49 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2017 Edition
Title 49 - TRANSPORTATION
SUBTITLE V - RAIL PROGRAMS
From the U.S. Government Publishing Office, www.gpo.gov

SUBTITLE V—RAIL PROGRAMS

PART A—SAFETY

Chapter
Sec.
201.
General
20101
203.
Safety Appliances
20301
205.
Signal Systems
20501
207.
Locomotives
20701
209.
Accidents and Incidents
20901
211.
Hours of Service
21101
213.
Penalties
21301

        

PART B—ASSISTANCE

221.
Local Rail Freight Assistance
22101
223.
Capital Grants for Class II and Class III Railroads
22301
[225.
Repealed.]
227.
State rail plans 1
22701

        

PART C—PASSENGER TRANSPORTATION

241.
General
24101
242.
Project delivery 2
24201

        

243.
Amtrak
24301
244.
Rail improvement grants 3
24401

        

[245.
Repealed.]
247.
Amtrak Route System
24701
249.
Northeast Corridor Improvement Program
24901

        

PART D—HIGH-SPEED RAIL

261.
High-Speed Rail Assistance
26101

        

PART E—MISCELLANEOUS

281.
Law Enforcement
28101
283.
Standard Work Day
28301
285.
Commuter Rail Mediation
28501

        

Amendments

2015–Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §§11301(c)(3), 11303(b)(2), 11503(c), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1648, 1654, 1692, struck out item for chapter 225 "Federal grants to States for highway-rail grade crossing safety", added item for chapter 242, and substituted "Rail improvement grants" for "Intercity Passenger Rail Service Corridor Capital Assistance" in item for chapter 244.

2008—Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title II, §207(b), div. B, title III, §301(b), title IV, §401(b), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4875, 4946, 4956, added items for chapters 225, 244, and 285.

Pub. L. 110–432, div. B, title III, §303(b), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4951, which directed insertion of the item for chapter 227 after the item for chapter 223, was executed by making the insertion after the item for chapter 225 to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

2007—Pub. L. 110–140, title XI, §1112(b), Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1759, substituted "Capital Grants for Class II and Class III Railroads" for "Light Density Rail Line Pilot Projects" in item for chapter 223.

1998—Pub. L. 105–178, title VII, §7202(b), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 471, added item for chapter 223.

1997—Pub. L. 105–134, title I, §106(a), Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2573, struck out item for chapter 245 "Amtrak Commuter".

1996—Pub. L. 104–287, §5(56)(B), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3394, added item for chapter 283.

1994—Pub. L. 103–440, title I, §103(b)(1), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4618, added part D and item for chapter 261, struck out former part D "MISCELLANEOUS" and former item for chapter 261 "Law Enforcement . . . 26101", and added part E and item for chapter 281.

1 So in original. Probably should be "State Rail Plans".

2 So in original. Probably should be "Project Delivery".

3 So in original. Probably should be "Rail Improvement Grants".

PART A—SAFETY

CHAPTER 201—GENERAL

SUBCHAPTER I—GENERAL

Sec.
20101.
Purpose.
20102.
Definitions.
20103.
General authority.
20104.
Emergency authority.
20105.
State participation.
20106.
National uniformity of regulation.1

        

20107.
Inspection and investigation.
20108.
Research, development, testing, and training.
20109.
Employee protections.
20110.
Effect on employee qualifications and collective bargaining.
20111.
Enforcement by the Secretary of Transportation.
20112.
Enforcement by the Attorney General.
20113.
Enforcement by the States.
20114.
Judicial procedures.
20115.
User fees.
20116.
Rulemaking process.
20117.
Authorization of appropriations.
20118.
Prohibition on public disclosure of railroad safety analysis records.
20119.
Study on use of certain reports and surveys.
20120.
Enforcement report.
20121.
Repair and replacement of damaged track inspection equipment.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—PARTICULAR ASPECTS OF SAFETY

20131.
Restricted access to rolling equipment.
20132.
Visible markers for rear cars.
20133.
Passenger cars.
20134.
Grade crossings and railroad rights of way.
20135.
Licensing or certification of locomotive operators.
20136.
Automatic train control and related systems.
20137.
Event recorders.
20138.
Tampering with safety and operational monitoring devices.
20139.
Maintenance-of-way operations on railroad bridges.
20140.
Alcohol and controlled substances testing.
20141.
Power brake safety.
20142.
Track safety.
20143.
Locomotive visibility.
20144.
Blue signal protection for on-track vehicles.
20145.
Report on bridge displacement detection systems.
20146.
Institute for Railroad Safety.
20147.
Warning of civil liability.
20148.
Railroad car visibility.
20149.
Coordination with the Department of Labor.
20150.
Positive train control system progress report.
20151.
Railroad trespassing, vandalism, and highway-rail grade crossing warning sign violation prevention strategy.
20152.
Notification of grade crossing problems.
20153.
Audible warnings at highway-rail grade crossings.
[20154.
Repealed.]
20155.
Tank cars.
20156.
Railroad safety risk reduction program.
20157.
Implementation of positive train control systems.
20158.
Railroad safety technology grants.
20159.
Roadway user sight distance at highway-rail grade crossings.
20160.
National crossing inventory.
20161.
Fostering introduction of new technology to improve safety at highway-rail grade crossings.
20162.
Minimum training standards and plans.
20163.
Certification of train conductors.
20164.
Development and use of rail safety technology.
20165.
Limitations on non-Federal alcohol and drug testing by railroad carriers.2

        

20166.
Emergency escape breathing apparatus.
[20167.
Repealed.]
20168.
Installation of audio and image recording devices.

        

Amendments

2015–Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §§11301(c)(1), 11411(b), 11413(b), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1648, 1687, 1689, added items 20121 and 20168 and struck out items 20154 "Capital grants for rail line relocation projects" and 20167 "Railroad safety infrastructure improvement grants". Items 20121 and 20168 were added to the analysis for this chapter to reflect the probable intent of Congress, notwithstanding directory language adding those items to the analyses for subchapters I and II of this chapter, respectively.

2008—Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title I, §§103(b), 104(b), 105(b), 107(b), 109(b), title II, §§203(b), 204(b), 205(b), 208(b), 210(b), title III, §303(b), title IV, §§401(b), 402(e), 406(b), 409(b), 413(b), 418(b), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4856, 4858–4860, 4867, 4869, 4871, 4873, 4876, 4877, 4879, 4883, 4884, 4886, 4887, 4889, 4892, added items 20116 and 20118 to 20120, substituted "Railroad trespassing, vandalism, and highway-rail grade crossing warning sign violation prevention strategy" for "Railroad trespassing and vandalism prevention strategy" in item 20151 and "Notification of grade crossing problems" for "Emergency notification of grade crossing problems" in item 20152, and added items 20156 to 20167.

2005—Pub. L. 109–59, title IX, §§9002(a)(2), 9005(b)(2), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1921, 1925, added items 20154 and 20155.

1995—Pub. L. 104–66, title I, §1121(g)(2), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 724, struck out item 20116 "Biennial report".

1994—Pub. L. 103–440, title II, §§206(b), 207(b), 210(b), 211(b), 212(b), 213(b), 214(b), 215(b), 219(b), title III, §§301(b), 302(b), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4621–4624, 4626, 4628, substituted "Biennial" for "Annual" in item 20116 and "cars" for "equipment" in item 20133 and added items 20145 to 20153.

1 Section catchline amended by Pub. L. 110–53 without corresponding amendment of chapter analysis.

2 So in original. Does not conform to section catchline.

SUBCHAPTER I—GENERAL

§20101. Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to promote safety in every area of railroad operations and reduce railroad-related accidents and incidents.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 863.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20101 45:421. Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, §101, 84 Stat. 971.

The words "The Congress declares that" are omitted as surplus. The words "accidents and incidents" are substituted for "accidents" for consistency with the source provisions restated in section 20105(b)(1)(B) of the revised title. The words "and to reduce deaths and injuries to persons and to reduce damage to property caused by accidents involving any carrier of hazardous materials" are omitted as obsolete because they applied to 49 App.:1761 and 1762, that were repealed by section 113(g) of the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (Public Law 93–633, 88 Stat. 2163).

Short Title of 2015 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11001, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1622, provided that: "This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Passenger Rail Reform and Investment Act of 2015'."

Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11501, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1690, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle E (§§11501–11504) of title XI of div. A of Pub. L. 114–94, enacting sections 24201 and 24202 of this title, amending section 303 of this title and section 138 of Title 23, Highways, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 4370m of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] may be cited as the 'Track, Railroad, and Infrastructure Network Act' or the 'TRAIN Act'."

Pub. L. 114–73, title I, §1302(a), Oct. 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 576, provided that: "This section [amending section 20157 of this title] may be cited as the 'Positive Train Control Enforcement and Implementation Act of 2015'."

Short Title of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, §1(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4848, provided that: "This division [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008'."

Pub. L. 110–432, div. B, §1(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4907, provided that: "This division [enacting chapters 227, 244, and 285 of this title and sections 24105, 24310, 24316, 24702, 24710, 24711, 24910, and 26106 of this title, amending sections 103, 24101, 24102, 24302, 24308, 24706, 24904, 24905, 26101, and 26104 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 24101, 24302, 24305, 24307, 24308, 24405, 24702, 24709, 24711, 24902, and 26106 of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 24101 of this title] may be cited as the 'Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of 2008'."

Short Title of 1997 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–134, §1(a), Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2570, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 28103 of this title, amending sections 24101, 24102, 24104, 24301 to 24307, 24309, 24312, 24315, 24701, 24706, 24902, and 24904 of this title, section 8G of the Inspector General Act of 1978, Pub. L. 95–452, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and section 9101 of Title 31, Money and Finance, repealing sections 24310, 24314, 24501 to 24506, 24702 to 24705, 24707, 24708, and 24903 of this title, and section 1111 of Title 45, Railroads, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 24101, 24104, 24301, 24304, 24305, 24307, 24312, 24315, 24501, and 24706 of this title, section 8G of the Appendix to Title 5, and section 172 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code] may be cited as the 'Amtrak Reform and Accountability Act of 1997'."

Short Title of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–440, title I, §101, Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4615, provided that: "This title [enacting sections 26101 to 26105 of this title, renumbering former sections 26101 and 26102 of this title as 28101 and 28102 of this title, respectively, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 26101 of this title and section 838 of Title 45, Railroads] may be cited as the 'Swift Rail Development Act of 1994'."

Pub. L. 103–440, title II, §201, Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4619, provided that: "This title [enacting sections 20145 to 20151 and 21108 of this title, amending sections 103, 20103, 20111, 20116, 20117, 20133, 20142, and 21303 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 11504 of this title] may be cited as the 'Federal Railroad Safety Authorization Act of 1994'."

Shared-Use Study

Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11311, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1670, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 3 years after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2015], the Secretary [of Transportation], in consultation with Amtrak, commuter rail passenger transportation authorities, other railroad carriers, railroad carriers that own rail infrastructure over which both passenger and freight trains operate, States, the Surface Transportation Board, the Northeast Corridor Commission established under section 24905 of title 49, United States Code, the State-Supported Route Committee established under section 24712 of such title, and groups representing rail passengers and customers, as appropriate, shall complete a study that evaluates—

"(1) the shared use of right-of-way by passenger and freight rail systems; and

"(2) the operational, institutional, and legal structures that would best support improvements to the systems referred to in paragraph (1).

"(b) Areas of Study.—In conducting the study under subsection (a), the Secretary shall evaluate—

"(1) the access and use of railroad right-of-way by a rail carrier that does not own the right-of-way, such as passenger rail services that operate over privately-owned right-of-way, including an analysis of—

"(A) access agreements;

"(B) costs of access; and

"(C) the resolution of disputes relating to such access or costs;

"(2) the effectiveness of existing contractual, statutory, and regulatory mechanisms for establishing, measuring, and enforcing train performance standards, including—

"(A) the manner in which passenger train delays are recorded;

"(B) the assignment of responsibility for such delays; and

"(C) the use of incentives and penalties for performance;

"(3) the strengths and weaknesses of the existing mechanisms described in paragraph (2) and possible approaches to address the weaknesses;

"(4) mechanisms for measuring and maintaining public benefits resulting from publicly funded freight or passenger rail improvements, including improvements directed towards shared-use right-of-way by passenger and freight rail;

"(5) approaches to operations, capacity, and cost estimation modeling that—

"(A) allow for transparent decisionmaking; and

"(B) protect the proprietary interests of all parties;

"(6) liability requirements and arrangements, including—

"(A) whether to expand statutory liability limits to additional parties;

"(B) whether to revise the current statutory liability limits;

"(C) whether current insurance levels of passenger rail operators are adequate and whether to establish minimum insurance requirements for such passenger rail operators; and

"(D) whether to establish alternative insurance models, including other models administered by the Federal Government;

"(7) the effect on rail passenger services, operations, liability limits, and insurance levels of the assertion of sovereign immunity by a State; and

"(8) other issues identified by the Secretary.

"(c) Report.—Not later than 60 days after the study under subsection (a) is complete, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives a report that includes—

"(1) the results of the study; and

"(2) any recommendations for further action, including any legislative proposals consistent with such recommendations.

"(d) Implementation.—The Secretary shall integrate, as appropriate, the recommendations submitted under subsection (c) into the financial assistance programs under subtitle V of title 49, United States Code, and section 502 of the Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976 (45 U.S.C. 822)."

Railroad Safety Strategy

Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title I, §102, Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4852, as amended by Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11316(j)(3), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1677, provided that:

"(a) Safety Goals.—In conjunction with existing federally-required and voluntary strategic planning efforts ongoing at the Department and the Federal Railroad Administration as of the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 16, 2008], the Secretary shall develop a long-term strategy for improving railroad safety to cover a period of not less than 5 years. The strategy shall include an annual plan and schedule for achieving, at a minimum, the following goals:

"(1) Reducing the number and rates of accidents, incidents, injuries, and fatalities involving railroads including train collisions, derailments, and human factors.

"(2) Improving the consistency and effectiveness of enforcement and compliance programs.

"(3) Improving the identification of high-risk highway-rail grade crossings and strengthening enforcement and other methods to increase grade crossing safety.

"(4) Improving research efforts to enhance and promote railroad safety and performance.

"(5) Preventing railroad trespasser accidents, incidents, injuries, and fatalities.

"(6) Improving the safety of railroad bridges, tunnels, and related infrastructure to prevent accidents, incidents, injuries, and fatalities caused by catastrophic and other failures of such infrastructure.

"(b) Resource Needs.—The strategy and annual plan shall include estimates of the funds and staff resources needed to accomplish the goals established by subsection (a). Such estimates shall also include the staff skills and training required for timely and effective accomplishment of each such goal.

"(c) Submission With the President's Budget.—The Secretary shall submit the strategy and annual plan to the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the House of Representatives Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure at the same time as the President's budget submission.

"(d) Achievement of Goals.—

"(1) Progress assessment.—No less frequently than annually, the Secretary shall assess the progress of the Department toward achieving the strategic goals described in subsection (a). The Secretary shall identify any deficiencies in achieving the goals within the strategy and develop and institute measures to remediate such deficiencies. The Secretary and the Administrator shall convey their assessment to the employees of the Federal Railroad Administration and shall identify any deficiencies that should be remediated before the next progress assessment.

"(2) Report to congress.—Beginning in 2009, not later than November 1 of each year, the Secretary shall transmit a report to the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the House of Representatives Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure on the performance of the Federal Railroad Administration containing the progress assessment required by paragraph (1) toward achieving the goals of the railroad safety strategy and annual plans under subsection (a)."

[For definitions of "railroad", "Department", "Secretary", and "crossing", as used in section 102 of Pub. L. 110–432, set out above, see section 2(a) of Pub. L. 110–432, set out as a note under section 20102 of this title.]

Reports on Statutory Mandates and Recommendations

Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title I, §106, Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4859, provided that: "Not later than December 31, 2008, and annually thereafter, the Secretary shall transmit a report to the House of Representatives Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure and the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation on the specific actions taken to implement unmet statutory mandates regarding railroad safety and each open railroad safety recommendation made by the National Transportation Safety Board or the Department's Inspector General."

[For definitions of "Secretary", "railroad", and "Department", as used in section 106 of Pub. L. 110–432, set out above, see section 2(a) of Pub. L. 110–432, set out as a note under section 20102 of this title.]

§20102. Definitions

In this part—

(1) "Class I railroad", "Class II railroad", and "Class III railroad" mean railroad carriers that have annual carrier operating revenues that meet the threshold amount for Class I carriers, Class II carriers, and Class III carriers, respectively, as determined by the Surface Transportation Board under section 1201.1–1 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations.

(2) "railroad"—

(A) means any form of nonhighway ground transportation that runs on rails or electromagnetic guideways, including—

(i) commuter or other short-haul railroad passenger service in a metropolitan or suburban area and commuter railroad service that was operated by the Consolidated Rail Corporation on January 1, 1979; and

(ii) high speed ground transportation systems that connect metropolitan areas, without regard to whether those systems use new technologies not associated with traditional railroads; but


(B) does not include rapid transit operations in an urban area that are not connected to the general railroad system of transportation.


(3) "railroad carrier" means a person providing railroad transportation, except that, upon petition by a group of commonly controlled railroad carriers that the Secretary determines is operating within the United States as a single, integrated rail system, the Secretary may by order treat the group of railroad carriers as a single railroad carrier for purposes of one or more provisions of part A, subtitle V of this title and implementing regulations and order, subject to any appropriate conditions that the Secretary may impose.

(4) "safety-related railroad employee" means—

(A) a railroad employee who is subject to chapter 211;

(B) another operating railroad employee who is not subject to chapter 211;

(C) an employee who maintains the right of way of a railroad;

(D) an employee of a railroad carrier who is a hazmat employee as defined in section 5102(3) of this title;

(E) an employee who inspects, repairs, or maintains locomotives, passenger cars, or freight cars; and

(F) any other employee of a railroad carrier who directly affects railroad safety, as determined by the Secretary.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 863; Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, §2(b), title IV, §407, Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4850, 4886.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20102(1) 45:16. Apr. 14, 1910, ch. 160, §1, 36 Stat. 298; restated June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §13(3)(E), 102 Stat. 632.
  45:22. Feb. 17, 1911, ch. 103, §1, 36 Stat. 913; June 7, 1924, ch. 355, §1, 43 Stat. 659; restated June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §14(1), 102 Stat. 632.
  45:38 (last sentence). May 6, 1910, ch. 208, 36 Stat. 350, §1 (last sentence); added June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §15(1)(C), 102 Stat. 633.
  45:61(a). Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2939, §1(a), 34 Stat. 1415; Dec. 26, 1969, Pub. L. 91–169, §1, 83 Stat. 463; restated Nov. 2, 1978, Pub. L. 95–574, §5, 92 Stat. 2461; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §16(1)(A), 102 Stat. 634.
  45:61(b)(1). Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2939, §1(b)(1), 34 Stat. 1415; restated Dec. 26, 1969, Pub. L. 91–169, §1, 83 Stat. 463; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §16(1)(B), 102 Stat. 634.
  45:431(e). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, §202(e), 84 Stat. 971; restated June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §7(a), 102 Stat. 628.
  49:App.:26(a). Feb. 4, 1887, ch. 104, 24 Stat. 379, §25(a); added Feb. 28, 1920, ch. 91, §441, 41 Stat. 498; Aug. 26, 1937, ch. 818, 50 Stat. 835; Sept. 18, 1940, ch. 722, §14(b), 54 Stat. 919; restated June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §17(1), 102 Stat. 635.
20102(2) (no source).

Clause (1) is substituted for the source provisions to avoid repeating the definition of "railroad" in each chapter in this part.

Clause (2) is added to distinguish between railroad transportation and the entity providing railroad transportation.

Amendments

2008—Pub. L. 110–432, §2(b), added pars. (1) and (4) and redesignated former pars. (1) and (2) as (2) and (3), respectively.

Par. (3). Pub. L. 110–432, §407, amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: " 'railroad carrier' means a person providing railroad transportation."

Definitions Applicable to Division A of Pub. L. 110–432

Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, §2(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4849, as amended by Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11316(j)(2), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1677, provided that: "In this division [see Short Title of 2008 Amendment note set out under section 20101 of this title]:

"(1) Crossing.—The term 'crossing' means a location within a State, other than a location where one or more railroad tracks cross one or more railroad tracks at grade, where—

"(A) a public highway, road, or street, or a private roadway, including associated sidewalks and pathways, crosses one or more railroad tracks either at grade or grade-separated; or

"(B) a pathway explicitly authorized by a public authority or a railroad carrier that is dedicated for the use of nonvehicular traffic, including pedestrians, bicyclists, and others, that is not associated with a public highway, road, or street, or a private roadway, crosses one or more railroad tracks either at grade or grade-separated.

"(2) Department.—The term 'Department' means the Department of Transportation.

"(3) Railroad.—The term 'railroad' has the meaning given that term by section 20102 of title 49, United States Code.

"(4) Railroad carrier.—The term 'railroad carrier' has the meaning given that term by section 20102 of title 49, United States Code.

"(5) Secretary.—The term 'Secretary' means the Secretary of Transportation.

"(6) State.—The term 'State' means a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico."

§20103. General authority

(a) Regulations and Orders.—The Secretary of Transportation, as necessary, shall prescribe regulations and issue orders for every area of railroad safety supplementing laws and regulations in effect on October 16, 1970. When prescribing a security regulation or issuing a security order that affects the safety of railroad operations, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall consult with the Secretary.

(b) Regulations of Practice for Proceedings.—The Secretary shall prescribe regulations of practice applicable to each proceeding under this chapter. The regulations shall reflect the varying nature of the proceedings and include time limits for disposition of the proceedings. The time limit for disposition of a proceeding may not be more than 12 months after the date it begins.

(c) Consideration of Information and Standards.—In prescribing regulations and issuing orders under this section, the Secretary shall consider existing relevant safety information and standards.

(d) Nonemergency Waivers.—The Secretary may waive compliance with any part of a regulation prescribed or order issued under this chapter if the waiver is in the public interest and consistent with railroad safety. The Secretary shall make public the reasons for granting the waiver.

(e) Hearings.—The Secretary shall conduct a hearing as provided by section 553 of title 5 when prescribing a regulation or issuing an order under this part, including a regulation or order establishing, amending, or providing a waiver, described in subsection (d), of compliance with a railroad safety regulation prescribed or order issued under this part. An opportunity for an oral presentation shall be provided.

(f) Tourist Railroad Carriers.—In prescribing regulations that pertain to railroad safety that affect tourist, historic, scenic, or excursion railroad carriers, the Secretary of Transportation shall take into consideration any financial, operational, or other factors that may be unique to such railroad carriers. The Secretary shall submit a report to Congress not later than September 30, 1995, on actions taken under this subsection.

(g) Emergency Waivers.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary may waive compliance with any part of a regulation prescribed or order issued under this part without prior notice and comment if the Secretary determines that—

(A) it is in the public interest to grant the waiver;

(B) the waiver is not inconsistent with railroad safety; and

(C) the waiver is necessary to address an actual or impending emergency situation or emergency event.


(2) Period of waiver.—A waiver under this subsection may be issued for a period of not more than 60 days and may be renewed upon application to the Secretary only after notice and an opportunity for a hearing on the waiver. The Secretary shall immediately revoke the waiver if continuation of the waiver would not be consistent with the goals and objectives of this part.

(3) Statement of reasons.—The Secretary shall state in the decision issued under this subsection the reasons for granting the waiver.

(4) Consultation.—In granting a waiver under this subsection, the Secretary shall consult and coordinate with other Federal agencies, as appropriate, for matters that may impact such agencies.

(5) Emergency situation; emergency event.—In this subsection, the terms "emergency situation" and "emergency event" mean a natural or manmade disaster, such as a hurricane, flood, earthquake, mudslide, forest fire, snowstorm, terrorist act, biological outbreak, release of a dangerous radiological, chemical, explosive, or biological material, or a war-related activity, that poses a risk of death, serious illness, severe injury, or substantial property damage. The disaster may be local, regional, or national in scope.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 863; Pub. L. 103–440, title II, §217, Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4624; Pub. L. 107–296, title XVII, §1710(b), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2319; Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title III, §308, Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4881.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20103(a) 45:431(a) (1st sentence cl. (1)). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, §202(a) (1st sentence cl. (1)), (b), (c), 84 Stat. 971.
20103(b) 45:431(d) (21st–last words). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, §202(d), 84 Stat. 971; restated July 8, 1976, Pub. L. 94–348, §5(a), 90 Stat. 819.
20103(c) 45:431(d) (1st–20th words).
20103(d) 45:431(c).
20103(e) 45:431(b).

In this part, the word "rule" is omitted as being synonymous with "regulation". The word "standard" is omitted as being included in "regulation".

In subsection (a), the words "(hereafter in this subchapter referred to as the 'Secretary')" in 45:431(a) (1st sentence cl. (1)) are omitted as surplus because the complete name of the Secretary of Transportation is used the first time the term appears in a section.

In subsection (b), the words "within 180 days after July 8, 1976" are omitted as expired. The word "prescribe" is substituted for "take such action as may be necessary to develop and publish" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code and to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (d), the words "after hearing in accordance with subsection (b) of this section" are omitted as surplus because of the language restated in subsection (e) of this section.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 110–432, §308(1), substituted "Nonemergency Waivers" for "Waivers" in heading.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 110–432, §308(2), added subsec. (e) and struck out former subsec. (e). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The Secretary shall conduct a hearing as provided by section 553 of title 5 when prescribing a regulation or issuing an order under this chapter, including a regulation or order establishing, amending, or waiving compliance with a railroad safety regulation prescribed or order issued under this chapter. An opportunity for an oral presentation shall be provided."

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 110–432, §308(3), added subsec. (g).

2002—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–296 inserted at end "When prescribing a security regulation or issuing a security order that affects the safety of railroad operations, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall consult with the Secretary."

1994—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 103–440 added subsec. (f).

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective 60 days after Nov. 25, 2002, see section 4 of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as an Effective Date note under section 101 of Title 6, Domestic Security.

Regulations

Pub. L. 103–272, §4(t), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1372, provided that:

"(1) Not later than March 3, 1995, the Secretary of Transportation shall complete a regulatory proceeding to consider prescribing regulations to improve the safety and working conditions of locomotive cabs. The proceeding shall assess—

"(A) the adequacy of Locomotive Crashworthiness Requirements Standard S–580, or any successor standard, adopted by the Association of American Railroads in 1989 in improving the safety of locomotive cabs; and

"(B) the extent to which environmental, sanitary, and other working conditions in locomotive cabs affect productivity, health, and the safe operation of locomotives.

"(2) Supporting Research and Analysis.—In support of the proceeding required under paragraph (1) of this subsection, the Secretary shall conduct research and analysis, including computer modeling and full-scale crash testing, as appropriate, to consider—

"(A) the costs and benefits associated with equipping locomotives with—

"(i) braced collision posts;

"(ii) rollover protection devices;

"(iii) deflection plates;

"(iv) shatterproof windows;

"(v) readily accessible crash refuges;

"(vi) uniform sill heights;

"(vii) anticlimbers, or other equipment designed to prevent overrides resulting from head-on locomotive collisions;

"(viii) equipment to deter post-collision entry of flammable liquids into locomotive cabs;

"(ix) any other devices intended to provide crash protection for occupants of locomotive cabs; and

"(x) functioning and regularly maintained sanitary facilities; and

"(B) the effects on train crews of the presence of asbestos in locomotive components.

"(3) Report.—If, on the basis of the proceeding required under paragraph (1) of this subsection, the Secretary decides not to prescribe regulations, the Secretary shall report to Congress on the reasons for that decision."

Real-Time Emergency Response Information

Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title VII, §7302, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1594, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2015], the Secretary [of Transportation], in consultation with appropriate Federal agencies, shall issue regulations that—

"(1) require a Class I railroad transporting hazardous materials—

"(A) to generate accurate, real-time, and electronic train consist information, including—

"(i) the identity, quantity, and location of hazardous materials on a train;

"(ii) the point of origin and destination of the train;

"(iii) any emergency response information or resources required by the Secretary; and

"(iv) an emergency response point of contact designated by the Class I railroad; and

"(B) to enter into a memorandum of understanding with each applicable fusion center to provide the fusion center with secure and confidential access to the electronic train consist information described in subparagraph (A) for each train transporting hazardous materials in the jurisdiction of the fusion center;

"(2) require each applicable fusion center to provide the electronic train consist information described in paragraph (1)(A) to State and local first responders, emergency response officials, and law enforcement personnel that are involved in the response to or investigation of an accident, incident, or public health or safety emergency involving the rail transportation of hazardous materials and that request such electronic train consist information;

"(3) require each Class I railroad to provide advanced notification and information on high-hazard flammable trains to each State emergency response commission, consistent with the notification content requirements in Emergency Order Docket No. DOT–OST–2014–0067, including—

"(A) a reasonable estimate of the number of implicated trains that are expected to travel, per week, through each county within the applicable State;

"(B) updates to such estimate prior to making any material changes to any volumes or frequencies of trains traveling through a county;

"(C) identification and a description of the Class 3 flammable liquid being transported on such trains;

"(D) applicable emergency response information, as required by regulation;

"(E) identification of the routes over which such liquid will be transported; and

"(F) a point of contact at the Class I railroad responsible for serving as the point of contact for State emergency response centers and local emergency responders related to the Class I railroad's transportation of such liquid.

"(4) require each applicable State emergency response commission to provide to a political subdivision of a State, or public agency responsible for emergency response or law enforcement, upon request of the political subdivision or public agency, the information the commission receives from a Class I railroad pursuant to paragraph (3), including, for any such political subdivision or public agency responsible for emergency response or law enforcement that makes an initial request for such information, any updates received by the State emergency response commission.

"(5) prohibit any Class I railroad, employee, or agent from withholding, or causing to be withheld, the train consist information from first responders, emergency response officials, and law enforcement personnel described in paragraph (2) in the event of an incident, accident, or public health or safety emergency involving the rail transportation of hazardous materials;

"(6) establish security and confidentiality protections, including protections from the public release of proprietary information or security-sensitive information, to prevent the release to unauthorized persons any electronic train consist information or advanced notification or information provided by Class I railroads under this section; and

"(7) allow each Class I railroad to enter into a memorandum of understanding with any Class II railroad or Class III railroad that operates trains over the Class I railroad's line to incorporate the Class II railroad or Class III railroad's train consist information within the existing framework described in paragraph (1).

"(b) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) Applicable fusion center.—The term 'applicable fusion center' means a fusion center with responsibility for a geographic area in which a Class I railroad operates.

"(2) Class i railroad; class ii railroad; class iii railroad.—The terms 'Class I railroad', 'Class II railroad', and 'Class III railroad' have the meaning given those terms in section 20102 of title 49, United States Code.

"(3) Class 3 flammable liquid.—The term 'Class 3 flammable liquid' has the meaning given the term flammable liquid in section 173.120(a) of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations.

"(4) Fusion center.—The term 'fusion center' has the meaning given the term in section 210A(j) of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 (6 U.S.C. 124h(j)).

"(5) Hazardous material.—The term 'hazardous material' means a substance or material the Secretary designates as hazardous under section 5103 of title 49, United States Code.

"(6) High-hazard flammable train.—The term 'high-hazard flammable train' means a single train transporting 20 or more tank cars loaded with a Class 3 flammable liquid in a continuous block or a single train transporting 35 or more tank cars loaded with a Class 3 flammable liquid throughout the train consist.

"(7) Train consist.—The term 'train consist' includes, with regard to a specific train, the number of rail cars and the commodity transported by each rail car.

"(c) Savings Clause.—Nothing in this section may be construed to prohibit a Class I railroad from voluntarily entering into a memorandum of understanding, as described in subsection (a)(1)(B), with a State emergency response commission or an entity representing or including first responders, emergency response officials, and law enforcement personnel."

Alerters

Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11407, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1684, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Secretary [of Transportation] shall promulgate a rule to require a working alerter in the controlling locomotive of each passenger train in intercity rail passenger transportation (as defined in section 24102 of title 49, United States Code) or commuter rail passenger transportation (as defined in section 24102 of title 49, United States Code).

"(b) Rulemaking.—

"(1) In general.—The Secretary may promulgate a rule to specify the essential functionalities of a working alerter, including the manner in which the alerter can be reset.

"(2) Alternate practice or technology.—The Secretary may require or allow a technology or practice in lieu of a working alerter if the Secretary determines that the technology or practice would achieve an equivalent or greater level of safety in enhancing or ensuring appropriate locomotive control."

Locomotive Cab Studies

Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title IV, §405, Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4885, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 16, 2008], the Secretary, through the Railroad Safety Advisory Committee if the Secretary makes such a request, shall complete a study on the safety impact of the use of personal electronic devices, including cell phones, video games, and other distracting devices, by safety-related railroad employees (as defined in section 20102(4) of title 49, United States Code), during the performance of such employees' duties. The study shall consider the prevalence of the use of such devices.

"(b) Locomotive Cab Environment.—The Secretary may also study other elements of the locomotive cab environment and their effect on an employee's health and safety.

"(c) Report.—Not later than 6 months after the completion of any study under this section, the Secretary shall issue a report on the study to the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the House of Representatives Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure.

"(d) Authority.—Based on the conclusions of the study required under (a), the Secretary of Transportation may prohibit the use of personal electronic devices, such as cell phones, video games, or other electronic devices that may distract employees from safely performing their duties, unless those devices are being used according to railroad operating rules or for other work purposes. Based on the conclusions of other studies conducted under subsection (b), the Secretary may prescribe regulations to improve elements of the cab environment to protect an employee's health and safety."

[For definitions of "Secretary" and "railroad", as used in section 405 of Pub. L. 110–432, set out above, see section 2(a) of Pub. L. 110–432, set out as a note under section 20102 of this title.]

Tunnel Information

Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title IV, §414, Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4889, as amended by Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11316(j)(7), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1678, provided that: "Not later than 120 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 16, 2008], each railroad carrier shall, with respect to each of its tunnels which—

"(1) are longer than 1000 feet and located under a city with a population of 400,000 or greater; or

"(2) carry 5 or more scheduled passenger trains per day, or 500 or more carloads of poison- or toxic-by-inhalation hazardous materials (as defined in sections 171.8, 173.115, and 173.132 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations) per year,

maintain, for at least two years, historical documentation of structural inspection and maintenance activities for such tunnels, including information on the methods of ingress and egress into and out of the tunnel, the types of cargos typically transported through the tunnel, and schematics or blueprints for the tunnel, when available. Upon request, a railroad carrier shall provide periodic briefings on such information to the governments of the local jurisdiction in which the tunnel is located, including updates whenever a repair or rehabilitation project substantially alters the methods of ingress and egress. Such governments shall use appropriate means to protect and restrict the distribution of any security sensitive information (as defined in section 1520.5 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations) provided by the railroad carrier under this section, consistent with national security interests."

[For definition of "railroad carrier", as used in section 414 of Pub. L. 110–432, set out above, see section 2(a) of Pub. L. 110–432, set out as a note under section 20102 of this title.]

Railroad Bridge Safety Assurance

Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title IV, §417, Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4890, as amended by Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11405, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1682, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 12 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 16, 2008], the Secretary shall promulgate a regulation requiring owners of track carried on one or more railroad bridges to adopt a bridge safety management program to prevent the deterioration of railroad bridges and reduce the risk of human casualties, environmental damage, and disruption to the Nation's railroad transportation system that would result from a catastrophic bridge failure.

"(b) Requirements.—The regulations shall, at a minimum, require each track owner to [sic]—

"(1) to develop and maintain an accurate inventory of its railroad bridges, which shall identify the location of each bridge, its configuration, type of construction, number of spans, span lengths, and all other information necessary to provide for the safe management of the bridges;

"(2) to ensure that a professional engineer competent in the field of railroad bridge engineering, or a qualified person under the supervision of the track owner, determines bridge capacity;

"(3) to maintain, and update as appropriate, a record of the safe capacity of each bridge which carries its track and, if available, maintain the original design documents of each bridge and a documentation of all repairs, modifications, and inspections of the bridge;

"(4) to develop, maintain, and enforce a written procedure that will ensure that its bridges are not loaded beyond their capacities;

"(5) to conduct regular comprehensive inspections of each bridge, at least once every year, and maintain records of those inspections that include the date on which the inspection was performed, the precise identification of the bridge inspected, the items inspected, an accurate description of the condition of those items, and a narrative of any inspection item that is found by the inspector to be a potential problem;

"(6) to ensure that the level of detail and the inspection procedures are appropriate to the configuration of the bridge, conditions found during previous inspections, and the nature of the railroad traffic moved over the bridge, including car weights, train frequency and length, levels of passenger and hazardous materials traffic, and vulnerability of the bridge to damage;

"(7) to ensure that an engineer who is competent in the field of railroad bridge engineering—

"(A) is responsible for the development of all inspection procedures;

"(B) reviews all inspection reports; and

"(C) determines whether bridges are being inspected according to the applicable procedures and frequency, and reviews any items noted by an inspector as exceptions; and

"(8) to designate qualified bridge inspectors or maintenance personnel to authorize the operation of trains on bridges following repairs, damage, or indications of potential structural problems.

"(c) Use of Bridge Management Programs Required.—The Secretary shall instruct bridge experts to obtain copies of the most recent bridge management programs of each railroad within the expert's areas of responsibility, and require that experts use those programs when conducting bridge observations.

"(d) Review of Data.—

"(1) In general.—The Secretary shall establish a program to periodically review bridge inspection and maintenance data from railroad carrier bridge inspectors and Federal Railroad Administration bridge experts.

"(2) Availability of bridge condition.—

"(A) In general.—A State or political subdivision of a State may file a request with the Secretary for a public version of a bridge inspection report generated under subsection (b)(5) for a bridge located in such State or political subdivision's jurisdiction.

"(B) Public version of report.—If the Secretary determines that the request is reasonable, the Secretary shall require a railroad to submit a public version of the most recent bridge inspection report, such as a summary form, for a bridge subject to a request under subparagraph (A). The public version of a bridge inspection report shall include the date of last inspection, length of bridge, location of bridge, type of bridge, type of structure, feature crossed by bridge, and railroad contact information, along with a general statement on the condition of the bridge.

"(C) Provision of report.—The Secretary shall provide to a State or political subdivision of a State a public version of a bridge inspection report submitted under subparagraph (B).

"(D) Technical assistance.—The Secretary, upon the reasonable request of State or political subdivision of a State, shall provide technical assistance to such State or political subdivision of a State to facilitate the understanding of a bridge inspection report."

[For definitions of "Secretary", "railroad", and "railroad carrier", as used in section 417 of Pub. L. 110–432, set out above, see section 2(a) of Pub. L. 110–432, set out as a note under section 20102 of this title.]

§20104. Emergency authority

(a) Ordering Restrictions and Prohibitions.—(1) If, through testing, inspection, investigation, or research carried out under this chapter, the Secretary of Transportation decides that an unsafe condition or practice, or a combination of unsafe conditions and practices, causes an emergency situation involving a hazard of death, personal injury, or significant harm to the environment, the Secretary immediately may order restrictions and prohibitions, without regard to section 20103(e) of this title, that may be necessary to abate the situation.

(2) The order shall describe the condition or practice, or a combination of conditions and practices, that causes the emergency situation and prescribe standards and procedures for obtaining relief from the order. This paragraph does not affect the Secretary's discretion under this section to maintain the order in effect for as long as the emergency situation exists.

(b) Review of Orders.—After issuing an order under this section, the Secretary shall provide an opportunity for review of the order under section 554 of title 5. If a petition for review is filed and the review is not completed by the end of the 30-day period beginning on the date the order was issued, the order stops being effective at the end of that period unless the Secretary decides in writing that the emergency situation still exists.

(c) Civil Actions To Compel Issuance of Orders.—An employee of a railroad carrier engaged in interstate or foreign commerce who may be exposed to imminent physical injury during that employment because of the Secretary's failure, without any reasonable basis, to issue an order under subsection (a) of this section, or the employee's authorized representative, may bring a civil action against the Secretary in a district court of the United States to compel the Secretary to issue an order. The action must be brought in the judicial district in which the emergency situation is alleged to exist, in which that employing carrier has its principal executive office, or for the District of Columbia. The Secretary's failure to issue an order under subsection (a) of this section may be reviewed only under section 706 of title 5.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 864; Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title III, §304, Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4879.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20104(a) 45:432(a), (d). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, §203, 84 Stat. 972; restated Oct. 10, 1980, Pub. L. 96–423, §3, 94 Stat. 1811.
20104(b) 45:432(b), (c).
20104(c) 45:432(e).

In subsection (a)(1), the words "or both" are omitted as surplus. The words "immediately may order restrictions and prohibitions . . . that may be necessary to abate the situation" are substituted for "may immediately issue an order . . . imposing such restrictions or prohibitions as may be necessary to bring about the abatement of such emergency situation" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (a)(2), the words "or a combination of conditions and practices" are added for consistency with paragraph (1). The words "(as determined by the Secretary)" are omitted as surplus. The last sentence is substituted for 45:432(d) (last sentence) for clarity.

In subsection (b), the words "the Secretary" are added for clarity.

In subsection (c), the words "issue an order" are substituted for "seek relief" for consistency in this section. The words "The action must be brought in the judicial district" are substituted for "for the judicial district" for consistency in the revised title.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 110–432 substituted "death, personal injury, or significant harm to the environment" for "death or personal injury".

§20105. State participation

(a) Investigative and Surveillance Activities.—The Secretary concerned may prescribe investigative and surveillance activities necessary to enforce the safety regulations prescribed and orders issued by the Secretary 1 that apply to railroad equipment, facilities, rolling stock, and operations in a State. The State may participate in those activities when the safety practices for railroad equipment, facilities, rolling stock, and operations in the State are regulated by a State authority and the authority submits to the Secretary concerned an annual certification as provided in subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Annual Certification.—(1) A State authority's annual certification must include—

(A) a certification that the authority—

(i) has regulatory jurisdiction over the safety practices for railroad equipment, facilities, rolling stock, and operations in the State;

(ii) was given a copy of each safety regulation prescribed and order issued by the Secretary concerned, that applies to the equipment, facilities, rolling stock, or operations, as of the date of certification; and

(iii) is conducting the investigative and surveillance activities prescribed by the Secretary concerned under subsection (a) of this section; and


(B) a report, in the form the Secretary concerned prescribes by regulation, that includes—

(i) the name and address of each railroad carrier subject to the safety jurisdiction of the authority;

(ii) each accident or incident reported during the prior 12 months by a railroad carrier involving a fatality, personal injury requiring hospitalization, or property damage of more than $750 (or a higher amount prescribed by the Secretary concerned), and a summary of the authority's investigation of the cause and circumstances surrounding the accident or incident;

(iii) the record maintenance, reporting, and inspection practices conducted by the authority to aid the Secretary concerned in enforcing railroad safety regulations prescribed and orders issued by the Secretary concerned, including the number of inspections made of railroad equipment, facilities, rolling stock, and operations by the authority during the prior 12 months; and

(iv) other information the Secretary concerned requires.


(2) An annual certification applies to a safety regulation prescribed or order issued after the date of the certification only if the State authority submits an appropriate certification to provide the necessary investigative and surveillance activities.

