 (Public Law 109–364; 129 [120] Stat. 2321) [set out below] to ensure that all covered contracts using award fees—

"(1) provide for the consideration of any incident described in subsection (b) in evaluations of contractor performance for the relevant award fee period; and

"(2) authorize the Secretary to reduce or deny award fees for the relevant award fee period, or to recover all or part of award fees previously paid for such period, on the basis of the negative impact of such incident on contractor performance.

"(b) Covered Incidents.—An incident referred to in subsection (a) is any incident in which the contractor—

"(1) has been determined, through a criminal, civil, or administrative proceeding that results in a disposition listed in subsection (c), in the performance of a covered contract to have caused serious bodily injury or death to any civilian or military personnel of the Government through gross negligence or with reckless disregard for the safety of such personnel; or

"(2) has been determined, through a criminal, civil, or administrative proceeding that results in a disposition listed in subsection (c), to be liable for actions of a subcontractor of the contractor that caused serious bodily injury or death to any civilian or military personnel of the Government, through gross negligence or with reckless disregard for the safety of such personnel.

"(c) List of Dispositions in Criminal, Civil, or Administrative Proceedings.—For purposes of subsection (b), the dispositions listed in this subsection are as follows:

"(1) In a criminal proceeding, a conviction.

"(2) In a civil proceeding, a finding of fault and liability that results in the payment of a monetary fine, penalty, reimbursement, restitution, or damages of $5,000 or more.

"(3) In an administrative proceeding, a finding of fault and liability that results in—

"(A) the payment of a monetary fine or penalty of $5,000 or more; or

"(B) the payment of a reimbursement, restitution, or damages in excess of $100,000.

"(4) To the maximum extent practicable and consistent with applicable laws and regulations, in a criminal, civil, or administrative proceeding, a disposition of the matter by consent or compromise with an acknowledgment of fault by the person if the proceeding could have led to any of the outcomes specified in paragraph (1), (2), or (3).

"(5) In an administrative proceeding, a final determination of contractor fault by the Secretary of Defense pursuant to subsection (d).

"(d) Determinations of Contractor Fault by Secretary of Defense.—

"(1) In general.—In any case described by paragraph (2), the Secretary of Defense shall—

"(A) provide for an expeditious independent investigation of the causes of the serious bodily injury or death alleged to have been caused by the contractor as described in that paragraph; and

"(B) make a final determination, pursuant to procedures established by the Secretary for purposes of this subsection, whether the contractor, in the performance of a covered contract, caused such serious bodily injury or death through gross negligence or with reckless disregard for the safety of civilian or military personnel of the Government.

"(2) Covered cases.—A case described in this paragraph is any case in which the Secretary has reason to believe that—

"(A) a contractor, in the performance of a covered contract, may have caused the serious bodily injury or death of any civilian or military personnel of the Government; and

"(B) such contractor is not subject to the jurisdiction of United States courts.

"(3) Construction of determination.—A final determination under this subsection may be used only for the purpose of evaluating contractor performance, and shall not be determinative of fault for any other purpose.

"(e) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) The term 'contractor' means a company awarded a covered contract and a subcontractor at any tier under such contract.

"(2) The term 'covered contract' means a contract awarded by the Department of Defense for the procurement of goods or services.

"(3) The term 'serious bodily injury' means a grievous physical harm that results in a permanent disability.

"(f) Effective Date.—This section shall apply with respect to contracts entered into after the date occurring 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 2009]."

[Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title VIII, §834(e), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4279, provided that: "The requirements of section 823 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010 [Pub. L. 111–84, set out above], as amended by subsections (a) through (c), shall apply with respect to the following:

["(1) Any contract entered into on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 7, 2011].

["(2) Any task order or delivery order issued on or after the date of the enactment of this Act under a contract entered into before, on, or after that date."]

Pub. L. 110–329, div. C, title VIII, §8105, Sept. 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 3644, provided that: "During the current fiscal year and hereafter, none of the funds appropriated or otherwise available to the Department of Defense may be obligated or expended to provide award fees to any defense contractor contrary to the provisions of section 814 of the National Defense Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 2007 (Public Law 109–364) [set out below]."

Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title VIII, §814, Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2321, provided that:

"(a) Guidance on Linking of Award and Incentive Fees to Acquisition Outcomes.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 17, 2006], the Secretary of Defense shall issue guidance, with detailed implementation instructions (including definitions), for the Department of Defense on the appropriate use of award and incentive fees in Department of Defense acquisition programs.

"(b) Elements.—The guidance under subsection (a) shall—

"(1) ensure that all new contracts using award fees link such fees to acquisition outcomes (which shall be defined in terms of program cost, schedule, and performance);

"(2) establish standards for identifying the appropriate level of officials authorized to approve the use of award and incentive fees in new contracts;

"(3) provide guidance on the circumstances in which contractor performance may be judged to be 'excellent' or 'superior' and the percentage of the available award fee which contractors should be paid for such performance;

"(4) establish standards for determining the percentage of the available award fee, if any, which contractors should be paid for performance that is judged to be 'acceptable', 'average', 'expected', 'good', or 'satisfactory';

"(5) ensure that no award fee may be paid for contractor performance that is judged to be below satisfactory performance or performance that does not meet the basic requirements of the contract;

"(6) provide specific direction on the circumstances, if any, in which it may be appropriate to roll over award fees that are not earned in one award fee period to a subsequent award fee period or periods;

"(7) ensure consistent use of guidelines and definitions relating to award and incentive fees across the military departments and Defense Agencies;

"(8) ensure that the Department of Defense—

"(A) collects relevant data on award and incentive fees paid to contractors; and

"(B) has mechanisms in place to evaluate such data on a regular basis;

"(9) include performance measures to evaluate the effectiveness of award and incentive fees as a tool for improving contractor performance and achieving desired program outcomes; and

"(10) provide mechanisms for sharing proven incentive strategies for the acquisition of different types of products and services among contracting and program management officials.

"(c) Assessment of Independent Evaluation Mechanisms.—

"(1) In general.—The Secretary of Defense shall select a federally funded research and development center to assess various mechanisms that could be used to ensure an independent evaluation of contractor performance for the purpose of making determinations applicable to the judging and payment of award fees.

"(2) Considerations.—The assessment conducted pursuant to paragraph (1) shall include consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of a system in which award fees are—

"(A) held in a separate fund or funds of the Department of Defense; and

"(B) allocated to a specific program only upon a determination by an independent board, charged with comparing contractor performance across programs, that such fees have been earned by the contractor for such program.

"(3) Report.—The Secretary shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a report on the assessment conducted pursuant to paragraph (1) not later than one year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 17, 2006]."

Limitation on Contracts for the Acquisition of Certain Services

Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title VIII, §832, Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2331, as amended by Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title VIII, §883, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 264; Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title X, §1061(b)(5), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4613; Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title X, §1071(b)(3)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3506, provided that:

"(a) Limitation.—Except as provided in subsection (b), the Secretary of Defense may not enter into a service contract to acquire a military flight simulator.

"(b) Waiver.—The Secretary of Defense may waive subsection (a) with respect to a contract if the Secretary—

"(1) determines that a waiver is in the national interest; and

"(2) provides to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] an economic analysis as described in subsection (c) at least 30 days before the waiver takes effect.

"(c) Economic Analysis.—The economic analysis provided under subsection (b) shall include, at a minimum, the following:

"(1) A clear explanation of the need for the contract.

"(2) An examination of at least two alternatives for fulfilling the requirements that the contract is meant to fulfill, including the following with respect to each alternative:

"(A) A rationale for including the alternative.

"(B) A cost estimate of the alternative and an analysis of the quality of each cost estimate.

"(C) A discussion of the benefits to be realized from the alternative.

"(D) A best value determination of each alternative and a detailed explanation of the life-cycle cost calculations used in the determination.

"(d) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) The term 'military flight simulator' means any major system to simulate the form, fit, and function of a military aircraft that has no commonly available commercial variant.

"(2) The term 'service contract' means any contract entered into by the Department of Defense the principal purpose of which is to furnish services in the United States through the use of service employees.

"(3) The term 'service employees' has the meaning provided in section 6701(3) of title 41, United States Code.

"(e) Effect on Existing Contracts.—The limitation in subsection (a) does not apply to any service contract of a military department to acquire a military flight simulator, or to any renewal or extension of, or follow-on contract to, such a contract, if—

"(1) the contract was in effect as of October 17, 2006;

"(2) the number of flight simulators to be acquired under the contract (or renewal, extension, or follow-on) will not result in the total number of flight simulators acquired by the military department concerned through service contracts to exceed the total number of flight simulators to be acquired under all service contracts of such department for such simulators in effect as of October 17, 2006; and

"(3) in the case of a renewal or extension of, or follow-on contract to, the contract, the Secretary of the military department concerned provides to the congressional defense committees a written notice of the decision to exercise an option to renew or extend the contract, or to issue a solicitation for bids or proposals using competitive procedures for a follow-on contract, and an economic analysis as described in subsection (c) supporting the decision, at least 30 days before carrying out such decision."

Congressional Notification of Cancellation of Major Automated Information Systems

Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title VIII, §806, Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3373, provided that:

"(a) Report Required.—The Secretary of Defense shall notify the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] not less than 60 days before cancelling a major automated information system program that has been fielded or approved to be fielded, or making a change that will significantly reduce the scope of such a program, of the proposed cancellation or change.

"(b) Content.—Each notification submitted under subsection (a) with respect to a proposed cancellation or change shall include—

"(1) the specific justification for the proposed cancellation or change;

"(2) a description of the impact of the proposed cancellation or change on the ability of the Department to achieve the objectives of the program proposed for cancellation or change;

"(3) a description of the steps that the Department plans to take to achieve those objectives; and

"(4) other information relevant to the change in acquisition strategy.

"(c) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) The term 'major automated information system' has the meaning given that term in Department of Defense directive 5000.1.

"(2) The term 'approved to be fielded' means having received Milestone C approval."

Joint Policy on Contingency Contracting

Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title VIII, §817, Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3382, provided that:

"(a) Joint Policy.—

"(1) Requirement.—Not later than one year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 6, 2006], the Secretary of Defense, in consultation with the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, shall develop a joint policy for contingency contracting during combat operations and post-conflict operations.

"(2) Matters covered.—The joint policy for contingency contracting required by paragraph (1) shall, at a minimum, provide for—

"(A) the designation of a senior commissioned officer in each military department with the responsibility for administering the policy;

"(B) the assignment of a senior commissioned officer with appropriate acquisition experience and qualifications to act as head of contingency contracting during combat operations, post-conflict operations, and contingency operations, who shall report directly to the commander of the combatant command in whose area of responsibility the operations occur;

"(C) an organizational approach to contingency contracting that is designed to ensure that each military department is prepared to conduct contingency contracting during combat operations and post-conflict operations;

"(D) a requirement to provide training (including training under a program to be created by the Defense Acquisition University) to contingency contracting personnel in—

"(i) the use of law, regulations, policies, and directives related to contingency contracting operations;

"(ii) the appropriate use of rapid acquisition methods, including the use of exceptions to competition requirements under section 2304 of title 10, United States Code, sealed bidding, letter contracts, indefinite delivery indefinite quantity task orders, set asides under section 8(a) of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 637(a)), undefinitized contract actions, and other tools available to expedite the delivery of goods and services during combat operations or post-conflict operations;

"(iii) the appropriate use of rapid acquisition authority, commanders' emergency response program funds, and other tools unique to contingency contracting; and

"(iv) instruction on the necessity for the prompt transition from the use of rapid acquisition authority to the use of full and open competition and other methods of contracting that maximize transparency in the acquisition process;

"(E) appropriate steps to ensure that training is maintained for such personnel even when they are not deployed in a contingency operation; and

"(F) such steps as may be needed to ensure jointness and cross-service coordination in the area of contingency contracting.

"(b) Reports.—

"(1) Interim report.—

"(A) Requirement.—Not later than 270 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 6, 2006], the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and the House of Representatives an interim report on contingency contracting.

"(B) Matters covered.—The report shall include discussions of the following:

"(i) Progress in the development of the joint policy under subsection (a).

"(ii) The ability of the Armed Forces to support contingency contracting.

"(iii) The ability of commanders of combatant commands to request contingency contracting support and the ability of the military departments and the acquisition support agencies to respond to such requests and provide such support, including the availability of rapid acquisition personnel for such support.

"(iv) The ability of the current civilian and military acquisition workforce to deploy to combat theaters of operations and to conduct contracting activities during combat and during post-conflict, reconstruction, or other contingency operations.

"(v) The effect of different periods of deployment on continuity in the acquisition process.

"(2) Final report.—Not later than 18 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 6, 2006], the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the committees listed in paragraph (1)(A) a final report on contingency contracting, containing a discussion of the implementation of the joint policy developed under subsection (a), including updated discussions of the matters covered in the interim report.

"(c) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) Contingency contracting personnel.—The term 'contingency contracting personnel' means members of the Armed Forces and civilian employees of the Department of Defense who are members of the defense acquisition workforce and, as part of their duties, are assigned to provide support to contingency operations (whether deployed or not).

"(2) Contingency contracting.—The term 'contingency contracting' means all stages of the process of acquiring property or services by the Department of Defense during a contingency operation.

"(3) Contingency operation.—The term 'contingency operation' has the meaning provided in section 101(13) of title 10, United States Code.

"(4) Acquisition support agencies.—The term 'acquisition support agencies' means Defense Agencies and Department of Defense Field Activities that carry out and provide support for acquisition-related activities."

Prohibition on Procurements From Communist Chinese Military Companies

Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title XII, §1211, Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3461, as amended by Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title XII, §1243(a), (b), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1645; Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title XII, §1296, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2562, provided that:

"(a) Prohibition.—The Secretary of Defense may not procure goods or services described in subsection (b), through a contract or any subcontract (at any tier) under a contract, from any Communist Chinese military company.

"(b) Goods and Services Covered.—For purposes of subsection (a), the goods and services described in this subsection are goods and services on the munitions list of the International Traffic in Arms Regulations or in the 600 series of the control list of the Export Administration Regulations, other than goods or services procured—

"(1) in connection with a visit by a vessel or an aircraft of the United States Armed Forces to the People's Republic of China;

"(2) for testing purposes; or

"(3) for purposes of gathering intelligence.

"(c) Waiver Authorized.—The Secretary of Defense may waive the prohibition in subsection (a) if the Secretary determines that such a waiver is necessary for national security purposes and the Secretary submits to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a report described in subsection (d) not less than 15 days before issuing the waiver under this subsection.

"(d) Report.—The report referred to in subsection (c) is a report that identifies the specific reasons for the waiver issued under subsection (c) and includes recommendations as to what actions may be taken to develop alternative sourcing capabilities in the future.

"(e) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) The term 'Communist Chinese military company' has the meaning provided that term by section 1237(b)(4) of the Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1999 [Pub. L. 105–261] (50 U.S.C. 1701 note).

"(2) The term 'munitions list of the International Traffic in Arms Regulations' means the United States Munitions List contained in part 121 of subchapter M of title 22 of the Code of Federal Regulations.

"(3) The term '600 series of the control list of the Export Administration Regulations' means the 600 series of the Commerce Control List contained in Supplement No. 1 to part 774 of subtitle B of title 15 of the Code of Federal Regulations."

[Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title XII, §1243(c), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1646, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending section 1211 of Pub. L. 109–163, set out above] take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 31, 2011] and apply with respect to contracts and subcontracts of the Department of Defense entered into on or after the date of the enactment of this Act."]

Development of Deployable Systems To Include Consideration of Force Protection in Asymmetric Threat Environments

Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title I, §141, Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1829, which provided that development of deployable systems must include consideration of force protection in asymmetric threat environments, was repealed by Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §812(b)(7), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1848.

Internal Controls for Department of Defense Procurements Through GSA Client Support Centers

Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title VIII, §802, Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 2004, as amended by Pub. L. 109–313, §2(c)(2), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1735, provided that:

"(a) Initial Inspector General Review and Determination.—(1) Not later than March 15, 2005, the Inspector General of the Department of Defense and the Inspector General of the General Services Administration shall jointly—

"(A) review—

"(i) the policies, procedures, and internal controls of each GSA Client Support Center; and

"(ii) the administration of those policies, procedures, and internal controls; and

"(B) for each such Center, determine in writing whether—

"(i) the Center is compliant with defense procurement requirements;

"(ii) the Center is not compliant with defense procurement requirements, but the Center made significant progress during 2004 toward becoming compliant with defense procurement requirements; or

"(iii) neither of the conclusions stated in clauses (i) and (ii) is correct.

"(2) If the Inspectors General determine under paragraph (1) that the conclusion stated in clause (ii) or (iii) of subparagraph (B) of such paragraph is correct in the case of a GSA Client Support Center, those Inspectors General shall, not later than March 15, 2006, jointly—

"(A) conduct a second review regarding that GSA Client Support Center as described in paragraph (1)(A); and

"(B) determine in writing whether that GSA Client Support Center is or is not compliant with defense procurement requirements.

"(b) Compliance With Defense Procurement Requirements.—For the purposes of this section, a GSA Client Support Center is compliant with defense procurement requirements if the GSA Client Support Center's policies, procedures, and internal controls, and the manner in which they are administered, are adequate to ensure compliance of that Center with the requirements of laws and regulations that apply to procurements of property and services made directly by the Department of Defense.

"(c) Limitations on Procurements Through GSA Client Support Centers.—(1) After March 15, 2005, and before March 16, 2006, no official of the Department of Defense may, except as provided in subsection (d) or (e), order, purchase, or otherwise procure property or services in an amount in excess of $100,000 through any GSA Client Support Center for which a determination described in paragraph (1)(B)(iii) of subsection (a) has been made under that subsection.

"(2) After March 15, 2006, no official of the Department of Defense may, except as provided in subsection (d) or (e), order, purchase, or otherwise procure property or services in an amount in excess of $100,000 through any GSA Client Support Center that has not been determined under this section as being compliant with defense procurement requirements.

"(d) Exception From Applicability of Limitations.—(1) No limitation applies under subsection (c) with respect to the procurement of property and services from a particular GSA Client Support Center during any period that there is in effect a determination of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, made in writing, that it is necessary in the interest of the Department of Defense to continue to procure property and services through that GSA Client Support Center.

"(2) A written determination with respect to a GSA Client Support Center under paragraph (1) is in effect for the period, not in excess of one year, that the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics shall specify in the written determination. The Under Secretary may extend from time to time, for up to one year at a time, the period for which the written determination remains in effect.

"(e) Termination of Applicability of Limitations.—Subsection (c) shall cease to apply to a GSA Client Support Center on the date on which the Inspector General of the Department of Defense and the Inspector General of the General Services Administration jointly determine that such Center is compliant with defense procurement requirements and notify the Secretary of Defense of that determination.

"(f) GSA Client Support Center Defined.—In this section, the term 'GSA Client Support Center' means a Client Support Center of the Federal Acquisition Service of the General Services Administration."

Data Review

Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title VIII, §801(b), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1540, which required revision of Department of Defense data collection systems to ensure their capability to identify each procurement that involved a consolidation of contract requirements with a total value in excess of $5,000,000, was repealed by Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §812(b)(8), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1848.

Quality Control in Procurement of Aviation Critical Safety Items and Related Services

Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title VIII, §802(a)–(c), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1540, provided that:

"(a) Quality Control Policy.—The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe in regulations a quality control policy for the procurement of aviation critical safety items and the procurement of modifications, repair, and overhaul of such items.

"(b) Content of Regulations.—The policy set forth in the regulations shall include the following requirements:

"(1) That the head of the design control activity for aviation critical safety items establish processes to identify and manage the procurement, modification, repair, and overhaul of aviation critical safety items.

"(2) That the head of the contracting activity for an aviation critical safety item enter into a contract for the procurement, modification, repair, or overhaul of such item only with a source approved by the design control activity in accordance with section 2319 of title 10, United States Code.

"(3) That the aviation critical safety items delivered, and the services performed with respect to aviation critical safety items, meet all technical and quality requirements specified by the design control activity.

"(c) Definitions.—In this section, the terms 'aviation critical safety item' and 'design control activity' have the meanings given such terms in section 2319(g) of title 10, United States Code, as amended by subsection (d)."

Competitive Award of Contracts for Reconstruction Activities in Iraq

Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title VIII, §805(a), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1542, provided that: "The Department of Defense shall fully comply with chapter 137 of title 10, United States Code, and other applicable procurement laws and regulations for any contract awarded for reconstruction activities in Iraq, and shall conduct a full and open competition for performing work needed for the reconstruction of the Iraqi oil industry."

Demonstration Project for Contractors Employing Persons With Disabilities

Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §888, Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1916, provided that: "Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 13, 2018], the Secretary of Defense shall update the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulatory Supplement to include an instruction on the pilot program regarding employment of persons with disabilities authorized under section 853 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2004 (Public Law 108–136; 10 U.S.C. 2302 note)."

Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title VIII, §853, Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1557, as amended by Pub. L. 108–199, div. H, §110, Jan. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 438; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §812(a)(2)(C)(i), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1846, provided that:

"(a) Authority.—The Secretary of Defense may carry out a demonstration project by entering into one or more contracts with an eligible contractor for the purpose of providing defense contracting opportunities for severely disabled individuals.

"(b) Evaluation Factor.—In evaluating an offer for a contract under the demonstration program, the percentage of the total workforce of the offeror consisting of severely disabled individuals employed by the offeror shall be one of the evaluation factors.

"(c) Credit Toward Certain Small Business Contracting Goals.—Department of Defense contracts entered into with eligible contractors under the demonstration project under this section, and subcontracts entered into with eligible contractors under such contracts, shall be credited toward the attainment of goals established under section 15(g)(1) of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 644(g)(1)) regarding the extent of the participation of disadvantaged small business concerns in contracts of the Department of Defense and subcontracts under such contracts.

"(d) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) Eligible contractor.—The term 'eligible contractor' means a business entity operated on a for-profit or nonprofit basis that—

"(A) employs severely disabled individuals at a rate that averages not less than 33 percent of its total workforce over a period prescribed by the Secretary;

"(B) pays not less than the minimum wage prescribed pursuant to section 6 of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (29 U.S.C. 206) to the employees who are severely disabled individuals; and

"(C) provides for its employees health insurance and a retirement plan comparable to those provided for employees by business entities of similar size in its industrial sector or geographic region.

"(2) Severely disabled individual.—The term 'severely disabled individual' means an individual with a disability (as defined in section 3 of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12102)) who has a severe physical or mental impairment that seriously limits one or more functional capacities."

Procurement of Defense Biomedical Countermeasures

Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title XVI, §1602, Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1682, as amended by Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title X, §1063(g)(3), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 324, provided that:

"(a) Determination of Material Threats.—(1) The Secretary of Defense (in this section referred to as the 'Secretary') shall on an ongoing basis—

"(A) assess current and emerging threats of use of biological, chemical, radiological, and nuclear agents; and

"(B) identify, on the basis of such assessment, those agents that present a material risk of use against the Armed Forces.

"(2) The Secretary shall on an ongoing basis—

"(A) assess the potential consequences to the health of members of the Armed Forces of use against the Armed Forces of the agents identified under paragraph (1)(B); and

"(B) identify, on the basis of such assessment, those agents for which countermeasures are necessary to protect the health of members of the Armed Forces.

"(b) Assessment of Availability and Appropriateness of Countermeasures.—The Secretary shall on an ongoing basis assess the availability and appropriateness of specific countermeasures to address specific threats identified under subsection (a).

"(c) Secretary's Determination of Countermeasures Appropriate for Procurement.—(1) The Secretary, in accordance with paragraph (2), shall on an ongoing basis identify specific countermeasures that the Secretary determines to be appropriate for procurement for the Department of Defense stockpile of biomedical countermeasures.

"(2) The Secretary may not identify a specific countermeasure under paragraph (1) unless the Secretary determines that—

"(A) the countermeasure is a qualified countermeasure; and

"(B) it is reasonable to expect that producing and delivering, within 5 years, the quantity of that countermeasure required to meet the needs of the Department (as determined by the Secretary) is feasible.

"(d) Interagency Cooperation.—(1) Activities of the Secretary under this section shall be carried out in regular, structured, and close consultation and coordination with the Secretaries of Homeland Security and Health and Human Services, including the activities described in subsections (a), (b), and (c) and those activities with respect to interagency agreements described in paragraph (2).

"(2) The Secretary may enter into an interagency agreement with the Secretaries of Homeland Security and Health and Human Services to provide for acquisition by the Secretary of Defense for use by the Armed Forces of biomedical countermeasures procured for the Strategic National Stockpile by the Secretary of Health and Human Services. The Secretary may transfer such funds to the Secretary of Health and Human Services as are necessary to carry out such agreements (including administrative costs of the Secretary of Health and Human Services), and the Secretary of Health and Human Services may expend any such transferred funds to procure such countermeasures for use by the Armed Forces, or to replenish the stockpile. The Secretaries are authorized to establish such terms and conditions for such agreements as the Secretaries determine to be in the public interest. The transfer authority provided under this paragraph is in addition to any other transfer authority available to the Secretary.

"(e) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) The term 'qualified countermeasure' means a biomedical countermeasure—

"(A) that is approved under section 505(a) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 355) or licensed under section 351 of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 262), or that is approved under section 515 or cleared under section 510(k) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 360e and 360) for use as such a countermeasure to a biological, chemical, radiological, or nuclear agent identified as a material threat under subsection (a); or

"(B) with respect to which the Secretary of Health and Human Services makes a determination that sufficient and satisfactory clinical experience or research data (including data, if available, from preclinical and clinical trials) exists to support a reasonable conclusion that the product will qualify for such approval or licensing for use as such a countermeasure.

"(2) The term 'biomedical countermeasure' means a drug (as defined in section 201(g)(1) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 321(g)(1))), device (as defined in section 201(h) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 321(h))), or biological product (as defined in section 351(i) of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 262(i))) that is—

"(A) used to treat, identify, or prevent harm from any biological, chemical, radiological, or nuclear agent that may cause a military health emergency affecting the Armed Forces; or

"(B) used to treat, identify, or prevent harm from a condition that may result in adverse health consequences or death and may be caused by administering a drug or biological product that is used as described in subparagraph (A).

"(3) The term 'Strategic National Stockpile' means the stockpile established under section 121(a) of the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 (42 U.S.C. 300hh–12(a)).

"(f) Funding.—Of the amount authorized to be appropriated for the Department of Defense and available within the transfer authority established under section 1001 of this Act [117 Stat. 1582] for fiscal year 2004 and for each fiscal year thereafter, such sums are authorized as may be necessary for the costs incurred by the Secretary in the procurement of countermeasures under this section."

Encouragement of Small Businesses and Nontraditional Defense Contractors To Submit Proposals Potentially Beneficial for Combating Terrorism

Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title II, §244, Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2498, provided that during fiscal years 2003, 2004, and 2005, the Secretary of Defense, acting through the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, was to carry out a program of outreach to small businesses and nontraditional defense contractors with the purpose of providing a process for reviewing and evaluating research activities of, and new technologies being developed by, small businesses and nontraditional defense contractors that had the potential for meeting a defense requirement or technology development goal of the Department of Defense that related to the mission of the Department of Defense to combat terrorism.

Procurement of Environmentally Preferable Procurement Items

Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title III, §314, Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2508, as amended by Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title X, §1056(e)(1), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3440, provided that:

"(a) Tracking System.—The Secretary of Defense shall develop and implement an effective and efficient tracking system to identify the extent to which the Defense Logistics Agency procures environmentally preferable procurement items or procurement items made with recovered material. The system shall provide for the separate tracking, to the maximum extent practicable, of the procurement of each category of procurement items that, as of the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 2, 2002], has been determined to be environmentally preferable or made with recovered material.

"(b) Assessment of Training and Education.—The Secretary of Defense shall assess the need to establish a program, or enhance existing programs, for training and educating Department of Defense procurement officials to ensure that they are aware of any Department requirements, preferences, or goals for the procurement of environmentally preferable procurement items or procurement items made with recovered material.

"(c) Reporting Requirement.—Not later than March 1, 2004, and each March 1 thereafter through 2007, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives a report detailing the results obtained from the tracking system developed under subsection (a).

"(d) Relation to Other Laws.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to alter the requirements of the Solid Waste Disposal Act (42 U.S.C. 6901 et seq.).

"(e) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) The term 'environmentally preferable', in the case of a procurement item, means that the item has a lesser or reduced effect on human health and the environment when compared with competing products that serve the same purpose. The comparison may consider raw materials acquisition, production, manufacturing, packaging, distribution, reuse, operation, maintenance, or disposal of the product.

"(2) The terms 'procurement item' and 'recovered material' have the meanings given such terms in section 1004 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act (42 U.S.C. 6903)."

Policy Regarding Acquisition of Information Assurance and Information Assurance-Enabled Information Technology Products

Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title III, §352, Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2518, which required the Secretary to establish a policy to limit the acquisition of information assurance and information assurance-enabled information technology products to those products already evaluated and validated in accordance with appropriate criteria, schemes, or programs, was repealed by Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §812(b)(9), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1848.

Logistics Support and Services for Weapon Systems Contractors

Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title III, §365, Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2520, as amended by Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title III, §331, Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3195, authorized the Secretary of Defense to make certain logistics support and services available to weapon systems contractors and provided for the expiration of such authority on Sept. 30, 2010.

Improvement of Software Acquisition Processes

Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title VIII, §804, Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2604, provided that:

"(a) Establishment of Programs.—(1) The Secretary of each military department shall establish a program to improve the software acquisition processes of that military department.

"(2) The head of each Defense Agency that manages a major defense acquisition program with a substantial software component shall establish a program to improve the software acquisition processes of that Defense Agency.

"(3) The programs required by this subsection shall be established not later than 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 2, 2002].

"(b) Program Requirements.—A program to improve software acquisition processes under this section shall, at a minimum, include the following:

"(1) A documented process for software acquisition planning, requirements development and management, project management and oversight, and risk management.

"(2) Efforts to develop appropriate metrics for performance measurement and continual process improvement.

"(3) A process to ensure that key program personnel have an appropriate level of experience or training in software acquisition.

"(4) A process to ensure that each military department and Defense Agency implements and adheres to established processes and requirements relating to the acquisition of software.

"(c) Department of Defense Guidance.—The Assistant Secretary of Defense for Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence, in consultation with the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, shall—

"(1) prescribe uniformly applicable guidance for the administration of all of the programs established under subsection (a) and take such actions as are necessary to ensure that the military departments and Defense Agencies comply with the guidance; and

"(2) assist the Secretaries of the military departments and the heads of the Defense Agencies to carry out such programs effectively by—

"(A) ensuring that the criteria applicable to the selection of sources provides added emphasis on past performance of potential sources, as well as on the maturity of the software products offered by the potential sources; and

"(B) identifying, and serving as a clearinghouse for information regarding, best practices in software development and acquisition in both the public and private sectors.

"(d) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) The term 'Defense Agency' has the meaning given the term in section 101(a)(11) of title 10, United States Code.

"(2) The term 'major defense acquisition program' has the meaning given such term in section 139(a)(2)(B) of title 10, United States Code."

Rapid Acquisition and Deployment Procedures

Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title VIII, §806, Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2607, as amended by Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title VIII, §845, Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1553; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title VIII, §811, Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 2012; Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title X, §1071(h), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2403; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title VIII, §803, Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4255; Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title VIII, §845(a), (b), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1515; Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title VIII, §803, Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 880; Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title VIII, §801, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2247, provided that:

"(a) Requirement To Establish Procedures.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 2, 2002], the Secretary of Defense shall prescribe procedures for the rapid acquisition and deployment of supplies and associated support services that are—

"(1)(A) currently under development by the Department of Defense or available from the commercial sector;

"(B) require only minor modifications to supplies described in subparagraph (A); or

"(C) developed or procured under the rapid fielding or rapid prototyping acquisition pathways under section 804 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016 (Public Law 114–92; 10 U.S.C. 2302 note); and

"(2) urgently needed to react to an enemy threat or to respond to significant and urgent safety situations.

"(b) Issues To Be Addressed.—The procedures prescribed under subsection (a) shall include the following:

"(1) A process for streamlined communications between the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the acquisition community, and the research and development community, including—

"(A) a process for the commanders of the combatant commands and the Joint Chiefs of Staff to communicate their needs to the acquisition community and the research and development community; and

"(B) a process for the acquisition community and the research and development community to propose supplies and associated support services that meet the needs communicated by the combatant commands and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

"(2) Procedures for demonstrating, rapidly acquiring, and deploying supplies and associated support services proposed pursuant to paragraph (1)(B), including—

"(A) a process for demonstrating performance and evaluating for current operational purposes the existing capability of the supplies and associated support services;

"(B) a process for developing an acquisition and funding strategy for the deployment of the supplies and associated support services; and

"(C) a process for making deployment and utilization determinations based on information obtained pursuant to subparagraphs (A) and (B).

"(3) Specific procedures in accordance with the guidance developed under section 804(a) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016 (Public Law 114–92; 10 U.S.C. 2302 note).

"(c) Response to Combat Emergencies and Certain Urgent Operational Needs.—

"(1) Determination of need for rapid acquisition and deployment.—(A) In the case of any supplies and associated support services that, as determined in writing by the Secretary of Defense, are urgently needed to eliminate a documented deficiency that has resulted in combat casualties, or is likely to result in combat casualties, the Secretary may use the procedures developed under this section in order to accomplish the rapid acquisition and deployment of the needed supplies and associated support services.

"(B) In the case of any supplies and associated support services that, as determined in writing by the Secretary of Defense, are urgently needed to eliminate a documented deficiency that impacts an ongoing or anticipated contingency operation and that, if left unfulfilled, could potentially result in loss of life or critical mission failure, the Secretary may use the procedures developed under this section in order to accomplish the rapid acquisition and deployment of the needed supplies and associated support services.

"(C)(i) In the case of any supplies and associated support services that, as determined in writing by the Secretary of Defense without delegation, are urgently needed to eliminate a deficiency that as the result of a cyber attack has resulted in critical mission failure, the loss of life, property destruction, or economic effects, or if left unfilled is likely to result in critical mission failure, the loss of life, property destruction, or economic effects, the Secretary may use the procedures developed under this section in order to accomplish the rapid acquisition and deployment of the needed offensive or defensive cyber capabilities, supplies, and associated support services.

"(ii) In this subparagraph, the term 'cyber attack' means a deliberate action to alter, disrupt, deceive, degrade, or destroy computer systems or networks or the information or programs resident in or transiting these systems or networks.

"(2) Designation of senior official responsible.—(A)(i) Except as provided under clause (ii), whenever the Secretary makes a determination under subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) of paragraph (1) that certain supplies and associated support services are urgently needed to eliminate a deficiency described in that subparagraph, the Secretary shall designate a senior official of the Department of Defense to ensure that the needed supplies and associated support services are acquired and deployed as quickly as possible, with a goal of awarding a contract for the acquisition of the supplies and associated support services within 15 days.

"(ii) Clause (i) does not apply to acquisitions initiated in the case of a determination by the Secretary that funds are necessary to immediately initiate a project under the rapid fielding or rapid prototyping acquisition pathways under section 804 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016 (Public Law 114–92; 10 U.S.C. 2302 note) if the designated official for acquisitions using such pathways is the service acquisition executive.

"(B) Upon designation of a senior official under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall authorize that official to waive any provision of law, policy, directive, or regulation described in subsection (d) that such official determines in writing would unnecessarily impede the rapid acquisition and deployment of the needed supplies and associated support services. In a case in which the needed supplies and associated support services cannot be acquired without an extensive delay, the senior official shall require that an interim solution be implemented and deployed using the procedures developed under this section to minimize adverse consequences resulting from the urgent need.

"(3) Use of funds.—(A) In any fiscal year in which the Secretary makes a determination described in subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) of paragraph (1), or upon the Secretary making a determination that funds are necessary to immediately initiate a project under the rapid fielding or rapid prototyping acquisition pathways under section 804 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016 (Public Law 114–92; 10 U.S.C. 2302 note) based on a compelling national security need, the Secretary may use any funds available to the Department of Defense for acquisitions of supplies and associated support services if the determination includes a written finding that the use of such funds is necessary to address the deficiency in a timely manner.

"(B) Except as provided under subparagraph (C), the authority of this section may only be used to acquire supplies and associated support services—

"(i) in the case of determinations by the Secretary under paragraph (1)(A), in an amount aggregating not more than $200,000,000 during any fiscal year;

"(ii) in the case of determinations by the Secretary under paragraph (1)(B), in an amount aggregating not more than $200,000,000 during any fiscal year;

"(iii) in the case of determinations by the Secretary under paragraph (1)(C), in an amount aggregating not more than $200,000,000 during any fiscal year; and

"(iv) in the case of a determination by the Secretary that funds are necessary to immediately initiate a project under the rapid fielding or rapid prototyping acquisition pathways under section 804 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016 (Public Law 114–92; 10 U.S.C. 2302 note), in an amount not more than $200,000,000 during any fiscal year.

"(C) For each of fiscal years 2017 and 2018, the limits set forth in clauses (i) and (ii) of subparagraph (B) do not apply to the exercise of authority under such clauses provided that the total amount of supplies and associated support services acquired as provided under such subparagraph does not exceed $800,000,000 during such fiscal year.

"(4) Notification to congressional defense committees.—(A) In the case of a determination by the Secretary under paragraph (1)(A), the Secretary shall notify the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] of the determination within 15 days after the date of the determination.

"(B) In the case of a determination by the Secretary under paragraph (1)(B) the Secretary shall notify the congressional defense committees of the determination at least 10 days before the date on which the determination is effective.

"(C) In the case of a determination by the Secretary under paragraph (3)(A) that funds are necessary to immediately initiate a project under the rapid fielding or rapid prototyping acquisition pathways under section 804 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016 (Public Law 114–92; 10 U.S.C. 2302 note), the Secretary shall notify the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] of the determination within 10 days after the date of the use of such funds.

"(D) A notice under this paragraph shall include the following:

"(i) The supplies and associated support services to be acquired.

"(ii) The amount anticipated to be expended for the acquisition.

"(iii) The source of funds for the acquisition.

"(E) A notice under this paragraph shall be sufficient to fulfill any requirement to provide notification to Congress for a new start program.

"(F) A notice under this paragraph shall be provided in consultation with the Director of the Office of Management and Budget.

"(5) Time for transitioning to normal acquisition system.—(A) Any acquisition initiated under this subsection shall transition to the normal acquisition system not later than two years after the date on which the Secretary makes the determination described in paragraph (1) with respect to the supplies and associated support services concerned.

"(B) Subparagraph (A) does not apply to acquisitions initiated in the case of a determination by the Secretary that funds are necessary to immediately initiate a project under the rapid fielding or rapid prototyping acquisition pathways under section 804 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016 (Public Law 114–92; 10 U.S.C. 2302 note).

"(6) Limitation on officers with authority to make a determination.—The authority to make a determination under subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) of paragraph (1) may be exercised only by the Secretary or Deputy Secretary of Defense.

"(d) Waiver of Certain Statutes and Regulations.—(1) Upon a determination described in subsection (c)(1), the senior official designated in accordance with subsection (c)(2) with respect to that designation is authorized to waive any provision of law, policy, directive or regulation addressing—

"(A) the establishment of the requirement for the supplies and associated support services;

"(B) the research, development, test, and evaluation of the supplies and associated support services; or

"(C) the solicitation and selection of sources, and the award of the contract, for procurement of the supplies and associated support services.

"(2) Nothing in this subsection authorizes the waiver of—

"(A) the requirements of this section or the regulations implementing this section; or

"(B) any provision of law imposing civil or criminal penalties.

"(e) Testing Requirement.—(1) The process for demonstrating performance and evaluating for current operational purposes the existing capability of the supplies and associated support services prescribed under subsection (b)(2)(A) shall include—

"(A) an operational assessment in accordance with procedures prescribed by the Director of Operational Test and Evaluation; and

"(B) a requirement to provide information about any deficiency of the supplies and associated support services in meeting the original requirements for the supplies and associated support services (as stated in a statement of the urgent operational need or similar document) to the deployment decisionmaking authority.

"(2) The process may not include a requirement for any deficiency of supplies and associated support services to be the determining factor in deciding whether to deploy the supplies and associated support services.

"(3) If supplies and associated support services are deployed under the rapid acquisition and deployment procedures prescribed pursuant to this section, or under any other authority, before the completion of operational test and evaluation of the supplies and associated support services, the Director of Operational Test and Evaluation shall have access to operational records and data relevant to such supplies and associated support services in accordance with section 139(e)(3) of title 10, United States Code, for the purpose of completing operational test and evaluation of the supplies and associated support services. The access to the operational records and data shall be provided in a time and manner determined by the Secretary of Defense consistent with requirements of operational security and other relevant operational requirements.

"(f) Limitation.—In the case of supplies that are part of a major system for which a low-rate initial production quantity determination has been made pursuant to section 2400 of title 10, United States Code, the quantity of such supplies acquired using the procedures prescribed pursuant to this section may not exceed an amount consistent with complying with limitations on the quantity of articles approved for low-rate initial production for such system. Any such supplies shall be included in any relevant calculation of quantities for low-rate initial production for the system concerned.

"(g) Associated Support Services Defined.—In this section, the term 'associated support services' means training, operation, maintenance, and support services needed in connection with the deployment of supplies to be acquired pursuant to the authority of this section. The term does not include functions that are inherently governmental or otherwise exempted from private sector performance."

[Pub. L. 115–245, div. A, title VIII, §8069, Sept. 28, 2018, 132 Stat. 3017, provided that: "Any notice that is required to be submitted to the Committees on Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives under section 806(c)(4) of the Bob Stump National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2003 [Pub. L. 107–314] (10 U.S.C. 2302 note) after the date of the enactment of this Act [div. A of Pub. L. 115–245, approved Sept. 28, 2018] shall be submitted pursuant to that requirement concurrently to the Subcommittees on Defense of the Committees on Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives."]

[Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation act:

[Pub. L. 115–141, div. C, title VIII, §8070, Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 480.]

[Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title VIII, §845(c), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1515, provided that: "The authority to acquire associated support services pursuant to section 806 of the Bob Stump National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2003 [Pub. L. 107–314, set out above], as amended by this section, shall not take effect until the Secretary of Defense certifies to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] that the Secretary has developed and implemented an expedited review process in compliance with the requirements of section 804 of the Ike Skelton National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011 (Public Law 111–383; 124 Stat. 4256; 10 U.S.C. 2302 note)."]

Procurement of Alternative Fueled and Hybrid Light Duty Trucks

Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title III, §318, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1055, provided that:

"(a) Defense Fleets Not Covered by Requirement in Energy Policy Act of 1992.—(1) The Secretary of Defense shall coordinate with the Administrator of General Services to ensure that only hybrid vehicles are procured by the Administrator for the Department of Defense fleet of light duty trucks that is not in a fleet of vehicles to which section 303 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (42 U.S.C. 13212) applies.

"(2) The Secretary, in consultation with the Administrator, may waive the policy regarding the procurement of hybrid vehicles in paragraph (1) to the extent that the Secretary determines necessary—

"(A) in the case of trucks that are exempt from the requirements of section 303 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 for national security reasons under subsection (b)(3)(E) of such section, to meet specific requirements of the Department of Defense for capabilities of light duty trucks;

"(B) to procure vehicles consistent with the standards applicable to the procurement of fleet vehicles for the Federal Government; or

"(C) to adjust to limitations on the commercial availability of light duty trucks that are hybrid vehicles.

"(3) This subsection applies with respect to procurements of light duty trucks in fiscal year 2005 and subsequent fiscal years.

"(b) Requirement To Exceed Requirement in Energy Policy Act of 1992.—(1) The Secretary of Defense shall coordinate with the Administrator of General Services to ensure that, of the light duty trucks procured in fiscal years after fiscal year 2004 for the fleets of light duty vehicles of the Department of Defense to which section 303 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 [42 U.S.C. 13212] applies—

"(A) five percent of the total number of such trucks that are procured in each of fiscal years 2005 and 2006 are alternative fueled vehicles or hybrid vehicles; and

"(B) ten percent of the total number of such trucks that are procured in each fiscal year after fiscal year 2006 are alternative fueled vehicles or hybrid vehicles.

"(2) Light duty trucks acquired for the Department of Defense that are counted to comply with section 303 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 for a fiscal year shall be counted to determine the total number of light duty trucks procured for the Department of Defense for that fiscal year for the purposes of paragraph (1), but shall not be counted to satisfy the requirement in that paragraph.

"(c) Report on Plans for Implementation.—At the same time that the President submits the budget for fiscal year 2003 to Congress under section 1105(a) of title 31, United States Code, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report summarizing the plans for carrying out subsections (a) and (b).

"(d) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) The term 'hybrid vehicle' means a motor vehicle that draws propulsion energy from onboard sources of stored energy that are both—

"(A) an internal combustion or heat engine using combustible fuel; and

"(B) a rechargeable energy storage system.

"(2) The term 'alternative fueled vehicle' has the meaning given that term in section 301 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (42 U.S.C. 13211)."

Temporary Emergency Procurement Authority to Facilitate the Defense Against Terrorism or Biological or Chemical Attack

Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title VIII, §836, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1192, provided special authorities relating to increased flexibility for use of streamlined procedures and commercial item treatment for procurements of biotechnology to facilitate the defense against terrorism or biological or chemical attack which would be applicable to procurements for which funds had been obligated during fiscal years 2002 and 2003, directed the Secretary of Defense to submit to committees of Congress, not later than Mar. 1, 2002, a report containing the Secretary's recommendations for additional emergency procurement authority that the Secretary had determined necessary to support operations carried out to combat terrorism, and provided that no contract could be entered into pursuant to such authority after Sept. 30, 2003.

Improvements in Procurements of Services

Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title VIII, §821], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–217, as amended by Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title XIV, §1431(c), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1672; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §836(f)(2), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1871, provided that:

"(a) Preference for Performance-Based Service Contracting.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 30, 2000], the Federal Acquisition Regulation issued in accordance with sections 6 and 25 of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act ([former] 41 U.S.C. 405 and 421) [see 41 U.S.C. 1121 and 1303] shall be revised to establish a preference for use of contracts and task orders for the purchase of services in the following order of precedence:

"(1) A performance-based contract or performance-based task order that contains firm fixed prices for the specific tasks to be performed.

"(2) Any other performance-based contract or performance-based task order.

"(3) Any contract or task order that is not a performance-based contract or a performance-based task order.

"[(b) Repealed. Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title XIV, §1431(c), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1672.]

"(c) Centers of Excellence in Service Contracting.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 30, 2000], the Secretary of each military department shall establish at least one center of excellence in contracting for services. Each center of excellence shall assist the acquisition community by identifying, and serving as a clearinghouse for, best practices in contracting for services in the public and private sectors.

"(d) Enhanced Training in Service Contracting.—(1) The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that classes focusing specifically on contracting for services are offered by the Defense Acquisition University and the Defense Systems Management College and are otherwise available to contracting personnel throughout the Department of Defense.

"(2) The Secretary of each military department and the head of each Defense Agency shall ensure that the personnel of the department or agency, as the case may be, who are responsible for the awarding and management of contracts for services receive appropriate training that is focused specifically on contracting for services.

"(e) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) The term 'performance-based', with respect to a contract, a task order, or contracting, means that the contract, task order, or contracting, respectively, includes the use of performance work statements that set forth contract requirements in clear, specific, and objective terms with measurable outcomes.

"(2) The term 'commercial item' has the meaning given the term in section 4(12) of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act ([former] 41 U.S.C. 403(12)) [see 41 U.S.C. 103].

"(3) The term 'Defense Agency' has the meaning given the term in section 101(a)(11) of title 10, United States Code."

[Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §836(f)(2), (h), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1871, 1874, provided that, effective Jan. 1, 2020, subject to a savings provision, section 1 [[div. A], title VIII, §821] of Pub. L. 106–398, set out above, is amended in subsec. (e) by striking paragraph (2) and by redesignating paragraph (3) as paragraph (2).]

Program To Increase Business Innovation in Defense Acquisition Programs

Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title VIII, §812(a)–(c), (e), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 709, 710, provided that:

"(a) Requirement To Develop Plan.—Not later than March 1, 2000, the Secretary of Defense shall publish in the Federal Register for public comment a plan to provide for increased innovative technology for acquisition programs of the Department of Defense from commercial private sector entities, including small-business concerns.

"(b) Implementation of Plan.—Not later than March 1, 2001, the Secretary of Defense shall implement the plan required by subsection (a), subject to any modifications the Secretary may choose to make in response to comments received.

"(c) Elements of Plan.—The plan required by subsection (a) shall include, at a minimum, the following elements:

"(1) Procedures through which commercial private sector entities, including small-business concerns, may submit proposals recommending cost-saving and innovative ideas to acquisition program managers.

"(2) A review process designed to make recommendations on the merit and viability of the proposals submitted under paragraph (1) at appropriate times during the acquisition cycle.

