(a) A person with no prior military service who is qualified under section 505 of this title and applicable regulations for enlistment in a regular component of an armed force may (except as provided in subsection (c)) be enlisted as a Reserve for service in the Army Reserve, Navy Reserve, Air Force Reserve, Marine Corps Reserve, or Coast Guard Reserve for a term of not less than six years nor more than eight years.
(b)(1) Unless sooner ordered to active duty under chapter 39 of this title or another provision of law, a person enlisted under subsection (a) shall, within 365 days after such enlistment, be discharged from the reserve component in which enlisted and immediately be enlisted in the regular component of an armed force.
(2) The Secretary concerned may extend the 365-day period described in paragraph (1) for any person for up to an additional 365 days if the Secretary determines that it is in the best interests of the armed force of which that person is a member to do so.
(3)(A) The Secretary concerned may extend by up to an additional 365 days the period of extension under paragraph (2) for a person who enlisted before October 1, 2017, under section 504(b)(2) of this title if the Secretary determines that the period of extension under this paragraph is required for the performance of adequate background and security reviews of that person.
(B) A person whose period of extension under paragraph (2) is extended under this paragraph shall undergo all security and suitability screening requirements and receive a favorable military security suitability determination before entering into service in a regular or reserve component. Screening priority shall be given to those persons who were enlisted for a military occupational specialty that requires specialized language or medical skills that are vital to the national interest.
(C) The authority to make an extension under this paragraph shall expire one year after the date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018. The expiration of such authority shall not effect the validity of any extension made in accordance with this paragraph on or before that date.
(4) During the period beginning on the date on which the person enlists under subsection (a) and ending on the date on which the person is enlisted in a regular component under this subsection, the person shall be in the Ready Reserve of the armed force concerned.
(c) A person who is under orders to report for induction into an armed force under the Military Selective Service Act (50 U.S.C. 3801 et seq.), except as provided in clause (ii) or (iii) of section 6(c)(2)(A) of that Act (50 U.S.C. 3806(c)(2)(A)), may not be enlisted under subsection (a).
(d) This section shall be carried out under regulations to be prescribed by the Secretary of Defense or the Secretary of Homeland Security with respect to the Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service in the Navy.
(Added Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title V, §501(a)(1), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1435; amended Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIV, §1484(k)(2), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1719; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title V, §512, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2514; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §572(a), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 623; Pub. L. 107–296, title XVII, §1704(b)(1), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2314; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §515(b)(1)(A), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3233; Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title X, §1081(b)(1)(A)(ii), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2417; Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title V, §526, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1382.)
The date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018, referred to in subsec. (b)(3)(C), means the date of enactment of Pub. L. 115–91, which was approved Dec. 12, 2017.
The Military Selective Service Act, referred to in subsec. (c), is title I of act June 24, 1948, ch. 625, 62 Stat. 604, which is classified principally to chapter 49 (§3801 et seq.) of Title 50, War and National Defense. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 3801 of Title 50 and Tables.
A prior section 513, act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 18, related to promotion of enlisted members of Reserve components, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 85–861, §36B(1), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1570.
2017—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 115–91 redesignated second sentence of par. (1) as (2) and inserted "described in paragraph (1)" after "the 365-day period", added par. (3), and redesignated former par. (2) as (4) and substituted "this subsection" for "paragraph (1)".
2016—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 114–328 substituted "(50 U.S.C. 3801 et seq.)" for "(50 U.S.C. App. 451 et seq.)" and inserted "(50 U.S.C. 3806(c)(2)(A))" after "of that Act".
2006—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–163 substituted "Navy Reserve" for "Naval Reserve".
2002—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 107–296 substituted "of Homeland Security" for "of Transportation".
1999—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 106–65 substituted "additional 365 days" for "additional 180 days" in second sentence.
1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–201 inserted "The Secretary concerned may extend the 365-day period for any person for up to an additional 180 days if the Secretary determines that it is in the best interests of the armed force of which that person is a member to do so." after first sentence, "(1)" before "Unless", and "(2)" before "During" and substituted "paragraph (1)" for "the preceding sentence".
1990—Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 101–510 substituted "subsection (a)" for "paragraph (1)".
Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective on the date of transfer of the Coast Guard to the Department of Homeland Security, see section 1704(g) of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.
Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §572(b), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 623, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on October 1, 1999, and shall apply with respect to enlistments entered into, on or after that date."
Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title V, §573, Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 623, as amended by Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title V, §542(a)–(c), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1110, 1111; Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title V, §535, title X, §1062(j)(1), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2548, 2651, directed the Secretary of the Army to establish a pilot program, known as the "Army College First" program, to be in effect from Oct. 1, 1999, to Sept. 30, 2004, to assess whether the Army could increase the number and qualifications of persons entering the Army as enlisted members by encouraging recruits to pursue higher education or vocational or technical training before entry into active service, and to submit to committees of Congress a report on the program not later than Feb. 1, 2004. See section 511 of this title and section 551(b) of Pub. L. 108–375, set out as a note under section 511 of this title.