(3) If, after receipt of an annual certification, the Secretary concerned decides the State authority is not complying satisfactorily with the investigative and surveillance activities prescribed under subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary concerned may reject any part of the certification or take other appropriate action to achieve adequate enforcement. The Secretary concerned must give the authority notice and an opportunity for a hearing before taking action under this paragraph. When the Secretary concerned gives notice, the burden of proof is on the authority to show that it is complying satisfactorily with the investigative and surveillance activities prescribed by the Secretary concerned.

(c) Agreement When Certification Not Received.—(1) If the Secretary concerned does not receive an annual certification under subsection (a) of this section related to any railroad equipment, facility, rolling stock, or operation, the Secretary concerned may make an agreement with a State authority for the authority to provide any part of the investigative and surveillance activities prescribed by the Secretary concerned as necessary to enforce the safety regulations and orders applicable to the equipment, facility, rolling stock, or operation.

(2) The Secretary concerned may terminate any part of an agreement made under this subsection on finding that the authority has not provided every part of the investigative and surveillance activities to which the agreement relates. The Secretary concerned must give the authority notice and an opportunity for a hearing before making such a finding. The finding and termination shall be published in the Federal Register and may not become effective for at least 15 days after the date of publication.

(d) Agreement for Investigative and Surveillance Activities.—In addition to providing for State participation under this section, the Secretary concerned may make an agreement with a State to provide investigative and surveillance activities related to the duties under chapters 203–213 of this title (in the case of the Secretary of Transportation) and duties under section 114 of this title (in the case of the Secretary of Homeland Security).

(e) Payment.—On application by a State authority that has submitted a certification under subsections (a) and (b) of this section or made an agreement under subsection (c) or (d) of this section, the Secretary concerned shall pay not more than 50 percent of the cost of the personnel, equipment, and activities of the authority needed, during the next fiscal year, to carry out a safety program under the certification or agreement. However, the Secretary concerned may pay an authority only when the authority assures the Secretary concerned that it will provide the remaining cost of the safety program and that the total State money expended for the safety program, excluding grants of the United States Government, will be at least as much as the average amount expended for the fiscal years that ended June 30, 1969, and June 30, 1970.

(f) Monitoring.—The Secretary concerned may monitor State investigative and surveillance practices and carry out other inspections and investigations necessary to help enforce this chapter (in the case of the Secretary of Transportation) and duties under section 114 of this title (in the case of the Secretary of Homeland Security).

(g) Definitions.—In this section—

(1) the term "safety" includes security; and

(2) the term "Secretary concerned" means—

(A) the Secretary of Transportation, with respect to railroad safety matters concerning such Secretary under laws administered by that Secretary; and

(B) the Secretary of Homeland Security, with respect to railroad safety matters concerning such Secretary under laws administered by that Secretary.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 864; Pub. L. 107–296, title XVII, §1710(a), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2319.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20105(a) 45:435(a) (1st sentence related to authority for State participation). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, §206(a) (1st sentence), (b), (f), 84 Stat. 972, 973, 974; Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615, §28(a)(1)–(3), (b), (c), 104 Stat. 3276, 3277.
20105(b) (1)(A) 45:435(a) (1st sentence related to contents of certification).
20105(b) (1)(B) 45:435(b) (1st sentence).
20105(b)(2) 45:435(f).
20105(b)(3) 45:435(b) (2d–last sentences).
20105(c) 45:435(c). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, §206(c), (e), 84 Stat. 973, 974.
20105(d) 45:435(g). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §206(g); added Oct. 10, 1980, Pub. L. 96–423, §4(a), 94 Stat. 1812.
20105(e) 45:435(d). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, §206(d), 84 Stat. 974; Oct. 10, 1980, Pub. L. 96–423, §4(b), 94 Stat. 1812.
20105(f) 45:435(e).

In subsection (a), the first sentence is added for clarity.

In subsection (b)(1)(A)(iii), the words "as necessary for the enforcement by him of each rule, regulation, order, and standard referred to in paragraph (2) of this subsection, as interpreted by the Secretary" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(1)(B)(i) and (ii), the words "railroad carrier" are substituted for "railroad" because of the definition of "railroad carrier" in section 20102 of the revised title.

In subsection (b)(1)(B)(iii), the words "a detail of" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(3), the text of 45:435(b) (2d sentence) and the words "as he deems", "reasonable", and "with respect to such safety rules, regulations, orders, and standards" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(1), the word "enforce" is substituted for "obtain compliance with" for clarity and consistency in this section.

In subsection (e), the words "out of funds appropriated pursuant to this subchapter or otherwise made available", "reasonably", and "satisfactory" are omitted as surplus. The words "will be at least as much as the average amount expended" are substituted for "will be maintained at a level which does not fall below the average level of such expenditures" for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–296, §1710(a)(2), substituted "the Secretary concerned" for "the Secretary" in second sentence.

Pub. L. 107–296, §1710(a)(1), substituted "The Secretary concerned" for "The Secretary of Transportation" in first sentence.

Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 107–296, §1710(a)(2), substituted "Secretary concerned" for "Secretary" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 107–296, §1710(a)(2), (3), substituted "Secretary concerned" for "Secretary" and "duties under chapters 203–213 of this title (in the case of the Secretary of Transportation) and duties under section 114 of this title (in the case of the Secretary of Homeland Security)" for "Secretary's duties under chapters 203–213 of this title".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 107–296, §1710(a)(2), substituted "Secretary concerned" for "Secretary" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 107–296, §1710(a)(2), (4), substituted "Secretary concerned" for "Secretary" and "chapter (in the case of the Secretary of Transportation) and duties under section 114 of this title (in the case of the Secretary of Homeland Security)" for "chapter".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 107–296, §1710(a)(5), added subsec. (g).

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective 60 days after Nov. 25, 2002, see section 4 of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as an Effective Date note under section 101 of Title 6, Domestic Security.

1 So in original. Probably should be "Secretary concerned".

§20106. Preemption

(a) National Uniformity of Regulation.—(1) Laws, regulations, and orders related to railroad safety and laws, regulations, and orders related to railroad security shall be nationally uniform to the extent practicable.

(2) A State may adopt or continue in force a law, regulation, or order related to railroad safety or security until the Secretary of Transportation (with respect to railroad safety matters), or the Secretary of Homeland Security (with respect to railroad security matters), prescribes a regulation or issues an order covering the subject matter of the State requirement. A State may adopt or continue in force an additional or more stringent law, regulation, or order related to railroad safety or security when the law, regulation, or order—

(A) is necessary to eliminate or reduce an essentially local safety or security hazard;

(B) is not incompatible with a law, regulation, or order of the United States Government; and

(C) does not unreasonably burden interstate commerce.


(b) Clarification Regarding State Law Causes of Action.—(1) Nothing in this section shall be construed to preempt an action under State law seeking damages for personal injury, death, or property damage alleging that a party—

(A) has failed to comply with the Federal standard of care established by a regulation or order issued by the Secretary of Transportation (with respect to railroad safety matters), or the Secretary of Homeland Security (with respect to railroad security matters), covering the subject matter as provided in subsection (a) of this section;

(B) has failed to comply with its own plan, rule, or standard that it created pursuant to a regulation or order issued by either of the Secretaries; or

(C) has failed to comply with a State law, regulation, or order that is not incompatible with subsection (a)(2).


(2) This subsection shall apply to all pending State law causes of action arising from events or activities occurring on or after January 18, 2002.

(c) Jurisdiction.—Nothing in this section creates a Federal cause of action on behalf of an injured party or confers Federal question jurisdiction for such State law causes of action.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 866; Pub. L. 107–296, title XVII, §1710(c), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2319; Pub. L. 110–53, title XV, §1528, Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 453.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20106 45:434. Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, §205, 84 Stat. 972.

In this section, before clause (1), the words "The Congress declares that" are omitted as unnecessary. In clause (3), the word "unreasonably" is substituted for "undue" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

Amendments

2007—Pub. L. 110–53 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, text of section read as follows: "Laws, regulations, and orders related to railroad safety and laws, regulations, and orders related to railroad security shall be nationally uniform to the extent practicable. A State may adopt or continue in force a law, regulation, or order related to railroad safety or security until the Secretary of Transportation (with respect to railroad safety matters), or the Secretary of Homeland Security (with respect to railroad security matters), prescribes a regulation or issues an order covering the subject matter of the State requirement. A State may adopt or continue in force an additional or more stringent law, regulation, or order related to railroad safety or security when the law, regulation, or order—

"(1) is necessary to eliminate or reduce an essentially local safety or security hazard;

"(2) is not incompatible with a law, regulation, or order of the United States Government; and

"(3) does not unreasonably burden interstate commerce."

2002—Pub. L. 107–296, §1710(c), in introductory provisions, in first sentence inserted "and laws, regulations, and orders related to railroad security" after "safety", in second sentence substituted "Transportation (with respect to railroad safety matters), or the Secretary of Homeland Security (with respect to railroad security matters)," for "Transportation", and in second and third sentences inserted "or security" after "order related to railroad safety".

Par. (1). Pub. L. 107–296, §1710(c)(2), inserted "or security" after "safety".

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective 60 days after Nov. 25, 2002, see section 4 of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as an Effective Date note under section 101 of Title 6, Domestic Security.

§20107. Inspection and investigation

(a) General.—To carry out this part, the Secretary of Transportation may take actions the Secretary considers necessary, including—

(1) conduct investigations, make reports, issue subpenas, require the production of documents, take depositions, and prescribe recordkeeping and reporting requirements; and

(2) delegate to a public entity or qualified person the inspection, examination, and testing of railroad equipment, facilities, rolling stock, operations, and persons.


(b) Entry and Inspection.—In carrying out this part, an officer, employee, or agent of the Secretary, at reasonable times and in a reasonable way, may enter and inspect railroad equipment, facilities, rolling stock, operations, and relevant records. When requested, the officer, employee, or agent shall display proper credentials. During an inspection, the officer, employee, or agent is an employee of the United States Government under chapter 171 of title 28.

(c) Railroad Radio Communications.—

(1) In general.—To carry out the Secretary's responsibilities under this part and under chapter 51, the Secretary may authorize officers, employees, or agents of the Secretary to conduct, with or without making their presence known, the following activities in circumstances the Secretary finds to be reasonable:

(A) Intercepting a radio communication, with or without the consent of the sender or other receivers of the communication, but only where such communication is broadcast or transmitted over a radio frequency which is—

(i) authorized for use by one or more railroad carriers by the Federal Communications Commission; and

(ii) primarily used by such railroad carriers for communications in connection with railroad operations.


(B) Communicating the existence, contents, substance, purport, effect, or meaning of the communication, subject to the restrictions in paragraph (3).

(C) Receiving or assisting in receiving the communication (or any information therein contained).

(D) Disclosing the contents, substance, purport, effect, or meaning of the communication (or any part thereof of such communication) or using the communication (or any information contained therein), subject to the restrictions in paragraph (3), after having received the communication or acquired knowledge of the contents, substance, purport, effect, or meaning of the communication (or any part thereof).

(E) Recording the communication by any means, including writing and tape recording.


(2) Accident and incident prevention and investigation.—The Secretary, and officers, employees, and agents of the Department of Transportation authorized by the Secretary, may engage in the activities authorized by paragraph (1) for the purpose of accident and incident prevention and investigation.

(3) Use of information.—(A) Information obtained through activities authorized by paragraphs (1) and (2) shall not be admitted into evidence in any administrative or judicial proceeding except—

(i) in a prosecution of a felony under Federal or State criminal law; or

(ii) to impeach evidence offered by a party other than the Federal Government regarding the existence, electronic characteristics, content, substance, purport, effect, meaning, or timing of, or identity of parties to, a communication intercepted pursuant to paragraphs (1) and (2) in proceedings pursuant to section 5122, 5123, 20702(b), 20111, 20112, 20113, or 20114 of this title.


(B) If information obtained through activities set forth in paragraphs (1) and (2) is admitted into evidence for impeachment purposes in accordance with subparagraph (A), the court, administrative law judge, or other officer before whom the proceeding is conducted may make such protective orders regarding the confidentiality or use of the information as may be appropriate in the circumstances to protect privacy and administer justice.

(C) No evidence shall be excluded in an administrative or judicial proceeding solely because the government would not have learned of the existence of or obtained such evidence but for the interception of information that is not admissible in such proceeding under subparagraph (A).

(D) Information obtained through activities set forth in paragraphs (1) and (2) shall not be subject to publication or disclosure, or search or review in connection therewith, under section 552 of title 5.

(E) Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect the authority of the United States to intercept a communication, and collect, retain, analyze, use, and disseminate the information obtained thereby, under a provision of law other than this subsection.

(4) Application with other law.—Section 705 of the Communications Act of 1934 (47 U.S.C. 605) and chapter 119 of title 18 shall not apply to conduct authorized by and pursuant to this subsection.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 866; Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title III, §306, Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4880.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20107(a) 45:437(a) (1st sentence words before 9th and after 14th commas). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, §208(a) (1st sentence words before 9th and after 14th commas), 84 Stat. 974, 975.
  45:437(d)(1) (1st sentence). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §208(d)(1) (1st sentence); added Oct. 10, 1980, Pub. L. 96–423, §6(b), 94 Stat. 1813.
20107(b) 45:437(b). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, §208(b), 84 Stat. 975; restated Nov. 2, 1978, Pub. L. 95–574, §9, 92 Stat. 2462; Oct. 10, 1980, Pub. L. 96–423, §6(a), 94 Stat. 1813.

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words "To carry out this part, the Secretary of Transportation may" are substituted for "In carrying out his functions under this subchapter, the Secretary is authorized to perform . . . to carry out the provisions of this subchapter" and "In carrying out the functions formerly vested in the Interstate Commerce Commission and transferred to the Secretary by section 1655(e)(1), (e)(2), and (e)(6)(A) of title 49, Appendix, the Secretary is authorized to perform any act authorized in subsection (a) of this section . . . to carry out such transferred functions" to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (2), the word "entity" is substituted for "bodies" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (b), the words "In carrying out this part" are substituted for "To carry out the Secretary's responsibilities under this subchapter and under the functions transferred by section 1655(e)(1), (e)(2), and (e)(6)(A) of title 49, Appendix" to eliminate unnecessary words. The word "way" is substituted for "manner" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. The word "examine" is omitted as being included in "inspect". The word "considered" is omitted as surplus.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 110–432 added subsec. (c).

Safety Inspections in Mexico

Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title IV, §416, Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4890, as amended by Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11316(j)(8), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1678, provided that: "Mechanical and brake inspections of rail cars performed in Mexico shall not be treated as satisfying United States rail safety laws or regulations unless the Secretary certifies that—

"(1) such inspections are being performed under regulations and standards equivalent to those applicable in the United States;

"(2) the inspections are being performed by employees that have received training similar to the training received by similar railroad employees in the United States;

"(3) inspection records that are required to be available to the crewmembers on board the train, including air slips and blue cards, are maintained in both English and Spanish, and such records are available to the Federal Railroad Administration for review; and

"(4) the Federal Railroad Administration is permitted to perform onsite inspections for the purpose of ensuring compliance with the requirements of this section."

[For definition of "railroad", as used in section 416 of Pub. L. 110–432, set out above, see section 2(a) of Pub. L. 110–432, set out as a note under section 20102 of this title.]

§20108. Research, development, testing, and training

(a) General.—The Secretary of Transportation shall carry out, as necessary, research, development, testing, evaluation, and training for every area of railroad safety.

(b) Contracts.—To carry out this part, the Secretary may make contracts for, and carry out, research, development, testing, evaluation, and training (particularly for those areas of railroad safety found to need prompt attention).

(c) Amounts From Non-Government Sources for Training Safety Employees.—The Secretary may request, receive, and expend amounts received from non-United States Government sources for expenses incurred in training safety employees of private industry, State and local authorities, or other public authorities, except State rail safety inspectors participating in training under section 20105 of this title.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 867.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20108(a) 45:431(a) (1st sentence cl. (2)). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, §§202(a) (1st sentence cl. (2)), 208(a) (1st sentence words before 3d comma and between 9th–14th commas), 84 Stat. 971, 974.
20108(b) 45:437(a) (1st sentence words before 3d comma and between 9th–14th commas).
  45:437(d)(1) (1st sentence). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §208(d)(1) (1st sentence); added Oct. 10, 1980, Pub. L. 96–423, §6(b), 94 Stat. 1813.
20108(c) 45:444(a) (last sentence). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §214(a) (last sentence); added Oct. 10, 1980, Pub. L. 96–423, §2, 94 Stat. 1811; Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–35, §1195, 95 Stat. 702; Jan. 14, 1983, Pub. L. 97–468, §703, 96 Stat. 2580; restated June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §2, 102 Stat. 624; Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101–508, §10501(b), 104 Stat. 1388–400; restated Sept. 3, 1992, Pub. L. 102–365, §12, 106 Stat. 980.

In subsection (b), the words "To carry out this part, the Secretary may" are substituted for "In carrying out his functions under this subchapter, the Secretary is authorized to perform such acts including, but not limited to . . . as he deems necessary to carry out the provisions of this subchapter" and "In carrying out the functions formerly vested in the Interstate Commerce Commission and transferred to the Secretary by section 1655(e)(1), (e)(2), and (e)(6)(A) of title 49, Appendix, the Secretary is authorized to perform any act authorized in subsection (a) of this section that he considers necessary to carry out such transferred functions, including, but not limited to" to eliminate unnecessary words.

§20109. Employee protections

(a) In General.—A railroad carrier engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, a contractor or a subcontractor of such a railroad carrier, or an officer or employee of such a railroad carrier, may not discharge, demote, suspend, reprimand, or in any other way discriminate against an employee if such discrimination is due, in whole or in part, to the employee's lawful, good faith act done, or perceived by the employer to have been done or about to be done—

(1) to provide information, directly cause information to be provided, or otherwise directly assist in any investigation regarding any conduct which the employee reasonably believes constitutes a violation of any Federal law, rule, or regulation relating to railroad safety or security, or gross fraud, waste, or abuse of Federal grants or other public funds intended to be used for railroad safety or security, if the information or assistance is provided to or an investigation stemming from the provided information is conducted by—

(A) a Federal, State, or local regulatory or law enforcement agency (including an office of the Inspector General under the Inspector General Act of 1978 (5 U.S.C. App.; Public Law 95–452);

(B) any Member of Congress, any committee of Congress, or the Government Accountability Office; or

(C) a person with supervisory authority over the employee or such other person who has the authority to investigate, discover, or terminate the misconduct;


(2) to refuse to violate or assist in the violation of any Federal law, rule, or regulation relating to railroad safety or security;

(3) to file a complaint, or directly cause to be brought a proceeding related to the enforcement of this part or, as applicable to railroad safety or security, chapter 51 or 57 of this title, or to testify in that proceeding;

(4) to notify, or attempt to notify, the railroad carrier or the Secretary of Transportation of a work-related personal injury or work-related illness of an employee;

(5) to cooperate with a safety or security investigation by the Secretary of Transportation, the Secretary of Homeland Security, or the National Transportation Safety Board;

(6) to furnish information to the Secretary of Transportation, the Secretary of Homeland Security, the National Transportation Safety Board, or any Federal, State, or local regulatory or law enforcement agency as to the facts relating to any accident or incident resulting in injury or death to an individual or damage to property occurring in connection with railroad transportation; or

(7) to accurately report hours on duty pursuant to chapter 211.


(b) Hazardous Safety or Security Conditions.—(1) A railroad carrier engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, or an officer or employee of such a railroad carrier, shall not discharge, demote, suspend, reprimand, or in any other way discriminate against an employee for—

(A) reporting, in good faith, a hazardous safety or security condition;

(B) refusing to work when confronted by a hazardous safety or security condition related to the performance of the employee's duties, if the conditions described in paragraph (2) exist; or

(C) refusing to authorize the use of any safety-related equipment, track, or structures, if the employee is responsible for the inspection or repair of the equipment, track, or structures, when the employee believes that the equipment, track, or structures are in a hazardous safety or security condition, if the conditions described in paragraph (2) exist.


(2) A refusal is protected under paragraph (1)(B) and (C) if—

(A) the refusal is made in good faith and no reasonable alternative to the refusal is available to the employee;

(B) a reasonable individual in the circumstances then confronting the employee would conclude that—

(i) the hazardous condition presents an imminent danger of death or serious injury; and

(ii) the urgency of the situation does not allow sufficient time to eliminate the danger without such refusal; and


(C) the employee, where possible, has notified the railroad carrier of the existence of the hazardous condition and the intention not to perform further work, or not to authorize the use of the hazardous equipment, track, or structures, unless the condition is corrected immediately or the equipment, track, or structures are repaired properly or replaced.


(3) In this subsection, only paragraph (1)(A) shall apply to security personnel employed by a railroad carrier to protect individuals and property transported by railroad.

(c) Prompt Medical Attention.—

(1) Prohibition.—A railroad carrier or person covered under this section may not deny, delay, or interfere with the medical or first aid treatment of an employee who is injured during the course of employment. If transportation to a hospital is requested by an employee who is injured during the course of employment, the railroad shall promptly arrange to have the injured employee transported to the nearest hospital where the employee can receive safe and appropriate medical care.

(2) Discipline.—A railroad carrier or person covered under this section may not discipline, or threaten discipline to, an employee for requesting medical or first aid treatment, or for following orders or a treatment plan of a treating physician, except that a railroad carrier's refusal to permit an employee to return to work following medical treatment shall not be considered a violation of this section if the refusal is pursuant to Federal Railroad Administration medical standards for fitness of duty or, if there are no pertinent Federal Railroad Administration standards, a carrier's medical standards for fitness for duty. For purposes of this paragraph, the term "discipline" means to bring charges against a person in a disciplinary proceeding, suspend, terminate, place on probation, or make note of reprimand on an employee's record.


(d) Enforcement Action.—

(1) In general.—An employee who alleges discharge, discipline, or other discrimination in violation of subsection (a), (b), or (c) of this section, may seek relief in accordance with the provisions of this section, with any petition or other request for relief under this section to be initiated by filing a complaint with the Secretary of Labor.

(2) Procedure.—

(A) In general.—Any action under paragraph (1) shall be governed under the rules and procedures set forth in section 42121(b), including:

(i) Burdens of proof.—Any action brought under (d)(1) 1 shall be governed by the legal burdens of proof set forth in section 42121(b).

(ii) Statute of limitations.—An action under paragraph (1) shall be commenced not later than 180 days after the date on which the alleged violation of subsection (a), (b), or (c) of this section occurs.

(iii) Civil actions to enforce.—If a person fails to comply with an order issued by the Secretary of Labor pursuant to the procedures in section 42121(b), the Secretary of Labor may bring a civil action to enforce the order in the district court of the United States for the judicial district in which the violation occurred, as set forth in 42121.2


(B) Exception.—Notification made under section 42121(b)(1) shall be made to the person named in the complaint and the person's employer.


(3) De novo review.—With respect to a complaint under paragraph (1), if the Secretary of Labor has not issued a final decision within 210 days after the filing of the complaint and if the delay is not due to the bad faith of the employee, the employee may bring an original action at law or equity for de novo review in the appropriate district court of the United States, which shall have jurisdiction over such an action without regard to the amount in controversy, and which action shall, at the request of either party to such action, be tried by the court with a jury.

(4) Appeals.—Any person adversely affected or aggrieved by an order issued pursuant to the procedures in section 42121(b),3 may obtain review of the order in the United States court of appeals for the circuit in which the violation, with respect to which the order was issued, allegedly occurred or the circuit in which the complainant resided on the date of such violation. The petition for review must be filed not later than 60 days after the date of the issuance of the final order of the Secretary of Labor. The review shall conform to chapter 7 of title 5. The commencement of proceedings under this paragraph shall not, unless ordered by the court, operate as a stay of the order.


(e) Remedies.—

(1) In general.—An employee prevailing in any action under subsection (d) shall be entitled to all relief necessary to make the employee whole.

(2) Damages.—Relief in an action under subsection (d) (including an action described in subsection (d)(3)) shall include—

(A) reinstatement with the same seniority status that the employee would have had, but for the discrimination;

(B) any backpay, with interest; and

(C) compensatory damages, including compensation for any special damages sustained as a result of the discrimination, including litigation costs, expert witness fees, and reasonable attorney fees.


(3) Possible relief.—Relief in any action under subsection (d) may include punitive damages in an amount not to exceed $250,000.


(f) Election of Remedies.—An employee may not seek protection under both this section and another provision of law for the same allegedly unlawful act of the railroad carrier.

(g) No Preemption.—Nothing in this section preempts or diminishes any other safeguards against discrimination, demotion, discharge, suspension, threats, harassment, reprimand, retaliation, or any other manner of discrimination provided by Federal or State law.

(h) Rights Retained by Employee.—Nothing in this section shall be deemed to diminish the rights, privileges, or remedies of any employee under any Federal or State law or under any collective bargaining agreement. The rights and remedies in this section may not be waived by any agreement, policy, form, or condition of employment.

(i) Disclosure of Identity.—

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, or with the written consent of the employee, the Secretary of Transportation or the Secretary of Homeland Security may not disclose the name of an employee of a railroad carrier who has provided information about an alleged violation of this part or, as applicable to railroad safety or security, chapter 51 or 57 of this title, or a regulation prescribed or order issued under any of those provisions.

(2) The Secretary of Transportation or the Secretary of Homeland Security shall disclose to the Attorney General the name of an employee described in paragraph (1) if the matter is referred to the Attorney General for enforcement. The Secretary making such disclosures shall provide reasonable advance notice to the affected employee if disclosure of that person's identity or identifying information is to occur.


(j) Process for Reporting Security Problems to the Department of Homeland Security.—

(1) Establishment of process.—The Secretary of Homeland Security shall establish through regulations, after an opportunity for notice and comment, a process by which any person may report to the Secretary of Homeland Security regarding railroad security problems, deficiencies, or vulnerabilities.

(2) Acknowledgment of receipt.—If a report submitted under paragraph (1) identifies the person making the report, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall respond promptly to such person and acknowledge receipt of the report.

(3) Steps to address problem.—The Secretary of Homeland Security shall review and consider the information provided in any report submitted under paragraph (1) and shall take appropriate steps to address any problems or deficiencies identified.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 867; Pub. L. 110–53, title XV, §1521, Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 444; Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title IV, §419, Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4892.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20109(a) 45:441(a). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §212(a)–(c)(1), (d); added Oct. 10, 1980, Pub. L. 96–423, §10, 94 Stat. 1815.
  45:441(e). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §212(e); added Oct. 10, 1980, Pub. L. 96–423, §10, 94 Stat. 1815; Sept. 3, 1992, Pub. L. 102–365, §5(b), 106 Stat. 975.
20109(b) 45:441(b).
20109(c) 45:441(c)(1).
  45:441(c)(2). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §212(c)(2); added Oct. 10, 1980, Pub. L. 96–423, §10, 94 Stat. 1815; restated June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §5(a), 102 Stat. 627.
20109(d) 45:441(d).
20109(e) 45:441(e).
  45:441(f). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §212(f); added June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §5(b), 102 Stat. 627.

In subsections (a) and (b), the words "railroad carrier" are substituted for "common carrier by railroad" because of the definition of "railroad carrier" in section 20102 of the revised title.

In subsection (a)(1), the words "under or" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(1)(B), before subclause (i), the words "the hazardous condition is of such a nature that" are omitted as surplus. The word "individual" is substituted for "person" as being more appropriate. In subclause (ii), the words "resort to" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(1)(C), the words "his apprehension of" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(2), the words "by a carrier . . . transported by railroad" are substituted for "by a railroad . . . transported by such railroad" for consistency in the revised title.

Subsection (d) is substituted for 45:441(d) for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words.

Subsection (e)(2) is substituted for 45:441(f)(2) to eliminate unnecessary words.

References in Text

The Inspector General Act of 1978, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(A), is Pub. L. 95–452, Oct. 12, 1978, 92 Stat. 1101, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 110–432, §419(a)(2), added subsec. (c). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 110–432, §419(a)(1), redesignated subsec. (c) as (d). Former subsec. (d) redesignated (e).

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 110–432, §419(b)(1)(A), substituted "(a), (b), or (c)" for "(a) or (b)".

Subsec. (d)(2)(A)(i). Pub. L. 110–432, §419(b)(1)(B), substituted "(d)(1)" for "(c)(1)".

Subsec. (d)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 110–432, §419(b)(1)(C), substituted "(a), (b), or (c)" for "(a) or (b)".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 110–432, §419(a)(1), redesignated subsec. (d) as (e). Former subsec. (e) redesignated (f).

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 110–432, §419(b)(2)(A), substituted "(d)" for "(c)".

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 110–432, §419(b)(2)(B), (C), substituted "(d)" for "(c)" and "(d)(3)" for "(c)(3)" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 110–432, §419(b)(2)(D), substituted "(d)" for "(c)".

Subsecs. (f) to (j). Pub. L. 110–432, §419(a)(1), redesignated subsecs. (e) to (i) as (f) to (j), respectively.

2007—Pub. L. 110–53 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section consisted of subsecs. (a) to (e) relating to prohibition against discharge or discrimination for filing of complaints or testifying, prohibition against discharge or discrimination for refusal to work because of hazardous conditions, dispute resolution, election of remedies, and nondisclosure of identity of employee who had provided information regarding a violation.

Critical Incident Stress Plan

Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title IV, §410, Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4887, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Secretary of Transportation, in consultation with the Secretary of Labor and the Secretary of Health and Human Services, as appropriate, shall require each Class I railroad carrier, each intercity passenger railroad carrier, and each commuter railroad carrier to develop and submit for approval to the Secretary a critical incident stress plan that provides for debriefing, counseling, guidance, and other appropriate support services to be offered to an employee affected by a critical incident.

"(b) Plan Requirements.—Each such plan shall include provisions for—

"(1) relieving an employee who was involved in a critical incident of his or her duties for the balance of the duty tour, following any actions necessary for the safety of persons and contemporaneous documentation of the incident;

"(2) upon the employee's request, relieving an employee who witnessed a critical incident of his or her duties following any actions necessary for the safety of persons and contemporaneous documentation of the incident; and

"(3) providing such leave from normal duties as may be necessary and reasonable to receive preventive services, treatment, or both, related to the incident.

"(c) Secretary To Define What Constitutes A Critical Incident.—Within 30 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 16, 2008], the Secretary shall initiate a rulemaking proceeding to define the term 'critical incident' for the purposes of this section."

[For definitions of "railroad carrier" and "Secretary", as used in section 410 of Pub. L. 110–432, set out above, see section 2(a) of Pub. L. 110–432, set out as a note under section 20102 of this title.]

1 So in original. Probably should be preceded by "subsection".

2 So in original. Probably should be preceded by "section".

3 So in original. The comma probably should not appear.

§20110. Effect on employee qualifications and collective bargaining

This chapter does not—

(1) authorize the Secretary of Transportation to prescribe regulations and issue orders related to qualifications of employees, except qualifications specifically related to safety; or

(2) prohibit the bargaining representatives of railroad carriers and their employees from making collective bargaining agreements under the Railway Labor Act (45 U.S.C. 151 et seq.), including agreements related to qualifications of employees, that are not inconsistent with regulations prescribed and orders issued under this chapter.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 868.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20110 45:431(a) (2d, last sentences). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, §202(a) (2d, last sentences), 84 Stat. 971.

In clause (2), the words "railroad carriers" are substituted for "common carriers" for consistency in this part.

References in Text

The Railway Labor Act, referred to in par. (2), is act May 20, 1926, ch. 347, 44 Stat. 577, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 8 (§151 et seq.) of Title 45, Railroads. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 151 of Title 45 and Tables.

§20111. Enforcement by the Secretary of Transportation

(a) Exclusive Authority.—The Secretary of Transportation has exclusive authority—

(1) to impose and compromise a civil penalty for a violation of a railroad safety regulation prescribed or order issued by the Secretary;

(2) except as provided in section 20113 of this title, to request an injunction for a violation of a railroad safety regulation prescribed or order issued by the Secretary; and

(3) to recommend appropriate action be taken under section 20112(a) of this title.


(b) Compliance Orders.—The Secretary may issue an order directing compliance with this part or with a railroad safety regulation prescribed or order issued under this part.

(c) Orders Prohibiting Individuals From Performing Safety-Sensitive Functions.—

(1) If an individual's violation of this part, chapter 51 of this title, or a regulation prescribed, or an order issued, by the Secretary under this part or chapter 51 of this title is shown to make that individual unfit for the performance of safety-sensitive functions, the Secretary, after providing notice and an opportunity for a hearing, may issue an order prohibiting the individual from performing safety-sensitive functions in the railroad industry for a specified period of time or until specified conditions are met.

(2) This subsection does not affect the Secretary's authority under section 20104 of this title to act on an emergency basis.


(d) Regulations Requiring Reporting of Remedial Actions.—(1) The Secretary shall prescribe regulations to require that a railroad carrier notified by the Secretary that imposition of a civil penalty will be recommended for a failure to comply with this part, chapter 51 or 57 of this title, or a regulation prescribed or order issued under any of those provisions, shall report to the Secretary, not later than the 30th day after the end of the month in which the notification is received—

(A) actions taken to remedy the failure; or

(B) if appropriate remedial actions cannot be taken by that 30th day, an explanation of the reasons for the delay.


(2) The Secretary—

(A) not later than June 3, 1993, shall issue a notice of a regulatory proceeding for proposed regulations to carry out this subsection; and

(B) not later than September 3, 1994, shall prescribe final regulations to carry out this subsection.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 868; Pub. L. 103–440, title II, §205, Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4620; Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title III, §305, Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4879.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20111(a) 45:435(a) (last sentence). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, §206(a) (last sentence), 84 Stat. 973; Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615, §28(a)(4), 104 Stat. 3276.
20111(b) 45:437(a) (2d sentence). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §208(a) (2d sentence); added Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §206, 88 Stat. 2166; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §8, 102 Stat. 628.
  45:437(d)(1) (last sentence). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §208(d)(1) (last sentence); added Oct. 10, 1980, Pub. L. 96–423, §6(b), 94 Stat. 1814.
20111(c) 45:438(f). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §209(f); added June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §3(a)(4), 102 Stat. 625.
20111(d) 45:437 (note). Sept. 3, 1992, Pub. L. 102–365, §3, 106 Stat. 972.

In this section, the word "impose" is substituted for "assess" for consistency.

In subsection (b), the word "further" is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d), the words "this part, chapter 51 or 57 of this title" are substituted for "the Federal railroad safety laws, as such term is defined in section 441(e) of this title" because 45:441(e) is not restated as a definition.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 110–432 amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "If an individual's violation of this chapter or any of the laws transferred to the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Transportation by subsection (e)(1), (2), and (6)(A) of section 6 of the Department of Transportation Act, as in effect on June 1, 1994, or a regulation prescribed or order issued by the Secretary under this chapter is shown to make that individual unfit for the performance of safety-sensitive functions, the Secretary, after notice and opportunity for a hearing, may issue an order prohibiting the individual from performing safety-sensitive functions in the railroad industry for a specified period of time or until specified conditions are met. This subsection does not affect the Secretary's authority under section 20104 of this title to act on an emergency basis."

1994—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–440 inserted "this chapter or any of the laws transferred to the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Transportation by subsection (e)(1), (2), and (6)(A) of section 6 of the Department of Transportation Act, as in effect on June 1, 1994, or" after "individual's violation of".

§20112. Enforcement by the Attorney General

(a) Civil Actions.—At the request of the Secretary of Transportation, the Attorney General may bring a civil action in a district court of the United States—

(1) to enjoin a violation of, or to enforce, this part, except for section 20109 of this title, or a railroad safety regulation prescribed or order issued by the Secretary;

(2) to collect a civil penalty imposed or an amount agreed on in compromise under section 21301, 21302, or 21303 of this title; or

(3) to enforce a subpoena, request for admissions, request for production of documents or other tangible things, or request for testimony by deposition issued by the Secretary under this part.


(b) Venue.—(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, a civil action under this section may be brought in the judicial district in which the violation occurred or the defendant has its principal executive office. If an action to collect a penalty is against an individual, the action also may be brought in the judicial district in which the individual resides.

(2) A civil action to enforce a subpena issued by the Secretary or a compliance order issued under section 20111(b) of this title may be brought in the judicial district in which the defendant resides, does business, or is found.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 869; Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title III, §309, Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4882.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20112(a) 45:437(a) (last sentence related to authority to bring actions). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §208(a) (last sentence); added June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §8, 102 Stat. 628.
  45:437(d)(2). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §208(d)(2); added Oct. 10, 1980, Pub. L. 96–423, §6(b), 94 Stat. 1814.
  45:438(c) (4th sentence related to authority to bring actions). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, §209(c) (4th sentence), 84 Stat. 975; Oct. 10, 1980, Pub. L. 96–423, §8(a), 94 Stat. 1814; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §3(a)(3)(A), (B), 102 Stat. 624.
  45:439(a) (related to actions by Attorney General). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, §210(a) (related to actions by Attorney General), 84 Stat. 975; Oct. 10, 1980, Pub. L. 96–423, §9(a), 94 Stat. 1814; Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615, §28(f), 104 Stat. 3277.
20112(b)(1) 45:438(c) (4th sentence related to venue).
  45:439(c) (related to actions by Attorney General). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §210(c) (related to actions by Attorney General); added Oct. 10, 1980, Pub. L. 96–423, §9(b), 94 Stat. 1815.
20112(b)(2) 45:437(a) (last sentence related to venue).

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words "At the request of the Secretary of Transportation" are substituted for "at the request of the Secretary" in 45:439(a), and are made applicable to all of the source provisions restated in this subsection, for clarity and consistency. The words "at the request of the Secretary" in 45:439(a) are interpreted and restated to mean that the Secretary's request is to the Attorney General rather than to the district court. See H.R. Rept. No. 91–1194, 91st Cong., 2d Sess., p. 20 (1970). The words "the Attorney General may bring a civil action in a district court of the United States" are substituted for "such district court shall have jurisdiction, upon petition by the Attorney General" in 45:437(a) (last sentence), "The district courts of the United States shall have jurisdiction, upon petition by the Attorney General" in 45:437(d)(2), and "The United States district court shall . . . upon petition by the Attorney General on behalf of the United States . . . have jurisdiction" in 45:439(a) for clarity and consistency. It is not necessary to restate that the district court has jurisdiction because of 28:1331 and 1345. See also the statement of Senator Prouty in 115 Cong. Rec. 40205 (1969) explaining that similar language in section 110 of S. 1933, 91st Cong., 1st Sess. (the derivative source for 45:439) would grant the Attorney General the power to seek injunctions. Clauses (1)–(3) are substituted for the source provisions to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (1), the words "subject to the provisions of rules 65(a) and (b) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure" in 45:439(a) are omitted as surplus because the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (28 App. U.S.C.) apply in the district court unless otherwise provided. In clause (2), the words "or an amount agreed on in compromise" are added for clarity.

In subsection (b)(1), the text of 45:439(c) (words before 1st comma) is omitted because it applies only to actions brought by a State authority. See discussion of the cross-reference in the note for section 20113(c) of the revised title. The last sentence is substituted for "in which the individual resides" in 45:438(c) because of the restatement.

In subsection (b)(2), the words "compliance order issued under section 20111(b) of this title" are substituted for "order, or directive" because the latter words are interpreted as referring to "orders directing compliance" in 45:437(a) (2d sentence), restated in section 20111(b).

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 110–432, §309(1), inserted "this part, except for section 20109 of this title, or" after "enforce,".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 110–432, §309(2), substituted "21301, 21302, or 21303" for "21301".

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 110–432, §309(3), (4), substituted "subpoena, request for admissions, request for production of documents or other tangible things, or request for testimony by deposition" for "subpena" and "part." for "chapter."

§20113. Enforcement by the States

(a) Injunctive Relief.—If the Secretary of Transportation does not begin a civil action under section 20112 of this title to enjoin the violation of a railroad safety regulation prescribed or order issued by the Secretary not later than 15 days after the date the Secretary receives notice of the violation and a request from a State authority participating in investigative and surveillance activities under section 20105 of this title that the action be brought, the authority may bring a civil action in a district court of the United States to enjoin the violation. This subsection does not apply if the Secretary makes an affirmative written finding that the violation did not occur or that the action is not necessary because of other enforcement action taken by the Secretary related to the violation.

(b) Imposition and Collection of Civil Penalties.—If the Secretary does not impose the applicable civil penalty for a violation of a railroad safety regulation prescribed or order issued by the Secretary not later than 60 days after the date of receiving notice from a State authority participating in investigative and surveillance activities under section 20105 of this title, the authority may bring a civil action in a district court of the United States to impose and collect the penalty. This paragraph does not apply if the Secretary makes an affirmative written finding that the violation did not occur.

(c) Venue.—A civil action under this section may be brought in the judicial district in which the violation occurred or the defendant has its principal executive office. However, a State authority may not bring an action under this section outside the State.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 869.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20113(a) 45:436(b)(1) (related to authority to bring actions), (2). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, §207(b), (c), 84 Stat. 974; Nov. 2, 1978, Pub. L. 95–574, §8, 92 Stat. 2461; restated Oct. 10, 1980, Pub. L. 96–423, §5, 94 Stat. 1812.
  45:439(a) (related to actions by States). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, §210(a) (related to actions by States), 84 Stat. 975; Oct. 10, 1980, Pub. L. 96–423, §9(a), 94 Stat. 1814; Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615, §28(f), 104 Stat. 3277.
20113(b) 45:436(a)(1) (related to authority to bring actions), (2). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, §207(a), 84 Stat. 974; Nov. 2, 1978, Pub. L. 95–574, §8, 92 Stat. 2461; restated Oct. 10, 1980, Pub. L. 96–423, §5, 94 Stat. 1812; Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615, §28(e), 104 Stat. 3277.
20113(c) 45:436(a)(1) (related to venue), (b)(1) (related to venue), (c).
  45:439(c) (related to actions by States). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §210(c) (related to actions by States); added Oct. 10, 1980, Pub. L. 96–423, §9(b), 94 Stat. 1815.

In subsection (a), the language about jurisdiction in 45:439(a) (related to actions by States) is omitted for the reasons explained in the revision note for section 20112(a) of the revised title.

In subsection (b), the word "impose" is substituted for "assess" for consistency. The words "the authority may bring a civil action in an appropriate district court of the United States" are substituted for "agency may apply to the United States district court" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The words "included in or made applicable to such rule, regulation, order, or standard" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c), the reference to "section 207(d)" in section 210(c) of the Federal Railroad Safety Act of 1970 (Public Law 91–458, 84 Stat. 971), as added by section 9(b) of the Federal Railroad Safety Authorization Act of 1980 (Public Law 96–423, 94 Stat. 1815), is assumed to have been intended as a reference to section 207(c). The Federal Railroad Safety Authorization Act of 1980 was derived from S. 2730, which in turn was derived from H.R. 7104. See 126 Cong. Rec. 26535 (1980). Section 207(d) in an earlier version of H.R. 7104 was redesignated as section 207(c) during the legislative process and no section 207(d) was enacted. See H.R. Rept. No. 96–1025, 96th Cong., 2d Sess., pp. 14, 15 (1980).