"(3) Measures to limit potential disruptions to existing contracts and programs from proposals accepted and incorporated into acquisition programs of the Department of Defense.

"(4) Measures to ensure that research and development efforts of small-business concerns are considered as early as possible in a program's acquisition planning process to accommodate potential technology insertion without disruption to existing contracts and programs.

"(e) Small-Business Concern Defined.—In this section, the term 'small-business concern' has the same meaning as the meaning of such term as used in the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 631 et seq.)."

Year 2000 Software Conversion

Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title VIII, §831, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2615, directed the Secretary of Defense to ensure that all information technology acquired by the Department of Defense pursuant to contracts entered into after Sept. 30, 1996, would have the capabilities to process date and date-related data in 2000, and directed the Secretary to assess all information technology within the Department to determine the extent to which such technology would have the capabilities to operate effectively, and to submit to Congress a detailed plan for eliminating any deficiencies not later than Jan. 1, 1997.

Defense Facility-Wide Pilot Program

Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title VIII, §822, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 396, as amended by Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1067(6), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 774, provided that:

"(a) Authority To Conduct Defense Facility-Wide Pilot Program.—The Secretary of Defense may conduct a pilot program, to be known as the 'defense facility-wide pilot program', for the purpose of determining the potential for increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of the acquisition process in facilities by using commercial practices on a facility-wide basis.

"(b) Designation of Participating Facilities.—(1) Subject to paragraph (2), the Secretary may designate up to two facilities as participants in the defense facility-wide pilot program.

"(2) The Secretary may designate for participation in the pilot program only those facilities that are authorized to be so designated in a law authorizing appropriations for national defense programs that is enacted after the date of the enactment of this Act [Feb. 10, 1996].

"(c) Scope of Program.—At a facility designated as a participant in the pilot program, the pilot program shall consist of the following:

"(1) All contracts and subcontracts for defense supplies and services that are performed at the facility.

"(2) All Department of Defense contracts and all subcontracts under Department of Defense contracts performed elsewhere that the Secretary determines are directly and substantially related to the production of defense supplies and services at the facility and are necessary for the pilot program.

"(d) Criteria for Designation of Participating Facilities.—The Secretary shall establish criteria for selecting a facility for designation as a participant in the pilot program. In developing such criteria, the Secretary shall consider the following:

"(1) The number of existing and anticipated contracts and subcontracts performed at the facility—

"(A) for which contractors are required to provide certified cost or pricing data pursuant to section 2306a of title 10, United States Code; and

"(B) which are administered with the application of cost accounting standards under section 26(f) of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act ([former] 41 U.S.C. 422(f)) [now 41 U.S.C. 1502(a), (b)].

"(2) The relationship of the facility to other organizations and facilities performing under contracts with the Department of Defense and subcontracts under such contracts.

"(3) The impact that the participation of the facility under the pilot program would have on competing domestic manufacturers.

"(4) Such other factors as the Secretary considers appropriate.

"(e) Notification.—(1) The Secretary shall transmit to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives a written notification of each facility proposed to be designated by the Secretary for participation in the pilot program.

"(2) The Secretary shall include in the notification regarding a facility designated for participation in the program a management plan addressing the following:

"(A) The proposed treatment of research and development contracts or subcontracts to be performed at the facility during the pilot program.

"(B) The proposed treatment of the cost impact of the use of commercial practices on the award and administration of contracts and subcontracts performed at the facility.

"(C) The proposed method for reimbursing the contractor for existing and new contracts.

"(D) The proposed method for measuring the performance of the facility for meeting the management goals of the Secretary.

"(E) Estimates of the annual amount and the total amount of the contracts and subcontracts covered under the pilot program.

"(3)(A) The Secretary shall ensure that the management plan for a facility provides for attainment of the following objectives:

"(i) A significant reduction of the cost to the Government for programs carried out at the facility.

"(ii) A reduction of the schedule associated with programs carried out at the facility.

"(iii) An increased use of commercial practices and procedures for programs carried out at the facility.

"(iv) Protection of a domestic manufacturer competing for contracts at such facility from being placed at a significant competitive disadvantage by the participation of the facility in the pilot program.

"(B) The management plan for a facility shall also require that all or substantially all of the contracts to be awarded and performed at the facility after the designation of that facility under subsection (b), and all or substantially all of the subcontracts to be awarded under those contracts and performed at the facility after the designation, be—

"(i) for the production of supplies or services on a firm-fixed price basis;

"(ii) awarded without requiring the contractors or subcontractors to provide certified cost or pricing data pursuant to section 2306a of title 10, United States Code; and

"(iii) awarded and administered without the application of cost accounting standards under section 26(f) of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act ([former] 41 U.S.C. 422(f)) [now 41 U.S.C. 1502(a), (b)].

"(f) Exemption From Certain Requirements.—In the case of a contract or subcontract that is to be performed at a facility designated for participation in the defense facility-wide pilot program and that is subject to section 2306a of title 10, United States Code, or section 26(f) of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act ([former] 41 U.S.C. 422(f)) [now 41 U.S.C. 1502(a), (b)], the Secretary of Defense may exempt such contract or subcontract from the requirement to obtain certified cost or pricing data under such section 2306a or the requirement to apply mandatory cost accounting standards under such section 26(f) [now 41 U.S.C. 1502(a), (b)] if the Secretary determines that the contract or subcontract—

"(1) is within the scope of the pilot program (as described in subsection (c)); and

"(2) is fairly and reasonably priced based on information other than certified cost and pricing data.

"(g) Special Authority.—The authority provided under subsection (a) includes authority for the Secretary of Defense—

"(1) to apply any amendment or repeal of a provision of law made in this Act [see Tables for classification] to the pilot program before the effective date of such amendment or repeal; and

"(2) to apply to a procurement of items other than commercial items under such program—

"(A) the authority provided in section 34 of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act ([former] 41 U.S.C. 430) [now 41 U.S.C. 1906] to waive a provision of law in the case of commercial items, and

"(B) any exception applicable under this Act or the Federal Acquisition Streamlining Act of 1994 (Public Law 103–355) [see Tables for classification] (or an amendment made by a provision of either Act) in the case of commercial items,

before the effective date of such provision (or amendment) to the extent that the Secretary determines necessary to test the application of such waiver or exception to procurements of items other than commercial items.

"(h) Applicability.—(1) Subsections (f) and (g) apply to the following contracts, if such contracts are within the scope of the pilot program at a facility designated for the pilot program under subsection (b):

"(A) A contract that is awarded or modified during the period described in paragraph (2).

"(B) A contract that is awarded before the beginning of such period, that is to be performed (or may be performed), in whole or in part, during such period, and that may be modified as appropriate at no cost to the Government.

"(2) The period referred to in paragraph (1), with respect to a facility designated under subsection (b), is the period that—

"(A) begins 45 days after the date of the enactment of the Act authorizing the designation of that facility in accordance with paragraph (2) of such subsection; and

"(B) ends on September 30, 2000.

"(i) Commercial Practices Encouraged.—With respect to contracts and subcontracts within the scope of the defense facility-wide pilot program, the Secretary of Defense may, to the extent the Secretary determines appropriate and in accordance with applicable law, adopt commercial practices in the administration of contracts and subcontracts. Such commercial practices may include the following:

"(1) Substitution of commercial oversight and inspection procedures for Government audit and access to records.

"(2) Incorporation of commercial oversight, inspection, and acceptance procedures.

"(3) Use of alternative dispute resolution techniques (including arbitration).

"(4) Elimination of contract provisions authorizing the Government to make unilateral changes to contracts."

Elimination of Use of Class I Ozone-Depleting Substances in Certain Military Procurement Contracts

Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title III, §326, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2368, as amended by Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §§1502(c)(2)(A), 1504(c)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 506, 514; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1067(8), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 774; Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title X, §1071(b)(14), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3508, provided that:

"(a) Elimination of Use of Class I Ozone-Depleting Substances.—(1) No Department of Defense contract awarded after June 1, 1993, may include a specification or standard that requires the use of a class I ozone-depleting substance or that can be met only through the use of such a substance unless the inclusion of the specification or standard in the contract is approved by the senior acquisition official for the procurement covered by the contract. The senior acquisition official may grant the approval only if the senior acquisition official determines (based upon the certification of an appropriate technical representative of the official) that a suitable substitute for the class I ozone-depleting substance is not currently available.

"(2)(A)(i) Not later than 60 days after the completion of the first modification, amendment, or extension after June 1, 1993, of a contract referred to in clause (ii), the senior acquisition official (or the designee of that official) shall carry out an evaluation of the contract in order to determine—

"(I) whether the contract includes a specification or standard that requires the use of a class I ozone-depleting substance or can be met only through the use of such a substance; and

"(II) in the event of a determination that the contract includes such a specification or standard, whether the contract can be carried out through the use of an economically feasible substitute for the ozone-depleting substance or through the use of an economically feasible alternative technology for a technology involving the use of the ozone-depleting substance.

"(ii) A contract referred to in clause (i) is any contract in an amount in excess of $10,000,000 that—

"(I) was awarded before June 1, 1993; and

"(II) as a result of the modification, amendment, or extension described in clause (i), will expire more than 1 year after the effective date of the modification, amendment, or extension.

"(iii) A contract under evaluation under clause (i) may not be further modified, amended, or extended until the evaluation described in that clause is complete.

"(B) If the acquisition official (or designee) determines that an economically feasible substitute substance or alternative technology is available for use in a contract under evaluation, the appropriate contracting officer shall enter into negotiations to modify the contract to require the use of the substitute substance or alternative technology.

"(C) A determination that a substitute substance or technology is not available for use in a contract under evaluation shall be made in writing by the senior acquisition official (or designee).

"(D) The Secretary of Defense may, consistent with the Federal Acquisition Regulation, adjust the price of a contract modified under subparagraph (B) to take into account the use by the contractor of a substitute substance or alternative technology in the modified contract.

"(3) The senior acquisition official authorized to grant an approval under paragraph (1) and the senior acquisition official and designees authorized to carry out an evaluation and make a determination under paragraph (2) shall be determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense. A senior acquisition official may not delegate the authority provided in paragraph (1).

"(4) Each official who grants an approval authorized under paragraph (1) or makes a determination under paragraph (2)(B) shall submit to the Secretary of Defense a report on that approval or determination, as the case may be, as follows:

"(A) Beginning on October 1, 1993, and continuing for 8 calendar quarters thereafter, by submitting a report on the approvals granted or determinations made under such authority during the preceding quarter not later than 30 days after the end of such quarter.

"(B) Beginning on January 1, 1997, and continuing for 4 years thereafter, by submitting a report on the approvals granted or determinations made under such authority during the preceding year not later than 30 days after the end of such year.

"(5) The Secretary shall promptly transmit to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives each report submitted to the Secretary under paragraph (4). The Secretary shall transmit the report in classified and unclassified forms.

"(b) Cost Recovery.—In any case in which a Department of Defense contract is modified or a specification or standard for such a contract is waived at the request of a contractor in order to permit the contractor to use in the performance of the contract a substitute for a class I ozone-depleting substance or an alternative technology for a technology involving the use of a class I ozone-depleting substance, the Secretary of Defense may adjust the price of the contract in a manner consistent with the Federal Acquisition Regulation.

"(c) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) The term 'class I ozone-depleting substance' means any substance listed under section 602(a) of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7671a(a)).

"(2) The term 'Federal Acquisition Regulation' means the single Government-wide procurement regulation issued under section 1303(a) of title 41, United States Code."

Payment Protections for Subcontractors and Suppliers

Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title VIII, §806, Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1417, as amended by Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title X, §1053(5), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2502; Pub. L. 103–355, title II, §2091, title VIII, §8105(k), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3306, 3393; Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title X, §1071(b)(15), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3508; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §836(f)(1), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1870, provided that:

"(a) Regulations.—The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe in regulations the following requirements:

"(1) Information provided by department of defense relating to payment.—(A) Subject to section 552(b)(1) of title 5, United States Code, upon the request of a subcontractor or supplier of a contractor performing a Department of Defense contract, the Department of Defense shall promptly make available to such subcontractor or supplier the following information:

"(i) Whether requests for progress payments or other payments have been submitted by the contractor to the Department of Defense in connection with that contract.

"(ii) Whether final payment to the contractor has been made by the Department of Defense in connection with that contract.

"(B) This paragraph shall apply with respect to any Department of Defense contract that is in effect on the date which is 270 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 5, 1991] or that is awarded after such date.

"(2) Information provided by department of defense relating to payment bonds.—(A) Upon the request of a subcontractor or supplier described in subparagraph (B), the Department of Defense shall promptly make available to such subcontractor or supplier any of the following:

"(i) The name and address of the surety or sureties on the payment bond.

"(ii) The penal amount of the payment bond.

"(iii) A copy of the payment bond.

"(B) Subparagraph (A) applies to—

"(i) a subcontractor or supplier having a subcontract, purchase order, or other agreement to furnish labor or material for the performance of a Department of Defense contract with respect to which a payment bond has been furnished to the United States pursuant to the Miller Act; and

"(ii) a prospective subcontractor or supplier offering to furnish labor or material for the performance of such a Department of Defense contract.

"(C) With respect to the information referred to in subparagraphs (A)(i) and (A)(ii), the regulations shall include authority for such information to be provided verbally to the subcontractor or supplier.

"(D) With respect to the information referred to in subparagraph (A)(iii), the regulations may impose reasonable fees to cover the cost of copying and providing requested bonds.

"(E) This paragraph shall apply with respect to any Department of Defense contract covered by the Miller Act that is in effect on the date which is 270 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 5, 1991] or that is awarded after such date.

"(3) Information provided by contractors relating to payment bonds.—(A) Upon the request of a prospective subcontractor or supplier offering to furnish labor or material for the performance of a Department of Defense contract with respect to which a payment bond has been furnished to the United States pursuant to the Miller Act, the contractor shall promptly make available to such prospective subcontractor or supplier a copy of the payment bond.

"(B) This paragraph shall apply with respect to any Department of Defense contract covered by the Miller Act for which a solicitation is issued after the expiration of the 60-day period beginning on the effective date of the regulations promulgated under this subsection.

"(4) Procedures relating to compliance with payment terms.—(A) Under procedures established in the regulations, upon the assertion by a subcontractor or supplier of a contractor performing a Department of Defense contract that the subcontractor or supplier has not been paid by the prime contractor in accordance with the payment terms of the subcontract, purchase order, or other agreement with the prime contractor, the contracting officer may determine the following:

"(i) With respect to a construction contract, whether the contractor has made progress payments to the subcontractor or supplier in compliance with chapter 39 of title 31, United States Code.

"(ii) With respect to a contract other than a construction contract, whether the contractor has made progress or other payments to the subcontractor or supplier in compliance with the terms of the subcontract, purchase order, or other agreement with the prime contractor.

"(iii) With respect to either a construction contract or a contract other than a construction contract, whether the contractor has made final payment to the subcontractor or supplier in compliance with the terms of the subcontract, purchase order, or other agreement with the prime contractor.

"(iv) With respect to either a construction contract or a contract other than a construction contract, whether any certification of payment of the subcontractor or supplier accompanying the contractor's payment request to the Government is accurate.

"(B) If the contracting officer determines that the prime contractor is not in compliance with any matter referred to in clause (i), (ii), or (iii) of subparagraph (A), the contracting officer may, under procedures established in the regulations—

"(i) encourage the prime contractor to make timely payment to the subcontractor or supplier; or

"(ii) reduce or suspend progress payments with respect to amounts due to the prime contractor.

"(C) If the contracting officer determines that a certification referred to in clause (iv) of subparagraph (A) is inaccurate in any material respect, the contracting officer shall, under procedures established in the regulations, initiate appropriate administrative or other remedial action.

"(D) This paragraph shall apply with respect to any Department of Defense contract that is in effect on the date of promulgation of the regulations under this subsection or that is awarded after such date.

"(b) Inapplicability to Certain Contracts.—Regulations prescribed under this section shall not apply to a contract for the acquisition of commercial items (as defined in section 103 of title 41, United States Code).

"(c) Government-Wide Applicability.—The Federal Acquisition Regulatory Council (established by section 1302(a) of title 41, United States Code) shall modify the Federal Acquisition Regulation (issued pursuant to section 1303(a)(1) of such title 41[)] to apply Government-wide the requirements that the Secretary is required under subsection (a) to prescribe in regulations applicable with respect to the Department of Defense contracts.

"(d) Assistance to Small Business Concerns.—[Amended section 15(k)(5) of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 644(k)(5)).]

"(e) GAO Report.—(1) The Comptroller General of the United States shall conduct an assessment of the matters described in paragraph (2) and submit a report pursuant to paragraph (3).

"(2) In addition to such other related matters as the Comptroller General considers appropriate, the matters to be assessed pursuant to paragraph (1) are the following:

"(A) Timely payment of progress or other periodic payments to subcontractors and suppliers by prime contractors on Federal contracts by—

"(i) identifying all existing statutory and regulatory provisions, categorized by types of contracts covered by such provisions;

"(ii) evaluating the feasibility and desirability of requiring that a prime contractor (other than a construction prime contractor subject to the provisions of sections 3903(b) and 3905 of title 31, United States Code) be required to—

"(I) include in its subcontracts a payment term requiring payment within 7 days (or some other fixed term) after receiving payment from the Government; and

"(II) submit with its payment request to the Government a certification that it has timely paid its subcontractors in accordance with their subcontracts from funds previously received as progress payments and will timely make required payments to such subcontractors from the proceeds of the progress payment covered by the certification;

"(iii) evaluating the feasibility and desirability of requiring that all prime contractors (other than a construction prime contractor subject to the provisions of sections 3903(b) and 3905 of title 31, United States Code) furnish with its payment request to the Government proof of payment of the amounts included in such payment request for payments made to subcontractors and suppliers;

"(iv) evaluating the feasibility and desirability of requiring a prime contractor to establish an escrow account at a federally insured financial institution and requiring direct disbursements to subcontractors and suppliers of amounts certified by the prime contractor in its payment request to the Government as being payable to such subcontractors and suppliers in accordance with their subcontracts; and

"(v) evaluating the feasibility and desirability of requiring direct disbursement of amounts certified by a prime contractor as being payable to its subcontractors and suppliers in accordance with their subcontracts (using techniques such as joint payee checks, escrow accounts, or direct payment by the Government), if the contracting officer has determined that the prime contractor is failing to make timely payments to its subcontractors and suppliers.

"(B) Payment protection of subcontractors and suppliers through the use of payment bonds or alternatives methods by—

"(i) evaluating the effectiveness of the modifications to part 28.2 of the Federal Acquisition Regulation Part 28.2 (48 C.F.R. 28.200) relating to the use of individual sureties, which became effective February 26, 1990;

"(ii) evaluating the effectiveness of requiring payment bonds pursuant to the Miller Act as a means of affording protection to construction subcontractors and suppliers relating to receiving—

"(I) timely payment of progress payments due in accordance with their subcontracts; and

"(II) ultimate payment of such amounts due;

"(iii) evaluating the feasibility and desirability of increasing the payment bond amounts required under the Miller Act from the current maximum amounts to an amount equal to 100 percent of the amount of the contract;

"(iv) evaluating the feasibility and desirability of requiring payment bonds for supply and services contracts (other than construction), and, if feasible and desirable, the amounts of such bonds; and

"(v) evaluating the feasibility and desirability of using letters of credit issued by federally insured financial institutions (or other alternatives) as substitutes for payment bonds in providing payment protection to subcontractors and suppliers on construction contracts (and other contracts).

"(C) Any evaluation of feasibility and desirability carried out pursuant to subparagraph (A) or (B) shall include the appropriateness of—

"(i) any differential treatment of, or impact on, small business concerns as opposed to concerns other than small business concerns;

"(ii) any differential treatment of subcontracts relating to commercial products entered into by the contractor in furtherance of its non-Government business, especially those subcontracts entered into prior to the award of a contract by the Government; and

"(iii) extending the protections regarding payment to all tiers of subcontractors or restricting them to first-tier subcontractors and direct suppliers.

"(3) The report required by paragraph (1) shall include a description of the results of the assessment carried out pursuant to paragraph (2) and may include recommendations pertaining to any of the following:

"(A) Statutory and regulatory changes providing payment protections for subcontractors and suppliers (other than a construction prime contractor subject to the provisions of sections 3903(b) and 3905 of title 31, United States Code) that the Comptroller General believes to be desirable and feasible.

"(B) Proposals to assess the desirability and utility of a specific payment protection on a test basis.

"(C) Such other recommendations as the Comptroller General considers appropriate in light of the matters assessed pursuant to paragraph (2).

"(4) The report required by paragraph (1) shall be submitted not later than by February 1, 1993, to the Committees on Armed Services and on Small Business [now the Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship of the Senate] of the Senate and House of Representatives.

"(f) Inspector General Report.—(1) The Inspector General of the Department of Defense shall submit to the Secretary of Defense a report on payment protections for subcontractors and suppliers under contracts entered into with the Department of Defense. The report shall include an assessment of the extent to which available judicial and administrative remedies, as well as suspension and debarment procedures, have been used (or recommended for use) by officials of the Department to deter false statements relating to (A) payment bonds provided by individuals pursuant to the Miller Act, and (B) certifications pertaining to payment requests by construction contractors pursuant to section 3903(b) of title 31, United States Code. The assessment shall cover actions taken during the period beginning on October 1, 1989, and ending on September 30, 1992.

"(2) The report required by paragraph (1) shall be submitted to the Secretary of Defense not later than March 1, 1993. The report may include recommendations by the Inspector General on ways to improve the effectiveness of existing methods of preventing false statements.

"(g) Miller Act Defined.—For purposes of this section, the term 'Miller Act' means the Act of August 24, 1935 (40 U.S.C. 270a–270d) [now 40 U.S.C. 3131, 3133]."

[Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §836(f)(1), (h), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1870, 1874, provided that, effective Jan. 1, 2020, subject to a savings provision, section 806(b) of Pub. L. 102–190, set out above, is amended by striking "commercial items (as defined in section 103 of title 41, United States Code)" and inserting "commercial products or commercial services (as defined in sections 103 and 103a, respectively, of title 41, United States Code)".]

Advisory Panel on Streamlining and Codifying Acquisition Laws

Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title VIII, §800, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1587, as amended by Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title IX, §904(f), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1729, directed Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology, not later than Jan. 15, 1991, to establish under sponsorship of Defense Systems Management College an advisory panel on streamlining and codifying acquisition laws, to review the acquisition laws applicable to Department of Defense with a view toward streamlining the defense acquisition process, to make any recommendations for repeal or amendment of such laws that the panel considers necessary, as a result of such review, and to prepare a proposed code of relevant acquisition laws, directed the advisory panel, not later than Dec. 15, 1992, to transmit a final report on the actions of the panel to the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology, and directed the Secretary of Defense, not later than Jan. 15, 1993, to transmit the final report, together with such comments as he deems appropriate, to Congress.

Mentor-Protege Pilot Program

Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title VIII, §861(b), Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 925, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending section 831 of Pub. L. 101–510, set out below] shall apply to a mentor-protege agreement made pursuant to section 831 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1991 (Public Law 101–510; 104 Stat. 1607; 10 U.S.C. 2302 note) entered into after the date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016 [Nov. 25, 2015].

"(2) Retroactivity of report and review requirements.—The amendments made by subsection (a)(10) [amending section 831 of Pub. L. 101–510, set out below, by adding subsecs. (l) and (m)] shall apply to a mentor-protege agreement made pursuant to section 831 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1991 (Public Law 101–510; 104 Stat. 1607; 10 U.S.C. 2302 note) entered into before, on, or after the date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016 [Nov. 25, 2015]."

Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title VIII, §811(d)(2), (3), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 708, 709, as amended by Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title X, §1048(g)(5), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1228, directed the Secretary of Defense to conduct a review of the Mentor-Protege Program established in Pub. L. 101–510, §831, set out below, to assess the feasibility of transitioning such program to operation without a specific appropriation or authority to provide reimbursement to a mentor firm and to assess additional incentives that could be extended to mentor firms to ensure adequate support and participation in the Program, directed the Secretary to submit to committees of Congress a report on the results of the review and recommendations not later than Sept. 30, 2000, and directed the Comptroller General to conduct a study on the implementation of the Program and the extent to which the Program was achieving its purposes in a cost-effective manner and to submit to committees of Congress a report on the results of the study not later than Jan. 1, 2002.

Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title VIII, §807(a), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2448, directed the Secretary of Defense, within 15 days after Oct. 23, 1992, to publish in the Department of Defense Supplement to the Federal Acquisition Regulation the Department of Defense policy for the pilot Mentor-Protege Program and the regulations, directives, and administrative guidance pertaining to such program as such policy, regulations, directives, and administrative guidance had existed on Dec. 6, 1991, and directed that proposed modifications to that policy and any amendments proposed in order to implement any of the amendments made by this section, amending Pub. L. 101–510, §831, set out below, were to be published in final form within 120 days after Oct. 23, 1992.

Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title VIII, §831, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1607, as amended by Pub. L. 102–25, title VII, §704(c), Apr. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 119; Pub. L. 102–172, title VIII, §8064A, Nov. 26, 1991, 105 Stat. 1186; Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title VIII, §814(b), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1425; Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title VIII, §§801(h)(4), 807(b)(1), title X, §1054(d), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2445, 2448, 2503; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title VIII, §813(b)(1), (c), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1703; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title VIII, §824, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 399; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title VIII, §802, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2604; Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title VIII, §821(a), title X, §1073(c)(6), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1840, 1904; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title VIII, §811(a)–(d)(1), (e), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 706, 707, 709; Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title VIII, §807], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–208; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title VIII, §812, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1181; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title VIII, §§841(a), (b), 842, Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 2018, 2019; Pub. L. 112–10, div. A, title VIII, §8016, Apr. 15, 2011, 125 Stat. 60; Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title VIII, §867, title X, §1062(n), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1526, 1586; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1076(a)(17), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1948; Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title X, §1071(b)(16), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3508; Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title VIII, §861(a), Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 921; Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title XVIII, §§1813(b), 1823, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2652, 2656; Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title XVII, §1701(a)(4)(A), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1796; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §812(a)(2)(C)(ii), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1846, provided that:

"(a) Establishment of Pilot Program.—The Secretary of Defense shall establish a pilot program to be known as the 'Mentor-Protege Program'.

"(b) Purpose.—The purpose of the program is to provide incentives for major Department of Defense contractors to furnish disadvantaged small business concerns with assistance designed to—

"(1) enhance the capabilities of disadvantaged small business concerns to perform as subcontractors and suppliers under Department of Defense contracts and other contracts and subcontracts; and

"(2) increase the participation of such business concerns as subcontractors and suppliers under Department of Defense contracts, other Federal Government contracts, and commercial contracts.

"(c) Program Participants.—(1) A business concern meeting the eligibility requirements set out in subsection (d) may enter into agreements under subsection (e) and furnish assistance to disadvantaged small business concerns upon making application to the Secretary of Defense and being approved for participation in the pilot program by the Secretary. A business concern participating in the pilot program pursuant to such an approval shall be known, for the purposes of the program, as a 'mentor firm'.

"(2) A disadvantaged small business concern eligible for the award of Federal contracts may obtain assistance from a mentor firm upon entering into an agreement with the mentor firm as provided in subsection (e). A disadvantaged small business concern may not be a party to more than one agreement concurrently, and the authority to enter into agreements under subsection (e) shall only be available to such concern during the 5-year period beginning on the date such concern enters into the first such agreement. A disadvantaged small business concern receiving such assistance shall be known, for the purposes of the program, as a 'protege firm'.

"(3) In entering into an agreement pursuant to subsection (e), a mentor firm may rely in good faith on a written representation of a business concern that such business concern is a disadvantaged small business concern. The Small Business Administration shall determine the status of such business concern as a disadvantaged small business concern in the event of a protest regarding the status of such business concern. If at any time the business concern is determined by the Small Business Administration not to be a disadvantaged small business concern, assistance furnished such business concern by the mentor firm after the date of the determination may not be considered assistance furnished under the program.

"(d) Mentor Firm Eligibility.—

"(1) Subject to subsection (c)(1), a mentor firm may enter into an agreement with one or more protege firms under subsection (e) and provide assistance under the program pursuant to that agreement if the mentor firm—

"(A) is eligible for award of Federal contracts; and

"(B) demonstrates that it—

"(i) is qualified to provide assistance that will contribute to the purpose of the program;

"(ii) is of good financial health and character and does not appear on a Federal list of debarred or suspended contractors; and

"(iii) can impart value to a protege firm because of experience gained as a Department of Defense contractor or through knowledge of general business operations and government contracting, as demonstrated by evidence that—

     "(I) during the fiscal year preceding the fiscal year in which the mentor firm enters into the agreement, the total amount of the Department of Defense contracts awarded such mentor firm and the subcontracts awarded such mentor firm under Department of Defense contracts was equal to or greater than $100,000,000; or

     "(II) the mentor firm demonstrates the capability to assist in the development of protege firms, and is approved by the Secretary of Defense pursuant to criteria specified in the regulations prescribed pursuant to subsection (k).

"(2) A mentor firm may not enter into an agreement with a protege firm if the Administrator of the Small Business Administration has made a determination finding affiliation between the mentor firm and the protege firm.

"(3) If the Administrator of the Small Business Administration has not made such a determination and if the Secretary has reason to believe (based on the regulations promulgated by the Administrator regarding affiliation) that the mentor firm is affiliated with the protege firm, the Secretary shall request a determination regarding affiliation from the Administrator of the Small Business Administration.

"(e) Mentor-Protege Agreement.—Before providing assistance to a protege firm under the program, a mentor firm shall enter into a mentor-protege agreement with the protege firm regarding the assistance to be provided by the mentor firm. The agreement shall include the following:

"(1) A developmental program for the protege firm, in such detail as may be reasonable, including—

"(A) factors to assess the protege firm's developmental progress under the program;

"(B) a description of the quantitative and qualitative benefits to the Department of Defense from the agreement, if applicable;

"(C) goals for additional awards that [the] protege firm can compete for outside the Mentor-Protege Program; and

"(D) the assistance the mentor firm will provide to the protege firm in understanding contract regulations of the Federal Government and the Department of Defense (including the Federal Acquisition Regulation and the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement) after award of a subcontract under this section, if applicable.

"(2) A program participation term for any period of not more than three years, except that the term may be a period of up to five years if the Secretary of Defense determines in writing that unusual circumstances justify a program participation term in excess of three years.

"(3) Procedures for the protege firm to terminate the agreement voluntarily and for the mentor firm to terminate the agreement for cause.

"(f) Forms of Assistance.—A mentor firm may provide a protege firm the following:

"(1) Assistance, by using mentor firm personnel, in—

"(A) general business management, including organizational management, financial management, and personnel management, marketing, and overall business planning;

"(B) engineering and technical matters such as production, inventory control, and quality assurance; and

"(C) any other assistance designed to develop the capabilities of the protege firm under the developmental program referred to in subsection (e).

"(2) Award of subcontracts on a noncompetitive basis to the protege firm under the Department of Defense or other contracts.

"(3) Payment of progress payments for performance of the protege firm under such a subcontract in amounts as provided for in the subcontract, but in no event may any such progress payment exceed 100 percent of the costs incurred by the protege firm for the performance.

"(4) Advance payments under such subcontracts.

"(5) Loans.

"(6) Assistance obtained by the mentor firm for the protege firm from one or more of the following—

"(A) small business development centers established pursuant to section 21 of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 648);

"(B) entities providing procurement technical assistance pursuant to chapter 142 of title 10, United States Code;

"(C) a historically Black college or university or a minority institution of higher education; or

"(D) women's business centers described in section 29 of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 656).

"(g) Incentives for Mentor Firms.—(1) The Secretary of Defense may provide to a mentor firm reimbursement for the total amount of any progress payment or advance payment made under the program by the mentor firm to a protege firm in connection with a Department of Defense contract awarded the mentor firm.

"(2)(A) The Secretary of Defense may provide to a mentor firm reimbursement for the costs of the assistance furnished to a protege firm pursuant to paragraphs (1) and (6) of subsection (f) (except as provided in subparagraph (D)) as provided for in a line item in a Department of Defense contract under which the mentor firm is furnishing products or services to the Department, subject to a maximum amount of reimbursement specified in such contract, except that this sentence does not apply in a case in which the Secretary of Defense determines in writing that unusual circumstances justify reimbursement using a separate contract.

"(B) The determinations made in annual performance reviews of a mentor firm's mentor-protege agreement shall be a major factor in the determinations of amounts of reimbursement, if any, that the mentor firm is eligible to receive in the remaining years of the program participation term under the agreement.

"(C) The total amount reimbursed under this paragraph to a mentor firm for costs of assistance furnished in a fiscal year to a protege firm may not exceed $1,000,000, except in a case in which the Secretary of Defense determines in writing that unusual circumstances justify a reimbursement of a higher amount.

"(D) The Secretary may not reimburse any fee assessed by the mentor firm for services provided to the protege firm pursuant to subsection (f)(6) or for business development expenses incurred by the mentor firm under a contract awarded to the mentor firm while participating in a joint venture with the protege firm.

"(3)(A) Costs incurred by a mentor firm in providing assistance to a protege firm that are not reimbursed pursuant to paragraph (2) shall be recognized as credit in lieu of subcontract awards for purposes of determining whether the mentor firm attains a subcontracting participation goal applicable to such mentor firm under a Department of Defense contract, under a contract with another executive agency, or under a divisional or company-wide subcontracting plan negotiated with the Department of Defense or another executive agency.

"(B) The amount of the credit given a mentor firm for any such unreimbursed costs shall be equal to—

"(i) four times the total amount of such costs attributable to assistance provided by entities described in subsection (f)(6);

"(ii) three times the total amount of such costs attributable to assistance furnished by the mentor firm's employees; and

"(iii) two times the total amount of any other such costs.

"(C) Under regulations prescribed pursuant to subsection (k), the Secretary of Defense shall adjust the amount of credit given a mentor firm pursuant to subparagraphs (A) and (B) if the Secretary determines that the firm's performance regarding the award of subcontracts to disadvantaged small business concerns has declined without justifiable cause.

"(4) A mentor firm shall receive credit toward the attainment of a subcontracting participation goal applicable to such mentor firm for each subcontract for a product or service awarded under such contract by a mentor firm to a business concern that, except for its size, would be a small business concern owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals, but only if—

"(A) the size of such business concern is not more than two times the maximum size specified by the Administrator of the Small Business Administration for purposes of determining whether a business concern furnishing such product or service is a small business concern; and

"(B) the business concern formerly had a mentor-protege agreement with such mentor firm that was not terminated for cause.

"(h) Relationship to Small Business Act.—(1) For purposes of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 631 et seq.), no determination of affiliation or control (either direct or indirect) may be found between a protege firm and its mentor firm on the basis that the mentor firm has agreed to furnish (or has furnished) to its protege firm pursuant to a mentor-protege agreement any form of developmental assistance described in subsection (f).

"(2) Notwithstanding section 8 of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 637), the Small Business Administration may not determine a disadvantaged small business concern to be ineligible to receive any assistance authorized under the Small Business Act on the basis that such business concern has participated in the Mentor-Protege Program or has received assistance pursuant to any developmental assistance agreement authorized under such program.

"(3) The Small Business Administration may not require a firm that is entering into, or has entered into, an agreement under subsection (e) as a protege firm to submit the agreement, or any other document required by the Secretary of Defense in the administration of the Mentor-Protege Program, to the Small Business Administration for review, approval, or any other purpose.

"(i) Participation in Mentor-Protege Program not To Be a Condition for Award of a Contract or Subcontract.—A mentor firm may not require a business concern to enter into an agreement with the mentor firm pursuant to subsection (e) as a condition for being awarded a contract by the mentor firm, including a subcontract under a contract awarded to the mentor firm.

"(j) Expiration of Authority.—(1) No mentor-protege agreement may be entered into under subsection (e) after September 30, 2018.

"(2) No reimbursement may be paid, and no credit toward the attainment of a subcontracting goal may be granted, under subsection (g) for any cost incurred after September 30, 2021.

"(k) Regulations.—The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe regulations to carry out the pilot Mentor-Protege Program. Such regulations shall include the requirements set forth in section 8(d) of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 637(d)) and shall prescribe procedures by which mentor firms may terminate participation in the program. The Secretary shall publish the proposed regulations not later than the date 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 5, 1990]. The Secretary shall promulgate the final regulations not later than the date 270 days after the date of the enactment of this Act. The Department of Defense policy regarding the pilot Mentor-Protege Program shall be published and maintained as an appendix to the Department of Defense Supplement to the Federal Acquisition Regulation.

"(l) Report by Mentor Firms.—To comply with section 8(d)(7) of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 637(d)(7)), each mentor firm shall submit a report to the Secretary not less than once each fiscal year that includes, for the preceding fiscal year—

"(1) all technical or management assistance provided by mentor firm personnel for the purposes described in subsection (f)(1);

"(2) any new awards of subcontracts on a competitive or noncompetitive basis to the protege firm under Department of Defense contracts or other contracts, including the value of such subcontracts;

"(3) any extensions, increases in the scope of work, or additional payments not previously reported for prior awards of subcontracts on a competitive or noncompetitive basis to the protege firm under Department of Defense contracts or other contracts, including the value of such subcontracts;

"(4) the amount of any payment of progress payments or advance payments made to the protege firm for performance under any subcontract made under the Mentor-Protege Program;

"(5) any loans made by [the] mentor firm to the protege firm;

"(6) all Federal contracts awarded to the mentor firm and the protege firm as a joint venture, designating whether the award was a restricted competition or a full and open competition;

"(7) any assistance obtained by the mentor firm for the protege firm from one or more—

"(A) small business development centers established pursuant to section 21 of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 648);

"(B) entities providing procurement technical assistance pursuant to chapter 142 of title 10, United States Code; or

"(C) historically Black colleges or universities or minority institutions of higher education;

"(8) whether there have been any changes to the terms of the mentor-protege agreement; and

"(9) a narrative describing the success assistance provided under subsection (f) has had in addressing the developmental needs of the protege firm, the impact on Department of Defense contracts, and addressing any problems encountered.

"(m) Review of Report by the Office of Small Business Programs.—The Office of Small Business Programs of the Department of Defense shall review the report required by subsection (l) and, if the Office finds that the mentor-protege agreement is not furthering the purpose of the Mentor-Protege Program, decide not to approve any continuation of the agreement.

"(n) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) The term 'small business concern' has the meaning given such term under section 3 of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 632).

"(2) The term 'disadvantaged small business concern' means a firm that has less than half the size standard corresponding to its primary North American Industry Classification System code, is not owned or managed by individuals or entities that directly or indirectly have stock options or convertible securities in the mentor firm, and is—

"(A) a small business concern owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals;

"(B) a business entity owned and controlled by an Indian tribe as defined by section 8(a)(13) of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 637(a)(13));

"(C) a business entity owned and controlled by a Native Hawaiian Organization as defined by section 8(a)(15) of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 637(a)(15));

"(D) a qualified organization employing severely disabled individuals;

"(E) a small business concern owned and controlled by women, as defined in section 8(d)(3)(D) of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 637(d)(3)(D));

"(F) a small business concern owned and controlled by service–disabled veterans (as defined in section 8(d)(3) of the Small Business Act [15 U.S.C. 637(d)(3)]); and [sic]

"(G) a qualified HUBZone small business concern (as defined in section 3(p) of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 632(p))); or

"(H) a small business concern that—

"(i) is a nontraditional defense contractor, as such term is defined in section 2302 of title 10, United States Code; or

"(ii) currently provides goods or services in the private sector that are critical to enhancing the capabilities of the defense supplier base and fulfilling key Department of Defense needs.

"(3) The term 'small business concern owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals' has the meaning given such term in section 8(d)(3)(C) of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 637(d)(3)(C)).

"(4) The term 'historically Black college and university' means any of the historically Black colleges and universities referred to in section 2323 of title 10, United States Code, as in effect on March 1, 2018.

"(5) The term 'minority institution of higher education' means an institution of higher education with a student body that reflects the composition specified in section 312(b)(3), (4), and (5) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1058(b)(3), (4), and (5)).

"(6) The term 'subcontracting participation goal', with respect to a Department of Defense contract, means a goal for the extent of the participation by disadvantaged small business concerns in the subcontracts awarded under such contract, as established pursuant to section 8(d) of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 637(d)).

"(7) The term 'qualified organization employing the severely disabled' means a business entity operated on a for-profit or nonprofit basis that—

"(A) uses rehabilitative engineering to provide employment opportunities for severely disabled individuals and integrates severely disabled individuals into its workforce;

"(B) employs severely disabled individuals at a rate that averages not less than 20 percent of its total workforce;

"(C) employs each severely disabled individual in its workforce generally on the basis of 40 hours per week; and

"(D) pays not less than the minimum wage prescribed pursuant to section 6 of the Fair Labor Standards Act (29 U.S.C. 206) to those employees who are severely disabled individuals.

"(8) The term 'severely disabled individual' means an individual who is blind (as defined in section 8501 of title 41, United States Code) or a severely disabled individual (as defined in such section).

"(9) The term 'affiliation', with respect to a relationship between a mentor firm and a protege firm, means a relationship described under section 121.103 of title 13, Code of Federal Regulations (or any successor regulation)."

[Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title XVII, §1701(a)(4)(A), (j), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1796, 1803, provided that, effective Jan. 1, 2020, section 831(n)(2)(G) of Pub. L. 101–510, set out above, is amended by striking "section 3(p) of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 632(p))" and inserting "section 31(b) of the Small Business Act".]

[Pub. L. 114–92, §861(a)(11)(B)(iii), which directed amendment of section 831(n)(2)(G) of Pub. L. 101–510, set out above, by substituting "Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 632(p)); or" for "Small Business Act.", was executed by substituting "Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 632(p))); or" for "Small Business Act)." to reflect the probable intent of Congress.]

[Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title VIII, §811(f), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 709, provided that:

["(1) The amendments made by this section [amending section 831 of Pub. L. 101–510, set out above] shall take effect on October 1, 1999, and shall apply with respect to mentor-protege agreements that are entered into under section 831(e) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1991 [Pub. L. 101–510, set out above] on or after that date.

["(2) Section 831 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1991, as in effect on September 30, 1999, shall continue to apply with respect to mentor-protege agreements entered into before October 1, 1999."]

[Section 807(b)(2) of Pub. L. 102–484 provided that: "The amendment made by this subsection [amending section 831 of Pub. L. 101–510, set out above] shall take effect as of November 5, 1990."]

Credit for Indian Contracting in Meeting Certain Minority Subcontracting Goals

Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title VIII, §832, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1508, which provided credit for Indian contracting in meeting certain minority contracting goals, was repealed and restated in section 2323a of this title by Pub. L. 102–484, §801(g)(1)(B), (h)(5).

Equitable Participation of American Small and Minority-Owned Business in Furnishing of Commodities and Services

Pub. L. 101–165, title IX, §9004, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1129, which related to the equitable participation of American small and minority-owned businesses in furnishing commodities and services, was repealed by Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §812(b)(10), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1848.

Requirement for Substantial Progress on Minority and Small Business Contract Awards

Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title VIII, §806(a)–(c), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1126, 1127, directed Secretary of Defense to issue regulations to ensure that substantial progress was made in increasing awards of Department of Defense contracts to small business concerns, historically Black colleges and universities, and minority institutions described in section 1207(a) of Pub. L. 99–661 [formerly set out below], prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title VIII, §801(h)(7), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2446.

Definitions; Rule of Construction for Duplicate Authorization and Appropriation Provisions of Public Laws 99–500, 99–591, and 99–661

Pub. L. 100–26, §§2, 6, Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 273, 274, provided that:

"SEC. 2. REFERENCES TO 99TH CONGRESS LAWS

"For purposes of this Act [Pub. L. 100–26, see Short Title of 1987 Amendment note set out under section 101 of this title]:

"(1) The term 'Defense Authorization Act' means the Department of Defense Authorization Act, 1987 (division A of Public Law 99–661; 100 Stat. 3816 et seq.).

"(2) The term 'Defense Appropriations Act' means the Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 1987 (as contained in identical form in section 101(c) of Public Law 99–500 (100 Stat. 1783–82 et seq.) and section 101(c) of Public Law 99–591 (100 Stat. 3341–82 et seq.)).

"(3) The term 'Defense Acquisition Improvement Act' means title X of the Defense Appropriations Act [100 Stat. 1783–130, 3341–130] and title IX of the Defense Authorization Act [100 Stat. 3910] (as designated by the amendment made by section 3(5) [section 3(5) of Pub. L. 100–26]). Any reference in this Act to the Defense Acquisition Improvement Act shall be considered to be a reference to each such title."

"SEC. 6. CONSTRUCTION OF DUPLICATE AUTHORIZATION AND APPROPRIATION PROVISIONS

"(a) Rule for Construction of Duplicate Provisions.—(1) In applying the provisions of Public Laws 99–500, 99–591, and 99–661 described in paragraph (2)—

"(A) the identical provisions of those public laws referred to in such paragraph shall be treated as having been enacted only once, and

"(B) in executing to the United States Code and other statutes of the United States the amendments made by such identical provisions, such amendments shall be executed so as to appear only once in the law as amended.

"(2) Paragraph (1) applies with respect to the provisions of the Defense Appropriations Act and the Defense Authorization Act (as amended by sections 3, 4, 5, and 10(a)) referred to across from each other in the following table:

 
"Section 101(c) of Public Law 99–500Section 101(c) of Public Law 99–591Division A of

Public Law 99–661

"Title X Title X Title IX
"Sec. 9122 Sec. 9122 Sec. 522
"Sec. 9036(b) Sec. 9036(b) Sec. 1203
"Sec. 9115 Sec. 9115 Sec. 1311

"(b) Rule for Date of Enactment.—(1) The date of the enactment of the provisions of law listed in the middle column, and in the right-hand column, of the table in subsection (a)(2) shall be deemed to be October 18, 1986 (the date of the enactment of Public Law 99–500).

"(2) Any reference in a provision of law referred to in paragraph (1) to 'the date of the enactment of this Act' shall be treated as a reference to October 18, 1986."

[For classification of provisions listed in the table, see Tables.]

Contract Goal for Minorities

Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title XII, §1207, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3973, as amended by Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title VIII, §806(d), 101 Stat. 1127; Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title VIII, §844, Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2027; Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title VIII, §831, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1507; Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title VIII, §§811, 832, title XIII, §§1302(d), 1312(b), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1596, 1612, 1669, 1670; Pub. L. 102–25, title VII, §§704(a)(6), 705(e), Apr. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 118, 120, which set contract goals for small disadvantaged businesses and certain institutions of higher education, was repealed and restated in former section 2323 of this title by Pub. L. 102–484, §801(a)(1)(B), (h)(1).

Minimum Percentage of Competitive Procurements

Pub. L. 99–145, title IX, §913, Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 687, as amended by Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIII, §1322(d)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1672, provided that:

"(a) Annual Goal.—The Secretary of Defense shall establish for each fiscal year a goal for the percentage of defense procurements to be made during that year (expressed in total dollar value of contracts entered into) that are to be competitive procurements.

"(b) Definition.—For the purposes of this section, the term 'competitive procurements' means procurements made by the Department of Defense through the use of competitive procedures, as defined in section 2304 of title 10, United States Code."

Defense Procurement Reform: Congressional Findings and Policy

Pub. L. 98–525, title XII, §1202, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2588, as amended by Pub. L. 99–500, §101(c) [title X, §953(c)], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–82, 1783–172, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [title X, §953(c)], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–82, 3341–172; Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title IX, formerly title IV, §953(c), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3952, renumbered title IX, Pub. L. 100–26, §3(5), Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 273, provided that: "The Congress finds that recent disclosures of excessive payments by the Department of Defense for replenishment parts have undermined confidence by the public and Congress in the defense procurement system. The Secretary of Defense should make every effort to reform procurement practices relating to replenishment parts. Such efforts should, among other matters, be directed to the elimination of excessive pricing of replenishment spare parts and the recovery of unjustified payments. Specifically, the Secretary should—

"(1) direct that officials in the Department of Defense refuse to enter into contracts unless the proposed prices are fair and reasonable;

"(2) continue and accelerate ongoing efforts to improve defense contracting procedures in order to encourage effective competition and assure fair and reasonable prices;

"(3) direct that replenishment parts be acquired in economic order quantities and on a multiyear basis whenever feasible, practicable, and cost effective;

"(4) direct that standard or commercial parts be used whenever such use is technically acceptable and cost effective; and

"(5) vigorously continue reexamination of policies relating to acquisition, pricing, and management of replenishment parts and of technical data related to such parts."

Modification of Regulations and Directives To Accommodate a Policy of Multiyear Procurement

Pub. L. 97–86, title IX, §909(d), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1120, directed Secretary of Defense, not later than the end of the 90-day period beginning Dec. 1, 1981, to issue such modifications to existing regulations governing defense acquisitions as might be necessary to implement the amendments made by subsections (a), (b), and (c) [amending sections 139, 2301, and 2306 of this title] and directed Director of the Office of Management and Budget to issue such modifications to existing Office of Management and Budget directives as might be necessary to take into account the amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending sections 2301 and 2306 of this title].