§20114. Judicial procedures

(a) Criminal Contempt.—In a trial for criminal contempt for violating an injunction or restraining order issued under this chapter, the violation of which is also a violation of this chapter, the defendant may demand a jury trial. The defendant shall be tried as provided in rule 42(b) of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure (18 App. U.S.C.).

(b) Subpenas For Witnesses.—A subpena for a witness required to attend a district court of the United States in an action brought under this chapter may be served in any judicial district.

(c) Review of Agency Action.—Except as provided in section 20104(c) of this title, a proceeding to review a final action of the Secretary of Transportation under this part or, as applicable to railroad safety, chapter 51 or 57 of this title shall be brought in the appropriate court of appeals as provided in chapter 158 of title 28.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 870.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20114(a) 45:439(b). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, §§209(d), 210(b), 84 Stat. 975, 976.
20114(b) 45:438(d).
20114(c) 45:431(f). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, §202(f), 84 Stat. 972; restated Sept. 3, 1992, Pub. L. 102–365, §5(a)(1), 106 Stat. 975.

In subsection (a), the words "the defendant may demand a jury trial" are substituted for "trial shall be by the court, or, upon demand of the accused, by a jury" to eliminate unnecessary words and for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (b), the words "may be served in any judicial district" are substituted for "may run into any other district" for clarity.

In subsection (c), the words "a final action of the Secretary" are substituted for "Any final agency action taken by the Secretary" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "this part or, as applicable to railroad safety, chapter 51 or 57 of this title" are substituted for "this subchapter or under any of the other Federal railroad safety laws, as defined in section 441(e) of this title" because of the restatement. The words "is subject to judicial review as provided in chapter 7 of title 5" are omitted as unnecessary because 5:ch. 7 applies unless otherwise stated. The words "by and in the manner prescribed" are omitted as surplus.

§20115. User fees

(a) Schedule of Fees.—The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe by regulation a schedule of fees for railroad carriers subject to this chapter. The fees—

(1) shall cover the costs of carrying out this chapter (except section 20108(a));

(2) shall be imposed fairly on the railroad carriers, in reasonable relationship to an appropriate combination of criteria such as revenue ton-miles, track miles, passenger miles, or other relevant factors; and

(3) may not be based on that part of industry revenues attributable to a railroad carrier or class of railroad carriers.


(b) Collection Procedures.—The Secretary shall prescribe procedures to collect the fees. The Secretary may use the services of a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government or of a State or local authority to collect the fees, and may reimburse the department, agency, or instrumentality a reasonable amount for its services.

(c) Collection, Deposit, and Use.—(1) The Secretary shall impose and collect fees under this section for each fiscal year before the end of the fiscal year.

(2) Fees collected under this section shall be deposited in the general fund of the Treasury as offsetting receipts. The fees may be used, to the extent provided in advance in an appropriation law, only to carry out this chapter.

(3) Fees prescribed under this section shall be imposed in an amount sufficient to pay for the costs of activities under this chapter. However, the total fees received for a fiscal year may not be more than 105 percent of the total amount of the appropriations for the fiscal year for activities to be financed by the fees.

(d) Annual Report.—(1) Not later than 90 days after the end of each fiscal year in which fees are collected under this section, the Secretary shall report to Congress on—

(A) the amount of fees collected during that fiscal year;

(B) the impact of the fees on the financial health of the railroad industry and its competitive position relative to each competing mode of transportation; and

(C) the total cost of Government safety activities for each other competing mode of transportation, including any part of that total cost defrayed by Government user fees.


(2) Not later than 90 days after submitting a report for a fiscal year, the Secretary shall submit to Congress recommendations for corrective legislation if the report includes a finding that—

(A) there has been an impact from the fees on the financial health of the railroad industry or its competitive position relative to each competing mode of transportation; or

(B) there is a significant difference in the burden of Government user fees on the railroad industry and other competing modes of transportation.


(e) Expiration.—This section expires on September 30, 1995.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 870.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20115(a) 45:447(a)(1), (3). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §216; added Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101–508, §10501(a), 104 Stat. 1388–399.
20115(b) 45:447(a)(2).
20115(c) 45:447(b)–(d).
20115(d) 45:447(e).
20115(e) 45:447(f).

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words "after notice and comment" are omitted as unnecessary because of 5:553.

In subsection (c), the words "beginning on March 1, 1991" are omitted as obsolete.

§20116. Rulemaking process

No rule or order issued by the Secretary under this part shall be effective if it incorporates by reference a code, rule, standard, requirement, or practice issued by an association or other entity that is not an agency of the Federal Government, unless—

(1) the date on which the code, rule, standard, requirement, or practice was adopted is specifically cited in the rule or order; or

(2) the code, rule, standard, requirement, or practice has been subject to notice and comment under a rule or order issued under this part.

(Added Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title I, §107(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4859; amended Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11316(c), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1676.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 20116, Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 871; amended Pub. L. 103–440, title II, §206(a), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4620, related to biennial safety reports prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–66, title I, §1121(g)(1), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 724.

Amendments

2015—Pub. L. 114–94 substituted "unless—" for "unless", inserted par. (1) designation before "the date", substituted "order; or" for "order, or" in par. (1), inserted par. (2) designation before "the code, rule, standard, requirement, or practice has been subject to notice and comment under a rule or order issued under this part.", and realigned margins.

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as a note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§20117. Authorization of appropriations

(a) In General.—(1) There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of Transportation to carry out this part and to carry out responsibilities under chapter 51 as delegated or authorized by the Secretary—

(A) $225,000,000 for fiscal year 2009;

(B) $245,000,000 for fiscal year 2010;

(C) $266,000,000 for fiscal year 2011;

(D) $289,000,000 for fiscal year 2012; and

(E) $293,000,000 for fiscal year 2013.


(2) With amounts appropriated pursuant to paragraph (1), the Secretary shall purchase Gage Restraint Measurement System vehicles and track geometry vehicles or other comparable technology as needed to assess track safety consistent with the results of the track inspection study required by section 403 of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008.

(3) There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary $18,000,000 for the period encompassing fiscal years 2009 through 2013 to design, develop, and construct the Facility for Underground Rail Station and Tunnel at the Transportation Technology Center in Pueblo, Colorado. The facility shall be used to test and evaluate the vulnerabilities of above-ground and underground rail tunnels to prevent accidents and incidents in such tunnels, to mitigate and remediate the consequences of any such accidents or incidents, and to provide a realistic scenario for training emergency responders.

(4) Such sums as may be necessary from the amount appropriated pursuant to paragraph (1) for each of the fiscal years 2009 through 2013 shall be made available to the Secretary for personnel in regional offices and in Washington, D.C., whose duties primarily involve rail security.

(b) Grade Crossing Safety.—Not more than $1,000,000 may be appropriated to the Secretary for improvements in grade crossing safety, except demonstration projects under section 20134(c) of this title. Amounts appropriated under this subsection remain available until expended.

(c) Research and Development, Automated Track Inspection, and State Participation Grants.—Amounts appropriated under this section for research and development, automated track inspection, and grants under section 20105(e) of this title remain available until expended.

(d) Minimum Available for Certain Purposes.—At least 50 percent of the amounts appropriated to the Secretary for a fiscal year to carry out railroad research and development programs under this chapter or another law shall be available for safety research, improved track inspection and information acquisition technology, improved railroad freight transportation, and improved railroad passenger systems.

(e) Operation Lifesaver.—In addition to amounts otherwise authorized by law, there are authorized to be appropriated for railroad research and development $300,000 for fiscal year 1995, $500,000 for fiscal year 1996, and $750,000 for fiscal year 1997, to support Operation Lifesaver, Inc.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 872; Pub. L. 103–440, title II, §§202, 218, Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4619, 4625; Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, §3, Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4850.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20117(a)(1) 45:444(a) (1st sentence). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §214(a) (1st sentence); added Oct. 10, 1980, Pub. L. 96–423, §2, 94 Stat. 1811; Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–35, §1195, 95 Stat. 702; Jan. 14, 1983, Pub. L. 97–468, §703, 96 Stat. 2580; restated June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §2, 102 Stat. 624; Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101–508, §10501(b), 104 Stat. 1388–400; restated Sept. 3, 1992, Pub. L. 102–365, §12, 106 Stat. 980.
20117(a)(2) 45:435(h). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §206(h); Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–615, §28(d), 104 Stat. 3277.
20117(b) 45:445(c). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §215(c); added June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §20, 102 Stat. 638.
20117(c) 45:444(b). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §214(b); added Oct. 10, 1980, Pub. L. 96–423, §2, 94 Stat. 1811; Jan. 14, 1983, Pub. L. 97–468, §703, 96 Stat. 2580; restated June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §2, 102 Stat. 624.
20117(d) 45:442. Nov. 2, 1978, Pub. L. 95–574, §3, 92 Stat. 2459.

In subsection (a), references to fiscal years prior to 1993 are omitted as obsolete.

References in Text

Section 403 of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), is section 403 of Pub. L. 110–432, which is set out as a note under section 20142 of this title.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–432 amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) authorized appropriations for fiscal years 1993 through 1998.

1994—Subsec. (a)(1)(C) to (F). Pub. L. 103–440, §202, added subpars. (C) to (F).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–440, §218, added subsec. (e).

§20118. Prohibition on public disclosure of railroad safety analysis records

(a) In General.—Except as necessary for the Secretary of Transportation or another Federal agency to enforce or carry out any provision of Federal law, any part of any record (including, but not limited to, a railroad carrier's analysis of its safety risks and its statement of the mitigation measures it has identified with which to address those risks) that the Secretary has obtained pursuant to a provision of, or regulation or order under, this chapter related to the establishment, implementation, or modification of a railroad safety risk reduction program or pilot program is exempt from the requirements of section 552 of title 5 if the record is—

(1) supplied to the Secretary pursuant to that safety risk reduction program or pilot program; or

(2) made available for inspection and copying by an officer, employee, or agent of the Secretary pursuant to that safety risk reduction program or pilot program.


(b) Exception.—Notwithstanding subsection (a), the Secretary may disclose any part of any record comprised of facts otherwise available to the public if, in the Secretary's sole discretion, the Secretary determines that disclosure would be consistent with the confidentiality needed for that safety risk reduction program or pilot program.

(c) Discretionary Prohibition of Disclosure.—The Secretary may prohibit the public disclosure of risk analyses or risk mitigation analyses that the Secretary has obtained under other provisions of, or regulations or orders under, this chapter if the Secretary determines that the prohibition of public disclosure is necessary to promote railroad safety.

(Added Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title I, §109(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4866.)

§20119. Study on use of certain reports and surveys

(a) Study.—The Federal Railroad Administration shall complete a study to evaluate whether it is in the public interest, including public safety and the legal rights of persons injured in railroad accidents, to withhold from discovery or admission into evidence in a Federal or State court proceeding for damages involving personal injury or wrongful death against a carrier any report, survey, schedule, list, or data compiled or collected for the purpose of evaluating, planning, or implementing a railroad safety risk reduction program required under this chapter, including a railroad carrier's analysis of its safety risks and its statement of the mitigation measures with which it will address those risks. In conducting this study, the Secretary shall solicit input from the railroads, railroad non-profit employee labor organizations, railroad accident victims and their families, and the general public.

(b) Authority.—Following completion of the study required under subsection (a), the Secretary, if in the public interest, including public safety and the legal rights of persons injured in railroad accidents, may prescribe a rule subject to notice and comment to address the results of the study. Any such rule prescribed pursuant to this subsection shall not become effective until 1 year after its adoption.

(Added Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title I, §109(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4867.)

§20120. Enforcement report

(a) 1 In General.—Beginning not later than December 31, 2009, the Secretary of Transportation shall make available to the public and publish on its public Web site an annual report that—

(1) provides a summary of railroad safety and hazardous materials compliance inspections and audits that Federal or State inspectors conducted in the prior fiscal year organized by type of alleged violation, including track, motive power and equipment, signal, grade crossing, operating practices, accident and incident reporting, and hazardous materials;

(2) provides a summary of all enforcement actions taken by the Secretary or the Federal Railroad Administration during the prior fiscal year, including—

(A) the number of civil penalties assessed;

(B) the initial amount of civil penalties assessed;

(C) the number of civil penalty cases settled;

(D) the final amount of civil penalties assessed;

(E) the difference between the initial and final amounts of civil penalties assessed;

(F) the number of administrative hearings requested and completed related to hazardous materials transportation law violations or enforcement actions against individuals;

(G) the number of cases referred to the Attorney General for civil or criminal prosecution; and

(H) the number and subject matter of all compliance orders, emergency orders, or precursor agreements;


(3) analyzes the effect of the number of inspections conducted and enforcement actions taken on the number and rate of reported accidents and incidents and railroad safety;

(4) provide 2 the information required by paragraphs (2) and (3)—

(A) for each Class I railroad individually; and

(B) in the aggregate for—

(i) Class II railroads;

(ii) Class III railroads;

(iii) hazardous materials shippers; and

(iv) individuals;


(5) identifies the number of locomotive engineer certification denial or revocation cases appealed to and the average length of time it took to be decided by—

(A) the Locomotive Engineer Review Board;

(B) an administrative hearing officer or administrative law judge; or

(C) the Administrator of the Federal Railroad Administration;


(6) provides an explanation regarding any changes in the Secretary's or the Federal Railroad Administration's enforcement programs or policies that may substantially affect the information reported; and

(7) includes any additional information that the Secretary determines is useful to improve the transparency of its enforcement program.

(Added Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title III, §303(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4878; amended Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11316(d), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1676.)

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 114–94, §11316(d)(1), substituted "Web site" for "website" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 114–94, §11316(d)(2), substituted "accident and incident reporting" for "accident and incidence reporting".

Subsec. (a)(2)(G). Pub. L. 114–94, §11316(d)(3), inserted "and" at end.

Subsec. (a)(5)(B). Pub. L. 114–94, §11316(d)(4), substituted "administrative hearing officer or administrative law judge" for "Administrative Hearing Officer or Administrative Law Judge".

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as a note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

1 So in original. No subsec. (b) has been enacted.

2 So in original. Probably should be "provides".

§20121. Repair and replacement of damaged track inspection equipment

The Secretary of Transportation may receive and expend cash, or receive and utilize spare parts and similar items, from non-United States Government sources to repair damages to or replace United States Government-owned automated track inspection cars and equipment as a result of third-party liability for such damages, and any amounts collected under this section shall be credited directly to the Railroad Safety and Operations account of the Federal Railroad Administration and shall remain available until expended for the repair, operation, and maintenance of automated track inspection cars and equipment in connection with the automated track inspection program.

(Added Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11413(a), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1688.)

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

SUBCHAPTER II—PARTICULAR ASPECTS OF SAFETY

§20131. Restricted access to rolling equipment

The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations and issue orders that may be necessary to require that when railroad carrier employees (except train or yard crews) assigned to inspect, test, repair, or service rolling equipment have to work on, under, or between that equipment, every manually operated switch, including each crossover switch, providing access to the track on which the equipment is located is lined against movement to that track and secured by an effective locking device that can be removed only by the class or craft of employees performing the inspection, testing, repair, or service.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 872.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20131 45:431(g) (1st sentence cl. (1)). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §202(g) (1st sentence cl. (1)); added July 8, 1976, Pub. L. 94–348, §5(b), 90 Stat. 820.

The words "within 180 days after July 8, 1976" are omitted as expired.

§20132. Visible markers for rear cars

(a) General.—The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations and issue orders that may be necessary to require that—

(1) the rear car of each passenger and commuter train has at least one highly visible marker that is lighted during darkness and when weather conditions restrict clear visibility; and

(2) the rear car of each freight train has highly visible markers during darkness and when weather conditions restrict clear visibility.


(b) Preemption.—Notwithstanding section 20106 of this title, subsection (a) of this section does not prohibit a State from continuing in force a law, regulation, or order in effect on July 8, 1976, related to lighted markers on the rear car of a freight train except to the extent it would cause the car to be in violation of this section.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 873.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20132(a) 45:431(g) (1st sentence cls. (2), (3)). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §202(g) (1st sentence cls. (2), (3), last sentence); added July 8, 1976, Pub. L. 94–348, §5(b), 90 Stat. 820.
20132(b) 45:431(g) (last sentence).

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words "within 180 days after July 8, 1976" are omitted as expired.

§20133. Passenger cars

(a) Minimum Standards.—The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations establishing minimum standards for the safety of cars used by railroad carriers to transport passengers. Before prescribing such regulations, the Secretary shall consider—

(1) the crashworthiness of the cars;

(2) interior features (including luggage restraints, seat belts, and exposed surfaces) that may affect passenger safety;

(3) maintenance and inspection of the cars;

(4) emergency response procedures and equipment; and

(5) any operating rules and conditions that directly affect safety not otherwise governed by regulations.


The Secretary may make applicable some or all of the standards established under this subsection to cars existing at the time the regulations are prescribed, as well as to new cars, and the Secretary shall explain in the rulemaking document the basis for making such standards applicable to existing cars.

(b) Initial and Final Regulations.—(1) The Secretary shall prescribe initial regulations under subsection (a) within 3 years after November 2, 1994. The initial regulations may exempt equipment used by tourist, historic, scenic, and excursion railroad carriers to transport passengers.

(2) The Secretary shall prescribe final regulations under subsection (a) within 5 years after November 2, 1994.

(c) Personnel.—The Secretary may establish within the Department of Transportation 2 additional full-time equivalent positions beyond the number permitted under existing law to assist with the drafting, prescribing, and implementation of regulations under this section.

(d) Consultation.—In prescribing regulations, issuing orders, and making amendments under this section, the Secretary may consult with Amtrak, public authorities operating railroad passenger service, other railroad carriers transporting passengers, organizations of passengers, and organizations of employees. A consultation is not subject to the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.), but minutes of the consultation shall be placed in the public docket of the regulatory proceeding.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 873; Pub. L. 103–440, title II, §215(a), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4623; Pub. L. 104–287, §5(47), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3393.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20133(a) 45:431(h)(1)(A) (1st, last sentences), (B), (4). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §202(h); added Oct. 10, 1980, Pub. L. 96–423, §14, 94 Stat. 1817; Jan. 14, 1983, Pub. L. 97–468, §702(a), 96 Stat. 2579.
20133(b) 45:431(h)(1)(A) (2d, 3d sentences), (2).
20133(c) 45:431(h)(3).

In subsection (a), the words "within one year after January 14, 1983" and "initial" are omitted as obsolete. The text of 45:431(h)(1)(B) is omitted as executed. The words "after a hearing in accordance with subsection (b) of this section" are omitted as surplus because of section 20103(e) of the revised title.

In subsections (b) and (c), the word "subsequent" is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c), the word "Amtrak" is substituted for "National Railroad Passenger Corporation" for consistency in this subtitle. The word "regulatory" is substituted for "rulemaking" for consistency in the revised title.

References in Text

The Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec. (d), is Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, as amended, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 104–287, §5(47)(A), substituted "November 2, 1994" for "the date of enactment of the Federal Railroad Safety Authorization Act of 1994".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 104–287, §5(47)(B), substituted "November 2, 1994" for "such date of enactment".

1994—Pub. L. 103–440 amended section generally, substituting present provisions for provisions requiring the Secretary to take administrative action to ensure that the construction, operation, and maintenance of passenger rail equipment maximize the safety of passengers, and providing for areas of consideration and concentration, as well as consultation with Amtrak.

§20134. Grade crossings and railroad rights of way

(a) General.—To the extent practicable, the Secretary of Transportation shall maintain a coordinated effort to develop and carry out solutions to the railroad grade crossing problem and measures to protect pedestrians in densely populated areas along railroad rights of way. To carry out this subsection, the Secretary may use the authority of the Secretary under this chapter and over highway, traffic, and motor vehicle safety and over highway construction. The Secretary may purchase items of nominal value and distribute them to the public without charge as part of an educational or awareness program to accomplish the purposes of this section and of any other sections of this title related to improving the safety of highway-rail crossings and to preventing trespass on railroad rights of way, and the Secretary shall prescribe guidelines for the administration of this authority.

(b) Signal Systems and Other Devices.—Not later than June 22, 1989, the Secretary shall prescribe regulations and issue orders to ensure the safe maintenance, inspection, and testing of signal systems and devices at railroad highway grade crossings.

(c) Demonstration Projects.—(1) The Secretary shall establish demonstration projects to evaluate whether accidents and incidents involving trains would be reduced by—

(A) reflective markers installed on the road surface or on a signal post at railroad grade crossings;

(B) stop signs or yield signs installed at grade crossings; and

(C) speed bumps or rumble strips installed on the road surfaces at the approaches to grade crossings.


(2) Not later than June 22, 1990, the Secretary shall submit a report on the results of the demonstration projects to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 873; Pub. L. 104–287, §5(48), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3393; Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title II, §208(c), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4876.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20134(a) 45:433(b). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, §204(b), 84 Stat. 972.
20134(b) 45:431(q). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §§202(q), 215(a), (b); added June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §§20, 23, 102 Stat. 638, 639; Sept. 3, 1992, Pub. L. 102–365, §2(4), 106 Stat. 972.
20134(c) 45:445(a), (b).

In subsection (a), the words "In addition" are omitted as surplus. The word "maintain" is substituted for "undertake" for clarity because the effort has begun. The words "the objective of" are omitted as surplus. The words "To carry out this section, the Secretary may use" are added for clarity.

In subsection (b), the words "Not later than June 22, 1989" are substituted for "within one year after June 22, 1988" for clarity.

In subsection (c)(1), before clause (A), and (2), the word "Secretary" is substituted for "Federal Railroad Administration" for clarity and consistency in the revised title. In this restatement, the Secretary of Transportation carries out all laws. However, this subsection is based on source provisions that provide that the Federal Railroad Administration carries out the subsection. A cross-reference to this subsection has been included in 49:103 to preserve duties and powers under this subsection to the Administrator of the Federal Railroad Administration.

In subsection (c)(1), before clause (A), the words "and incidents" are added for consistency in this part.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–432 inserted at end "The Secretary may purchase items of nominal value and distribute them to the public without charge as part of an educational or awareness program to accomplish the purposes of this section and of any other sections of this title related to improving the safety of highway-rail crossings and to preventing trespass on railroad rights of way, and the Secretary shall prescribe guidelines for the administration of this authority."

1996—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 104–287 substituted "Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure" for "Committee on Energy and Commerce".

Pedestrian Crossing Safety

Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title II, §201, Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4868, provided that: "Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 16, 2008], the Secretary shall provide guidance to railroads on strategies and methods to prevent pedestrian accidents, incidents, injuries, and fatalities at or near passenger stations, including—

"(1) providing audible warning of approaching trains to the pedestrians at railroad passenger stations;

"(2) using signs, signals, or other visual devices to warn pedestrians of approaching trains;

"(3) installing infrastructure at pedestrian crossings to improve the safety of pedestrians crossing railroad tracks;

"(4) installing fences to prohibit access to railroad tracks; and

"(5) other strategies or methods as determined by the Secretary."

[For definitions of "crossing", "Secretary", and "railroad", as used in section 201 of Pub. L. 110–432, set out above, see section 2(a) of Pub. L. 110–432, set out as a note under section 20102 of this title.]

§20135. Licensing or certification of locomotive operators

(a) General.—The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations and issue orders to establish a program requiring the licensing or certification, after one year after the program is established, of any operator of a locomotive.

(b) Program Requirements.—The program established under subsection (a) of this section—

(1) shall be carried out through review and approval of each railroad carrier's operator qualification standards;

(2) shall provide minimum training requirements;

(3) shall require comprehensive knowledge of applicable railroad carrier operating practices and rules;

(4) except as provided in subsection (c)(1) of this section, shall require consideration, to the extent the information is available, of the motor vehicle driving record of each individual seeking licensing or certification, including—

(A) any denial, cancellation, revocation, or suspension of a motor vehicle operator's license by a State for cause within the prior 5 years; and

(B) any conviction within the prior 5 years of an offense described in section 30304(a)(3)(A) or (B) of this title;


(5) may require, based on the individual's driving record, disqualification or the granting of a license or certification conditioned on requirements the Secretary prescribes; and

(6) shall require an individual seeking a license or certification—

(A) to request the chief driver licensing official of each State in which the individual has held a motor vehicle operator's license within the prior 5 years to provide information about the individual's driving record to the individual's employer, prospective employer, or the Secretary, as the Secretary requires; and

(B) to make the request provided for in section 30305(b)(4) of this title for information to be sent to the individual's employer, prospective employer, or the Secretary, as the Secretary requires.


(c) Waivers.—(1) The Secretary shall prescribe standards and establish procedures for waiving subsection (b)(4) of this section for an individual or class of individuals who the Secretary decides are not currently unfit to operate a locomotive. However, the Secretary may waive subsection (b)(4) for an individual or class of individuals with a conviction, cancellation, revocation, or suspension described in paragraph (2)(A) or (B) of this subsection only if the individual or class, after the conviction, cancellation, revocation, or suspension, successfully completes a rehabilitation program established by a railroad carrier or approved by the Secretary.

(2) If an individual, after the conviction, cancellation, revocation, or suspension, successfully completes a rehabilitation program established by a railroad carrier or approved by the Secretary, the individual may not be denied a license or certification under subsection (b)(4) of this section because of—

(A) a conviction for operating a motor vehicle when under the influence of, or impaired by, alcohol or a controlled substance; or

(B) the cancellation, revocation, or suspension of the individual's motor vehicle operator's license for operating a motor vehicle when under the influence of, or impaired by, alcohol or a controlled substance.


(d) Opportunity for Hearing.—An individual denied a license or certification or whose license or certification is conditioned on requirements prescribed under subsection (b)(4) of this section shall be entitled to a hearing under section 20103(e) of this title to decide whether the license has been properly denied or conditioned.

(e) Opportunity to Examine and Comment on Information.—The Secretary, employer, or prospective employer, as appropriate, shall make information obtained under subsection (b)(6) of this section available to the individual. The individual shall be given an opportunity to comment in writing about the information. Any comment shall be included in any record or file maintained by the Secretary, employer, or prospective employer that contains information to which the comment is related.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 874.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20135(a) 45:431(i)(1). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §202(i); added June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §§4(a), 7(b), 102 Stat. 625, 628; Sept. 3, 1992, Pub. L. 102–365, §2(1), 106 Stat. 972.
20135(b) 45:431(i)(2).
20135(c)(1) 45:431(i)(4).
20135(c)(2) 45:431(i)(6).
20135(d) 45:431(i)(5).
20135(e) 45:431(i)(3).

In subsection (a), the words "within 12 months after June 22, 1988" are omitted as executed. The words "including any locomotive engineer" are omitted as surplus. The words "after one year after" are substituted for "after the expiration of 12 months following" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (b)(5), the word "requirements" is substituted for "terms" for consistency in this section.

In subsection (c)(1), the words "In establishing the program under this subsection" are omitted as surplus.

§20136. Automatic train control and related systems

The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations and issue orders to require that—

(1) an individual performing a test of an automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal apparatus required by the Secretary to be performed before entering territory where the apparatus will be used shall certify in writing that the test was performed properly; and

(2) the certification required under clause (1) of this section shall be maintained in the same way and place as the daily inspection report for the locomotive.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 875; Pub. L. 103–429, §6(19), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4379.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20136 45:431(j). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §202(j); added June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §9, 102 Stat. 628.

The words "Within 90 days after June 22, 1988" are omitted as expired.

Pub. L. 103–429

This amends 49:20136(2) to correct an error in the codification enacted by section 1 of the Act of July 5, 1994 (Public Law 103–272, 108 Stat. 875).

Amendments

1994—Par. (2). Pub. L. 103–429 substituted "section" for "subsection".

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–429 effective July 5, 1994, see section 9 of Pub. L. 103–429, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

§20137. Event recorders

(a) Definition.—In this section, "event recorder" means a device that—

(1) records train speed, hot box detection, throttle position, brake application, brake operations, and any other function the Secretary of Transportation considers necessary to record to assist in monitoring the safety of train operation, such as time and signal indication; and

(2) is designed to resist tampering.


(b) Regulations and Orders.—Not later than December 22, 1989, the Secretary shall prescribe regulations and issue orders that may be necessary to enhance safety by requiring that a train be equipped with an event recorder not later than one year after the regulations are prescribed and the orders are issued. However, if the Secretary finds it is impracticable to equip trains within that one-year period, the Secretary may extend the period to a date that is not later than 18 months after the regulations are prescribed and the orders are issued.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 875.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20137 45:431(m). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §202(m); added June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §10, 102 Stat. 629.

In subsection (b), the words "Not later than December 22, 1989" are substituted for "within 18 months after June 22, 1988" for clarity. The words "may extend the period to a date that is not later than 18 months after the regulations are prescribed and the orders are issued" are substituted for "may extend the deadline for compliance with such requirement, but in no event shall such deadline be extended past 18 months after such rules, regulations, orders, and standards are issued" to eliminate unnecessary words.

§20138. Tampering with safety and operational monitoring devices

(a) General.—The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations and issue orders to prohibit the willful tampering with, or disabling of, any specified railroad safety or operational monitoring device.

(b) Penalties.—(1) A railroad carrier operating a train on which a safety or operational monitoring device is tampered with or disabled in violation of a regulation prescribed or order issued under subsection (a) of this section is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty under section 21301 of this title.

(2) An individual tampering with or disabling a safety or operational monitoring device in violation of a regulation prescribed or order issued under subsection (a) of this section, or knowingly operating or allowing to be operated a train on which such a device has been tampered with or disabled, is liable for penalties established by the Secretary. The penalties may include—

(A) a civil penalty under section 21301 of this title;

(B) suspension from work; and

(C) suspension or loss of a license or certification issued under section 20135 of this title.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 876.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20138 45:431(o). Oct 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §202(o); added June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §21, 102 Stat. 638; Sept. 3, 1992, Pub. L. 102–365, §2(3), 106 Stat. 972.

In subsection (a), the words "within 90 days after June 22, 1988" are omitted as expired.

In subsection (b), the words "by another person" are omitted as surplus.

§20139. Maintenance-of-way operations on railroad bridges

Not later than June 22, 1989, the Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations and issue orders for the safety of maintenance-of-way employees on railroad bridges. The Secretary at least shall provide in those regulations standards for bridge safety equipment, including nets, walkways, handrails, and safety lines, and requirements for the use of vessels when work is performed on bridges located over bodies of water.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 876.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20139 45:431(n). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §202(n); added June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §19(a), 102 Stat. 637; Sept. 3, 1992, Pub. L. 102–365, §2(2), 106 Stat. 972.

The words "Not later than June 22, 1989" are substituted for "within one year after June 22, 1988" for clarity.

§20140. Alcohol and controlled substances testing

(a) Definition.—In this section, "controlled substance" means any substance under section 102 of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 (21 U.S.C. 802) specified by the Secretary of Transportation.

(b) General.—(1) In the interest of safety, the Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations and issue orders, not later than October 28, 1992, related to alcohol and controlled substances use in railroad operations. The regulations shall establish a program requiring—

(A) a railroad carrier to conduct preemployment, reasonable suspicion, random, and post-accident testing of all railroad employees responsible for safety-sensitive functions (as decided by the Secretary) for the use of a controlled substance in violation of law or a United States Government regulation, and to conduct reasonable suspicion, random, and post-accident testing of such employees for the use of alcohol in violation of law or a United States Government regulation; the regulations shall permit such railroad carriers to conduct preemployment testing of such employees for the use of alcohol; and

(B) when the Secretary considers it appropriate, disqualification for an established period of time or dismissal of any employee found—

(i) to have used or been impaired by alcohol when on duty; or

(ii) to have used a controlled substance, whether or not on duty, except as allowed for medical purposes by law or a regulation or order under this chapter.


(2) When the Secretary of Transportation considers it appropriate in the interest of safety, the Secretary may prescribe regulations and issue orders requiring railroad carriers to conduct periodic recurring testing of railroad employees responsible for safety-sensitive functions (as decided by the Secretary) for the use of alcohol or a controlled substance in violation of law or a Government regulation.

(c) Testing and Laboratory Requirements.—In carrying out this section, the Secretary of Transportation shall develop requirements that shall—

(1) promote, to the maximum extent practicable, individual privacy in the collection of specimens;

(2) for laboratories and testing procedures for controlled substances, incorporate the Department of Health and Human Services scientific and technical guidelines dated April 11, 1988, and any amendments to those guidelines, including mandatory guidelines establishing—

(A) comprehensive standards for every aspect of laboratory controlled substances testing and laboratory procedures to be applied in carrying out this section, including standards requiring the use of the best available technology to ensure the complete reliability and accuracy of controlled substances tests and strict procedures governing the chain of custody of specimens collected for controlled substances testing;

(B) the minimum list of controlled substances for which individuals may be tested; and

(C) appropriate standards and procedures for periodic review of laboratories and criteria for certification and revocation of certification of laboratories to perform controlled substances testing in carrying out this section;


(3) require that a laboratory involved in controlled substances testing under this section have the capability and facility, at the laboratory, of performing screening and confirmation tests;

(4) provide that all tests indicating the use of alcohol or a controlled substance in violation of law or a Government regulation be confirmed by a scientifically recognized method of testing capable of providing quantitative information about alcohol or a controlled substance;

(5) provide that each specimen be subdivided, secured, and labeled in the presence of the tested individual and that a part of the specimen be retained in a secure manner to prevent the possibility of tampering, so that if the individual's confirmation test results are positive the individual has an opportunity to have the retained part tested by a 2d confirmation test done independently at another certified laboratory if the individual requests the 2d confirmation test not later than 3 days after being advised of the results of the first confirmation test;

(6) ensure appropriate safeguards for testing to detect and quantify alcohol in breath and body fluid samples, including urine and blood, through the development of regulations that may be necessary and in consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services;

(7) provide for the confidentiality of test results and medical information (other than information about alcohol or a controlled substance) of employees, except that this clause does not prevent the use of test results for the orderly imposition of appropriate sanctions under this section; and

(8) ensure that employees are selected for tests by nondiscriminatory and impartial methods, so that no employee is harassed by being treated differently from other employees in similar circumstances.


(d) Rehabilitation.—The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations or issue orders establishing requirements for rehabilitation programs that at least provide for the identification and opportunity for treatment of railroad employees responsible for safety-sensitive functions (as decided by the Secretary) in need of assistance in resolving problems with the use of alcohol or a controlled substance in violation of law or a Government regulation. The Secretary shall decide on the circumstances under which employees shall be required to participate in a program. Each railroad carrier is encouraged to make such a program available to all of its employees in addition to employees responsible for safety-sensitive functions. This subsection does not prevent a railroad carrier from establishing a program under this subsection in cooperation with another railroad carrier.

(e) International Obligations and Foreign Laws and Regulations.—In carrying out this section, the Secretary of Transportation—

(1) shall establish only requirements that are consistent with international obligations of the United States; and

(2) shall consider applicable laws and regulations of foreign countries.


(f) Other Regulations Allowed.—This section does not prevent the Secretary of Transportation from continuing in effect, amending, or further supplementing a regulation prescribed or order issued before October 28, 1991, governing the use of alcohol or a controlled substance in railroad operations.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 876; Pub. L. 104–59, title III, §342(b), Nov. 28, 1995, 109 Stat. 609.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20140(a) 45:431(r)(5). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §202(r); added Oct. 28, 1991, Pub. L. 102–143, §4, 105 Stat. 957.
20140(b) 45:431(r)(1) (1st–3d sentences).
20140(c) 45:431(r)(2).
20140(d) 45:431(r)(3).
20140(e) 45:431(r)(4).
20140(f) 45:431(r)(1) (last sentence).

In subsection (b)(1), before clause (A), the words "controlled substances" are substituted for "drug" for consistency in this section. In clauses (B) and (C), the word "found" is substituted for "determined" for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (c)(3), the words "of any employee" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(4), the words "by any employee" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(5), the word "tested" is substituted for "assayed" for consistency. The words "2d confirmation test" are substituted for "independent test" for clarity and consistency.

Amendments

1995—Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 104–59 amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: "a railroad carrier to conduct preemployment, reasonable suspicion, random, and post-accident testing of all railroad employees responsible for safety-sensitive functions (as decided by the Secretary) for the use of alcohol or a controlled substance in violation of law or a United States Government regulation; and".

Alcohol and Controlled Substance Testing for Maintenance-of-Way Employees

Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title IV, §412, Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4889, as amended by Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11316(j)(6), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1678, provided that: "Not later than 2 years following the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 16, 2008], the Secretary shall complete a rulemaking proceeding to revise the regulations prescribed under section 20140 of title 49, United States Code, to cover all employees of railroad carriers and contractors or subcontractors to railroad carriers who perform maintenance-of-way activities."

[For definition of "railroad carrier", as used in section 412 of Pub. L. 110–432, set out above, see section 2(a) of Pub. L. 110–432, set out as a note under section 20102 of this title.]'

§20141. Power brake safety

(a) Review and Revision of Existing Regulations.—The Secretary of Transportation shall review existing regulations on railroad power brakes and, not later than December 31, 1993, revise the regulations based on safety information presented during the review. Where applicable, the Secretary shall prescribe regulations that establish standards on dynamic braking equipment.

(b) 2-Way End-of-Train Devices.—(1) The Secretary shall require 2-way end-of-train devices (or devices able to perform the same function) on road trains, except locals, road switchers, or work trains, to enable the initiation of emergency braking from the rear of a train. The Secretary shall prescribe regulations as soon as possible, but not later than December 31, 1993, requiring the 2-way end-of-train devices. The regulations at least shall—

(A) establish standards for the devices based on performance;

(B) prohibit a railroad carrier, on or after the date that is one year after the regulations are prescribed, from acquiring any end-of-train device for use on trains that is not a 2-way device meeting the standards established under clause (A) of this paragraph;

(C) require that the trains be equipped with 2-way end-of-train devices meeting those standards not later than 4 years after the regulations are prescribed; and

(D) provide that any 2-way end-of-train device acquired for use on trains before the regulations are prescribed shall be deemed to meet the standards.


(2) The Secretary may consider petitions to amend the regulations prescribed under paragraph (1) of this subsection to allow the use of alternative technologies that meet the same basic performance requirements established by the regulations.

(3) In developing the regulations required by paragraph (1) of this subsection, the Secretary shall consider information presented under subsection (a) of this section.

(c) Exclusions.—The Secretary may exclude from regulations prescribed under subsections (a) and (b) of this section any category of trains or rail operations if the Secretary decides that the exclusion is in the public interest and is consistent with railroad safety. The Secretary shall make public the reasons for the exclusion. The Secretary at least shall exclude from the regulations prescribed under subsection (b)—

(1) trains that have manned cabooses;

(2) passenger trains with emergency brakes;

(3) trains that operate only on track that is not part of the general railroad system;

(4) trains that do not exceed 30 miles an hour and do not operate on heavy grades, except for any categories of trains specifically designated by the Secretary; and

(5) trains that operate in a push mode.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 878.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20141(a) 45:431(r)(1), (2). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §202(r); added Sept. 3, 1992, Pub. L. 102–365, §7, 106 Stat. 976.
20141(b) 45:431(r)(3).
20141(c) 45:431(r)(4).

Study and Testing of Electronically Controlled Pneumatic Brakes

Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title VII, §7311, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1601, provided that:

"(a) Government Accountability Office Study.—

"(1) In general.—The Comptroller General of the United States shall conduct an independent evaluation of ECP brake systems, pilot program data, and the Department [of Transportation]'s research and analysis on the costs, benefits, and effects of ECP brake systems.

"(2) Study elements.—In completing the independent evaluation under paragraph (1), the Comptroller General shall examine the following issues related to ECP brake systems:

"(A) Data and modeling results on safety benefits relative to conventional brakes and to other braking technologies or systems, such as distributed power and 2-way end-of-train devices.

"(B) Data and modeling results on business benefits, including the effects of dynamic braking.

"(C) Data on costs, including up-front capital costs and on-going maintenance costs.

"(D) Analysis of potential operational benefits and challenges, including the effects of potential locomotive and car segregation, technical reliability issues, and network disruptions.

"(E) Analysis of potential implementation challenges, including installation time, positive train control integration complexities, component availability issues, and tank car shop capabilities.

"(F) Analysis of international experiences with the use of advanced braking technologies.

"(3) Report.—Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2015], the Comptroller General shall transmit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report on the results of the independent evaluation under paragraph (1).

"(b) Emergency Braking Application Testing.—

"(1) In general.—The Secretary [of Transportation] shall enter into an agreement with the National Academy of Sciences to—

"(A) complete testing of ECP brake systems during emergency braking application, including more than 1 scenario involving the uncoupling of a train with 70 or more DOT–117 specification or DOT–117R specification tank cars; and

"(B) transmit, not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act, to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report on the results of the testing.

"(2) Independent experts.—In completing the testing under paragraph (1)(A), the National Academy of Sciences may contract with 1 or more engineering or rail experts, as appropriate, that—

"(A) are not railroad carriers, entities funded by such carriers, or entities directly impacted by the final rule issued on May 8, 2015, entitled "Enhanced Tank Car Standards and Operational Controls for High-Hazard Flammable Trains" (80 Fed. Reg. 26643); and

"(B) have relevant experience in conducting railroad safety technology tests or similar crash tests.

"(3) Testing framework.—In completing the testing under paragraph (1), the National Academy of Sciences and each contractor described in paragraph (2) shall ensure that the testing objectively, accurately, and reliably measures the performance of ECP brake systems relative to other braking technologies or systems, such as distributed power and 2-way end-of-train devices, including differences in—

"(A) the number of cars derailed;

"(B) the number of cars punctured;

"(C) the measures of in-train forces; and

"(D) the stopping distance.

"(4) Funding.—The Secretary shall provide funding, as part of the agreement under paragraph (1), to the National Academy of Sciences for the testing required under this section—

"(A) using sums made available to carry out sections 20108 and 5118 of title 49, United States Code; and

"(B) to the extent funding under subparagraph (A) is insufficient or unavailable to fund the testing required under this section, using such sums as are necessary from the amounts appropriated to the Secretary, the Federal Railroad Administration, or the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, or a combination thereof.

"(5) Equipment.—

"(A) Receipt.—The National Academy of Sciences and each contractor described in paragraph (2) may receive or use rolling stock, track, and other equipment or infrastructure from a railroad carrier or other private entity for the purposes of conducting the testing required under this section.

"(B) Contracted use.—Notwithstanding paragraph (2)(A), to facilitate testing, the National Academy of Sciences and each contractor may contract with a railroad carrier or any other private entity for the use of such carrier or entity's rolling stock, track, or other equipment and receive technical assistance on their use.

"(c) Evidence-Based Approach.—

"(1) Analysis.—The Secretary shall—

"(A) not later than 90 days after the report date, fully incorporate the results of the evaluation under subsection (a) and the testing under subsection (b) and update the regulatory impact analysis of the final rule described in subsection (b)(2)(A) of the costs, benefits, and effects of the applicable ECP brake system requirements;

"(B) as soon as practicable after completion of the updated analysis under subparagraph (A), solicit public comment in the Federal Register on the analysis for a period of not more than 30 days; and

"(C) not later than 60 days after the end of the public comment period under subparagraph (B), post the final updated regulatory impact analysis on the Department of Transportation's Internet Web site.

"(2) Determination.—Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall—

"(A) determine, based on whether the final regulatory impact analysis described in paragraph (1)(C) demonstrates that the benefits, including safety benefits, of the applicable ECP brake system requirements exceed the costs of such requirements, whether the applicable ECP brake system requirements are justified;

"(B) if the applicable ECP brake system requirements are justified, publish in the Federal Register the determination and reasons for such determination; and

"(C) if the Secretary does not publish the determination under subparagraph (B), repeal the applicable ECP brake system requirements.

"(3) Savings clause.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit the Secretary from implementing the final rule described under subsection (b)(2)(A) prior to the determination required under subsection (c)(2) of this section, or require the Secretary to promulgate a new rule on the provisions of such final rule, other than on the applicable ECP brake system requirements, if the Secretary does not determine that the applicable ECP brake system requirements are justified pursuant to this subsection.

"(d) Definitions.—In this section, the following definitions apply:

"(1) Applicable ecp brake system requirements.—The term 'applicable ECP brake system requirements' means sections 174.310(a)(3)(ii), 174.310(a)(3)(iii), 174.310(a)(5)(v), 179.202–10, 179.202–12(g), and 179.202–13(i) of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, and any other regulation in effect on the date of enactment of this Act requiring the installation of ECP brakes or operation in ECP brake mode.

"(2) Class 3 flammable liquid.—The term 'Class 3 flammable liquid' has the meaning given the term flammable liquid in section 173.120(a) of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations.

"(3) ECP.—The term 'ECP' means electronically controlled pneumatic when applied to a brake or brakes.

"(4) ECP brake mode.—The term 'ECP brake mode' includes any operation of a rail car or an entire train using an ECP brake system.

"(5) ECP brake system.—

"(A) In general.—The term 'ECP brake system' means a train power braking system actuated by compressed air and controlled by electronic signals from the locomotive or an ECP–EOT to the cars in the consist for service and emergency applications in which the brake pipe is used to provide a constant supply of compressed air to the reservoirs on each car but does not convey braking signals to the car.

"(B) Inclusions.—The term 'ECP brake system' includes dual mode and stand-alone ECP brake systems.

"(6) Railroad carrier.—The term 'railroad carrier' has the meaning given the term in section 20102 of title 49, United States Code.

"(7) Report date.—The term 'report date' means the date that the reports under subsections (a)(3) and (b)(1)(B) are required to be transmitted pursuant to those subsections."

§20142. Track safety

(a) Review of Existing Regulations.—Not later than March 3, 1993, the Secretary of Transportation shall begin a review of Department of Transportation regulations related to track safety standards. The review at least shall include an evaluation of—

(1) procedures associated with maintaining and installing continuous welded rail and its attendant structure, including cold weather installation procedures;

(2) the need for revisions to regulations on track excepted from track safety standards; and

(3) employee safety.


(b) Revision of Regulations.—Not later than September 1, 1995, the Secretary shall prescribe regulations and issue orders to revise track safety standards, considering safety information presented during the review under subsection (a) of this section and the report of the Comptroller General submitted under subsection (c) of this section.

(c) Comptroller General's Study and Report.—The Comptroller General shall study the effectiveness of the Secretary's enforcement of track safety standards, with particular attention to recent relevant railroad accident experience and information. Not later than September 3, 1993, the Comptroller General shall submit a report to Congress and the Secretary on the results of the study, with recommendations for improving enforcement of those standards.

(d) Identification of Internal Rail Defects.—In carrying out subsections (a) and (b), the Secretary shall consider whether or not to prescribe regulations and issue orders concerning—

(1) inspection procedures to identify internal rail defects, before they reach imminent failure size, in rail that has significant shelling; and

(2) any specific actions that should be taken when a rail surface condition, such as shelling, prevents the identification of internal defects.


(e) Track Standards.—

(1) In general.—Within 90 days after the date of enactment of this subsection, the Federal Railroad Administration shall—

(A) require each track owner using continuous welded rail track to include procedures (in its procedures filed with the Administration pursuant to section 213.119 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations) to improve the identification of cracks in rail joint bars;

(B) instruct Administration track inspectors to obtain copies of the most recent continuous welded rail programs of each railroad within the inspectors' areas of responsibility and require that inspectors use those programs when conducting track inspections; and

(C) establish a program to review continuous welded rail joint bar inspection data from railroads and Administration track inspectors periodically.


(2) Inspection.—Whenever the Administration determines that it is necessary or appropriate, the Administration may require railroads to increase the frequency of inspection, or improve the methods of inspection, of joint bars in continuous welded rail.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 879; Pub. L. 103–440, title II, §208, Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4621; Pub. L. 109–59, title IX, §9005(a), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1924.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20142(a) 45:431(s)(1) (1st sentence), (2). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §202(s); added Sept. 3, 1992, Pub. L. 102–365, §8, 106 Stat. 976.
20142(b) 45:431(s)(1) (last sentence).
20142(c) 45:431(s)(3).

In subsection (c), the word "information" is substituted for "data" for consistency in the revised title.

References in Text

The date of enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (e)(1), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 109–59, which was approved Aug. 10, 2005.

Amendments

2005—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109–59 added subsec. (e).

1994—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–440, §208(2), inserted ", including cold weather installation procedures" after "attendant structure".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–440, §208(1), substituted "September 1, 1995" for "September 3, 1994".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–440, §208(3), added subsec. (d).

Commuter Rail Track Inspections

Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11409, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1684, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Secretary [of Transportation] shall evaluate track inspection regulations to determine if a railroad carrier providing commuter rail passenger transportation on high density commuter railroad lines should be required to inspect the lines in the same manner as is required for other commuter railroad lines.

"(b) Rulemaking.—Considering safety, including railroad carrier employee and contractor safety, system capacity, and other relevant factors, the Secretary may promulgate a rule for high density commuter railroad lines. If, after the evaluation under subsection (a), the Secretary determines that it is necessary to promulgate a rule, the Secretary shall specifically consider the following regulatory requirements for high density commuter railroad lines:

"(1) At least once every 2 weeks—

"(A) traverse each main line by vehicle; or

"(B) inspect each main line on foot.

"(2) At least once each month, traverse and inspect each siding by vehicle or by foot.

"(c) Report.—If, after the evaluation under subsection (a), the Secretary determines it is not necessary to revise the regulations under this section, the Secretary, not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2015], shall transmit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives a report explaining the reasons for not revising the regulations.

"(d) Construction.—Nothing in this section may be construed to limit the authority of the Secretary to promulgate regulations or issue orders under any other law."

Track Inspection Time Study

Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title IV, §403, Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4884, provided that:

"(a) Study.—Not later that [sic] 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 16, 2008], the Secretary shall transmit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report containing the results of a study to determine whether—

"(1) the required intervals of track inspections for each class of track should be amended;

"(2) track remedial action requirements should be amended;

"(3) different track inspection and repair priorities or methods should be required; and

"(4) the speed at which railroad track inspection vehicles operate and the scope of the territory they generally cover allow for proper inspection of the track and whether such speed and appropriate scope should be regulated by the Secretary.

"(b) Considerations.—In conducting the study the Secretary shall consider—

"(1) the most current rail flaw, rail defect growth, rail fatigue, and other relevant track- or rail-related research and studies;

"(2) the availability and feasibility of developing and implementing new or novel rail inspection technology for routine track inspections;

"(3) information from National Transportation Safety Board or Federal Railroad Administration accident investigations where track defects were the cause or a contributing cause; and

"(4) other relevant information, as determined by the Secretary.

"(c) Update of Regulations.—Not later than 2 years after the completion of the study required by subsection (a), the Secretary shall prescribe regulations based on the results of the study conducted under subsection (a).

"(d) Concrete Cross Ties.—Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 16, 2008], the Secretary shall promulgate regulations for concrete cross ties. In developing the regulations for class 1 through 5 track, the Secretary may address, as appropriate—

"(1) limits for rail seat abrasion;

"(2) concrete cross tie pad wear limits;

"(3) missing or broken rail fasteners;

"(4) loss of appropriate toeload pressure;

"(5) improper fastener configurations; and

"(6) excessive lateral rail movement."

[For definitions of "Secretary" and "railroad", as used in section 403 of Pub. L. 110–432, set out above, see section 2(a) of Pub. L. 110–432, set out as a note under section 20102 of this title.]

§20143. Locomotive visibility

(a) Definition.—In this section, "locomotive visibility" means the enhancement of day and night visibility of the front end unit of a train, considering in particular the visibility and perspective of a driver of a motor vehicle at a grade crossing.

(b) Interim Regulations.—Not later than December 31, 1992, the Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe temporary regulations identifying ditch, crossing, strobe, and oscillating lights as temporary locomotive visibility measures and authorizing and encouraging the installation and use of those lights. Subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5 does not apply to a temporary regulation or to an amendment to a temporary regulation.

(c) Review of Regulations.—The Secretary shall review the Secretary's regulations on locomotive visibility. Not later than December 31, 1993, the Secretary shall complete the current research of the Department of Transportation on locomotive visibility. In conducting the review, the Secretary shall collect relevant information from operational experience by rail carriers using enhanced visibility measures.

(d) Regulatory Proceeding.—Not later than June 30, 1994, the Secretary shall begin a regulatory proceeding to prescribe final regulations requiring substantially enhanced locomotive visibility measures. In the proceeding, the Secretary shall consider at least—

(1) revisions to the existing locomotive headlight standards, including standards for placement and intensity;

(2) requiring the use of reflective material to enhance locomotive visibility;

(3) requiring the use of additional alerting lights, including ditch, crossing, strobe, and oscillating lights;

(4) requiring the use of auxiliary lights to enhance locomotive visibility when viewed from the side;

(5) the effect of an enhanced visibility measure on the vision, health, and safety of train crew members; and

(6) separate standards for self-propelled, push-pull, and multi-unit passenger operations without a dedicated head end locomotive.


(e) Final Regulations.—(1) Not later than June 30, 1995, the Secretary shall prescribe final regulations requiring enhanced locomotive visibility measures. The Secretary shall require that not later than December 31, 1997, a locomotive not excluded from the regulations be equipped with temporary visibility measures under subsection (b) of this section or the visibility measures the final regulations require.

(2) In prescribing regulations under paragraph (1) of this subsection, the Secretary may exclude a category of trains or rail operations from a specific visibility requirement if the Secretary decides the exclusion is in the public interest and is consistent with rail safety, including grade-crossing safety.

(3) A locomotive equipped with temporary visibility measures prescribed under subsection (b) of this section when final regulations are prescribed under paragraph (1) of this subsection is deemed to be complying with the final regulations for 4 years after the final regulations are prescribed.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 880.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20143(a) 45:431(u)(6). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §202(u); added Oct. 27, 1992, Pub. L. 102–533, §14, 106 Stat. 3522.
20143(b) 45:431(u)(2) (1st, 2d sentences).
20143(c) 45:431(u)(1).
20143(d) 45:431(u)(3).
20143(e)(1) 45:431(u)(5).
20143(e)(2) 45:431(u)(4).
20143(e)(3) 45:431(u)(2) (last sentence).

In this section, the word "visibility" is substituted for "conspicuity" for clarity and consistency in this chapter.

In subsection (a), the words "by means of lighting, reflective materials, or other means" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the words "those lights" are substituted for "such measures" for clarity.

In subsection (c), the word "Secretary's" is substituted for "Department of Transportation's" because of 49:102(b). The word "using" is substituted for "having . . . in service" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (e)(2) and (3) of this section, the reference is to paragraph (1) of this subsection, rather than to subsection (d) of this section, because the regulations are prescribed under paragraph (1).

In subsection (e)(2), the words "a category" are substituted for "and category" to correct an apparent mistake in the source provision. See S. Rept. 102–990, 102d Cong., 2d Sess., p. 18 (1992).

In subsection (e)(3), the word "full" is omitted as surplus.

§20144. Blue signal protection for on-track vehicles

The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations applying blue signal protection to on-track vehicles where rest is provided.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 881.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20144 (uncodified). June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §19(c), 102 Stat. 638.

The words "prescribe regulations" are substituted for "within one year after the date of the enactment of this Act, amend part 218 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations" because the regulations to carry out this section have been prescribed.

§20145. Report on bridge displacement detection systems

Not later than 18 months after November 2, 1994, the Secretary of Transportation shall transmit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives a report concerning any action that has been taken by the Secretary on railroad bridge displacement detection systems.

(Added Pub. L. 103–440, title II, §207(a), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4621; amended Pub. L. 104–287, §5(48), (49), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3393.)

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–287 substituted "November 2, 1994" for "the date of enactment of the Federal Railroad Safety Authorization Act of 1994" and "Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure" for "Committee on Energy and Commerce".

§20146. Institute for Railroad Safety

The Secretary of Transportation, in conjunction with a university or college having expertise in transportation safety, shall establish, within one year after November 2, 1994, an Institute for Railroad Safety. The Institute shall research, develop, fund, and test measures for reducing the number of fatalities and injuries relevant to railroad operations. There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary $1,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 1996 through 2000 to fund activities carried out under this section by the Institute, which shall report at least once each year on its use of such funds in carrying out such activities and the results thereof to the Secretary of Transportation and the Congress.

(Added Pub. L. 103–440, title II, §210(a), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4621; amended Pub. L. 104–287, §5(49), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3393.)

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–287 substituted "November 2, 1994" for "the date of enactment of the Federal Railroad Safety Authorization Act of 1994".

§20147. Warning of civil liability

The Secretary of Transportation shall encourage railroad carriers to warn the public about potential liability for violation of regulations related to vandalism of railroad signs, devices, and equipment and to trespassing on railroad property.

(Added Pub. L. 103–440, title II, §211(a), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4622.)

§20148. Railroad car visibility

(a) Review of Rules.—The Secretary of Transportation shall conduct a review of the Department of Transportation's rules with respect to railroad car visibility. As part of this review, the Secretary shall collect relevant data from operational experience by railroads having enhanced visibility measures in service.

(b) Regulations.—If the review conducted under subsection (a) establishes that enhanced railroad car visibility would likely improve safety in a cost-effective manner, the Secretary shall initiate a rulemaking proceeding to prescribe regulations requiring enhanced visibility standards for newly manufactured and remanufactured railroad cars. In such proceeding the Secretary shall consider, at a minimum—

(1) visibility of railroad cars from the perspective of nonrailroad traffic;

(2) whether certain railroad car paint colors should be prohibited or required;

(3) the use of reflective materials;

(4) the visibility of lettering on railroad cars;

(5) the effect of any enhanced visibility measures on the health and safety of train crew members; and

(6) the cost/benefit ratio of any new regulations.


(c) Exclusions.—In prescribing regulations under subsection (b), the Secretary may exclude from any specific visibility requirement any category of trains or railroad operations if the Secretary determines that such an exclusion is in the public interest and is consistent with railroad safety.

(Added Pub. L. 103–440, title II, §212(a), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4622.)

§20149. Coordination with the Department of Labor

The Secretary of Transportation shall consult with the Secretary of Labor on a regular basis to ensure that all applicable laws affecting safe working conditions for railroad employees are appropriately enforced to ensure a safe and productive working environment for the railroad industry.

(Added Pub. L. 103–440, title II, §213(a), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4623.)

§20150. Positive train control system progress report

The Secretary of Transportation shall submit a report to the Congress on the development, deployment, and demonstration of positive train control systems by December 31, 1995.

(Added Pub. L. 103–440, title II, §214(a), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4623.)

§20151. Railroad trespassing, vandalism, and highway-rail grade crossing warning sign violation prevention strategy

(a) Evaluation of Existing Laws.—In consultation with affected parties, the Secretary of Transportation shall evaluate and review current local, State, and Federal laws regarding trespassing on railroad property, vandalism affecting railroad safety, and violations of highway-rail grade crossing signs, signals, markings, or other warning devices and develop model prevention strategies and enforcement laws to be used for the consideration of State and local legislatures and governmental entities. The first such evaluation and review shall be completed within 1 year after the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008. The Secretary shall revise the model prevention strategies and enforcement codes periodically.

(b) Outreach Program for Trespassing and Vandalism Prevention.—The Secretary shall develop and maintain a comprehensive outreach program to improve communications among Federal railroad safety inspectors, State inspectors certified by the Federal Railroad Administration, railroad police, and State and local law enforcement officers, for the purpose of addressing trespassing and vandalism problems on railroad property, and strengthening relevant enforcement strategies. This program shall be designed to increase public and police awareness of the illegality of, dangers inherent in, and the extent of, trespassing on railroad rights-of-way, to develop strategies to improve the prevention of trespassing and vandalism, and to improve the enforcement of laws relating to railroad trespass, vandalism, and safety.

(c) Model Legislation.—(1) Within 18 months after November 2, 1994, the Secretary, after consultation with State and local governments and railroad carriers, shall develop and make available to State and local governments model State legislation providing for—

(A) civil or criminal penalties, or both, for vandalism of railroad equipment or property which could affect the safety of the public or of railroad employees; and

(B) civil or criminal penalties, or both, for trespassing on a railroad owned or leased right-of-way.


(2) Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, the Secretary, after consultation with State and local governments and railroad carriers, shall develop and make available to State and local governments model State legislation providing for civil or criminal penalties, or both, for violations of highway-rail grade crossing signs, signals, markings, or other warning devices.

(d) Definition.—In this section, the term "violation of highway-rail grade crossing signs, signals, markings, or other warning devices" includes any action by a motorist, unless directed by an authorized safety officer—

(1) to drive around a grade crossing gate in a position intended to block passage over railroad tracks;

(2) to drive through a flashing grade crossing signal;

(3) to drive through a grade crossing with passive warning signs without ensuring that the grade crossing could be safely crossed before any train arrived; and

(4) in the vicinity of a grade crossing, who creates a hazard of an accident involving injury or property damage at the grade crossing.

(Added Pub. L. 103–440, title II, §219(a), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4625; amended Pub. L. 104–287, §5(49), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3393; Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title II, §208(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4875.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (c)(2), is the date of enactment of div. A of Pub. L. 110–432, which was approved Oct. 16, 2008.

Amendments

2008—Pub. L. 110–432, §208(a)(1), substituted "Railroad trespassing, vandalism, and highway-rail grade crossing warning sign violation prevention strategy" for "Railroad trespassing and vandalism prevention strategy" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–432, §208(a)(2), added subsec. (a) and struck out former subsec. (a). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "In consultation with affected parties, the Secretary of Transportation shall evaluate and review current local, State, and Federal laws regarding trespassing on railroad property and vandalism affecting railroad safety, and develop model prevention strategies and enforcement laws to be used for the consideration of State and local legislatures and governmental entities. The first such evaluation and review shall be completed within 1 year after November 2, 1994. The Secretary shall revise such model prevention strategies and enforcement codes periodically."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 110–432, §208(a)(3), inserted "for Trespassing and Vandalism Prevention" after "Outreach Program" in heading.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 110–432, §208(a)(4), designated existing provisions as par. (1), redesignated former pars. (1) and (2) as subpars. (A) and (B), respectively, of par. (1), and added par. (2).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 110–432, §208(a)(5), added subsec. (d).

1996—Subsecs. (a), (c). Pub. L. 104–287 substituted "November 2, 1994" for "the date of enactment of the Federal Railroad Safety Authorization Act of 1994".

§20152. Notification of grade crossing problems

(a) In General.—Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, the Secretary of Transportation shall require each railroad carrier to—

(1) establish and maintain a toll-free telephone service for rights-of-way over which it dispatches trains, to directly receive calls reporting—

(A) malfunctions of signals, crossing gates, and other devices to promote safety at the grade crossing of railroad tracks on those rights-of-way and public or private roads;

(B) disabled vehicles blocking railroad tracks at such grade crossings;

(C) obstructions to the view of a pedestrian or a vehicle operator for a reasonable distance in either direction of a train's approach; or

(D) other safety information involving such grade crossings;


(2) upon receiving a report pursuant to paragraph (1)(A) or (B), immediately contact trains operating near the grade crossing to warn them of the malfunction or disabled vehicle;

(3) upon receiving a report pursuant to paragraph (1)(A) or (B), and after contacting trains pursuant to paragraph (2), contact, as necessary, appropriate public safety officials having jurisdiction over the grade crossing to provide them with the information necessary for them to direct traffic, assist in the removal of the disabled vehicle, or carry out other activities as appropriate;

(4) upon receiving a report pursuant to paragraph (1)(C) or (D), timely investigate the report, remove the obstruction if possible, or correct the unsafe circumstance; and

(5) ensure the placement at each grade crossing on rights-of-way that it owns of appropriately located signs, on which shall appear, at a minimum—

(A) a toll-free telephone number to be used for placing calls described in paragraph (1) to the railroad carrier dispatching trains on that right-of-way;

(B) an explanation of the purpose of that toll-free telephone number; and

(C) the grade crossing number assigned for that crossing by the National Highway-Rail Crossing Inventory established by the Department of Transportation.


(b) Waiver.—The Secretary may waive the requirement that the telephone service be toll-free for Class II and Class III rail carriers if the Secretary determines that toll-free service would be cost prohibitive or unnecessary.

(Added Pub. L. 103–440, title III, §301(a), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4626; amended Pub. L. 104–287, §5(50), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3393; Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title II, §205(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4872.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, referred to in subsec. (a), is the date of enactment of div. A of Pub. L. 110–432, which was approved Oct. 16, 2008.

Amendments

2008—Pub. L. 110–432 amended section catchline and text generally. Prior to amendment, section related to a pilot program to demonstrate a system to provide emergency notification of grade crossing problems.

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–287 substituted "November 2, 1994" for "the date of enactment of this section" and "November 2, 1994, an evaluation" for "that date an evaluation".

§20153. Audible warnings at highway-rail grade crossings

(a) Definitions.—As used in this section—

(1) the term "highway-rail grade crossing" includes any street or highway crossing over a line of railroad at grade;

(2) the term "locomotive horn" refers to a train-borne audible warning device meeting standards specified by the Secretary of Transportation; and

(3) the term "supplementary safety measure" refers to a safety system or procedure, provided by the appropriate traffic control authority or law enforcement authority responsible for safety at the highway-rail grade crossing, that is determined by the Secretary to be an effective substitute for the locomotive horn in the prevention of highway-rail casualties. A traffic control arrangement that prevents careless movement over the crossing (e.g., as where adequate median barriers prevent movement around crossing gates extending over the full width of the lanes in the particular direction of travel), and that conforms to standards prescribed by the Secretary under this subsection, shall be deemed to constitute a supplementary safety measure. The following do not, individually or in combination, constitute supplementary safety measures within the meaning of this subsection: standard traffic control devices or arrangements such as reflectorized crossbucks, stop signs, flashing lights, flashing lights with gates that do not completely block travel over the line of railroad, or traffic signals.


(b) Requirement.—The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations requiring that a locomotive horn shall be sounded while each train is approaching and entering upon each public highway-rail grade crossing.

(c) Exception.—(1) In issuing such regulations, the Secretary may except from the requirement to sound the locomotive horn any categories of rail operations or categories of highway-rail grade crossings (by train speed or other factors specified by regulation)—

(A) that the Secretary determines not to present a significant risk with respect to loss of life or serious personal injury;

(B) for which use of the locomotive horn as a warning measure is impractical; or

(C) for which, in the judgment of the Secretary, supplementary safety measures fully compensate for the absence of the warning provided by the locomotive horn.


(2) In order to provide for safety and the quiet of communities affected by train operations, the Secretary may specify in such regulations that any supplementary safety measures must be applied to all highway-rail grade crossings within a specified distance along the railroad in order to be excepted from the requirement of this section.

(d) Application for Waiver or Exemption.—Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, the Secretary may not entertain an application for waiver or exemption of the regulations issued under this section unless such application shall have been submitted jointly by the railroad carrier owning, or controlling operations over, the crossing and by the appropriate traffic control authority or law enforcement authority. The Secretary shall not grant any such application unless, in the judgment of the Secretary, the application demonstrates that the safety of highway users will not be diminished.

(e) Development of Supplementary Safety Measures.—(1) In order to promote the quiet of communities affected by rail operations and the development of innovative safety measures at highway-rail grade crossings, the Secretary may, in connection with demonstration of proposed new supplementary safety measures, order railroad carriers operating over one or more crossings to cease temporarily the sounding of locomotive horns at such crossings. Any such measures shall have been subject to testing and evaluation and deemed necessary by the Secretary prior to actual use in lieu of the locomotive horn.

(2) The Secretary may include in regulations issued under this subsection special procedures for approval of new supplementary safety measures meeting the requirements of subsection (c)(1) of this section following successful demonstration of those measures.

(f) Specific Rules.—The Secretary may, by regulation, provide that the following crossings over railroad lines shall be subject, in whole or in part, to the regulations required under this section:

(1) Private highway-rail grade crossings.

(2) Pedestrian crossings.

(3) Crossings utilized primarily by nonmotorized vehicles and other special vehicles.


Regulations issued under this subsection shall not apply to any location where persons are not authorized to cross the railroad.

(g) Issuance.—The Secretary shall issue regulations required by this section pertaining to categories of highway-rail grade crossings that in the judgment of the Secretary pose the greatest safety hazard to rail and highway users not later than 24 months following November 2, 1994. The Secretary shall issue regulations pertaining to any other categories of crossings not later than 48 months following November 2, 1994.

(h) Impact of Regulations.—The Secretary shall include in regulations prescribed under this section a concise statement of the impact of such regulations with respect to the operation of section 20106 of this title (national uniformity of regulation).

(i) Regulations.—In issuing regulations under this section, the Secretary—

(1) shall take into account the interest of communities that—

(A) have in effect restrictions on the sounding of a locomotive horn at highway-rail grade crossings; or

(B) have not been subject to the routine (as defined by the Secretary) sounding of a locomotive horn at highway-rail grade crossings;


(2) shall work in partnership with affected communities to provide technical assistance and shall provide a reasonable amount of time for local communities to install supplementary safety measures, taking into account local safety initiatives (such as public awareness initiatives and highway-rail grade crossing traffic law enforcement programs) subject to such terms and conditions as the Secretary deems necessary, to protect public safety; and

(3) may waive (in whole or in part) any requirement of this section (other than a requirement of this subsection or subsection (j)) that the Secretary determines is not likely to contribute significantly to public safety.


(j) Effective Date of Regulations.—Any regulations under this section shall not take effect before the 365th day following the date of publication of the final rule.

(Added Pub. L. 103–440, title III, §302(a), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4626; amended Pub. L. 104–264, title XII, §1218(a), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3285; Pub. L. 104–287, §5(51), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3393.)

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 104–287 substituted "November 2, 1994" for "the date of enactment of this section" in two places.

Subsecs. (i), (j). Pub. L. 104–264 added subsecs. (i) and (j).

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Except as otherwise specifically provided, amendment by Pub. L. 104–264 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1996, and not to be construed as affecting funds made available for a fiscal year ending before Oct. 1, 1996, see section 3 of Pub. L. 104–264, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

[§20154. Repealed. Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11301(c)(1), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1648]

Section, Pub. L. 109–59, title IX, §9002(a)(1), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1919, related to capital grants for rail line relocation projects.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Regulations

Pub. L. 109–59, title IX, §9002(b), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1921, required Secretary of Transportation to issue temporary regulations to implement grant program under this section by April 1, 2006, and to issue final regulations by October 1, 2006.

§20155. Tank cars

(a) Standards.—The Federal Railroad Administration shall—

(1) validate a predictive model to quantify the relevant dynamic forces acting on railroad tank cars under accident conditions within 1 year after the date of enactment of this section; and

(2) initiate a rulemaking to develop and implement appropriate design standards for pressurized tank cars within 18 months after the date of enactment of this section.


(b) Older Tank Car Impact Resistance Analysis and Report.—Within 1 year after the date of enactment of this section the Federal Railroad Administration shall conduct a comprehensive analysis to determine the impact resistance of the steels in the shells of pressure tank cars constructed before 1989. Within 6 months after completing that analysis the Administration shall transmit a report, including recommendations for reducing any risk of catastrophic fracture and separation of such cars, to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives.

(Added Pub. L. 109–59, title IX, §9005(b)(1), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1924.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of this section, referred to in text, is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 109–59, which was approved Aug. 10, 2005.

Phase-Out of All Tank Cars Used To Transport Class 3 Flammable Liquids

Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title VII, §7304, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1596, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Except as provided for in subsection (b), beginning on the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2015], all DOT–111 specification railroad tank cars used to transport Class 3 flammable liquids shall meet the DOT–117, DOT–117P, or DOT–117R specifications in part 179 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, regardless of train composition.

"(b) Phase-Out Schedule.—Certain tank cars not meeting DOT–117, DOT–117P, or DOT–117R specifications on the date of enactment of this Act may be used, regardless of train composition, until the following end-dates:

"(1) For transport of unrefined petroleum products in Class 3 flammable service, including crude oil—

"(A) January 1, 2018, for non-jacketed DOT–111 tank cars;

"(B) March 1, 2018, for jacketed DOT–111 tank cars;

"(C) April 1, 2020, for non-jacketed CPC–1232 tank cars; and

"(D) May 1, 2025, for jacketed CPC–1232 tank cars.

"(2) For transport of ethanol—

"(A) May 1, 2023, for non-jacketed and jacketed DOT–111 tank cars;

"(B) July 1, 2023, for non-jacketed CPC–1232 tank cars; and

"(C) May 1, 2025, for jacketed CPC–1232 tank cars.

"(3) For transport of Class 3 flammable liquids in Packing Group I, other than Class 3 flammable liquids specified in paragraphs (1) and (2), May 1, 2025.

"(4) For transport of Class 3 flammable liquids in Packing Groups II and III, other than Class 3 flammable liquids specified in paragraphs (1) and (2), May 1, 2029.

"(c) Retrofitting Shop Capacity.—The Secretary [of Transportation] may extend the deadlines established under paragraphs (3) and (4) of subsection (b) for a period not to exceed 2 years if the Secretary determines that insufficient retrofitting shop capacity will prevent the phase-out of tank cars not meeting the DOT–117, DOT–117P, or DOT–117R specifications by the deadlines set forth in such paragraphs.

"(d) Conforming Regulatory Amendments.—

"(1) In general.—Immediately after the date of enactment of this section [Dec. 4, 2015], the Secretary—

"(A) shall remove or revise the date-specific deadlines in any applicable regulations or orders to the extent necessary to conform with the requirements of this section; and

"(B) may not enforce any such date-specific deadlines or requirements that are inconsistent with the requirements of this section.

"(2) Implementation.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to require the Secretary to issue regulations, except as required under paragraph (1), to implement this section.

"(e) Savings Clause.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit the Secretary from implementing the final rule issued on May 08, 2015, entitled 'Enhanced Tank Car Standards and Operational Controls for High-Hazard Flammable Trains' (80 Fed. Reg. 26643), other than the provisions of the final rule that are inconsistent with this section.

"(f) Class 3 Flammable Liquid Defined.—In this section, the term 'Class 3 flammable liquid' has the meaning given the term flammable liquid in section 173.120(a) of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations."

Thermal Blankets

Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title VII, §7305, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1597, provided that:

"(a) Requirements.—Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2015], the Secretary [of Transportation] shall issue such regulations as are necessary to require that each tank car built to meet the DOT–117 specification and each non-jacketed tank car modified to meet the DOT–117R specification be equipped with an insulating blanket with at least ½-inch-thick material that has been approved by the Secretary pursuant to section 179.18(c) of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations.

"(b) Savings Clause.—Nothing in this section shall prohibit the Secretary from approving new or alternative technologies or materials as they become available that provide a level of safety at least equivalent to the level of safety provided for under subsection (a)."

Modification Reporting

Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title VII, §7308, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1599, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2015], the Secretary [of Transportation] shall implement a reporting requirement to monitor industry-wide progress toward modifying rail tank cars used to transport Class 3 flammable liquids by the applicable deadlines established in section 7304 [set out as a note above].

"(b) Tank Car Data.—The Secretary shall collect data from shippers and rail tank car owners on—

"(1) the total number of tank cars modified to meet the DOT–117R specification, or equivalent, specifying—

"(A) the type or specification of each tank car before it was modified, including non-jacketed DOT–111, jacketed DOT–111, non-jacketed DOT–111 meeting the CPC–1232 standard, or jacketed DOT–111 meeting the CPC–1232 standard; and

"(B) the identification number of each Class 3 flammable liquid carried by each tank car in the past year;

"(2) the total number of tank cars built to meet the DOT–117 specification, or equivalent; and

"(3) the total number of tank cars used or likely to be used to transport Class 3 flammable liquids that have not been modified, specifying—

"(A) the type or specification of each tank car not modified, including the non-jacketed DOT–111, jacketed DOT–111, non-jacketed DOT–111 meeting the CPC–1232 standard, or jacketed DOT–111 meeting the CPC–1232 standard; and

"(B) the identification number of each Class 3 flammable liquid carried by each tank car in the past year.

"(c) Tank Car Shop Data.—The Secretary shall conduct a survey of tank car facilities modifying tank cars to the DOT–117R specification, or equivalent, or building new tank cars to the DOT–117 specification, or equivalent, to generate statistically-valid estimates of the anticipated number of tank cars those facilities expect to modify to DOT–117R specification, or equivalent, or build to the DOT–117 specification, or equivalent.

"(d) Frequency.—The Secretary shall collect the data under subsection (b) and conduct the survey under subsection (c) annually until May 1, 2029.

"(e) Information Protections.—

"(1) In general.—The Secretary shall only report data in industry-wide totals and shall treat company-specific information as confidential business information.

"(2) Level of confidentiality.—The Secretary shall ensure the data collected under subsection (b) and the survey data under subsection (c) have the same level of confidentiality as required by the Confidential Information Protection and Statistical Efficiency Act of 2002 (44 U.S.C. 3501 note), as administered by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics.

"(3) Designee.—The Secretary may—

"(A) designate the Director of the Bureau of Transportation Statistics to collect data under subsection (b) and the survey data under subsection (c); and

"(B) direct the Director to ensure the confidentially of company-specific information to the maximum extent permitted by law.

"(f) Report.—Each year, not later than 60 days after the date that both the collection of the data under subsection (b) and the survey under subsection (c) are complete, the Secretary shall submit a written report on the aggregate results, without company-specific information, to—

"(1) the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate; and

"(2) the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives.

"(g) Definition of Class 3 Flammable Liquid.—In this section, the term 'Class 3 flammable liquid' has the meaning given the term flammable liquid in section 173.120 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations."

§20156. Railroad safety risk reduction program

(a) In General.—

(1) Program requirement.—Not later than 4 years after the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, the Secretary of Transportation, by regulation, shall require each railroad carrier that is a Class I railroad, a railroad carrier that has inadequate safety performance (as determined by the Secretary), or a railroad carrier that provides intercity rail passenger or commuter rail passenger transportation—

(A) to develop a railroad safety risk reduction program under subsection (d) that systematically evaluates railroad safety risks on its system and manages those risks in order to reduce the numbers and rates of railroad accidents, incidents, injuries, and fatalities;

(B) to submit its program, including any required plans, to the Secretary for review and approval; and

(C) to implement the program and plans approved by the Secretary.


(2) Reliance on pilot program.—The Secretary may conduct behavior-based safety and other research, including pilot programs, before promulgating regulations under this subsection and thereafter. The Secretary shall use any information and experience gathered through such research and pilot programs under this subsection in developing regulations under this section.

(3) Review and approval.—The Secretary shall review and approve or disapprove railroad safety risk reduction program plans within a reasonable period of time. If the proposed plan is not approved, the Secretary shall notify the affected railroad carrier as to the specific areas in which the proposed plan is deficient, and the railroad carrier shall correct all deficiencies within a reasonable period of time following receipt of written notice from the Secretary. The Secretary shall annually conduct a review to ensure that the railroad carriers are complying with their plans.

(4) Voluntary compliance.—A railroad carrier that is not required to submit a railroad safety risk reduction program under this section may voluntarily submit a program that meets the requirements of this section to the Secretary. The Secretary shall approve or disapprove any program submitted under this paragraph.


(b) Certification.—The chief official responsible for safety of each railroad carrier required to submit a railroad safety risk reduction program under subsection (a) shall certify that the contents of the program are accurate and that the railroad carrier will implement the contents of the program as approved by the Secretary.

(c) Risk Analysis.—In developing its railroad safety risk reduction program, each railroad carrier required to submit such a program pursuant to subsection (a) shall identify and analyze the aspects of its railroad, including operating rules and practices, infrastructure, equipment, employee levels and schedules, safety culture, management structure, employee training, and other matters, including those not covered by railroad safety regulations or other Federal regulations, that impact railroad safety.

(d) Program Elements.—

(1) In general.—Each railroad carrier required to submit a railroad safety risk reduction program under subsection (a) shall develop a comprehensive safety risk reduction program to improve safety by reducing the number and rates of accidents, incidents, injuries, and fatalities that is based on the risk analysis required by subsection (c) through—

(A) the mitigation of aspects that increase risks to railroad safety; and

(B) the enhancement of aspects that decrease risks to railroad safety.


(2) Required components.—Each railroad carrier's safety risk reduction program shall include a risk mitigation plan in accordance with this section, a technology implementation plan that meets the requirements of subsection (e), and a fatigue management plan that meets the requirements of subsection (f).


(e) Technology Implementation Plan.—

(1) In general.—As part of its railroad safety risk reduction program, a railroad carrier required to submit a railroad safety risk reduction program under subsection (a) shall develop, and periodically update as necessary, a 10-year technology implementation plan that describes the railroad carrier's plan for development, adoption, implementation, maintenance, and use of current, new, or novel technologies on its system over a 10-year period to reduce safety risks identified under the railroad safety risk reduction program. Any updates to the plan are subject to review and approval by the Secretary.

(2) Technology analysis.—A railroad carrier's technology implementation plan shall include an analysis of the safety impact, feasibility, and cost and benefits of implementing technologies, including processor-based technologies, positive train control systems (as defined in section 20157(i)), electronically controlled pneumatic brakes, rail integrity inspection systems, rail integrity warning systems, switch position monitors and indicators, trespasser prevention technology, highway-rail grade crossing technology, and other new or novel railroad safety technology, as appropriate, that may mitigate risks to railroad safety identified in the risk analysis required by subsection (c).

(3) Implementation schedule.—A railroad carrier's technology implementation plan shall contain a prioritized implementation schedule for the development, adoption, implementation, and use of current, new, or novel technologies on its system to reduce safety risks identified under the railroad safety risk reduction program.

(4) Positive train control.—Except as required by section 20157 (relating to the requirements for implementation of positive train control systems), the Secretary shall ensure that—

(A) each railroad carrier's technology implementation plan required under paragraph (1) that includes a schedule for implementation of a positive train control system complies with that schedule; and

(B) each railroad carrier required to submit such a plan implements a positive train control system pursuant to such plan by December 31, 2018.


(f) Fatigue Management Plan.—

(1) In general.—As part of its railroad safety risk reduction program, a railroad carrier required to submit a railroad safety risk reduction program under subsection (a) shall develop and update at least once every 2 years a fatigue management plan that is designed to reduce the fatigue experienced by safety-related railroad employees and to reduce the likelihood of accidents, incidents, injuries, and fatalities caused by fatigue. Any such update shall be subject to review and approval by the Secretary.

(2) Targeted fatigue countermeasures.—A railroad carrier's fatigue management plan shall take into account the varying circumstances of operations by the railroad on different parts of its system, and shall prescribe appropriate fatigue countermeasures to address those varying circumstances.

(3) Additional elements.—A railroad shall consider the need to include in its fatigue management plan elements addressing each of the following items, as applicable:

(A) Employee education and training on the physiological and human factors that affect fatigue, as well as strategies to reduce or mitigate the effects of fatigue, based on the most current scientific and medical research and literature.

(B) Opportunities for identification, diagnosis, and treatment of any medical condition that may affect alertness or fatigue, including sleep disorders.

(C) Effects on employee fatigue of an employee's short-term or sustained response to emergency situations, such as derailments and natural disasters, or engagement in other intensive working conditions.

(D) Scheduling practices for employees, including innovative scheduling practices, on-duty call practices, work and rest cycles, increased consecutive days off for employees, changes in shift patterns, appropriate scheduling practices for varying types of work, and other aspects of employee scheduling that would reduce employee fatigue and cumulative sleep loss.

(E) Methods to minimize accidents and incidents that occur as a result of working at times when scientific and medical research have shown increased fatigue disrupts employees' circadian rhythm.

(F) Alertness strategies, such as policies on napping, to address acute drowsiness and fatigue while an employee is on duty.

(G) Opportunities to obtain restful sleep at lodging facilities, including employee sleeping quarters provided by the railroad carrier.

(H) The increase of the number of consecutive hours of off-duty rest, during which an employee receives no communication from the employing railroad carrier or its managers, supervisors, officers, or agents.

(I) Avoidance of abrupt changes in rest cycles for employees.

(J) Additional elements that the Secretary considers appropriate.


(g) Consensus.—

(1) In general.—Each railroad carrier required to submit a railroad safety risk reduction program under subsection (a) shall consult with, employ good faith, and use its best efforts to reach agreement with, all of its directly affected employees, including any nonprofit employee labor organization representing a class or craft of directly affected employees of the railroad carrier, on the contents of the safety risk reduction program.

(2) Statement.—If the railroad carrier and its directly affected employees, including any nonprofit employee labor organization representing a class or craft of directly affected employees of the railroad carrier, cannot reach consensus on the proposed contents of the plan, then directly affected employees and such organization may file a statement with the Secretary explaining their views on the plan on which consensus was not reached. The Secretary shall consider such views during review and approval of the program.


(h) Enforcement.—The Secretary shall have the authority to assess civil penalties pursuant to chapter 213 for a violation of this section, including the failure to submit, certify, or comply with a safety risk reduction program, risk mitigation plan, technology implementation plan, or fatigue management plan.

(Added Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title I, §103(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4853; amended Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11316(e), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1676.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), is the date of enactment of div. A of Pub. L. 110–432, which was approved Oct. 16, 2008.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 114–94, §11316(e)(1), inserted comma after "In developing its railroad safety risk reduction program".

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 114–94, §11316(e)(2), inserted comma after "good faith" and substituted "nonprofit" for "non-profit".

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as a note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§20157. Implementation of positive train control systems

(a) In General.—

(1) Plan required.—Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of the Positive Train Control Enforcement and Implementation Act of 2015, each Class I railroad carrier and each entity providing regularly scheduled intercity or commuter rail passenger transportation shall submit to the Secretary of Transportation a revised plan for implementing a positive train control system by December 31, 2018, governing operations on—

(A) its main line over which intercity rail passenger transportation or commuter rail passenger transportation, as defined in section 24102, is regularly provided;

(B) its main line over which poison- or toxic-by-inhalation hazardous materials, as defined in sections 171.8, 173.115, and 173.132 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, are transported; and

(C) such other tracks as the Secretary may prescribe by regulation or order.