Procurement Requirements for Goods Which Are Not American Goods

Pub. L. 93–365, title VII, §707, Aug. 5, 1974, 88 Stat. 406, which prohibited contracts by the Department of Defense for other than American goods after Aug. 5, 1974, unless adequate consideration was first given to bids of firms in labor surplus areas of the United States, of small business firms, and of all other United States firms which had offered to furnish American goods, balance of payments, cost of shipping other than American goods, and any duty, tariff, or surcharge on such goods, was repealed and restated in section 2501 of this title by Pub. L. 100–370, §3(a), (c). Section 2501 of this title was renumbered section 2506 by Pub. L. 100–456, §821(b)(1)(A). Section 2506 of this title was renumbered section 2533 by Pub. L. 102–484, §4202(a).

§2302a. Simplified acquisition threshold

(a) Simplified Acquisition Threshold.—For purposes of acquisitions by agencies named in section 2303 of this title, the simplified acquisition threshold is as specified in section 134 of title 41.

(b) Inapplicable Laws.—No law properly listed in the Federal Acquisition Regulation pursuant to section 1905 of title 41 shall apply to or with respect to a contract or subcontract that is not greater than the simplified acquisition threshold.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 103–355, title IV, §§4002(a), 4102(a), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3338, 3340; Pub. L. 111–350, §5(b)(9), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3843.)

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 111–350, §5(b)(9)(A), substituted "section 134 of title 41" for "section 4(11) of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 111–350, §5(b)(9)(B), substituted "section 1905 of title 41" for "section 33 of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act".

1994—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–355, §4102(a), added subsec. (b).

Effective Date

For effective date and applicability of section, see section 10001 of Pub. L. 103–355, set out as an Effective Date of 1994 Amendment note under section 2302 of this title.

§2302b. Implementation of simplified acquisition procedures

The simplified acquisition procedures contained in the Federal Acquisition Regulation pursuant to section 1901 of title 41 shall apply as provided in such section to the agencies named in section 2303(a) of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 103–355, title IV, §4203(a)(1), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3345; amended Pub. L. 111–350, §5(b)(10), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3843.)

Amendments

2011—Pub. L. 111–350 substituted "section 1901 of title 41" for "section 31 of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act".

Effective Date

For effective date and applicability of section, see section 10001 of Pub. L. 103–355, set out as an Effective Date of 1994 Amendment note under section 2302 of this title.

[§2302c. Repealed. Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title VIII, §833(b)(5)(A)(i), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2285]

Section, added Pub. L. 103–355, title IX, §9002(a), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3402; amended Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title VIII, §850(f)(3)(A), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1850; Pub. L. 105–129, §1(a)(1), Dec. 1, 1997, 111 Stat. 2551; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1066(a)(18), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 771; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title X, §1048(b)(2), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1225; Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title X, §1071(a)(2), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2398; Pub. L. 111–350, §5(b)(11), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3843, related to implementation of electronic commerce capability.

§2302d. Major system: definitional threshold amounts

(a) Department of Defense Systems.—For purposes of section 2302(5) of this title, a system for which the Department of Defense is responsible shall be considered a major system if—

(1) the total expenditures for research, development, test, and evaluation for the system are estimated to be more than $115,000,000 (based on fiscal year 1990 constant dollars); or

(2) the eventual total expenditure for procurement for the system is estimated to be more than $540,000,000 (based on fiscal year 1990 constant dollars).


(b) Civilian Agency Systems.—For purposes of section 2302(5) of this title, a system for which a civilian agency is responsible shall be considered a major system if total expenditures for the system are estimated to exceed the greater of—

(1) $750,000 (based on fiscal year 1980 constant dollars); or

(2) the dollar threshold for a "major system" established by the agency pursuant to Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A–109, entitled "Major Systems Acquisitions".


(c) Adjustment Authority.—(1) The Secretary of Defense may adjust the amounts and the base fiscal year provided in subsection (a) on the basis of Department of Defense escalation rates.

(2) An amount, as adjusted under paragraph (1), that is not evenly divisible by $5,000,000 shall be rounded to the nearest multiple of $5,000,000. In the case of an amount that is evenly divisible by $2,500,000 but not evenly divisible by $5,000,000, the amount shall be rounded to the next higher multiple of $5,000,000.

(3) An adjustment under this subsection shall be effective after the Secretary transmits to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives a written notification of the adjustment.

(Added Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title VIII, §805(a)(2), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2605; amended Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title X, §1073(a)(41), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1902; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1067(1), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 774.)

Amendments

1999—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 106–65 substituted "and the Committee on Armed Services" for "and the Committee on National Security".

1997—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 105–85 substituted "procurement for the system is estimated to be" for "procurement of".

§2302e. Contract authority for advanced development of initial or additional prototype units

(a) Authority.—A contract initially awarded from the competitive selection of a proposal resulting from a general solicitation referred to in section 2302(2)(B) of this title may contain a contract line item or contract option for—

(1) the provision of advanced component development, prototype, or initial production of technology developed under the contract; or

(2) the delivery of initial or additional items if the item or a prototype thereof is created as the result of work performed under the contract.


(b) Limitations.—

(1) Minimal amount.—A contract line item or contract option described in subsection (a)(2) shall require the delivery of the minimal amount of initial or additional items to allow for the timely competitive solicitation and award of a follow-on development or production contract for those items.

(2) Term.—A contract line item or contract option described in subsection (a) shall be for a term of not more than 2 years.

(3) Dollar value of work.—The dollar value of the work to be performed pursuant to a contract line item or contract option described in subsection (a) may not exceed $100,000,000, in fiscal year 2017 constant dollars.

(4) Applicability.—The authority provided in subsection (a) applies only to the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of the Army, the Secretary of the Navy, and the Secretary of the Air Force.

(Added Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title VIII, §861(a)(1), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1493.)

§2303. Applicability of chapter

(a) This chapter applies to the procurement by any of the following agencies, for its use or otherwise, of all property (other than land) and all services for which payment is to be made from appropriated funds:

(1) The Department of Defense.

(2) The Department of the Army.

(3) The Department of the Navy.

(4) The Department of the Air Force.

(5) The Coast Guard.

(6) The National Aeronautics and Space Administration.


(b) The provisions of this chapter that apply to the procurement of property apply also to contracts for its installation or alteration.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 128; Pub. L. 85–568, title III, §301(b), July 29, 1958, 72 Stat. 432; Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title VII, §2722(b), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1187.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
2303(a)

2303(b)

41:151(a).

41:158 (clause (b), less last 5 words).

Feb. 19, 1948, ch. 65, §§2(a), 9 (clause (b)), 62 Stat. 21, 24.
2303(c) 41:158 (last 5 words of clause (b)).

In subsection (a), the words "all property named in subsection (b), and all services" are substituted for the words "for supplies or services". The words "(each being hereinafter called the agency)", are omitted, since the revised sections of this chapter make specific reference to the agencies named in this revised section. The words "United States" before the words "Coast Guard" are omitted, since they are not a part of the official name of the Coast Guard under section 1 of title 14.

In subsection (b), the introductory clause is substituted for the word "supplies". Throughout the revised chapter reference is made to "property or services covered by this chapter", instead of "supplies", since the word "supplies" is defined in section 101(26) of this title in its usual and narrower sense, rather than the sense of the source statute for this revised chapter. It is desirable to avoid a usage which conflicts with the definition in section 101(26) of this title. The word "ships" and the words "of every character, type, and description", after the word "vessels", are omitted as covered by the definition of "vessel" in section 1 of title 1.

Amendments

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–369, §2722(b)(1)(A), (B), substituted in provisions preceding cl. (1) "procurement" for "purchase, and contract to purchase," and "(other than land) and all services" for "named in subsection (b), and all services,".

Subsec. (a)(1) to (6). Pub. L. 98–369, §2722(b)(1)(C), (D), added cl. (1) and redesignated existing cls. (1) to (5) as (2) to (6), respectively.

Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 98–369, §2722(b)(2), (3), redesignated subsec. (c) as (b). Former subsec. (b), which had provided that this chapter did not cover land but did cover public works, buildings, facilities, vessels, floating equipment, aircraft, parts, accessories, equipment, and machine tools, was struck out.

1958—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 85–568 substituted "The National Aeronautics and Space Administration" for "The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics".

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 applicable with respect to any solicitation for bids or proposals issued after Mar. 31, 1985, see section 2751 of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 2302 of this title.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 85–568 effective 90 days after July 29, 1958, or on any earlier date on which the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration determines, and announces by proclamation, that the Administration has been organized and is prepared to discharge the duties and exercise the powers conferred upon it, see note set out under section 2302 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Acquisition, Lease, or Rental for Use by the Armed Forces of Motor Buses Manufactured Outside the United States

Pub. L. 90–500, title IV, §404, Sept. 20, 1968, 82 Stat. 851, which provided that no funds for the armed forces were to be used to buy or lease buses other than those manufactured in the United States, except as regulation from the Secretary of Defense might authorize solely to avoid uneconomical procurement or one contrary to the national interest, was repealed and restated as section 2400 of this title by Pub. L. 97–295, §§1(29)(A), 6(b), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1294, 1314.

[§2303a. Repealed. Pub. L. 98–577, title III, §302(c)(1), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3077]

Section, Pub. L. 98–525, title XII, §1212(a), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2590, related to publication of proposed regulations.

Section, pursuant to section 1212(b) of Pub. L. 98–525, was to have taken effect with respect to procurement policies, regulations, procedures, or forms first proposed to be issued by an agency on or after the date which was 30 days after the date of enactment of Pub. L. 98–525. Pub. L. 98–525 was approved Oct. 19, 1984. However, before that effective date, the section was repealed by Pub. L. 98–577.

§2304. Contracts: competition requirements

(a)(1) Except as provided in subsections (b), (c), and (g) and except in the case of procurement procedures otherwise expressly authorized by statute, the head of an agency in conducting a procurement for property or services—

(A) shall obtain full and open competition through the use of competitive procedures in accordance with the requirements of this chapter and the Federal Acquisition Regulation; and

(B) shall use the competitive procedure or combination of competitive procedures that is best suited under the circumstances of the procurement.


(2) In determining the competitive procedure appropriate under the circumstances, the head of an agency—

(A) shall solicit sealed bids if—

(i) time permits the solicitation, submission, and evaluation of sealed bids;

(ii) the award will be made on the basis of price and other price-related factors;

(iii) it is not necessary to conduct discussions with the responding sources about their bids; and

(iv) there is a reasonable expectation of receiving more than one sealed bid; and


(B) shall request competitive proposals if sealed bids are not appropriate under clause (A).


(b)(1) The head of an agency may provide for the procurement of property or services covered by this chapter using competitive procedures but excluding a particular source in order to establish or maintain an alternative source or sources of supply for that property or service if the head of the agency determines that to do so—

(A) would increase or maintain competition and would likely result in reduced overall costs for such procurement, or for any anticipated procurement, of property or services;

(B) would be in the interest of national defense in having a facility (or a producer, manufacturer, or other supplier) available for furnishing the property or service in case of a national emergency or industrial mobilization;

(C) would be in the interest of national defense in establishing or maintaining an essential engineering, research, or development capability to be provided by an educational or other nonprofit institution or a federally funded research and development center;

(D) would ensure the continuous availability of a reliable source of supply of such property or service;

(E) would satisfy projected needs for such property or service determined on the basis of a history of high demand for the property or service; or

(F) in the case of medical supplies, safety supplies, or emergency supplies, would satisfy a critical need for such supplies.


(2) The head of an agency may provide for the procurement of property or services covered by this section using competitive procedures, but excluding concerns other than small business concerns in furtherance of sections 9 and 15 of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 638, 644).

(3) A contract awarded pursuant to the competitive procedures referred to in paragraphs (1) and (2) shall not be subject to the justification and approval required by subsection (f)(1).

(4) A determination under paragraph (1) may not be made for a class of purchases or contracts.

(c) The head of an agency may use procedures other than competitive procedures only when—

(1) the property or services needed by the agency are available from only one responsible source or only from a limited number of responsible sources and no other type of property or services will satisfy the needs of the agency;

(2) the agency's need for the property or services is of such an unusual and compelling urgency that the United States would be seriously injured unless the agency is permitted to limit the number of sources from which it solicits bids or proposals;

(3) it is necessary to award the contract to a particular source or sources in order (A) to maintain a facility, producer, manufacturer, or other supplier available for furnishing property or services in case of a national emergency or to achieve industrial mobilization, (B) to establish or maintain an essential engineering, research, or development capability to be provided by an educational or other nonprofit institution or a federally funded research and development center, or (C) to procure the services of an expert for use, in any litigation or dispute (including any reasonably foreseeable litigation or dispute) involving the Federal Government, in any trial, hearing, or proceeding before any court, administrative tribunal, or agency, or to procure the services of an expert or neutral for use in any part of an alternative dispute resolution or negotiated rulemaking process, whether or not the expert is expected to testify;

(4) the terms of an international agreement or a treaty between the United States and a foreign government or international organization, or the written directions of a foreign government reimbursing the agency for the cost of the procurement of the property or services for such government, have the effect of requiring the use of procedures other than competitive procedures;

(5) subject to subsection (k), a statute expressly authorizes or requires that the procurement be made through another agency or from a specified source, or the agency's need is for a brand-name commercial item for authorized resale;

(6) the disclosure of the agency's needs would compromise the national security unless the agency is permitted to limit the number of sources from which it solicits bids or proposals; or

(7) the head of the agency—

(A) determines that it is necessary in the public interest to use procedures other than competitive procedures in the particular procurement concerned, and

(B) notifies the Congress in writing of such determination not less than 30 days before the award of the contract.


(d)(1) For the purposes of applying subsection (c)(1)—

(A) in the case of a contract for property or services to be awarded on the basis of acceptance of an unsolicited research proposal, the property or services shall be considered to be available from only one source if the source has submitted an unsolicited research proposal that demonstrates a concept—

(i) that is unique and innovative or, in the case of a service, for which the source demonstrates a unique capability of the source to provide the service; and

(ii) the substance of which is not otherwise available to the United States, and does not resemble the substance of a pending competitive procurement; and


(B) in the case of a follow-on contract for the continued development or production of a major system or highly specialized equipment, or the continued provision of highly specialized services, such property or services may be deemed to be available only from the original source and may be procured through procedures other than competitive procedures when it is likely that award to a source other than the original source would result in—

(i) substantial duplication of cost to the United States which is not expected to be recovered through competition; or

(ii) unacceptable delays in fulfilling the agency's needs.


(2) The authority of the head of an agency under subsection (c)(7) may not be delegated.

(3)(A) The contract period of a contract described in subparagraph (B) that is entered into by an agency pursuant to the authority provided under subsection (c)(2)—

(i) may not exceed the time necessary—

(I) to meet the unusual and compelling requirements of the work to be performed under the contract; and

(II) for the agency to enter into another contract for the required goods or services through the use of competitive procedures; and


(ii) may not exceed one year unless the head of the agency entering into such contract determines that exceptional circumstances apply.


(B) This paragraph applies to any contract in an amount greater than the simplified acquisition threshold.

(e) The head of an agency using procedures other than competitive procedures to procure property or services by reason of the application of subsection (c)(2) or (c)(6) shall request offers from as many potential sources as is practicable under the circumstances.

(f)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2) and paragraph (6), the head of an agency may not award a contract using procedures other than competitive procedures unless—

(A) the contracting officer for the contract justifies the use of such procedures in writing and certifies the accuracy and completeness of the justification;

(B) the justification is approved—

(i) in the case of a contract for an amount exceeding $500,000 (but equal to or less than $10,000,000), by the competition advocate for the procuring activity (without further delegation) or by an official referred to in clause (ii) or (iii);

(ii) in the case of a contract for an amount exceeding $10,000,000 (but equal to or less than $75,000,000), by the head of the procuring activity (or the head of the procuring activity's delegate designated pursuant to paragraph (6)(A)); or

(iii) in the case of a contract for an amount exceeding $75,000,000, by the senior procurement executive of the agency designated pursuant to section 1702(c) of title 41 (without further delegation) or in the case of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, acting in his capacity as the senior procurement executive for the Department of Defense, the Under Secretary's delegate designated pursuant to paragraph (6)(B); and


(C) any required notice has been published with respect to such contract pursuant to section 1708 of title 41 and all bids or proposals received in response to that notice have been considered by the head of the agency.


(2) In the case of a procurement permitted by subsection (c)(2), the justification and approval required by paragraph (1) may be made after the contract is awarded. The justification and approval required by paragraph (1) is not required—

(A) when a statute expressly requires that the procurement be made from a specified source;

(B) when the agency's need is for a brand-name commercial item for authorized resale;

(C) in the case of a procurement permitted by subsection (c)(7);

(D) in the case of a procurement conducted under (i) chapter 85 of title 41, or (ii) section 8(a) of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 637(a)); or

(E) in the case of a procurement permitted by subsection (c)(4), but only if the head of the contracting activity prepares a document in connection with such procurement that describes the terms of an agreement or treaty, or the written directions, referred to in that subsection that have the effect of requiring the use of procedures other than competitive procedures.


(3) The justification required by paragraph (1)(A) shall include—

(A) a description of the agency's needs;

(B) an identification of the statutory exception from the requirement to use competitive procedures and a demonstration, based on the proposed contractor's qualifications or the nature of the procurement, of the reasons for using that exception;

(C) a determination that the anticipated cost will be fair and reasonable;

(D) a description of the market survey conducted or a statement of the reasons a market survey was not conducted;

(E) a listing of the sources, if any, that expressed in writing an interest in the procurement; and

(F) a statement of the actions, if any, the agency may take to remove or overcome any barrier to competition before a subsequent procurement for such needs.


(4) In no case may the head of an agency—

(A) enter into a contract for property or services using procedures other than competitive procedures on the basis of the lack of advance planning or concerns related to the amount of funds available to the agency for procurement functions; or

(B) procure property or services from another agency unless such other agency complies fully with the requirements of this chapter in its procurement of such property or services.


The restriction contained in clause (B) is in addition to, and not in lieu of, any other restriction provided by law.

(5)(A) The authority of the head of a procuring activity under paragraph (1)(B)(ii) may be delegated only to an officer or employee who—

(i) if a member of the armed forces, is a general or flag officer; or

(ii) if a civilian, is serving in a position with a grade under the General Schedule (or any other schedule for civilian officers or employees) that is comparable to or higher than the grade of brigadier general or rear admiral (lower half).


(B) The authority of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics under paragraph (1)(B)(iii) may be delegated only to—

(i) an Assistant Secretary of Defense; or

(ii) with respect to the element of the Department of Defense (as specified in section 111(b) of this title), other than a military department, carrying out the procurement action concerned, an officer or employee serving in or assigned or detailed to that element who—

(I) if a member of the armed forces, is serving in a grade above brigadier general or rear admiral (lower half); or

(II) if a civilian, is serving in a position with a grade under the General Schedule (or any other schedule for civilian officers or employees) that is comparable to or higher than the grade of major general or rear admiral.


(6) The justification and approval required by paragraph (1) is not required in the case of a Phase III award made pursuant to section 9(r)(4) of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 638(r)(4)).

(g)(1) In order to promote efficiency and economy in contracting and to avoid unnecessary burdens for agencies and contractors, the Federal Acquisition Regulation shall provide for—

(A) special simplified procedures for purchases of property and services for amounts not greater than the simplified acquisition threshold; and

(B) special simplified procedures for purchases of property and services for amounts greater than the simplified acquisition threshold but not greater than $5,000,000 with respect to which the contracting officer reasonably expects, based on the nature of the property or services sought and on market research, that offers will include only commercial items.


(2) A proposed purchase or contract for an amount above the simplified acquisition threshold may not be divided into several purchases or contracts for lesser amounts in order to use the simplified procedures required by paragraph (1).

(3) In using simplified procedures, the head of an agency shall promote competition to the maximum extent practicable.

(4) The head of an agency shall comply with the Federal Acquisition Regulation provisions referred to in section 1901(e) of title 41.

(h) For the purposes of the following, purchases or contracts awarded after using procedures other than sealed-bid procedures shall be treated as if they were made with sealed-bid procedures:

(1) Chapter 65 of title 41.

(2) Sections 3141–3144, 3146, and 3147 of title 40.


(i)(1) The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe by regulation the manner in which the Department of Defense negotiates prices for supplies to be obtained through the use of procedures other than competitive procedures, as defined in section 2302(2) of this title.

(2) The regulations required by paragraph (1) shall—

(A) specify the incurred overhead a contractor may appropriately allocate to supplies referred to in that paragraph; and

(B) require the contractor to identify those supplies which it did not manufacture or to which it did not contribute significant value.


(3) Such regulations shall not apply to an item of supply included in a contract or subcontract for which the price is based on established catalog or market prices of commercial items sold in substantial quantities to the general public.

(j) The Federal Acquisition Regulation shall ensure that the requirement to obtain full and open competition is implemented in a manner that is consistent with the need to efficiently fulfill the Government's requirements.

(k)(1) It is the policy of Congress that an agency named in section 2303(a) of this title should not be required by legislation to award a new contract to a specific non-Federal Government entity. It is further the policy of Congress that any program, project, or technology identified in legislation be procured through merit-based selection procedures.

(2) A provision of law may not be construed as requiring a new contract to be awarded to a specified non-Federal Government entity unless that provision of law—

(A) specifically refers to this subsection;

(B) specifically identifies the particular non-Federal Government entity involved; and

(C) specifically states that the award to that entity is required by such provision of law in contravention of the policy set forth in paragraph (1).


(3) For purposes of this subsection, a contract is a new contract unless the work provided for in the contract is a continuation of the work performed by the specified entity under a preceding contract.

(4) This subsection shall not apply with respect to any contract that calls upon the National Academy of Sciences to investigate, examine, or experiment upon any subject of science or art of significance to an agency named in section 2303(a) of this title and to report on such matters to the Congress or any agency of the Federal Government.

(l)(1)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), in the case of a procurement permitted by subsection (c), the head of an agency shall make publicly available, within 14 days after the award of the contract, the documents containing the justification and approval required by subsection (f)(1) with respect to the procurement.

(B) In the case of a procurement permitted by subsection (c)(2), subparagraph (A) shall be applied by substituting "30 days" for "14 days".

(2) The documents shall be made available on the website of the agency and through a government-wide website selected by the Administrator for Federal Procurement Policy.

(3) This subsection does not require the public availability of information that is exempt from public disclosure under section 552(b) of title 5.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 128; Pub. L. 85–800, §8, Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 967; Pub. L. 85–861, §33(a)(12), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1565; Pub. L. 87–653, §1(a)–(c), Sept. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 528; Pub. L. 90–268, §5, Mar. 16, 1968, 82 Stat. 50; Pub. L. 90–500, title IV, §405, Sept. 20, 1968, 82 Stat. 851; Pub. L. 93–356, §4, July 25, 1974, 88 Stat. 390; Pub. L. 96–513, title V, §511(76), Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2926; Pub. L. 97–86, title IX, §907(a), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1117; Pub. L. 97–295, §1(24), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1290; Pub. L. 97–375, title I, §114, Dec. 21, 1982, 96 Stat. 1821; Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title VII, §§2723(a), 2727(b), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1187, 1194; Pub. L. 98–577, title V, §504(b)(1), (2), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3086; Pub. L. 99–145, title IX, §961(a)(1), title XIII, §1303(a)(13), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 703, 739; Pub. L. 99–500, §101(c) [title X, §§923(a)–(c), 927(a)], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–82, 1783–152, 1783–155, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [title X, §§923(a)–(c), 927(a)], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–82, 3341–152, 3341–155; Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title IX, formerly title IV, §§923(a)–(c), 927(a), title XIII, §1343(a)(14), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3932, 3935, 3993, renumbered title IX, Pub. L. 100–26, §3(5), Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 273; Pub. L. 100–26, §7(d)(3), Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 281; Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title VIII, §803, Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2008; Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title VIII, §§812, 817, 818, 853(d), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1493, 1501, 1502, 1519; Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title VIII, §806(b), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1592; Pub. L. 102–25, title VII, §701(d)(2), Apr. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 114; Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title VIII, §§801(h)(2), 816, title X, §1052(23), Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2445, 2454, 2500; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title IX, §904(d)(1), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1728; Pub. L. 103–355, title I, §§1001–1003, 1004(b), 1005, title IV, §4401(a), title VII, §7203(a)(1), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3249, 3253, 3254, 3347, 3379; Pub. L. 104–106, div. D, title XLI, §§4101(a), 4102(a), title XLII, §4202(a)(1), title XLIII, §4321(b)(4), (5), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 642, 643, 652, 672; Pub. L. 104–320, §§7(a)(1), 11(c)(1), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3871, 3873; Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title VIII, §§841(b), 850(f)(3)(B), title X, §1073(a)(42), (43), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1843, 1850, 1902; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title X, §1048(b)(2), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1225; Pub. L. 107–217, §3(b)(3), Aug. 21, 2002, 116 Stat. 1295; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title VIII, §815, Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 2015; Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title X, §1071(a)(2), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2398; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title VIII, §844(b), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 239; Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title VIII, §862(b), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4546; Pub. L. 111–350, §5(b)(12), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3843; Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title XVII, §1709(b)(2), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1809; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §§812(a)(2)(C)(v), 836(c)(2), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1847, 1864.)

Amendment of Section

Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §836(c)(2), (h), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1864, 1874, provided that, effective Jan. 1, 2020, subject to a savings provision, this section is amended as follows:

(1) in subsections (c)(5) and (f)(2)(B), by striking "brand-name commercial item" and inserting "brand-name commercial product";

(2) in subsection (g)(1)(B), by striking "commercial items" and inserting "commercial products or commercial services"; and

(3) in subsection (i)(3), by striking "commercial items" and inserting "commercial products".

See 2018 Amendment notes below.

Historical and Revision Notes
1956 Act
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
2304(a)

 

 

2304(b)

41:151(c) (less proviso of clause (11) and proviso of clause (16)).

41:156(d).

Feb. 19, 1948, ch. 65, §§2(b) (less 1st sentence), (c), (e), 7(d), 8, 62 Stat. 21, 22, 24.
2304(c) 41:151(e).
2304(d) 41:151(b) (less 1st sentence).
2304(e) 41:151(c) (proviso of clause (11) and proviso of clause (16)).
2304(f) 41:157.

In subsection (a)(1), the words "the period of" are omitted as surplusage.

In subsections (a)(4)–(10), and (12)–(15), the words "the purchase or contract is" are inserted for clarity.

In subsection (a)(5), the words "to be rendered" are omitted as surplusage.

In subsection (a)(6), the words "its Territories" are inserted for clarity. The words "the limits of" are omitted as surplusage.

In subsection (a)(14), the words "and for which" are substituted for the word "when".

In subsection (a)(15), the words "and for which" are substituted for 41:151(c)(15) (1st 22 words of proviso).

In subsection (a)(16), the words "to have" are substituted for the words "be made or kept".

In subsection (a)(17), the first 7 words are inserted for clarity.

In subsection (b), the words "shall be kept" are substituted for the words "shall be preserved in the files". The words "six years after the date" are substituted for the words "a period of six years following".

In subsection (c), the words "but such authorization shall be required in the same manner as heretofore" and "continental", in 41:151(e), are omitted as surplusage.

In subsection (d), the words "before making" are substituted for the words "Whenever it is proposed to make".

In subsection (e), the words "beginning six months after the effective date of this chapter" are omitted as executed. The words "on May 19 and November 19 of each year" are substituted for the words "and at the end of each six-month period thereafter", since the effective date of the source statute was May 19, 1948, and the first report was made on November 19, 1948. The words "property and services covered by each contract" are substituted for the words "work required to be performed thereunder".

1958 Act

The change is necessary to reflect the present Commonwealth status of Puerto Rico.

1982 Act
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
2304(a) (1st sentence) 10:2304 (note). Mar. 16, 1967, Pub. L. 90–5, §304, 81 Stat. 6.
2304(f)(1) 10:2304(f)(1).
2304(i) 10:2304 (note). Sept. 21, 1977, Pub. L. 95–111, §836, 91 Stat. 906.

In subsection (a), the words "The Secretary of Defense is hereby directed that insofar as practicable all contracts shall be formally advertised" are omitted as unnecessary because of 10:2304(a) (1st sentence).

Subsection (f)(1) is amended to correct a mistake in spelling.

In subsection (i)(1)(B), the words "or States" are omitted because of 1:1.

Codification

Pub. L. 99–591 is a corrected version of Pub. L. 99–500.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 115–232, §812(a)(2)(C)(v), struck out "and concerns other than small business concerns, historically Black colleges and universities, and minority institutions in furtherance of section 2323 of this title" before period at end.

Subsecs. (c)(5), (f)(2)(B). Pub. L. 115–232, §836(c)(2)(A), substituted "brand-name commercial product" for "brand-name commercial item".

Subsec. (g)(1)(B). Pub. L. 115–232, §836(c)(2)(B), substituted "commercial products or commercial services" for "commercial items".

Subsec. (i)(3). Pub. L. 115–232, §836(c)(2)(C), substituted "commercial products" for "commercial items".

2017—Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 115–91, §1709(b)(2)(A), inserted "and paragraph (6)" after "paragraph (2)" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (f)(6). Pub. L. 115–91, §1709(b)(2)(B), added par. (6).

2011—Subsec. (f)(1)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 111–350, §5(b)(12)(A), substituted "section 1702(c) of title 41" for "section 16(c) of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act (41 U.S.C. 414(c))".

Subsec. (f)(1)(C). Pub. L. 111–350, §5(b)(12)(B), substituted "section 1708 of title 41" for "section 18 of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act (41 U.S.C. 416)".

Subsec. (f)(2)(D)(i). Pub. L. 111–350, §5(b)(12)(C), substituted "chapter 85 of title 41" for "the Javits-Wagner-O'Day Act (41 U.S.C. 46 et seq.)".

Subsec. (g)(4). Pub. L. 111–350, §5(b)(12)(D), substituted "section 1901(e) of title 41" for "section 31(f) of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act (41 U.S.C. 427)".

Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 111–350, §5(b)(12)(E), substituted "Chapter 65 of title 41" for "The Walsh-Healey Act (41 U.S.C. 35 et seq.)".

2008—Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 110–417 added par. (3).

Subsec. (f)(4) to (6). Pub. L. 110–181, §844(b)(2), redesignated pars. (5) and (6) as (4) and (5), respectively, and struck out former par. (4) which read as follows: "The justification required by paragraph (1)(A) and any related information, and any document prepared pursuant to paragraph (2)(E), shall be made available for inspection by the public consistent with the provisions of section 552 of title 5."

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 110–181, §844(b)(1), added subsec. (l).

2006—Subsec. (f)(1)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 109–364 substituted "section 16(c) of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act (41 U.S.C. 414(c))" for "section 16(3) of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act (41 U.S.C. 414(3))".

2004—Subsec. (f)(1)(B)(ii), (iii). Pub. L. 108–375 substituted "$75,000,000" for "$50,000,000".

2002—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 107–217, §3(b)(3)(A), struck out "laws" after "following" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (h)(2). Pub. L. 107–217, §3(b)(3)(B), substituted "Sections 3141–3144, 3146, and 3147 of title 40" for "The Act entitled 'An Act relating to the rate of wages for laborers and mechanics employed on public buildings of the United States and the District of Columbia by contractors and subcontractors, and for other purposes', approved March 3, 1931 (commonly referred to as the 'Davis-Bacon Act') (40 U.S.C. 276a—276a–5)".

2001—Subsec. (f)(1)(B)(iii), (6)(B). Pub. L. 107–107 substituted "Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics" for "Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology".

1997—Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 105–85, §1073(a)(42), substituted "subsection (k)" for "subsection (j)".

Subsec. (f)(1)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 105–85, §1073(a)(43)(A), substituted "(6)(B)" for "(6)(C)".

Subsec. (f)(2)(E). Pub. L. 105–85, §841(b), struck out "and such document is approved by the competition advocate for the procuring activity" after "requiring the use of procedures other than competitive procedures".

Subsec. (f)(6)(B), (C). Pub. L. 105–85, §1073(a)(43)(B), redesignated subpar. (C) as (B), substituted "paragraph (1)(B)(iii)" for "paragraph (1)(B)(iv)" in introductory provisions, and struck out former subpar. (B), which read as follows: "The authority of the senior procurement executive under paragraph (1)(B)(iii) may be delegated only to an officer or employee within the senior procurement executive's organization who—

"(i) if a member of the armed forces, is a general or flag officer; or

"(ii) if a civilian, is serving in a position in grade GS–16 or above (or in a comparable or higher position under any other schedule for civilian officers or employees)."

Subsec. (g)(4). Pub. L. 105–85, §850(f)(3)(B), substituted "31(f)" for "31(g)".

1996—Subsec. (c)(3)(C). Pub. L. 104–320 substituted "agency, or to procure the services of an expert or neutral for use" for "agency, or" and inserted "or negotiated rulemaking" after "alternative dispute resolution".

Subsec. (f)(1)(B)(i). Pub. L. 104–106, §4102(a)(1), substituted "$500,000 (but equal to or less than $10,000,000)" for "$100,000 (but equal to or less than $1,000,000)" and "(ii) or (iii)" for "(ii), (iii), or (iv)".

Subsec. (f)(1)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 104–106, §4102(a)(2), substituted "$10,000,000 (but equal to or less than $50,000,000)" for "$1,000,000 (but equal to or less than $10,000,000)" and inserted "or" at end.

Subsec. (f)(1)(B)(iii), (iv). Pub. L. 104–106, §4102(a)(3), (4), redesignated cl. (iv) as (iii) and struck out former cl. (iii) which read as follows: "in the case of a contract for an amount exceeding $10,000,000 (but equal to or less than $50,000,000), by the senior procurement executive of the agency designated pursuant to section 16(3) of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act (41 U.S.C. 414(3)) or the senior procurement executive's delegate designated pursuant to paragraph (6)(B), or in the case of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology, acting in his capacity as the senior procurement executive for the Department of Defense, the Under Secretary's delegate designated pursuant to paragraph (6)(C); or".

Subsec. (f)(2)(D). Pub. L. 104–106, §4321(b)(4), substituted "the Javits-Wagner-O'Day Act (41 U.S.C. 46 et seq.)," for "the Act of June 25, 1938 (41 U.S.C. 46 et seq.), popularly referred to as the Wagner-O'Day Act,".

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 104–106, §4202(a)(1)(A), substituted "shall provide for—" and subpars. (A) and (B) for "shall provide for special simplified procedures for purchases of property and services for amounts not greater than the simplified acquisition threshold."

Subsec. (g)(4). Pub. L. 104–106, §4202(a)(1)(B), added par. (4).

Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 104–106, §4321(b)(5), added par. (1) and struck out former par. (1) which read as follows: "The Act entitled 'An Act to provide conditions for the purchase of supplies and the making of contracts by the United States, and for other purposes', approved June 30, 1936 (commonly referred to as the 'Walsh-Healey Act') (41 U.S.C. 35–45)."

Subsecs. (j), (k). Pub. L. 104–106, §4101(a), added subsec. (j) and redesignated former subsec. (j) as (k).

1994—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 103–355, §1001(1), substituted "Federal Acquisition Regulation" for "modifications to regulations promulgated pursuant to section 2752 of the Competition in Contracting Act of 1984 (41 U.S.C. 403 note)".

Subsec. (b)(1)(D) to (F). Pub. L. 103–355, §1002(a), added subpars. (D) to (F).

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 103–355, §1002(b), added par. (4).

Subsec. (c)(3)(C). Pub. L. 103–355, §1005, added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 103–355, §7203(a)(1)(A), inserted "subject to subsection (j)," after "(5)".

Subsec. (f)(1)(B)(i). Pub. L. 103–355, §1003, inserted before semicolon at end "or by an official referred to in clause (ii), (iii), or (iv)".

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 103–355, §§1001(2), 4401(a)(1), substituted "Federal Acquisition Regulation" for "regulations modified in accordance with section 2752 of the Competition in Contracting Act of 1984 (41 U.S.C. 403 note)" and "purchases of property and services for amounts not greater than the simplified acquisition threshold" for "small purchases of property and services".

Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 103–355, §4401(a)(4), substituted "simplified acquisition threshold" for "small purchase threshold" and "simplified procedures" for "small purchase procedures".

Pub. L. 103–355, §4401(a)(2), (3), redesignated par. (3) as (2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: "For the purposes of this subsection, a small purchase is a purchase or contract for an amount which does not exceed the small purchase threshold."

Subsec. (g)(3). Pub. L. 103–355, §4401(a)(5), substituted "simplified procedures" for "small purchase procedures".

Pub. L. 103–355, §4401(a)(3), redesignated par. (4) as (3). Former par. (3) redesignated (2).

Subsec. (g)(4). Pub. L. 103–355, §4401(a)(3), redesignated par. (4) as (3).

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 103–355, §7203(a)(1)(B), added subsec. (j).

Pub. L. 103–355, §1004(b), struck out subsec. (j) which related to authority of Secretary of Defense to enter into master agreements for advisory and assistance services.

1993—Subsec. (f)(1)(B)(iii), (iv), (6)(C). Pub. L. 103–160 substituted "Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology" for "Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition".

1992—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 102–484, §801(h)(2), substituted "section 2323 of this title" for "section 1207 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1987 (10 U.S.C. 2301 note)".

Subsec. (j)(3)(A). Pub. L. 102–484, §1052(23), substituted "section 8(d) of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 637(d))" for "section 8(e) of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 637(e))".

Subsec. (j)(5). Pub. L. 102–484, §816, substituted "on September 30, 1994." for "at the end of the three-year period beginning on the date on which final regulations prescribed to carry out this subsection take effect."

1991—Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 102–25, §701(d)(2)(A)(i), substituted "subsection" for "chapter".

Subsec. (g)(5). Pub. L. 102–25, §701(d)(2)(A)(ii), struck out par. (5) which provided that in this subsection, the term "small purchase threshold" has the meaning given such term in section 403(11) of title 41. See section 2302(7) of this title.

Subsec. (j)(3)(A). Pub. L. 102–25, §701(d)(2)(B), substituted "the small purchase threshold" for "$25,000".

1990—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 101–510 substituted "the small purchase threshold" for "$25,000" in pars. (2) and (3) and added par. (5).

1989—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 101–189, §853(d), substituted "The head of an agency" for "An executive agency" and "concerns other than" for "other than" and inserted before period at end "and concerns other than small business concerns, historically Black colleges and universities, and minority institutions in furtherance of section 1207 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1987 (10 U.S.C. 2301 note)".

Subsec. (f)(1)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 101–189, §818(a)(1), (3), added cl. (iii). Former cl. (iii) redesignated (iv).

Subsec. (f)(1)(B)(iv). Pub. L. 101–189, §818(a)(2), (c)(1), redesignated cl. (iii) as (iv) and substituted "$50,000,000" for "$10,000,000" and "paragraph (6)(C)" for "paragraph (6)(B)".

Subsec. (f)(2)(E). Pub. L. 101–189, §817(a), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 101–189, §817(b), inserted ", and any document prepared pursuant to paragraph (2)(E)," after "any related information".

Subsec. (f)(6)(B). Pub. L. 101–189, §818(b)(2), added subpar. (B). Former subpar. (B) redesignated (C).

Subsec. (f)(6)(C). Pub. L. 101–189, §818(b)(1), (c)(2), redesignated subpar. (B) as (C) and substituted "paragraph (1)(B)(iv)" for "paragraph (1)(B)(iii)".

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 101–189, §812, added subsec. (j).

1988—Subsec. (f)(1)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 100–456, §803(1), substituted "(or the head of the procuring activity's delegate designated pursuant to paragraph (6)(A));" for "or a delegate who, if a member of the armed forces, is a general or flag officer or, if a civilian, is serving in a position in grade GS–16 or above under the General Schedule (or in a comparable or higher position under another schedule);".

Subsec. (f)(1)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 100–456, §803(2), inserted "or in the case of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, acting in his capacity as the senior procurement executive for the Department of Defense, the Under Secretary's delegate designated pursuant to paragraph (6)(B)" before semicolon at end.

Subsec. (f)(6). Pub. L. 100–456, §803(3), added par. (6).

1987—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 100–26, §7(d)(3)(A), inserted "(41 U.S.C. 403 note)" after "Competition in Contracting Act of 1984".

Subsec. (f)(1)(C). Pub. L. 100–26, §7(d)(3)(B), inserted "(41 U.S.C. 416)" after "Policy Act".

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 100–26, §7(d)(3)(A), inserted "(41 U.S.C. 403 note)" after "Act of 1984".

1986—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 99–661, §1343(a)(14), substituted "15 U.S.C. 638," for "15 U.S.C. 639;".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 99–500 and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [§923(a)], Pub. L. 99–661, §923(a), amended par. (1) identically, inserting "or only from a limited number of responsible sources".

Subsec. (d)(1)(A). Pub. L. 99–500 and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [§923(b)], Pub. L. 99–661, §923(b), amended subpar. (A) identically, substituting "a concept—" for "a unique and innovative concept", adding cl. (i), and designating provision relating to nonavailability to the United States and nonresemblance to a pending competitive procurement as cl. (ii).

Subsec. (d)(1)(B). Pub. L. 99–500 and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [§923(c)], Pub. L. 99–661, §923(c), amended subpar. (B) identically, inserting ", or the continued provision of highly specialized services, such property or services may be deemed to be available only from the original source and may be procured through procedures other than competitive procedures" after "highly specialized equipment", inserted a one-em dash after "would result in", paragraphed cls. (i) and (ii), in cl. (i) substituted "competition;" for "competition,", and in cl. (ii) struck out ", such property may be deemed to be available only from the original source and may be procured through procedures other than competitive procedures" after "agency's needs".

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 99–500 and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [§927(a)], Pub. L. 99–661, §927(a), amended section identically, adding subsec. (i).

1985—Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 99–145, §1303(a)(13), substituted "procedures" for "krocedures".

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 99–145, §961(a)(1), amended second sentence generally. Prior to amendment, second sentence read as follows: "The justification and approval required by paragraph (1) is not required in the case of a procurement permitted by subsection (c)(7) or in the case of a procurement conducted under—

"(A) the Act of June 25, 1938 (41 U.S.C. 46 et seq.), popularly referred to as the Wagner-O'Day Act; or

"(B) the authority of section 8(a) of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 637)."

1984—Pub. L. 98–369, §2723(a), substituted "Contracts: competition requirements" for "Purchases and contracts: formal advertising; exceptions" in section catchline and struck out subsecs. (a) to (e) and (g) to (i), redesignated subsec. (f) as (h), and added new subsecs. (a) through (g), thereby removing the prior statutory preference for formal advertising and installing instead more competitive procurement procedures, including dual sourcing, but with provision for the use of other than competitive procedures in specified situations.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 98–577, §504(b)(1), substituted provisions to the effect that executive agencies may provide for procurement of property or services covered by this section using competitive procedures but excluding other than small business concerns for provisions which provided that executive agencies shall use competitive procedures but may restrict a solicitation to allow only small business concerns to compete.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 98–577, §504(b)(1), added par. (3).

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 98–577, §504(b)(2), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 98–369, §2727(b), substituted "contracts awarded after using procedures other than sealed-bid procedures shall be treated as if they were made with sealed bid procedures" for "contracts negotiated under this section shall be treated as if they were made with formal advertising".

Pub. L. 98–369, §2723(a)(1)(B), redesignated subsec. (f) as (h).

1982—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–295, §1(24)(A), inserted ", and shall be awarded on a competitive bid basis to the lowest responsible bidder," after "formal advertising".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 97–375 repealed subsec. (e) which directed that a report be made on May and November 19 of each year of purchases and contracts under cls. (11) and (16) of subsec. (a) since the last report, and that the report name each contractor, state the amount of each contract, and describe, with consideration of the national security, the property and services covered by each contract.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 97–295, §1(24)(B), substituted "Healey" for "Healy" after "Walsh–".

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 97–295, §1(24)(C), added subsec. (i).

1981—Subsecs. (a)(3), (g). Pub. L. 97–86 substituted "$25,000" for "$10,000".

1980—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 96–513 substituted "(1) The Act entitled 'An Act to provide conditions for the purchase of supplies and the making of contracts by the United States, and for other purposes', approved June 30, 1936 (commonly referred to as the 'Walsh-Healy Act') (41 U.S.C. 35–45).", for "(1) Sections 35–45 of title 41.", and "(2) The Act entitled 'An Act relating to the rate of wages for laborers and mechanics employed on public buildings of the United States and the District of Columbia by contractors and subcontractors, and for other purposes', approved March 3, 1931 (commonly referred to as the 'Davis-Bacon Act') (40 U.S.C. 276a—276a–5)." for "(2) Sections 276a—276a–5 of title 40.", and struck out "(3) Sections 324 and 325a of title 40".

1974—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 93–356, §4(a), substituted "$10,000" for "$2,500".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 93–356, §4(b), substituted "$10,000" for "$2,500".

1968—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 90–500 required that the proposals solicited from the maximum number of qualified sources, consistent with the nature and requirements of the supplies or services to be procured, include price.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 90–268 added subsec. (h).

1962—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 87–653, §1(a), (b), provided that formal advertising be used where feasible and practicable under existing conditions and circumstances, subjected the agency head to the requirements of section 2310 of this title before negotiating a contract where formal advertising is not feasible and practicable and, in par. (14), substituted "would be likely to result in additional cost to the Government by reason of duplication of investment or would result in duplication of necessary preparation which would unduly delay the procurement of the property;" for "and competitive bidding might require duplication of investment or preparation already made or would unduly delay the procurement of that property; or".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 87–653, §1(c), added subsec. (g).

1958—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 85–861 included Commonwealths in cl. (6).

Pub. L. 85–800 substituted "$2,500" for "$1,000" in cl. (3) and inserted "or nonperishable" in cl. (9).

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Amendment by section 836(c)(2) of Pub. L. 115–232 effective Jan. 1, 2020, subject to a savings provision, see section 836(h) of Pub. L. 115–232, set out as an Effective Date of 2018 Amendment; Savings Provision note under section 453b of Title 6, Domestic Security.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title VIII, §850(g), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1850, provided that:

"(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section, former section 2302c of this title, section 637 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, section 1501 of former Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works, and sections 252c, 253, 416, 426, and 427 of Title 41, Public Contracts, repealing section 426a of Title 41, amending provisions set out as a note under section 413 of Title 41, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 426a of Title 41] shall take effect 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 18, 1997].

"(2) The repeal made by subsection (c) of this section [repealing provisions set out as a note under section 426a of Title 41] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act."

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

For effective date and applicability of amendments by Pub. L. 104–106, see section 4401 of Pub. L. 104–106, set out as a note under section 2302 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

For effective date and applicability of amendment by Pub. L. 103–355, see section 10001 of Pub. L. 103–355, set out as a note under section 2302 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–500, §101(c) [title X, §923(d)], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–82, 1783–153, Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [title X, §923(d)], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–82, 3341–153, and Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title IX, formerly title IV, §923(d), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3932, renumbered title IX, Pub. L. 100–26, §3(5), Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 273, provided that:

"(1) The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to contracts for which solicitations are issued after the end of the 180-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 18, 1986].

"(2) The amendment made by subsection (b) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to contracts awarded on the basis of unsolicited research proposals after the end of the 180-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act.

"(3) The amendments made by subsection (c) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to follow-on contracts awarded after the end of the 180-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act."

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–145, title IX, §961(e), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 704, provided that: "The amendments made by subsections (a) [amending this section and section 253 of Title 41, Public Contracts], (b) [amending section 2323 (now section 2343) of this title], and (c) [amending section 759 of former Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works] shall take effect as if included in the enactment of the Competition in Contracting Act of 1984 (title VII of division B of Public Law 98–369) [see Effective Date of 1984 Amendment note set out under section 2302 of this title]."

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 applicable with respect to any solicitation for bids or proposals issued after Mar. 31, 1985, see section 2751 of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 2302 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–513 effective Dec. 12, 1980, see section 701(b)(3) of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Pub. L. 87–653, §1(h), Sept. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 529, provided that: "The amendments made by this Act [amending this section and sections 2306, 2310, and 2311 of this title] shall take effect on the first day of the third calendar month which begins after the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 10, 1962]."

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 85–861 effective Aug. 10, 1956, see section 33(g) of Pub. L. 85–861, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Construction of 1994 Amendment

Repeal of prior subsec. (j) of this section by section 1004(b) of Pub. L. 103–355 not to be construed as modifying or superseding, or as intended to impair or restrict, authorities or responsibilities under former section 759 or former subchapter VI (§541 et seq.) of chapter 10 of Title 40 [now chapter 11 of Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works], see section 1004(d) of Pub. L. 103–355, set out as a note under section 2304a of this title.