(2) Implementation.—

(A) Contents of revised plan.—A revised plan required under paragraph (1) shall—

(i) describe—

(I) how the positive train control system will provide for interoperability of the system with the movements of trains of other railroad carriers over its lines; and

(II) how, to the extent practical, the positive train control system will be implemented in a manner that addresses areas of greater risk before areas of lesser risk;


(ii) comply with the positive train control system implementation plan content requirements under section 236.1011 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations; and

(iii) provide—

(I) the calendar year or years in which spectrum will be acquired and will be available for use in each area as needed for positive train control system implementation, if such spectrum is not already acquired and available for use;

(II) the total amount of positive train control system hardware that will be installed for implementation, with totals separated by each major hardware category;

(III) the total amount of positive train control system hardware that will be installed by the end of each calendar year until the positive train control system is implemented, with totals separated by each hardware category;

(IV) the total number of employees required to receive training under the applicable positive train control system regulations;

(V) the total number of employees that will receive the training, as required under the applicable positive train control system regulations, by the end of each calendar year until the positive train control system is implemented;

(VI) a summary of any remaining technical, programmatic, operational, or other challenges to the implementation of a positive train control system, including challenges with—

(aa) availability of public funding;

(bb) interoperability;

(cc) spectrum;

(dd) software;

(ee) permitting; and

(ff) testing, demonstration, and certification; and


(VII) a schedule and sequence for implementing a positive train control system by the deadline established under paragraph (1).


(B) Alternative schedule and sequence.—Notwithstanding the implementation deadline under paragraph (1) and in lieu of a schedule and sequence under paragraph (2)(A)(iii)(VII), a railroad carrier or other entity subject to paragraph (1) may include in its revised plan an alternative schedule and sequence for implementing a positive train control system, subject to review under paragraph (3). Such schedule and sequence shall provide for implementation of a positive train control system as soon as practicable, but not later than the date that is 24 months after the implementation deadline under paragraph (1).

(C) Amendments.—A railroad carrier or other entity subject to paragraph (1) may file a request to amend a revised plan, including any alternative schedule and sequence, as applicable, in accordance with section 236.1021 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations.

(D) Compliance.—A railroad carrier or other entity subject to paragraph (1) shall implement a positive train control system in accordance with its revised plan, including any amendments or any alternative schedule and sequence approved by the Secretary under paragraph (3).


(3) Secretarial review.—

(A) Notification.—A railroad carrier or other entity that submits a revised plan under paragraph (1) and proposes an alternative schedule and sequence under paragraph (2)(B) shall submit to the Secretary a written notification when such railroad carrier or other entity is prepared for review under subparagraph (B).

(B) Criteria.—Not later than 90 days after a railroad carrier or other entity submits a notification under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall review the alternative schedule and sequence submitted pursuant to paragraph (2)(B) and determine whether the railroad carrier or other entity has demonstrated, to the satisfaction of the Secretary, that such carrier or entity has—

(i) installed all positive train control system hardware consistent with the plan contents provided pursuant to paragraph (2)(A)(iii)(II) on or before the implementation deadline under paragraph (1);

(ii) acquired all spectrum necessary for implementation of a positive train control system, consistent with the plan contents provided pursuant to paragraph (2)(A)(iii)(I) on or before the implementation deadline under paragraph (1);

(iii) completed employee training required under the applicable positive train control system regulations;

(iv) included in its revised plan an alternative schedule and sequence for implementing a positive train control system as soon as practicable, pursuant to paragraph (2)(B);

(v) certified to the Secretary in writing that it will be in full compliance with the requirements of this section on or before the date provided in an alternative schedule and sequence, subject to approval by the Secretary;

(vi) in the case of a Class I railroad carrier and Amtrak, implemented a positive train control system or initiated revenue service demonstration on the majority of territories, such as subdivisions or districts, or route miles that are owned or controlled by such carrier and required to have operations governed by a positive train control system; and

(vii) in the case of any other railroad carrier or other entity not subject to clause (vi)—

(I) initiated revenue service demonstration on at least 1 territory that is required to have operations governed by a positive train control system; or

(II) met any other criteria established by the Secretary.


(C) Decision.—

(i) In general.—Not later than 90 days after the receipt of the notification from a railroad carrier or other entity under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall—

(I) approve an alternative schedule and sequence submitted pursuant to paragraph (2)(B) if the railroad carrier or other entity meets the criteria in subparagraph (B); and

(II) notify in writing the railroad carrier or other entity of the decision.


(ii) Deficiencies.—Not later than 45 days after the receipt of the notification under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall provide to the railroad carrier or other entity a written notification of any deficiencies that would prevent approval under clause (i) and provide the railroad carrier or other entity an opportunity to correct deficiencies before the date specified in such clause.


(D) Revised deadlines.—

(i) Pending reviews.—For a railroad carrier or other entity that submits a notification under subparagraph (A), the deadline for implementation of a positive train control system required under paragraph (1) shall be extended until the date on which the Secretary approves or disapproves the alternative schedule and sequence, if such date is later than the implementation date under paragraph (1).

(ii) Alternative schedule and sequence deadline.—If the Secretary approves a railroad carrier or other entity's alternative schedule and sequence under subparagraph (C)(i), the railroad carrier or other entity's deadline for implementation of a positive train control system required under paragraph (1) shall be the date specified in that railroad carrier or other entity's alternative schedule and sequence. The Secretary may not approve a date for implementation that is later than 24 months from the deadline in paragraph (1).


(b) Technical Assistance.—The Secretary may provide technical assistance and guidance to railroad carriers in developing the plans required under subsection (a).

(c) Progress Reports and Review.—

(1) Progress reports.—Each railroad carrier or other entity subject to subsection (a) shall, not later than March 31, 2016, and annually thereafter until such carrier or entity has completed implementation of a positive train control system, submit to the Secretary a report on the progress toward implementing such systems, including—

(A) the information on spectrum acquisition provided pursuant to subsection (a)(2)(A)(iii)(I);

(B) the totals provided pursuant to subclauses (III) and (V) of subsection (a)(2)(A)(iii), by territory, if applicable;

(C) the extent to which the railroad carrier or other entity is complying with the implementation schedule under subsection (a)(2)(A)(iii)(VII) or subsection (a)(2)(B);

(D) any update to the information provided under subsection (a)(2)(A)(iii)(VI);

(E) for each entity providing regularly scheduled intercity or commuter rail passenger transportation, a description of the resources identified and allocated to implement a positive train control system;

(F) for each railroad carrier or other entity subject to subsection (a), the total number of route miles on which a positive train control system has been initiated for revenue service demonstration or implemented, as compared to the total number of route miles required to have a positive train control system under subsection (a); and

(G) any other information requested by the Secretary.


(2) Plan review.—The Secretary shall at least annually conduct reviews to ensure that railroad carriers or other entities are complying with the revised plan submitted under subsection (a), including any amendments or any alternative schedule and sequence approved by the Secretary. Such railroad carriers or other entities shall provide such information as the Secretary determines necessary to adequately conduct such reviews.

(3) Public availability.—Not later than 60 days after receipt, the Secretary shall make available to the public on the Internet Web site of the Department of Transportation any report submitted pursuant to paragraph (1) or subsection (d), but may exclude, as the Secretary determines appropriate—

(A) proprietary information; and

(B) security-sensitive information, including information described in section 1520.5(a) of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations.


(d) Report to Congress.—Not later than July 1, 2018, the Secretary shall transmit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report on the progress of each railroad carrier or other entity subject to subsection (a) in implementing a positive train control system.

(e) Enforcement.—The Secretary is authorized to assess civil penalties pursuant to chapter 213 for—

(1) a violation of this section;

(2) the failure to submit or comply with the revised plan required under subsection (a), including the failure to comply with the totals provided pursuant to subclauses (III) and (V) of subsection (a)(2)(A)(iii) and the spectrum acquisition dates provided pursuant to subsection (a)(2)(A)(iii)(I);

(3) failure to comply with any amendments to such revised plan pursuant to subsection (a)(2)(C); and

(4) the failure to comply with an alternative schedule and sequence submitted under subsection (a)(2)(B) and approved by the Secretary under subsection (a)(3)(C).

(f) Other Railroad Carriers.—Nothing in this section restricts the discretion of the Secretary to require railroad carriers other than those specified in subsection (a) to implement a positive train control system pursuant to this section or section 20156, or to specify the period by which implementation shall occur that does not exceed the time limits established in this section or section 20156. In exercising such discretion, the Secretary shall, at a minimum, consider the risk to railroad employees and the public associated with the operations of the railroad carrier.

(g) Regulations.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary shall prescribe regulations or issue orders necessary to implement this section, including regulations specifying in appropriate technical detail the essential functionalities of positive train control systems, and the means by which those systems will be qualified.

(2) Conforming regulatory amendments.—Immediately after the date of the enactment of the Positive Train Control Enforcement and Implementation Act of 2015, the Secretary—

(A) shall remove or revise the date-specific deadlines in the regulations or orders implementing this section to the extent necessary to conform with the amendments made by such Act; and

(B) may not enforce any such date-specific deadlines or requirements that are inconsistent with the amendments made by such Act.


(3) Review.—Nothing in the Positive Train Control Enforcement and Implementation Act of 2015, or the amendments made by such Act, shall be construed to require the Secretary to issue regulations to implement such Act or amendments other than the regulatory amendments required to conform with this section.

(4) Clarification.—

(A) Prohibitions.—The Secretary is prohibited from—

(i) approving or disapproving a revised plan submitted under subsection (a)(1);

(ii) considering a revised plan under subsection (a)(1) as a request for amendment under section 236.1021 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations; or

(iii) requiring the submission, as part of the revised plan under subsection (a)(1), of—

(I) only a schedule and sequence under subsection (a)(2)(A)(iii)(VII); or

(II) both a schedule and sequence under subsection (a)(2)(A)(iii)(VII) and an alternative schedule and sequence under subsection (a)(2)(B).


(B) Civil penalty authority.—Except as provided in paragraph (2) and this paragraph, nothing in this subsection shall be construed to limit the Secretary's authority to assess civil penalties pursuant to subsection (e), consistent with the requirements of this section.

(C) Retained review authority.—The Secretary retains the authority to review revised plans submitted under subsection (a)(1) and is authorized to require modifications of those plans to the extent necessary to ensure that such plans include the descriptions under subsection (a)(2)(A)(i), the contents under subsection (a)(2)(A)(ii), and the year or years, totals, and summary under subsection (a)(2)(A)(iii)(I) through (VI).


(h) Certification.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary shall not permit the installation of any positive train control system or component in revenue service unless the Secretary has certified that any such system or component has been approved through the approval process set forth in part 236 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, and complies with the requirements of that part.

(2) Provisional operation.—Notwithstanding the requirements of paragraph (1), the Secretary may authorize a railroad carrier or other entity to commence operation in revenue service of a positive train control system or component to the extent necessary to enable the safe implementation and operation of a positive train control system in phases.


(i) Definitions.—In this section:

(1) Equivalent or greater level of safety.—The term "equivalent or greater level of safety" means the compliance of a railroad carrier with—

(A) appropriate operating rules in place immediately prior to the use or implementation of such carrier's positive train control system, except that such rules may be changed by such carrier to improve safe operations; and

(B) all applicable safety regulations, except as specified in subsection (j).


(2) Hardware.—The term "hardware" means a locomotive apparatus, a wayside interface unit (including any associated legacy signal system replacements), switch position monitors needed for a positive train control system, physical back office system equipment, a base station radio, a wayside radio, a locomotive radio, or a communication tower or pole.

(3) Interoperability.—The term "interoperability" means the ability to control locomotives of the host railroad and tenant railroad to communicate with and respond to the positive train control system, including uninterrupted movements over property boundaries.

(4) Main line.—The term "main line" means a segment or route of railroad tracks over which 5,000,000 or more gross tons of railroad traffic is transported annually, except that—

(A) the Secretary may, through regulations under subsection (g), designate additional tracks as main line as appropriate for this section; and

(B) for intercity rail passenger transportation or commuter rail passenger transportation routes or segments over which limited or no freight railroad operations occur, the Secretary shall define the term "main line" by regulation.


(5) Positive train control system.—The term "positive train control system" means a system designed to prevent train-to-train collisions, over-speed derailments, incursions into established work zone limits, and the movement of a train through a switch left in the wrong position.


(j) Early Adoption.—

(1) Operations.—From the date of enactment of the Positive Train Control Enforcement and Implementation Act of 2015 through the 1-year period beginning on the date on which the last Class I railroad carrier's positive train control system subject to subsection (a) is certified by the Secretary under subsection (h)(1) of this section and is implemented on all of that railroad carrier's lines required to have operations governed by a positive train control system, any railroad carrier, including any railroad carrier that has its positive train control system certified by the Secretary, shall not be subject to the operational restrictions set forth in sections 236.567 and 236.1029 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, that would apply where a controlling locomotive that is operating in, or is to be operated in, a positive train control-equipped track segment experiences a positive train control system failure, a positive train control operated consist is not provided by another railroad carrier when provided in interchange, or a positive train control system otherwise fails to initialize, cuts out, or malfunctions, provided that such carrier operates at an equivalent or greater level of safety than the level achieved immediately prior to the use or implementation of its positive train control system.

(2) Safety assurance.—During the period described in paragraph (1), if a positive train control system that has been certified and implemented fails to initialize, cuts out, or malfunctions, the affected railroad carrier or other entity shall make reasonable efforts to determine the cause of the failure and adjust, repair, or replace any faulty component causing the system failure in a timely manner.

(3) Plans.—The positive train control safety plan for each railroad carrier or other entity shall describe the safety measures, such as operating rules and actions to comply with applicable safety regulations, that will be put in place during any system failure.

(4) Notification.—During the period described in paragraph (1), if a positive train control system that has been certified and implemented fails to initialize, cuts out, or malfunctions, the affected railroad carrier or other entity shall submit a notification to the appropriate regional office of the Federal Railroad Administration within 7 days of the system failure, or under alternative location and deadline requirements set by the Secretary, and include in the notification a description of the safety measures the affected railroad carrier or other entity has in place.


(k) Small Railroads.—Not later than 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act,1 the Secretary shall amend section 236.1006(b)(4)(iii)(B) of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations (relating to equipping locomotives for applicable Class II and Class III railroads operating in positive train control territory) to extend each deadline under such section by 3 years.

(l) Revenue Service Demonstration.—When a railroad carrier or other entity subject to (a)(1) 2 notifies the Secretary it is prepared to initiate revenue service demonstration, it shall also notify any applicable tenant railroad carrier or other entity subject to subsection (a)(1).

(Added Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title I, §104(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4856; amended Pub. L. 114–73, title I, §1302(b), (c), Oct. 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 576, 582; Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11315(d), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1675.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Positive Train Control Enforcement and Implementation Act of 2015, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1), (g)(2), and (j)(1), is the date of enactment of section 1302 of Pub. L. 114–73, which was approved Oct. 29, 2015.

The Positive Train Control Enforcement and Implementation Act of 2015, referred to in subsec. (g)(2), (3), is Pub. L. 114–73, title I, §1302, Oct. 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 576, which amended this section and enacted provisions set out as a note under section 20101 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2015 Amendment note set out under section 20101 of this title and Tables.

The date of the enactment of this Act, referred to in subsec. (k), probably means the date of enactment of section 1302 of Pub. L. 114–73, known as the Positive Train Control Enforcement and Implementation Act of 2015, which enacted subsec. (k) and was approved Oct. 29, 2015.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 114–73, §1302(b)(1)(A)–(D), in introductory provisions, substituted "90 days after the date of enactment of the Positive Train Control Enforcement and Implementation Act of 2015" for "18 months after the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008", "a revised plan for implementing" for "a plan for implementing", and "December 31, 2018" for "December 31, 2015" and struck out "develop and" before "submit to the Secretary of Transportation".

Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 114–73, §1302(b)(1)(E), substituted "defined in sections" for "defined in parts".

Subsec. (a)(2), (3). Pub. L. 114–73, §1302(b)(2), added pars. (2) and (3) and struck out former par. (2). Prior to amendment, text of par. (2) read as follows: "The plan shall describe how it will provide for interoperability of the system with movements of trains of other railroad carriers over its lines and shall, to the extent practical, implement the system in a manner that addresses areas of greater risk before areas of lesser risk. The railroad carrier shall implement a positive train control system in accordance with the plan."

Subsecs. (c) to (e). Pub. L. 114–73, §1302(b)(3), added subsecs. (c) to (e) and struck out former subsecs. (c) to (e) which related, respectively, to review and approval of plans, progress report on implementation of positive train control systems, and enforcement of section.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 114–73, §1302(c), designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted heading, and added pars. (2) and (3).

Subsec. (g)(3). Pub. L. 114–94, §11315(d)(2), substituted "to conform with this section" for "by paragraph (2) and subsection (k)".

Subsec. (g)(4). Pub. L. 114–94, §11315(d)(1), added par. (4).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 114–73, §1302(b)(4), designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted heading, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 114–73, §1302(b)(5), added pars. (1) and (2) and redesignated former pars. (1) to (3) as (3) to (5), respectively.

Subsecs. (j) to (l). Pub. L. 114–73, §1302(b)(6), added subsecs. (j) to (l).

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as a note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original. Probably should be preceded by "subsection".

§20158. Railroad safety technology grants

(a) Grant Program.—The Secretary of Transportation shall establish a grant program for the deployment of train control technologies, train control component technologies, processor-based technologies, electronically controlled pneumatic brakes, rail integrity inspection systems, rail integrity warning systems, switch position indicators and monitors, remote control power switch technologies, track integrity circuit technologies, and other new or novel railroad safety technology.

(b) Grant Criteria.—

(1) Eligibility.—Grants shall be made under this section to eligible passenger and freight railroad carriers, railroad suppliers, and State and local governments for projects described in subsection (a) that have a public benefit of improved safety and network efficiency.

(2) Considerations.—Priority shall be given to projects that—

(A) focus on making technologies interoperable between railroad systems, such as train control technologies;

(B) accelerate train control technology deployment on high-risk corridors, such as those that have high volumes of hazardous materials shipments or over which commuter or passenger trains operate; or

(C) benefit both passenger and freight safety and efficiency.


(3) Implementation plans.—Grants may not be awarded under this section to entities that fail to develop and submit to the Secretary the plans required by sections 20156(e)(2) and 20157.

(4) Matching requirements.—Federal funds for any eligible project under this section shall not exceed 80 percent of the total cost of such project.


(c) Authorization of Appropriations.—There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of Transportation $50,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2009 through 2013 to carry out this section. Amounts appropriated pursuant to this section shall remain available until expended.

(Added Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title I, §105(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4858.)

§20159. Roadway user sight distance at highway-rail grade crossings

Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, the Secretary of Transportation, after consultation with the Federal Railroad Administration, the Federal Highway Administration, and States, shall develop and make available to States model legislation providing for improving safety by addressing sight obstructions, including vegetation growth, topographic features, structures, and standing railroad equipment, at highway-rail grade crossings that are equipped solely with passive warnings, as recommended by the Inspector General of the Department of Transportation in Report No. MH–2007–044.

(Added Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title II, §203(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4869; amended Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11316(f), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1676.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, referred to in text, is the date of enactment of div. A of Pub. L. 110–432, which was approved Oct. 16, 2008.

Amendments

2015—Pub. L. 114–94 substituted "the Secretary of Transportation" for "the Secretary".

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as a note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§20160. National crossing inventory

(a) Initial Reporting of Information About Previously Unreported Crossings.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008 or 6 months after a new crossing becomes operational, whichever occurs later, each railroad carrier shall—

(1) report to the Secretary of Transportation current information, including information about warning devices and signage, as specified by the Secretary, concerning each previously unreported crossing through which it operates with respect to the trackage over which it operates; or

(2) ensure that the information has been reported to the Secretary by another railroad carrier that operates through the crossing.


(b) Updating of Crossing Information.—

(1) On a periodic basis beginning not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008 and on or before September 30 of every year thereafter, or as otherwise specified by the Secretary, each railroad carrier shall—

(A) report to the Secretary current information, including information about warning devices and signage, as specified by the Secretary, concerning each crossing through which it operates with respect to the trackage over which it operates; or

(B) ensure that the information has been reported to the Secretary by another railroad carrier that operates through the crossing.


(2) A railroad carrier that sells a crossing or any part of a crossing on or after the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008 shall, not later than the date that is 18 months after the date of enactment of that Act or 3 months after the sale, whichever occurs later, or as otherwise specified by the Secretary, report to the Secretary current information, as specified by the Secretary, concerning the change in ownership of the crossing or part of the crossing.


(c) Rulemaking Authority.—The Secretary shall prescribe the regulations necessary to implement this section. The Secretary may enforce each provision of the Department of Transportation's statement of the national highway-rail crossing inventory policy, procedures, and instruction for States and railroads that is in effect on the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, until such provision is superseded by a regulation issued under this section.

(d) Definitions.—In this section:

(1) Crossing.—The term "crossing" means a location within a State, other than a location where one or more railroad tracks cross one or more railroad tracks either at grade or grade-separated, where—

(A) a public highway, road, or street, or a private roadway, including associated sidewalks and pathways, crosses one or more railroad tracks either at grade or grade-separated; or

(B) a pathway explicitly authorized by a public authority or a railroad carrier that is dedicated for the use of nonvehicular traffic, including pedestrians, bicyclists, and others, that is not associated with a public highway, road, or street, or a private roadway, crosses one or more railroad tracks either at grade or grade-separated.


(2) State.—The term "State" means a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

(Added Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title II, §204(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4869; amended Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11316(g), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1676.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, referred to in subsecs. (a) to (c), is the date of enactment of div. A of Pub. L. 110–432, which was approved Oct. 16, 2008.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 114–94, §11316(g)(1), substituted "concerning each previously unreported crossing through which it operates with respect to the trackage over which it operates" for "concerning each previously unreported crossing through which it operates or with respect to the trackage over which it operates".

Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 114–94, §11316(g)(2), substituted "concerning each crossing through which it operates with respect to the trackage over which it operates" for "concerning each crossing through which it operates or with respect to the trackage over which it operates".

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as a note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§20161. Fostering introduction of new technology to improve safety at highway-rail grade crossings

(a) Findings.—

(1) Collisions between highway users and trains at highway-rail grade crossings continue to cause an unacceptable loss of life, serious personal injury, and property damage.

(2) While elimination of at-grade crossings through consolidation of crossings and grade separations offers the greatest long-term promise for optimizing the safety and efficiency of the two modes of transportation, over 140,000 public grade crossings remain on the general rail system—approximately one for each route mile on the general rail system.

(3) Conventional highway traffic control devices such as flashing lights and gates are often effective in warning motorists of a train's approach to an equipped crossing.

(4) Since enactment of the Highway Safety Act of 1973, over $4,200,000,000 of Federal funding has been invested in safety improvements at highway-rail grade crossings, yet a majority of public highway-rail grade crossings are not yet equipped with active warning systems.

(5) The emergence of new technologies presents opportunities for more effective and affordable warnings and safer passage of highway users and trains at remaining highway-rail grade crossings.

(6) Implementation of new crossing safety technology will require extensive cooperation between highway authorities and railroad carriers.

(7) Federal Railroad Administration regulations establishing performance standards for processor-based signal and train control systems provide a suitable framework for qualification of new or novel technology at highway-rail grade crossings, and the Federal Highway Administration's Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices provides an appropriate means of determining highway user interface with such new technology.


(b) Policy.—It is the policy of the United States to encourage the development of new technology that can prevent loss of life and injuries at highway-rail grade crossings. The Secretary of Transportation is designated to carry out this policy in consultation with States and necessary public and private entities.

(c) Submission of New Technology Proposals.—Railroad carriers and railroad suppliers may submit for review and approval to the Secretary such new technology designed to improve safety at highway-rail grade crossings. The Secretary shall approve by order the new technology designed to improve safety at highway-rail grade crossings in accordance with Federal Railroad Administration standards for the development and use of processor-based signal and train control systems and shall consider the effects on safety of highway-user interface with the new technology.

(d) Effect of Secretarial Approval.—If the Secretary approves by order new technology to provide warning to highway users at a highway-rail grade crossing and such technology is installed at a highway-rail grade crossing in accordance with the conditions of the approval, this determination preempts any State statute or regulation concerning the adequacy of the technology in providing warning at the crossing.

(Added Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title II, §210(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4876.)

References in Text

The Highway Safety Act of 1973, referred to in subsec. (a)(4), is title II of Pub. L. 93–87, Aug. 13, 1973, 87 Stat. 282. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1973 Amendment note set out under section 401 of Title 23, Highways, and Tables.

§20162. Minimum training standards and plans

(a) In General.—The Secretary of Transportation shall, not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, establish—

(1) minimum training standards for each class and craft of safety-related railroad employee (as defined in section 20102) and equivalent railroad carrier contractor and subcontractor employees, which shall require railroad carriers, contractors, and subcontractors to qualify or otherwise document the proficiency of such employees in each such class and craft regarding their knowledge of, and ability to comply with, Federal railroad safety laws and regulations and railroad carrier rules and procedures promulgated to implement those Federal railroad safety laws and regulations;

(2) a requirement that railroad carriers, contractors, and subcontractors develop and submit training and qualification plans to the Secretary for approval, including training programs and information deemed necessary by the Secretary to ensure that all safety-related railroad employees receive appropriate training in a timely manner; and

(3) a minimum training curriculum, and ongoing training criteria, testing, and skills evaluation measures to ensure that safety-related railroad employees, and contractor and subcontractor employees, charged with the inspection of track or railroad equipment are qualified to assess railroad carrier compliance with Federal standards to identify defective conditions and initiate immediate remedial action to correct critical safety defects that are known to contribute to derailments, accidents, incidents, or injuries, and, in implementing the requirements of this paragraph, take into consideration existing training programs of railroad carriers.


(b) Approval.—The Secretary shall review and approve the plans required under subsection (a)(2) utilizing an approval process required for programs to certify the qualification of locomotive engineers pursuant to part 240 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations.

(c) Exemption.—The Secretary may exempt railroad carriers and railroad carrier contractors and subcontractors from submitting training plans for which the Secretary has issued training regulations before the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008.

(Added Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title IV, §401(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4883; amended Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11316(h), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1677.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (c), is the date of enactment of div. A of Pub. L. 110–432, which was approved Oct. 16, 2008.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 114–94 substituted "railroad carrier compliance with Federal standards" for "railroad compliance with Federal standards".

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as a note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Report and Regulations on Certification of Certain Crafts or Classes of Employees

Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title IV, §402(b)–(d), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4884, provided that:

"(b) Report.—Not later than 6 months after promulgating regulations under section 20162 of title 49, United States Code, the Secretary shall issue a report to the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the House of Representatives Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure about whether the certification of certain crafts or classes of railroad carrier or railroad carrier contractor or subcontractor employees is necessary to reduce the number and rate of accidents and incidents or to improve railroad safety.

"(c) Crafts and Classes to Be Considered.—As part of the report, the Secretary shall consider—

"(1) car repair and maintenance employees;

"(2) onboard service workers;

"(3) rail welders;

"(4) dispatchers;

"(5) signal repair and maintenance employees; and

"(6) any other craft or class of employees that the Secretary determines appropriate.

"(d) Regulations.—The Secretary may prescribe regulations requiring the certification of certain crafts or classes of employees that the Secretary determines pursuant to the report required by paragraph (1) are necessary to reduce the number and rate of accidents and incidents or to improve railroad safety."

[For definitions of "Secretary", "railroad carrier", and "railroad", as used in section 402(b)–(d) of Pub. L. 110–432, set out above, see section 2(a) of Pub. L. 110–432, set out as a note under section 20102 of this title.]

§20163. Certification of train conductors

(a) Regulations.—Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, the Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations to establish a program requiring the certification of train conductors. In prescribing such regulations, the Secretary shall require that train conductors be trained, in accordance with the training standards developed pursuant to section 20162.

(b) Program Requirements.—In developing the regulations required by subsection (a), the Secretary may consider the requirements of section 20135(b) through (e).

(Added Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title IV, §402(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4884.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, referred to in subsec. (a), is the date of enactment of div. A of Pub. L. 110–432, which was approved Oct. 16, 2008.

§20164. Development and use of rail safety technology

(a) In General.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, the Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe standards, guidance, regulations, or orders governing the development, use, and implementation of rail safety technology in dark territory, in arrangements not defined in section 20501 or otherwise not covered by Federal standards, guidance, regulations, or orders that ensure the safe operation of such technology, such as—

(1) switch position monitoring devices or indicators;

(2) radio, remote control, or other power-assisted switches;

(3) hot box, high water, or earthquake detectors;

(4) remote control locomotive zone limiting devices;

(5) slide fences;

(6) grade crossing video monitors;

(7) track integrity warning systems; or

(8) other similar rail safety technologies, as determined by the Secretary.


(b) Dark Territory Defined.—In this section, the term "dark territory" means any territory in a railroad system that does not have a signal or train control system installed or operational.

(Added Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title IV, §406(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4886; amended Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11316(i), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1677.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, referred to in subsec. (a), is the date of enactment of div. A of Pub. L. 110–432, which was approved Oct. 16, 2008.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 114–94 substituted "after the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008" for "after enactment of the Railroad Safety Enhancement Act of 2008" in introductory provisions.

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as a note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§20165. Limitations on non-Federal alcohol and drug testing

(a) Testing Requirements.—Any non-Federal alcohol and drug testing program of a railroad carrier must provide that all post-employment tests of the specimens of employees who are subject to both the program and chapter 211 of this title be conducted using a scientifically recognized method of testing capable of determining the presence of the specific analyte at a level above the cut-off level established by the carrier.

(b) Redress Process.—Each railroad carrier that has a non-Federal alcohol and drug testing program must provide a redress process to its employees who are subject to both the alcohol and drug testing program and chapter 211 of this title for such an employee to petition for and receive a carrier hearing to review his or her specimen test results that were determined to be in violation of the program. A dispute or grievance raised by a railroad carrier or its employee, except a probationary employee, in connection with the carrier's alcohol and drug testing program and the application of this section is subject to resolution under section 3 of the Railway Labor Act (45 U.S.C. 153).

(Added Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title IV, §409(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4887.)

§20166. Emergency escape breathing apparatus

Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, the Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations that require railroad carriers—

(1) to provide emergency escape breathing apparatus suitable to provide head and neck coverage with respiratory protection for all crewmembers in locomotive cabs on freight trains carrying hazardous materials that would pose an inhalation hazard in the event of release;

(2) to provide convenient storage in each freight train locomotive to enable crewmembers to access such apparatus quickly;

(3) to maintain such equipment in proper working condition; and

(4) to provide their crewmembers with appropriate training for using the breathing apparatus.

(Added Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title IV, §413(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4889.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, referred to in text, is the date of enactment of div. A. of Pub. L. 110–432, which was approved Oct. 16, 2008.

[§20167. Repealed. Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11301(c)(1), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1648]

Section, Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title IV, §418(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4891, related to railroad safety infrastructure improvement grants.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§20168. Installation of audio and image recording devices

(a) In General.—Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of the Passenger Rail Reform and Investment Act of 2015, the Secretary of Transportation shall promulgate regulations to require each railroad carrier that provides regularly scheduled intercity rail passenger or commuter rail passenger transportation to the public to install inward- and outward-facing image recording devices in all controlling locomotive cabs and cab car operating compartments in such passenger trains.

(b) Device Standards.—Each inward- and outward-facing image recording device shall—

(1) have a minimum 12-hour continuous recording capability;

(2) have crash and fire protections for any in-cab image recordings that are stored only within a controlling locomotive cab or cab car operating compartment; and

(3) have recordings accessible for review during an accident or incident investigation.


(c) Review.—The Secretary shall establish a process to review and approve or disapprove an inward- or outward-facing image recording device for compliance with the standards described in subsection (b).

(d) Uses.—A railroad carrier subject to the requirements of subsection (a) that has installed an inward- or outward-facing image recording device approved under subsection (c) may use recordings from that inward- or outward-facing image recording device for the following purposes:

(1) Verifying that train crew actions are in accordance with applicable safety laws and the railroad carrier's operating rules and procedures, including a system-wide program for such verification.

(2) Assisting in an investigation into the causation of a reportable accident or incident.

(3) Documenting a criminal act or monitoring unauthorized occupancy of the controlling locomotive cab or car operating compartment.

(4) Other purposes that the Secretary considers appropriate.


(e) Discretion.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary may—

(A) require in-cab audio recording devices for the purposes described in subsection (d); and

(B) define in appropriate technical detail the essential features of the devices required under subparagraph (A).


(2) Exemptions.—The Secretary may exempt any railroad carrier subject to the requirements of subsection (a) or any part of the carrier's operations from the requirements under subsection (a) if the Secretary determines that the carrier has implemented an alternative technology or practice that provides an equivalent or greater safety benefit or that is better suited to the risks of the operation.


(f) Tampering.—A railroad carrier subject to the requirements of subsection (a) may take appropriate enforcement or administrative action against any employee that tampers with or disables an audio or inward- or outward-facing image recording device installed by the railroad carrier.

(g) Preservation of Data.—Each railroad carrier subject to the requirements of subsection (a) shall preserve recording device data for 1 year after the date of a reportable accident or incident.

(h) Information Protections.—The Secretary may not disclose publicly any part of an in-cab audio or image recording or transcript of oral communications by or among train employees or other operating employees responsible for the movement and direction of the train, or between such operating employees and company communication centers, related to an accident or incident investigated by the Secretary. The Secretary may make public any part of a transcript or any written depiction of visual information that the Secretary determines is relevant to the accident at the time a majority of the other factual reports on the accident or incident are released to the public.

(i) Prohibited Use.—An in-cab audio or image recording obtained by a railroad carrier under this section may not be used to retaliate against an employee.

(j) Savings Clause.—Nothing in this section may be construed as requiring a railroad carrier to cease or restrict operations upon a technical failure of an inward- or outward-facing image recording device or in-cab audio device. Such railroad carrier shall repair or replace the failed inward- or outward-facing image recording device as soon as practicable.

(Added Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11411(a), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1686.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Passenger Rail Reform and Investment Act of 2015, referred to in subsec. (a), is the date of enactment of title XI of div. A of Pub. L. 114–94, which was approved Dec. 4, 2015.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

CHAPTER 203—SAFETY APPLIANCES

Sec.
20301.
Definition and nonapplication.
20302.
General requirements.
20303.
Moving defective and insecure vehicles needing repairs.
20304.
Assumption of risk by employees.
20305.
Inspection of mail cars.
20306.
Exemption for technological improvements.

        

§20301. Definition and nonapplication

(a) Definition.—In this chapter, "vehicle" means a car, locomotive, tender, or similar vehicle.

(b) Nonapplication.—This chapter does not apply to the following:

(1) a train of 4-wheel coal cars.

(2) a train of 8-wheel standard logging cars if the height of each car from the top of the rail to the center of the coupling is not more than 25 inches.

(3) a locomotive used in hauling a train referred to in clause (2) of this subsection when the locomotive and cars of the train are used only to transport logs.

(4) a car, locomotive, or train used on a street railway.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 881; Pub. L. 104–287, §5(52), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3393.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20301(a) 45:8 ("trains, locomotives, tenders, cars, and similar vehicles").
  45:9 (3d sentence).
20301(b) 45:6 (1st sentence proviso). Mar. 2, 1893, ch. 196, §6 (1st sentence proviso), 27 Stat. 532; restated Apr. 1, 1896, ch. 87, 29 Stat. 85.
  45:8 (words after 16th comma). Mar. 2, 1903, ch. 976, §1 (words after 23d comma), 32 Stat. 943.

Subsection (a) is added to avoid repeating the substance of the definition throughout this chapter.

In subsection (b), the words before clause (1) are substituted for "Provided, That nothing in sections 1 to 7 of this title shall apply to" in 45:6 because 45:9, 11, and 16 provide that 45:9 and 11–16 apply to the same vehicles and trains as 45:1–7 apply to. In clause (1), the word "coal" is added for clarity because of the decision of the Supreme Court in Baltimore & Ohio Railway Co. v. Jackson, 353 U.S. 325, 333 (1957) and the legislative history of 45:6 (proviso). See 24 Cong. Rec. 1477 (1893). The text of 45:8 (words after last comma) is omitted as unnecessary because of the definition of "railroad" in section 20102 of the revised title.

Pub. L. 104–287

This amends 49:20301(b) to clarify the restatement of 45:8 by section 1 of the Act of July 5, 1994 (Public Law 103–272, 108 Stat. 881).

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 104–287 added par. (4).

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–287 effective July 5, 1994, see section 8(1) of Pub. L. 104–287, set out as a note under section 5303 of this title.

§20302. General requirements

(a) General.—Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section and section 20303 of this title, a railroad carrier may use or allow to be used on any of its railroad lines—

(1) a vehicle only if it is equipped with—

(A) couplers coupling automatically by impact, and capable of being uncoupled, without the necessity of individuals going between the ends of the vehicles;

(B) secure sill steps and efficient hand brakes; and

(C) secure ladders and running boards when required by the Secretary of Transportation, and, if ladders are required, secure handholds or grab irons on its roof at the top of each ladder;


(2) except as otherwise ordered by the Secretary, a vehicle only if it is equipped with secure grab irons or handholds on its ends and sides for greater security to individuals in coupling and uncoupling vehicles;

(3) a vehicle only if it complies with the standard height of drawbars required by regulations prescribed by the Secretary;

(4) a locomotive only if it is equipped with a power-driving wheel brake and appliances for operating the train-brake system; and

(5) a train only if—

(A) enough of the vehicles in the train are equipped with power or train brakes so that the engineer on the locomotive hauling the train can control the train's speed without the necessity of brake operators using the common hand brakes for that purpose; and

(B) at least 50 percent of the vehicles in the train are equipped with power or train brakes and the engineer is using the power or train brakes on those vehicles and on all other vehicles equipped with them that are associated with those vehicles in the train.


(b) Refusal To Receive Vehicles Not Properly Equipped.—A railroad carrier complying with subsection (a)(5)(A) of this section may refuse to receive from a railroad line of a connecting railroad carrier or a shipper a vehicle that is not equipped with power or train brakes that will work and readily interchange with the power or train brakes in use on the vehicles of the complying railroad carrier.

(c) Combined Vehicles Loading and Hauling Long Commodities.—Notwithstanding subsection (a)(1)(B) of this section, when vehicles are combined to load and haul long commodities, only one of the vehicles must have hand brakes during the loading and hauling.

(d) Authority To Change Requirements.—The Secretary may—

(1) change the number, dimensions, locations, and manner of application prescribed by the Secretary for safety appliances required by subsection (a)(1)(B) and (C) and (2) of this section only for good cause and after providing an opportunity for a full hearing;

(2) amend regulations for installing, inspecting, maintaining, and repairing power and train brakes only for the purpose of achieving safety; and

(3) increase, after an opportunity for a full hearing, the minimum percentage of vehicles in a train that are required by subsection (a)(5)(B) of this section to be equipped and used with power or train brakes.


(e) Services of Association of American Railroads.—In carrying out subsection (d)(2) and (3) of this section, the Secretary may use the services of the Association of American Railroads.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 881.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20302(a) (1)(A) 45:2. Mar. 2, 1893, ch. 196, §§1–4, 27 Stat. 531; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §13(1)(A)– (D), 102 Stat. 630.
  45:8 (words before 16th comma). Mar. 2, 1903, ch. 976, §1 (words before 23d comma), 32 Stat. 943; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §13(2)(A), 102 Stat. 631.
20302(a) (1)(B) 45:11 (words before proviso related to sill steps and hand brakes). Apr. 14, 1910, ch. 160, §2, 36 Stat. 298; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §13(3)(A), 102 Stat. 631.
20302(a) (1)(C) 45:8 (words before 16th comma).
  45:11 (words before proviso related to ladders, running boards, grab irons, and handholds).
20302(a)(2) 45:4.
  45:8 (words before 16th comma).
  49 App.:1655(e)(1)(C). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(e)(1)(A)–(C), 80 Stat. 939.
20302(a)(3) 45:8 (words before 16th comma).
  45:12 (last sentence). Apr. 14, 1910, ch. 160, §3 (1st sentence words before semicolon, proviso, last sentence), 36 Stat. 298; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §13(3)(B), 102 Stat. 631.
  49 App.:1655(e)(1)(A).
20302(a)(4) 45:1 (related to locomotives).
  45:8 (words before 16th comma).
20302(a) (5)(A) 45:1 (related to trains).
20302(a) (5)(B) 45:9 (1st sentence words before last semicolon). Mar. 2, 1903, ch. 976, §2 (1st sentence), 32 Stat. 943; Apr. 11, 1958, Pub. L. 85–375, §1(b)(1), (2), 72 Stat. 86.
  45:9 (3d sentence). Mar. 2, 1903, ch. 976, 32 Stat. 943, §2 (2d–5th sentences); added Apr. 11, 1958, Pub. L. 85–375, §1(b)(3), 72 Stat. 86; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §13(2)(B), 102 Stat. 631.
20302(b) 45:3.
  45:8 (words before 16th comma).
20302(c) 45:11 (proviso).
20302(d)(1) 45:12 (1st sentence words before semicolon).
  49 App.:1655(e)(1)(C).
20302(d)(2) 45:9 (2d sentence).
  49 App.:1655(e)(1)(B).
20302(d)(3) 45:9 (1st sentence words after last semicolon).
  49 App.:1655(e)(1)(B).
20302(e) 45:9 (4th sentence).
  49 App.:1655(e)(1)(B).

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words "Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section and section 20303 of this title" are added to alert the reader to the exceptions restated in subsection (c) and section 20303. The words "use or allow to be used" are substituted for "haul or permit to be hauled or used" in 45:2 and 11, "use" in 45:4 and 12, "use" and "run" in 45:1, "operated" and "used, hauled, or permitted to be used or hauled" in 45:9, "using . . . running . . . hauling or permitting to be hauled or used" in 45:6, and "used" in 45:8 for consistency in this section and to eliminate unnecessary words. See United States v. St. Louis Southwestern Ry. Co. of Texas, 184 F. 28, 32 (5th Cir., 1910); United States v. Chicago, M. & St. P. Ry. Co., 149 F. 486, 488 (D.S.D. Iowa, 1906). The words "That from and after the first day of January, eighteen hundred and ninety-eight", "That on and after the first day of January, eighteen hundred and ninety-eight", and "That from and after the first day of July, eighteen hundred and ninety-five" in sections 1, 2, and 4, respectively, of the Act of March 2, 1893 (ch. 196, 27 Stat. 531), are omitted as obsolete. The words "a railroad carrier . . . on any of its railroad lines" are substituted for "any railroad . . . on its line" in 45:1, "any such railroad . . . on its line" in 45:2, "any railroad company" in 45:4, "railroads in the Territories and the District of Columbia . . . used on any railroad, and in the Territories and the District of Columbia" in 45:8, "Whenever, as provided in sections 1 to 7 of this title" and "any railroad" in 45:9, and "any railroad subject to the provisions of sections 11 to 16 of this title . . . on its line" in 45:11 for clarity, for consistency in the revised title, to eliminate unnecessary words, and because of the definition of "railroad carrier" in section 20102 of the revised title. See Southern Ry. Co. v. United States, 222 U.S. 20, 26 (1911). In clauses (1)–(3), the word "vehicle" is substituted for "any car" in 45:2, "car" in 45:4, "all trains, locomotives, tenders, cars, and similar vehicles used on . . . all other locomotives, tenders, cars, and similar vehicles used in connection therewith" in 45:8, and "any car subject to the provisions of said sections . . . to wit: All cars" in 45:11, and "any car or vehicle" in 45:12 for clarity, for consistency in the revised title, to eliminate unnecessary words, and because of the definition of "vehicle" in section 20301 of the revised title. In clause (1)(A), a comma is placed after the word "uncoupled" for clarity. See Johnson v. Southern Pacific Co., 196 U.S. 1, 18 (1904). In clause (1)(C), the words "by the Secretary of Transportation" are added for clarity because of 45:12. In clause (3), the words "required by regulations prescribed by the Secretary" are substituted for "the standard now fixed or the standard so prescribed . . . the standard so prescribed by the Secretary" in 45:12 for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "Said Secretary is given authority, after hearing, to modify or change, and to prescribe the standard height of drawbars and to fix the time within which such modification or change shall become effective and obligatory" are omitted as surplus because of 49:322(a). The words "and prior to the time so fixed . . . and after the time so fixed" are omitted as surplus. In clause (4), the word "locomotive" is substituted for "any locomotive engine" in 45:1 and "all trains, locomotives, tenders, cars, and similar vehicles used on . . . all other locomotives, tenders, cars, and similar vehicles used in connection therewith" in 45:8 for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (5)(B), the words "the engineer is using the power or train brakes on those vehicles and on all other vehicles equipped with them that are associated with those vehicles in the train" are substituted for "their brakes used and operated by the engineer of the locomotive drawing such train; and all power-braked cars in such train which are associated together with said 50 per centum shall have their brakes so used and operated" and "all . . . locomotives, tenders, cars, and similar vehicles" for clarity and consistency in this section. The text of section 2 (2d sentence) of the Act of March 2, 1903 (ch. 976, 32 Stat. 943), as added by section (1)(b) of the Power or Train Brakes Safety Appliance Act of 1958 (Public Law 85–375, 72 Stat. 86), is omitted as executed.

In subsection (b), the words "A railroad carrier complying with subsection (a)(5)(A) of this section" are substituted for "any railroad shall have equipped a sufficient number of its cars so as to comply with the provisions of section 1 of this title" in 45:3 and "The provisions and requirements of sections 1 to 7 of this title shall be held to apply to railroads in the Territories and the District of Columbia" in 45:8 for clarity, for consistency in this section, and because of the definition of "railroad carrier" in section 20102 of the revised title. The words "a vehicle that is not equipped with power or train brakes that will work and readily interchange with the power or train brakes in use on the vehicles of the complying railroad carrier" are substituted for "any cars not equipped sufficiently, in accordance with said section, with such power or train brakes as will work and readily interchange with the brakes in use on its own cars, as required by sections 1 to 7 of this title" in 45:3 for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (c), the words "Notwithstanding subsection (a)(1)(B) of this section" are added for clarity.

In subsection (d)(1), the words "change . . . only for . . . and after" are substituted for "shall remain as the standards of equipment to be used on all cars subject to the provisions of sections 11 to 16 of this title, unless changed by an order of said Secretary of Transportation to be made after . . . and for" for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words. The text of section 3 (proviso) of the Act of April 14, 1910 (ch. 160, 36 Stat. 298), is omitted as obsolete.

In subsection (d)(2), the text of 45:9 (2d sentence words before proviso) is omitted as executed.

In subsection (d)(3), the words "to more fully carry into effect the objects of said sections" and "from time to time" are omitted as surplus. The words "an opportunity for" are added for clarity and consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. The words "equipped and used" are substituted for "operated" for consistency in this section.

In subsection (e), the words "and may avail himself of the advice and assistance of any department, commission, or board of the United States Government, and of State governments" are omitted as unnecessary because of 49:301(6) and (7) and 322(c). The words "but no official or employee of the United States shall receive any additional compensation for such service except as now permitted by law" are omitted as surplus because of 5:5533.

§20303. Moving defective and insecure vehicles needing repairs

(a) General.—A vehicle that is equipped in compliance with this chapter whose equipment becomes defective or insecure nevertheless may be moved when necessary to make repairs, without a penalty being imposed under section 21302 of this title, from the place at which the defect or insecurity was first discovered to the nearest available place at which the repairs can be made—

(1) on the railroad line on which the defect or insecurity was discovered; or

(2) at the option of a connecting railroad carrier, on the railroad line of the connecting carrier, if not farther than the place of repair described in clause (1) of this subsection.


(b) Use of Chains Instead of Drawbars.—A vehicle in a revenue train or in association with commercially-used vehicles may be moved under this section with chains instead of drawbars only when the vehicle contains livestock or perishable freight.

(c) Liability.—The movement of a vehicle under this section is at the risk only of the railroad carrier doing the moving. This section does not relieve a carrier from liability in a proceeding to recover damages for death or injury of a railroad employee arising from the movement of a vehicle with equipment that is defective, insecure, or not maintained in compliance with this chapter.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 882.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20303(a) 45:13 (2d sentence proviso words before 1st semicolon). Apr. 14, 1910, ch. 160, §4 (2d sentence proviso), 36 Stat. 299; Jan. 14, 1983, Pub. L. 97–468, §704, 96 Stat. 2580.
20303(b) 45:13 (2d sentence proviso words after last semicolon).
20303(c) 45:13 (2d sentence proviso words between semicolons).

In subsections (a) and (b), the word "moved" is substituted for "hauled" and "hauling" for consistency in this section.

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words "A vehicle that is equipped in compliance with this chapter" are substituted for "where any car shall have been properly equipped, as provided in sections 1 to 16 of this title" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "while such car was being used by such carrier upon its line of railroad" are omitted as surplus since this chapter only applies in the case of vehicles used by railroad carriers on their railroad lines. The word "nevertheless" is added for clarity. The words "when necessary to make repairs" are substituted for "if any such movement is necessary to make such repairs and such repairs cannot be made except at any such repair point" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "without a penalty being imposed under section 21302 of this title" are substituted for "without liability for the penalties imposed by this section or section 6 of this title" because of the restatement.

In subsection (b), the words "A vehicle . . . may be moved under this section . . . only when" are substituted for "and nothing in this proviso shall be construed to permit the hauling of defective cars . . . unless" for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (c), the word "hauling" is omitted for consistency in this section. The word "proceeding" is substituted for "remedial action" for consistency in the revised title and to ensure that administrative, as well as court proceedings, are included. The words "to recover damages" are added for clarity. The words "arising from" are substituted for "caused . . . by reason of or in connection with" to eliminate unnecessary words.

§20304. Assumption of risk by employees

An employee of a railroad carrier injured by a vehicle or train used in violation of section 20302(a)(1)(A), (2), (4), or (5)(A) of this title does not assume the risk of injury resulting from the violation, even if the employee continues to be employed by the carrier after learning of the violation.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 883.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20304 45:7. Mar. 2, 1893, ch. 196, §8, 27 Stat. 532; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §13(1)(H), 102 Stat. 631.
  45:8 (words before 16th comma). Mar. 2, 1903, ch. 976, §1 (words before 23d comma), 32 Stat. 943; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §13(2)(A), 102 Stat. 631.

The words "after learning of the violation" are substituted for "after the unlawful use of such locomotive, car, or train had been brought to his knowledge" in 45:7 for clarity.

§20305. Inspection of mail cars

The Secretary of Transportation shall inspect the construction, adaptability, design, and condition of mail cars used on railroads in the United States. The Secretary shall make a report on the inspection and submit a copy of the report to the United States Postal Service.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 883.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20305 45:37. May 27, 1908, ch. 200, §1 (6th par. last sentence under heading "Interstate Commerce Commission"), 35 Stat. 325.
  Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 299, §1 (6th par. last sentence under heading "Interstate Commerce Commission"), 35 Stat. 965.
  49 App.:1655(e)(1)(I), (J). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(e)(1)(I), (J), 80 Stat. 939.

The words "United States Postal Service" are substituted for "Postmaster General" because of sections 4(a) and 5(e) of the Postal Reorganization Act (Public Law 91–375, 84 Stat. 773, 775).

§20306. Exemption for technological improvements

(a) General.—Subject to subsection (b) of this section, the Secretary of Transportation may exempt from the requirements of this chapter railroad equipment or equipment that will be operated on rails, when those requirements preclude the development or implementation of more efficient railroad transportation equipment or other transportation innovations under existing law.

(b) Conditions for Exemption.—The Secretary may grant an exemption under subsection (a) of this section only on the basis of—

(1) findings based on evidence developed at a hearing; or

(2) an agreement between national railroad labor representatives and the developer of the new equipment or technology.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 883.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20306 45:1013. May 30, 1980, Pub. L. 96–254, §117, 94 Stat. 406.

In subsection (a), the words "Notwithstanding any other provision of law" and "the mandatory requirements of" are omitted as surplus. The words "existing law" are substituted for "the existing statutes" for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (b), the words before clause (1) are added because of the restatement. Clause (1) is substituted for "after a hearing and consistent with findings based upon evidence developed therein" to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (2), the words "an agreement" are substituted for "expressions of agreement" to eliminate unnecessary words.

CHAPTER 205—SIGNAL SYSTEMS

Sec.
20501.
Definition.
20502.
Requirements for installation and use.
20503.
Amending regulations and changing requirements.
20504.
Inspection, testing, and investigation.
20505.
Reports of malfunctions and accidents.

        

§20501. Definition

In this chapter, "signal system" means a block signal system, an interlocking, automatic train stop, train control, or cab-signal device, or a similar appliance, method, device, or system intended to promote safety in railroad operations.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 883.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20501 (no source).

This section is added to eliminate the unnecessary repetition of the words used in the definition. The definition is derived from 49 App.:26(b)–(f).

Signal Protection

Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11408, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1684, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2015], the Secretary [of Transportation] shall initiate a rulemaking to require that on-track safety regulations, whenever practicable and consistent with other safety requirements and operational considerations, include requiring implementation of redundant signal protection for maintenance-of-way work crews who depend on a train dispatcher to provide signal protection.

"(b) Alternative Safety Measures.—The Secretary shall consider exempting from any final requirements of this section each segment of track for which operations are governed by a positive train control system certified under section 20157 of title 49, United States Code, or any other safety technology or practice that would achieve an equivalent or greater level of safety in providing additional signal protection."

§20502. Requirements for installation and use

(a) Installation.—(1) When the Secretary of Transportation decides after an investigation that it is necessary in the public interest, the Secretary may order a railroad carrier to install, on any part of its railroad line, a signal system that complies with requirements of the Secretary. The order must allow the carrier a reasonable time to complete the installation. A carrier may discontinue or materially alter a signal system required under this paragraph only with the approval of the Secretary.

(2) A railroad carrier ordered under paragraph (1) of this subsection to install a signal system on one part of its railroad line may not be held negligent for not installing the system on any part of its line that was not included in the order. If an accident or incident occurs on a part of the line on which the signal system was not required to be installed and was not installed, the use of the system on another part of the line may not be considered in a civil action brought because of the accident or incident.

(b) Use.—A railroad carrier may allow a signal system to be used on its railroad line only when the system, including its controlling and operating appurtenances—

(1) may be operated safely without unnecessary risk of personal injury; and

(2) has been inspected and can meet any test prescribed under this chapter.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 883.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20502(a) 49 App.:26(b). Feb. 4, 1887, ch. 104, 24 Stat. 379, §25(b); added Feb. 28, 1920, ch. 91, §441, 41 Stat. 498; restated Aug. 26, 1937, ch. 818, 50 Stat. 835; Sept. 18, 1940, ch. 722, §14(b), 54 Stat. 919; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §17(2), (8), 102 Stat. 635, 636.
  49 App.:1655(e)(6)(A). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(e)(6)(A), 80 Stat. 939.
20502(b) 49 App.:26(e). Feb. 4, 1887, ch. 104, 24 Stat. 379, §25(e); added Feb. 28, 1920, ch. 91, §441, 41 Stat. 498; restated Aug. 26, 1937, ch. 818, 50 Stat. 836; Sept. 18, 1940, ch. 722, §14(b), 54 Stat. 919; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §17(5), 102 Stat. 636.

In this section, the words "signal system" are substituted for "block signal system, interlocking, automatic train stop, train control, and/or cab-signal devices, and/or other similar appliances, methods, and systems intended to promote the safety of railroad operation" and "such systems, devices, appliances, or methods" in 49 App.:26(b) and "any system, device, or appliance covered by this section" and "such apparatus" in 49 App.:26(e) because of the definition of "signal system" in section 20501 of the revised title.

In subsection (a)(1), the words "decides after an investigation that it is necessary in the public interest" are substituted for "after investigation, if found necessary in the public interest" for clarity. The word "specifications" is omitted as included in "requirements". The words "The order must allow the carrier a reasonable time to complete the installation" are substituted for "such order to be issued and published a reasonable time (as determined by the Secretary) in advance of the date for its fulfillment" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "a signal system required under this paragraph" are substituted for "That block signal systems, interlocking, automatic train stop, train control, and cab-signal devices in use on August 26, 1937, or such systems or devices hereinafter installed" to eliminate unnecessary or obsolete words and because of the definition of "signal system" in section 20501 of the revised title.

In subsection (a)(2), the words "railroad line" are substituted for "railroad" for consistency in the revised title. The word "civil" is added for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The words "or incident" are added for consistency in this part.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the words "may allow . . . only when" are substituted for "It shall be unlawful . . . unless . . . unless" for clarity. In clause (1), the words "in proper condition and" and "in the service to which it is put" are omitted as being covered by the words of the clause. The words "risk of personal injury" are substituted for "peril to life and limb" for clarity. The words "from time to time" are omitted as surplus. In clause (2), the words "prescribed under this chapter" are substituted for "in accordance with the provisions of this section" and "prescribed in the rules and regulations provided for in this section" for consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words.

§20503. Amending regulations and changing requirements

The Secretary of Transportation may amend a regulation or change a requirement applicable to a railroad carrier for installing, maintaining, inspecting, or repairing a signal system under this chapter—

(1) when the carrier files with the Secretary a request for the amendment or change and the Secretary approves the request; or

(2) on the Secretary's own initiative for good cause shown.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 884.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20503 49 App.:26(c). Feb. 4, 1887, ch. 104, 24 Stat. 379, §25(c); added Feb. 28, 1920, ch. 91, §441, 41 Stat. 498; restated Aug. 26, 1937, ch. 818, 50 Stat. 836; Sept. 18, 1940, ch. 722, §14(b), 54 Stat. 919; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §17(3), (8), 102 Stat. 635, 636.
  49 App.:1655(e)(6)(A). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(e)(6)(A), 80 Stat. 939.

In this section, before clause (1), the text of 49 App.:26(c) (words before 2d proviso) is omitted as executed. The words "The Secretary of Transportation may amend . . . change" are substituted for "and approved by the Secretary of Transportation" and "the Secretary may . . . revise, amend, or modify" for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "regulation or . . . a requirement applicable to a railroad carrier for installing, maintaining, inspecting, or repairing a signal system under this chapter" are substituted for "rules, standards, and instructions herein provided for" and "rules, standards, and instructions prescribed by him under this subsection" for clarity, for consistency in the revised title, and because of the restatement. Clause (1) is substituted for "such railroad may from time to time change . . . but such change shall not take effect and the new rules, standards, and instructions be enforced until they shall have been filed with" for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "and as revised, amended, or modified they shall be obligatory upon the railroad after a copy thereof shall have been served as above provided" are omitted as being superseded by 5:ch. 5, subch. II.

§20504. Inspection, testing, and investigation

(a) Systems in Use.—(1) The Secretary of Transportation may—

(A) inspect and test a signal system used by a railroad carrier; and

(B) decide whether the system is in safe operating condition.


(2) In carrying out this subsection, the Secretary may employ only an individual who—

(A) has no interest in a patented article required to be used on or with a signal system; and

(B) has no financial interest in a railroad carrier or in a concern dealing in railroad supplies.


(b) Systems Submitted for Investigation and Testing.—The Secretary may investigate, test, and report on the use of and need for a signal system, without cost to the United States Government, when the system is submitted in completed shape for investigation and testing.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 884.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20504(a) 49 App.:26(d). Feb. 4, 1887, ch. 104, 24 Stat. 379, §25(d); added Feb. 28, 1920, ch. 91, §441, 41 Stat. 498; restated Aug. 26, 1937, ch. 818, 50 Stat. 836; Sept. 18, 1940, ch. 722, §14(b), 54 Stat. 919; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §17(4), (8), 102 Stat. 635, 636.
  49 App.:1655(e)(6)(A). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(e)(1)(I), (6)(A), 80 Stat. 939.
20504(b) 45:36. May 27, 1908, ch. 200, §1 (1st complete par. on p. 325), 35 Stat. 325.
  49 App.:1655(e)(1)(I).

In subsection (a)(1)(B), the words "safe operating condition" are substituted for "proper condition to operate and provide adequate safety" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (a)(2), before clause (A), the text of 49:26(d) (2d sentence) is omitted because of 5:3101. The text of 49:26(d) (3d sentence) is omitted because of 5:ch. 33. The words "In carrying out this subsection, the Secretary may employ" are substituted for "shall be used for such purpose" for clarity. In clause (A), the words "either directly or indirectly" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the word "experimentally" is omitted as surplus. The words "signal system" are substituted for "any appliances or systems intended to promote the safety of railway operation" because of the definition of "signal system" in section 20501 of the revised title. The text of 45:36 (last sentence) is omitted because of 49:323.

§20505. Reports of malfunctions and accidents

In the way and to the extent required by the Secretary of Transportation, a railroad carrier shall report to the Secretary a failure of a signal system to function as intended. If the failure results in an accident or incident causing injury to an individual or property that is required to be reported under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, the carrier owning or maintaining the signal system shall report to the Secretary immediately in writing the fact of the accident or incident.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 884.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20505 49 App.:26(f) (words before last semicolon). Feb. 4, 1887, ch. 104, 24 Stat. 379, §25(f) (words before last semicolon); added Feb. 28, 1920, ch. 91, §441, 41 Stat. 498; restated Aug. 26, 1937, ch. 818, 50 Stat. 836; Sept. 18, 1940, ch. 722, §14(b), 54 Stat. 919; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §17(6), (8), 102 Stat. 636.
  49 App.:1655(e)(6)(A). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(e)(6)(A), 80 Stat. 939.

The words "signal system" are substituted for "such systems, devices, or appliances" because of the definition of "signal system" in section 20501 of the revised title. The word "indicate" is omitted as being included in "function". The words "or incident" are added for consistency in this part. The word "individual" is substituted for "person", and the word "immediately" is substituted for "forthwith", for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

CHAPTER 207—LOCOMOTIVES

Sec.
20701.
Requirements for use.
20702.
Inspections, repairs, and inspection and repair reports.
20703.
Accident reports and investigations.

        

§20701. Requirements for use

A railroad carrier may use or allow to be used a locomotive or tender on its railroad line only when the locomotive or tender and its parts and appurtenances—

(1) are in proper condition and safe to operate without unnecessary danger of personal injury;

(2) have been inspected as required under this chapter and regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Transportation under this chapter; and

(3) can withstand every test prescribed by the Secretary under this chapter.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 885.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20701 45:23. Feb. 17, 1911, ch. 103, §2, 36 Stat. 913; Mar. 4, 1915, ch. 169, §1, 38 Stat. 1192; restated June 7, 1924, ch. 355, §2, 43 Stat. 659; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §14(2), 102 Stat. 632.
  45:30 (1st sentence related to 45:23). Mar. 4, 1915, ch. 169, §2 (1st sentence related to §2 of Act of Feb. 17, 1911), 38 Stat. 1192; Apr. 22, 1940, ch. 124, §2, 54 Stat. 148.
  49 App.:1655(e)(1)(E), (F). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(e)(1)(E), (F), 80 Stat. 939.

In this section, before clause (1), the words "locomotive or tender . . . locomotive or tender and its parts and appurtenances" are substituted for "locomotive . . . locomotive, its boiler, tender, and all parts and appurtenances thereof" in 45:23 and "the provision of sections 22 to 29 . . . of this title as to the equipment of locomotives shall apply to and include the entire locomotive and tender and all their parts with the same force and effect as it applies to locomotive boilers and their appurtenances" in 45:30 for clarity and because of the restatement. In clause (1), the words "in the service to which the same are put" and "in the active service of such railroad" in 45:23 are omitted as surplus. The words "danger of personal injury" are substituted for "peril to life or limb" for clarity and consistency in this part. In clause (2), the words "from time to time" are omitted as surplus. The words "as required under this chapter and regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Transportation under this chapter" are substituted for "in accordance with the provisions of sections 22 to 29 and 31 to 34 of this title" for clarity and consistency. In clause (3), the words "prescribed by the Secretary under this chapter" are substituted for "prescribed in the rules and regulations hereinafter provided for" for clarity and because of the restatement.

§20702. Inspections, repairs, and inspection and repair reports

(a) General.—The Secretary of Transportation shall—

(1) become familiar, so far as practicable, with the condition of every locomotive and tender and its parts and appurtenances;

(2) inspect every locomotive and tender and its parts and appurtenances as necessary to carry out this chapter, but not necessarily at stated times or at regular intervals; and

(3) ensure that every railroad carrier makes inspections of locomotives and tenders and their parts and appurtenances as required by regulations prescribed by the Secretary and repairs every defect that is disclosed by an inspection before a defective locomotive, tender, part, or appurtenance is used again.


(b) Noncomplying Locomotives, Tenders, and Parts.—(1) When the Secretary finds that a locomotive, tender, or locomotive or tender part or appurtenance owned or operated by a railroad carrier does not comply with this chapter or a regulation prescribed under this chapter, the Secretary shall give the carrier written notice describing any defect resulting in noncompliance. Not later than 5 days after receiving the notice of noncompliance, the carrier may submit a written request for a reinspection. On receiving the request, the Secretary shall provide for the reinspection by an officer or employee of the Department of Transportation who did not make the original inspection. The reinspection shall be made not later than 15 days after the date the Secretary gives the notice of noncompliance.

(2) Immediately after the reinspection is completed, the Secretary shall give written notice to the railroad carrier stating whether the locomotive, tender, part, or appurtenance is in compliance. If the original finding of noncompliance is sustained, the carrier has 30 days after receipt of the notice to file an appeal with the Secretary. If the carrier files an appeal, the Secretary, after providing an opportunity for a proceeding, may revise or set aside the finding of noncompliance.

(3) A locomotive, tender, part, or appurtenance found not in compliance under this subsection may be used only after it is—

(A) repaired to comply with this chapter and regulations prescribed under this chapter; or

(B) found on reinspection or appeal to be in compliance.


(c) Reports.—A railroad carrier shall make and keep, in the way the Secretary prescribes by regulation, a report of every—

(1) inspection made under regulations prescribed by the Secretary; and

(2) repair made of a defect disclosed by such an inspection.


(d) Changes in Inspection Procedures.—A railroad carrier may change a rule or instruction of the carrier governing the inspection by the carrier of the locomotives and tenders and locomotive and tender parts and appurtenances of the carrier when the Secretary approves a request filed by the carrier to make the change.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 885.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20702(a) 45:29 (1st–3d sentences). Feb. 17, 1911, ch. 103, §6, 36 Stat. 915; Apr. 22, 1940, ch. 124, §1(1)–(3) (related to §6 of Act of Feb. 17, 1911), 54 Stat. 148; Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1965, eff. July 27, 1965, 79 Stat. 1320; Oct. 10, 1980, Pub. L. 96–423, §13, 94 Stat. 1816; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §14(5), 102 Stat. 633.
  45:30 (1st sentence related to 45:29, last sentence). Mar. 4, 1915, ch. 169, §2 (1st sentence related to §§5, 6 of Act of Feb. 17, 1911, last sentence), 38 Stat. 1192; Apr. 22, 1940, ch. 124, §2, 54 Stat. 148; Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1965, eff. July 27, 1965, 79 Stat. 1320.
  49 App.:1655(e) (1)(E)–(G). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(e)(1)(E)–(G), 80 Stat. 939.
20702(b) 45:29 (6th, last sentences).
  45:30 (1st sentence related to 45:29)
  49 App.:1655(e) (1)(E)–(G).
20702(c) 45:29 (4th, 5th sentences).
20702(d) 45:28. Feb. 17, 1911, ch. 103, §5, 36 Stat. 914; Apr. 22, 1940, ch. 124, §1(1)–(3) (related to §5 of Act of Feb. 17, 1911), 54 Stat. 148; Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1965, eff. July 27, 1965, 79 Stat. 1320; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §14(4), 102 Stat. 633.
  45:30 (1st sentence related to 45:28).
  49 App.:1655(e) (1)(E)–(G).

In this section, the words "locomotive and tender and its parts and appurtenances" and "locomotive, tender, or locomotive or tender part or appurtenance" are substituted for "locomotive boiler" and "boiler or boilers or apparatus pertaining thereto" in 45:29 and "the provision of sections 22 to 29 . . . of this title as to the equipment of locomotives shall apply to and include the entire locomotive and tender and all their parts with the same force and effect as it applies to locomotive boilers and their appurtenances" in 45:30 for clarity and because of the restatement.

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the word "shall" is substituted for "It shall be the duty of", "shall", and "His first duty shall be" in 45:29 and "shall . . . and shall have the same powers and duties with respect to all the parts and appurtenances of the locomotive and tender that they have with respect to the boiler of a locomotive and the appurtenances thereof" in 45:30 for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (1), the words "ordinarily housed or repaired in his district, and if any locomotive is ordinarily housed or repaired in two or more districts, then the director of locomotive inspection or an assistant shall make such division between inspectors as will avoid the necessity for duplication of work" in 45:29 are omitted as obsolete because of Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1965 (eff. July 27, 1965, 79 Stat. 1320) and 49 App.:1655(e)(1)(E)–(G). In clause (2), the words "inspect . . . as necessary to carry out" are substituted for "make such personal inspection . . . from time to time as may be necessary to fully carry out the provisions of" in 45:29 and "inspect" in 45:30 to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "under his care" and "as may be consistent with his other duties" in 45:29 are omitted as obsolete because of Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1965 (eff. July 27, 1965, 79 Stat. 1320) and 49 App.:1655(e)(1)(E)–(G). The words "but not necessarily" are substituted for "but he shall not be required to make such inspections" in 45:29 to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (3), the words "inspections of locomotives and tenders and their parts and appurtenances as required by regulations prescribed by the Secretary" are substituted for "inspections in accordance with the rules and regulations established or approved by the Secretary of Transportation" in 45:29 and "the provision of sections 22 to 29 . . . of this title as to the equipment of locomotives shall apply to and include the entire locomotive and tender and all their parts with the same force and effect as it applies to locomotive boilers and their appurtenances" in 45:30 for clarity and because of the restatement. The words "a defective locomotive, tender, part, or appurtenance is used again" are substituted for "the boiler or boilers or appurtenances pertaining thereto are again put in service" in 45:29 for consistency in this subsection. The text of 45:30 (last sentence) is omitted as obsolete because of Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1965 (eff. July 27, 1965, 79 Stat. 1320), 49 App.:1655(e)(1)(E)–(G), and 5:ch. 33.

In subsection (b), the word "reinspection" is substituted for "reexamination" for consistency in this chapter.

In subsection (b)(1), the words "in the performance of his duty" in 45:29 are omitted as surplus. The words "owned or operated by a railroad carrier" are added for clarity and because of the words "owning or operating such locomotive" in 45:29 (last sentence). The words "does not comply with this chapter or a regulation prescribed under this chapter" are substituted for "not conforming to the requirements of the law or the rules and regulations established and approved as hereinbefore stated" in 45:29 to eliminate unnecessary words and because of the restatement. The words "describing any defect resulting in noncompliance" are substituted for "that the locomotive is not in serviceable condition . . . because of defects set out and described in said notice" for consistency in this section and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "written request for a reinspection" are substituted for "appeal . . . by telegraph or by letter to have said boiler reexamined" for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "an officer or employee of the Department of Transportation" are substituted for "one of the assistant directors of locomotive inspection or any district inspector" because of Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1965 (eff. July 27, 1965, 79 Stat. 1320) and 49 App.:1655(e)(1)(E)–(G).

In subsection (b)(2), the words "Immediately after the reinspection is completed" are substituted for "upon such reexamination the boiler is found in serviceable condition . . . immediately" and "but if the reexamination of said boiler sustains the decision of the district inspector . . . at once" in 45:29 to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "give written notice . . . stating whether the locomotive, tender, part, or appurtenance is in compliance" are substituted for "in writing" and "that the appeal from the decision of the inspector is dismissed" for clarity and consistency in this subsection. The words "after providing an opportunity for a proceeding" are substituted for "after hearing" as being more appropriate and for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The words "may revise or set aside the finding of noncompliance" are substituted for "shall have power to revise, modify, or set aside such action . . . and declare that said locomotive is in serviceable condition and authorize the same to be operated" to eliminate unnecessary words.

Subsection (b)(3) is substituted for "and thereafter such boiler shall not be used until in serviceable condition" and "whereupon such boiler may be put into service without further delay" in 45:29 and the text of 45:29 (last proviso) for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (c), before clause (1), the words "make and keep" are substituted for "keep" for clarity.

Subsection (d) is substituted for the text of 45:28 (1st sentence last proviso) and 30 (1st sentence related to 45:28) for clarity and because of the restatement.

§20703. Accident reports and investigations

(a) Accident Reports and Scene Preservation.—When the failure of a locomotive, tender, or locomotive or tender part or appurtenance results in an accident or incident causing serious personal injury or death, the railroad carrier owning or operating the locomotive or tender—

(1) immediately shall file with the Secretary of Transportation a written statement of the fact of the accident or incident; and

(2) when the locomotive is disabled to the extent it cannot be operated under its own power, shall preserve intact all parts affected by the accident or incident, if possible without interfering with traffic, until an investigation of the accident or incident is completed.


(b) Investigations.—The Secretary shall—

(1) investigate each accident and incident reported under subsection (a) of this section;

(2) inspect each part affected by the accident or incident; and

(3) make a complete and detailed report on the cause of the accident or incident.


(c) Publication and Use of Investigation Reports.—When the Secretary considers publication to be in the public interest, the Secretary may publish a report of an investigation made under this section, stating the cause of the accident or incident and making appropriate recommendations. No part of a report may be admitted into evidence or used in a civil action for damages resulting from a matter mentioned in the report.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 886.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20703(a) 45:30 (1st sentence related to 45:32). Mar. 4, 1915, ch. 169, §2 (1st sentence related to §8 of Act of Feb. 17, 1911), 38 Stat. 1192; Apr. 22, 1940, ch. 124, §2, 54 Stat. 148; Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1965, eff. July 27, 1965, 79 Stat. 1320.
  45:32 (1st, 3d sentences). Feb. 17, 1911, ch. 103, §8, 36 Stat. 916; Apr. 22, 1940, ch. 124, §1(1)–(3) (related to §8 of Act of Feb. 17, 1911), 54 Stat. 148; Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1965, eff. July 27, 1965, 79 Stat. 1320; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §14(6), 102 Stat. 633.
  49 App.:1655(e) (1)(E)–(G). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(e)(1)(E)–(G), 80 Stat. 939.
20703(b) 45:32 (2d, last sentences).
20703(c) 45:33.
  49 App.:1655(e) (1)(E)–(G).

In this section, the words "or incident" and "and incident" are added for consistency in this part.

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words "locomotive, tender, or locomotive or tender part or appurtenance . . . the locomotive or tender" are substituted for "locomotive boiler or its appurtenances . . . said locomotive" in 45:32 and the text of 45:30 (1st sentence related to 45:32) for clarity and because of the restatement. The word "personal" is substituted for "to one or more persons" to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (1), the word "immediately" is substituted for "forthwith" for consistency in this chapter. In clause (2), the words "operated under its own power" are substituted for "cannot be run by its own steam" for clarity. The words "hindrance or" are omitted as being included in "interfering". The word "investigation" is substituted for "inspection" for consistency in this section.

In subsection (c), the words "at any time call upon the director of locomotive inspection for a report of any accident embraced in section 32 of this title, and upon the receipt of said report" are omitted as obsolete because of Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1965 (eff. July 27, 1965, 79 Stat. 1320) and 49 App.:1655(e)(1)(E)–(G). The text of 45:33 (2d sentence) is omitted as surplus. The words "civil action" are substituted for "suit or action" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The words "resulting from" are substituted for "growing out of" for clarity. The words "or investigation" are omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement.

CHAPTER 209—ACCIDENTS AND INCIDENTS

Sec.
20901.
Reports.
20902.
Investigations.
20903.
Reports not evidence in civil actions for damages.

        

§20901. Reports

(a) General Requirements.—Not later than 30 days after the end of each month, a railroad carrier shall file a report with the Secretary of Transportation on all accidents and incidents resulting in injury or death to an individual or damage to equipment or a roadbed arising from the carrier's operations during the month. The report shall be under oath and shall state the nature, cause, and circumstances of each reported accident or incident. If a railroad carrier assigns human error as a cause, the report shall include, at the option of each employee whose error is alleged, a statement by the employee explaining any factors the employee alleges contributed to the accident or incident.

(b) Monetary Threshold for Reporting.—(1) In establishing or changing a monetary threshold for the reporting of a railroad accident or incident, the Secretary shall base damage cost calculations only on publicly available information obtained from—

(A) the Bureau of Labor Statistics; or

(B) another department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government if the information has been collected through objective, statistically sound survey methods or has been previously subject to a public notice and comment process in a proceeding of a Government department, agency, or instrumentality.


(2) If information is not available as provided in paragraph (1)(A) or (B) of this subsection, the Secretary may use any other source to obtain the information. However, use of the information shall be subject to public notice and an opportunity for written comment.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 886.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20901(a) 45:38 (1st sentence). May 6, 1910, ch. 208, §1 (1st sentence), 36 Stat. 350; restated Sept. 13, 1960, Pub. L. 86–762, §1, 74 Stat. 903; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §15(1)(A), (B), 102 Stat. 633.
  45:39 (related to time of filing report). May 6, 1910, ch. 208, §2 (related to time of filing report), 36 Stat. 351; Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §204(b), 88 Stat. 2166; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §15(2), 102 Stat. 634.
  45:43a. June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §24, 102 Stat. 639.
  49 App.:1655(e)(1)(K). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(e)(1)(K), 80 Stat. 939.
20901(b) 45:38 (note). Sept. 3, 1992, Pub. L. 102–365, §15, 106 Stat. 981.

In this section, the words "accident" and "incident" are used, and the words "collision" and "derailment" are omitted, for consistency in this part. The words "the general manager, superintendent, or other proper officer of" in 45:38 are omitted as surplus because any duty of a railroad carrier must necessarily be carried out through its proper officers and agents. The text of 45:38 (1st sentence proviso) is omitted as executed.

In subsection (b), the words "or incident" are added for consistency. The text of section 15(c) of the Rail Safety Enforcement and Review Act (Pub. L. 102–365, 106 Stat. 981) is omitted as executed.

Accident and Incident Reporting

Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title II, §209, Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4876, provided that: "The Federal Railroad Administration shall conduct an audit of each Class I railroad at least once every 2 years and conduct an audit of each non-Class I railroad at least once every 5 years to ensure that all grade crossing collisions and fatalities are reported to any Federal national accident database."

[For definitions of "railroad" and "crossing", as used in section 209 of Pub. L. 110–432, set out above, see section 2(a) of Pub. L. 110–432, set out as a note under section 20102 of this title.]

§20902. Investigations

(a) General Authority.—The Secretary of Transportation, or an impartial investigator authorized by the Secretary, may investigate—

(1) an accident or incident resulting in serious injury to an individual or to railroad property, occurring on the railroad line of a railroad carrier; and

(2) an accident or incident reported under section 20505 of this title.


(b) Other Duties and Powers.—In carrying out an investigation, the Secretary or authorized investigator may subpena witnesses, require the production of records, exhibits, and other evidence, administer oaths, and take testimony. If the accident or incident is investigated by a commission of the State in which it occurred, the Secretary, if convenient, shall carry out the investigation at the same time as, and in coordination with, the commission's investigation. The railroad carrier on whose railroad line the accident or incident occurred shall provide reasonable facilities to the Secretary for the investigation.

(c) Reports.—When in the public interest, the Secretary shall make a report of the investigation, stating the cause of the accident or incident and making recommendations the Secretary considers appropriate. The Secretary shall publish the report in a way the Secretary considers appropriate.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 887.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20902(a) 45:40 (1st sentence, 2d sentence words between 1st and 2d commas). May 6, 1910, ch. 208, §3, 36 Stat. 351; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §15(3), 102 Stat. 634.
  49 App.:26(f) (words after last semicolon). Feb. 4, 1887, ch. 104, 24 Stat. 379, §25(f) (words after last semicolon); added Feb. 28, 1920, ch. 91, §441, 41 Stat. 498; restated Aug. 26, 1937, ch. 818, 50 Stat. 836; Sept. 18, 1940, ch. 722, §14(b), 54 Stat. 919.
  49 App.:1655(e)(1)(K). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(e)(1)(K), 80 Stat. 939.
20902(b) 45:40 (2d sentence less words between 1st and 2d commas).
20902(c) 45:40 (3d, last sentences).

In this section, the words "accident" and "incident" are used, and the words "collision" and "derailment" are omitted, for consistency in this part.

Subsection (a)(2) is substituted for the text of 49 App.:26(f) (words after last semicolon) for clarity.

In subsection (b), the words "In carrying out an investigation" are substituted for "shall have authority to investigate such collisions, derailments, or other accidents aforesaid, and all the attending facts, conditions, and circumstances, and for that purpose" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "books, papers, orders, memoranda" are omitted as being included in "papers". The words "in coordination with" are substituted for "in connection with" for clarity. The words "The railroad carrier on whose railroad line the accident or incident occurred" are added for clarity.

In subsection (c), the words "When in the public interest" are substituted for "when he deems it to the public interest" to eliminate unnecessary words.

§20903. Reports not evidence in civil actions for damages

No part of an accident or incident report filed by a railroad carrier under section 20901 of this title or made by the Secretary of Transportation under section 20902 of this title may be used in a civil action for damages resulting from a matter mentioned in the report.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 887.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
20903 45:41. May 6, 1910, ch. 208, §4, 36 Stat. 351.

The words "civil action" are substituted for "suit or action" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

CHAPTER 211—HOURS OF SERVICE

Sec.
21101.
Definitions.
21102.
Nonapplication, exemption, and alternate hours of service regime.
21103.
Limitations on duty hours of train employees.
21104.
Limitations on duty hours of signal employees.
21105.
Limitations on duty hours of dispatching service employees.
21106.
Limitations on employee sleeping quarters.
21107.
Maximum duty hours and subjects of collective bargaining.
21108.
Pilot projects.
21109.
Regulatory authority.

        

Amendments

2008—Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title I, §108(d)(2), (e)(2)(A), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4864, 4865, substituted item 21102 for former item 21102 "Nonapplication and exemption" and added item 21109.

1994—Pub. L. 103–440, title II, §203(b), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4620, added item 21108.

§21101. Definitions

In this chapter—

(1) "designated terminal" means the home or away-from-home terminal for the assignment of a particular crew.

(2) "dispatching service employee" means an operator, train dispatcher, or other train employee who by the use of an electrical or mechanical device dispatches, reports, transmits, receives, or delivers orders related to or affecting train movements.

(3) "employee" means a dispatching service employee, a signal employee, or a train employee.

(4) "signal employee" means an individual who is engaged in installing, repairing, or maintaining signal systems.

(5) "train employee" means an individual engaged in or connected with the movement of a train, including a hostler.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 888; Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title I, §108(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4860.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
21101(1) 45:61(b)(4) (1st sentence). Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2939, 34 Stat. 1415, §1(b)(4) (1st sentence); added Nov. 2, 1978, Pub. L. 95–574, §6, 92 Stat. 2461.
21101(2)–(4) (no source).
21101(5) 45:61(b)(2). Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2939, §1(b)(2), 34 Stat. 1415; restated Dec. 26, 1969, Pub. L. 91–169, §1, 83 Stat. 463; July 8, 1976, Pub. L. 94–348, §4(c), 90 Stat. 818.

Clause (2) is added to avoid the necessity of repeating the substance of the definition every time a "dispatching service employee" is referred to in this chapter. The language in clause (2) is derived from 45:63.

Clause (3) is added to provide a definition of "employee" when the source provisions apply to all types of employees covered by this chapter.

Clause (4) is added to avoid the necessity of repeating the substance of the definition every time a "signal employee" is referred to in this chapter. The language in clause (4) is derived from 45:63a.

In clause (5), the words "train employee" are substituted for "employee" to distinguish the term from the terms "dispatching service employee" and "signal employee". The word "actually" is omitted as surplus.

Amendments

2008—Par. (4). Pub. L. 110–432 struck out "employed by a railroad carrier" after "individual".

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title I, §108(g), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4866, provided that: "The amendments made by subsections (a), (b), and (c) [amending this section and sections 21103 and 21104 of this title] shall take effect 9 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 16, 2008]."

Record Keeping and Reporting

Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title I, §108(f), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4866, provided that:

"(1) Regulations.—Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 16, 2008], the Secretary [of Transportation] shall prescribe a regulation revising the requirements for recordkeeping and reporting for Hours of Service of Railroad Employees contained in part 228 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations—

"(A) to adjust record keeping and reporting requirements to support compliance with chapter 211 of title 49, United States Code, as amended by this Act;

"(B) to authorize electronic record keeping, and reporting of excess service, consistent with appropriate considerations for user interface; and

"(C) to require training of affected employees and supervisors, including training of employees in the entry of hours of service data.

"(2) Procedure.—In lieu of issuing a notice of proposed rulemaking as contemplated by section 553 of title 5, United States Code, the Secretary may utilize the Railroad Safety Advisory Committee to assist in development of the regulation. The Secretary may propose and adopt amendments to the revised regulations thereafter as may be necessary in light of experience under the revised requirements."

§21102. Nonapplication, exemption, and alternate hours of service regime

(a) General.—This chapter does not apply to a situation involving any of the following:

(1) a casualty.

(2) an unavoidable accident.

(3) an act of God.

(4) a delay resulting from a cause unknown and unforeseeable to a railroad carrier or its officer or agent in charge of the employee when the employee left a terminal.


(b) Exemption.—The Secretary of Transportation may exempt a railroad carrier having not more than 15 employees covered by this chapter from the limitations imposed by this chapter. The Secretary may allow the exemption after a full hearing, for good cause shown, and on deciding that the exemption is in the public interest and will not affect safety adversely. The exemption shall be for a specific period of time and is subject to review at least annually. The exemption may not authorize a carrier to require or allow its employees to be on duty more than a total of 16 hours in a 24-hour period.

(c) Application of Hours of Service Regime to Commuter and Intercity Passenger Railroad Train Employees.—

(1) When providing commuter rail passenger transportation or intercity rail passenger transportation, the limitations on duty hours for train employees of railroad carriers, including public authorities operating passenger service, shall be solely governed by old section 21103 until the earlier of—

(A) the effective date of regulations prescribed by the Secretary under section 21109(b) of this chapter; or

(B) the date that is 3 years following the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008.


(2) After the date on which old section 21103 ceases to apply, pursuant to paragraph (1), to the limitations on duty hours for train employees of railroad carriers with respect to the provision of commuter rail passenger transportation or intercity rail passenger transportation, the limitations on duty hours for train employees of such railroad carriers shall be governed by new section 21103, except as provided in paragraph (3).