Construction of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title VII, §2723(c), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1192, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 2305 of this title] do not supersede or affect the provisions of section 8(a) of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 637(a))."

Pilot Program on Payment of Costs for Denied Government Accountability Office Bid Protests

Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title VIII, §827, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1467, provided that:

"(a) Pilot Program Required.—The Secretary of Defense shall carry out a pilot program to determine the effectiveness of requiring contractors to reimburse the Department of Defense for costs incurred in processing covered protests.

"(b) Duration.—The pilot program shall—

"(1) begin on the date that is two years after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 12, 2017]; and

"(2) end on the date that is five years after the date of the enactment of this Act.

"(c) Report.—Not later than 90 days after the date on which the pilot program under subsection (a) ends, the Secretary shall provide a report to the Committees on Armed Services of the House of Representatives and the Senate assessing the feasibility of making permanent such pilot program.

"(d) Covered Protest Defined.—In this section, the term 'covered protest' means a bid protest that was—

"(1) denied in an opinion issued by the Government Accountability Office;

"(2) filed by a party with revenues in excess of $250,000,000 (based on fiscal year 2017 constant dollars) during the previous year; and

"(3) filed on or after October 1, 2019 and on or before September 30, 2022."

Pilot Program for Streamlined Technology Transition From the SBIR and STTR Programs of the Department of Defense

Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title XVII, §1710, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1810, provided that:

"(a) Definitions.—In this section—

"(1) the terms 'commercialization', 'Federal agency', 'Phase I', 'Phase II', 'Phase III', 'SBIR', and 'STTR' have the meanings given those terms in section 9(e) of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 638(e));

"(2) the term 'covered small business concern' means—

"(A) a small business concern that completed a Phase II award under the SBIR or STTR program of the Department; or

"(B) a small business concern that—

"(i) completed a Phase I award under the SBIR or STTR program of the Department; and

"(ii) a contracting officer for the Department recommended for inclusion in a multiple award contract described in subsection (b);

"(1) [sic] the term 'Department' means the Department of Defense;

"(2) [sic] the term 'military department' has the meaning given the term in section 101 of title 10, United States Code;

"(3) the term 'multiple award contract' has the meaning given the term in section 3302(a) of title 41, United States Code;

"(4) the term 'pilot program' means the pilot program established under subsection (b); and

"(5) the term 'small business concern' has the meaning given the term in section 3 of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 632).

"(b) Establishment.—Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 12, 2017], the Secretary of Defense shall establish a pilot program under which the Department shall award multiple award contracts to covered small business concerns for the purchase of technologies, supplies, or services that the covered small business concern has developed through the SBIR or STTR program.

"(c) Waiver of Competition in Contracting Act Requirements.—The Secretary of Defense may establish procedures to waive provisions of section 2304 of title 10, United States Code, for purposes of carrying out the pilot program.

"(d) Use of Contract Vehicle.—A multiple award contract described in subsection (b) may be used by any military department or component of the Department.

"(e) Termination.—The pilot program established under this section shall terminate on September 30, 2023.

"(f) Rule of Construction.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to prevent the commercialization of products and services produced by a small business concern under an SBIR or STTR program of a Federal agency through—

"(1) direct awards for Phase III of an SBIR or STTR program; or

"(2) any other contract vehicle."

Contracts for Studies, Analysis, or Consulting Services Entered Into Without Competition on the Basis of an Unsolicited Proposal

Pub. L. 114–113, div. C, title VIII, §8039, Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 2359, provided that:

"None of the funds appropriated by this Act [div. C of Pub. L. 114–113, see Tables for classification] and hereafter shall be available for a contract for studies, analysis, or consulting services entered into without competition on the basis of an unsolicited proposal unless the head of the activity responsible for the procurement determines—

"(1) as a result of thorough technical evaluation, only one source is found fully qualified to perform the proposed work;

"(2) the purpose of the contract is to explore an unsolicited proposal which offers significant scientific or technological promise, represents the product of original thinking, and was submitted in confidence by one source; or

"(3) the purpose of the contract is to take advantage of unique and significant industrial accomplishment by a specific concern, or to insure that a new product or idea of a specific concern is given financial support: Provided, That this limitation shall not apply to contracts in an amount of less than $25,000, contracts related to improvements of equipment that is in development or production, or contracts as to which a civilian official of the Department of Defense, who has been confirmed by the Senate, determines that the award of such contract is in the interest of the national defense."

Mitigating Potential Unfair Competitive Advantage of Technical Advisors to Acquisition Programs

Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title VIII, §895, Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 954, provided that: "Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 25, 2015], the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics shall review, and as necessary revise or issue, policy guidance pertaining to the identification, mitigation, and prevention of potential unfair competitive advantage conferred to technical advisors to acquisition programs."

Competition for Religious Services Contracts

Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title VIII, §898, Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 955, provided that: "The Department of Defense may not preclude a non-profit organization from competing for a contract for religious related services on a United States military installation."

Matters Relating to Reverse Auctions

Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title VIII, §824, Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3436, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 19, 2014], the Secretary of Defense shall clarify regulations on reverse auctions, as necessary, to ensure that—

"(1) single bid contracts may not be entered into resulting from reverse auctions unless compliant with existing Federal regulations and Department of Defense memoranda providing guidance on single bid offers;

"(2) all reverse auctions provide offerors with the ability to submit revised bids throughout the course of the auction;

"(3) if a reverse auction is conducted by a third party—

"(A) inherently governmental functions are not performed by private contractors, including by the third party; and

"(B) past performance or financial responsibility information created by the third party is made available to offerors; and

"(4) reverse auctions resulting in design-build military construction contracts specifically authorized in law are prohibited.

"(b) Training.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the President of the Defense Acquisition University shall establish comprehensive training available for contract specialists in the Department of Defense on the use of reverse auctions.

"(c) Design-Build Defined.—In this section, the term 'design-build' means procedures used for the selection of a contractor on the basis of price and other evaluation criteria to perform, in accordance with the provisions of a firm fixed-price contract, both the design and construction of a facility using performance specifications supplied by the Secretary of Defense."

Review and Justification of Pass-Through Contracts

Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title VIII, §802, Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1824, provided that: "Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 2, 2013], the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of State, and the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development shall issue such guidance and regulations as may be necessary to ensure that in any case in which an offeror for a contract or a task or delivery order informs the agency pursuant to section 52.215-22 of the Federal Acquisition Regulation that the offeror intends to award subcontracts for more than 70 percent of the total cost of work to be performed under the contract, task order, or delivery order, the contracting officer for the contract is required to—

"(1) consider the availability of alternative contract vehicles and the feasibility of contracting directly with a subcontractor or subcontractors that will perform the bulk of the work;

"(2) make a written determination that the contracting approach selected is in the best interest of the Government; and

"(3) document the basis for such determination."

Requirements for Information Relating to Supply Chain Risk

Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title VIII, §806, Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4260, as amended by Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title VIII, §806, Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1827; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §881(b), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1913, provided that:

"(a) Authority.—Subject to subsection (b), the head of a covered agency may—

"(1) carry out a covered procurement action; and

"(2) limit, notwithstanding any other provision of law, in whole or in part, the disclosure of information relating to the basis for carrying out a covered procurement action.

"(b) Determination and Notification.—The head of a covered agency may exercise the authority provided in subsection (a) only after—

"(1) obtaining a joint recommendation by the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics and the Chief Information Officer of the Department of Defense, on the basis of a risk assessment by the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence, that there is a significant supply chain risk to a covered system;

"(2) making a determination in writing, in unclassified or classified form, with the concurrence of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, that—

"(A) use of the authority in subsection (a)(1) is necessary to protect national security by reducing supply chain risk;

"(B) less intrusive measures are not reasonably available to reduce such supply chain risk; and

"(C) in a case where the head of the covered agency plans to limit disclosure of information under subsection (a)(2), the risk to national security due to the disclosure of such information outweighs the risk due to not disclosing such information; and

"(3) providing a classified or unclassified notice of the determination made under paragraph (2) to the appropriate congressional committees, which notice shall include—

"(A) the information required by section 2304(f)(3) of title 10, United States Code;

"(B) the joint recommendation by the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics and the Chief Information Officer of the Department of Defense as specified in paragraph (1);

"(C) a summary of the risk assessment by the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence that serves as the basis for the joint recommendation specified in paragraph (1); and

"(D) a summary of the basis for the determination, including a discussion of less intrusive measures that were considered and why they were not reasonably available to reduce supply chain risk.

"(c) Delegation.—The head of a covered agency may not delegate the authority provided in subsection (a) or the responsibility to make a determination under subsection (b) to an official below the level of the service acquisition executive for the agency concerned.

"(d) Limitation on Disclosure.—If the head of a covered agency has exercised the authority provided in subsection (a)(2) to limit disclosure of information—

"(1) no action undertaken by the agency head under such authority shall be subject to review in a bid protest before the Government Accountability Office or in any Federal court; and

"(2) the agency head shall—

"(A) notify appropriate parties of a covered procurement action and the basis for such action only to the extent necessary to effectuate the covered procurement action;

"(B) notify other Department of Defense components or other Federal agencies responsible for procurements that may be subject to the same or similar supply chain risk, in a manner and to the extent consistent with the requirements of national security; and

"(C) ensure the confidentiality of any such notifications.

"(e) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) Head of a covered agency.—The term 'head of a covered agency' means each of the following:

"(A) The Secretary of Defense.

"(B) The Secretary of the Army.

"(C) The Secretary of the Navy.

"(D) The Secretary of the Air Force.

"(2) Covered procurement action.—The term 'covered procurement action' means any of the following actions, if the action takes place in the course of conducting a covered procurement:

"(A) The exclusion of a source that fails to meet qualification standards established in accordance with the requirements of section 2319 of title 10, United States Code, for the purpose of reducing supply chain risk in the acquisition of covered systems.

"(B) The exclusion of a source that fails to achieve an acceptable rating with regard to an evaluation factor providing for the consideration of supply chain risk in the evaluation of proposals for the award of a contract or the issuance of a task or delivery order.

"(C) The decision to withhold consent for a contractor to subcontract with a particular source or to direct a contractor for a covered system to exclude a particular source from consideration for a subcontract under the contract.

"(3) Covered procurement.—The term 'covered procurement' means—

"(A) a source selection for a covered system or a covered item of supply involving either a performance specification, as provided in section 2305(a)(1)(C)(ii) of title 10, United States Code, or an evaluation factor, as provided in section 2305(a)(2)(A) of such title, relating to supply chain risk;

"(B) the consideration of proposals for and issuance of a task or delivery order for a covered system or a covered item of supply, as provided in section 2304c(d)(3) of title 10, United States Code, where the task or delivery order contract concerned includes a contract clause establishing a requirement relating to supply chain risk; or

"(C) any contract action involving a contract for a covered system or a covered item of supply where such contract includes a clause establishing requirements relating to supply chain risk.

"(4) Supply chain risk.—The term 'supply chain risk' means the risk that an adversary may sabotage, maliciously introduce unwanted function, or otherwise subvert the design, integrity, manufacturing, production, distribution, installation, operation, or maintenance of a covered system so as to surveil, deny, disrupt, or otherwise degrade the function, use, or operation of such system.

"(5) Covered system.—The term 'covered system' means a national security system, as that term is defined in [former] section 3542(b) of title 44, United States Code [see now 44 U.S.C. 3552(b)].

"(6) Covered item of supply.—The term 'covered item of supply' means an item of information technology (as that term is defined in section 11101 of title 40, United States Code) that is purchased for inclusion in a covered system, and the loss of integrity of which could result in a supply chain risk for a covered system.

"(7) Appropriate congressional committees.—The term 'appropriate congressional committees' means—

"(A) in the case of a covered system included in the National Intelligence Program or the Military Intelligence Program, the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate, the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives, and the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives]; and

"(B) in the case of a covered system not otherwise included in subparagraph (A), the congressional defense committees.

"(f) Effective Date.—The requirements of this section shall take effect on the date that is 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 7, 2011] and shall apply to—

"(1) contracts that are awarded on or after such date; and

"(2) task and delivery orders that are issued on or after such date pursuant to contracts that are awarded before, on, or after such date.

"[(g) Repealed. Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §881(b), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1913.]

"(h) Verification of Effective Implementation.—

"(1) Criteria and data collection to measure effectiveness.—The Secretary of Defense shall—

"(A) establish criteria for measuring the effectiveness of the authority provided by this section; and

"(B) collect data to evaluate the implementation of this section using such criteria.

"(2) Reports.—The Secretary shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees—

"(A) not later than March 1, 2013, a report on the criteria established under paragraph (1)(A); and

"(B) not later than January 1, 2017, a report on the effectiveness of the implementation of this section, based on data collected under paragraph (1)(B)."

Publication of Notification of Bundling of Contracts of the Department of Defense

Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title VIII, §820, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2410, provided that:

"(a) Requirement to Publish Notification for Bundling.—A contracting officer of the Department of Defense carrying out a covered acquisition shall publish a notification consistent with the requirements of paragraph (c)(2) of subpart 10.001 of the Federal Acquisition Regulation on the website known as FedBizOpps.gov (or any successor site) at least 30 days prior to the release of a solicitation for such acquisition and, if the agency has determined that measurably substantial benefits are expected to be derived as a result of bundling such acquisition, shall include in the notification a brief description of the benefits.

"(b) Covered Acquisition Defined.—In this section, the term 'covered acquisition' means an acquisition that is—

"(1) funded entirely using funds of the Department of Defense; and

"(2) covered by subpart 7.107 of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (relating to acquisitions involving bundling).

"(c) Construction.—

"(1) Notification.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to alter the responsibility of a contracting officer to provide the notification referred to in subsection (a) with respect to a covered acquisition, or otherwise provide notification, to any party concerning such acquisition under any other requirement of law or regulation.

"(2) Disclosure.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to require the public availability of information that is exempt from public disclosure under section 552(b) of title 5, United States Code, or is otherwise restricted from public disclosure by law or Executive order.

"(3) Issuance of solicitation.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to require a contracting officer to delay the issuance of a solicitation in order to meet the requirements of subsection (a) if the expedited issuance of such solicitation is otherwise authorized under any other requirement of law or regulation."

Small Arms Acquisition Strategy and Requirements Review

Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title I, §143, Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4381, as amended by Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title X, §1075(e)(1), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4374, provided that:

"(a) Secretary of Defense Report.—Not later than 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 14, 2008], the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a report on the small arms requirements of the Armed Forces and the industrial base of the United States. The report shall include the following:

"(1) An assessment of Department of Defense-wide small arms requirements in terms of capabilities and quantities, based on an analysis of the small arms capability assessments of each military department.

"(2) An assessment of plans for small arms research, development, and acquisition programs to meet the requirements identified under paragraph (1).

"(3) An assessment of capabilities, capacities, and risks in the small arms industrial base of the United States to meet the requirements of the Department of Defense for pistols, carbines, rifles, and light, medium, and heavy machine guns during the 20 years following the date of the report.

"(4) An assessment of the costs, benefits, and risks of full and open competition for the procurement of non-developmental pistols and carbines that are not technically compatible with the M9 pistol or M4 carbine to meet the requirements identified under paragraph (1).

"(b) Competition for a New Individual Weapon.—

"(1) Competition required.—If the small arms capabilities based assessments by the Army identify gaps in small arms capabilities and the Secretary of the Army determines that a new individual weapon is required to address such gaps, the Secretary shall procure the new individual weapon using full and open competition as described in paragraph (2).

"(2) Full and open competition.—The full and open competition described in this paragraph is competition among all responsible manufacturers that—

"(A) is open to all developmental item solutions and non-developmental item solutions; and

"(B) provides for the award of a contract based on selection criteria that reflect the key performance parameters and attributes identified in a service requirements document approved by the Army.

"(c) Small Arms Defined.—In this section, the term 'small arms'—

"(1) means man-portable or vehicle-mounted light weapons, designed primarily for use by individual military personnel for anti-personnel use; and

"(2) includes pistols, carbines, rifles, and light, medium, and heavy machine guns."

Implementation of Statutory Requirements Regarding the National Technology and Industrial Base

Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title VIII, §802, Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4518, which required guidance from the Secretary on certain statutory requirements regarding major defense acquisition programs and the national technology and industrial base, was repealed by Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §812(b)(11), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1848.

Plan for Restricting Government-Unique Contract Clauses on Commercial Contracts

Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title VIII, §821, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 226, as amended by Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title X, §1071(b)(2)(B), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3506; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §836(f)(3), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1871, provided that:

"(a) Plan.—The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics shall develop and implement a plan to minimize the number of government-unique contract clauses used in commercial contracts by restricting the clauses to the following:

"(1) Government-unique clauses authorized by law or regulation.

"(2) Any additional clauses that are relevant and necessary to a specific contract.

"(b) Commercial Contract.—In this section:

"(1) The term 'commercial contract' means a contract awarded by the Federal Government for the procurement of a commercial item.

"(2) The term 'commercial item' has the meaning provided by section 103 of title 41, United States Code."

[Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §836(f)(3), (h), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1871, 1874, provided that, effective Jan. 1, 2020, subject to a savings provision, section 821(b) of Pub. L. 110–181, set out above, is amended:

[(1) in paragraph (1), by striking "a commercial item" and inserting "a commercial product or a commercial service";

[(2) in paragraph (2), by striking "commercial item" and inserting "commercial product"; and

[(3) by adding at the end the following new paragraph:

["(3) The term 'commercial service' has the meaning provided by section 103a of title 41, United States Code."]

Telephone Services for Military Personnel Serving In Combat Zones

Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title VIII, §885, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 265, as amended by Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title VI, §641, Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4241; Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title X, §1062(c), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1585, provided that:

"(a) Competitive Procedures Required.—

"(1) Requirement.—When the Secretary of Defense considers it necessary to provide morale, welfare, and recreation telephone services for military personnel serving in combat zones, the Secretary shall use competitive procedures when entering into a contract to provide those services.

"(2) Review and determination.—Before soliciting bids or proposals for new contracts, or considering extensions to existing contracts, to provide morale, welfare, and recreation telephone services for military personnel serving in combat zones, the Secretary shall review and determine whether it is in the best interest of the Department to require bids or proposals, or adjustments for the purpose of extending a contract, to include options that minimize the cost of the telephone services to individual users while providing individual users the flexibility of using phone cards from other than the prospective contractor.

"(b) Effective Date.—

"(1) Requirement.—Subsection (a)(1) shall apply to any new contract to provide morale, welfare, and recreation telephone services for military personnel serving in combat zones that is entered into after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 28, 2008].

"(2) Review and determination.—Subsection (a)(2) shall apply to any new contract or extension to an existing contract to provide morale, welfare, and recreation telephone services for military personnel serving in combat zones that is entered into or agreed upon after the date of the enactment of this Act.

"(c) Morale, Welfare, and Recreation Telephone Services Defined.—In this section, the term 'morale, welfare, and recreation telephone services' means unofficial telephone calling center services supporting calling centers provided by the Army and Air Force Exchange Service, Navy Exchange Service Command, Marine Corps exchanges, or any other nonappropriated fund instrumentality of the United States under the jurisdiction of the Armed Forces which is conducted for the comfort, pleasure, contentment, or physical or mental improvement of members of the Armed Forces."

Competition for Procurement of Small Arms Supplied to Iraq and Afghanistan

Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title VIII, §892, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 270, provided that:

"(a) Competition Requirement.—For the procurement of pistols and other weapons described in subsection (b), the Secretary of Defense shall ensure, consistent with the provisions of section 2304 of title 10, United States Code, that—

"(1) full and open competition is obtained to the maximum extent practicable;

"(2) no responsible United States manufacturer is excluded from competing for such procurements; and

"(3) products manufactured in the United States are not excluded from the competition.

"(b) Procurements Covered.—This section applies to the procurement of the following:

"(1) Pistols and other weapons less than 0.50 caliber for assistance to the Army of Iraq, the Iraqi Police Forces, and other Iraqi security organizations.

"(2) Pistols and other weapons less than 0.50 caliber for assistance to the Army of Afghanistan, the Afghani Police Forces, and other Afghani security organizations."

Internal Controls for Procurements on Behalf of the Department of Defense

Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title VIII, §804(a)–(c), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4519, provided that:

"(a) Inclusion of Additional Non-Defense Agencies in Review.—The covered non-defense agencies specified in subsection (c) of this section shall be considered covered non-defense agencies as defined in subsection (i) of section 817 of the John Warner National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2007 (Public Law 109–364; 120 Stat. 2326) [set out below] for purposes of such section.

"(b) Deadlines and Applicability for Additional Non-Defense Agencies.—For each covered non-defense agency specified in subsection (c) of this section, section 817 of the John Warner National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2007 (Public Law 109–364; 120 Stat. 2326) shall apply to such agency as follows:

"(1) The review and determination required by subsection (a)(1) of such section shall be completed by not later than March 15, 2009.

"(2) The review and determination required by subsection (a)(2) of such section, if necessary, shall be completed by not later than June 15, 2010, and such review and determination shall be a review and determination of such agency's procurement of property and services on behalf of the Department of Defense in fiscal year 2009.

"(3) The memorandum of understanding required by subsection (c)(1) of such section shall be entered into by not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 14, 2008].

"(4) The limitation specified in subsection (d)(1) of such section shall apply after March 15, 2009, and before June 16, 2010.

"(5) The limitation specified in subsection (d)(2) of such section shall apply after June 15, 2010.

"(6) The limitation required by subsection (d)(3) of such section shall commence, if necessary, on the date that is 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act.

"(c) Definition of Covered Non-Defense Agency.—In this section, the term 'covered non-defense agency' means each of the following:

"(1) The Department of Commerce.

"(2) The Department of Energy."

Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title VIII, §801, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 202, as amended by Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title VIII, §804(d), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4519; Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title VIII, §806, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2404; Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title VIII, §817, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1493; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title VIII, §§801, 805, Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1824, 1826; Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title X, §1071(d)(1)(B), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3509, provided that:

"(a) Inspectors General Reviews and Determinations.—

"(1) In general.—For each covered non-defense agency, the Inspector General of the Department of Defense and the Inspector General of such covered non-defense agency may jointly—

"(A) review—

"(i) the procurement policies, procedures, and internal controls of such covered non-defense agency that are applicable to the procurement of property and services on behalf of the Department by such covered non-defense agency; and

"(ii) the administration of such policies, procedures, and internal controls; and

"(B) determine in writing whether such covered non-defense agency is or is not compliant with applicable procurement requirements.

"(2) Separate reviews and determinations.—The Inspector General of the Department of Defense and the Inspector General of a covered non-defense agency may by joint agreement conduct separate reviews of the procurement of property and services on behalf of the Department of Defense that are conducted by separate business units, or under separate government-wide acquisition contracts, of the covered non-defense agency. If such separate reviews are conducted, the Inspectors General shall make a separate determination under paragraph (1)(B) with respect to each such separate review.

"(3) Memoranda of understanding for reviews and determinations.—Not later than one year before a review and determination is to be performed under this subsection with respect to a covered non-defense agency, the Inspector General of the Department of Defense and the Inspector General of the covered non-defense agency may enter into a memorandum of understanding with each other to carry out such review and determination.

"(4) Termination of non-compliance determination.—If the Inspector General of the Department of Defense and the Inspector General of a covered non-defense agency determine, pursuant to paragraph (1)(B), that a covered non-defense agency is not compliant with applicable procurement requirements, the Inspectors General may terminate such a determination effective on the date on which the Inspectors General jointly—

"(A) determine that the non-defense agency is compliant with applicable procurement requirements; and

"(B) notify the Secretary of Defense of that determination.

"(5) Resolution of disagreements.—If the Inspector General of the Department of Defense and the Inspector General of a covered non-defense agency are unable to agree on a joint determination under this subsection, a determination by the Inspector General of the Department of Defense under this subsection shall be conclusive for the purposes of this section.

"(b) Limitation on Procurements on Behalf of Department of Defense.—

"(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), an acquisition official of the Department of Defense may place an order, make a purchase, or otherwise procure property or services for the Department of Defense in excess of the simplified acquisition threshold through a non-defense agency only if—

"(A) in the case of a procurement by any non-defense agency in any fiscal year, the head of the non-defense agency has certified that the non-defense agency will comply with applicable procurement requirements for the fiscal year;

"(B) in the case of—

"(i) a procurement by a covered non-defense agency in a fiscal year for which a memorandum of understanding is to be entered into under subsection (a)(3), the Inspector General of the Department of Defense and the Inspector General of the covered non-defense agency have entered into such a memorandum of understanding; or

"(ii) a procurement by a covered non-defense agency in a fiscal year following the Inspectors General review and determination provided for under subsection (a), the Inspectors General have determined that a covered non-defense agency is compliant with applicable procurement requirements or have terminated a prior determination of non-compliance in accordance with subsection (a)(4); and

"(C) the procurement is not otherwise prohibited by section 817 of the John Warner National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2007 (Public Law 109–364) or section 811 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2006 (Public Law 109–163) [see notes below].

"(2) Exception for procurements of necessary property and services.—

"(A) In general.—The limitation in paragraph (1) shall not apply to the procurement of property and services on behalf of the Department of Defense by a non-defense agency during any fiscal year for which there is in effect a written determination of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics that it is necessary in the interest of the Department of Defense to procure property and services through the non-defense agency during such fiscal year.

"(B) Scope of particular exception.—A written determination with respect to a non-defense agency under subparagraph (A) shall apply to any category of procurements through the non-defense agency that is specified in the determination.

"(3) Treatment of procurements under joint programs with intelligence community.—For purposes of this subsection, a contract entered into by a non-defense agency that is an element of the intelligence community (as defined in section 3(4) of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 3003(4))) for the performance of a joint program conducted to meet the needs of the Department of Defense and the non-defense agency shall not be considered a procurement of property or services for the Department of Defense through a non-defense agency.

"(c) Guidance on Interagency Contracting.—

"(1) Requirement.—Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 28, 2008], the Secretary of Defense shall issue guidance on the use of interagency contracting by the Department of Defense.

"(2) Matters covered.—The guidance required by paragraph (1) shall address the circumstances in which it is appropriate for Department of Defense acquisition officials to procure goods or services through a contract entered into by an agency outside the Department of Defense. At a minimum, the guidance shall address—

"(A) the circumstances in which it is appropriate for such acquisition officials to use direct acquisitions;

"(B) the circumstances in which it is appropriate for such acquisition officials to use assisted acquisitions;

"(C) the circumstances in which it is appropriate for such acquisition officials to use interagency contracting to acquire items unique to the Department of Defense and the procedures for approving such interagency contracting;

"(D) the circumstances in which it is appropriate for such acquisition officials to use interagency contracting to acquire items that are already being provided under a contract awarded by the Department of Defense;

"(E) tools that should be used by such acquisition officials to determine whether items are already being provided under a contract awarded by the Department of Defense; and

"(F) procedures for ensuring that applicable procurement requirements are identified and communicated to outside agencies involved in interagency contracting.

"(d) Compliance With Applicable Procurement Requirements.—

"(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), for the purposes of this section, a non-defense agency is compliant with applicable procurement requirements if the procurement policies, procedures, and internal controls of the non-defense agency applicable to the procurement of products and services on behalf of the Department of Defense, and the manner in which they are administered, are adequate to ensure the compliance of the non-defense agency with the following:

"(A) The Federal Acquisition Regulation and other laws and regulations that apply to procurements of property and services by Federal agencies.

"(B) Laws and regulations (including applicable Department of Defense financial management regulations) that apply to procurements of property and services made by the Department of Defense through other Federal agencies.

"(2) In the case of the procurement of property or services on behalf of the Department of Defense through the Work for Others program of the Department of Energy, the laws and regulations applicable under paragraph (1)(B) are the Department of Energy Acquisition Regulations, pertinent interagency agreements, and Department of Defense and Department of Energy policies related to the Work for Others program.

"(e) Treatment of Procurements for Fiscal Year Purposes.—For the purposes of this section, a procurement shall be treated as being made during a particular fiscal year to the extent that funds are obligated by the Department of Defense for the procurement in that fiscal year.

"(f) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) Non-defense agency.—The term 'non-defense agency' means any department or agency of the Federal Government other than the Department of Defense. Such term includes a covered non-defense agency.

"(2) Covered non-defense agency.—The term 'covered non-defense agency' means each of the following:

"(A) The General Services Administration.

"(B) The Department of the Interior.

"(C) The Department of Veterans Affairs.

"(D) The National Institutes of Health.

"(E) The Department of Commerce.

"(F) The Department of Energy.

"(3) Government-wide acquisition contract.—The term 'government-wide acquisition contract' means a task or delivery order contract that—

"(A) is entered into by a non-defense agency; and

"(B) may be used as the contract under which property or services are procured for one or more other departments or agencies of the Federal Government.

"(4) Simplified acquisition threshold.—The term 'simplified acquisition threshold' has the meaning provided by section 2302(7) of title 10, United States Code.

"(5) Interagency contracting.—The term 'interagency contracting' means the exercise of the authority under section 1535 of title 31, United States Code, or other statutory authority, for Federal agencies to purchase goods and services under contracts entered into or administered by other agencies.

"(6) Acquisition official.—The term 'acquisition official', with respect to the Department of Defense, means—

"(A) a contracting officer of the Department of Defense; or

"(B) any other Department of Defense official authorized to approve a direct acquisition or an assisted acquisition on behalf of the Department of Defense.

"(7) Direct acquisition.—The term 'direct acquisition', with respect to the Department of Defense, means the type of interagency contracting through which the Department of Defense orders an item or service from a government-wide acquisition contract maintained by a non-defense agency.

"(8) Assisted acquisition.—The term 'assisted acquisition', with respect to the Department of Defense, means the type of interagency contracting through which acquisition officials of a non-defense agency award a contract or task or delivery order for the procurement of goods or services on behalf of the Department of Defense."

Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title VIII, §817, Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2326, provided that:

"(a) Inspector General Reviews and Determinations.—

"(1) In general.—For each covered non-defense agency, the Inspector General of the Department of Defense and the Inspector General of such non-defense agency shall, not later than March 15, 2007, jointly—

"(A) review—

"(i) the procurement policies, procedures, and internal controls of such non-defense agency that are applicable to the procurement of property and services on behalf of the Department by such non-defense agency; and

"(ii) the administration of those policies, procedures, and internal controls; and

"(B) determine in writing whether—

"(i) such non-defense agency is compliant with defense procurement requirements;

"(ii) such non-defense agency is not compliant with defense procurement requirements, but has a program or initiative to significantly improve compliance with defense procurement requirements;

"(iii) neither of the conclusions stated in clauses (i) and (ii) is correct in the case of such non-defense agency; or

"(iv) such non-defense agency is not compliant with defense procurement requirements to such an extent that the interests of the Department of Defense are at risk in procurements conducted by such non-defense agency.

"(2) Actions following certain determinations.—If the Inspectors General determine under paragraph (1) that a conclusion stated in clause (ii), (iii), or (iv) of subparagraph (B) of that paragraph is correct in the case of a covered non-defense agency, such Inspectors General shall, not later than June 15, 2008, jointly—

"(A) conduct a second review, as described in subparagraph (A) of that paragraph, regarding such non-defense agency's procurement of property or services on behalf of the Department of Defense in fiscal year 2007; and

"(B) determine in writing whether such non-defense agency is or is not compliant with defense procurement requirements.

"(b) Compliance With Defense Procurement Requirements.—For the purposes of this section, a covered non-defense agency is compliant with defense procurement requirements if such non-defense agency's procurement policies, procedures, and internal controls applicable to the procurement of products and services on behalf of the Department of Defense, and the manner in which they are administered, are adequate to ensure such non-defense agency's compliance with the requirements of laws and regulations that apply to procurements of property and services made directly by the Department of Defense.

"(c) Memoranda of Understanding Between Inspectors General.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 17, 2006], the Inspector General of the Department of Defense and the Inspector General of each covered non-defense agency shall enter into a memorandum of understanding with each other to carry out the reviews and make the determinations required by this section.

"(2) Scope of memoranda.—The Inspector General of the Department of Defense and the Inspector General of a covered non-defense agency may by mutual agreement conduct separate reviews of the procurement of property and services on behalf of the Department of Defense that are conducted by separate business units, or under separate governmentwide acquisition contracts, of such non-defense agency. In any case where such separate reviews are conducted, the Inspectors General shall make separate determinations under paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (a), as applicable, with respect to each such separate review.

"(d) Limitations on Procurements on Behalf of Department of Defense.—

"(1) Limitation during review period.—After March 15, 2007, and before June 16, 2008, no official of the Department of Defense may, except as provided in subsection (e) or (f), order, purchase, or otherwise procure property or services in an amount in excess of $100,000 through a covered non-defense agency for which a determination described in clause (iii) or (iv) of paragraph (1)(B) of subsection (a) has been made under subsection (a).

"(2) Limitation after review period.—After June 15, 2008, no official of the Department of Defense may, except as provided in subsection (e) or (f), order, purchase, or otherwise procure property or services in an amount in excess of $100,000 through a covered non-defense agency that, having been subject to review under this section, has not been determined under this section as being compliant with defense procurement requirements.

"(3) Limitation following failure to reach mou.—Commencing on the date that is 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 17, 2006], if a memorandum of understanding between the Inspector General of the Department of Defense and the Inspector General of a covered non-defense agency cannot be attained causing the review required by this section to not be performed, no official of the Department of Defense, except as provided in subsection (e) or (f), may order, purchase or otherwise procure property or services in an amount in excess of $100,000 through such non-defense agency.

"(e) Exception From Applicability of Limitations.—

"(1) Exception.—No limitation applies under subsection (d) with respect to the procurement of property and services on behalf of the Department of Defense by a covered non-defense agency during any period that there is in effect a determination of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, made in writing, that it is necessary in the interest of the Department of Defense to continue to procure property and services through such non-defense agency.

"(2) Applicability of determination.—A written determination with respect to a covered non-defense agency under paragraph (1) is in effect for the period, not in excess of one year, that the Under Secretary shall specify in the written determination. The Under Secretary may extend from time to time, for up to one year at a time, the period for which the written determination remains in effect.

"(f) Termination of Applicability of Limitations.—Subsection (d) shall cease to apply to a covered non-defense agency on the date on which the Inspector General of the Department of Defense and the Inspector General of such non-defense agency jointly—

"(1) determine that such non-defense agency is compliant with defense procurement requirements; and

"(2) notify the Secretary of Defense of that determination.

"(g) Identification of Procurements Made During a Particular Fiscal Year.—For the purposes of subsection (a), a procurement shall be treated as being made during a particular fiscal year to the extent that funds are obligated by the Department of Defense for that procurement in that fiscal year.

"(h) Resolution of Disagreements.—If the Inspector General of the Department of Defense and the Inspector General of a covered non-defense agency are unable to agree on a joint determination under subsection (a) or (f), a determination by the Inspector General of the Department of Defense under such subsection shall be conclusive for the purposes of this section.

"(i) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) The term 'covered non-defense agency' means each of the following:

"(A) The Department of Veterans Affairs.

"(B) The National Institutes of Health.

"(2) The term 'governmentwide acquisition contract', with respect to a covered non-defense agency, means a task or delivery order contract that—

"(A) is entered into by the non-defense agency; and

"(B) may be used as the contract under which property or services are procured for one or more other departments or agencies of the Federal Government."

Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title VIII, §811, Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3374, provided that:

"(a) Inspector General Reviews and Determinations.—

"(1) In general.—For each covered non-defense agency, the Inspector General of the Department of Defense and the Inspector General of such non-defense agency shall, not later than March 15, 2006, jointly—

"(A) review—

"(i) the procurement policies, procedures, and internal controls of such non-defense agency that are applicable to the procurement of property and services on behalf of the Department by such non-defense agency; and

"(ii) the administration of those policies, procedures, and internal controls; and

"(B) determine in writing whether—

"(i) such non-defense agency is compliant with defense procurement requirements;

"(ii) such non-defense agency is not compliant with defense procurement requirements, but has a program or initiative to significantly improve compliance with defense procurement requirements; or

"(iii) neither of the conclusions stated in clauses (i) and (ii) is correct in the case of such non-defense agency.

"(2) Actions following certain determinations.—If the Inspectors General determine under paragraph (1) that the conclusion stated in clause (ii) or (iii) of subparagraph (B) of that paragraph is correct in the case of a covered non-defense agency, such Inspectors General shall, not later than June 15, 2007, jointly—

"(A) conduct a second review, as described in subparagraph (A) of that paragraph, regarding such non-defense agency's procurement of property or services on behalf of the Department of Defense in fiscal year 2006; and

"(B) determine in writing whether such non-defense agency is or is not compliant with defense procurement requirements.

"(b) Compliance With Defense Procurement Requirements.—For the purposes of this section, a covered non-defense agency is compliant with defense procurement requirements if such non-defense agency's procurement policies, procedures, and internal controls applicable to the procurement of products and services on behalf of the Department of Defense, and the manner in which they are administered, are adequate to ensure such non-defense agency's compliance with the requirements of laws and regulations that apply to procurements of property and services made directly by the Department of Defense.

"(c) Memoranda of Understanding Between Inspectors General.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 6, 2006], the Inspector General of the Department of Defense and the Inspector General of each covered non-defense agency shall enter into a memorandum of understanding with each other to carry out the reviews and make the determinations required by this section.

"(2) Scope of memoranda.—The Inspector General of the Department of Defense and the Inspector General of a covered non-defense agency may by mutual agreement conduct separate reviews of the procurement of property and services on behalf of the Department of Defense that are conducted by separate business units, or under separate governmentwide acquisition contracts, of such non-defense agency. In any case where such separate reviews are conducted, the Inspectors General shall make separate determinations under paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (a), as applicable, with respect to each such separate review.

"(d) Limitations on Procurements on Behalf of Department of Defense.—

"(1) Limitation during review period.—After March 15, 2006, and before June 16, 2007, no official of the Department of Defense may, except as provided in subsection (e) or (f), order, purchase, or otherwise procure property or services in an amount in excess of $100,000 through a covered non-defense agency for which a determination described in paragraph (1)(B)(iii) of subsection (a) has been made under that subsection.

"(2) Limitation after review period.—After June 15, 2007, no official of the Department of Defense may, except as provided in subsection (e) or (f), order, purchase, or otherwise procure property or services in an amount in excess of $100,000 through a covered non-defense agency that, having been subject to review under this section, has not been determined under this section as being compliant with defense procurement requirements.

"(3) Limitation following failure to reach mou.—Commencing on the date that is 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 6, 2006], if a memorandum of understanding between the Inspector General of the Department of Defense and the Inspector General of a covered non-defense agency cannot be attained causing the review required by this section to not be performed, no official of the Department of Defense, except as provided in subsection (e) or (f), may order, purchase or otherwise procure property or services in an amount in excess of $100,000 through such non-defense agency.

"(e) Exception From Applicability of Limitations.—

"(1) Exception.—No limitation applies under subsection (d) with respect to the procurement of property and services on behalf of the Department of Defense by a covered non-defense agency during any period that there is in effect a determination of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, made in writing, that it is necessary in the interest of the Department of Defense to continue to procure property and services through such non-defense agency.

"(2) Applicability of determination.—A written determination with respect to a covered non-defense agency under paragraph (1) is in effect for the period, not in excess of one year, that the Under Secretary shall specify in the written determination. The Under Secretary may extend from time to time, for up to one year at a time, the period for which the written determination remains in effect.

"(f) Termination of Applicability of Limitations.—Subsection (d) shall cease to apply to a covered non-defense agency on the date on which the Inspector General of the Department of Defense and the Inspector General of such non-defense agency jointly—

"(1) determine that such non-defense agency is compliant with defense procurement requirements; and

"(2) notify the Secretary of Defense of that determination.

"(g) Identification of Procurements Made During a Particular Fiscal Year.—For the purposes of subsection (a), a procurement shall be treated as being made during a particular fiscal year to the extent that funds are obligated by the Department of Defense for that procurement in that fiscal year.

"(h) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) The term 'covered non-defense agency' means each of the following:

"(A) The Department of the Treasury.

"(B) The Department of the Interior.

"(C) The National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

"(2) The term 'governmentwide acquisition contract', with respect to a covered non-defense agency, means a task or delivery order contract that—

"(A) is entered into by the non-defense agency; and

"(B) may be used as the contract under which property or services are procured for 1 or more other departments or agencies of the Federal Government."

Panel on Contracting Integrity

Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title VIII, §813, Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2320, as amended by Pub. L. 111–23, title II, §207(d), May 22, 2009, 123 Stat. 1730, which established the Panel on Contracting Integrity and its composition and duties, was repealed by Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §812(b)(12), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1848.

Employment of State Residents in States Having Unemployment Rate in Excess of National Average

Pub. L. 109–289, div. A, title VIII, §8048, Sept. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 1284, provided that: "Notwithstanding any other provision of law, each contract awarded by the Department of Defense during the current fiscal year and hereafter for construction or service performed in whole or in part in a State (as defined in section 381(d) [now 281(d)] of title 10, United States Code) which is not contiguous with another State and has an unemployment rate in excess of the national average rate of unemployment as determined by the Secretary of Labor, shall include a provision requiring the contractor to employ, for the purpose of performing that portion of the contract in such State that is not contiguous with another State, individuals who are residents of such State and who, in the case of any craft or trade, possess or would be able to acquire promptly the necessary skills: Provided, That the Secretary of Defense may waive the requirements of this section, on a case-by-case basis, in the interest of national security."

Review and Demonstration Project Relating to Contractor Employees

Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title VIII, §851, Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 2019, provided that:

"(a) General Review.—(1) The Secretary of Defense shall conduct a review of policies, procedures, practices, and penalties of the Department of Defense relating to employees of defense contractors for purposes of ensuring that the Department of Defense is in compliance with Executive Order No. 12989 [8 U.S.C. 1324a note] (relating to a prohibition on entering into contracts with contractors that are not in compliance with the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.]).

"(2) In conducting the review, the Secretary shall—

"(A) identify potential weaknesses and areas for improvement in existing policies, procedures, practices, and penalties;

"(B) develop and implement reforms to strengthen, upgrade, and improve policies, procedures, practices, and penalties of the Department of Defense and its contractors; and

"(C) review and analyze reforms developed pursuant to this paragraph to identify for purposes of national implementation those which are most efficient and effective.

"(3) The review under this subsection shall be completed not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 2004].

"(b) Demonstration Project.—The Secretary of Defense shall conduct a demonstration project in accordance with this section, in one or more regions selected by the Secretary, for purposes of promoting greater contracting opportunities for contractors offering effective, reliable staffing plans to perform defense contracts that ensure all contract personnel employed for such projects, including management employees, professional employees, craft labor personnel, and administrative personnel, are lawful residents or persons properly authorized to be employed in the United States and properly qualified to perform services required under the contract. The demonstration project shall focus on contracts for construction, renovation, maintenance, and repair services for military installations.

"(c) Demonstration Project Procurement Procedures.—As part of the demonstration project under subsection (b), the Secretary of Defense may conduct a competition in which there is a provision in contract solicitations and request for proposal documents to require significant weight or credit be allocated to—

"(1) reliable, effective workforce programs offered by prospective contractors that provide background checks and other measures to ensure the contractor is in compliance with the Immigration and Nationality Act; and

"(2) reliable, effective project staffing plans offered by prospective contractors that specify for all contract employees (including management employees, professionals, and craft labor personnel) the skills, training, and qualifications of such persons and the labor supply sources and hiring plans or procedures used for employing such persons.

"(d) Implementation of Demonstration Project.—The Secretary of Defense shall begin operation of the demonstration project required under this section after completion of the review under subsection (a), but in no event later than 270 days after the date of the enactment of this Act.

"(e) Report on Demonstration Project.—Not later than six months after award of a contract under the demonstration project, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives a report setting forth a review of the demonstration project and recommendations on the actions, if any, that can be implemented to ensure compliance by the Department of Defense with Executive Order No. 12989.

"(f) Definition.—In this section, the term 'military installation' means a base, camp, post, station, yard, center, homeport facility for any ship, or other activity under the jurisdiction of the Department of Defense, including any leased facility, which is located within any of the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, or Guam. Such term does not include any facility used primarily for civil works, rivers and harbors projects, or flood control projects."

Defense Procurements Made Through Contracts of Other Agencies

Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title VIII, §854, Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 2022, provided that:

"(a) Limitation.—The head of an agency may not procure goods or services (under section 1535 of title 31, United States Code, pursuant to a designation under section 11302(e) of title 40, United States Code, or otherwise) through a contract entered into by an agency outside the Department of Defense for an amount greater than the simplified acquisition threshold referred to in section 2304(g) of title 10, United States Code, unless the procurement is done in accordance with procedures prescribed by that head of an agency for reviewing and approving the use of such contracts.

"(b) Effective Date.—The limitation in subsection (a) shall apply only with respect to orders for goods or services that are issued by the head of an agency to an agency outside the Department of Defense on or after the date that is 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 2004].

"(c) Inapplicability to Contracts for Certain Services.—This section does not apply to procurements of the following services:

"(1) Printing, binding, or blank-book work to which section 502 of title 44, United States Code, applies.

"(2) Services available under programs pursuant to section 103 of the Library of Congress Fiscal Operations Improvement Act of 2000 (Public Law 106–481; 114 Stat. 2187; 2 U.S.C. 182c).

"(d) Annual Report.—(1) For each of fiscal years 2005 and 2006, each head of an agency shall submit to the Secretary of Defense a report on the service charges imposed on purchases made for an amount greater than the simplified acquisition threshold during such fiscal year through a contract entered into by an agency outside the Department of Defense.

"(2) In the case of procurements made on orders issued by the head of a Defense Agency, Department of Defense Field Activity, or any other organization within the Department of Defense (other than a military department) under the authority of the Secretary of Defense as the head of an agency, the report under paragraph (1) shall be submitted by the head of that Defense Agency, Department of Defense Field Activity, or other organization, respectively.

"(3) The report for a fiscal year under this subsection shall be submitted not later than December 31 of the calendar year in which such fiscal year ends.

"(e) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) The term 'head of an agency' means the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of the Army, the Secretary of the Navy, the Secretary of the Air Force.

"(2) The term 'Defense Agency' has the meaning given such term in section 101(a)(11) of title 10, United States Code.

"(3) The term 'Department of Defense Field Activity' has the meaning given such term in section 101(a)(12) of such title."

Resources-Based Schedules for Completion of Public-Private Competitions for Performance of Department of Defense Functions

Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title III, §334, Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1443, provided that:

"(a) Application of Timeframes.—Any interim or final deadline or other schedule-related milestone for the completion of a Department of Defense public-private competition shall be established solely on the basis of considered research and sound analysis regarding the availability of sufficient personnel, training, and technical resources to the Department of Defense to carry out such competition in a timely manner.

"(b) Extension of Timeframes.—(1) The Department of Defense official responsible for managing a Department of Defense public-private competition shall extend any interim or final deadline or other schedule-related milestone established (consistent with subsection (a)) for the completion of the competition if the official determines that the personnel, training, or technical resources available to the Department of Defense to carry out the competition in a timely manner are insufficient.

"(2) A determination under this subsection shall be made pursuant to procedures prescribed by the Secretary of Defense."

Competition Requirement for Purchase of Services Pursuant to Multiple Award Contracts

Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title VIII, §803, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1178, which required the Secretary of Defense to promulgate in the Department of Defense Supplement to the Federal Acquisition Regulation, not later than 180 days after Dec. 28, 2001, regulations requiring competition in the purchase of services by the Department of Defense pursuant to multiple award contracts, was repealed by Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title VIII, §863(f), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4548.

Requirement To Disregard Certain Agreements in Awarding Contracts for Purchase of Firearms or Ammunition

Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title VIII, §826], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–220, provided that: "In accordance with the requirements contained in the amendments enacted in the Competition in Contracting Act of 1984 (title VII of division B of Public Law 98–369; 98 Stat. 1175) [see Tables for classification], the Secretary of Defense may not, in awarding a contract for the purchase of firearms or ammunition, take into account whether a manufacturer or vendor of firearms or ammunition is a party to an agreement under which the manufacturer or vendor agrees to adopt limitations with respect to importing, manufacturing, or dealing in firearms or ammunition in the commercial market."

GAO Report

Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title VIII, §806(b), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 705, directed the Comptroller General, not later than Mar. 1, 2001, to submit to Congress an evaluation of the test program authorized by the provisions in Pub. L. 104–106, §4202 (amending this section and section 2305 of this title and sections 253, 253a, 416, and 427 of Title 41, Public Contracts, and enacting provisions set out as a note below), together with any recommendations that the Comptroller General considered appropriate regarding the test program or the use of special simplified procedures for purchases of commercial items in excess of the simplified acquisition threshold.

Procurement of Conventional Ammunition

Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title VIII, §806, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2084, provided that:

"(a) Authority.—The official in the Department of Defense designated as the single manager for conventional ammunition in the Department shall have the authority to restrict the procurement of conventional ammunition to sources within the national technology and industrial base in accordance with the authority in section 2304(c) of title 10, United States Code.