(3) After the effective date of the regulations prescribed by the Secretary under section 21109(b) of this title, such carriers shall—

(A) comply with the limitations on duty hours for train employees with respect to the provision of commuter rail passenger transportation or intercity rail passenger transportation as prescribed by such regulations; and

(B) be exempt from complying with the provisions of old section 21103 and new section 21103 for such employees.


(4) In this subsection:

(A) The terms "commuter rail passenger transportation" and "intercity rail passenger transportation" have the meaning given those terms in section 24102 of this title.

(C) 1 The term "new section 21103" means section 21103 of this chapter as amended by the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008.

(D) The term "old section 21103" means section 21103 of this chapter as it was in effect on the day before the enactment of that Act.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 888; Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title I, §108(d)(1), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4863.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
21102(a) 45:63a(d) (related to 45:64a). Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2939, 34 Stat. 1415, §3A(d) (related to §5); added July 8, 1976, Pub. L. 94–348, §4(d), 90 Stat. 819; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §16(4), 102 Stat. 635.
  45:64a(d). Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2939, §5(d), 34 Stat. 1417; restated Dec. 26, 1969, Pub. L. 91–169, §1, 83 Stat. 464; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §16(6)(D), 102 Stat. 635.
21102(b) 45:63a(d) (related to 45:64a).
  45:64a(e). Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2939, §5(e), 34 Stat. 1417; restated Dec. 26, 1969, Pub. L. 91–169, §1, 83 Stat. 464.

In subsection (b), the words "with respect to one or more of its employees" are omitted as surplus because the authority to exempt a railroad carrier includes the authority to exempt only some of the employees of the carrier. The words "carrier to require or allow its employees to be on duty" are substituted for "any railroad described in this section to work its employees" for clarity and consistency in this chapter.

References in Text

The Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, referred to in subsec. (c)(1)(B), (4)(C), (D), is div. A of Pub. L. 110–432, Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4848. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2008 Amendment note set out under section 20101 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2008—Pub. L. 110–432, §108(d)(1)(A), substituted "Nonapplication, exemption, and alternate hours of service regime" for "Nonapplication and exemption" in section catchline.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 110–432, §108(d)(1)(B), added subsec. (c).

1 So in original. No subpar. (B) has been enacted.

§21103. Limitations on duty hours of train employees

(a) In General.—Except as provided in subsection (d) of this section, a railroad carrier and its officers and agents may not require or allow a train employee to—

(1) remain on duty, go on duty, wait for deadhead transportation, be in deadhead transportation from a duty assignment to the place of final release, or be in any other mandatory service for the carrier in any calendar month where the employee has spent a total of 276 hours—

(A) on duty;

(B) waiting for deadhead transportation, or in deadhead transportation from a duty assignment to the place of final release; or

(C) in any other mandatory service for the carrier;


(2) remain or go on duty for a period in excess of 12 consecutive hours;

(3) remain or go on duty unless that employee has had at least 10 consecutive hours off duty during the prior 24 hours; or

(4) remain or go on duty after that employee has initiated an on-duty period each day for—

(A) 6 consecutive days, unless that employee has had at least 48 consecutive hours off duty at the employee's home terminal during which time the employee is unavailable for any service for any railroad carrier except that—

(i) an employee may work a seventh consecutive day if that employee completed his or her final period of on-duty time on his or her sixth consecutive day at a terminal other than his or her home terminal; and

(ii) any employee who works a seventh consecutive day pursuant to subparagraph (i) shall have at least 72 consecutive hours off duty at the employee's home terminal during which time the employee is unavailable for any service for any railroad carrier; or


(B) except as provided in subparagraph (A), 7 consecutive days, unless that employee has had at least 72 consecutive hours off duty at the employee's home terminal during which time the employee is unavailable for any service for any railroad carrier, if—

(i) for a period of 18 months following the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, an existing collective bargaining agreement expressly provides for such a schedule or, following the expiration of 18 months after the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, collective bargaining agreements entered into during such period expressly provide for such a schedule;

(ii) such a schedule is provided for by a pilot program authorized by a collective bargaining agreement; or

(iii) such a schedule is provided for by a pilot program under section 21108 of this chapter related to employees' work and rest cycles.


The Secretary may waive paragraph (4), consistent with the procedural requirements of section 20103, if a collective bargaining agreement provides a different arrangement and such an arrangement is in the public interest and consistent with railroad safety.

(b) Determining Time on Duty.—In determining under subsection (a) of this section the time a train employee is on or off duty, the following rules apply:

(1) Time on duty begins when the employee reports for duty and ends when the employee is finally released from duty.

(2) Time the employee is engaged in or connected with the movement of a train is time on duty.

(3) Time spent performing any other service for the railroad carrier during a 24-hour period in which the employee is engaged in or connected with the movement of a train is time on duty.

(4) Time spent in deadhead transportation to a duty assignment is time on duty, but time spent in deadhead transportation from a duty assignment to the place of final release is neither time on duty nor time off duty.

(5) An interim period available for rest at a place other than a designated terminal is time on duty.

(6) An interim period available for less than 4 hours rest at a designated terminal is time on duty.

(7) An interim period available for at least 4 hours rest at a place with suitable facilities for food and lodging is not time on duty when the employee is prevented from getting to the employee's designated terminal by any of the following:

(A) a casualty.

(B) a track obstruction.

(C) an act of God.

(D) a derailment or major equipment failure resulting from a cause that was unknown and unforeseeable to the railroad carrier or its officer or agent in charge of that employee when that employee left the designated terminal.


(c) Limbo Time Limitation and Additional Rest Requirement.—

(1) A railroad carrier may not require or allow an employee—

(A) to exceed a total of 40 hours per calendar month spent—

(i) waiting for deadhead transportation; or

(ii) in deadhead transportation from a duty assignment to the place of final release,


following a period of 12 consecutive hours on duty that is neither time on duty nor time off duty, not including interim rest periods, during the period from the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008 to one year after such date of enactment; and

(B) to exceed a total of 30 hours per calendar month spent—

(i) waiting for deadhead transportation; or

(ii) in deadhead transportation from a duty assignment to the place of final release,


following a period of 12 consecutive hours on duty that is neither time on duty nor time off duty, not including interim rest periods, during the period beginning one year after the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008 except that the Secretary may further limit the monthly limitation pursuant to regulations prescribed under section 21109.


(2) The limitations in paragraph (1) shall apply unless the train carrying the employee is directly delayed by—

(A) a casualty;

(B) an accident;

(C) an act of God;

(D) a derailment;

(E) a major equipment failure that prevents the train from advancing; or

(F) a delay resulting from a cause unknown and unforeseeable to a railroad carrier or its officer or agent in charge of the employee when the employee left a terminal.


(3) Each railroad carrier shall report to the Secretary, in accordance with procedures established by the Secretary, each instance where an employee subject to this section spends time waiting for deadhead transportation or in deadhead transportation from a duty assignment to the place of final release in excess of the requirements of paragraph (1).

(4) If—

(A) the time spent waiting for deadhead transportation or in deadhead transportation from a duty assignment to the place of final release that is not time on duty, plus

(B) the time on duty,


exceeds 12 consecutive hours, the railroad carrier and its officers and agents shall provide the employee with additional time off duty equal to the number of hours by which such sum exceeds 12 hours.


(d) Emergencies.—A train employee on the crew of a wreck or relief train may be allowed to remain or go on duty for not more than 4 additional hours in any period of 24 consecutive hours when an emergency exists and the work of the crew is related to the emergency. In this subsection, an emergency ends when the track is cleared and the railroad line is open for traffic.

(e) Communication During Time Off Duty.—During a train employee's minimum off-duty period of 10 consecutive hours, as provided under subsection (a) or during an interim period of at least 4 consecutive hours available for rest under subsection (b)(7) or during additional off-duty hours under subsection (c)(4), a railroad carrier, and its officers and agents, shall not communicate with the train employee by telephone, by pager, or in any other manner that could reasonably be expected to disrupt the employee's rest. Nothing in this subsection shall prohibit communication necessary to notify an employee of an emergency situation, as defined by the Secretary. The Secretary may waive the requirements of this paragraph for commuter or intercity passenger railroads if the Secretary determines that such a waiver will not reduce safety and is necessary to maintain such railroads' efficient operations and on-time performance of its trains.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 888; Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title I, §108(b), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4860.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
21103(a) 45:62(a)(1), (2). Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2939, §2(a)(1), (2), 34 Stat. 1416; restated Dec. 26, 1969, Pub. L. 91–169, §1, 83 Stat. 463; July 8, 1976, Pub. L. 94–348, §4(a)(1), (2), 90 Stat. 818; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §16(2), 102 Stat. 634.
21103(b) 45:61(b)(3). Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2939, §§1(b)(3), 2(b), 34 Stat. 1415, 1416; restated Dec. 26, 1969, Pub. L. 91–169, §1, 83 Stat. 463.
  45:61(b)(4) (last sentence). Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2939, 34 Stat. 1415, §1(b)(4) (last sentence); added Nov. 2, 1978, Pub. L. 95–574, §6, 92 Stat. 2461; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §16(1)(C), 102 Stat. 634.
  45:62(b).
21103(c) 45:62(c). Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2939, §2(c), 34 Stat. 1416; Dec. 26, 1969, Pub. L. 91–169, §1, 83 Stat. 464; restated July 8, 1976, Pub. L. 94–348, §4(b), 90 Stat. 818.

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words "Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section" are added to alert the reader to the exception restated in subsection (c). The words "train employee" are substituted for "employee" because of the definition of "train employee" in section 21101 of the revised title. In clause (2), the words "12 consecutive hours" are substituted for "continuously . . . fourteen hours" and "except that, effective upon the expiration of the two-year period beginning on the effective date of this paragraph, such fourteen-hour duty period shall be reduced to twelve hours" because the 2-year period has ended.

In subsection (b), the words before paragraph (1) are added as related to 45:61(b)(3) and (4) (last sentence) and substituted for "In determining, for the purposes of subsection (a), the number of hours an employee is on duty" in 45:62(b) for clarity. In paragraphs (2) and (3), the word "actually" is omitted as surplus. In paragraph (4), the words "neither time on duty nor time off duty" are substituted for "time off duty" for clarity and consistency with the source provisions restated in 21104(b)(3) and (4) of the revised title. In paragraph (7), before clause (A), the words "between designated terminals" are omitted as surplus. The text of 45:61(b)(3)(E) is omitted as surplus because of the restatement.

In subsection (c), the words "A train employee on" are added for consistency in this section. The word "actual" is omitted as surplus.

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, referred to in subsecs. (a)(4)(B)(i) and (c)(1), is the date of enactment of div. A of Pub. L. 110–432, which was approved Oct. 16, 2008.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–432, §108(b)(1), added subsec. (a) and struck out former subsec. (a). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, a railroad carrier and its officers and agents may not require or allow a train employee to remain or go on duty—

"(1) unless that employee has had at least 8 consecutive hours off duty during the prior 24 hours; or

"(2) after that employee has been on duty for 12 consecutive hours, until that employee has had at least 10 consecutive hours off duty."

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 110–432, §108(b)(2), added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 110–432, §108(b)(3), added subsec. (e).

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–432 effective 9 months after Oct. 16, 2008, see section 108(g) of Pub. L. 110–432, set out as a note under section 21101 of this title.

§21104. Limitations on duty hours of signal employees

(a) In General.—Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, a railroad carrier and its officers and agents may not require or allow its signal employees to remain or go on duty and a contractor or subcontractor to a railroad carrier and its officers and agents may not require or allow its signal employees to remain or go on duty—

(1) for a period in excess of 12 consecutive hours; or

(2) unless that employee has had at least 10 consecutive hours off duty during the prior 24 hours.


(b) Determining Time on Duty.—In determining under subsection (a) of this section the time a signal employee is on duty or off duty, the following rules apply:

(1) Time on duty begins when the employee reports for duty and ends when the employee is finally released from duty.

(2) Time spent performing any other service for the railroad carrier during a 24-hour period in which the employee is engaged in installing, repairing, or maintaining signal systems is time on duty.

(3) Time spent returning from a trouble call, whether the employee goes directly to the employee's residence or by way of the employee's headquarters, is neither time on duty nor time off duty.

(4) If, at the end of scheduled duty hours, an employee has not completed the trip from the final outlying worksite of the duty period to the employee's headquarters or directly to the employee's residence, the time after the scheduled duty hours necessarily spent in completing the trip to the residence or headquarters is neither time on duty nor time off duty.

(5) If an employee is released from duty at an outlying worksite before the end of the employee's scheduled duty hours to comply with this section, the time necessary for the trip from the worksite to the employee's headquarters or directly to the employee's residence is neither time on duty nor time off duty.

(6) Time spent in transportation on an ontrack vehicle, including time referred to in paragraphs (3)–(5) of this subsection, is time on duty.

(7) A regularly scheduled meal period or another release period of at least 30 minutes but not more than one hour is time off duty and does not break the continuity of service of the employee under this section, but a release period of more than one hour is time off duty and does break the continuity of service.


(c) Emergencies.—A signal employee may be allowed to remain or go on duty for not more than 4 additional hours in any period of 24 consecutive hours when an emergency exists and the work of that employee is related to the emergency. In this subsection, an emergency ends when the signal system is restored to service. A signal employee may not be allowed to remain or go on duty under the emergency authority provided under this subsection to conduct routine repairs, routine maintenance, or routine inspection of signal systems.

(d) Communication During Time Off Duty.—During a signal employee's minimum off-duty period of 10 consecutive hours, as provided under subsection (a), a railroad carrier or a contractor or subcontractor to a railroad carrier, and its officers and agents, shall not communicate with the signal employee by telephone, by pager, or in any other manner that could reasonably be expected to disrupt the employee's rest. Nothing in this subsection shall prohibit communication necessary to notify an employee of an emergency situation, as defined by the Secretary.

(e) Exclusivity.—The hours of service, duty hours, and rest periods of signal employees shall be governed exclusively by this chapter. Signal employees operating motor vehicles shall not be subject to any hours of service rules, duty hours or rest period rules promulgated by any Federal authority, including the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, other than the Federal Railroad Administration.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 889; Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title I, §108(c), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4862.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
21104(a) 45:63a(a) (1st sentence). Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2939, 34 Stat. 1415, §3A(a) (1st sentence), (b); added July 8, 1976, Pub. L. 94–348, §4(d), 90 Stat. 819; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §16(4), 102 Stat. 635.
  45:63a(a) (2d–last sentences). Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2939, 34 Stat. 1415, §3A(a) (2d–last sentences); added Nov. 2, 1978, Pub. L. 95–574, §4(a), 92 Stat. 2459.
21104(b) 45:63a(b).
  45:63a(c). Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2939, 34 Stat. 1415; §3A(c); added July 8, 1976, Pub. L. 94–348, §4(d), 90 Stat. 819; restated Nov. 2, 1978, Pub. L. 95–574, §4(b), 92 Stat. 2460.
21104(c) 45:63a(f). Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2939, 34 Stat. 1415, §3A(f); added July 8, 1976, Pub. L. 94–348, §4(d), 90 Stat. 819.

In this section, the words "signal employee" are substituted for "an individual employed by the railroad who is engaged in installing, repairing or maintaining signal systems" and "an individual described in paragraph (1)" in 45:63a(a), "individual" in 45:63a(b) and (c), and "individual engaged in installing, repairing, or maintaining signal systems" in 45:63a(f) because of the definition of "signal employee" in section 21101 of the revised title.

Subsection (a)(1) is substituted for 45:63a(a) (last sentence) for clarity and because of the restatement.

In subsection (a)(2), before clause (A), the words "Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section" are added to alert the reader to the exception restated in subsection (c). The text of 45:63a(a) (2d sentence) is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the words before paragraph (1) are added as related to 45:63a(c) and substituted for "In determining for the purposes of subsection (a) of this section the number of hours an individual is on duty" for clarity. In paragraph (2), the word "actually" is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c), the word "actual" is omitted as surplus.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–432, §108(c)(1), added subsec. (a) and struck out former subsec. (a) which limited the amount of time spent on duty by signal employees.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 110–432, §108(c)(2), substituted "duty." for "duty, except that up to one hour of that time spent returning from the final trouble call of a period of continuous or broken service is time off duty."

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 110–432, §108(c)(3), inserted at end "A signal employee may not be allowed to remain or go on duty under the emergency authority provided under this subsection to conduct routine repairs, routine maintenance, or routine inspection of signal systems."

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 110–432, §108(c)(4), added subsecs. (d) and (e).

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–432 effective 9 months after Oct. 16, 2008, see section 108(g) of Pub. L. 110–432, set out as a note under section 21101 of this title.

§21105. Limitations on duty hours of dispatching service employees

(a) Application.—This section applies, rather than section 21103 or 21104 of this title, to a train employee or signal employee during any period of time the employee is performing duties of a dispatching service employee.

(b) General.—Except as provided in subsection (d) of this section, a dispatching service employee may not be required or allowed to remain or go on duty for more than—

(1) a total of 9 hours during a 24-hour period in a tower, office, station, or place at which at least 2 shifts are employed; or

(2) a total of 12 hours during a 24-hour period in a tower, office, station, or place at which only one shift is employed.


(c) Determining Time on Duty.—Under subsection (b) of this section, time spent performing any other service for the railroad carrier during a 24-hour period in which the employee is on duty in a tower, office, station, or other place is time on duty in that tower, office, station, or place.

(d) Emergencies.—When an emergency exists, a dispatching service employee may be allowed to remain or go on duty for not more than 4 additional hours during a period of 24 consecutive hours for not more than 3 days during a period of 7 consecutive days.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 890.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
21105(a) 45:62(d). Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2939, §2(d), 34 Stat. 1416; restated Dec. 26, 1969, Pub. L. 91–169, §1, 83 Stat. 464.
  45:63a(e). Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2939, 34 Stat. 1415, §3A(e); added July 8, 1976, Pub. L. 94–348, §4(d), 90 Stat. 819.
21105(b) 45:63(a). Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2939, §3, 34 Stat. 1416; May 4, 1916, ch. 109, §1, 39 Stat. 61; Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L. 85–135, §2, 71 Stat. 352; restated Dec. 26, 1969, Pub. L. 91–169, §1, 83 Stat. 464; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §16(3), 102 Stat. 635.
21105(c) 45:63(b).
21105(d) 45:63(c).

In this section, the words "dispatching service employee" are substituted for "operator, train dispatcher, or other employee who by the use of the telegraph, telephone, radio, or any other electrical or mechanical device dispatches, reports, transmits, receives, or delivers orders pertaining to or affecting train movements" in 45:63(a), "employee . . . on duty in a class of service . . . described in paragraph (1) or (2) of such subsection" in 45:63(b), and "employees named in such subsection" in 45:63(c) because of the definition of "dispatching service employee" in section 21101 of the revised title.

In subsection (a), the words "This section applies, rather than section 21103 or 21104 of this title" are substituted for "The provisions of this section shall not apply" because of the restatement. The words "train employee" are substituted for "employee" in 45:62(d), and the words "signal employee" are substituted for "individual" in 45:63a(e), for consistency in this chapter and because of the definitions of "signal employee" and "train employee" in section 21101 of the revised title. The words "during any period of time the employee is performing duties of a dispatching service employee" are substituted for "during such period of time as the provisions of section 63 of this title apply to his duty and off-duty periods" in 45:62(d) and 63a(e) for clarity.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the words "a total of" are substituted for "whether consecutive or in the aggregate" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (c), the words "a tower, office, station, or other place" are substituted for "a place, described in paragraph (1) or (2) of such subsection" for clarity.

In subsection (d), the words "When an emergency exists" are substituted for "in case of emergency" for consistency in this chapter.

§21106. Limitations on employee sleeping quarters

(a) In General.—A railroad carrier and its officers and agents—

(1) may provide sleeping quarters (including crew quarters, camp or bunk cars, and trailers) for employees, and any individuals employed to maintain the right of way of a railroad carrier, only if the sleeping quarters are clean, safe, and sanitary, give those employees and individuals an opportunity for rest free from the interruptions caused by noise under the control of the carrier, and provide indoor toilet facilities, potable water, and other features to protect the health of employees; and

(2) may not begin, after July 7, 1976, construction or reconstruction of sleeping quarters referred to in clause (1) of this section in an area or in the immediate vicinity of an area, as determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Transportation, in which railroad switching or humping operations are performed.


(b) Camp Cars.—Not later than December 31, 2009, any railroad carrier that uses camp cars shall fully retrofit or replace such cars in compliance with subsection (a).

(c) Regulations.—Not later than April 1, 2010, the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the Secretary of Labor, shall prescribe regulations to implement subsection (a)(1) to protect the safety and health of any employees and individuals employed to maintain the right of way of a railroad carrier that uses camp cars, which shall require that all camp cars comply with those regulations by December 31, 2010. In prescribing the regulations, the Secretary shall assess the action taken by any railroad carrier to fully retrofit or replace its camp cars pursuant to this section.

(d) Compliance and Enforcement.—The Secretary shall determine whether a railroad carrier has fully retrofitted or replaced a camp car pursuant to subsection (b) and shall prohibit the use of any non-compliant camp car. The Secretary may assess civil penalties pursuant to chapter 213 for violations of this section.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 891; Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title IV, §420, Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4893.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
21106 45:62(a)(3), (4). Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2939, 34 Stat. 1415, §2(a)(3), (4); added July 8, 1976, Pub. L. 94–348, §4(a)(3), 90 Stat. 818; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §16(2), 102 Stat. 634.
  45:62(e). Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2939, 34 Stat. 1415, §2(e); added June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §19(b)(1), 102 Stat. 638.
  45:63a(d) (related to 45:62(a)(3)). Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2939, 34 Stat. 1415, §3A(d) (related to §2(a)(3)); added July 8, 1976, Pub. L. 94–348, §4(d), 90 Stat. 819; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §16(4), 102 Stat. 635.

In this section, before clause (1), the words "and any individuals employed to maintain the right of way of a railroad carrier" are substituted for 45:62(e) because of the restatement.

Amendments

2008—Pub. L. 110–432 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, in par. (1), substituted "sanitary, give those employees and individuals an opportunity for rest free from the interruptions caused by noise under the control of the carrier, and provide indoor toilet facilities, potable water, and other features to protect the health of employees;" for "sanitary and give those employees and individuals an opportunity for rest free from the interruptions caused by noise under the control of the carrier;", and added subsecs. (b) to (d).

§21107. Maximum duty hours and subjects of collective bargaining

The number of hours established by this chapter that an employee may be required or allowed to be on duty is the maximum number of hours consistent with safety. Shorter hours of service and time on duty of an employee are proper subjects for collective bargaining between a railroad carrier and its employees.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 891.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
21107 45:63a(d) (related to 45:64). Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2939, 34 Stat. 1415, §3A(d) (related to §4); added July 8, 1976, Pub. L. 94–348, §4(d), 90 Stat. 819; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §16(4), 102 Stat. 635.
  45:64. Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2939, §4, 34 Stat. 1417; restated Dec. 26, 1969, Pub. L. 91–169, §1, 83 Stat. 464; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §16(5), 102 Stat. 635.

§21108. Pilot projects

(a) In General.—As of the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, a railroad carrier or railroad carriers and all nonprofit employee labor organizations representing any class or craft of directly affected covered service employees of the railroad carrier or railroad carriers, may jointly petition the Secretary of Transportation for approval of—

(1) a waiver of compliance with this chapter as in effect on the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008; or

(2) a waiver of compliance with this chapter as it will be effective 9 months after the enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008,


to enable the establishment of one or more pilot projects to demonstrate the possible benefits of implementing alternatives to the strict application of the requirements of this chapter, including requirements concerning maximum on-duty and minimum off-duty periods.

(b) Granting of Waivers.—The Secretary may, after notice and opportunity for comment, approve such waivers described in subsection (a) for a period not to exceed two years, if the Secretary determines that such a waiver of compliance is in the public interest and is consistent with railroad safety.

(c) Extensions.—Any such waiver, based on a new petition, may be extended for additional periods of up to two years, after notice and opportunity for comment. An explanation of any waiver granted under this section shall be published in the Federal Register.

(d) Report.—The Secretary of Transportation shall submit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives, no later than December 31, 2012, or, if no projects are completed prior to December 31, 2012, no later than 6 months after the completion of a pilot project, a report that—

(1) explains and analyzes the effectiveness of any pilot project established pursuant to a waiver granted under subsection (a);

(2) describes the status of all other waivers granted under subsection (a) and their related pilot projects, if any; and

(3) recommends any appropriate legislative changes to this chapter.


(e) Definition.—For purposes of this section, the term "directly affected covered service employees" means covered service employees to whose hours of service the terms of the waiver petitioned for specifically apply.

(Added Pub. L. 103–440, title II, §203(a), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4619; amended Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title I, §110, Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4867.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, referred to in subsec. (a), is the date of enactment of div. A of Pub. L. 110–432, which was approved Oct. 16, 2008.

Amendments

2008—Pub. L. 110–432 amended section generally, revising and restating provisions of former subsec. (a) relating to waivers as subsecs. (a) to (c), provisions of former subsec. (b) relating to requirement of a report to Congress as subsec. (d), and provisions of former subsec. (c) defining "directly affected covered service employees" as subsec. (e).

§21109. Regulatory authority

(a) In General.—In order to improve safety and reduce employee fatigue, the Secretary may prescribe regulations—

(1) to reduce the maximum hours an employee may be required or allowed to go or remain on duty to a level less than the level established under this chapter;

(2) to increase the minimum hours an employee may be required or allowed to rest to a level greater than the level established under this chapter;

(3) to limit or eliminate the amount of time an employee spends waiting for deadhead transportation or in deadhead transportation from a duty assignment to the place of final release that is considered neither on duty nor off duty under this chapter;

(4) for signal employees—

(A) to limit or eliminate the amount of time that is considered to be neither on duty nor off duty under this chapter that an employee spends returning from an outlying worksite after scheduled duty hours or returning from a trouble call to the employee's headquarters or directly to the employee's residence; and

(B) to increase the amount of time that constitutes a release period, that does not break the continuity of service and is considered time off duty; and


(5) to require other changes to railroad operating and scheduling practices, including unscheduled duty calls, that could affect employee fatigue and railroad safety.


(b) Regulations Governing the Hours of Service of Train Employees of Commuter and Intercity Passenger Railroad Carriers.—Within 3 years after the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, the Secretary shall prescribe regulations and issue orders to establish hours of service requirements for train employees engaged in commuter rail passenger transportation and intercity rail passenger transportation (as defined in section 24102 of this title) that may differ from the requirements of this chapter. Such regulations and orders may address railroad operating and scheduling practices, including unscheduled duty calls, communications during time off duty, and time spent waiting for deadhead transportation or in deadhead transportation from a duty assignment to the place of final release, that could affect employee fatigue and railroad safety.

(c) Considerations.—In issuing regulations under subsection (a) the Secretary shall consider scientific and medical research related to fatigue and fatigue abatement, railroad scheduling and operating practices that improve safety or reduce employee fatigue, a railroad's use of new or novel technology intended to reduce or eliminate human error, the variations in freight and passenger railroad scheduling practices and operating conditions, the variations in duties and operating conditions for employees subject to this chapter, a railroad's required or voluntary use of fatigue management plans covering employees subject to this chapter, and any other relevant factors.

(d) Time Limits.—

(1) If the Secretary determines that regulations are necessary under subsection (a), the Secretary shall first request that the Railroad Safety Advisory Committee develop proposed regulations and, if the Committee accepts the task, provide the Committee with a reasonable time period in which to complete the task.

(2) If the Secretary requests that the Railroad Safety Advisory Committee accept the task of developing regulations under subsection (b) and the Committee accepts the task, the Committee shall reach consensus on the rulemaking within 18 months after accepting the task. If the Committee does not reach consensus within 18 months after the Secretary makes the request, the Secretary shall prescribe appropriate regulations within 18 months.

(3) If the Secretary does not request that the Railroad Safety Advisory Committee accept the task of developing regulations under subsection (b), the Secretary shall prescribe regulations within 3 years after the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008.


(e) Pilot Projects.—

(1) In general.—Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, the Secretary shall conduct at least 2 pilot projects of sufficient size and scope to analyze specific practices which may be used to reduce fatigue for train and engine and other railroad employees as follows:

(A) A pilot project at a railroad or railroad facility to evaluate the efficacy of communicating to employees notice of their assigned shift time 10 hours prior to the beginning of their assigned shift as a method for reducing employee fatigue.

(B) A pilot project at a railroad or railroad facility to evaluate the efficacy of requiring railroads who use employee scheduling practices that subject employees to periods of unscheduled duty calls to assign employees to defined or specific unscheduled call shifts that are followed by shifts not subject to call, as a method for reducing employee fatigue.


(2) Waiver.—The Secretary may temporarily waive the requirements of this section, if necessary, to complete a pilot project under this subsection.


(f) Duty Call Defined.—In this section the term "duty call" means a telephone call that a railroad places to an employee to notify the employee of his or her assigned shift time.

(Added Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title I, §108(e)(1), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4864.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, referred to in subsecs. (b), (d)(3), and (e)(1), is the date of enactment of div. A of Pub. L. 110–432, which was approved Oct. 16, 2008.

CHAPTER 213—PENALTIES

SUBCHAPTER I—CIVIL PENALTIES

Sec.
21301.
Chapter 201 general violations.
21302.
Chapter 201 accident and incident violations and chapter 203–209 violations.
21303.
Chapter 211 violations.
21304.
Willfulness requirement for penalties against individuals.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—CRIMINAL PENALTIES

21311.
Records and reports.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—CIVIL PENALTIES

§21301. Chapter 201 general violations

(a) Penalty.—(1) A person may not fail to comply with section 20160 or with a regulation prescribed or order issued by the Secretary of Transportation under chapter 201 of this title. Subject to section 21304 of this title, a person violating section 20160 of this title or a regulation prescribed or order issued by the Secretary under chapter 201 is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty. The Secretary shall impose the penalty applicable under paragraph (2) of this subsection. A separate violation occurs for each day the violation continues.

(2) The Secretary shall include in, or make applicable to, each regulation prescribed and order issued under chapter 201 of this title a civil penalty for a violation. The Secretary shall impose a civil penalty for a violation of section 20160 of this title. The amount of the penalty shall be at least $500 but not more than $25,000. However, when a grossly negligent violation or a pattern of repeated violations has caused an imminent hazard of death or injury to individuals, or has caused death or injury, the amount may be not more than $100,000.

(3) The Secretary may compromise the amount of a civil penalty imposed under this subsection to not less than $500 before referring the matter to the Attorney General for collection. In determining the amount of a compromise, the Secretary shall consider—

(A) the nature, circumstances, extent, and gravity of the violation;

(B) with respect to the violator, the degree of culpability, any history of violations, the ability to pay, and any effect on the ability to continue to do business; and

(C) other matters that justice requires.


(b) Setoff.—The Government may deduct the amount of a civil penalty imposed or compromised under this section from amounts it owes the person liable for the penalty.

(c) Deposit in Treasury.—A civil penalty collected under this section or section 20113(b) of this title shall be deposited in the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 891; Pub. L. 104–287, §5(53), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3393; Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title II, §204(d), title III, §302(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4871, 4878.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
21301(a)(1) 45:438(a). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, §209(a), 84 Stat. 975; restated Jan. 14, 1983, Pub. L. 97–468, §706, 96 Stat. 2581; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §3(a)(1), 102 Stat. 624; Sept. 3, 1992, Pub. L. 102–365, §9(a)(1), 106 Stat. 977.
  45:438(c) (1st, 3d sentences). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, §209(c) (1st, 3d, 5th–8th sentences), 84 Stat. 975; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §3(a)(3)(A), (C), 102 Stat. 624; Sept. 3, 1992, Pub. L. 102–365, §4(c)(1), 106 Stat. 974.
21301(a)(2) 45:438(b) (related to rules, regulations, orders, or standards issued under this subchapter). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, §209(b) (related to rules, regulations, orders, or standards issued under this title), 84 Stat. 975; Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §204(a), 88 Stat. 2165; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §3(a)(2), 102 Stat. 624; Sept. 3, 1992, Pub. L. 102–365, §4(a)(1), 106 Stat. 973.
21301(a)(3) 45:438(c) (5th, 6th sentences).
21301(b) 45:438(c) (7th sentence).
21301(c) 45:438(c) (8th sentence).

In subsection (a), the words "impose" and "imposed" are substituted for "assessed", for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (a)(1), the first 2 sentences are substituted for 45:438(a) and (c) (1st sentence) for consistency in the revised title and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "(including but not limited to a railroad; any manager, supervisor, official, or other employee or agent of a railroad; any owner, manufacturer, lessor, or lessee of railroad equipment, track, or facilities; any independent contractor providing goods or services to a railroad; and any employee of such owner, manufacturer, lessor, lessee, or independent contractor)" are omitted as surplus because of the definition of "person" in 1:1 and because the provision being violated indicates to whom it applies. The word "shall" in 45:438(c) (1st sentence) is retained from the source provisions. For a discussion of whether the authority of the Secretary of Transportation to impose a penalty is mandatory or permissive, see Railway Labor Executives' Ass'n v. Dole, 760 F.2d 1021, 1024, 1025 (9th Cir. 1985); H.R. Conf. Rept. No. 100–637, 100th Cong., 2d Sess., p. 20; 134 Cong. Rec. H3470, May 23, 1988 (daily ed.); 134 Cong. Rec. S7510, June 9, 1988 (daily ed.). See also 134 Cong. Rec. E1946, June 10, 1988 (daily ed.). For an extended discussion of FRA's prosecutorial discretion, see Nationwide Rail Safety: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Transportation, Tourism, and Hazardous Materials of the House Energy and Commerce Committee, 100th Cong., 1st Sess., pp. 54–65 (1987). See also section 6 of this bill that provides that this bill restates, without substantive change, the provisions of law replaced by this bill, and that this bill may not be construed as making a substantive change in the law restated. Therefore, the word "shall" in this subsection has the same meaning it has under existing law. The words "A separate violation" are substituted for "a separate offense" for consistency.

In subsection (a)(3), the words "may compromise the amount . . . to not less than $500" are substituted for "may, however, be compromised . . . for any amount, but in no event for an amount less than the minimum provided in subsection (b) of this section" for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (B), the words "prior or subsequent" are omitted as unnecessary.

In subsection (c), the words "deposited in" are substituted for "covered into" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

Pub. L. 104–287

This amends 49:21301(a)(1) to clarify the restatement of 45:438(a) by section 1 of the Act of July 5, 1994 (Public Law 103–272, 108 Stat. 891).

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 110–432, §204(d)(1), inserted "with section 20160 or" after "comply" and "section 20160 of this title or" after "violating".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 110–432, §302(a), substituted "$25,000." for "$10,000." and "$100,000." for "$20,000."

Pub. L. 110–432, §204(d)(2), inserted "The Secretary shall impose a civil penalty for a violation of section 20160 of this title." after first sentence.

1996—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 104–287, §5(53)(B), substituted "Secretary under chapter 201 is liable" for "Secretary of Transportation under chapter 201 of this title is liable".

Pub. L. 104–287, §5(53)(A), inserted "A person may not fail to comply with a regulation prescribed or order issued by the Secretary of Transportation under chapter 201 of this title." before "Subject to".

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–287 effective July 5, 1994, see section 8(1) of Pub. L. 104–287, set out as a note under section 5303 of this title.

§21302. Chapter 201 accident and incident violations and chapter 203–209 violations

(a) Penalty.—(1) Subject to section 21304 of this title, a person violating a regulation prescribed or order issued under chapter 201 of this title related to accident and incident reporting or investigation, or violating chapters 203–209 of this title or a regulation or requirement prescribed or order issued under chapters 203–209, is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty. An act by an individual that causes a railroad carrier to be in violation is a violation. A separate violation occurs for each day the violation continues.

(2) The Secretary of Transportation imposes a civil penalty under this subsection. The amount of the penalty shall be at least $500 but not more than $25,000. However, when a grossly negligent violation or a pattern of repeated violations has caused an imminent hazard of death or injury to individuals, or has caused death or injury, the amount may be not more than $100,000.

(3) The Secretary may compromise the amount of the civil penalty under section 3711 of title 31. In determining the amount of a compromise, the Secretary shall consider—

(A) the nature, circumstances, extent, and gravity of the violation;

(B) with respect to the violator, the degree of culpability, any history of violations, the ability to pay, and any effect on the ability to continue to do business; and

(C) other matters that justice requires.


(4) If the Secretary does not compromise the amount of the civil penalty, the Secretary shall refer the matter to the Attorney General for collection.

(b) Civil Actions To Collect.—The Attorney General shall bring a civil action in a district court of the United States to collect a civil penalty that is referred to the Attorney General for collection under subsection (a) of this section. The action may be brought in the judicial district in which the violation occurred or the defendant has its principal executive office. If the action is against an individual, the action also may be brought in the judicial district in which the individual resides.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 892; Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title III, §302(b), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4878.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
21302 45:6 (1st sentence words before 23d comma and between 24th comma and proviso, 2d sentence words before 2d comma, last sentence). Mar. 2, 1893, ch. 196, §6 (1st sentence words before 23d comma and between 24th comma and proviso, 2d sentence words before 2d comma, last sentence), 27 Stat. 532; restated Apr. 1, 1896, ch. 87, 29 Stat. 85; Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L. 85–135, §1(1), 71 Stat. 352; July 8, 1976, Pub. L. 94–348, §3(a), 90 Stat. 818; Nov. 2, 1978, Pub. L. 95–574, §7(a), 92 Stat. 2461; Oct. 10, 1980, Pub. L. 96–423, §8(b), 94 Stat. 1814; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §13(1)(F), 102 Stat. 630; Sept. 3, 1992, Pub. L. 102–365, §§4(a)(1), (c)(3), 9(a)(3), 106 Stat. 973, 974, 977.
  45:8 (words before 16th comma). Mar. 2, 1903, ch. 976, §1 (words before 23d comma), 32 Stat. 943; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §13(2)(A), 102 Stat. 631.
  45:9 (last sentence). Mar. 2, 1903, ch. 976, 32 Stat. 943, §2 (last sentence); added Apr. 11, 1958, Pub. L. 85–375, §1(b)(3), 72 Stat. 86.
  45:10 (words after 19th comma). Mar. 2, 1903, ch. 976, §3 (last sentence words after semicolon), 32 Stat. 944.
  45:12 (1st sentence words after semicolon). Apr. 14, 1910, ch. 160, §3 (1st sentence words between semicolon and proviso), 36 Stat. 298.
  45:13 (1st sentence words before last comma, 2d sentence words before proviso, last sentence). Apr. 14, 1910, ch. 160, §4 (1st sentence words before last comma, 2d sentence words before proviso, last sentence), 36 Stat. 299; Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L. 85–135, §1(2), 71 Stat. 352; July 8, 1976, Pub. L. 94–348, §3(b), 90 Stat. 818; Nov. 2, 1978, Pub. L. 95–574, §7(b), 92 Stat. 2461; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §13(3) (C)(i)–(iv), 102 Stat. 632; Sept. 3, 1992, Pub. L. 102–365, §§4(a)(1), (c)(4), 9(a)(5), 106 Stat. 973, 974, 978.
  45:14 (words after semicolon). Apr. 14, 1910, ch. 160, §5 (words after semicolon), 36 Stat. 299.
  45:30 (1st sentence related to 45:34). Mar. 4, 1915, ch. 169, §2 (1st sentence related to §9 of Act of Feb. 17, 1911), 38 Stat. 1192; Apr. 22, 1940, ch. 124, §2, 54 Stat. 148; Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1965, eff. July 27, 1965, 79 Stat. 1320.
  45:34 (1st sentence words before last comma, 2d, last sentences). Feb. 17, 1911, ch. 103, §9 (1st sentence words before last comma, 2d, last sentences), 36 Stat. 916; Apr. 22, 1940, ch. 124, §1 (related to §9 of Act of Feb. 17, 1911), 54 Stat. 148; Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L. 85–135, §3, 71 Stat. 352; Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1965, eff. July 27, 1965, 79 Stat. 1320; July 8, 1976, Pub. L. 94–348, §3(c), 90 Stat. 818; Nov. 2, 1978, Pub. L. 95–574, §7(c), 92 Stat. 2461; Oct. 10, 1980, Pub. L. 96–423, §8(c), 94 Stat. 1814; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §14(7)(A), 102 Stat. 633; Sept. 3, 1992, Pub. L,. 102–365, §§4(a)(1), (c)(7), 9(a)(8), 106 Stat. 973, 975, 978.
  45:43 (1st sentence words before last comma, 2d sentence, 3d sentence words before 5th comma, last sentence). May 6, 1910, ch. 208, §7 (1st sentence words before last comma, 2d sentence, 3d sentence words before 5th comma, last sentence), 36 Stat. 351; Sept. 13, 1960, Pub. L. 86–762, §3, 74 Stat. 904; restated June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §15(4), 102 Stat. 634; Sept. 3, 1992, Pub. L. 102–365, §§4(a)(1), (c)(5), 9(a)(6), 106 Stat. 973, 974, 978.
  45:438(b) (related to 45:39). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, §209(b) (related to §2 of Act of May 6, 1910), 84 Stat. 975; Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §204(a), 88 Stat. 2165; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §3(a)(2), 102 Stat. 624; Sept. 3, 1992, Pub. L. 102–365, §4(a)(1), 106 Stat. 973.
  49 App.:26(h) (1st sentence words before last comma, 2d, 3d sentences, 4th sentence words before last comma, last sentence). Feb. 4, 1887, ch. 104, 24 Stat. 379, §25(h) (1st sentence words before last comma, 2d, 3d sentences, 4th sentence words before last comma, last sentence); added Feb. 28, 1920, ch. 91, §441, 41 Stat. 498; restated Aug. 26, 1937, ch. 818, 50 Stat. 837; Sept. 18, 1940, ch. 722, §14(b), 54 Stat. 919; July 8, 1976, Pub. L. 94–348, §3(d), 90 Stat 818; Nov. 2, 1978, Pub. L. 95–574, §7(d), 92 Stat. 2461; Oct. 10, 1980, Pub. L. 96–423, §8(d), 94 Stat. 1814; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §17(7), (8), 102 Stat. 636; Sept. 3, 1992, Pub. L. 102–365, §§4(a)(1), (c)(6), 9(a)(7), 106 Stat. 973, 974, 978.
  49 App.:1655(e)(1)(A), (C), (E)–(G), (K), (6)(A). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(e)(1)(A), (C), (E)–(G), (K), (6)(A), 80 Stat. 939.

In subsection (a)(1), the words "(including but not limited to a railroad; any manager, supervisor, official, or other employee or agent of a railroad; any owner, manufacturer, lessor, or lessee of railroad equipment, track, or facilities; any independent contractor providing goods or services to a railroad; and any employee of such owner, manufacturer, lessor, lessee, or independent contractor)" are omitted as surplus because of the definition of "person" in 1:1 and because the provision being violated indicates to whom it applies. The words "violating a regulation prescribed or order issued under chapter 201 of this title related to accident and incident reporting or investigation" are substituted for "violating . . . any rule, regulation, order, or standard issued under . . . the Federal Railroad Safety Act of 1970 [45 U.S.C. 431 et seq.] pertaining to accident reporting or investigations" in 45:43, and the words "violating chapters 203–209 of this title or a regulation or requirement prescribed or order issued under chapters 203–209" are substituted for various language in the source provisions, for clarity, for consistency in this section, and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty" are substituted for "liable to a penalty" for clarity. The text of 45:438(b) (related to 45:39) is omitted as covered by 45:43.