"(b) Requirement.—The official in the Department of Defense designated as the single manager for conventional ammunition in the Department of Defense shall limit a specific procurement of ammunition to sources within the national technology and industrial base in accordance with section 2304(c)(3) of title 10, United States Code, in any case in which that manager determines that such limitation is necessary to maintain a facility, producer, manufacturer, or other supplier available for furnishing an essential item of ammunition or ammunition component in cases of national emergency or to achieve industrial mobilization.

"(c) Conventional Ammunition Defined.—For purposes of this section, the term 'conventional ammunition' has the meaning given that term in Department of Defense Directive 5160.65, dated March 8, 1995."

Warranty Claims Recovery Pilot Program

Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title III, §391, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1716, as amended by Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title III, §382, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 583; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title III, §364, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1068; Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title III, §368, Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2524; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title III, §343, Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 1857, which authorized the Secretary of Defense to carry out a pilot program to use commercial sources of services to improve the collection of Department of Defense claims under aircraft engine warranties, was repealed by Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §812(b)(13), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1848.

Requirements Relating to Micro-Purchases

Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title VIII, §848, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1846, as amended by Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title X, §1071(b)(10), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3507, provided that:

"(a) Requirement.—(1) Not later than October 1, 1998, at least 60 percent of all eligible purchases made by the Department of Defense for an amount less than the micro-purchase threshold shall be made through streamlined micro-purchase procedures.

"(2) Not later than October 1, 2000, at least 90 percent of all eligible purchases made by the Department of Defense for an amount less than the micro-purchase threshold shall be made through streamlined micro-purchase procedures.

"(b) Eligible Purchases.—The Secretary of Defense shall establish which purchases are eligible for purposes of subsection (a). In establishing which purchases are eligible, the Secretary may exclude those categories of purchases determined not to be appropriate or practicable for streamlined micro-purchase procedures.

"(c) Plan.—Not later than March 1, 1998, the Secretary of Defense shall provide to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on National Security of the House of Representatives a plan to implement this section.

"(d) Report.—Not later than March 1 in each of the years 1999, 2000, and 2001, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of Senate and House of Representatives] a report on the implementation of this section. Each report shall include—

"(A) the total dollar amount of all Department of Defense purchases for an amount less than the micro-purchase threshold in the fiscal year preceding the year in which the report is submitted;

"(B) the total dollar amount of such purchases that were considered to be eligible purchases;

"(C) the total amount of such eligible purchases that were made through a streamlined micro-purchase method; and

"(D) a description of the categories of purchases excluded from the definition of eligible purchases established under subsection (b).

"(e) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) The term 'micro-purchase threshold' has the meaning provided in section 1902 of title 41, United States Code.

"(2) The term 'streamlined micro-purchase procedures' means procedures providing for the use of the Government-wide commercial purchase card or any other method for carrying out micro-purchases that the Secretary of Defense prescribes in the regulations implementing this subsection."

Termination of Authority To Issue Solicitations for Purchases of Commercial Items in Excess of Simplified Acquisition Threshold

Pub. L. 104–106, div. D, title XLII, §4202(e), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 654, as amended by Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title VIII, §806(a), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 705; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title VIII, §823, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1183; Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title VIII, §812(a), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2609; Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title XIV, §1443(b), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1676; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title VIII, §817, Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 2015; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title VIII, §822(a), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 226; Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title VIII, §816, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2408; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title VIII, §822, Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1830; Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title X, §1091(b)(4), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 876, which related to termination of authority to issue solicitations for purchases of commercial items in excess of simplified acquisition threshold, was repealed by Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title VIII, §815, Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3430.

References in Other Laws to GS–16, 17, or 18 Pay Rates

References in laws to the rates of pay for GS–16, 17, or 18, or to maximum rates of pay under the General Schedule, to be considered references to rates payable under specified sections of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, see section 529 [title I, §101(c)(1)] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out in a note under section 5376 of Title 5.

Authority of Base Commanders Over Contracting for Commercial Activities

Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title XI, §1111, Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1146, directed the Secretary of Defense to authorize the commander of each military installation to (1) prepare an inventory each fiscal year of commercial activities carried out by Government personnel on the military installation, (2) decide which commercial activities were to be reviewed pursuant to Office of Management and Budget Circular A–76 or any successor administrative regulation or policy, (3) conduct a solicitation for contracts for those commercial activities selected for conversion to contractor performance under the Circular A–76 process, and (4) assist in finding suitable employment for any employee of the Department of Defense who had been displaced because of a contract entered into with a contractor for performance of a commercial activity on the military installation; directed the Secretary to prescribe regulations required by the preceding authority no later than 60 days after Dec. 4, 1987; and provided for termination of the authority on Oct. 1, 1989.

Evaluation of Contracts for Professional and Technical Services

Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title VIII, §804, Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2009, as amended by Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title IX, §904(f), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1729, directed Secretary of Defense, within 120 days after Sept. 29, 1988, to establish criteria to ensure that proposals for contracts for professional and technical services be evaluated on a basis which does not encourage contractors to propose mandatory uncompensated overtime for professional and technical employees and, within 30 days after Sept. 29, 1988, to establish an advisory committee to make recommendations on the criteria.

Regulations On Use of Fixed-Price Development Contracts

Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title VIII, §807, Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2011, as amended by Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title IX, §904(f), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1729, which provided that not later than 120 days after Sept. 29, 1988, the Secretary of Defense was to make certain revisions to Department of Defense regulations that provide for the use of fixed-price type contracts in a development program, was repealed by Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title VIII, §818(a), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2329.

Prohibition of Purchase of Angolan Petroleum Products From Companies Producing Oil in Angola

Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title VIII, §842, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2468, provided that: "The prohibition in section 316 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1987 [Pub. L. 99–661] (100 Stat. 3855; 10 U.S.C. 2304 note) shall cease to be effective on the date on which the President certifies to Congress that free, fair, and democratic elections have taken place in Angola."

Determination of President of the United States, No. 93–32, July 19, 1993, 58 F.R. 40309, provided:

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by Public Law 102–484, section 842 [set out as a note above], I hereby certify that free, fair, and democratic elections have taken place in Angola.

You are authorized and directed to report this determination to the Congress and publish it in the Federal Register.

William J. Clinton.      

Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title III, §316, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3855, provided that:

"(a) General Rule.—The Secretary of Defense may not enter into a contract with a company for the purchase of petroleum products which originated in Angola if the company (or a subsidiary or partnership of the company) is engaged in the production of petroleum products in Angola.

"(b) Waiver Authority.—The Secretary of Defense may waive the limitation in subsection (a) if the Secretary determines that such action is in the best interest of the United States.

"(c) Petroleum Product Defined.—For purposes of this section, the term 'petroleum product' means—

"(1) natural or synthetic crude;

"(2) blends of natural or synthetic crude; and

"(3) products refined or derived from natural or synthetic crude or from such blends.

"(d) Effective Date.—This section shall take effect six months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 14, 1986]."

Deadline for Prescribing Regulations

Pub. L. 99–500, §101(c) [title X, §927(b)], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–82, 100 Stat. 1783–156, Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [title X, §927(b)], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–82, 3341–156, and Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title IX, formerly title IV, §927(b), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3935, renumbered title IX, Pub. L. 100–26, §3(5), Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 273, which set a deadline for prescribing the regulations required by subsec. (i) of this section, were repealed by Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §812(b)(14), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1848.

One-Year Security-Guard Prohibition

Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title XII, §1222(b), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3976, which provided that, with exceptions, funds appropriated to the Department of Defense were not to be obligated or expended before Oct. 1, 1987, for the purpose of entering into a contract for the performance of security-guard functions at any military facility, was repealed by Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §812(b)(15), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1848.

Contracting Out Performance of Department of Defense Supply and Service Functions

Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title XII, §1223, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3977, which required Secretary to contract for Department of Defense supplies and services from private sector after a cost comparison demonstrates lower cost than Department of Defense can provide, and to ensure that overhead costs considered are realistic and fair, was repealed and restated in former section 2462 of this title by Pub. L. 100–370, §2(a)(1), (c)(3), July 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 853, 854.

Reports on Savings or Costs From Increased Use of Civilian Personnel

Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title XII, §1224, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3977, which required Secretary to maintain cost comparison data on performance of a commercial or industrial type activity taken over by Department of Defense comparing performance by employees of private contractor to that of civilian employees of Department of Defense, and to submit semi-annual report on savings or loss to United States, was repealed and restated in section 2463 of this title by Pub. L. 100–370, §2(a)(1), (c)(3), July 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 853, 854.

Limitations on Contracting Performed by Coast Guard

Pub. L. 101–225, title II, §205, Dec. 12, 1989, 103 Stat. 1912, provided that: "Notwithstanding any other provision of law, an officer or employee of the United States may not enter into a contract for procurement of performance of any function being performed by Coast Guard personnel as of January 1, 1989, before—

"(1) a study has been performed by the Secretary of Transportation under the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–76 with respect to that procurement;

"(2) the Secretary of Transportation has performed a study, in addition to the study required by paragraph (1) of this subsection, to determine the impact of that procurement on the multimission capabilities of the Coast Guard; and

"(3) copies of the studies required by paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subsection are submitted to the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries [now Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure] of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate."

Pub. L. 100–448, §5, Sept. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 1837, as amended by Pub. L. 104–66, title I, §1121(b), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 724, provided that:

"(a) Maintenance of Logistics Capability.—

"(1) Statement of national interest.—It is in the national interest for the Coast Guard to maintain a logistics capability (including personnel, equipment, and facilities) to provide a ready and controlled source of technical competence and resources necessary to ensure the effective and timely performance of Coast Guard missions in behalf of the security, safety, and economic and environmental well-being of the United States.

"[(2) Repealed. Pub. L. 104–66, title I, §1121(b), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 724.]

"[(b) Repealed. Pub. L. 104–66, title I, §1121(b), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 724.]

"(c) Submisison [sic] of List of Activities Contracted for Performance.—At least 30 days before the beginning of each fiscal year, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries [now Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure] of the House of Representatives a list of activities that will be contracted for performance by non-Government personnel under the procedures of Office of Management and Budget Circular A–76 during that fiscal year.

"(d) Employment of Local Residents To Perform Contracts.—

"(1) In general.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, each contract awarded by the Coast Guard in fiscal years 1988 and 1989 for construction or services to be performed in whole or in part in a State which has an unemployment rate in excess of the national average rate of unemployment (as determined by the Secretary of Labor) shall include a provision requiring the contractor to employ, for the purpose of performing that portion of the contract in that State, individuals who are local residents and who, in the case of any craft or trade, possess or would be able to acquire promptly the necessary skills. The Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating may waive this subsection in the interest of national security or economic efficiency.

"(2) Local resident defined.—As used in this subsection, the term 'local resident' means a resident of a State described in paragraph (1), and any individual who commutes daily to a State described in paragraph (1)."

[For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.]

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior authorization act:

Pub. L. 99–640, §5, Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3546.

Contracted Advisory and Assistance Services

Pub. L. 99–145, title IX, §918, Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 690, which provided that Secretary of Defense require each military department to establish accounting procedure to aid in control of expenditures for contracted advisory and assistance services, prescribe regulations to identify such services and which services are in direct support of a weapons system, consider specific list of factors in prescribing regulations, and identify total amount requested and separate category amount requested in budget documents for Department of Defense presented to Congress, was repealed and restated in section 2212 of this title by Pub. L. 100–370, §1(d)(2), July 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 842.

Assignment of Principal Contracting Officers

Pub. L. 99–145, title IX, §925, Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 699, required Secretary of Defense to develop a policy regarding mobility and regular rotation of principal administrative and corporate administrative contracting officers in Department of Defense and to report to Committees on Armed Services of Senate and House of Representatives not later than January 1, 1986, on such policy, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XII, §1207(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1665.

Prohibition on Felons Convicted of Defense-Contract-Related Felonies and Penalty on Employment of Such Persons by Defense Contractors

Pub. L. 99–145, title IX, §932, Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 699, prohibited certain felons from working on defense contracts and penalized employment of such persons by defense contractors, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 99–500, §101(c) [title X, §941(b)], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–82, 1783–162, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [title X, §941(b)], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–82, 3341–162; Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title IX, formerly title IV, §941(b), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3942, renumbered title IX, Pub. L. 100–26, §3(5), Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 273.

Reimbursement, Interest Charges, and Penalties for Overpayments Due to Cost and Pricing Data

Pub. L. 99–145, title IX, §934(a), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 700, which provided for interest payments and penalties for overpayments due to faulty cost and pricing data, was repealed by Pub. L. 99–500, §101(c) [title X, §952(b)(2), (d)], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–82, 1783–169, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [title X, §952(b)(2), (d)], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–82, 3341–169; Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title IX, formerly title IV, §952(b)(2), (d), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3949, renumbered title IX, Pub. L. 100–26, §3(5), Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 273, effective with respect to contracts or modifications on contracts entered into after the end of the 120-day period beginning on Oct. 18, 1986.

Personnel for Performance of Services and Activities

Pub. L. 99–145, title XII, §1233, Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 734, related to services and activities to be performed by non-Government personnel, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title XII, §1222(c), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3977.

Limitation on Contracting-Out Core Logistics Functions

Pub. L. 99–145, title XII, §1231(a)–(e), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 731–733, declared that certain specifically described functions of the Department of Defense shall be deemed logistics activities necessary to maintain the logistics capability described in section 307(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–525, formerly set out below; contained a description of the functions, i.e., depot-level maintenance of mission-essential materiel at specifically located activities of the Army, the Navy, the Marine Corps, the Air Force, the Defense Logistics Agency, and the Defense Mapping Agency; included certain matters within the specified functions and excluded certain functions; and defined "mission-essential materiel" as related to such functions.

Pub. L. 98–525, title III, §307, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2514, as amended by Pub. L. 99–145, title XII, §1231(f), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 733, which prohibited contracting to non-Government personnel of logistics activities necessary for effective response to national emergencies unless Secretary waives such prohibition after a determination that Government performance of such activity is no longer required for national defense reasons, and reports to Congress on waiver, was repealed and restated in former section 2464 of this title by Pub. L. 100–370, §2(a)(1), (c)(2), July 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 853, 854.

Shipbuilding Claims for Contract Price Adjustments

Pub. L. 98–473, title I, §101(h) [title VIII, §8078], Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1904, 1938, prohibited expenditure of funds to adjust any contract price in any shipbuilding claim, request for equitable adjustment, or demand for payment incurred due to the preparation, submission, or adjudication of any such shipbuilding claim, request, or demand under a contract entered into after Oct. 12, 1984, arising out of events occurring more than eighteen months prior to the submission of such shipbuilding claim, request, or demand, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–370, §1(p)(2), July 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 851.

Pub. L. 98–212, title VII, §787, Dec. 8, 1983, 97 Stat. 1453, which contained similar provisions relating to shipbuilding claims for contract price adjustments, was repealed and restated in section 2405 of this title by Pub. L. 98–525, title XII, §1234(a), (b)(2), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2604, effective Oct. 19, 1984.

Weapon System Guarantees; Government-as-Source Exception; Waiver

Pub. L. 98–212, title VII, §794, Dec. 8, 1983, 97 Stat. 1454, provided for weapon system guarantees, Government-as-Source exception, and waiver, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 98–525, title XII, §1234(b)(1), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2604, effective Jan. 1, 1985.

Fighter Aircraft Engine Warranty

Pub. L. 97–377, title I, §101(c) [title VII, §797], Dec. 21, 1982, 96 Stat. 1865, provided that: "None of the funds made available in the Act or any subsequent Act shall be available for the purchase of the alternate or new model fighter aircraft engine that does not have a written warranty or guarantee attesting that it will perform not less than 3,000 tactical cycles. The warranty will provide that the manufacturer must perform the necessary improvements or replace any parts to achieve the required performance at no cost to the Government."

Insurance To Protect Government Contractors Against Cost of Correcting Contractor's Own Defects; Reimbursement Prohibited

Pub. L. 97–12, title I, §100, June 5, 1981, 95 Stat. 29, and Pub. L. 97–114, title VII, §770, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1590, which provided that no funds authorized for the Department of Defense in fiscal year 1981 and thereafter would be available to reimburse a contractor for the cost of commercial insurance, except for that normally maintained in the conduct of his business, that would protect against the cost for correction for the contractor's own defects in materials or workmanship such as were not a fortuitous casualty or loss, were repealed and restated in section 2399 of this title by Pub. L. 97–295, §§1(29)(A), 6(b), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1293, 1315.

Restrictions on Conversion of Performance of Commercial and Industrial Type Functions From Department of Defense Personnel to Private Contractors; Annual Report to Congress

Pub. L. 96–342, title V, §502, Sept. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1086, as amended by Pub. L. 97–252, title XI, §1112(a), Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 747; Pub. L. 99–145, title XII, §1234(a), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 734; Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title XII, §1221, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3976, which provided that no commercial or industrial type function of the Department of Defense that on October 1, 1980, was being performed by Department of Defense civilian employees could be converted to performance by a private contractor to circumvent any civilian personnel ceiling unless Secretary of Defense submitted favorable cost comparisons and certifications, and reported annually to Congress with regard to such conversions, was repealed and restated in section 2461 of this title by Pub. L. 100–370, §2(a)(1), (c)(1), July 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 851, 854.

Similar provisions for fiscal year 1980 were contained in Pub. L. 96–107, title VIII, §806, Nov. 9, 1979, 93 Stat. 813.

Contract Claims; Request for Equitable Adjustment; Request for Relief; Certification

Pub. L. 95–485, title VIII, §813, Oct. 20, 1978, 92 Stat. 1624, which prohibited payment of a contract claim, request for equitable adjustment, or request for relief which exceeded $100,000 unless a senior company official certified that request was made in good faith and that supporting data was accurate and complete, was repealed and restated in section 2410 of this title by Pub. L. 100–370, §1(h)(2), (p)(4), July 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 847, 851.

Report to Congress by Secretary of Defense; Changes in Policy or Regulations Concerning Use of Private Contractors for Commercial or Industrial Type Function at Department of Defense Installations; Restrictions

Pub. L. 95–485, title VIII, §814, Oct. 20, 1978, 92 Stat. 1625, directed the Secretary of Defense to report to the House and Senate Committees on Armed Services any proposed change in policy or regulations from those in effect before June 30, 1976, as to whether commercial or industrial functions at Defense Department installations in the United States, Puerto Rico, and Guam should be performed by Department of Defense personnel or by private contractors during the period Oct. 1, 1978 to Sept. 30, 1979; prohibited such functions to be performed privately unless such contractor performance began before Oct. 20, 1978 or performance would have been allowed by policy and regulations in effect before June 30, 1976; and provided that such prohibition would apply until the end of the 60 day period beginning on the date the report by the Secretary of Defense is received by the House and Senate Committees.

Reporting Requirements for Secretary of Defense and Prime Contractors Concerning Payments by Prime Contractors for Work Performed by Subcontractors

Pub. L. 95–111, title VIII, §836, Sept. 21, 1977, 91 Stat. 906, which directed the Secretary of Defense to require all prime contractors with more than $500,000 of defense contract awards to report in dollars at the end of each year the amount of work done in that year and the State where performed, and requiring the Secretary of Defense to report annually to Congress the amount of funds spent for such work in each State, was repealed and restated in subsec. (i) of this section by Pub. L. 97–295, §§1(24)(C), 6(b), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1291, 1315.

Performance Review of Department of Defense Commercial or Industrial Functions

Pub. L. 95–79, title VIII, §809, July 30, 1977, 91 Stat. 334, directed the Secretary of Defense and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget to review criteria used in determining whether commercial or industrial type functions at Department of Defense installations within the United States, Puerto Rico, and Guam should be performed by Department of Defense personnel or by private contractors and to report to the House and Senate Armed Services Committees before Jan. 1, 1978, the results of the review; prohibited commercial or industrial type functions being performed on July 30, 1977 by Department of Defense personnel from being converted to performance by private contractors before the earlier of Mar. 15, 1978 or the end of the 90-day period beginning on the date the report is received by the House and Senate Committees; exempted from such prohibition the conversion to performance by private contractors of industrial or commercial type functions if the conversion would have been made under policies and regulations in effect before June 30, 1976; and required the Secretary of Defense to report to the House and Senate Committees on Armed Services before Jan. 1, 1978, detailing the Department's rationale for establishing goals for the percentage of work at defense research installations to be performed by private contractors and for any direction in effect on July 30, 1977 establishing a minimum or maximum percentage for the allocation of work at any defense research installation to be performed by private contractors or directing a change in any such allocation in effect on July 30, 1977.

Discrimination in Petroleum Supplies to Armed Forces Prohibited; Enforcement Procedure; Penalties; Expiration

Pub. L. 94–106, title VIII, §816, Oct. 7, 1975, 89 Stat. 540, as amended by Pub. L. 98–620, title IV, §402(8), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3357, provided a remedy for discrimination by citizens of nationals of the United States or corporations organized or operating within the United States, and by organizations controlled by them, against the Department of Defense in the supply of petroleum products for two years after Oct. 7, 1975.

Announcements of Award of Contracts by Department of Defense; Disclosure of Identity of Contractor Prior to Announcement Prohibited

Pub. L. 91–441, title V, §507, Oct. 7, 1970, 84 Stat. 913, which had provided that the identity or location of a recipient of a contract from the Department of Defense may not be revealed prior to the public announcement of such identity by the Secretary of Defense, was repealed and restated in section 2316 of this title by Pub. L. 97–295, §§1(26)(A), 6(b), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1291, 1314.

Award of Contracts Through Formal Advertising and Competitive Bidding Where Practicable

Pub. L. 90–5, title III, §304, Mar. 16, 1967, 81 Stat. 6, which had provided that the Secretary of Defense was directed, insofar as practicable, that all contracts be formally advertised and awarded on a competitive bid basis to the lowest responsible bidder, was repealed and restated in subsec. (a) of this section by Pub. L. 97–295, §§1(24)(A), 6(b), Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1290, 1314.

Non-Applicability of National Emergencies Act

Provisions of the National Emergencies Act not applicable to the powers and authorities conferred by subsec. (a)(1) of this section and actions taken hereunder, see section 1651(a)(5) of Title 50, War and National Defense.

§2304a. Task and delivery order contracts: general authority

(a) Authority To Award.—Subject to the requirements of this section, section 2304c of this title, and other applicable law, the head of an agency may enter into a task or delivery order contract (as defined in section 2304d of this title) for procurement of services or property.

(b) Solicitation.—The solicitation for a task or delivery order contract shall include the following:

(1) The period of the contract, including the number of options to extend the contract and the period for which the contract may be extended under each option, if any.

(2) The maximum quantity or dollar value of the services or property to be procured under the contract.

(3) A statement of work, specifications, or other description that reasonably describes the general scope, nature, complexity, and purposes of the services or property to be procured under the contract.


(c) Applicability of Restriction on Use of Noncompetitive Procedures.—The head of an agency may use procedures other than competitive procedures to enter into a task or delivery order contract under this section only if an exception in subsection (c) of section 2304 of this title applies to the contract and the use of such procedures is approved in accordance with subsection (f) of such section.

(d) Single and Multiple Contract Awards.—(1) The head of an agency may exercise the authority provided in this section—

(A) to award a single task or delivery order contract; or

(B) if the solicitation states that the head of the agency has the option to do so, to award separate task or delivery order contracts for the same or similar services or property to two or more sources.


(2) No determination under section 2304(b) of this title is required for award of multiple task or delivery order contracts under paragraph (1)(B).

(3) No task or delivery order contract in an amount estimated to exceed $100,000,000 (including all options) may be awarded to a single source unless the head of the agency determines in writing that—

(A) the task or delivery orders expected under the contract are so integrally related that only a single source can efficiently perform the work;

(B) the contract provides only for firm, fixed price task orders or delivery orders for—

(i) products for which unit prices are established in the contract; or

(ii) services for which prices are established in the contract for the specific tasks to be performed;


(C) only one source is qualified and capable of performing the work at a reasonable price to the government; or

(D) because of exceptional circumstances, it is necessary in the public interest to award the contract to a single source.


(4) The regulations implementing this subsection shall—

(A) establish a preference for awarding, to the maximum extent practicable, multiple task or delivery order contracts for the same or similar services or property under the authority of paragraph (1)(B); and

(B) establish criteria for determining when award of multiple task or delivery order contracts would not be in the best interest of the Federal Government.


(e) Contract Modifications.—A task or delivery order may not increase the scope, period, or maximum value of the task or delivery order contract under which the order is issued. The scope, period, or maximum value of the contract may be increased only by modification of the contract.

(f) Contract Period.—The head of an agency entering into a task or delivery order contract under this section may provide for the contract to cover any period up to five years and may extend the contract period for one or more successive periods pursuant to an option provided in the contract or a modification of the contract. The total contract period as extended may not exceed 10 years unless such head of an agency determines in writing that exceptional circumstances necessitate a longer contract period.

(g) Inapplicability to Contracts for Advisory and Assistance Services.—Except as otherwise specifically provided in section 2304b of this title, this section does not apply to a task or delivery order contract for the procurement of advisory and assistance services (as defined in section 1105(g) of title 31).

(h) Relationship to Other Contracting Authority.—Nothing in this section may be construed to limit or expand any authority of the head of an agency or the Administrator of General Services to enter into schedule, multiple award, or task or delivery order contracts under any other provision of law.

(Added Pub. L. 103–355, title I, §1004(a)(1), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3249; amended Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title VIII, §843(b), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1553; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title VIII, §813(a), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 2014; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title VIII, §843(a)(1), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 236; Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title VIII, §814(a), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2407; Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title VIII, §809(b), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1490; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §816, Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1852.)

Codification

Another section 2304a was renumbered section 2304e of this title.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (d)(3)(A). Pub. L. 115–232 substituted "efficiently perform the work" for "reasonably perform the work".

2011—Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 112–81 struck out subpar. (A) designation before "No task", redesignated cls. (i) to (iv) of former subpar. (A) as subpars. (A) to (D), respectively, of par. (3), redesignated subcls. (I) and (II) of former cl. (ii) as cls. (i) and (ii), respectively, of subpar. (B), and struck out former subpar. (B) which read as follows: "The head of the agency shall notify the congressional defense committees within 30 days after any determination under clause (i), (ii), (iii), or (iv) of subparagraph (A)."

2009—Subsec. (d)(3)(B). Pub. L. 111–84 amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: "The head of the agency shall notify Congress within 30 days after any determination under subparagraph (A)(iv)."

2008—Subsec. (d)(3), (4). Pub. L. 110–181 added par. (3) and redesignated former par. (3) as (4).

2004—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 108–375 substituted "any period up to five years and may extend the contract period for one or more successive periods pursuant to an option provided in the contract or a modification of the contract. The total contract period as extended may not exceed 10 years unless such head of an agency determines in writing that exceptional circumstances necessitate a longer contract period" for "a total period of not more than five years".

2003—Subsecs. (f) to (h). Pub. L. 108–136 added subsec. (f) and redesignated former subsecs. (f) and (g) as (g) and (h), respectively.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title VIII, §843(a)(3)(A), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 237, provided that: "The amendments made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall take effect on the date that is 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 28, 2008], and shall apply with respect to any contract awarded on or after such date."

Effective Date

For effective date and applicability of section, see section 10001 of Pub. L. 103–355, set out as an Effective Date of 1994 Amendment note under section 2302 of this title.

Congressional Intelligence Committees

Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title VIII, §814(b), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2407, which set out an additional congressional notification requirement pursuant to former subsec. (d)(3)(B) of this section, was repealed by Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §812(b)(16), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1848.

Provisions Not Affected by Pub. L. 103–355

Pub. L. 103–355, title I, §1004(d), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3253, as amended by Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title X, §1045(f), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1613, provided that: "Nothing in section 2304a, 2304b, 2304c, or 2304d of title 10, United States Code, as added by subsection (a), and nothing in the amendments made by subsections (b) and (c) [amending sections 2304 and 2331 of this title], shall be construed as modifying or superseding, or as intended to impair or restrict, authorities or responsibilities under chapter 11 of title 40, United States Code."

§2304b. Task order contracts: advisory and assistance services

(a) Authority To Award.—(1) Subject to the requirements of this section, section 2304c of this title, and other applicable law, the head of an agency may enter into a task order contract (as defined in section 2304d of this title) for procurement of advisory and assistance services.

(2) The head of an agency may enter into a task order contract for procurement of advisory and assistance services only under the authority of this section.

(b) Limitation on Contract Period.—The period of a task order contract entered into under this section, including all periods of extensions of the contract under options, modifications, or otherwise, may not exceed five years unless a longer period is specifically authorized in a law that is applicable to such contract.

(c) Content of Notice.—The notice required by section 1708 of title 41 and section 8(e) of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 637(e)) shall reasonably and fairly describe the general scope, magnitude, and duration of the proposed task order contract in a manner that would reasonably enable a potential offeror to decide whether to request the solicitation and consider submitting an offer.

(d) Required Content of Solicitation and Contract.—(1) The solicitation for the proposed task order contract shall include the information (regarding services) described in section 2304a(b) of this title.

(2) A task order contract entered into under this section shall contain the same information that is required by paragraph (1) to be included in the solicitation of offers for that contract.

(e) Multiple Awards.—(1) The head of an agency may, on the basis of one solicitation, award separate task order contracts under this section for the same or similar services to two or more sources if the solicitation states that the head of the agency has the option to do so.

(2) If, in the case of a task order contract for advisory and assistance services to be entered into under this section, the contract period is to exceed three years and the contract amount is estimated to exceed $10,000,000 (including all options), the solicitation shall—

(A) provide for a multiple award authorized under paragraph (1); and

(B) include a statement that the head of the agency may also elect to award only one task order contract if the head of the agency determines in writing that only one of the offerers is capable of providing the services required at the level of quality required.


(3) Paragraph (2) does not apply in the case of a solicitation for which the head of the agency concerned determines in writing that, because the services required under the task order contract are unique or highly specialized, it is not practicable to award more than one contract.

(f) Contract Modifications.—(1) A task order may not increase the scope, period, or maximum value of the task order contract under which the order is issued. The scope, period, or maximum value of the contract may be increased only by modification of the contract.

(2) Unless use of procedures other than competitive procedures is authorized by an exception in subsection (c) of section 2304 of this title and approved in accordance with subsection (f) of such section, competitive procedures shall be used for making such a modification.

(3) Notice regarding the modification shall be provided in accordance with section 1708 of title 41 and section 8(e) of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 637(e)).

(g) Contract Extensions.—(1) Notwithstanding the limitation on the contract period set forth in subsection (b) or in a solicitation or contract pursuant to subsection (e), a task order contract entered into by the head of an agency under this section may be extended on a sole-source basis for a period not exceeding six months if the head of such agency determines that—

(A) the award of a follow-on contract has been delayed by circumstances that were not reasonably foreseeable at the time the initial contract was entered into; and

(B) the extension is necessary in order to ensure continuity of the receipt of services pending the award of, and commencement of performance under, the follow-on contract.


(2) A task order contract may be extended under the authority of paragraph (1) only once and only in accordance with the limitations and requirements of this subsection.

(h) Inapplicability to Certain Contracts.—This section does not apply to a contract for the acquisition of property or services that includes acquisition of advisory and assistance services if the head of an agency entering into such contract determines that, under the contract, advisory and assistance services are necessarily incident to, and not a significant component of, the contract.

(i) Advisory and Assistance Services Defined.—In this section, the term "advisory and assistance services" has the meaning given such term in section 1105(g) of title 31.

(Added Pub. L. 103–355, title I, §1004(a)(1), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3251; amended Pub. L. 111–350, §5(b)(13), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3843.)

Amendments

2011—Subsecs. (c), (f)(3). Pub. L. 111–350 substituted "section 1708 of title 41" for "section 18 of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act (41 U.S.C. 416)".

Effective Date

For effective date and applicability of section, see section 10001 of Pub. L. 103–355, set out as an Effective Date of 1994 Amendment note under section 2302 of this title.

Provisions Not Affected by Pub. L. 103–355

This section not to be construed as modifying or superseding, or as intended to impair or restrict, authorities or responsibilities under former 40 U.S.C. 759 or chapter 11 of Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works, see section 1004(d) of Pub. L. 103–355, set out as a note under section 2304a of this title.

Waivers To Extend Task Order Contracts for Advisory and Assistance Services

Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title VIII, §834, Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2332, which temporarily allowed for waivers to extend certain task order contracts for advisory and assistance services, was repealed by Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §812(b)(17), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1848.

§2304c. Task and delivery order contracts: orders

(a) Issuance of Orders.—The following actions are not required for issuance of a task or delivery order under a task or delivery order contract:

(1) A separate notice for such order under section 1708 of title 41 or section 8(e) of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 637(e)).

(2) Except as provided in subsection (b), a competition (or a waiver of competition approved in accordance with section 2304(f) of this title) that is separate from that used for entering into the contract.


(b) Multiple Award Contracts.—When multiple task or delivery order contracts are awarded under section 2304a(d)(1)(B) or 2304b(e) of this title, all contractors awarded such contracts shall be provided a fair opportunity to be considered, pursuant to procedures set forth in the contracts, for each task or delivery order in excess of $2,500 that is to be issued under any of the contracts unless—

(1) the agency's need for the services or property ordered is of such unusual urgency that providing such opportunity to all such contractors would result in unacceptable delays in fulfilling that need;

(2) only one such contractor is capable of providing the services or property required at the level of quality required because the services or property ordered are unique or highly specialized;

(3) the task or delivery order should be issued on a sole-source basis in the interest of economy and efficiency because it is a logical follow-on to a task or delivery order already issued on a competitive basis;

(4) it is necessary to place the order with a particular contractor in order to satisfy a minimum guarantee; or

(5) the task or delivery order satisfies one of the exceptions in section 2304(c) of this title to the requirement to use competitive procedures.


(c) Statement of Work.—A task or delivery order shall include a statement of work that clearly specifies all tasks to be performed or property to be delivered under the order.

(d) Enhanced Competition for Orders in Excess of $5,000,000.—In the case of a task or delivery order in excess of $5,000,000, the requirement to provide all contractors a fair opportunity to be considered under subsection (b) is not met unless all such contractors are provided, at a minimum—

(1) a notice of the task or delivery order that includes a clear statement of the agency's requirements;

(2) a reasonable period of time to provide a proposal in response to the notice;

(3) disclosure of the significant factors and subfactors, including cost or price, that the agency expects to consider in evaluating such proposals, and their relative importance;

(4) in the case of an award that is to be made on a best value basis, a written statement documenting the basis for the award and the relative importance of quality and price or cost factors; and

(5) an opportunity for a post-award debriefing consistent with the requirements of section 2305(b)(5) of this title.


(e) Protests.—(1) A protest is not authorized in connection with the issuance or proposed issuance of a task or delivery order except for—

(A) a protest on the ground that the order increases the scope, period, or maximum value of the contract under which the order is issued; or

(B) a protest of an order valued in excess of $25,000,000.


(2) Notwithstanding section 3556 of title 31, the Comptroller General of the United States shall have exclusive jurisdiction of a protest authorized under paragraph (1)(B).

(f) Task and Delivery Order Ombudsman.—Each head of an agency who awards multiple task or delivery order contracts pursuant to section 2304a(d)(1)(B) or 2304b(e) of this title shall appoint or designate a task and delivery order ombudsman who shall be responsible for reviewing complaints from the contractors on such contracts and ensuring that all of the contractors are afforded a fair opportunity to be considered for task or delivery orders when required under subsection (b). The task and delivery order ombudsman shall be a senior agency official who is independent of the contracting officer for the contracts and may be the agency's competition advocate.

(g) Applicability.—This section applies to task and delivery order contracts entered into under sections 2304a and 2304b of this title.

(Added Pub. L. 103–355, title I, §1004(a)(1), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3252; amended Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title VIII, §843(a)(2), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 237; Pub. L. 111–350, §5(b)(14), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3843; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title VIII, §825, title X, §1075(f)(5)(A), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4270, 4376; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title VIII, §830, Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1842; Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title VIII, §§825(b), 835(a), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2280, 2285.)

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 114–328, §825(b), added par. (5).

Subsec. (e)(1)(B). Pub. L. 114–328, §835(a), substituted "$25,000,000" for "$10,000,000".

2013—Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 112–239 struck out par. (3) which read as follows: "Paragraph (1)(B) and paragraph (2) of this subsection shall not be in effect after September 30, 2016."

2011—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 111–350 substituted "section 1708 of title 41" for "section 18 of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act (41 U.S.C. 416)".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 111–383, §1075(f)(5)(A), made technical correction to directory language of Pub. L. 110–181, §843(a)(2)(C). See 2008 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 111–383, §825, amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows: "This subsection shall be in effect for three years, beginning on the date that is 120 days after the date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008."

2008—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 110–181, §843(a)(2), added subsec. (d). Former subsec. (d) redesignated (e).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 110–181, §843(a)(2)(C), as amended by Pub. L. 111–383, §1075(f)(5)(A), added subsec. (e) and struck out former subsec. (e). Former text read as follows: "A protest is not authorized in connection with the issuance or proposed issuance of a task or delivery order except for a protest on the ground that the order increases the scope, period, or maximum value of the contract under which the order is issued."

Pub. L. 110–181, §843(a)(2)(A), redesignated subsec. (d) as (e). Former subsec. (e) redesignated (f).

Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 110–181, §843(a)(2)(A), redesignated subsecs. (e) and (f) as (f) and (g), respectively.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title VIII, §843(a)(3)(B), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 238, provided that: "The amendments made by paragraph (2) [amending this section] shall take effect on the date that is 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 28, 2008], and shall apply with respect to any task or delivery order awarded on or after such date."

Effective Date

For effective date and applicability of section, see section 10001 of Pub. L. 103–355, set out as an Effective Date of 1994 Amendment note under section 2302 of this title.

Provisions Not Affected by Pub. L. 103–355

This section not to be construed as modifying or superseding, or as intended to impair or restrict, authorities or responsibilities under former 40 U.S.C. 759 or chapter 11 of Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works, see section 1004(d) of Pub. L. 103–355, set out as a note under section 2304a of this title.

§2304d. Task and delivery order contracts: definitions

In sections 2304a, 2304b, and 2304c of this title:

(1) The term "task order contract" means a contract for services that does not procure or specify a firm quantity of services (other than a minimum or maximum quantity) and that provides for the issuance of orders for the performance of tasks during the period of the contract.

(2) The term "delivery order contract" means a contract for property that does not procure or specify a firm quantity of property (other than a minimum or maximum quantity) and that provides for the issuance of orders for the delivery of property during the period of the contract.

(Added Pub. L. 103–355, title I, §1004(a)(1), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3253.)

Effective Date

For effective date and applicability of section, see section 10001 of Pub. L. 103–355, set out as an Effective Date of 1994 Amendment note under section 2302 of this title.

Provisions Not Affected by Pub. L. 103–355

This section not to be construed as modifying or superseding, or as intended to impair or restrict, authorities or responsibilities under former 40 U.S.C. 759 or chapter 11 of Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works, see section 1004(d) of Pub. L. 103–355, set out as a note under section 2304a of this title.

§2304e. Contracts: prohibition on competition between Department of Defense and small businesses and certain other entities

(a) Exclusion.—In any case in which the Secretary of Defense plans to use competitive procedures for a procurement, if the procurement is to be conducted as described in subsection (b), then the Secretary shall exclude the Department of Defense from competing in the procurement.

(b) Procurement Description.—The requirement to exclude the Department of Defense under subsection (a) applies in the case of a procurement to be conducted by excluding from competition entities in the private sector other than small business concerns in furtherance of section 8 or 15 of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 637 or 644).

(Added Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title VIII, §848(a)(1), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1724, §2304a; renumbered §2304e, Pub. L. 104–106, div. D, title XLIII, §4321(b)(6)(A), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 672; amended Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §812(a)(2)(C)(vi), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1847.)

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 115–232 substituted "other than" for "other than—", struck out par. (1) designation before "small business", and struck out par. (2) which read as follows: "entities described in subsection (a)(1) of section 2323 of this title in furtherance of the goal specified in that subsection."

1996—Pub. L. 104–106 renumbered section 2304a of this title as this section.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title VIII, §848(b), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1725, provided that: "Section 2304a [now 2304e] of title 10, United States Code, as added by subsection (a), shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 30, 1993]."

§2305. Contracts: planning, solicitation, evaluation, and award procedures

(a)(1)(A) In preparing for the procurement of property or services, the head of an agency shall—

(i) specify the agency's needs and solicit bids or proposals in a manner designed to achieve full and open competition for the procurement;

(ii) use advance procurement planning and market research; and

(iii) develop specifications in such manner as is necessary to obtain full and open competition with due regard to the nature of the property or services to be acquired.


(B) Each solicitation under this chapter shall include specifications which—

(i) consistent with the provisions of this chapter, permit full and open competition; and

(ii) include restrictive provisions or conditions only to the extent necessary to satisfy the needs of the agency or as authorized by law.


(C) For the purposes of subparagraphs (A) and (B), the type of specification included in a solicitation shall depend on the nature of the needs of the agency and the market available to satisfy such needs. Subject to such needs, specifications may be stated in terms of—

(i) function, so that a variety of products or services may qualify;

(ii) performance, including specifications of the range of acceptable characteristics or of the minimum acceptable standards; or

(iii) design requirements.


(2) In addition to the specifications described in paragraph (1), a solicitation for sealed bids or competitive proposals (other than for a procurement for commercial items using special simplified procedures or a purchase for an amount not greater than the simplified acquisition threshold) shall at a minimum include—

(A) a statement of—

(i) all significant factors and significant subfactors which the head of the agency reasonably expects to consider in evaluating sealed bids (including price) or competitive proposals (including cost or price, cost-related or price-related factors and subfactors, and noncost-related or nonprice-related factors and subfactors); and

(ii) the relative importance assigned to each of those factors and subfactors; and


(B)(i) in the case of sealed bids—

(I) a statement that sealed bids will be evaluated without discussions with the bidders; and

(II) the time and place for the opening of the sealed bids; or


(ii) in the case of competitive proposals—

(I) either a statement that the proposals are intended to be evaluated with, and award made after, discussions with the offerors, or a statement that the proposals are intended to be evaluated, and award made, without discussions with the offerors (other than discussions conducted for the purpose of minor clarification) unless discussions are determined to be necessary; and

(II) the time and place for submission of proposals.


(3)(A) In prescribing the evaluation factors to be included in each solicitation for competitive proposals, the head of an agency—

(i) shall (except as provided in subparagraph (C)) clearly establish the relative importance assigned to the evaluation factors and subfactors, including the quality of the product or services to be provided (including technical capability, management capability, prior experience, and past performance of the offeror);

(ii) shall (except as provided in subparagraph (C)) include cost or price to the Federal Government as an evaluation factor that must be considered in the evaluation of proposals; and

(iii) shall disclose to offerors whether all evaluation factors other than cost or price, when combined, are—

(I) significantly more important than cost or price;

(II) approximately equal in importance to cost or price; or

(III) significantly less important than cost or price.


(B) The regulations implementing clause (iii) of subparagraph (A) may not define the terms "significantly more important" and "significantly less important" as specific numeric weights that would be applied uniformly to all solicitations or a class of solicitations.

(C) If the head of an agency issues a solicitation for multiple task or delivery order contracts under section 2304a(d)(1)(B) of this title for the same or similar services and intends to make a contract award to each qualifying offeror—

(i) cost or price to the Federal Government need not, at the Government's discretion, be considered under clause (ii) of subparagraph (A) as an evaluation factor for the contract award; and

(ii) if, pursuant to clause (i), cost or price to the Federal Government is not considered as an evaluation factor for the contract award—

(I) the disclosure requirement of clause (iii) of subparagraph (A) shall not apply; and

(II) cost or price to the Federal Government shall be considered in conjunction with the issuance pursuant to section 2304c(b) of this title of a task or delivery order under any contract resulting from the solicitation.


(D) In subparagraph (C), the term "qualifying offeror" means an offeror that—

(i) is determined to be a responsible source;

(ii) submits a proposal that conforms to the requirements of the solicitation; and

(iii) the contracting officer has no reason to believe would likely offer other than fair and reasonable pricing.


(E) Subparagraph (C) shall not apply to multiple task or delivery order contracts if the solicitation provides for sole source task or delivery order contracts pursuant to section 8(a) of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 637(a)).

(4) Nothing in this subsection prohibits an agency from—

(A) providing additional information in a solicitation, including numeric weights for all evaluation factors and subfactors on a case-by-case basis; or

(B) stating in a solicitation that award will be made to the offeror that meets the solicitation's mandatory requirements at the lowest cost or price.


(5) The head of an agency, in issuing a solicitation for a contract to be awarded using sealed bid procedures, may not include in such solicitation a clause providing for the evaluation of prices for options to purchase additional property or services under the contract unless the head of the agency has determined that there is a reasonable likelihood that the options will be exercised.

(b)(1) The head of an agency shall evaluate sealed bids and competitive proposals and make an award based solely on the factors specified in the solicitation.

(2) All sealed bids or competitive proposals received in response to a solicitation may be rejected if the head of the agency determines that such action is in the public interest.

(3) Sealed bids shall be opened publicly at the time and place stated in the solicitation. The head of the agency shall evaluate the bids in accordance with paragraph (1) without discussions with the bidders and, except as provided in paragraph (2), shall award a contract with reasonable promptness to the responsible bidder whose bid conforms to the solicitation and is most advantageous to the United States, considering only price and the other price-related factors included in the solicitation. The award of a contract shall be made by transmitting, in writing or by electronic means, notice of the award to the successful bidder. Within three days after the date of contract award, the head of the agency shall notify, in writing or by electronic means, each bidder not awarded the contract that the contract has been awarded.

(4)(A) The head of an agency shall evaluate competitive proposals in accordance with paragraph (1) and may award a contract—

(i) after discussions with the offerors, provided that written or oral discussions have been conducted with all responsible offerors who submit proposals within the competitive range; or

(ii) based on the proposals received, without discussions with the offerors (other than discussions conducted for the purpose of minor clarification) provided that the solicitation included a statement that proposals are intended to be evaluated, and award made, without discussions, unless discussions are determined to be necessary.


(B) If the contracting officer determines that the number of offerors that would otherwise be included in the competitive range under subparagraph (A)(i) exceeds the number at which an efficient competition can be conducted, the contracting officer may limit the number of proposals in the competitive range, in accordance with the criteria specified in the solicitation, to the greatest number that will permit an efficient competition among the offerors rated most highly in accordance with such criteria.

(C) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the head of the agency shall award a contract with reasonable promptness to the responsible source whose proposal is most advantageous to the United States, considering only cost or price and the other factors included in the solicitation. The head of the agency shall award the contract by transmitting, in writing or by electronic means, notice of the award to such source and, within three days after the date of contract award, shall notify, in writing or by electronic means, all other offerors of the rejection of their proposals. This subparagraph does not apply with respect to the award of a contract for the acquisition of perishable subsistence items.

(5)(A) When a contract is awarded by the head of an agency on the basis of competitive proposals, an unsuccessful offeror, upon written request received by the agency within 3 days after the date on which the unsuccessful offeror receives the notification of the contract award, shall be debriefed and furnished the basis for the selection decision and contract award. The head of the agency shall debrief the offeror within, to the maximum extent practicable, five days after receipt of the request by the agency.

(B) The debriefing shall include, at a minimum—

(i) the agency's evaluation of the significant weak or deficient factors in the offeror's offer;

(ii) the overall evaluated cost and technical rating of the offer of the contractor awarded the contract and the overall evaluated cost and technical rating of the offer of the debriefed offeror;

(iii) the overall ranking of all offers;

(iv) a summary of the rationale for the award;

(v) in the case of a proposal that includes a commercial item that is an end item under the contract, the make and model of the item being provided in accordance with the offer of the contractor awarded the contract;

(vi) reasonable responses to relevant questions posed by the debriefed offeror as to whether source selection procedures set forth in the solicitation, applicable regulations, and other applicable authorities were followed by the agency; and

(vii) an opportunity for a disappointed offeror to submit, within two business days after receiving a post-award debriefing, additional questions related to the debriefing.


(C) The agency shall respond in writing to any additional question submitted under subparagraph (B)(vii) within five business days after receipt of the question. The agency shall not consider the debriefing to be concluded until the agency delivers its written responses to the disappointed offeror.

(D) The debriefing may not include point-by-point comparisons of the debriefed offeror's offer with other offers and may not disclose any information that is exempt from disclosure under section 552(b) of title 5.

(E) Each solicitation for competitive proposals shall include a statement that information described in subparagraph (B) may be disclosed in post-award debriefings.

(F) If, within one year after the date of the contract award and as a result of a successful procurement protest, the agency seeks to fulfill the requirement under the protested contract either on the basis of a new solicitation of offers or on the basis of new best and final offers requested for that contract, the agency shall make available to all offerors—

(i) the information provided in debriefings under this paragraph regarding the offer of the contractor awarded the contract; and

(ii) the same information that would have been provided to the original offerors.


(6)(A) When the contracting officer excludes an offeror submitting a competitive proposal from the competitive range (or otherwise excludes such an offeror from further consideration prior to the final source selection decision), the excluded offeror may request in writing, within three days after the date on which the excluded offeror receives notice of its exclusion, a debriefing prior to award. The contracting officer shall make every effort to debrief the unsuccessful offeror as soon as practicable but may refuse the request for a debriefing if it is not in the best interests of the Government to conduct a debriefing at that time.

(B) The contracting officer is required to debrief an excluded offeror in accordance with paragraph (5) only if that offeror requested and was refused a preaward debriefing under subparagraph (A).

(C) The debriefing conducted under subparagraph (A) shall include—

(i) the executive agency's evaluation of the significant elements in the offeror's offer;

(ii) a summary of the rationale for the offeror's exclusion; and

(iii) reasonable responses to relevant questions posed by the debriefed offeror as to whether source selection procedures set forth in the solicitation, applicable regulations, and other applicable authorities were followed by the executive agency.


(D) The debriefing conducted under subparagraph (A) may not disclose the number or identity of other offerors and shall not disclose information about the content, ranking, or evaluation of other offerors' proposals.

(7) The contracting officer shall include a summary of any debriefing conducted under paragraph (5) or (6) in the contract file.

(8) The Federal Acquisition Regulation shall include a provision encouraging the use of alternative dispute resolution techniques to provide informal, expeditious, and inexpensive procedures for an offeror to consider using before filing a protest, prior to the award of a contract, of the exclusion of the offeror from the competitive range (or otherwise from further consideration) for that contract.

(9) If the head of an agency considers that a bid or proposal evidences a violation of the antitrust laws, he shall refer the bid or proposal to the Attorney General for appropriate action.

(c) The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that before a contract for the delivery of supplies to the Department of Defense is entered into—

(1) when the appropriate officials of the Department are making an assessment of the most advantageous source for acquisition of the supplies (considering quality, price, delivery, and other factors), there is a review of the availability and cost of each item of supply—

(A) through the supply system of the Department of Defense; and

(B) under standard Government supply contracts, if the item is in a category of supplies defined under regulations of the Secretary of Defense as being potentially available under a standard Government supply contract; and


(2) there is a review of both the procurement history of the item and a description of the item, including, when necessary for an adequate description of the item, a picture, drawing, diagram, or other graphic representation of the item.


(d)(1)(A) The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that, in preparing a solicitation for the award of a development contract for a major system, the head of an agency consider requiring in the solicitation that an offeror include in its offer proposals described in subparagraph (B). In determining whether to require such proposals, the head of the agency shall give due consideration to the purposes for which the system is being procured and the technology necessary to meet the system's required capabilities. If such proposals are required, the head of the agency shall consider them in evaluating the offeror's price.

(B) Proposals referred to in the first sentence of subparagraph (A) are the following:

(i) Proposals to incorporate in the design of the major system items which are currently available within the supply system of the Federal agency responsible for the major system, available elsewhere in the national supply system, or commercially available from more than one source.

(ii) With respect to items that are likely to be required in substantial quantities during the system's service life, proposals to incorporate in the design of the major system items which the United States will be able to acquire competitively in the future.


(2)(A) The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that, in preparing a solicitation for the award of a production contract for a major system, the head of an agency consider requiring in the solicitation that an offeror include in its offer proposals described in subparagraph (B). In determining whether to require such proposals, the head of the agency shall give due consideration to the purposes for which the system is being procured and the technology necessary to meet the system's required capabilities. If such proposals are required, the head of the agency shall consider them in evaluating the offeror's price.

(B) Proposals referred to in the first sentence of subparagraph (A) are proposals identifying opportunities to ensure that the United States will be able to obtain on a competitive basis items procured in connection with the system that are likely to be reprocured in substantial quantities during the service life of the system. Proposals submitted in response to such requirement may include the following:

(i) Proposals to provide to the United States the right to use technical data to be provided under the contract for competitive reprocurement of the item, together with the cost to the United States, if any, of acquiring such technical data and the right to use such data.

(ii) Proposals for the qualification or development of multiple sources of supply for the item.


(3) If the head of an agency is making a noncompetitive award of a development contract or a production contract for a major system, the factors specified in paragraphs (1) and (2) to be considered in evaluating an offer for a contract may be considered as objectives in negotiating the contract to be awarded. Such objectives may not impair the rights of prospective contractors or subcontractors otherwise provided by law.

(4)(A) Whenever the head of an agency requires that proposals described in paragraph (1)(B) or (2)(B) be submitted by an offeror in its offer, the offeror shall not be required to provide a proposal that enables the United States to acquire competitively in the future an identical item if the item was developed exclusively at private expense unless the head of the agency determines that—

(i) the original supplier of such item will be unable to satisfy program schedule or delivery requirements; or

(ii) proposals by the original supplier of such item to meet the mobilization requirements are insufficient to meet the agency's mobilization needs.


(B) In considering offers in response to a solicitation requiring proposals described in paragraph (1)(B) or (2)(B), the head of an agency shall base any evaluation of items developed exclusively at private expense on an analysis of the total value, in terms of innovative design, life-cycle costs, and other pertinent factors, of incorporating such items in the system.

(e) Protest File.—(1) If, in the case of a solicitation for a contract issued by, or an award or proposed award of a contract by, the head of an agency, a protest is filed pursuant to the procedures in subchapter V of chapter 35 of title 31 and an actual or prospective offeror so requests, a file of the protest shall be established by the procuring activity and reasonable access shall be provided to actual or prospective offerors.

(2) Information exempt from disclosure under section 552 of title 5 may be redacted in a file established pursuant to paragraph (1) unless an applicable protective order provides otherwise.

(f) Agency Actions on Protests.—If, in connection with a protest, the head of an agency determines that a solicitation, proposed award, or award does not comply with the requirements of law or regulation, the head of the agency—

(1) may take any action set out in subparagraphs (A) through (F) of subsection (b)(1) of section 3554 of title 31; and

(2) may pay costs described in paragraph (1) of section 3554(c) of title 31 within the limits referred to in paragraph (2) of such section.


(g) Prohibition on Release of Contractor Proposals.—(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), a proposal in the possession or control of an agency named in section 2303 of this title may not be made available to any person under section 552 of title 5.

(2) Paragraph (1) does not apply to any proposal that is set forth or incorporated by reference in a contract entered into between the Department and the contractor that submitted the proposal.

(3) In this subsection, the term "proposal" means any proposal, including a technical, management, or cost proposal, submitted by a contractor in response to the requirements of a solicitation for a competitive proposal.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 130; Pub. L. 85–861, §1(44), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1457; Pub. L. 90–268, §3, Mar. 16, 1968, 82 Stat. 49; Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title VII, §2723(b), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1191; Pub. L. 98–525, title XII, §1213(a), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2591; Pub. L. 99–145, title XIII, §1303(a)(14), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 739; Pub. L. 99–500, §101(c) [title X, §924(a), (b)], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–82, 1783–153, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [title X, §924(a), (b)], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–82, 3341–153; Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title III, §313(b), title IX, formerly title IV, §924(a), (b), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3853, 3932, 3933, renumbered title IX, Pub. L. 100–26, §3(5), Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 273; Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title VIII, §806, Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2010; Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title VIII, §853(f), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1519; Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title VIII, §802(a)–(d), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1588, 1589; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title XI, §1182(a)(5), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1771; Pub. L. 103–355, title I, §§1011–1016, title IV, §4401(b), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3254–3257, 3347; Pub. L. 104–106, div. D, title XLI, §§4103(a), 4104(a), title XLII, §4202(a)(2), div. E, title LVI, §5601(a), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 643, 644, 653, 699; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title VIII, §821(a), title X, §1074(a)(11), (b)(4)(A), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2609, 2659, 2660; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title VIII, §821, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 714; Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title VIII, §825(a), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2279; Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title VIII, §818(b), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1463; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §836(c)(3), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1864.)

Amendment of Section

Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §836(c)(3), (h), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1864, 1874, provided that, effective Jan. 1, 2020, subject to a savings provision, this section is amended as follows:

(1) in subsection (a)(2), by striking "commercial items" and inserting "commercial products or commercial services"; and

(2) in subsection (b)(5)(B)(v), by striking "commercial item" and inserting "commercial product".

See 2018 Amendment notes below.

Historical and Revision Notes
1956 Act
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
2305(a)

2305(b)

41:152 (less clause (b)).

41:152 (clause (b)).

Feb. 19, 1948, ch. 65, §§2(d), 3, 62 Stat. 22.
2305(c) 41:151(d).

In subsection (a), the word "needed" is substituted for the words "necessary to meet the requirements".

In subsection (b), the words "United States" are substituted for the word "Government".

1958 Act
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
2305 41:152(c). Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 628, §15, 69 Stat. 551.

Reference to bids is omitted as surplusage (see opinion of the Judge Advocate General of the Army (JAGT 1956/9122, 21 Dec. 1956)). The word "attachments" is substituted for the words "material required". The words "the specifications in" are inserted in the second sentence for clarity. The word "available" is omitted as covered by the word "accessible." The words "no award may be made" are substituted for the words "and any award or awards made to any bidder in such case shall be invalidated and rejected".

Codification

Pub. L. 99–591 is a corrected version of Pub. L. 99–500.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 115–232, §836(c)(3)(A), substituted "commercial products or commercial services" for "commercial items" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(5)(B)(v). Pub. L. 115–232, §836(c)(3)(B), substituted "commercial product" for "commercial item".

2017—Subsec. (b)(5)(B)(vii). Pub. L. 115–91, §818(b)(2), added cl. (vii).

Subsec. (b)(5)(C) to (F). Pub. L. 115–91, §818(b)(1), (3), added subpar. (C) and redesignated former subpars. (C) to (E) as (D) to (F), respectively.

2016—Subsec. (a)(3)(A)(i), (ii). Pub. L. 114–328, §825(a)(1), inserted "(except as provided in subparagraph (C))" after "shall".

Subsec. (a)(3)(C) to (E). Pub. L. 114–328, §825(a)(2), added subpars. (C) to (E).

1999—Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 106–65 substituted "an agency named in section 2303 of this title" for "the Department of Defense".

1996—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 104–106, §4202(a)(2), inserted "a procurement for commercial items using special simplified procedures or" after "(other than for".

Subsec. (b)(4)(B). Pub. L. 104–106, §4103(a)(3), added subpar. (B). Former subpar. (B) redesignated (C).

Pub. L. 104–106, §4103(a)(1), transferred text of subpar. (C) to end of subpar. (B) and substituted "This subparagraph" for "Subparagraph (B)" at beginning of that text.

Subsec. (b)(4)(C). Pub. L. 104–106, §4103(a)(2), redesignated subpar. (B) as (C).

Pub. L. 104–106, §4103(a)(1), struck out "(C)" before "Subparagraph (B)" and transferred text of subpar. (C) to end of subpar. (B).

Subsec. (b)(5)(F). Pub. L. 104–106, §4104(a)(1), struck out subpar. (F) which read as follows: "The contracting officer shall include a summary of the debriefing in the contract file."

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 104–106, §4104(a)(3), added par. (6). Former par. (6) redesignated (9).

Subsec. (b)(6)(B). Pub. L. 104–201, §1074(a)(11)(A), struck out "of this section" after "paragraph (5)" and "of this paragraph" after "subparagraph (A)".

Subsec. (b)(6)(C). Pub. L. 104–201, §1074(a)(11)(B), substituted "subparagraph (A)" for "this subsection" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(6)(D). Pub. L. 104–201, §1074(a)(11)(C), substituted "under subparagraph (A)" for "pursuant to this subsection".

Subsec. (b)(7), (8). Pub. L. 104–106, §4104(a)(3), added pars. (7) and (8).

Subsec. (b)(9). Pub. L. 104–106, §4104(a)(2), redesignated par. (6) as (9).

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 104–106, §5601(a), as amended by Pub. L. 104–201, §1074(b)(4)(A), struck out par. (3) which read as follows: "Regulations implementing this subsection shall be consistent with the regulations regarding the preparation and submission of an agency's protest file (the so-called 'rule 4 file') for protests to the General Services Board of Contract Appeals under section 111 of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949 (41 U.S.C. 759)."

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 104–201, §821(a), added subsec. (g).

1994—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 103–355, §4401(b), substituted "a purchase for an amount not greater than the simplified acquisition threshold)" for "small purchases)" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(2)(A)(i). Pub. L. 103–355, §1011(a)(1), substituted "and significant subfactors" for "(and significant subfactors)" and "cost-related or price-related factors and subfactors, and noncost-related or nonprice-related factors and subfactors" for "cost- or price-related factors, and noncost- or nonprice-related factors".

Subsec. (a)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 103–355, §1011(a)(2), substituted "and subfactors" for "(and subfactors)".

Subsec. (a)(2)(B)(ii)(I). Pub. L. 103–355, §1011(a)(3), amended subcl. (I) generally. Prior to amendment, subcl. (I) read as follows: "a statement that the proposals are intended to be evaluated with, and award made after, discussions with the offerors, or a statement that the proposals are intended to be evaluated, and award made, without discussions with the offerors (other than discussions conducted for the purpose of minor clarification), unless discussions are determined to be necessary; and".

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 103–355, §1011(b), added par. (3) and struck out former par. (3), which read as follows: "In prescribing the evaluation factors to be included in each solicitation for competitive proposals, the head of an agency shall clearly establish the relative importance assigned to the evaluation factors and subfactors, including the quality of the product or services to be provided (including technical capability, management capability, and prior experience of the offeror)."

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 103–355, §1011(b), added par. (4).

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 103–355, §1012, added par. (5).

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 103–355, §1013(a), substituted "transmitting, in writing or by electronic means, notice" for "transmitting written notice" and inserted at end "Within three days after the date of contract award, the head of the agency shall notify, in writing or by electronic means, each bidder not awarded the contract that the contract has been awarded."

Subsec. (b)(4)(B). Pub. L. 103–355, §1013(b), substituted "transmitting, in writing or by electronic means, notice" for "transmitting written notice" and ", within three days after the date of contract award, shall notify, in writing or by electronic means," for "shall promptly notify".

Subsec. (b)(5), (6). Pub. L. 103–355, §1014, added par. (5) and redesignated former par. (5) as (6).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–355, §1015, added subsec. (e).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 103–355, §1016, added subsec. (f).

1993—Subsec. (b)(4)(A). Pub. L. 103–160 realigned margins of cls. (i) and (ii).

1990—Subsec. (a)(2)(A)(i). Pub. L. 101–510, §802(a)(1), inserted "(and significant subfactors)" after "significant factors" and substituted "(including cost or price, cost- or price-related factors, and noncost- or nonprice-related factors)" for "(including cost or price)".

Subsec. (a)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 101–510, §802(a)(2), inserted "(and subfactors)" after "those factors".

Subsec. (a)(2(B)(ii)(I). Pub. L. 101–510, §802(b), amended subcl. (I) generally. Prior to amendment, subcl. (I) read as follows: "a statement that the proposals are intended to be evaluated with, and awards made after, discussions with the offerors, but might be evaluated and awarded without discussions with the offerors; and".

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 101–510, §802(c), substituted "the evaluation factors and subfactors, including the quality of the product or services" for "the quality of the services".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 101–510, §802(d)(1), inserted "and make an award" after "competitive proposals".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 101–510, §802(d)(2), inserted "in accordance with paragraph (1)" after "shall evaluate the bids".

Subsec. (b)(4)(A). Pub. L. 101–510, §802(d)(3)(A), substituted "competitive proposals in accordance with paragraph (1)" for "competitive proposals" in introductory provisions, added cls. (i) and (ii), and struck out former cls. (i) and (ii) which read as follows:

"(i) after discussions conducted with the offerors at any time after receipt of the proposals and before the award of the contract; or

"(ii) without discussions with the offerors (other than discussions conducted for the purpose of minor clarification) when it can be clearly demonstrated from the existence of full and open competition or accurate prior cost experience with the product or service that acceptance of an initial proposal without discussions would result in the lowest overall cost to the United States."

Subsec. (b)(4)(B) to (E). Pub. L. 101–510, §802(d)(3)(B)–(D), redesignated subpars. (D) and (E) as (B) and (C), respectively, substituted "Subparagraph (B)" for "Subparagraph (D)" in subpar. (C), and struck out former subpars. (B) and (C) which read as follows:

"(B) In the case of award of a contract under subparagraph (A)(i), the head of the agency shall conduct, before such award, written or oral discussions with all responsible sources who submit proposals within the competitive range, considering only cost or price and the other factors included in the solicitation.

"(C) In the case of award of a contract under subparagraph (A)(ii), the head of the agency shall award the contract based on the proposals received (and as clarified, if necessary, in discussions conducted for the purpose of minor clarification)."

1989—Subsec. (b)(4)(D). Pub. L. 101–189 inserted "cost or" after "considering only".

1988—Subsec. (d)(1)(B). Pub. L. 100–456, §806(b), substituted "Proposals referred to in the first sentence of subparagraph (A) are" for "The proposals that the head of an agency is to consider requiring in a solicitation for the award of a development contract are".

Subsec. (d)(2)(B). Pub. L. 100–456, §806(b), substituted "Proposals referred to in the first sentence of subparagraph (A) are" for "The proposals that the head of an agency is to consider requiring in a solicitation for the award of a production contract are".

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 100–456, §806(a)(2), inserted provision that objectives may not impair the rights of prospective contractors or subcontractors otherwise provided by law.

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 100–456, §806(a)(1), added par. (4).

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–500 and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [§924(a)], Pub. L. 99–661, §924(a), amended subsec. (a) identically, in par. (2)(A)(i) striking out "(including price)" after "factors" and inserting "(including price)" and "(including cost and price)" and adding par. (3).

Subsec. (b)(4)(B). Pub. L. 99–500 and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [§924(b)], Pub. L. 99–661, §924(b), amended subpar. (B) identically, inserting "cost or".

Subsec. (b)(4)(E). Pub. L. 99–661, §313(b), added subpar. (E).

1985—Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 99–145 aligned the margin of par. (5).

1984—Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 98–525 added subsecs. (c) and (d).

Catchline, subsecs. (a) to (d). Pub. L. 98–369 substituted "Contracts: planning, solicitation, evaluation, and award procedures" for "Formal advertisements for bids; time; opening; award; rejection" and completely revised the text to substitute a program using solicitation requirements covering military procurement for former provisions which had used the approach of utilizing formal advertisements, struck out former provisions which had directed that, except in cases where the Secretary of Defense had determined that military requirements necessitated the specification of container size, no advertisement or invitation to bid for the carriage of government property in other than government-owned cargo containers could specify carriage of such property in cargo containers of any stated length, height, or width, and carried forward into new subsecs. (a)(1)(A)(iii), (B)(i), and (b)(2) and (5) the content of former section.

1968—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–268 inserted provision that, except in cases where the Secretary of Defense determines that military requirements necessitate such specification, no advertisement or invitation to bid for the carriage of Government property in other than Government-owned cargo containers shall specify carriage of such property in cargo containers of any stated length, height, or width.

1958—Subsecs. (b) to (d). Pub. L. 85–861 added subsec. (b) and redesignated former subsecs. (b) and (c) as (c) and (d), respectively.

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–232 effective Jan. 1, 2020, subject to a savings provision, see section 836(h) of Pub. L. 115–232, set out as an Effective Date of 2018 Amendment; Savings Provision note under section 453b of Title 6, Domestic Security.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

For effective date and applicability of amendment by sections 4103(a), 4104(a), and 4202(a)(2) of Pub. L. 104–106, see section 4401 of Pub. L. 104–106, set out as a note under section 2302 of this title.

Amendment by section 5601(a) of Pub. L. 104–106 effective 180 days after Feb. 10, 1996, see section 5701 of Pub. L. 104–106, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 702.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

For effective date and applicability of amendment by Pub. L. 103–355, see section 10001 of Pub. L. 103–355, set out as a note under section 2302 of this title.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title VIII, §802(e), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1589, provided that:

"(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to solicitations for sealed bids or competitive proposals issued after the end of the 120-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 5, 1990].

"(2) The Secretary of Defense may require the amendments made by this section to apply with respect to solicitations issued before the end of the period referred to in paragraph (1). The Secretary of Defense shall publish in the Federal Register notice of any such earlier effective date."

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–500, §101(c) [title X, §924(c)], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–82, 1783–153, Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [title X, §924(c)], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–82, 3341–153, and Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title IX, formerly title IV, §924(c), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3933, renumbered title IX, Pub. L. 100–26, §3(5), Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 273, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to solicitations for sealed bids or competitive proposals issued after the end of the 180-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 18, 1986]."

Effective Date of 1984 Amendments

Pub. L. 98–525, title XII, §1213(b), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2592, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect at the end of the 180-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 19, 1984]."

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 applicable with respect to any solicitation for bids or proposals issued after Mar. 31, 1985, see section 2751 of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 2302 of this title.

Department of Defense Contracting Dispute Matters

Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §822, Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1853, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 13, 2018], the Secretary of Defense shall carry out a study of the frequency and effects of bid protests involving the same contract award or proposed award that have been filed at both the Government Accountability Office and the United States Court of Federal Claims. The study shall cover Department of Defense contracts and include, at a minimum—

"(1) the number of protests that have been filed with both tribunals and results;

"(2) the number of such protests where the tribunals differed in denying or sustaining the action;

"(3) the length of time, in average time and median time—

"(A) from initial filing at the Government Accountability Office to decision in the United States Court of Federal Claims;

"(B) from filing with each tribunal to decision by such tribunal;

"(C) from the time at which the basis of the protest is known to the time of filing in each tribunal; and

"(D) in the case of an appeal from a decision of the United States Court of Federal Claims, from the date of the initial filing of the appeal to decision in the appeal;

"(4) the number of protests where performance was stayed or enjoined and for how long;

"(5) if performance was stayed or enjoined, whether the requirement was obtained in the interim through another vehicle or in-house, or whether during the period of the stay or enjoining the requirement went unfulfilled;

"(6) separately for each tribunal, the number of protests where performance was stayed or enjoined and monetary damages were awarded, which shall include for how long performance was stayed or enjoined and the amount of monetary damages;

"(7) whether the protestor was a large or small business; and

"(8) whether the protestor was the incumbent in a prior contract for the same or similar product or service.

"(b) Report.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives], the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate, and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives a report on the results of the study, along with related recommendations for improving the expediency of the bid protest process. In preparing the report, the Secretary shall consult with the Attorney General of the United States, the Comptroller General of the United States, and the United States Court of Federal Claims.

"(c) Ongoing Data Collection.—Not later than 270 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary of Defense shall establish and continuously maintain a data repository to collect on an ongoing basis the information described in subsection (a) and any additional relevant bid protest data the Secretary determines necessary and appropriate to allow the Department of Defense, the Government Accountability Office, and the United States Court of Federal Claims to assess and review bid protests over time.

"(d) Establishment of Expedited Process for Small Value Contracts.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than December 1, 2019, the Secretary of Defense shall develop a plan and schedule for an expedited bid protest process for Department of Defense contracts with a value of less than $100,000.

"(2) Consultation.—In carrying out paragraph (1), the Secretary of Defense may consult with the Government Accountability Office and the United States Court of Federal Claims to the extent such entities may establish a similar process at their election.

"(3) Report.—Not later than May 1, 2019, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the congressional defense committees a report on the plan and schedule for implementation of the expedited bid protest process, which shall include a request for any additional authorities the Secretary determines appropriate for such efforts."

Inclusion of Best Available Information Regarding Past Performance of Subcontractors and Joint Venture Partners

Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §823, Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1855, provided that: "Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 13, 2018], the Secretary of Defense, in consultation with the Federal Acquisition Regulatory Council and the Administrator for Federal Procurement Policy, shall develop policies for the Department of Defense to ensure the best information regarding past performance of certain subcontractors and joint venture partners is available when awarding Department of Defense contracts. The policies shall include proposed revisions to the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement as follows:

"(1) Required performance evaluations, as part of a government-wide evaluation reporting tool, for first-tier subcontractors on construction and architect-engineer contracts performing a portion of the contract valued at the threshold set forth in section 42.1502(e) of the Federal Acquisition Regulation, or 20 percent of the value of the prime contract, whichever is higher, provided—

"(A) the information included in rating the subcontractor is not inconsistent with the information included in the rating for the prime contractor;

"(B) the subcontractor evaluation is conducted consistent with the provisions of section 42.15 of the Federal Acquisition Regulation;

"(C) negative evaluations of a subcontractor in no way obviate the prime contractor's responsibility for successful completion of the contract and management of its subcontractors; and

"(D) that in the judgment of the contracting officer, the overall execution of the work is impacted by the performance of the subcontractor or subcontractors.

"(2) Required performance evaluations, as part of a government-wide evaluation reporting tool, of individual partners of joint venture-awarded construction and architect-engineer contracts valued at the threshold set forth in section 42.1502(e) of the Federal Acquisition Regulation, to ensure that past performance on joint venture projects is considered in future awards to individual joint venture partners, provided—

"(A) at a minimum, the rating for joint ventures includes an identification that allows the evaluation to be retrieved for each partner of the joint venture;

"(B) each partner, through the joint venture, is given the same opportunity to submit comments, rebutting statements, or additional information, consistent with the provisions of section 42.15 of the Federal Acquisition Regulation; and

"(C) the rating clearly identifies the responsibilities of joint venture partners for discrete elements of the work where the partners are not jointly and severally responsible for the project.

"(3) Processes to request exceptions from the annual evaluation requirement under section 42.1502(a) of the Federal Acquisition Regulation for construction and architect-engineer contracts where submission of the annual evaluations would not provide the best representation of the performance of a contractor, including subcontractors and joint venture partners, including—

"(A) where no severable element of the work has been completed;

"(B) where the contracting officer determines that—

"(i) an insubstantial portion of the contract work has been completed in the preceding year; and

"(ii) the lack of performance is at no fault to the contractor; or

"(C) where the contracting officer determines that there is an issue in dispute which, until resolved, would likely cause the annual rating to inaccurately reflect the past performance of the contractor."

Enhanced Post-Award Debriefing Rights; Release of Contract Award Information

Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title VIII, §818(a), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1463, provided that: "Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 12, 2017], the Secretary of Defense shall revise the Department of Defense Supplement to the Federal Acquisition Regulation to require that all required post-award debriefings, while protecting the confidential and proprietary information of other offerors, include, at a minimum, the following:

"(1) In the case of a contract award in excess of $100,000,000, a requirement for disclosure of the agency's written source selection award determination, redacted to protect the confidential and proprietary information of other offerors for the contract award, and, in the case of a contract award in excess of $10,000,000 and not in excess of $100,000,000 with a small business or nontraditional contractor, an option for the small business or nontraditional contractor to request such disclosure.

"(2) A requirement for a written or oral debriefing for all contract awards and task or delivery orders valued at $10,000,000 or higher.

"(3) Provisions ensuring that both unsuccessful and winning offerors are entitled to the disclosure described in paragraph (1) and the debriefing described in paragraph (2).

"(4) Robust procedures, consistent with section 2305(b)(5)(D) of title 10, United States Code, and provisions implementing that section in the Federal Acquisition Regulation, to protect the confidential and proprietary information of other offerors."

Use Of Lowest Price Technically Acceptable Source Selection Process

Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title VIII, §813, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2270, as amended by Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title VIII, §822(a), (b)(1), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1465, provided that:

"(a) Statement of Policy.—It shall be the policy of the Department of Defense to avoid using lowest price technically acceptable source selection criteria in circumstances that would deny the Department the benefits of cost and technical tradeoffs in the source selection process.

"(b) Revision of Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement.—Not later than 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 23, 2016], the Secretary of Defense shall revise the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement to require that, for solicitations issued on or after the date that is 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, lowest price technically acceptable source selection criteria are used only in situations in which—

"(1) the Department of Defense is able to comprehensively and clearly describe the minimum requirements expressed in terms of performance objectives, measures, and standards that will be used to determine acceptability of offers;

"(2) the Department of Defense would realize no, or minimal, value from a contract proposal exceeding the minimum technical or performance requirements set forth in the request for proposal;

"(3) the proposed technical approaches will require no, or minimal, subjective judgment by the source selection authority as to the desirability of one offeror's proposal versus a competing proposal;

"(4) the source selection authority has a high degree of confidence that a review of technical proposals of offerors other than the lowest bidder would not result in the identification of factors that could provide value or benefit to the Department;

"(5) the contracting officer has included a justification for the use of a lowest price technically acceptable evaluation methodology in the contract file;

"(6) the Department of Defense has determined that the lowest price reflects full life-cycle costs, including for operations and support;

"(7) the Department of Defense would realize no, or minimal, additional innovation or future technological advantage by using a different methodology; and

"(8) with respect to a contract for procurement of goods, the goods procured are predominantly expendable in nature, nontechnical, or have a short life expectancy or short shelf life.

"(c) Avoidance of Use of Lowest Price Technically Acceptable Source Selection Criteria in Certain Procurements.—To the maximum extent practicable, the use of lowest price technically acceptable source selection criteria shall be avoided in the case of a procurement that is predominately for the acquisition of—

"(1) information technology services, cybersecurity services, systems engineering and technical assistance services, advanced electronic testing, audit or audit readiness services, or other knowledge-based professional services;

"(2) personal protective equipment; or

"(3) knowledge-based training or logistics services in contingency operations or other operations outside the United States, including in Afghanistan or Iraq.

"(d) Reporting.—Not later than December 1, 2017, and annually thereafter for three years, the Comptroller General of the United States shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a report on the number of instances in which lowest price technically acceptable source selection criteria is used for a contract exceeding $5,000,000, including an explanation of how the situations listed in subsection (b) were considered in making a determination to use lowest price technically acceptable source selection criteria."

[Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title VIII, §822(b)(2), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1465, provided that: "The amendment made by this subsection [amending section 813 of Pub. L. 114–328, set out above] shall apply with respect to the second, third, and fourth reports submitted under subsection (d) of section 813 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017 (Public Law 114–328; 130 Stat 2271; 10 U.S.C. 2305 note)."]

Use of Commercial or Non-Government Standards in Lieu of Military Specifications and Standards

Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title VIII, §875, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2310, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that the Department of Defense uses commercial or non-Government specifications and standards in lieu of military specifications and standards, including for procuring new systems, major modifications, upgrades to current systems, non-developmental and commercial items, and programs in all acquisition categories, unless no practical alternative exists to meet user needs. If it is not practicable to use a commercial or non-Government standard, a Government-unique specification may be used.

"(b) Limited Use of Military Specifications.—

"(1) In general.—Military specifications shall be used in procurements only to define an exact design solution when there is no acceptable commercial or non-Government standard or when the use of a commercial or non-Government standard is not cost effective.

"(2) Waiver.—A waiver for the use of military specifications in accordance with paragraph (1) shall be approved by either the appropriate milestone decision authority, the appropriate service acquisition executive, or the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics.

"(c) Revision to DFARS.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 23, 2016], the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics shall revise the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement to encourage contractors to propose commercial or non-Government standards and industry-wide practices that meet the intent of the military specifications and standards.

"(d) Development of Non-government Standards.—The Under Secretary for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics shall form partnerships with appropriate industry associations to develop commercial or non-Government standards for replacement of military specifications and standards where practicable.

"(e) Education, Training, and Guidance.—The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics shall ensure that training, education, and guidance programs throughout the Department are revised to incorporate specifications and standards reform.

"(f) Licenses.—The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics shall negotiate licenses for standards to be used across the Department of Defense and shall maintain an inventory of such licenses that is accessible to other Department of Defense organizations."

Requirement and Review Relating to Use of Brand Names or Brand-Name or Equivalent Descriptions in Solicitations

Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title VIII, §888, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2322, provided that:

"(a) Requirement.—The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that competition in Department of Defense contracts is not limited through the use of specifying brand names or brand-name or equivalent descriptions, or proprietary specifications or standards, in solicitations unless a justification for such specification is provided and approved in accordance with section 2304(f) of title 10, United States Code.

"(b) Review of Anti-competitive Specifications in Information Technology Acquisitions.—

"(1) Review required.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 23, 2016], the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics shall conduct a review of the policy, guidance, regulations, and training related to specifications included in information technology acquisitions to ensure current policies eliminate the unjustified use of potentially anti-competitive specifications. In conducting the review, the Under Secretary shall examine the use of brand names or proprietary specifications or standards in solicitations for procurements of goods and services, as well as the current acquisition training curriculum related to those areas.

"(2) Briefing required.—Not later than 270 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Under Secretary shall provide a briefing to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives on the results of the review required by paragraph (1).

"(3) Additional guidance.—Not later than one year after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Under Secretary shall revise policies, guidance, and training to incorporate such recommendations as the Under Secretary considers appropriate from the review required by paragraph (1)."

Guidance on Use of Tiered Evaluations of Offers for Contracts and Task Orders Under Contracts

Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title VIII, §816, Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3382, provided that:

"(a) Guidance Required.—The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe guidance for the military departments and the Defense Agencies on the use of tiered evaluations of offers for contracts and for task or delivery orders under contracts.

"(b) Elements.—The guidance prescribed under subsection (a) shall include a prohibition on the initiation by a contracting officer of a tiered evaluation of an offer for a contract or for a task or delivery order under a contract unless the contracting officer—

"(1) has conducted market research in accordance with part 10 of the Federal Acquisition Regulation in order to determine whether or not a sufficient number of qualified small businesses are available to justify limiting competition for the award of such contract or task or delivery order under applicable law and regulations;

"(2) is unable, after conducting market research under paragraph (1), to make the determination described in that paragraph; and

"(3) includes in the contract file a written explanation of why such contracting officer was unable to make such determination."

Authorization of Evaluation Factor for Defense Contractors Employing or Subcontracting With Members of the Selected Reserve of the Reserve Components of the Armed Forces

Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title VIII, §819, Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3385, provided that:

"(a) Defense Contracts.—In awarding any contract for the procurement of goods or services to an entity, the Secretary of Defense is authorized to use as an evaluation factor whether the entity intends to carry out the contract using employees or individual subcontractors who are members of the Selected Reserve of the reserve components of the Armed Forces.

"(b) Documentation of Selected Reserve-Related Evaluation Factor.—Any entity claiming intent to carry out a contract using employees or individual subcontractors who are members of the Selected Reserve of the reserve components of the Armed Forces shall submit proof of the use of such employees or subcontractors for the Department of Defense to consider in carrying out subsection (a) with respect to that contract.

"(c) Regulations.—The Federal Acquisition Regulation shall be revised as necessary to implement this section."

Certificate of Competency Requirements

Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title VIII, §804, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2447, provided that, in case of contract to be entered into pursuant to this chapter, other than pursuant to simplified procedures under section 2304(g) of this title, solicitation was to contain notice of right of bidding small business concern, in case of determination by contracting officer that concern was nonresponsible, to request Small Business Administration to make determination of responsibility under section 637(b)(7) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, that if contracting officer determined that concern was nonresponsible, such officer was to notify concern in writing, of such determination, that concern had right to request Small Business Administration to make determination, and that, if concern desired to request such determination, concern was to inform officer in writing, within 14 days after receipt of notice, of such desire, and that, after being so informed, officer was to transmit request to Administration, or, if not so informed, officer was to proceed with award of contract, and contained provisions relating to effective and termination dates and report to be submitted to Congress, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–355, title VII, §7101(b), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3367.

Construction of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 as not superseding or affecting the provisions of section 637(a) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, see section 2723(c) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 2304 of this title.

§2305a. Design-build selection procedures

(a) Authorization.—Unless the traditional acquisition approach of design-bid-build established under chapter 11 of title 40 is used or another acquisition procedure authorized by law is used, the head of an agency shall use the two-phase selection procedures authorized in this section for entering into a contract for the design and construction of a public building, facility, or work when a determination is made under subsection (b) that the procedures are appropriate for use.

(b) Criteria for Use.—A contracting officer shall make a determination whether two-phase selection procedures are appropriate for use for entering into a contract for the design and construction of a public building, facility, or work when the contracting officer anticipates that three or more offers will be received for such contract, design work must be performed before an offeror can develop a price or cost proposal for such contract, the offeror will incur a substantial amount of expense in preparing the offer, and the contracting officer has considered information such as the following:

(1) The extent to which the project requirements have been adequately defined.

(2) The time constraints for delivery of the project.

(3) The capability and experience of potential contractors.

(4) The suitability of the project for use of the two-phase selection procedures.

(5) The capability of the agency to manage the two-phase selection process.

(6) Other criteria established by the agency.


(c) Procedures Described.—Two-phase selection procedures consist of the following:

(1) The agency develops, either in-house or by contract, a scope of work statement for inclusion in the solicitation that defines the project and provides prospective offerors with sufficient information regarding the Government's requirements (which may include criteria and preliminary design, budget parameters, and schedule or delivery requirements) to enable the offerors to submit proposals which meet the Government's needs. If the agency contracts for development of the scope of work statement, the agency shall contract for architectural and engineering services as defined by and in accordance with chapter 11 of title 40.

(2) The contracting officer solicits phase-one proposals that—

(A) include information on the offeror's—

(i) technical approach; and

(ii) technical qualifications; and


(B) do not include—

(i) detailed design information; or

(ii) cost or price information.


(3) The evaluation factors to be used in evaluating phase-one proposals are stated in the solicitation and include specialized experience and technical competence, capability to perform, past performance of the offeror's team (including the architect-engineer and construction members of the team) and other appropriate factors, except that cost-related or price-related evaluation factors are not permitted. Each solicitation establishes the relative importance assigned to the evaluation factors and subfactors that must be considered in the evaluation of phase-one proposals. The agency evaluates phase-one proposals on the basis of the phase-one evaluation factors set forth in the solicitation.

(4) The contracting officer selects as the most highly qualified the number of offerors specified in the solicitation to provide the property or services under the contract and requests the selected offerors to submit phase-two competitive proposals that include technical proposals and cost or price information. Each solicitation establishes with respect to phase two—

(A) the technical submission for the proposal, including design concepts or proposed solutions to requirements addressed within the scope of work (or both), and

(B) the evaluation factors and subfactors, including cost or price, that must be considered in the evaluations of proposals in accordance with paragraphs (2), (3), and (4) of section 2305(a) of this title.


The contracting officer separately evaluates the submissions described in subparagraphs (A) and (B).

(5) The agency awards the contract in accordance with section 2305(b)(4) of this title.


(d) Solicitation to State Number of Offerors To Be Selected for Phase Two Requests for Competitive Proposals.—A solicitation issued pursuant to the procedures described in subsection (c) shall state the maximum number of offerors that are to be selected to submit competitive proposals pursuant to subsection (c)(4). If the contract value exceeds $4,000,000, the maximum number specified in the solicitation shall not exceed 5 unless—

(1) the solicitation is issued pursuant to a 1 indefinite delivery-indefinite quantity contract for design-build construction; or

(2)(A) the head of the contracting activity, delegable to a level no lower than the senior contracting official within the contracting activity, approves the contracting officer's justification with respect to an individual solicitation that a maximum number greater than 5 is in the interest of the Federal Government; and

(B) the contracting officer provides written documentation of how a maximum number greater than 5 is consistent with the purposes and objectives of the two-phase selection procedures.


(e) Requirement for Guidance and Regulations.—The Federal Acquisition Regulation shall include guidance—

(1) regarding the factors that may be considered in determining whether the two-phase contracting procedures authorized by subsection (a) are appropriate for use in individual contracting situations;

(2) regarding the factors that may be used in selecting contractors; and

(3) providing for a uniform approach to be used Government-wide.


(f) Special Authority for Military Construction Projects.—(1) The Secretary of a military department may use funds available to the Secretary under section 2807(a) or 18233(e) of this title to accelerate the design effort in connection with a military construction project for which the two-phase selection procedures described in subsection (c) are used to select the contractor for both the design and construction portion of the project before the project is specifically authorized by law and before funds are appropriated for the construction portion of the project. Notwithstanding the limitations contained in such sections, use of such funds for the design portion of a military construction project may continue despite the subsequent authorization of the project. The advance notice requirement of section 2807(b) of this title shall continue to apply whenever the estimated cost of the design portion of the project exceeds the amount specified in such section.

(2) Any military construction contract that provides for an accelerated design effort, as authorized by paragraph (1), shall include as a condition of the contract that the liability of the United States in a termination for convenience before funds are first made available for construction may not exceed an amount attributable to the final design of the project.

(3) For each fiscal year during which the authority provided by this subsection is in effect, the Secretary of a military department may select not more than two military construction projects to include the accelerated design effort authorized by paragraph (1) for each armed force under the jurisdiction of the Secretary. To be eligible for selection under this subsection, a request for the authorization of the project, and for the authorization of appropriations for the project, must have been included in the annual budget of the President for a fiscal year submitted to Congress under section 1105(a) of title 31.

(4) Not later than March 1, 2008, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the congressional defense committees a report evaluating the usefulness of the authority provided by this subsection in expediting the design and construction of military construction projects. The authority provided by this subsection expires September 30, 2008, except that, if the report required by this paragraph is not submitted by March 1, 2008, the authority shall expire on that date.

(Added Pub. L. 104–106, div. D, title XLI, §4105(a)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 645; amended Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title X, §1073(a)(44), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1902; Pub. L. 107–217, §3(b)(4), Aug. 21, 2002, 116 Stat. 1295; Pub. L. 108–178, §4(b)(3), Dec. 15, 2003, 117 Stat. 2641; Pub. L. 108–375, div. B, title XXVIII, §2807, Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 2123; Pub. L. 109–163, div. B, title XXVIII, §2807, Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3508; Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title VIII, §814, Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3430; Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title VIII, §823, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1465.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2305a was renumbered section 2438 of this title.

Amendments

2017—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 115–91 substituted "If the contract value exceeds $4,000,000, the maximum number specified in the solicitation shall not exceed 5 unless—" and pars. (1) and (2) for "If the contract value exceeds $4,000,000, the maximum number specified in the solicitation shall not exceed 5 unless the head of the contracting activity, delegable to a level no lower than the senior contracting official within the contracting activity, approves the contracting officer's justification with respect to an individual solicitation that a number greater than 5 is in the Federal Government's interest. The contracting officer shall provide written documentation of how a maximum number exceeding 5 is consistent with the purposes and objectives of the two-phase selection procedures."

2014—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 113–291 substituted "If the contract value exceeds $4,000,000, the maximum number specified in the solicitation shall not exceed 5 unless the head of the contracting activity, delegable to a level no lower than the senior contracting official within the contracting activity, approves the contracting officer's justification with respect to an individual solicitation that a number greater than 5 is in the Federal Government's interest. The contracting officer shall provide written documentation of how a maximum number exceeding 5 is consistent with the purposes and objectives of the two-phase selection procedures." for "The maximum number specified in the solicitation shall not exceed 5 unless the agency determines with respect to an individual solicitation that a specified number greater than 5 is in the Government's interest and is consistent with the purposes and objectives of the two-phase selection process."

2006—Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 109–163, §2807(a), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "Any military construction contract that provides for an accelerated design effort, as authorized by paragraph (1), shall include as a condition of the contract that the liability of the United States in a termination for convenience may not exceed the actual costs incurred as of the termination date."

Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 109–163, §2807(b), substituted "2008" for "2007" wherever appearing.

2004—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 108–375 added subsec. (f).

2003—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 108–178 substituted "chapter 11 of title 40" for "the Brooks Architect-Engineers Act (40 U.S.C. 541 et seq.)".

2002—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–217 substituted "chapter 11 of title 40" for "the Brooks Architect-Engineers Act (40 U.S.C. 541 et seq.)".

1997—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–85 substituted "(40 U.S.C." for "(41 U.S.C.".

Effective Date of 2003 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–178 effective Aug. 21, 2002, see section 5 of Pub. L. 108–178, set out as a note under section 5334 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date

For effective date and applicability of section, see section 4401 of Pub. L. 104–106, set out as an Effective Date of 1996 Amendment note under section 2302 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be "an".

§2306. Kinds of contracts

(a) The cost-plus-a-percentage-of-cost system of contracting may not be used. Subject to the limitation in the preceding sentence, the other provisions of this section, and other applicable provisions of law, the head of an agency, in awarding contracts under this chapter after using procedures other than sealed-bid procedures, may enter into any kind of contract that he considers will promote the best interests of the United States.

(b) Each contract awarded under this chapter after using procedures other than sealed-bid procedures shall contain a warranty, determined to be suitable by the head of the agency, that the contractor has employed or retained no person or selling agency to solicit or obtain the contract under an understanding or agreement for a commission, percentage, brokerage, or contingent fee, except a bona fide employee or established commercial or selling agency maintained by him to obtain business. If a contractor breaks such a warranty the United States may annul the contract without liability or may deduct the commission, percentage, brokerage, or contingent fee from the contract price or consideration. This subsection does not apply to a contract that is for an amount not greater than the simplified acquisition threshold or to a contract for the acquisition of commercial items.

(c) A contract entered into by the United States in connection with a military construction project or a military family housing project may not use any form of cost-plus contracting. This prohibition is in addition to the prohibition specified in subsection (a) on the use of the cost-plus-a-percentage-of-cost system of contracting and applies notwithstanding a declaration of war or the declaration by the President of a national emergency under section 201 of the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1621) that includes the use of the armed forces.

(d) The fee for performing a cost-plus-a-fixed-fee contract for experimental, developmental, or research work may not be more than 15 percent of the estimated cost of the contract, not including the fee. The fee for performing a cost-plus-a-fixed-fee contract for architectural or engineering services for a public work or utility plus the cost of those services to the contractor may not be more than 6 percent of the estimated cost of that work or project, not including fees. The fee for performing any other cost-plus-a-fixed-fee contract may not be more than 10 percent of the estimated cost of the contract, not including the fee. Determinations under this subsection of the estimated costs of a contract or project shall be made by the head of the agency at the time the contract is made.

(e)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), each cost contract and each cost-plus-a-fixed-fee contract shall provide for notice to the agency by the contractor before the making, under the prime contract, of—

(A) a cost-plus-a-fixed-fee subcontract; or

(B) a fixed-price subcontract or purchase order involving more than the greater of (i) the simplified acquisition threshold, or (ii) 5 percent of the estimated cost of the prime contract.


(2) Paragraph (1) shall not apply to a prime contract with a contractor that maintains a purchasing system approved by the contracting officer for the contract.

(f) So-called "truth-in-negotiations" provisions relating to cost or pricing data to be submitted by certain contractors and subcontractors are provided in section 2306a of this title.

(g) Multiyear contracting authority for the acquisition of services is provided in section 2306c of this title.

(h) Multiyear contracting authority for the purchase of property is provided in section 2306b of this title.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 130; Pub. L. 87–653, §1(d), (e), Sept. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 528; Pub. L. 90–378, §1, July 5, 1968, 82 Stat. 289; Pub. L. 90–512, Sept. 25, 1968, 82 Stat. 863; Pub. L. 96–513, title V, §511(77), Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 2926; Pub. L. 97–86, title IX, §§907(b), 909(b), Dec. 1, 1981, 95 Stat. 1117, 1118; Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title VII, §2724, July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1192; Pub. L. 99–145, title XIII, §1303(a)(15), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 739; Pub. L. 99–500, §101(c) [title X, §952(b)(1), (c)(1)], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–82, 1783–169, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [title X, §952(b)(1), (c)(1)], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–82, 3341–169; Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title IX, formerly title IV, §952(b)(1), (c)(1), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3949, renumbered title IX, Pub. L. 100–26, §3(5), Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 273; Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title VIII, §805(a), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1488; Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title VIII, §808, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1593; Pub. L. 102–25, title VII, §701(d)(3), Apr. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 114; Pub. L. 103–355, title I, §§1021, 1022(b), title IV, §§4102(b), 4401(c), title VIII, §8105(a), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3257, 3260, 3340, 3348, 3392; Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title X, §1073(a)(45), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1902; Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title VIII, §802(b)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–205; Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title VIII, §842, Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1552; Pub. L. 112–81, div. B, title XXVIII, §2801(a), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1684; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §836(c)(4), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1865.)

Amendment of Subsection (b)

Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §836(c)(4), (h), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1865, 1874, provided that, effective Jan. 1, 2020, subject to a savings provision, subsection (b) of this section is amended by striking "commercial items" and inserting "commercial products or commercial services". See 2018 Amendment note below.

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised sectionSource (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
2306(a)

 

 

2306(b)

41:153(a) (1st sentence).

41:153(b) (1st 14 words of 1st sentence).

41:153(a) (less 1st sentence).

Feb. 19, 1948, ch. 65, §4 (less words after semicolon of last sentence of (b), and less (c)), 62 Stat. 23.
2306(c) 41:153(b) (2d sentence).
2306(d) 41:153(b) (1st sentence, less 1st 14 words).
2306(e) 41:153(b) (less 1st and 2d sentences; and less words after semicolon of last sentence).

In subsection (a), the words "subject to subsections (b)–(e)" are substituted for the words "Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section". The words "United States" are substituted for the word "Government".

In subsection (b), the words "under section 2304 of this title" are substituted for the words "pursuant to section 151(c) of this title". The words "full amount of such" and "violation" are omitted as surplusage.

In subsection (c), the words "under section 2304 of this title" are inserted for clarity.

Codification

Pub. L. 99–591 is a corrected version of Pub. L. 99–500.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in subsec. (h)(11) of this section were contained in Pub. L. 100–526, title I, §104(a), Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2624, which was set out below, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101–189, §805(b).

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 115–232 substituted "commercial products or commercial services" for "commercial items".

2011—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 112–81 added subsec. (c).

2003—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 108–136 substituted "(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), each" for "Each", redesignated former pars. (1) and (2) as subpars. (A) and (B) of par. (1), respectively, redesignated cls. (A) and (B) of former par. (2) as cls. (i) and (ii) of subpar. (B) of par. (1), respectively, and added par. (2).

2000—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 106–398 amended subsec. (g) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (g) consisted of pars. (1) to (3) authorizing the head of an agency to enter into contracts for periods of not more than five years for certain types of services.

1997—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 105–85 inserted "for the purchase of property" after "Multiyear contracting authority".

1994—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–355, §§4102(b), 8105(a), inserted at end "This subsection does not apply to a contract that is for an amount not greater than the simplified acquisition threshold or to a contract for the acquisition of commercial items."

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–355, §1021, struck out subsec. (c) which read as follows: "No cost contract, cost-plus-a-fixed-fee contract, or incentive contract may be made under this chapter unless the head of the agency determines that such a contract is likely to be less costly to the United States than any other kind of contract or that it is impracticable to obtain property or services of the kind or quality required except under such a contract."

Subsec. (e)(2)(A). Pub. L. 103–355, §4401(c), substituted "simplified acquisition threshold" for "small purchase threshold".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 103–355, §1022(b), amended subsec. (h) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (h) related to requirements for multiyear contracts for purchase of property, including weapon systems and items and services associated with weapons systems.

1991—Subsec. (e)(2)(A). Pub. L. 102–25 substituted "the small purchase threshold" for "the small purchase amount under section 2304(g) of this title".

1990—Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 101–510, §808(a), struck out "(other than contracts described in paragraph (6))" after "multiyear contracts" in introductory provisions and substituted "substantial savings of the total anticipated costs of carrying out the program through annual contracts" for "reduced total costs under the contract" in subpar. (A).

Subsec. (h)(6). Pub. L. 101–510, §808(b), struck out "contracts for the construction, alteration, or major repair of improvements to real property or" after "not apply to".

Subsec. (h)(9). Pub. L. 101–510, §808(c)(1), inserted "for a defense acquisition program that has been specifically authorized by law to be carried out using multiyear contract authority" after "under this subsection" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (h)(9)(C). Pub. L. 101–510, §808(c)(2), struck out subpar. (C) which read as follows: "The proposed multiyear contract—

"(i) achieves a 10 percent savings as compared to the cost of current negotiated contracts, adjusted for changes in quantity and for inflation; or

"(ii) achieves a 10 percent savings as compared to annual contracts if no recent contract experience exists."

1989—Subsec. (h)(9) to (11). Pub. L. 101–189 added pars. (9) to (11).

1986—Pub. L. 99–500 and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [§952(c)(1)], Pub. L. 99–661, §952(c)(1), amended section identically, striking out ": cost or pricing data: truth in negotiation" after "contracts" in section catchline.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 99–500 and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [§952(b)(1)], Pub. L. 99–661, §952(b)(1), amended generally subsec. (f) identically, substituting provision that "truth-in-negotiations" provisions relating to cost and pricing data for contractors and subcontractors are provided in section 2306a of this title for provision relating to certification by contractors and subcontractors on cost and pricing data, circumstances under which such certification will be required, circumstances under which such certification, although not required, may be requested, and evaluation of the accuracy of the data submitted.

1985—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–145, §1303(a)(15)(A), inserted a period at end.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–145, §1303(a)(15)(B), struck out "of this title" before "shall contain".

1984—Pub. L. 98–369, §2724(f), substituted "Kinds of contracts; cost or pricing data: truth in negotiation" for "Kinds of contracts" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–369, §2724(a), substituted "the limitation in the preceding sentence, the other provisions of this section, and other applicable provisions of law, the head of an agency, in awarding contracts under this chapter after using procedures other than sealed-bid procedures, may enter into" for "this limitation and subject to subsections (b)–(f), the head of any agency may, in negotiating contracts under section 2304 of this title, make".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–369, §2724(b), substituted "awarded under this chapter after using procedures other than sealed-bid procedures" for "negotiated under section 2304".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–369, §2724(c), substituted "this chapter" for "section 2304 of this title,".

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 98–369, §2724(d), substituted "the greater of (A) the small purchase amount under section 2304(g) of this title, or (B)" for "$25,000 or".

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 98–369, §2724(e)(A)(i), (ii), substituted "such contractor's or subcontractor's" for "his" and struck out "he" before "submitted was accurate" in provisions preceding subpar. (A).

Subsec. (f)(1)(A). Pub. L. 98–369, §2724(3)(A)(iii), (vi), (vii), substituted "prime contract under this chapter entered into after using procedures other than sealed-bid procedures, if" for "negotiated prime contract under this title where", "$100,000" for "$500,000", and "before" for "prior to".

Subsec. (f)(1)(B). Pub. L. 98–369, §2724(e)(A)(iv), (vi), (vii), substituted "if" for "for which", "$100,000" for "$500,000", and "before" for "prior to".

Subsec. (f)(1)(C). Pub. L. 98–369, §2724(e)(A)(v)–(vii), substituted "when" for "where", "$100,000" for "$500,000", and "before" for "prior to".

Subsec. (f)(1)(D). Pub. L. 98–369, §2724(e)(A)(iv), (vi), (vii), substituted "if" for "for which", "$100,000" for "$500,000", and "before" for "prior to".

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 98–369, §2724(e)(B), (D), (E), struck out "negotiated" before "price as is practicable" and before "is based on adequate price competition", redesignated as par. (3) the proviso formerly set out in this par., and as part of the redesignation substituted a period for ": Provided, That" after "or noncurrent".

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 98–369, §2724(e)(E), designated as par. (3) the proviso formerly set out in par. (2). Former par. (3) redesignated (5).

Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 98–369, §2724(e)(F), added par. (4).

Subsec. (f)(5). Pub. L. 98–369, §2724(e)(C), redesignated former par. (3) as (5) and substituted "proposal for the contract, the discussions conducted on the proposal" for "negotiation".

1981—Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 97–86, §907(b), substituted "$500,000" for "$100,000" in subpars. (A) to (D).

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L 97–86, §909(b)(1), struck out "to be performed outside the forty-eight contiguous States and the District of Columbia" after "(and items of supply related to such services)" in provisions preceding subpar. (A).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 97–86, §909(b)(2), added subsec. (h).

1980—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 96–513, §511(77)(A), designated existing provisions as pars. (1) to (3) and in par. (1), as so designated, substituted "(A)" to "(D)" for "(1)" to "(4)", respectively, "prior" for "Prior" wherever appearing, and "clause (C)" for "(3) above".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 96–513, §511(77)(B), in par. (1) substituted "that—" for "that:", in par. (2) substituted "(A) The" for "(A) the", "(B) Consideration" for "(B) consideration", and "(C) Consideration" for "(C) consideration", and in par. (3) substituted "from—" for "from:".

1968—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 90–512 inserted last par.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 90–378 added subsec. (g).

1962—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 87–653, §1(d), substituted "subsections (b)–(f)" for "subsections (b)–(e)".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 87–653, §1(e), added subsec. (f).

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–232 effective Jan. 1, 2020, subject to a savings provision, see section 836(h) of Pub. L. 115–232, set out as an Effective Date of 2018 Amendment; Savings Provision note under section 453b of Title 6, Domestic Security.

Effective Date of 2011 Amendment

Pub. L. 112–81, div. B, title XXVIII, §2801(b), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1684, provided that: "Subsection (c) of section 2306 of title 10, United States Code, as added by subsection (a), shall apply with respect to any contract entered into by the United States in connection with a military construction project or a military family housing project after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 31, 2011]."

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

For effective date and applicability of amendment by Pub. L. 103–355, see section 10001 of Pub. L. 103–355, set out as a note under section 2302 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 101(c) [title X, §952(b)(1)] of Pub. L. 99–500 and Pub. L. 99–591, and section 952(b)(1) of Pub. L. 99–661 applicable with respect to contracts or modifications on contracts entered into after end of 120-day period beginning Oct. 18, 1986, see section 101(c) of Pub. L. 99–500 and Pub. L. 99–591, and section 952(d) of Pub. L. 99–661, set out as a note under section 2306a of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 applicable with respect to any solicitation for bids or proposals issued after Mar. 31, 1985, see section 2751 of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 2302 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–513 effective Dec. 12, 1980, see section 701(b)(3) of Pub. L. 96–513, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 87–653 see section 1(h) of Pub. L. 87–653, set out as a note under section 2304 of this title.

Transition Provision

Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title VIII, §805(c), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1489, provided that: "Subparagraph (C) of paragraph (9) of section 2306(h) of title 10, United States Code, as added by subsection (a), does not apply to programs that are under a multiyear contract on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 29, 1989]."

Preference for Fixed-Price Contracts

Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title VIII, §829, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2281, provided that:

"(a) Establishment of Preference.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 23, 2016], the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement shall be revised to establish a preference for fixed-price contracts, including fixed-price incentive fee contracts, in the determination of contract type.

"(b) Approval Requirement for Certain Cost-type Contracts.—

"(1) In general.—A contracting officer of the Department of Defense may not enter into a cost-type contract described in paragraph (2) unless the contract is approved by the service acquisition executive of the military department concerned, the head of the Defense Agency concerned, the commander of the combatant command concerned, or the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics (as applicable).

"(2) Covered contracts.—A contract described in this paragraph is—

"(A) a cost-type contract in excess of $50,000,000, in the case of a contract entered into on or after October 1, 2018, and before October 1, 2019; and

"(B) a cost-type contract in excess of $25,000,000, in the case of a contract entered into on or after October 1, 2019."

Determination of Contract Type for Development Programs

Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title VIII, §818(b)–(e), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2329, 2330, provided that:

"(b) Modification of Regulations.—Not later than 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 17, 2006], the Secretary of Defense shall modify the regulations of the Department of Defense regarding the determination of contract type for development programs.

"(c) Elements.—As modified under subsection (b), the regulations shall require the Milestone Decision Authority for a major defense acquisition program to select the contract type for a development program at the time of a decision on Milestone B approval (or Key Decision Point B approval in the case of a space program) that is consistent with the level of program risk for the program. The Milestone Decision Authority may select—

"(1) a fixed-price type contract (including a fixed price incentive contract); or

"(2) a cost type contract.

"(d) Conditions With Respect to Authorization of Cost Type Contract.—As modified under subsection (b), the regulations shall provide that the Milestone Decision Authority may authorize the use of a cost type contract under subsection (c) for a development program only upon a written determination that—

"(1) the program is so complex and technically challenging that it would not be practicable to reduce program risk to a level that would permit the use of a fixed-price type contract; and

"(2) the complexity and technical challenge of the program is not the result of a failure to meet the requirements established in section 2366a of title 10, United States Code.

"(e) Justification for Selection of Contract Type.—As modified under subsection (b), the regulations shall require the Milestone Decision Authority to document the basis for the contract type selected for a program. The documentation shall include an explanation of the level of program risk for the program and, if the Milestone Decision Authority determines that the level of program risk is high, the steps that have been taken to reduce program risk and reasons for proceeding with Milestone B approval despite the high level of program risk."

Multiyear Procurement Authority; Requests for Relief

Pub. L. 100–526, title I, §104(a), Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2624, which provided that if for any fiscal year a multiyear contract was to be entered into under 10 U.S.C. 2306(h) was authorized by law for a particular procurement program and that authorization was subject to certain conditions established by law (including a condition as to cost savings to be achieved under the multiyear contract in comparison to specified other contracts) and if it appeared (after negotiations with contractors) that such savings could not be achieved, but that substantial savings could nevertheless be achieved through the use of a multiyear contract rather than specified other contracts, the President was to submit to Congress a request for relief from the specified cost savings that was to be achieved through multiyear contracting for that program and that any such request by the President was to include details about the request for a multiyear contract, including details about the negotiated contract terms and conditions, was repealed and restated as subsec. (h)(11) of this section by Pub. L. 101–189, §805(b), (c).

Technical Data and Computer Software Packages; Procurement; Contracting Period; Deferred Ordering Clause; Exemptions; Report to Congressional Committees; Definitions

Pub. L. 94–361, title VIII, §805, July 14, 1976, 90 Stat. 932, required that military contracts entered into during Oct. 1, 1976 to Sept. 30, 1978 for development or procurement of a major system include a deferred ordering clause with an option to purchase from the contractor technical data and computer software packages relating to the system, directed that such clause require such packages to be sufficiently detailed so as to enable procurement of such system or subsystem from another contractor, authorized that a particular contract may be exempted from the deferred ordering clause if the procuring authority reports to the House and Senate Committees on Armed Services his intent to so contract with an explanation for the exemption, and set out definitions for "major system", "deferred ordering", and "technical data".

§2306a. Cost or pricing data: truth in negotiations

(a) Required Cost or Pricing Data and Certification.—(1) The head of an agency shall require offerors, contractors, and subcontractors to make cost or pricing data available as follows:

(A) An offeror for a prime contract under this chapter to be entered into using procedures other than sealed-bid procedures that is only expected to receive one bid shall be required to submit cost or pricing data before the award of a contract if—

(i) in the case of a prime contract entered into after June 30, 2018, the price of the contract to the United States is expected to exceed $2,000,000; and

(ii) in the case of a prime contract entered into on or before June 30, 2018, the price of the contract to the United States is expected to exceed $750,000.


(B) The contractor for a prime contract under this chapter shall be required to submit cost or pricing data before the pricing of a change or modification to the contract if—

(i) in the case of a change or modification made to a prime contract referred to in subparagraph (A)(i), the price adjustment is expected to exceed $2,000,000;

(ii) in the case of a change or modification made after July 1, 2018, to a prime contract that was entered into on or before June 30, 2018, and that has been modified pursuant to paragraph (6), the price adjustment is expected to exceed $750,000; and

(iii) in the case of a change or modification not covered by clause (i) or (ii), the price adjustment is expected to exceed $750,000.


(C) An offeror for a subcontract (at any tier) of a contract under this chapter shall be required to submit cost or pricing data before the award of the subcontract if the prime contractor and each higher-tier subcontractor have been required to make available cost or pricing data under this section and—

(i) in the case of a subcontract under a prime contract referred to in subparagraph (A)(i), the price of the subcontract is expected to exceed $2,000,000;

(ii) in the case of a subcontract entered into after July 1, 2018, under a prime contract that was entered into on or before June 30, 2018, and that has been modified pursuant to paragraph (6), the price of the subcontract is expected to exceed $2,000,000; and

(iii) in the case of a subcontract not covered by clause (i) or (ii), the price of the subcontract is expected to exceed $750,000.


(D) The subcontractor for a subcontract covered by subparagraph (C) shall be required to submit cost or pricing data before the pricing of a change or modification to the subcontract if—

(i) in the case of a change or modification to a subcontract referred to in subparagraph (C)(i) or (C)(ii), the price adjustment is expected to exceed $2,000,000; and

(ii) in the case of a change or modification to a subcontract referred to in subparagraph (C)(iii), the price adjustment is expected to exceed $750,000.


(2) A person required, as an offeror, contractor, or subcontractor, to submit cost or pricing data under paragraph (1) (or required by the head of the agency concerned to submit such data under subsection (c)) shall be required to certify that, to the best of the person's knowledge and belief, the cost or pricing data submitted are accurate, complete, and current.

(3) Cost or pricing data required to be submitted under paragraph (1) (or under subsection (c)), and a certification required to be submitted under paragraph (2), shall be submitted—

(A) in the case of a submission by a prime contractor (or an offeror for a prime contract), to the contracting officer for the contract (or to a designated representative of the contracting officer); or

(B) in the case of a submission by a subcontractor (or an offeror for a subcontract), to the prime contractor.


(4) Except as provided under subsection (b), this section applies to contracts entered into by the head of an agency on behalf of a foreign government.

(5) A waiver of requirements for submission of certified cost or pricing data that is granted under subsection (b)(1)(C) in the case of a contract or subcontract does not waive the requirement under paragraph (1)(C) for submission of cost or pricing data in the case of subcontracts under that contract or subcontract unless the head of the procuring activity granting the waiver determines that the requirement under that paragraph should be waived in the case of such subcontracts and justifies in writing the reasons for the determination.

(6) Upon the request of a contractor that was required to submit cost or pricing data under paragraph (1) in connection with a prime contract entered into on or before June 30, 2018, the head of the agency that entered into such contract shall modify the contract to reflect subparagraphs (B)(ii) and (C)(ii) of paragraph (1). All such modifications shall be made without requiring consideration.

(7) Effective on October 1 of each year that is divisible by 5, each amount set forth in paragraph (1) shall be adjusted in accordance with section 1908 of title 41.

(b) Exceptions.—

(1) In general.—Submission of certified cost or pricing data shall not be required under subsection (a) in the case of a contract, a subcontract, or modification of a contract or subcontract—

(A) for which the price agreed upon is based on—

(i) adequate competition that results in at least two or more responsive and viable competing bids; or

(ii) prices set by law or regulation;


(B) for the acquisition of a commercial item;

(C) in an exceptional case when the head of the procuring activity, without delegation, determines that the requirements of this section may be waived and justifies in writing the reasons for such determination; or

(D) to the extent such data—

(i) relates to an offset agreement in connection with a contract for the sale of a weapon system or defense-related item to a foreign country or foreign firm; and

(ii) does not relate to a contract or subcontract under the offset agreement for work performed in such foreign country or by such foreign firm that is directly related to the weapon system or defense-related item being purchased under the contract.


(2) Modifications of contracts and subcontracts for commercial items.—In the case of a modification of a contract or subcontract for a commercial item that is not covered by the exception to the submission of certified cost or pricing data in paragraph (1)(A) or (1)(B), submission of certified cost or pricing data shall not be required under subsection (a) if—

(A) the contract or subcontract being modified is a contract or subcontract for which submission of certified cost or pricing data may not be required by reason of paragraph (1)(A) or (1)(B); and

(B) the modification would not change the contract or subcontract, as the case may be, from a contract or subcontract for the acquisition of a commercial item to a contract or subcontract for the acquisition of an item other than a commercial item.


(3) Noncommercial modifications of commercial items.—(A) The exception in paragraph (1)(B) does not apply to cost or pricing data on noncommercial modifications of a commercial item that are expected to cost, in the aggregate, more than the amount specified in subsection (a)(1)(A)(i), as adjusted from time to time under subsection (a)(7), or 5 percent of the total price of the contract (at the time of contract award), whichever is greater.

(B) In this paragraph, the term "noncommercial modification", with respect to a commercial item, means a modification of such item that is not a modification described in section 103(3)(A) of title 41.

(C) Nothing in subparagraph (A) shall be construed—

(i) to limit the applicability of the exception in subparagraph (A) or (C) of paragraph (1) to cost or pricing data on a noncommercial modification of a commercial item; or

(ii) to require the submission of cost or pricing data on any aspect of an acquisition of a commercial item other than the cost and pricing of noncommercial modifications of such item.


(4) Commercial item determination.—(A) For purposes of applying the commercial item exception under paragraph (1)(B) to the required submission of certified cost or pricing data, the contracting officer may presume that a prior commercial item determination made by a military department, a Defense Agency, or another component of the Department of Defense shall serve as a determination for subsequent procurements of such item.

(B) If the contracting officer does not make the presumption described in subparagraph (A) and instead chooses to proceed with a procurement of an item previously determined to be a commercial item using procedures other than the procedures authorized for the procurement of a commercial item, the contracting officer shall request a review of the commercial item determination by the head of the contracting activity.

(C) Not later than 30 days after receiving a request for review of a commercial item determination under subparagraph (B), the head of a contracting activity shall—

(i) confirm that the prior determination was appropriate and still applicable; or

(ii) issue a revised determination with a written explanation of the basis for the revision.


(5) A contracting officer shall consider evidence provided by an offeror of recent purchase prices paid by the Government for the same or similar commercial items in establishing price reasonableness on a subsequent purchase if the contracting officer is satisfied that the prices previously paid remain a valid reference for comparison after considering the totality of other relevant factors such as the time elapsed since the prior purchase and any differences in the quantities purchased or applicable terms and conditions.

(6) Determination by prime contractor.—A prime contractor required to submit certified cost or pricing data under subsection (a) with respect to a prime contract shall be responsible for determining whether a subcontract under such contract qualifies for an exception under paragraph (1)(A) from such requirement.


(c) Cost or Pricing Data on Below-Threshold Contracts.—

(1) Authority to require submission.—Subject to paragraph (2), when certified cost or pricing data are not required to be submitted by subsection (a) for a contract, subcontract, or modification of a contract or subcontract, such data may nevertheless be required to be submitted by the head of the procuring activity, but only if the head of the procuring activity determines that such data are necessary for the evaluation by the agency of the reasonableness of the price of the contract, subcontract, or modification of a contract or subcontract. In any case in which the head of the procuring activity requires such data to be submitted under this subsection, the head of the procuring activity shall justify in writing the reason for such requirement.

(2) Exception.—The head of the procuring activity may not require certified cost or pricing data to be submitted under this paragraph for any contract or subcontract, or modification of a contract or subcontract, covered by the exceptions in subparagraph (A) or (B) of subsection (b)(1).

(3) Delegation of authority prohibited.—The head of a procuring activity may not delegate functions under this paragraph.


(d) Submission of Other Information.—

(1) Authority to require submission.—When certified cost or pricing data are not required to be submitted under this section for a contract, subcontract, or modification of a contract or subcontract, the offeror shall be required to submit to the contracting officer data other than certified cost or pricing data (if requested by the contracting officer), to the extent necessary to determine the reasonableness of the price of the contract, subcontract, or modification of the contract or subcontract. Except in the case of a contract or subcontract covered by the exceptions in subsection (b)(1)(A), the contracting officer shall require that the data submitted include, at a minimum, appropriate information on the prices at which the same item or similar items have previously been sold that is adequate for evaluating the reasonableness of the price for the procurement. If the contracting officer determines that the offeror does not have access to and cannot provide sufficient information on prices for the same or similar items to determine the reasonableness of price, the contracting officer shall require the submission of information on prices for similar levels of work or effort on related products or services, prices for alternative solutions or approaches, and other information that is relevant to the determination of a fair and reasonable price.

(2) Limitations on authority.—The Federal Acquisition Regulation shall include the following provisions regarding the types of information that contracting officers may require under paragraph (1):

(A) Reasonable limitations on requests for sales data relating to commercial items.

(B) A requirement that a contracting officer limit, to the maximum extent practicable, the scope of any request for information relating to commercial items from an offeror to only that information that is in the form regularly maintained by the offeror in commercial operations.

(C) A statement that any information received relating to commercial items that is exempt from disclosure under section 552(b) of title 5 shall not be disclosed by the Federal Government.


(e) Price Reductions for Defective Cost or Pricing Data.—(1)(A) A prime contract (or change or modification to a prime contract) under which a certificate under subsection (a)(2) is required shall contain a provision that the price of the contract to the United States, including profit or fee, shall be adjusted to exclude any significant amount by which it may be determined by the head of the agency that such price was increased because the contractor (or any subcontractor required to make available such a certificate) submitted defective cost or pricing data.

(B) For the purposes of this section, defective cost or pricing data are cost or pricing data which, as of the date of agreement on the price of the contract (or another date agreed upon between the parties), were inaccurate, incomplete, or noncurrent. If for purposes of the preceding sentence the parties agree upon a date other than the date of agreement on the price of the contract, the date agreed upon by the parties shall be as close to the date of agreement on the price of the contract as is practicable.

(2) In determining for purposes of a contract price adjustment under a contract provision required by paragraph (1) whether, and to what extent, a contract price was increased because the contractor (or a subcontractor) submitted defective cost or pricing data, it shall be a defense that the United States did not rely on the defective data submitted by the contractor or subcontractor.

(3) It is not a defense to an adjustment of the price of a contract under a contract provision required by paragraph (1) that—

(A) the price of the contract would not have been modified even if accurate, complete, and current cost or pricing data had been submitted by the contractor or subcontractor because the contractor or subcontractor—

(i) was the sole source of the property or services procured; or

(ii) otherwise was in a superior bargaining position with respect to the property or services procured;


(B) the contracting officer should have known that the cost and pricing data in issue were defective even though the contractor or subcontractor took no affirmative action to bring the character of the data to the attention of the contracting officer;

(C) the contract was based on an agreement between the contractor and the United States about the total cost of the contract and there was no agreement about the cost of each item procured under such contract; or

(D) the prime contractor or subcontractor did not submit a certification of cost and pricing data relating to the contract as required under subsection (a)(2).


(4)(A) A contractor shall be allowed to offset an amount against the amount of a contract price adjustment under a contract provision required by paragraph (1) if—

(i) the contractor certifies to the contracting officer (or to a designated representative of the contracting officer) that, to the best of the contractor's knowledge and belief, the contractor is entitled to the offset; and

(ii) the contractor proves that the cost or pricing data were available before the date of agreement on the price of the contract (or price of the modification) or, if applicable consistent with paragraph (1)(B), another date agreed upon between the parties, and that the data were not submitted as specified in subsection (a)(3) before such date.


(B) A contractor shall not be allowed to offset an amount otherwise authorized to be offset under subparagraph (A) if—

(i) the certification under subsection (a)(2) with respect to the cost or pricing data involved was known to be false when signed; or

(ii) the United States proves that, had the cost or pricing data referred to in subparagraph (A)(ii) been submitted to the United States before the date of agreement on the price of the contract (or price of the modification) or, if applicable consistent with paragraph (1)(B), another date agreed upon between the parties, the submission of such cost or pricing data would not have resulted in an increase in that price in the amount to be offset.


(f) Interest and Penalties for Certain Overpayments.—(1) If the United States makes an overpayment to a contractor under a contract subject to this section and the overpayment was due to the submission by the contractor of defective cost or pricing data, the contractor shall be liable to the United States—

(A) for interest on the amount of such overpayment, to be computed—

(i) for the period beginning on the date the overpayment was made to the contractor and ending on the date the contractor repays the amount of such overpayment to the United States; and

(ii) at the current rate prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury under section 6621 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986; and


(B) if the submission of such defective data was a knowing submission, for an additional amount equal to the amount of the overpayment.


(2) Any liability under this subsection of a contractor that submits cost or pricing data but refuses to submit the certification required by subsection (a)(2) with respect to the cost or pricing data shall not be affected by the refusal to submit such certification.

(g) Right of United States To Examine Contractor Records.—For the purpose of evaluating the accuracy, completeness, and currency of cost or pricing data required to be submitted by this section, the head of an agency shall have the authority provided by section 2313(a)(2) of this title.

(h) Definitions.—In this section:

(1) Cost or pricing data.—The term "cost or pricing data" means all facts that, as of the date of agreement on the price of a contract (or the price of a contract modification), or, if applicable consistent with subsection (e)(1)(B), another date agreed upon between the parties, a prudent buyer or seller would reasonably expect to affect price negotiations significantly. Such term does not include information that is judgmental, but does include the factual information from which a judgment was derived.

(2) Subcontract.—The term "subcontract" includes a transfer of commercial items between divisions, subsidiaries, or affiliates of a contractor or a subcontractor.

(3) Commercial item.—The term "commercial item" has the meaning provided such term in section 103 of title 41.

(Added Pub. L. 99–500, §101(c) [title X, §952(a)], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–82, 1783–166, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [title X, §952(a)], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–82, 3341–166; Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title IX, formerly title IV, §952(a), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3945, renumbered title IX, Pub. L. 100–26, §3(5), Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 273; amended Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title VIII, §804(a), (b), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1125; Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title VIII, §803(a)(1), (d), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1589, 1590; Pub. L. 102–25, title VII, §701(b), (f)(8), Apr. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 113, 115; Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title VIII, §804(a)–(c)(1), title X, §1061(a)(9), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1415, 1416, 1472; Pub. L. 103–355, title I, §§1201–1209, Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3273–3277; Pub. L. 104–106, div. D, title XLII, §4201(a), title XLIII, §4321(a)(2), (b)(7), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 649, 671, 672; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title X, §1074(a)(12), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2659; Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title X, §1073(a)(46), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1902; Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title VIII, §§805(a), 808(a), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2083, 2085; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title VIII, §818(a), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 2015; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title VIII, §814, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 222; Pub. L. 111–350, §5(b)(15), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3843; Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title X, §1071(a)(3), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3504; Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title VIII, §§812, 851(b), 852(e), 853, Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 891, 916, 918, 919; Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title VIII, §822, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2276; Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title VIII, §811(a)(1), (b), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1459; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §836(c)(5), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1865.)

Amendment of Section

Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §836(c)(5), (h), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1865, 1874, made amendments to subsections (b), (d), and (h) of this section, effective Jan. 1, 2020, subject to a savings provision. After Jan. 1, 2020, subsections (b), (d), and (h) of this section will read as follows:

(b) Exceptions.—

(1) In general.—Submission of certified cost or pricing data shall not be required under subsection (a) in the case of a contract, a subcontract, or modification of a contract or subcontract—

(A) for which the price agreed upon is based on—

(i) adequate competition that results in at least two or more responsive and viable competing bids; or

(ii) prices set by law or regulation;


(B) for the acquisition of a commercial product or a commercial service;

(C) in an exceptional case when the head of the procuring activity, without delegation, determines that the requirements of this section may be waived and justifies in writing the reasons for such determination; or

(D) to the extent such data—

(i) relates to an offset agreement in connection with a contract for the sale of a weapon system or defense-related item to a foreign country or foreign firm; and

(ii) does not relate to a contract or subcontract under the offset agreement for work performed in such foreign country or by such foreign firm that is directly related to the weapon system or defense-related item being purchased under the contract.


(2) Modifications of contracts and subcontracts for commercial products or commercial services.—In the case of a modification of a contract or subcontract for a commercial product or commercial services that is not covered by the exception to the submission of certified cost or pricing data in paragraph (1)(A) or (1)(B), submission of certified cost or pricing data shall not be required under subsection (a) if—

(A) the contract or subcontract being modified is a contract or subcontract for which submission of certified cost or pricing data may not be required by reason of paragraph (1)(A) or (1)(B); and

(B) the modification would not change the contract or subcontract, as the case may be, from a contract or subcontract for the acquisition of a commercial product or commercial services to a contract or subcontract for the acquisition of an item other than a commercial product or commercial services.


(3) Noncommercial modifications of commercial products.—(A) The exception in paragraph (1)(B) does not apply to cost or pricing data on noncommercial modifications of a commercial product that are expected to cost, in the aggregate, more than the amount specified in subsection (a)(1)(A)(i), as adjusted from time to time under subsection (a)(7), or 5 percent of the total price of the contract (at the time of contract award), whichever is greater.

(B) In this paragraph, the term "noncommercial modification", with respect to a commercial product, means a modification of such product that is not a modification described in section 103(3)(A) of title 41.

(C) Nothing in subparagraph (A) shall be construed—

(i) to limit the applicability of the exception in subparagraph (A) or (C) of paragraph (1) to cost or pricing data on a noncommercial modification of a commercial product; or

(ii) to require the submission of cost or pricing data on any aspect of an acquisition of a commercial product other than the cost and pricing of noncommercial modifications of such product.


(4) Commercial product or commercial service determination.—(A) For purposes of applying the exception under paragraph (1)(B) to the required submission of certified cost or pricing data, the contracting officer may presume that a prior commercial product or commercial service determination made by a military department, a Defense Agency, or another component of the Department of Defense shall serve as a determination for subsequent procurements of such product or service.

(B) If the contracting officer does not make the presumption described in subparagraph (A) and instead chooses to proceed with a procurement of a product or service previously determined to be a commercial product or a commercial service using procedures other than the procedures authorized for the procurement of a commercial product or a commercial service, as the case may be, the contracting officer shall request a review of the commercial item determination by the head of the contracting activity.

(C) Not later than 30 days after receiving a request for review of a determination under subparagraph (B), the head of a contracting activity shall—

(i) confirm that the prior determination was appropriate and still applicable; or

(ii) issue a revised determination with a written explanation of the basis for the revision.


(5) A contracting officer shall consider evidence provided by an offeror of recent purchase prices paid by the Government for the same or similar commercial products or commercial services in establishing price reasonableness on a subsequent purchase if the contracting officer is satisfied that the prices previously paid remain a valid reference for comparison after considering the totality of other relevant factors such as the time elapsed since the prior purchase and any differences in the quantities purchased or applicable terms and conditions.

(6) Determination by prime contractor.—A prime contractor required to submit certified cost or pricing data under subsection (a) with respect to a prime contract shall be responsible for determining whether a subcontract under such contract qualifies for an exception under paragraph (1)(A) from such requirement.


(d) Submission of Other Information.—

(1) Authority to require submission.—When certified cost or pricing data are not required to be submitted under this section for a contract, subcontract, or modification of a contract or subcontract, the offeror shall be required to submit to the contracting officer data other than certified cost or pricing data (if requested by the contracting officer), to the extent necessary to determine the reasonableness of the price of the contract, subcontract, or modification of the contract or subcontract. Except in the case of a contract or subcontract covered by the exceptions in subsection (b)(1)(A), the contracting officer shall require that the data submitted include, at a minimum, appropriate information on the prices at which the same item or similar items have previously been sold that is adequate for evaluating the reasonableness of the price for the procurement. If the contracting officer determines that the offeror does not have access to and cannot provide sufficient information on prices for the same or similar items to determine the reasonableness of price, the contracting officer shall require the submission of information on prices for similar levels of work or effort on related products or services, prices for alternative solutions or approaches, and other information that is relevant to the determination of a fair and reasonable price.

(2) Limitations on authority.—The Federal Acquisition Regulation shall include the following provisions regarding the types of information that contracting officers may require under paragraph (1):

(A) Reasonable limitations on requests for sales data relating to commercial products or commercial services.

(B) A requirement that a contracting officer limit, to the maximum extent practicable, the scope of any request for information relating to commercial products or commercial services from an offeror to only that information that is in the form regularly maintained by the offeror in commercial operations.

(C) A statement that any information received relating to commercial products or commercial services that is exempt from disclosure under section 552(b) of title 5 shall not be disclosed by the Federal Government.


(h) Definitions.—In this section:

(1) Cost or pricing data.—The term "cost or pricing data" means all facts that, as of the date of agreement on the price of a contract (or the price of a contract modification), or, if applicable consistent with subsection (e)(1)(B), another date agreed upon between the parties, a prudent buyer or seller would reasonably expect to affect price negotiations significantly. Such term does not include information that is judgmental, but does include the factual information from which a judgment was derived.

(2) Subcontract.—The term "subcontract" includes a transfer of commercial products or commercial services between divisions, subsidiaries, or affiliates of a contractor or a subcontractor.

See 2018 Amendment notes below.

References in Text

Section 6621 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, referred to in subsec. (f)(1)(A)(ii), is classified to section 6621 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Codification

Pub. L. 99–591 is a corrected version of Pub. L. 99–500.

Pub. L. 99–500, Pub. L. 99–591, and Pub. L. 99–661 added identical sections.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 115–232, §836(c)(5)(A)(i), substituted "a commercial product or a commercial service" for "a commercial item".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 115–232, §836(c)(5)(A)(ii), in heading, substituted "commercial products or commercial services" for "commercial items" and, in text, substituted "commercial product or commercial services" for "commercial item" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 115–232, §836(c)(5)(A)(iii), in heading, substituted "commercial products" for "commercial items" and, in text, substituted "product" for "item" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 115–232, §836(c)(5)(A)(iv)(I), substituted "Commercial product or commercial service" for "Commercial item" in heading.

Subsec. (b)(4)(A). Pub. L. 115–232, §836(c)(5)(A)(iv)(II)–(IV), struck out "commercial item" after "applying the" and substituted "prior commercial product or commercial service determination" for "prior commercial item determination" and "of such product or service" for "of such item".

Subsec. (b)(4)(B). Pub. L. 115–232, §836(c)(5)(A)(iv)(V)–(VII), substituted "of a product or service previously determined to be a commercial product or a commercial service using procedures other than the procedures authorized for the procurement of a commercial product or a commercial service, as the case may be, the contracting officer shall request a review of the commercial product or commercial service determination" for "of an item previously determined to be a commercial item using procedures other than the procedures authorized for the procurement of a commercial item, the contracting officer shall request a review of the commercial item determination".

Subsec. (b)(4)(C). Pub. L. 115–232, §836(c)(5)(A)(iv)(VIII), struck out "commercial item" before "determination" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 115–232, §836(c)(5)(A)(v), substituted "commercial products or commercial services" for "commercial items".

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 115–232, §836(c)(5)(B), substituted "commercial products or commercial services" for "commercial items" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (h)(2). Pub. L. 115–232, §836(c)(5)(C)(i), substituted "commercial products or commercial services" for "commercial items".

Subsec. (h)(3). Pub. L. 115–232, §836(c)(5)(C)(ii), struck out par. (3) which defined "commercial item".

2017—Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 115–91, §811(a)(1)(A), (D)(i), substituted "June 30, 2018" for "December 5, 1990" and "$2,000,000" for "$500,000".

Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 115–91, §811(a)(1)(A), (C), substituted "June 30, 2018" for "December 5, 1990" and "$750,000" for "$100,000".

Subsec. (a)(1)(B)(i). Pub. L. 115–91, §811(a)(1)(D)(i), substituted "$2,000,000" for "$500,000".

Subsec. (a)(1)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 115–91, §811(a)(1)(A), (B), (D)(ii), substituted "July 1, 2018" for "December 5, 1991", "June 30, 2018" for "December 5, 1990", and "$750,000" for "$500,000".

Subsec. (a)(1)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 115–91, §811(a)(1)(C), substituted "$750,000" for "$100,000".

Subsec. (a)(1)(C)(i). Pub. L. 115–91, §811(a)(1)(D)(i), substituted "$2,000,000" for "$500,000".

Subsec. (a)(1)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 115–91, §811(a)(1)(A), (B), (D)(i), substituted "July 1, 2018" for "December 5, 1991", "June 30, 2018" for "December 5, 1990", and "$2,000,000" for "$500,000".

Subsec. (a)(1)(C)(iii). Pub. L. 115–91, §811(a)(1)(C), substituted "$750,000" for "$100,000".

Subsec. (a)(1)(D)(i). Pub. L. 115–91, §811(a)(1)(D)(i), substituted "$2,000,000" for "$500,000".

Subsec. (a)(1)(D)(ii). Pub. L. 115–91, §811(a)(1)(C), substituted "$750,000" for "$100,000".

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 115–91, §811(a)(1)(A), (E), amended par. (6) identically, substituting "June 30, 2018" for "December 5, 1990".

Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 115–91, §811(a)(1)(F), substituted "in accordance with section 1908 of title 41." for "to the amount that is equal to the fiscal year 1994 constant dollar value of the amount set forth. Any amount, as so adjusted, that is not evenly divisible by $50,000 shall be rounded to the nearest multiple of $50,000. In the case of an amount that is evenly divisible by $25,000 but not evenly divisible by $50,000, the amount shall be rounded to the next higher multiple of $50,000."

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 115–91, §811(b), substituted "the offeror shall be required to submit to the contracting officer data other than certified cost or pricing data (if requested by the contracting officer), to the extent necessary" for "the contracting officer shall require submission of data other than certified cost or pricing data to the extent necessary".

2016—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 114–328, §822(1), inserted "that is only expected to receive one bid" after "entered into using procedures other than sealed-bid procedures" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 114–328, §822(2)(A), substituted "competition that results in at least two or more responsive and viable competing bids" for "price competition".

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 114–328, §822(2)(B), added par. (6).

2015—Subsec. (b)(1)(D). Pub. L. 114–92, §812, added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 114–92, §851(b), added par. (4).

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 114–92, §853, added par. (5).

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 114–92, §852(e), inserted at end "If the contracting officer determines that the offeror does not have access to and cannot provide sufficient information on prices for the same or similar items to determine the reasonableness of price, the contracting officer shall require the submission of information on prices for similar levels of work or effort on related products or services, prices for alternative solutions or approaches, and other information that is relevant to the determination of a fair and reasonable price."

2014—Subsec. (b)(3)(B). Pub. L. 113–291 substituted "section 103(3)(A) of title 41" for "section 4(12)(C)(i) of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act (41 U.S.C. 403(12)(C)(i))".

2011—Subsec. (h)(3). Pub. L. 111–350 substituted "section 103 of title 41" for "section 4(12) of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act (41 U.S.C. 403(12))".

2008—Subsec. (b)(3)(A). Pub. L. 110–181 substituted "the amount specified in subsection (a)(1)(A)(i), as adjusted from time to time under subsection (a)(7)," for "$500,000" and inserted "(at the time of contract award)" after "total price of the contract".

2004—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 108–375 added par. (3).

1998—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 105–261, §805(a), amended par. (5) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (5) read as follows: "For purposes of paragraph (1)(C), a contractor or subcontractor granted a waiver under subsection (b)(1)(C) shall be considered as having been required to make available cost or pricing data under this section."

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 105–261, §808(a), substituted "the contracting officer shall require that the data submitted" for "the data submitted shall".

1997—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 105–85 substituted "subsection (b)(1)(C)" for "subsection (b)(1)(B)".

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–106, §4321(a)(2), made technical correction to directory language of Pub. L. 103–355, §1202(a). See 1994 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 104–106, §4201(a)(1), amended subsec. (b) generally, revising and restating as pars. (1) and (2) the provisions of former pars. (1) and (2) and striking out par. (3).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–106, §4201(a)(1), amended subsec. (c) generally, revising and restating as subsec. (c) the provisions of former subsec. (c)(1).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–106, §4321(b)(7)(A), which directed amendment of subsec. (d)(2)(A)(ii), by inserting "to" after "The information referred", could not be executed because subsec. (d)(2)(A) did not contain a cl. (ii) or the language "The information referred" subsequent to amendment by Pub. L. 104–106, §4201(a)(1). See below.

Pub. L. 104–106, §4201(a)(1), amended subsec. (d) generally, revising and restating as pars. (1) and (2) provisions of former subsecs. (c)(2) and (d)(2), (4) and striking out provisions of former subsec. (d)(1), (3) relating to procurements based on adequate price competition and authority to audit.

Subsec. (e)(4)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 104–106, §4321(b)(7)(B), struck out second comma after "parties".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 104–106, §4201(a)(2), redesignated subsec. (i) as (h) and struck out former subsec. (h) which read as follows: "Required Regulations.—The Federal Acquisition Regulation shall contain provisions concerning the types of information that offerors must submit for a contracting officer to consider in determining whether the price of a procurement to the Government is fair and reasonable when certified cost or pricing data are not required to be submitted under this section because the price of the procurement to the United States is not expected to exceed the applicable threshold amount set forth in subsection (a) (as adjusted pursuant to paragraph (7) of such subsection). Such information, at a minimum, shall include appropriate information on the prices at which the same item or similar items have previously been sold that is adequate for evaluating the reasonableness of the price of the proposed contract or subcontract for the procurement."

Subsec. (h)(3). Pub. L. 104–201 inserted "(41 U.S.C. 403(12))" before period at end.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 104–106, §4201(a)(2)(B), redesignated subsec. (i) as (h).

Subsec. (i)(3). Pub. L. 104–106, §4321(b)(7)(C), which directed amendment of subsec. (i)(3) by inserting "(41 U.S.C. 403(12))" before period at end, could not be executed because section did not contain a subsec. (i) subsequent to the amendment by Pub. L. 104–106, §4201(a)(2)(B), redesignating subsec. (i) as (h). See above.

1994—Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 103–355, §1201(a)(1), struck out "and before January 1, 1996," after "December 5, 1990,".

Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 103–355, §1201(a)(2), struck out "or after December 31, 1995," after "December 5, 1990,".

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 103–355, §1202(b), substituted "subsection (b)(1)(B)" for "subsection (b)(2)".

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 103–355, §1201(c), struck out subpar. (A) designation and subpar. (B) which read as follows: "The head of an agency is not required to modify a contract under subparagraph (A) if that head of an agency determines that the submission of cost or pricing data with respect to that contract should be required under subsection (c)."

Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 103–355, §1201(b), added par. (7).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–355, §1202(a), as amended by Pub. L. 104–106, §4321(a)(2), amended heading and text of subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "This section need not be applied to a contract or subcontract—

"(1) for which the price agreed upon is based on—

"(A) adequate price competition;

"(B) established catalog or market prices of commercial items sold in substantial quantities to the general public; or

"(C) prices set by law or regulation; or

"(2) in an exceptional case when the head of the agency determines that the requirements of this section may be waived and states in writing his reasons for such determination."

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–355, §1203, amended heading and text of subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "When cost or pricing data are not required to be submitted by subsection (a), such data may nevertheless be required to be submitted by the head of the agency if the head of the agency determines that such data are necessary for the evaluation by the agency of the reasonableness of the price of the contract or subcontract. In any case in which the head of the agency requires such data to be submitted under this subsection, the head of the agency shall document in writing the reasons for such requirement."

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–355, §1204, added subsec. (d) and redesignated former subsec. (d) as (e).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–355, §1204(1), redesignated subsec. (d) as (e). Former subsec. (e) redesignated (f).

Subsec. (e)(4)(A)(ii), (B)(ii). Pub. L. 103–355, §1207, inserted "or, if applicable consistent with paragraph (1)(B), another date agreed upon between the parties," after "(or price of the modification)".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 103–355, §1204(1), redesignated subsec. (e) as (f). Former subsec. (f) redesignated (g).

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 103–355, §1209, struck out "with the Department of Defense" before "subject to this section" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 103–355, §1205, added subsec. (g) and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (g). Text read as follows:

"(1) For the purpose of evaluating the accuracy, completeness, and currency of cost or pricing data required to be submitted by this section with respect to a contract or subcontract, the head of the agency, acting through any authorized representative of the head of the agency who is an employee of the United States or a member of the armed forces, shall have the right to examine all records of the contractor or subcontractor related to—

"(A) the proposal for the contract or subcontract;

"(B) the discussions conducted on the proposal;

"(C) pricing of the contract or subcontract; or

"(D) performance of the contract or subcontract.

"(2) The right of the head of an agency under paragraph (1) shall expire three years after final payment under the contract or subcontract.

"(3) In this subsection, the term 'records' includes books, documents, and other data."

Pub. L. 103–355, §1204(1), redesignated subsec. (f) as (g). Former subsec. (g) redesignated (i).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 103–355, §1206, added subsec. (h).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 103–355, §1208, amended heading and text of subsec. (i) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "In this section, the term 'cost or pricing data' means all facts that, as of the date of agreement on the price of a contract (or the price of a contract modification), a prudent buyer or seller would reasonably expect to affect price negotiations significantly. Such term does not include information that is judgmental, but does include the factual information from which a judgment was derived."

Pub. L. 103–355, §1204(1), redesignated subsec. (g) as (i).

1991—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 102–190, §804(a), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: "An offeror for a prime contract under this chapter to be entered into using procedures other than sealed-bid procedures shall be required to submit cost or pricing data before the award of the contract if the price of the contract to the United States is expected to exceed $500,000 or, in the case of a contract to be awarded after December 31, 1995, $100,000."

Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 102–190, §804(a), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: "The contractor for a contract under this chapter shall be required to submit cost or pricing data before the pricing of a change or modification to the contract if the price adjustment is expected to exceed the dollar amount applicable under subparagraph (A) to that contract (or such lesser amount as may be prescribed by the head of the agency)."

Pub. L. 102–25, §701(b)(1), substituted "the dollar amount applicable under subparagraph (A) to that contract" for "$500,000 (or such lesser amount as may be prescribed by the head of the agency) or, in the case of a change or modification to a contract to be made after December 31, 1995, $100,000".

Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Pub. L. 102–190, §804(a), amended subpar. (C) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (C) read as follows: "An offeror for a subcontract (at any tier) of a contract under this chapter shall be required to submit cost or pricing data before the award of the subcontract if—

"(i) the price of the subcontract is expected to exceed the dollar amount applicable under subparagraph (A) to the prime contract of that subcontract; and

"(ii) the prime contractor and each higher-tier subcontractor have been required to make available cost or pricing data under this section."

Subsec. (a)(1)(C)(i). Pub. L. 102–25, §701(b)(2), substituted "the dollar amount applicable under subparagraph (A) to the prime contract of that subcontract" for "$500,000 or, in the case of a subcontract to be awarded after December 31, 1995, $100,000".

Subsec. (a)(1)(D). Pub. L. 102–190, §804(a), amended subpar. (D) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (D) read as follows: "The subcontractor for a subcontract covered by subparagraph (C) shall be required to submit cost or pricing data before the pricing of a change or modification to the subcontract if the price adjustment is expected to exceed the dollar amount applicable under subparagraph (A) to the prime contract of that subcontract (or such lesser amount as may be prescribed by the head of the agency)."

Pub. L. 102–25, §701(b)(3), substituted "the dollar amount applicable under subparagraph (A) to the prime contract of that subcontract" for "$500,000 (or such lesser amount as may be prescribed by the head of the agency) or, in the case of a change or modification to be made after December 31, 1995, $100,000".

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 102–190, §804(c)(1), substituted "paragraph (1)(C)" for "paragraph (1)(C)(ii)".

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 102–190, §804(b), added par. (6).

Subsec. (e)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 102–25, §701(f)(8), which directed the substitution of "Internal Revenue Code of 1986" for "Internal Revenue Code of 1954", could not be executed because "Internal Revenue Code of 1954" does not appear.

Subsec. (e)(1)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 102–190, §1061(a)(9), substituted "Internal Revenue Code of 1986" for "Internal Revenue Code of 1954".

1990—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 101–510, §803(a)(1)(A), substituted "$500,000 or, in the case of a contract to be awarded after December 31, 1995, $100,000" for "$100,000".

Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 101–510, §803(a)(1)(B), substituted "$500,000 (or such lesser amount as may be prescribed by the head of the agency) or, in the case of a change or modification to a contract to be made after December 31, 1995, $100,000" for "$100,000".

Subsec. (a)(1)(C)(i). Pub. L. 101–510, §803(a)(1)(C), substituted "$500,000 or, in the case of a subcontract to be awarded after December 31, 1995, $100,000" for "$100,000".

Subsec. (a)(1)(D). Pub. L. 101–510, §803(a)(1)(D), substituted "$500,000 (or such lesser amount as may be prescribed by the head of the agency) or, in the case of a change or modification to be made after December 31, 1995, $100,000" for "$100,000".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–510, §803(d), inserted at end "In any case in which the head of the agency requires such data to be submitted under this subsection, the head of the agency shall document in writing the reasons for such requirement."

1987—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 100–180, §804(b)(1), substituted "a waiver under subsection (b)(2)" for "such a waiver", and struck out first sentence authorizing head of an agency to waive requirement under this subsection for contractor, subcontractor, or offeror to submit cost or pricing data.

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 100–180, §804(b)(2), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "Except as provided under subsection (d), the liability of a contractor under this subsection shall not be affected by the contractor's refusal to submit a certification under subsection (a)(2) with respect to the cost or pricing data involved."

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 100–180, §804(a), amended subsec. (g) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (g) read as follows: "In this section, the term 'cost or pricing data' means all information that is verifiable and that, as of the date of agreement on the price of a contract (or the price of a contract modification), a prudent buyer or seller would reasonably expect to affect price negotiations significantly. Such term does not include information that is judgmental, but does include the factual information from which a judgment was derived."

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–232 effective Jan. 1, 2020, subject to a savings provision, see section 836(h) of Pub. L. 115–232, set out as an Effective Date of 2018 Amendment; Savings Provision note under section 453b of Title 6, Domestic Security.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title VIII, §818(b), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 2016, as amended by Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title X, §1071(g)(11), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2403, provided that: "Paragraph (3) of subsection (b) of section 2306a of title 10, United States Code (as added by subsection (a)), shall take effect on June 1, 2005, and shall apply with respect to offers submitted, and to modifications of contracts or subcontracts made, on or after that date."

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

For effective date and applicability of amendment by sections 4201(a) and 4321(b)(7) of Pub. L. 104–106, see section 4401 of Pub. L. 104–106, set out as a note under section 2302 of this title.

Pub. L. 104–106, div. D, title XLIII, §4321(a), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 671, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective as of Oct. 13, 1994, and as if included in Pub. L. 103–355 as enacted.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

For effective date and applicability of amendment by Pub. L. 103–355, see section 10001 of Pub. L. 103–355, set out as a note under section 2302 of this title.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title VIII, §803(a)(2), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1590, as amended by Pub. L. 102–25, title VII, §704(a)(4), Apr. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 118, provided that the amendments to this section by Pub. L. 101–510 would apply to contracts entered into after Dec. 5, 1990, subcontracts under such contracts, and modifications or changes to such contracts and subcontracts, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title VIII, §804(c)(2), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1416.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–180, div. A, title VIII, §804(c), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1125, provided that:

"(1) Subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to any contract, or modification of a contract, entered into after the end of the 30-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 1987].

"(2) The amendments made by subsection (b) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to contracts, or modifications of contracts, entered into after the end of the 120-day period beginning on October 18, 1986."

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–500, §101(c) [title X, §952(d)], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–82, 1783–169, Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [title X, §952(d)], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–82, 3341–169, and Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title IX, formerly title IV, §952(d), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3949, renumbered title IX, Pub. L. 100–26, §3(5), Apr. 21, 1987, 101 Stat. 273, provided that:

"(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), section 2306a of title 10, United States Code (as added by subsection (a)), and the amendment and repeal made by subsection (b) [amending section 2306 of this title and repealing a provision set out as a note under section 2304 of this title], shall apply with respect to contracts or modifications on contracts entered into after the end of the 120-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 18, 1986].

"(2) Subsection (e) of such section shall apply with respect to contracts or modifications on contracts entered into after November 7, 1985."

Regulations

Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title VIII, §851(d), Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 917, provided that: "Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 25, 2015], the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement shall be updated to reflect the requirements of this section [enacting section 2380 of this title, amending this section, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section] and the amendments made by this section."

Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title VIII, §803(c), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1590, directed Secretary of Defense to prescribe regulations identifying type of procurements for which contracting officers should consider requiring submission of certified cost or pricing data under subsec. (c) of this section, and also directed Secretary to prescribe regulations concerning types of information that offerors had to submit for contracting officer to consider in determining whether price of procurement to Government was fair and reasonable when certified cost or pricing data were not required to be submitted under this section because price of procurement to the United States was not expected to exceed $500,000, such information, at minimum, to include appropriate information on prices at which such offeror had previously sold same or similar products, with such regulations to be prescribed not later than six months after Nov. 5, 1990, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–355, title I, §1210, Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3277.

Construction

Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title VIII, §851(e), Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 917, provided that: "Nothing in this section [enacting section 2380 of this title, amending this section, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section] or the amendments made by this section shall be construed to preclude the contracting officer for the procurement of a commercial item from requiring the contractor to supply information that is sufficient to determine the reasonableness of price, regardless of whether or not the contractor was required to provide such information in connection with any earlier procurement."

Pilot Program To Accelerate Contracting and Pricing Processes

Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §890, Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1919, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Secretary of Defense shall establish a pilot program to reform and accelerate the contracting and pricing processes associated with contracts in excess of $50,000,000 by—

"(1) basing price reasonableness determinations on actual cost and pricing data for purchases of the same or similar products for the Department of Defense; and

"(2) reducing the cost and pricing data to be submitted in accordance with section 2306a of title 10, United States Code.

"(b) Limitation.—The pilot program authorized under subsection (a) may include no more than ten contracts, and none of the selected contracts may be part of a major defense acquisition program (as that term is defined under section 2430 of title 10, United States Code).

"(c) Report.—Not later than January 30, 2021, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a report on the results of the pilot program authorized under subsection (a) and an assessment of whether the program should be continued or expanded.

"(d) Sunset.—The authority to carry out the pilot program under this section shall expire on January 2, 2021."

Pilot Program for Streamlining Awards for Innovative Technology Projects

Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title VIII, §873(a)–(g), Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 939, 940, as amended by Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title VIII, §896, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2326, provided that:

"(a) Exception From Certified Cost and Pricing Data Requirements.—The requirements under section 2306a(a) of title 10, United States Code, shall not apply to a contract, subcontract, or modification of a contract or subcontract valued at less than $7,500,000 awarded to a small business or nontraditional defense contractor pursuant to—

"(1) a technical, merit-based selection procedure, such as a broad agency announcement, or

"(2) the Small Business Innovation Research Program or Small Business Technology Transfer Program,

unless the head of the agency determines that submission of cost and pricing data should be required based on past performance of the specific small business or nontraditional defense contractor, or based on analysis of other information specific to the award.

"(b) Exception From Records Examination Requirement.—The requirements under subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) of section 2313(a)(2) of title 10, United States Code, and subsection (b) of section 2313 of title 10, United States Code, shall not apply to a contract valued at less than $7,500,000 awarded to a small business or nontraditional defense contractor pursuant to—

"(1) a technical, merit-based selection procedure, such as a broad agency announcement, or

"(2) the Small Business Innovation Research Program,

unless the head of the agency determines that auditing of records should be required based on past performance of the specific small business or nontraditional defense contractor, or based on analysis of other information specific to the award, and if such performance audit is initiated within 18 months of the contract completion.

"(c) Treatment as Competitive Procedures.—Use of a technical, merit-based selection procedure or the Small Business Innovation Research Program or Small Business Technology Transfer Program for the pilot program under this section shall be considered to be use of competitive procedures for purposes of chapter 137 of title 10, United States Code.

"(d) Discretion To Use Non-certified Accounting Systems.—In executing programs under this pilot program, the Secretary of Defense shall establish procedures under which a small business or nontraditional contractor may engage an independent certified public accountant for the review and certification of its accounting system for the purposes of any audits required by regulation, unless the head of the agency determines that this is not appropriate based on past performance of the specific small business or nontraditional defense contractor, or based on analysis of other information specific to the award.

"(e) Guidance and Training.—The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that acquisition and auditing officials are provided guidance and training on the flexible use and tailoring of authorities under the pilot program to maximize efficiency and effectiveness.

"(f) Sunset.—The exceptions under subsections (a) and (b) shall terminate on October 1, 2020.

"(g) Definitions.—In this section [enacting this note and amending section 638 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade]:

"(1) Small business.—The term 'small business' has the meaning given the term 'small business concern' under section 3 of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 632).

"(2) Nontraditional defense contractor.—The term 'nontraditional defense contractor' has the meaning given that term in section 2302(9) of title 10, United States Code."

[Section 896(2)(B) of Pub. L. 114–328, which directed amendment of par. (2) of subsec. (b) of section 873 of Pub. L. 114–92, set out above, by inserting ", and if such performance audit is initiated within 18 months of the contract completion" before the period at the end, was executed by making the insertion before the period at the end of the concluding provisions of subsec. (b), to reflect the probable intent of Congress.]

Pilot Program Regarding Risk-Based Contracting for Smaller Contract Actions Under the Truth in Negotiations Act

Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title VIII, §899, Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 955, provided that:

"(a) Pilot Program Authorized.—The Secretary of Defense may conduct a pilot program to demonstrate the efficacy of using risk-based techniques in requiring submission of data on a sampling basis for purposes of section 2306a of title 10, United States Code (popularly known as the 'Truth in Negotiations Act').

"(b) Increase in Thresholds.—For purposes of a pilot program under subsection (a), $5,000,000 shall be the threshold applicable to requirements under paragraph (1) of section 2306a(a) of such title, as follows:

"(1) The requirement under subparagraph (A) of such paragraph to submit cost or pricing data for a prime contract entered into during the pilot program period.

"(2) The requirement under subparagraph (B) of such paragraph to submit cost or pricing data for the change or modification to a prime contract made during the pilot program period.

"(3) The requirement under subparagraph (C) of such paragraph to submit cost or pricing data for a subcontract entered into during the pilot program period.

"(4) The requirement under subparagraph (D) of such paragraph to submit cost or pricing data for the change or modification to a subcontract made during the pilot program period.

"(c) Risk-based Contracting.—

"(1) Authority to require submission of cost or pricing data on below-threshold contracts.—Subject to paragraph (4), when certified cost or pricing data are not required to be submitted pursuant to subsection (b) for a contract or subcontract entered into or modified during the pilot program period, such data may nevertheless be required to be submitted by the head of the procuring activity, if the head of the procuring activity—

"(A) determines that such data are necessary for the evaluation by the agency of the reasonableness of the price of the contract, subcontract, or modification of a contract or subcontract; or

"(B) requires the submission of such data in accordance with a risk-based contracting approach established pursuant to paragraph (3).

"(2) Written determination required.—In any case in which the head of the procuring activity requires certified cost or pricing data to be submitted under paragraph (1)(A), the head of the procuring activity shall justify in writing the reason for such requirement.

"(3) Risk-based contracting.—The head of an agency shall establish a risk-based sampling approach under which the submission of certified cost or pricing data may be required for a risk-based sample of contracts, the price of which is expected to exceed $750,000 but not $5,000,000. The authority to require certified cost or pricing data under this paragraph shall not apply to any contract of an offeror that has not been awarded, for at least the one-year period preceding the issuance of a solicitation for the contract, any other contract in excess of $5,000,000 under which the offeror was required to submit certified cost or pricing data under section 2306a of title 10, United States Code.

"(4) Exception.—The head of the procuring activity may not require certified cost or pricing data to be submitted under this subsection for any contract or subcontract, or modification of a contract or subcontract, covered by the exceptions in subparagraph (A) or (B) of section 2306a(b)(1) of title 10, United States Code.

"(5) Delegation of authority prohibited.—The head of a procuring activity may not delegate functions under this subsection.

"(d) Reports.—Not later than January 1, 2017, and January 1, 2019, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a report on activities undertaken under this section.

"(e) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) Head of an agency.—The term 'head of an agency' has the meaning given the term in section 2302 of title 10, United States Code.

"(2) Pilot program period.—The term 'pilot program period' means the period beginning on October 1, 2016, and ending on September 30, 2019."

Guidance and Training Related to Evaluating Reasonableness of Price

Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title VIII, §831, Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1842, provided that:

"(a) Guidance.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 2, 2013], the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics shall issue guidance on the use of the authority provided by sections 2306a(d) and 2379 of title 10, United States Code. The guidance shall—

"(1) include standards for determining whether information on the prices at which the same or similar items have previously been sold is adequate for evaluating the reasonableness of price;

"(2) include standards for determining the extent of uncertified cost information that should be required in cases in which price information is not adequate for evaluating the reasonableness of price;

"(3) ensure that in cases in which such uncertified cost information is required, the information shall be provided in the form in which it is regularly maintained by the offeror in its business operations; and

"(4) provide that no additional cost information may be required by the Department of Defense in any case in which there are sufficient non-Government sales to establish reasonableness of price.

"(b) Training and Expertise.—Not later than 270 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics shall develop and begin implementation of a plan of action to—

"(1) train the acquisition workforce on the use of the authority provided by sections 2306a(d) and 2379 of title 10, United States Code, in evaluating reasonableness of price in procurements of commercial items; and

"(2) develop a cadre of experts within the Department of Defense to provide expert advice to the acquisition workforce in the use of the authority provided by such sections in accordance with the guidance issued pursuant to subsection (a).

"(c) Documentation Requirements.—The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics shall ensure that requests for uncertified cost information for the purposes of evaluating reasonableness of price are sufficiently documented. The Under Secretary shall require that the contract file include, at a minimum, the following:

"(1) A justification of the need for additional cost information.

"(2) A copy of any request from the Department of Defense to a contractor for additional cost information.

"(3) Any response received from the contractor to the request, including any rationale or justification provided by the contractor for a failure to provide the requested information.

"(d) Comptroller General Review and Report.—

"(1) Review requirement.—The Comptroller General of the United States shall conduct a review of data collected pursuant to sections 2306a(d) and 2379 of title 10, United States Code, during the two-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act.

"(2) Report requirement.—Not later than 180 days after the end of the two-year period referred to in paragraph (1), the Comptroller General shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a report on—

"(A) the extent to which the Department of Defense needed access to additional cost information pursuant to sections 2306a(d) and 2379 of title 10, United States Code, during such two-year period in order to determine price reasonableness;

"(B) the extent to which acquisition officials of the Department of Defense complied with the guidance issued pursuant to subsection (a) during such two-year period;

"(C) the extent to which the Department of Defense needed access to additional cost information during such two-year period to determine reasonableness of price, but was not provided such information by the contractor on request; and

"(D) recommendations for improving evaluations of reasonableness of price by Department of Defense acquisition professionals, including recommendations for any amendments to law, regulations, or guidance."

Price Trend Analysis for Supplies and Equipment Purchased by the Department of Defense

Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title VIII, §892, Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4310, which provided for the analysis of information on price trends for certain supplies and equipment purchased by the Department of Defense, was repealed by Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title X, §1073(f), Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 996.

Grants of Exceptions to Cost or Pricing Data Certification Requirements and Waivers of Cost Accounting Standards

Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title VIII, §817, Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2610, as amended by Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title VIII, §809(a), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1490; Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title X, §1071(b)(7), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3507; Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title X, §1051(j), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1563; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §§825, 836(f)(4), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1856, 1871, provided that:

"(a) Guidance for Exceptions in Exceptional Circumstances.—Not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 2, 2002], the Secretary of Defense shall issue guidance on the circumstances under which it is appropriate to grant an exceptional case exception or waiver with respect to certified cost and pricing data and cost accounting standards.

"(b) Determination Required for Exceptional Case Exception or Waiver.—The guidance shall, at a minimum, include a limitation that a grant of an exceptional case exception or waiver is appropriate with respect to a contract, subcontract, or (in the case of submission of certified cost and pricing data) modification only upon a determination that—

"(1) the property or services cannot reasonably be obtained under the contract, subcontract, or modification, as the case may be, without the grant of the exception or waiver;

"(2) the price can be determined to be fair and reasonable without the submission of certified cost and pricing data or the application of cost accounting standards, as the case may be; or

"(3) there are demonstrated benefits to granting the exception or waiver.

"(c) Applicability of New Guidance.—The guidance issued under subsection (a) shall apply to each exceptional case exception or waiver that is granted on or after the date on which the guidance is issued.

"(d) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) The term 'exceptional case exception or waiver' means either of the following:

"(A) An exception pursuant to section 2306a(b)(1)(C) of title 10, United States Code, relating to submission of certified cost and pricing data.

"(B) A waiver pursuant to section 1502(b)(3)(B) of title 41, United States Code, relating to the applicability of cost accounting standards to contracts and subcontracts.

"(2) The term 'commercial item exception' means an exception pursuant to section 2306a(b)(1)(B) of title 10, United States Code, relating to submission of certified cost and pricing data."

[Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §836(f)(4), (h), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1871, 1874, provided that, effective Jan. 1, 2020, subject to a savings provision, section 817(d) of Pub. L. 107–314, set out above, is amended:

[in paragraph (1), by striking "commercial item exceptions" and inserting "commercial product-commercial service exceptions"; and

[in paragraph (2), by striking "commercial item exception" and inserting "commercial product-commercial service exception".]

Defense Commercial Pricing Management Improvement

Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title VIII, §803, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2081, as amended by Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1067(3), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 774; Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title VIII, §823, Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2615; Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title VIII, §819, Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2330; Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title X, §1071(b)(9), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3507, which required revision of the Federal Acquisition Regulation to clarify the procedures and methods to be used for determining the reasonableness of prices of certain commercial items, was repealed by Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §812(b)(18), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1848.

Review by Inspector General

Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title VIII, §803(b), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1590, provided that (1) after increase in threshold for submission of cost or pricing data under subsec. (a) of this section, as amended by section 803(a) of Pub. L. 101–510, had been in effect for three years, Inspector General of Department of Defense was to conduct review of effects of increase in threshold, (2) that such review was to address whether increasing threshold improved acquisition process in terms of reduced paperwork, financial or other savings to government, an increase in number of contractors participating in defense contracting process, and adequacy of information available to contracting officers in cases in which certified cost or pricing data were not required under this section, (3) that Inspector General was to submit to Secretary of Defense a report on review conducted under paragraph (1), with Secretary of Defense required to submit such report to Congress, along with appropriate comments, upon completion of report (and comments) but not later than date on which President submitted budget to Congress pursuant to section 1105 of Title 31, Money and Finance, for fiscal year 1996, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–355, title I, §1210, Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3277.

Definition of Commercial Item

Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title VIII, §851(c), Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 917, provided that: "Nothing in this section [enacting section 2380 of this title, amending this section, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section] or the amendments made by this section shall affect the meaning of the term 'commercial item' under subsection (a)(5) of section 2464 of title 10, United States Code, or any requirement under subsection (a)(3) or subsection (c) of such section."

§2306b. Multiyear contracts: acquisition of property

(a) In General.—To the extent that funds are otherwise available for obligation, the head of an agency may enter into multiyear contracts for the purchase of property whenever the head of that agency finds each of the following:

(1) That the use of such a contract will result in significant savings of the total anticipated costs of carrying out the program through annual contracts.

(2) That the minimum need for the property to be purchased is expected to remain substantially unchanged during the contemplated contract period in terms of production rate, procurement rate, and total quantities.

(3) That there is a reasonable expectation that throughout the contemplated contract period the head of the agency will request funding for the contract at the level required to avoid contract cancellation.

(4) That there is a stable design for the property to be acquired and that the technical risks associated with such property are not excessive.

(5) That the estimates of both the cost of the contract and the anticipated cost avoidance through the use of a multiyear contract are realistic.

(6) In the case of a purchase by the Department of Defense, that the use of such a contract will promote the national security of the United States.

(7) In the case of a contract in an amount equal to or greater than $500,000,000, that the conditions required by subparagraphs (C) through (F) of subsection (i)(3) will be met, in accordance with the Secretary's certification and determination under such subsection, by such contract.


(b) Regulations.—(1) Each official named in paragraph (2) shall prescribe acquisition regulations for the agency or agencies under the jurisdiction of such official to promote the use of multiyear contracting as authorized by subsection (a) in a manner that will allow the most efficient use of multiyear contracting.

(2)(A) The Secretary of Defense shall prescribe the regulations applicable to the Department of Defense.

(B) The Secretary of Homeland Security shall prescribe the regulations applicable to the Coast Guard, except that the regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense shall apply to the Coast Guard when it is operating as a service in the Navy.

(C) The Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration shall prescribe the regulations applicable to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

(c) Contract Cancellations.—The regulations may provide for cancellation provisions in multiyear contracts to the extent that such provisions are necessary and in the best interests of the United States. The cancellation provisions may include consideration of both recurring and nonrecurring costs of the contractor associated with the production of the items to be delivered under the contract.

(d) Participation by Subcontractors, Vendors, and Suppliers.—In order to broaden the defense industrial base, the regulations shall provide that, to the extent practicable—

(1) multiyear contracting under subsection (a) shall be used in such a manner as to seek, retain, and promote the use under such contracts of companies that are subcontractors, vendors, or suppliers; and

(2) upon accrual of any payment or other benefit under such a multiyear contract to any subcontractor, vendor, or supplier company participating in such contract, such payment or benefit shall be delivered to such company in the most expeditious manner practicable.


(e) Protection of Existing Authority.—The regulations shall provide that, to the extent practicable, the administration of this section, and of the regulations prescribed under this section, shall not be carried out in a manner to preclude or curtail the existing ability of an agency—

(1) to provide for competition in the production of items to be delivered under such a contract; or

(2) to provide for termination of a prime contract the performance of which is deficient with respect to cost, quality, or schedule.


(f) Cancellation or Termination for Insufficient Funding.—In the event funds are not made available for the continuation of a contract made under this section into a subsequent fiscal year, the contract shall be canceled or terminated. The costs of cancellation or termination may be paid from—

(1) appropriations originally available for the performance of the contract concerned;

(2) appropriations currently available for procurement of the type of property concerned, and not otherwise obligated; or

(3) funds appropriated for those payments.


(g) Contract Cancellation Ceilings Exceeding $100,000,000.—(1) Before any contract described in subsection (a) that contains a clause setting forth a cancellation ceiling in excess of $100,000,000 may be awarded, the head of the agency concerned shall give written notification of the proposed contract and of the proposed cancellation ceiling for that contract to the congressional defense committees, and such contract may not then be awarded until the end of a period of 30 days beginning on the date of such notification.

(2) In the case of a contract described in subsection (a) with a cancellation ceiling described in paragraph (1), if the budget for the contract does not include proposed funding for the costs of contract cancellation up to the cancellation ceiling established in the contract, the head of the agency concerned shall, as part of the certification required by subsection (i)(1)(A),1 give written notification to the congressional defense committees of—

(A) the cancellation ceiling amounts planned for each program year in the proposed multiyear procurement contract, together with the reasons for the amounts planned;

(B) the extent to which costs of contract cancellation are not included in the budget for the contract; and

(C) a financial risk assessment of not including budgeting for costs of contract cancellation.


(h) Defense Acquisitions of Weapon Systems.—In the case of the Department of Defense, the authority under subsection (a) includes authority to enter into the following multiyear contracts in accordance with this section:

(1) A multiyear contract for the purchase of a weapon system, items and services associated with a weapon system, and logistics support for a weapon system.

(2) A multiyear contract for advance procurement of components, parts, and materials necessary to the manufacture of a weapon system, including a multiyear contract for such advance procurement that is entered into in order to achieve economic-lot purchases and more efficient production rates.


(i) Defense Acquisitions Specifically Authorized by Law.—(1) In the case of the Department of Defense, a multiyear contract in an amount equal to or greater than $500,000,000 may not be entered into under this section unless the contract is specifically authorized by law in an Act other than an appropriations Act.

(2) In submitting a request for a specific authorization by law to carry out a defense acquisition program using multiyear contract authority under this section, the Secretary of Defense shall include in the request the following:

(A) A report containing preliminary findings of the agency head required in paragraphs (1) through (6) of subsection (a), together with the basis for such findings.

(B) Confirmation that the preliminary findings of the agency head under subparagraph (A) were supported by a preliminary cost analysis performed by the Director of Cost Assessment and Program Evaluation.


(3) A multiyear contract may not be entered into under this section for a defense acquisition program that has been specifically authorized by law to be carried out using multiyear contract authority unless the Secretary of Defense certifies in writing, not later than 30 days before entry into the contract, that each of the following conditions is satisfied:

(A) The Secretary has determined that each of the requirements in paragraphs (1) through (6) of subsection (a) will be met by such contract and has provided the basis for such determination to the congressional defense committees.

(B) The Secretary's determination under subparagraph (A) was made after completion of a cost analysis conducted on the basis of section 2334(e)(2) 1 of this title, and the analysis supports the determination.

(C) The system being acquired pursuant to such contract has not been determined to have experienced cost growth in excess of the critical cost growth threshold pursuant to section 2433(d) of this title within 5 years prior to the date the Secretary anticipates such contract (or a contract for advance procurement entered into consistent with the authorization for such contract) will be awarded.

(D) A sufficient number of end items of the system being acquired under such contract have been delivered at or within the most current estimates of the program acquisition unit cost or procurement unit cost for such system to determine that current estimates of such unit costs are realistic.

(E) During the fiscal year in which such contract is to be awarded, sufficient funds will be available to perform the contract in such fiscal year, and the future-years defense program for such fiscal year will include the funding required to execute the program without cancellation.

(F) The contract is a fixed price type contract.

(G) The proposed multiyear contract provides for production at not less than minimum economic rates given the existing tooling and facilities.


(4) If for any fiscal year a multiyear contract to be entered into under this section is authorized by law for a particular procurement program and that authorization is subject to certain conditions established by law (including a condition as to cost savings to be achieved under the multiyear contract in comparison to specified other contracts) and if it appears (after negotiations with contractors) that such savings cannot be achieved, but that significant savings could nevertheless be achieved through the use of a multiyear contract rather than specified other contracts, the President may submit to Congress a request for relief from the specified cost savings that must be achieved through multiyear contracting for that program. Any such request by the President shall include details about the request for a multiyear contract, including details about the negotiated contract terms and conditions.

(5)(A) The Secretary may obligate funds for procurement of an end item under a multiyear contract for the purchase of property only for procurement of a complete and usable end item.

(B) The Secretary may obligate funds appropriated for any fiscal year for advance procurement under a contract for the purchase of property only for the procurement of those long-lead items necessary in order to meet a planned delivery schedule for complete major end items that are programmed under the contract to be acquired with funds appropriated for a subsequent fiscal year (including an economic order quantity of such long-lead items when authorized by law).

(6) The Secretary may make the certification under paragraph (3) notwithstanding the fact that one or more of the conditions of such certification are not met, if the Secretary determines that, due to exceptional circumstances, proceeding with a multiyear contract under this section is in the best interest of the Department of Defense and the Secretary provides the basis for such determination with the certification.

(7) The Secretary may not delegate the authority to make the certification under paragraph (3) or the determination under paragraph (6) to an official below the level of Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics.

(j) Defense Contract Options for Varying Quantities.—The Secretary of Defense may instruct the Secretary of the military department concerned to incorporate into a proposed multiyear contract negotiated priced options for varying the quantities of end items to be procured over the period of the contract.

(k) Multiyear Contract Defined.—For the purposes of this section, a multiyear contract is a contract for the purchase of property for more than one, but not more than five, program years. Such a contract may provide that performance under the contract during the second and subsequent years of the contract is contingent upon the appropriation of funds and (if it does so provide) may provide for a cancellation payment to be made to the contractor if such appropriations are not made.

(l) Various Additional Requirements With Respect to Multiyear Defense Contracts.—(1)(A) The head of an agency may not initiate a contract described in subparagraph (B) unless the congressional defense committees are notified of the proposed contract at least 30 days in advance of the award of the proposed contract.

(B) Subparagraph (A) applies to the following contracts:

(i) A multiyear contract—

(I) that employs economic order quantity procurement in excess of $20,000,000 in any one year of the contract; or

(II) that includes an unfunded contingent liability in excess of $20,000,000.


(ii) Any contract for advance procurement leading to a multiyear contract that employs economic order quantity procurement in excess of $20,000,000 in any one year.


(2) The head of an agency may not initiate a multiyear contract for which the economic order quantity advance procurement is not funded at least to the limits of the Government's liability.

(3) The head of an agency may not initiate a multiyear procurement contract for any system (or component thereof) if the value of the multiyear contract would exceed $500,000,000 unless authority for the contract is specifically provided in an appropriations Act.

(4) Each report required by paragraph (5) with respect to a contract (or contract extension) shall contain the following:

(A) The amount of total obligational authority under the contract (or contract extension) and the percentage that such amount represents of—

(i) the applicable procurement account; and

(ii) the agency procurement total.


(B) The amount of total obligational authority under all multiyear procurements of the agency concerned (determined without regard to the amount of the multiyear contract (or contract extension)) under multiyear contracts in effect at the time the report is submitted and the percentage that such amount represents of—

(i) the applicable procurement account; and

(ii) the agency procurement total.


(C) The amount equal to the sum of the amounts under subparagraphs (A) and (B), and the percentage that such amount represents of—

(i) the applicable procurement account; and

(ii) the agency procurement total.


(D) The amount of total obligational authority under all Department of Defense multiyear procurements (determined without regard to the amount of the multiyear contract (or contract extension)), including any multiyear contract (or contract extension) that has been authorized by the Congress but not yet entered into, and the percentage that such amount represents of the procurement accounts of the Department of Defense treated in the aggregate.


(5) The head of an agency may not enter into a multiyear contract (or extend an existing multiyear contract), the value of which would exceed $500,000,000 (when entered into or when extended, as the case may be), until the Secretary of Defense submits to the congressional defense committees a report containing the information described in paragraph (4) with respect to the contract (or contract extension).

(6) The head of an agency may not terminate a multiyear procurement contract until 10 days after the date on which notice of the proposed termination is provided to the congressional defense committees.

(7) The execution of multiyear contracting authority shall require the use of a present value analysis to determine lowest cost compared to an annual procurement.

(8) This subsection does not apply to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration or to the Coast Guard.

(9) In this subsection:

(A) The term "applicable procurement account" means, with respect to a multiyear procurement contract (or contract extension), the appropriation account from which payments to execute the contract will be made.

(B) The term "agency procurement total" means the procurement accounts of the agency entering into a multiyear procurement contract (or contract extension) treated in the aggregate.


(m) Increased Funding and Reprogramming Requests.—Any request for increased funding for the procurement of a major system under a multiyear contract authorized under this section shall be accompanied by an explanation of how the request for increased funding affects the determinations made by the Secretary under subsection (i).

(Added Pub. L. 103–355, title I, §1022(a)(1), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3257; amended Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1502(a)(10), div. E, title LVI, §5601(b), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 503, 699; Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title VIII, §806(a)(1), (b)(1), (c), title X, §1073(a)(47), (48)(A), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1834, 1835, 1903; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title VIII, §809, title X, §1067(1), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 705, 774; Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title VIII, §§802(c), 806], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–205, 1654A–207; Pub. L. 107–296, title XVII, §1704(b)(1), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2314; Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title VIII, §820(a), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2613; Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title X, §1043(b)(10), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1611; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title VIII, §814(a), title X, §1084(b)(2), Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 2014, 2060; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title VIII, §811(a), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 217; Pub. L. 111–23, title I, §101(d)(2), May 22, 2009, 123 Stat. 1709; Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title VIII, §816(a), (b), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3430, 3432; Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title VIII, §811, Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 891; Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title X, §1051(a)(14), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1561; Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §817, Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1852.)

References in Text

Subsection (i)(1)(A), referred to in subsec. (g)(2), related to certification of full funding of support costs in multiyear contracts, prior to the general amendment of subsec. (i) by Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title VIII, §816(a), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3430. As amended, subsec. (i) no longer contains a par. (1)(A).

Section 2334(e)(2) of this title, referred to in subsec. (i)(3)(B), was redesignated as section 2334(f)(2) of this title by Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title VIII, §842(a)(3), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2288.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (i)(2)(B). Pub. L. 115–232 substituted "supported by a preliminary cost analysis" for "made after the completion of a cost analysis" and struck out "for the purpose of section 2334(e)(1) of this title, and that the analysis supports those preliminary findings" after "Evaluation".

2017—Subsec. (l)(4). Pub. L. 115–91, in introductory provisions, substituted "Each report required by paragraph (5) with respect to a contract (or contract extension) shall contain the following:" for "Not later than the date of the submission of the President's budget request under section 1105 of title 31, the Secretary of Defense shall submit a report to the congressional defense committees each year, providing the following information with respect to each multiyear contract (and each extension of an existing multiyear contract) entered into, or planned to be entered into, by the head of an agency during the current or preceding year, shown for each year in the current future-years defense program and in the aggregate over the period of the current future-years defense program:".

2015—Subsecs. (a)(1), (i)(4). Pub. L. 114–92 substituted "significant" for "substantial".

2014—Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 113–291, §816(b), substituted "subparagraphs (C) through (F) of subsection (i)(3)" for "subparagraphs (C) through (F) of paragraph (1) of subsection (i)".

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 113–291, §816(a), amended subsec. (i) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (i) related to defense acquisitions specifically authorized by law.

2009—Subsec. (i)(1)(B). Pub. L. 111–23 substituted "Director of Cost Assessment and Program Analysis" for "Cost Analysis Improvement Group of the Department of Defense".

2008—Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 110–181, §811(a)(1), added par. (7).

Subsec. (i)(1). Pub. L. 110–181, §811(a)(2), (3), inserted "the Secretary of Defense certifies in writing by no later than March 1 of the year in which the Secretary requests legislative authority to enter into such contract that" after "unless" in introductory provisions, added subpars. (A) to (F), redesignated former subpar. (B) as (G), and struck out former subpar. (A) which read as follows: "The Secretary of Defense certifies to Congress that the current future-years defense program fully funds the support costs associated with the multiyear program."

Subsec. (i)(5) to (7). Pub. L. 110–181, §811(a)(4), added pars. (5) to (7).

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 110–181, §811(a)(5), added subsec. (m).

2004—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 108–375, §814(a)(1), designated existing provisions as par. (1).

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 108–375, §§814(a)(2), 1084(b)(2), amended par. (1) identically, substituting "congressional defense committees" for "Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives".

Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 108–375, §814(a)(3), added par. (2).

2003—Subsec. (l)(9), (10). Pub. L. 108–136 redesignated par. (10) as (9) and struck out former par. (9) which read as follows: "In this subsection, the term 'congressional defense committees' means the following:

"(A) The Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Subcommittee on Defense of the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate.

"(B) The Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives and the Subcommittee on National Security of the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives."

2002—Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 107–296 substituted "of Homeland Security" for "of Transportation".

Subsec. (i)(4). Pub. L. 107–314 added par. (4).

2000—Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title VIII, §802(c)], struck out "or services" after "purchase of property".

Subsec. (l)(4). Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title VIII, §806(1)(A)], in introductory provisions, substituted "Not later than the date of the submission of the President's budget request under section 1105 of title 31, the Secretary of Defense shall submit a report to the congressional defense committees each year, providing the following information with respect to each multiyear contract (and each extension of an existing multiyear contract) entered into, or planned to be entered into, by the head of an agency during the current or preceding year" for "The head of an agency may not enter into a multiyear contract (or extend an existing multiyear contract) until the Secretary of Defense submits to the congressional defense committees a report with respect to that contract (or contract extension) that provides the following information".

Subsec. (l)(4)(B). Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title VIII, §806(1)(B)], substituted "in effect at the time the report is submitted" for "in effect immediately before the contract (or contract extension) is entered into" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (l)(5) to (10). Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title VIII, §806(2), (3)], added par. (5) and redesignated former pars. (5) to (9) as (6) to (10), respectively.

1999—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 106–65, §1067(1), substituted "and the Committee on Armed Services" for "and the Committee on National Security".

Subsec. (l)(4) to (7). Pub. L. 106–65, §809(1), (2), added par. (4) and redesignated former pars. (4) to (6) as (5) to (7), respectively. Former par. (7) redesignated (8).

Subsec. (l)(8). Pub. L. 106–65, §809(1), redesignated par. (7) as (8).

Subsec. (l)(8)(B). Pub. L. 106–65, §1067(1), substituted "Committee on Armed Services" for "Committee on National Security".

Subsec. (l)(9). Pub. L. 106–65, §809(3), added par. (9).

1997—Pub. L. 105–85, §1073(a)(48)(A), inserted ": acquisition of property" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–85, §806(c)(1), substituted "finds each of the following:" for "finds—" in introductory provisions, capitalized first letter of first word in pars. (1) to (6), and substituted a period for semicolon at end of pars. (1) to (4) and for "; and" at end of par. (5).

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 105–85, §806(c)(2), substituted "subsection (a)" for "paragraph (1)".

Subsec. (i)(1)(A). Pub. L. 105–85, §806(c)(3), substituted "future-years" for "five-year".

Subsec. (i)(3). Pub. L. 105–85, §806(a)(1), added par. (3).

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 105–85, §1073(a)(47), substituted "this section" for "this subsection".

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 105–85, §806(b)(1), added subsec. (l).

1996—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 104–106, §1502(a)(10), substituted "the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate and the Committee on National Security and the Committee on Appropriations of the" for "the Committees on Armed Services and on Appropriations of the Senate and".

Subsecs. (k), (l). Pub. L. 104–106, §5601(b), redesignated subsec. (l) as (k) and struck out former subsec. (k) which read as follows: "Inapplicability to Automatic Data Processing Contracts.—This section does not apply to contracts for the purchase of property to which section 111 of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949 (40 U.S.C. 759) applies."

Effective Date of 2014 Amendment

Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title VIII, §816(c), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3432, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 19, 2014], and shall apply with respect to requests for specific authorization by law to carry out defense acquisition programs using multiyear contract authority that are made on or after that date."

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title VIII, §811(b), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 219, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 28, 2008] and shall apply with respect to multiyear contracts for the purchase of major systems for which legislative authority is requested on or after that date."

Effective Date of 2002 Amendments

Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title VIII, §820(b), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2614, provided that:

"(1) Paragraph (4) of section 2306b(i) of title 10, United States Code, as added by subsection (a), shall not apply with respect to any contract awarded before the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 2, 2002].

"(2) Nothing in this section [amending this section] shall be construed to authorize the expenditure of funds under any contract awarded before the date of the enactment of this Act for any purpose other than the purpose for which such funds have been authorized and appropriated."

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective on the date of transfer of the Coast Guard to the Department of Homeland Security, see section 1704(g) of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title VIII, §806(a)(2), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1834, provided that: "Paragraph (3) of section 2306b(i) of title 10, United States Code, as added by paragraph (1), shall not apply with respect to a contract authorized by law before the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 18, 1997]."

Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title VIII, §806(b)(2), Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1835, provided that: "The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall take effect on October 1, 1998."

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by section 5601(b) of Pub. L. 104–106 effective 180 days after Feb. 10, 1996, see section 5701 of Pub. L. 104–106, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 702.

Effective Date

For effective date and applicability of section, see section 10001 of Pub. L. 103–355, set out as an Effective Date of 1994 Amendment note under section 2302 of this title.

Multiple Program Multiyear Contract Pilot Demonstration Program

Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title VIII, §853, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2296, provided that:

"(a) Authority.—The Secretary of Defense may conduct a multiyear contract, over a period of up to four years, for the purchase of units for multiple defense programs that are produced at common facilities at a high rate, and which maximize commonality, efficiencies, and quality, in order to provide maximum benefit to the Department of Defense. Contracts awarded under this section should allow for significant savings, as determined consistent with the authority under section 2306b of title 10, United States Code, to be achieved as compared to using separate annual contracts under individual programs to purchase such units, and may include flexible delivery across the overall period of performance.

"(b) Scope.—The contracts authorized in subsection (a) shall at a minimum provide for the acquisition of units from three discrete programs from two of the military departments.

"(c) Documentation.—Each contract awarded under subsection (a) shall include the documentation required to be provided for a multiyear contract proposal under section 2306b(i) of title 10.

"(d) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) The term 'high rate' means total annual production across the multiple defense programs of more than 200 end-items per year.

"(2) The term 'common facilities' means production facilities operating within the same general and allowable rate structure.

"(e) Sunset.—No new contracts may be awarded under the authority of this section after September 30, 2021."

Multiyear Procurement Contracts

Pub. L. 105–56, title VIII, §8008, Oct. 8, 1997, 111 Stat. 1221, provided that:

"(a) None of the funds provided in this Act [see Tables for classification] shall be available to initiate: (1) a multiyear contract that employs economic order quantity procurement in excess of $20,000,000 in any one year of the contract or that includes an unfunded contingent liability in excess of $20,000,000; or (2) a contract for advance procurement leading to a multiyear contract that employs economic order quantity procurement in excess of $20,000,000 in any one year, unless the congressional defense committees [Committee on Armed Services and Subcommittee on National Security of the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives and Committee on Armed Services and Subcommittee on Defense of the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate] have been notified at least 30 days in advance of the proposed contract award: Provided, That no part of any appropriation contained in this Act shall be available to initiate a multiyear contract for which the economic order quantity advance procurement is not funded at least to the limits of the Government's liability: Provided further, That no part of any appropriation contained in this Act shall be available to initiate multiyear procurement contracts for any systems or component thereof if the value of the multiyear contract would exceed $500,000,000 unless specifically provided in this Act: Provided further, That no multiyear procurement contract can be terminated without 10-day prior notification to the congressional defense committees: Provided further, That the execution of multiyear authority shall require the use of a present value analysis to determine lowest cost compared to an annual procurement.

"Funds appropriated in title III of this Act [111 Stat. 1211] may be used for multiyear procurement contracts as follows:

"Apache Longbow radar;

"AV–8B aircraft; and

"Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles.

"(b) None of the funds provided in this Act and hereafter may be used to submit to Congress (or to any committee of Congress) a request for authority to enter into a contract covered by those provisions of subsection (a) that precede the first proviso of that subsection unless—

"(1) such request is made as part of the submission of the President's Budget for the United States Government for any fiscal year and is set forth in the Appendix to that budget as part of proposed legislative language for appropriations bills for the next fiscal year; or

"(2) such request is formally submitted by the President as a budget amendment; or

"(3) the Secretary of Defense makes such request in writing to the congressional defense committees."

Similar provisions were contained in the following appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 115–245, div. A, title VIII, §8010, Sept. 28, 2018, 132 Stat. 3000.

Pub. L. 115–141, div. C, title VIII, §8010, Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 464.

Pub. L. 115–31, div. C, title VIII, §8010, May 5, 2017, 131 Stat. 247.

Pub. L. 114–113, div. C, title VIII, §8010, Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 2352.

Pub. L. 113–235, div. C, title VIII, §8010, Dec. 16, 2014, 128 Stat. 2253.

Pub. L. 113–76, div. C, title VIII, §8010, Jan. 17, 2014, 128 Stat. 105.

Pub. L. 113–6, div. C, title VIII, §8010, Mar. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 297.

Pub. L. 112–74, div. A, title VIII, §8010, Dec. 23, 2011, 125 Stat. 806.

Pub. L. 112–10, div. A, title VIII, §8010, Apr. 15, 2011, 125 Stat. 57.

Pub. L. 111–118, div. A, title VIII, §8011, Dec. 19, 2009, 123 Stat. 3428, as amended by Pub. L. 111–212, title I, §305, July 29, 2010, 124 Stat. 2311.

Pub. L. 110–329, div. C, title VIII, §8011, Sept. 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 3621.

Pub. L. 110–116, div. A, title VIII, §8010, Nov. 13, 2007, 121 Stat. 1315.

Pub. L. 109–289, div. A, title VIII, §8008, Sept. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 1273.

Pub. L. 109–148, div. A, title VIII, §8008, Dec. 30, 2005, 119 Stat. 2698.

Pub. L. 108–287, title VIII, §8008, Aug. 5, 2004, 118 Stat. 970.

Pub. L. 108–87, title VIII, §8008, Sept. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 1072.

Pub. L. 107–248, title VIII, §8008, Oct. 23, 2002, 116 Stat. 1537.

Pub. L. 107–117, div. A, title VIII, §8008, Jan. 10, 2002, 115 Stat. 2248.

Pub. L. 106–259, title VIII, §8008, Aug. 9, 2000, 114 Stat. 675.

Pub. L. 106–79, title VIII, §8008, Oct. 25, 1999, 113 Stat. 1232.

Pub. L. 105–262, title VIII, §8008, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2298.

Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(b) [title VIII, §8009], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–71, 3009–89.

Pub. L. 104–61, title VIII, §8010, Dec. 1, 1995, 109 Stat. 653.

Pub. L. 103–335, title VIII, §8010, Sept. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 2618.

Pub. L. 103–139, title VIII, §8011, Nov. 11, 1993, 107 Stat. 1439.

Pub. L. 102–396, title IX, §9013, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1903.

Pub. L. 102–172, title VIII, §8013, Nov. 26, 1991, 105 Stat. 1173.

Pub. L. 101–511, title VIII, §8014, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1877.

Pub. L. 101–165, title IX, §9021, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1133.

1 See References in Text note below.

§2306c. Multiyear contracts: acquisition of services

(a) Authority.—Subject to subsections (d) and (e), the head of an agency may enter into contracts for periods of not more than five years for services described in subsection (b), and for items of supply related to such services, for which funds would otherwise be available for obligation only within the fiscal year for which appropriated whenever the head of the agency finds that—

(1) there will be a continuing requirement for the services consonant with current plans for the proposed contract period;

(2) the furnishing of such services will require a substantial initial investment in plant or equipment, or the incurrence of substantial contingent liabilities for the assembly, training, or transportation of a specialized work force; and

(3) the use of such a contract will promote the best interests of the United States by encouraging effective competition and promoting economies in operation.


(b) Covered Services.—The authority under subsection (a) applies to the following types of services:

(1) Operation, maintenance, and support of facilities and installations.

(2) Maintenance or modification of aircraft, ships, vehicles, and other highly complex military equipment.

(3) Specialized training necessitating high quality instructor skills (for example, pilot and air crew members; foreign language training).

(4) Base services (for example, ground maintenance; in-plane refueling; bus transportation; refuse collection and disposal).

(5) Environmental remediation services for—

(A) an active military installation;

(B) a military installation being closed or realigned under a base closure law; or

(C) a site formerly used by the Department of Defense.


(c) Applicable Principles.—In entering into multiyear contracts for services under the authority of this section, the head of the agency shall be guided by the following principles:

(1) The portion of the cost of any plant or equipment amortized as a cost of contract performance should not exceed the ratio between the period of contract performance and the anticipated useful commercial life of such plant or equipment. Useful commercial life, for this purpose, means the commercial utility of the facilities rather than the physical life thereof, with due consideration given to such factors as location of facilities, specialized nature thereof, and obsolescence.

(2) Consideration shall be given to the desirability of obtaining an option to renew the contract for a reasonable period not to exceed three years, at prices not to include charges for plant, equipment and other nonrecurring costs, already amortized.

(3) Consideration shall be given to the desirability of reserving in the agency the right, upon payment of the unamortized portion of the cost of the plant or equipment, to take title thereto under appropriate circumstances.


(d) Restrictions Applicable Generally.—(1) The head of an agency may not initiate under this section a contract for services that includes an unfunded contingent liability in excess of $20,000,000 unless the congressional defense committees are notified of the proposed contract at least 30 days in advance of the award of the proposed contract.

(2) The head of an agency may not initiate a multiyear cont