In subsection (a)(2), the words "The Secretary of Transportation imposes a civil penalty under this subsection" are substituted for "to be assessed by the Secretary of Transportation" in 45:6, "Such penalty shall be assessed by the Secretary of Transportation" in 45:13, the text of 45:10 (words after 7th comma) and 14 (words after semicolon), and "in such amount . . . as the Secretary of Transportation deems reasonable" in 45:34 and 43 and 49 App.:26(h) for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "per violation" are omitted as surplus.

In subsections (a)(3) and (b), the words "Attorney General" are substituted for "United States attorney", "such attorneys, subject to the direction of the Attorney General", "proper United States attorney" and "proper United States attorneys" because of 28:509.

In subsection (a)(3), the words "section 3711 of title 31" are substituted for "the Federal Claims Collection Act of 1966" and "sections 3711 and 3716 to 3718 of title 31" because the Federal Claims Collection Act of 1966 has been repealed and reenacted as part of title 31 and penalties are compromised under 31:3711. In clause (B), the words "prior or subsequent" are omitted as unnecessary.

In subsection (a)(4), the words "the Secretary shall refer the matter to the Attorney General for collection" are substituted for "recovered in a suit or suits to be brought by" for clarity. The words "and it shall also be the duty of the Secretary of Transportation to lodge with . . . information of any such violations as may come to his knowledge" and "and it shall be the duty of the director of locomotive inspection to give information . . . of all violations coming to his knowledge" are omitted as obsolete.

In subsection (b), the words "The Attorney General shall bring a civil action in a district court of the United States to collect a civil penalty that is referred to the Attorney General for collection under subsection (a) of this section" are substituted for "and it shall be the duty of such United States attorney to bring such suits upon duly verified information being lodged with him of such violation having occurred" in 45:6, and for "It shall be the duty of such attorneys to bring such suits upon duly verified information being lodged with them showing such violations having occurred" in 49 App.:26, for clarity and consistency in this section and with other provisions of the revised title.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 110–432 substituted "$25,000." for "$10,000." and "$100,000." for "$20,000."

§21303. Chapter 211 violations

(a) Penalty.—(1) Subject to section 21304 of this title, a person violating chapter 211 of this title, including section 21103 (as such section was in effect on the day before the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008), or violating any provision of a waiver applicable to that person that has been granted under section 21108 of this title, is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty. An act by an individual that causes a railroad carrier to be in violation is a violation. For a violation of section 21106 of this title, a separate violation occurs for each day a facility is not in compliance.

(2) The Secretary of Transportation imposes a civil penalty under this subsection. The amount of the penalty shall be at least $500 but not more than $25,000. However, when a grossly negligent violation or a pattern of repeated violations has caused an imminent hazard of death or injury to individuals, or has caused death or injury, the amount may be not more than $100,000.

(3) The Secretary may compromise the amount of the civil penalty under section 3711 of title 31. In determining the amount of a compromise, the Secretary shall consider—

(A) the nature, circumstances, extent, and gravity of the violation;

(B) with respect to the violator, the degree of culpability, any history of violations, the ability to pay, and any effect on the ability to continue to do business; and

(C) other matters that justice requires.


(4) If the Secretary does not compromise the amount of the civil penalty, the Secretary shall refer the matter to the Attorney General for collection.

(b) Civil Actions To Collect.—(1) The Attorney General shall bring a civil action in a district court of the United States to collect a civil penalty that is referred to the Attorney General for collection under subsection (a) of this section after satisfactory information is presented to the Attorney General. The action may be brought in the judicial district in which the violation occurred or the defendant has its principal executive office. If the action is against an individual, the action also may be brought in the judicial district in which the individual resides.

(2) A civil action under this subsection must be brought not later than 2 years after the date of the violation unless administrative notification under section 3711 of title 31 is given within that 2-year period to the person committing the violation. However, even if notification is given, the action must be brought within the period specified in section 2462 of title 28.

(c) Imputation of Knowledge.—In any proceeding under this section, a railroad carrier is deemed to know the acts of its officers and agents.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 892; Pub. L. 103–440, title II, §204, Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4620; Pub. L. 104–287, §5(54), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3393; Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title I, §108(e)(2)(B), title III, §302(c), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4866, 4878.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
21303 45:63a(d) (related to 45:64a). Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2939, 34 Stat. 1415, §3A(d) (related to §5); added July 8, 1976, Pub. L. 94–348, §4(d), 90 Stat. 819; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §16(4), 102 Stat. 635.
  45:64a(a)(1) (1st sentence words before last comma, 2d–4th sentences, 5th sentence words before last comma, last sentence). Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2939, §5(a)(1) (1st sentence words before last comma, 2d–4th sentences, 5th sentence words before last comma, last sentence), 34 Stat. 1417; Dec. 26, 1969, Pub. L. 91–169, §1, 83 Stat. 464; July 8, 1976, Pub. L. 94–348, §4(e), 90 Stat. 819; Oct. 10, 1980, Pub. L. 96–423, §12, 94 Stat. 1816; restated June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §16(6)(A), 102 Stat. 635; Sept. 3, 1992, Pub. L,. 102–365, §§4(a)(2), (c)(2), 9(a)(2), 106 Stat. 973, 974, 977.
  45:64a(a)(2). Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2939, §5(a)(2), 34 Stat. 1417; Dec. 26, 1969, Pub. L. 91–169, §1, 83 Stat. 464; July 8, 1976, Pub. L. 94–348, §4(e), 90 Stat. 819; restated Oct. 10, 1980, Pub. L. 96–423, §12, 94 Stat. 1816; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §16(6)(B), 102 Stat. 635.
  45:64a(b). Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2939, §5(b), 34 Stat. 1417; restated Dec. 26, 1969, Pub. L. 91–169, §1, 83 Stat. 464.
  45:64a(c). Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2939, §5(c), 34 Stat. 1417; restated Dec. 26, 1969, Pub. L. 91–169, §1, 83 Stat. 464; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §16(6)(C), 102 Stat. 635.

In this section, the words "Attorney General" are substituted for "United States attorney" because of 28:509. The words "civil action" are substituted for "suit or suits", "action", and "prosecutions" for consistency with rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (28 App. U.S.C.).

In subsection (a)(1), the words "(including but not limited to a railroad; any manager, supervisor, official, or other employee or agent of a railroad; any owner, manufacturer, lessor, or lessee of railroad equipment, track, or facilities; any independent contractor providing goods or services to a railroad; and any employee of such owner, manufacturer, lessor, lessee, or independent contractor)" are omitted as surplus because of the definition of "person" in 1:1 and because the provision being violated indicates to whom it applies. The words "violating chapter 211 of this title" are substituted for "that requires or permits any employee to go, be, or remain on duty in violation of section 62, section 63, or section 63a of this title, or that violates any other provision of this chapter" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "to the United States Government for a civil penalty" are substituted for "for a penalty" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (a)(2), the words "The Secretary of Transportation imposes a civil penalty under this subsection" are substituted for "as the Secretary of Transportation deems reasonable" for clarity and consistency.

In subsection (a)(3), the words "section 3711 of title 31" are substituted for "sections 3711 and 3716 to 3718 of title 31" because penalties are compromised under 31:3711. In clause (B), the words "prior or subsequent" are omitted as unnecessary.

In subsection (a)(4), the words "the Secretary shall refer the matter to the Attorney General for collection" are substituted for "recovered in a suit or suits to be brought by" for clarity. The text of 45:64a(b) is omitted as obsolete.

In subsection (b)(1), the words "The Attorney General shall bring a civil action in a district court of the United States to collect a civil penalty that is referred to the Attorney General for collection under subsection (a) of this section after satisfactory information is presented to the Attorney General" are substituted for "It shall be the duty of the United States attorney to bring such an action upon satisfactory information being lodged with him" for clarity and consistency in this section and with other provisions of the revised title.

In subsection (c), the words "any proceeding" are substituted for "all prosecutions" for consistency in the revised title.

Pub. L. 104–287

This amends 49:21303(a)(1) to correct a grammatical error.

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), is the date of enactment of div. A of Pub. L. 110–432, which was approved Oct. 16, 2008.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 110–432, §108(e)(2)(B), inserted "including section 21103 (as such section was in effect on the day before the date of enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008)," after "chapter 211 of this title,".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 110–432, §302(c), substituted "$25,000." for "$10,000." and "$100,000." for "$20,000."

1996—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 104–287 inserted a comma after "chapter 211 of this title".

1994—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–440 inserted "or violating any provision of a waiver applicable to that person that has been granted under section 21108 of this title," after "chapter 211 of this title".

§21304. Willfulness requirement for penalties against individuals

A civil penalty under this subchapter may be imposed against an individual only for a willful violation. An individual is deemed not to have committed a willful violation if the individual was following the direct order of a railroad carrier official or supervisor under protest communicated to the official or supervisor. The individual is entitled to document the protest.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 893.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
21304 45:6 (1st sentence words between 23d and 24th commas, 2d sentence words after 2d comma, 3d sentence). Mar. 2, 1893, ch. 196, §6 (1st sentence words between 23d and 24th commas, 2d sentence words after 2d comma, 3d sentence), 27 Stat. 532; restated June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §13(1)(F), 102 Stat. 630; Sept. 3, 1992, Pub. L. 102–365, §9(a)(3), 106 Stat. 977.
  45:13 (1st sentence words after last comma, 3d, 4th sentences). Apr. 14, 1910, ch. 160, §4 (1st sentence words after last comma, 3d, 4th sentences), 36 Stat. 299; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §13(3)(C)(iii), (v), 102 Stat. 632.
  45:34 (1st sentence words after last comma, 3d, 4th sentences). Feb. 17, 1911, ch. 103, §9 (1st sentence words after last comma, 3d, 4th sentences), 36 Stat. 916; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §14(7), 102 Stat. 633.
  45:43 (1st sentence words after last comma, 3d sentence words after 5th comma, 4th sentence). May 6, 1910, ch. 208, §7 (1st sentence words after last comma, 3d sentence words after 5th comma, 4th sentence), 36 Stat. 351; Sept. 13, 1960, Pub. L. 86–762, §3, 74 Stat. 904; restated June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §15(4), 102 Stat. 634.
  45:64a(a)(1) (1st sentence words after last comma, 5th sentence words after last comma, 6th sentence). Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2939, §5(a)(1) (1st sentence words after last comma, 5th sentence words after last comma, 6th sentence), 34 Stat. 1417; restated June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §16(6)(A), 102 Stat. 635.
  45:438(c) (2d, 9th, last sentences). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, §209(c) (2d, 8th, last sentences), 84 Stat. 975; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §3(a)(3)(A), (C), 102 Stat. 624; Sept. 3, 1992, Pub. L. 102–365, §4(c)(1), 106 Stat. 974.
  49 App.:26(h) (1st sentence words after last comma, 4th sentence words after last comma, 5th sentence). Feb. 4, 1887, ch. 104, 24 Stat. 379, §25(h) (1st sentence words after last comma, 4th sentence words after last comma, 5th sentence); added Feb. 28, 1920, ch. 91, §441, 41 Stat. 498; restated Aug. 26, 1937, ch. 818, 50 Stat. 837; Sept. 18, 1940, ch. 722, §14(b), 54 Stat. 919; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §17(7), 102 Stat. 636.

The word "official" is added the 2d time it appears for consistency in this section.

SUBCHAPTER II—CRIMINAL PENALTIES

§21311. Records and reports

(a) Records and Reports Under Chapter 201.—A person shall be fined under title 18, imprisoned for not more than 2 years, or both, if the person knowingly and willfully—

(1) makes a false entry in a record or report required to be made or preserved under chapter 201 of this title;

(2) destroys, mutilates, changes, or by another means falsifies such a record or report;

(3) does not enter required specified facts and transactions in such a record or report;

(4) makes or preserves such a record or report in violation of a regulation prescribed or order issued under chapter 201 of this title; or

(5) files a false record or report with the Secretary of Transportation.


(b) Accident and Incident Reports.—A railroad carrier not filing a report in violation of section 20901 of this title shall be fined not more than $2,500. A separate violation occurs for each day the violation continues.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 893; Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title III, §310, Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4882.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
21311(a) 45:438(e). Oct. 16, 1970, Pub. L. 91–458, 84 Stat. 971, §209(e); added Oct. 10, 1980, Pub. L. 96–423, §7, 94 Stat. 1814.
21311(b) 45:39 (related to fine). May 6, 1910, ch. 208, §2 (related to fine), 36 Stat. 351; Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §204(b), 88 Stat. 2166; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §15(2), 102 Stat. 634; Sept. 3, 1992, Pub. L. 102–365, §4(a)(3), 106 Stat. 973.

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words "fined under title 18" are substituted for "fined not more than $5,000" for consistency with title 18. In clause (1), the word "prepared" is omitted as surplus. In clause (4), the word "prepares" is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the words "shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor" are omitted for consistency with title 18. The words "upon conviction thereof by a court of competent jurisdiction" and "punished by a" are omitted as surplus.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 110–432 amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "A railroad carrier not filing the report required by section 20901 of this title shall be fined not more than $500 for each violation and not more than $500 for each day during which the report is overdue."

PART B—ASSISTANCE

CHAPTER 221—LOCAL RAIL FREIGHT ASSISTANCE

Sec.
22101.
Financial assistance for State projects.
22102.
Eligibility.
22103.
Applications.
22104.
State rail plan financing.
22105.
Sharing project costs.
22106.
Limitations on financial assistance.
22107.
Records, audits, and information.
[22108.
Repealed.]

        

Amendments

2015—Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11301(c)(4), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1648, struck out item 22108 "Authorization of appropriations".

§22101. Financial assistance for State projects

(a) General.—The Secretary of Transportation shall provide financial assistance to a State, as provided under this chapter, for a rail freight assistance project of the State when a rail carrier subject to part A of subtitle IV of this title maintains a rail line in the State. The assistance is for the cost of—

(1) acquiring, in any way the State considers appropriate, an interest in a rail line or rail property to maintain existing, or to provide future, rail freight transportation, but only if the Surface Transportation Board has authorized, or exempted from the requirements of that authorization, the abandonment of, or the discontinuance of rail transportation on, the rail line related to the project;

(2) improving and rehabilitating rail property on a rail line to the extent necessary to allow adequate and efficient rail freight transportation on the line, but only if the rail carrier certifies that the rail line related to the project carried not more than 5,000,000 gross ton-miles of freight a mile in the prior year; and

(3) building rail or rail-related facilities (including new connections between at least 2 existing rail lines, intermodal freight terminals, sidings, bridges, and relocation of existing lines) to improve the quality and efficiency of the rail freight transportation, but only if the rail carrier certifies that the rail line related to the project carried not more than 5,000,000 gross ton-miles of freight a mile in the prior year.


(b) Calculating Cost-Benefit Ratio.—The Secretary shall establish a methodology for calculating the ratio of benefits to costs of projects proposed under this chapter. In establishing the methodology, the Secretary shall consider the need for equitable treatment of different regions of the United States and different commodities transported by rail. The establishment of the methodology is committed to the discretion of the Secretary.

(c) Conditions.—(1) Assistance for a project shall be provided under this chapter only if—

(A) a rail carrier certifies that the rail line related to the project carried more than 20 carloads a mile during the most recent year during which transportation was provided by the carrier on the line; and

(B) the ratio of benefits to costs for the project, as calculated using the methodology established under subsection (b) of this section, is more than 1.0.


(2) If the rail carrier that provided the transportation on the rail line is no longer in existence, the applicant for the project shall provide the information required by the certification under paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection in the way the Secretary prescribes.

(3) The Secretary may waive the requirement of paragraph (1)(A) or (2) of this subsection if the Secretary—

(A) decides that the rail line has contractual guarantees of at least 40 carloads a mile for each of the first 2 years of operation of the proposed project; and

(B) finds that there is a reasonable expectation that the contractual guarantees will be fulfilled.


(d) Limitations on Amounts.—A State may not receive more than 15 percent of the amounts provided in a fiscal year under this chapter. Not more than 20 percent of the amounts available under this chapter may be provided in a fiscal year for any one project.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 894; Pub. L. 104–88, title III, §308(f)(1), (2), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 947.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
22101(a) 49 App.:1654(b). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, 80 Stat. 931, §5(b), (c), (n)–(p); added Feb. 5, 1976, Pub. L. 94–210, §803, 90 Stat. 130; Nov. 8, 1978, Pub. L. 95–607, §§102– 106(a), 107–109(a), 92 Stat. 3059, 3062; Oct. 12, 1979, Pub. L. 96–86, §115(b), 93 Stat. 662; Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–35, §§1191, 1192, 95 Stat. 699; Jan. 14, 1983, Pub. L. 97–468, §501, 96 Stat. 2551; Apr. 7, 1986, Pub. L. 99–272, §4018, 100 Stat. 111; restated Dec. 11, 1989, Pub. L. 101–213, §2(a), (c), 103 Stat. 1843, 1844, 1848.
  49 App.:1654(p).
22101(b) 49 App.:1654(n).
22101(c) 49 App.:1654(c).
22101(d) 49 App.:1654(o).

In this chapter, the word "transportation" is substituted for "service" for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words "when a rail carrier . . . maintains a rail line in the State" are substituted for "As used in this section, the term 'State' means any State in which a rail carrier providing transportation . . . maintains any line of railroad" because of the restatement. The words "the jurisdiction of the Interstate Commerce Commission" are omitted as unnecessary because of 49:ch. 105. In clause (1), the words "by purchase, lease" are omitted as being included in "in any way the State considers appropriate" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (b), the words "no later than July 1, 1990" are omitted as executed.

In subsection (c)(1), before clause (A), the words "Assistance for a project shall be provided under this chapter only if" are substituted for "No project shall be provided rail freight assistance under this section unless" because of the restatement.

In subsection (c)(2), the words "If the rail carrier that provided the transportation on the rail line" are substituted for "In a case where the railroad", and the words "information required by the certification under paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection" are substituted for "such information", for clarity.

Amendments

1995—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–88 substituted "part A of subtitle IV" for "subchapter I of chapter 105" in introductory provisions and "Surface Transportation Board" for "Interstate Commerce Commission" in par. (1).

Effective Date of 1995 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–88 effective Jan. 1, 1996, see section 2 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1301 of this title.

§22102. Eligibility

A State is eligible to receive financial assistance under this chapter only when the State complies with regulations the Secretary of Transportation prescribes under this chapter and the Secretary decides that—

(1) the State has an adequate plan for rail transportation in the State and a suitable process for updating, revising, and modifying the plan;

(2) the State plan is administered or coordinated by a designated State authority and provides for a fair distribution of resources;

(3) the State authority—

(A) is authorized to develop, promote, supervise, and support safe, adequate, and efficient rail transportation;

(B) employs or will employ sufficient qualified and trained personnel;

(C) maintains or will maintain adequate programs of investigation, research, promotion, and development with opportunity for public participation; and

(D) is designated and directed to take all practicable steps (by itself or with other State authorities) to improve rail transportation safety and reduce energy use and pollution related to transportation; and


(4) the State has ensured that it maintains or will maintain adequate procedures for financial control, accounting, and performance evaluation for the proper use of assistance provided by the United States Government.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 895.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
22102 49 App.:1654(a). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, 80 Stat. 931, §5(a); added Feb. 5, 1976, Pub. L. 94–210, §803, 90 Stat. 130; Nov. 8, 1978, Pub. L. 95–607, §§102–106(a), 107–109(a), 92 Stat. 3059, 3062; Oct. 12, 1979, Pub. L. 96–86, §115(b), 93 Stat. 662; Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–35, §§1191, 1192, 95 Stat. 699; Jan. 14, 1983, Pub. L. 97–468, §501, 96 Stat. 2551; Apr. 7, 1986, Pub. L. 99–272, §4018, 100 Stat. 111; restated Dec. 11, 1989, Pub. L. 101–213, §2(a), (c), 103 Stat. 1843, 1844.

In this section, before clause (1), the words "and the Secretary decides that" are substituted for "and the Secretary determines that such State meets or exceeds the requirements of paragraphs (1) through (4) of this subsection" to eliminate unnecessary words. In clauses (2) and (3), the word "authority" is substituted for "agency" for consistency in the revised title. In clause (2), the word "fair" is substituted for "equitable" for consistency in the revised title. In clause (3)(A), the words "is authorized" are substituted for "has authority and administrative jurisdiction" to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (3)(B), the words "directly or indirectly" are omitted as surplus. In clause (4), the word "adopt" is omitted as being included in "maintain".

§22103. Applications

(a) Filing.—A State must file an application with the Secretary of Transportation for financial assistance for a project described under section 22101(a) of this title not later than January 1 of the fiscal year for which amounts have been appropriated. However, for a fiscal year for which the authorization of appropriations for assistance under this chapter has not been enacted by the first day of the fiscal year, the State must file the application not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of a law authorizing the appropriations for that fiscal year. The Secretary shall prescribe the form of the application.

(b) Considerations.—In considering an application under this subsection, the Secretary shall consider the following:

(1) the percentage of rail lines that rail carriers have identified to the Surface Transportation Board for abandonment or potential abandonment in the State.

(2) the likelihood of future abandonments in the State.

(3) the ratio of benefits to costs for a proposed project calculated using the methodology established under section 22101(b) of this title.

(4) the likelihood that the rail line will continue operating with assistance.

(5) the impact of rail bankruptcies, rail restructuring, and rail mergers on the State.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 896; Pub. L. 104–88, title III, §308(f)(3), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 947.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
22103(a) 49 App.:1654(f) (1st sentence). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, 80 Stat. 931, §5(f); added Feb. 5, 1976, Pub. L. 94–210, §803, 90 Stat. 130; Nov. 8, 1978, Pub. L. 95–607, §§102–106(a), 107–109(a), 92 Stat. 3059, 3062; Oct. 12, 1979, Pub. L. 96–86, §115(b), 93 Stat. 662; Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–35, §§1191, 1192, 95 Stat. 699; Jan. 14, 1983, Pub. L. 97–468, §501, 96 Stat. 2551; Apr. 7, 1986, Pub. L. 99–272, §4018, 100 Stat. 111; restated Dec. 11, 1989, Pub. L. 101–213, §2(a), (c), 103 Stat. 1843, 1846.
22103(b) 49 App.:1654(f) (last sentence).

In subsection (a), the words "under this chapter" are added for clarity. The words "a law" are substituted for "legislation" for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (b)(3), the words "established by the Secretary" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(5), the words "applying for assistance" are omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement.

Amendments

1995—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 104–88 substituted "Surface Transportation Board" for "Interstate Commerce Commission".

Effective Date of 1995 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–88 effective Jan. 1, 1996, see section 2 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1301 of this title.

§22104. State rail plan financing

(a) Entitlement and Uses.—On the first day of each fiscal year, each State is entitled to $36,000 of the amounts made available under section 22108 1 of this title during that fiscal year to be used—

(1) to establish, update, revise, and modify the State plan required by section 22102 of this title; or

(2) to carry out projects described in section 22101(a)(1), (2), or (3) of this title, as designated by the State, if those projects meet the requirements of section 22101(c)(1)(B) of this title.


(b) Applications.—Each State must apply for amounts under this section not later than the first day of the fiscal year for which the amounts are available. However, for any fiscal year for which the authorization of appropriations for financial assistance under this chapter has not been enacted by the first day of the fiscal year, the State must apply for amounts under this section not later than 60 days after the date of enactment of a law authorizing the appropriations for that fiscal year. Not later than 60 days after receiving an application, the Secretary of Transportation shall consider the application and notify the State of the approval or disapproval of the application.

(c) Availability of Amounts.—Amounts provided under this section remain available to a State for obligation for the first 3 months after the end of the fiscal year for which the amounts were made available. Amounts not applied for under this section or that remain unobligated after the first 3 months after the end of the fiscal year for which the amounts were made available are available to the Secretary for projects meeting the requirements of this chapter.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 896.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
22104(a) 49 App.:1654(g) (1st sentence). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, 80 Stat. 931, §5(g); added Feb. 5, 1976, Pub. L. 94–210, §803, 90 Stat. 130; Nov. 8, 1978, Pub. L. 95–607, §§102–106(a), 107–109(a), 92 Stat. 3059, 3062; Oct. 12, 1979, Pub. L. 96–86, §115(b), 93 Stat. 662; Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–35, §§1191, 1192, 95 Stat. 699; Jan. 14, 1983, Pub. L. 97–468, §501, 96 Stat. 2551; Apr. 7, 1986, Pub. L. 99–272, §4018, 100 Stat. 111; restated Dec. 11, 1989, Pub. L. 101–213, §2(a), (c), 103 Stat. 1843, 1846.
22104(b) 49 App.:1654(g) (2d, 3d sentences).
22104(c) 49 App.:1654(g) (4th, last sentences).

In subsection (a)(1), the word "modify" is added for consistency with 49 App.:1654(a), restated in section 22102 of the revised title.

In subsection (b), the words "not later than the first day of the fiscal year for which the amounts are available" are substituted for "on or before the first day of the fiscal year" for clarity.

In subsection (c), the word "timely" is omitted as unnecessary. The words "the first 3 months after the end of the fiscal year for which the amounts were made available" are substituted for "the expiration of the period described in the previous sentence" for clarity.

References in Text

Section 22108 of this title, referred to in subsec. (a), was repealed by Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11301(c)(4), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1648.

1 See References in Text note below.

§22105. Sharing project costs

(a) General.—(1) The United States Government's share of the costs of financial assistance for a project under this chapter is 50 percent, except that for assistance provided under section 22101(a)(2) of this title, the Government's share is 70 percent. The State may pay its share of the costs in cash or through the following benefits, to the extent that the benefits otherwise would not be provided:

(A) forgiveness of taxes imposed on a rail carrier or its property.

(B) real and tangible personal property (provided by the State or a person for the State) necessary for the safe and efficient operation of rail freight transportation.

(C) track rights secured by the State for a rail carrier.

(D) the cash equivalent of State salaries for State employees working on the State project, except overhead and general administrative costs.


(2) A State may pay more than its required percentage share of the costs of a project under this chapter. When a State, or a person acting for a State, pays more than the State share of the costs of its projects during a fiscal year, the excess amount shall be applied to the State share for the costs of the State projects for later fiscal years.

(b) Agreements To Combine Amounts.—States may agree to combine any part of the amounts made available under this chapter to carry out a project that is eligible for assistance under this chapter when—

(1) the project will benefit each State making the agreement; and

(2) the agreement is not a violation of State law.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 897.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
22105(a) 49 App.:1654(e). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, 80 Stat. 931, §5(e), (j); added Feb. 5, 1976, Pub. L. 94–210, §803, 90 Stat. 130; Nov. 8, 1978, Pub. L. 95–607, §§102–106(a), 107– 109(a), 92 Stat. 3059, 3062; Oct. 12, 1979, Pub. L. 96–86, §115(b), 93 Stat. 662; Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–35, §§1191, 1192, 95 Stat. 699; Jan. 14, 1983, Pub. L. 97–468, §501, 96 Stat. 2551; Apr. 7, 1986, Pub. L. 99–272, §4018, 100 Stat. 111; restated Dec. 11, 1989, Pub. L. 101–213, §2(a), (c), 103 Stat. 1843, 1845, 1847.
22105(b) 49 App.:1654(j).

In this section, the words "project" and "projects" are substituted for "program" for clarity and consistency in this section.

In subsection (a)(1), before clause (A), the words "financial assistance for a project under this chapter" are substituted for "rail freight assistance project" for clarity and consistency in this chapter. In clause (B), the words "for use in its rail freight assistance program" are omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement. In clause (D), the words "State employees" are substituted for "State public employees" to eliminate an unnecessary word.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the words "States may agree" are substituted for "Two or more States . . . enter into an agreement" to eliminate unnecessary words.

§22106. Limitations on financial assistance

(a) Grants and Loans.—A State shall use financial assistance for projects under this chapter to make a grant or lend money to the owner of rail property, or a rail carrier providing rail transportation, related to a project being assisted.

(b) State Use of Repaid Funds and Contingent Interest Recoveries.—The State shall place the United States Government's share of money that is repaid and any contingent interest that is recovered in an interest-bearing account. The repaid money, contingent interest, and any interest thereon shall be considered to be State funds. The State shall use such funds to make other grants and loans, consistent with the purposes for which financial assistance may be used under subsection (a), as the State considers to be appropriate.

(c) Encouraging Participation.—To the maximum extent possible, the State shall encourage the participation of shippers, rail carriers, and local communities in paying the State share of assistance costs.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 897; Pub. L. 104–287, §5(55), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3393; Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title VII, §701(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4905; Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11316(k), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1678.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
22106(a) 49 App.:1654(d)(1), (2). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, 80 Stat. 931, §5(d), (i); added Feb. 5, 1976, Pub. L. 94–210, §803, 90 Stat. 130; Nov. 8, 1978, Pub. L. 95–607, §§102–106(a), 107– 109(a), 92 Stat. 3059, 3062; Oct. 12, 1979, Pub. L. 96–86, §115(b), 93 Stat. 662; Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–35, §§1191, 1192, 95 Stat. 699; Jan. 14, 1983, Pub. L. 97–468, §501, 96 Stat. 2551; Apr. 7, 1986, Pub. L. 99–272, §4018, 100 Stat. 111; restated Dec. 11, 1989, Pub. L. 101–213, §2(a), (c), 103 Stat. 1843, 1845, 1847.
22106(b) 49 App.:1654(d)(3) (1st, 2d sentences).
22106(c) 49 App.:1654(d)(3) (3d, last sentences).
22106(d) 49 App.:1654(d)(4).
22106(e) 49 App.:1654(i).

In subsection (a), the words "financial assistance for projects under this chapter" are substituted for "assistance provided under subsection (b) of this section" for clarity. The words "rail carrier providing rail transportation" are substituted for "operator of rail service" for consistency in the revised title. The word "conditions" is omitted as being included in "terms". The words "Secretary of the Treasury" are substituted for "Department of the Treasury" because of 31:301(b).

In subsection (b), the words "in the same manner and under the same conditions as if they were originally granted to the State by the Secretary" are omitted as unnecessary.

In subsection (e)(2), the words "assistance under this chapter" are substituted for "Federal assistance" for clarity and consistency in this chapter.

Pub. L. 104–287

This amends 49:22106(b) to clarify the restatement of 49 App.:1654(d)(3) by section 1 of the Act of July 5, 1994 (Public Law 103–272, 108 Stat. 897).

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 114–94 substituted "interest thereon" for "interest thereof".

2008—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–432, §701(a)(1), struck out last sentence which read as follows: "The State shall decide on the financial terms of the grant or loan, except that the time for making grant advances shall comply with regulations of the Secretary of the Treasury."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 110–432, §701(a)(2), added subsec. (b) and struck out former subsec. (b). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The State shall place the United States Government's share of money that is repaid in an interest-bearing account. However, the Secretary of Transportation may allow a borrower to place that money, for the benefit of the State, in a bank designated by the Secretary of the Treasury under section 10 of the Act of June 11, 1942 (12 U.S.C. 265). The State shall use the money and accumulated interest to make other grants and loans under this chapter in the same manner and under the same conditions as if they were originally granted to the State by the Secretary of Transportation."

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 110–432, §701(a)(3), redesignated subsec. (d) as (c) and struck out former subsec. (c). Text of former subsec. (c) read as follows: "The State may pay the Secretary of Transportation the Government's share of unused money and accumulated interest at any time. However, the State must pay the unused money and accumulated interest to the Secretary when the State ends its participation under this chapter."

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 110–432, §701(a)(3), struck out subsec. (e). Text read as follows: "Each State shall retain a contingent interest (redeemable preference shares) for the Government's share of amounts in a rail line receiving assistance under this chapter. The State may collect its share of the amounts used for the rail line if—

"(1) an application for abandonment of the rail line is filed under chapter 109 of this title; or

"(2) the rail line is sold or disposed of after it has received assistance under this chapter."

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–287 inserted "in the same manner and under the same conditions as if they were originally granted to the State by the Secretary of Transportation" after "under this chapter".

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as a note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–287 effective July 5, 1994, see section 8(1) of Pub. L. 104–287, set out as a note under section 5303 of this title.

§22107. Records, audits, and information

(a) Records.—Each recipient of financial assistance through an arrangement under this chapter shall keep records required by the Secretary of Transportation. The records shall be kept for 3 years after a project is completed and shall disclose—

(1) the amount of, and disposition by the recipient, of the assistance;

(2) the total costs of the project for which the assistance was given or used;

(3) the amount of that part of the costs of the project paid by other sources; and

(4) any other records that will make an effective audit easier.


(b) Audits.—The Secretary shall make regular financial and performance audits, as provided under chapter 75 of title 31, of activities and transactions assisted under this chapter.

(c) Information.—The Surface Transportation Board shall provide the Secretary with information the Secretary requests to assist in carrying out this chapter. The Board shall provide the information not later than 30 days after receiving a request from the Secretary.

(d) List of Rail Lines.—Not later than August 1 of each year, each rail carrier subject to part A of subtitle IV of this title shall submit to the Secretary a list of the rail lines of the carrier that carried not more than 5,000,000 gross ton-miles of freight a mile in the prior year.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 898; Pub. L. 104–88, title III, §308(f)(4), (5), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 947; Pub. L. 104–316, title I, §127(c), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3840.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
22107(a) 49 App.:1654(k)(1). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, 80 Stat. 931, §5(k)–(m); added Feb. 5, 1976, Pub. L. 94–210, §803, 90 Stat. 130; Nov. 8, 1978, Pub. L. 95–607, §§102–106(a), 107– 109(a), 92 Stat. 3059, 3062; Oct. 12, 1979, Pub. L. 96–86, §115(b), 93 Stat. 662; Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–35, §§1191, 1192, 95 Stat. 699; Jan. 14, 1983, Pub. L. 97–468, §501, 96 Stat. 2551; Apr. 7, 1986, Pub. L. 99–272, §4018, 100 Stat. 111; restated Dec. 11, 1989, Pub. L. 101–213, §2(a), (c), 103 Stat. 1843, 1847.
22107(b) 49 App.:1654(k)(2), (3).
22107(c) 49 App.:1654(l).
22107(d) 49 App.:1654(m).

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words "an arrangement" are substituted for "whether in the form of grants, subgrants, contracts, subcontracts, or other arrangements", and the word "project" is substituted for "project or undertaking", to eliminate unnecessary words and for consistency in this chapter.

Subsection (b) is substituted for 49 App.:1654(k)(2) and (3) because of 31:ch. 75.

In subsection (d), the words "Not later than" are substituted for "On or before" for clarity. The word "submit" is substituted for "prepare, update, and submit" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "based on level of usage" are omitted as surplus.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–316 struck out "and the Comptroller General" after "Secretary".

1995—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–88, §308(f)(4), substituted "Surface Transportation Board" for "Interstate Commerce Commission" and "The Board" for "The Commission".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–88, §308(f)(5), substituted "part A of subtitle IV" for "subchapter I of chapter 105".

Effective Date of 1995 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–88 effective Jan. 1, 1996, see section 2 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1301 of this title.

[§22108. Repealed. Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11301(c)(4), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1648]

Section, Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 898; Pub. L. 103–429, §6(20), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4379; Pub. L. 104–287, §5(48), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3393, related to authorization of appropriations.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

CHAPTER 223—CAPITAL GRANTS FOR CLASS II AND CLASS III RAILROADS

Sec.
22301.
Capital grants for class II and class III railroads.

        

Amendments

2007—Pub. L. 110–140, title XI, §1112(a), Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1758, substituted "CAPITAL GRANTS FOR CLASS II AND CLASS III RAILROADS" for "LIGHT DENSITY RAIL LINE PILOT PROJECTS" in chapter heading and "Capital grants for class II and class III railroads" for "Light density rail line pilot projects" in item 22301.

§22301. Capital grants for class II and class III railroads

(a) Establishment of Program.—

(1) Establishment.—The Secretary of Transportation shall establish a program for making capital grants to class II and class III railroads. Such grants shall be for projects in the public interest that—

(A)(i) rehabilitate, preserve, or improve railroad track (including roadbed, bridges, and related track structures) used primarily for freight transportation;

(ii) facilitate the continued or greater use of railroad transportation for freight shipments; and

(iii) reduce the use of less fuel efficient modes of transportation in the transportation of such shipments; or

(B) demonstrate innovative technologies and advanced research and development that increase fuel economy, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and lower the costs of operation.


(2) Provision of grants.—Grants may be provided under this chapter—

(A) directly to the class II or class III railroad; or

(B) with the concurrence of the class II or class III railroad, to a State or local government.


(3) State cooperation.—Class II and class III railroad applicants for a grant under this chapter are encouraged to utilize the expertise and assistance of State transportation agencies in applying for and administering such grants. State transportation agencies are encouraged to provide such expertise and assistance to such railroads.

(4) Regulations.—Not later than October 1, 2008, the Secretary shall issue final regulations to implement the program under this section.


(b) Maximum Federal Share.—The maximum Federal share for carrying out a project under this section shall be 80 percent of the project cost. The non-Federal share may be provided by any non-Federal source in cash, equipment, or supplies. Other in-kind contributions may be approved by the Secretary on a case-by-case basis consistent with this chapter.

(c) Use of Funds.—Grants provided under this section shall be used to implement track capital projects as soon as possible. In no event shall grant funds be contractually obligated for a project later than the end of the third Federal fiscal year following the year in which the grant was awarded. Any funds not so obligated by the end of such fiscal year shall be returned to the Secretary for reallocation.

(d) Employee Protection.—The Secretary shall require as a condition of any grant made under this section that the recipient railroad provide a fair arrangement at least as protective of the interests of employees who are affected by the project to be funded with the grant as the terms imposed under section 11326(a), as in effect on the date of the enactment of this chapter.

(e) Labor Standards.—

(1) Prevailing wages.—The Secretary shall ensure that laborers and mechanics employed by contractors and subcontractors in construction work financed by a grant made under this section will be paid wages not less than those prevailing on similar construction in the locality, as determined by the Secretary of Labor under subchapter IV of chapter 31 of title 40 (commonly known as the "Davis-Bacon Act"). The Secretary shall make a grant under this section only after being assured that required labor standards will be maintained on the construction work.

(2) Wage rates.—Wage rates in a collective bargaining agreement negotiated under the Railway Labor Act (45 U.S.C. 151 et seq.) are deemed for purposes of this subsection to comply with the 1 subchapter IV of chapter 31 of title 40.


(f) Study.—The Secretary shall conduct a study of the projects carried out with grant assistance under this section to determine the extent to which the program helps promote a reduction in fuel use associated with the transportation of freight and demonstrates innovative technologies that increase fuel economy, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and lower the costs of operation. Not later than March 31, 2009, the Secretary shall submit a report to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate on the study, including any recommendations the Secretary considers appropriate regarding the program.

(g) Authorization of Appropriations.—There is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary $50,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2008 through 2011 for carrying out this section.

(Added Pub. L. 110–140, title XI, §1112(a), Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1758; amended Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title VII, §701(b), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4906.)

References in Text

The date of the enactment of this chapter, referred to in subsec. (d), probably means the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–140, which amended this chapter generally and was approved Dec. 19, 2007.

The Railway Labor Act, referred to in subsec. (e)(2), is act May 20, 1926, ch. 347, 44 Stat. 577, which is classified principally to chapter 8 (§151 et seq.) of Title 45, Railroads. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 151 of Title 45 and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 22301, added Pub. L. 105–178, title VII, §7202(a), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 470, related to grants for light density rail line pilot projects, prior to the general amendment of this chapter by Pub. L. 110–140.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 110–432 substituted "or" for "and".

Effective Date

Section effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 of Pub. L. 110–140, set out as a note under section 1824 of Title 2, The Congress.

1 So in original. The word "the" probably should not appear.

[CHAPTER 225—REPEALED]

[§§22501 to 22505. Repealed. Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11301(c)(3), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1648]

Section 22501, Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title II, §207(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4873, related to financial assistance to States for certain projects.

Section 22502, Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title II, §207(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4874, related to distribution of grants.

Section 22503, Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title II, §207(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4874, related to standards for awarding grants.

Section 22504, Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title II, §207(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4874, related to use of grant funds.

Section 22505, Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title II, §207(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4874, related to authorization of appropriations.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

CHAPTER 227—STATE RAIL PLANS

Sec.
22701.
Definitions.
22702.
Authority.
22703.
Purposes.
22704.
Transparency; coordination; review.
22705.
Content.
22706.
Review.

        

§22701. Definitions

In this subchapter: 1

(1) Private benefit.—

(A) In general.—The term "private benefit"—

(i) means a benefit accrued to a person or private entity, other than Amtrak, that directly improves the economic and competitive condition of that person or entity through improved assets, cost reductions, service improvements, or any other means as defined by the Secretary; and

(ii) shall be determined on a project-by-project basis, based upon an agreement between the parties.


(B) Consultation.—The Secretary may seek the advice of the States and rail carriers in further defining this term.


(2) Public benefit.—

(A) In general.—The term "public benefit"—

(i) means a benefit accrued to the public, including Amtrak, in the form of enhanced mobility of people or goods, environmental protection or enhancement, congestion mitigation, enhanced trade and economic development, improved air quality or land use, more efficient energy use, enhanced public safety or security, reduction of public expenditures due to improved transportation efficiency or infrastructure preservation, and any other positive community effects as defined by the Secretary; and

(ii) shall be determined on a project-by-project basis, based upon an agreement between the parties.


(B) Consultation.—The Secretary may seek the advice of the States and rail carriers in further defining this term.


(3) State.—The term "State" means any of the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

(4) State rail transportation authority.—The term "State rail transportation authority" means the State agency or official responsible under the direction of the Governor of the State or a State law for preparation, maintenance, coordination, and administration of the State rail plan.

(Added Pub. L. 110–432, div. B, title III, §303(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4947.)

1 So in original. Probably should be "chapter:".

§22702. Authority

(a) In General.—Each State may prepare and maintain a State rail plan in accordance with the provisions of this chapter.

(b) Requirements.—The Secretary shall establish the minimum requirements for the preparation and periodic revision of a State rail plan, including that a State shall—

(1) establish or designate a State rail transportation authority to prepare, maintain, coordinate, and administer the plan;

(2) establish or designate a State rail plan approval authority to approve the plan;

(3) submit the State's approved plan to the Secretary of Transportation for review; and

(4) revise and resubmit a State-approved plan no less frequently than once every 4 years for acceptance by the Secretary.

(Added Pub. L. 110–432, div. B, title III, §303(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4948; amended Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11315(a)(1), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1674.)

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 114–94 substituted "4 years for acceptance by the Secretary" for "5 years for reapproval by the Secretary".

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as a note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§22703. Purposes

(a) Purposes.—The purposes of a State rail plan are as follows:

(1) To set forth State policy involving freight and passenger rail transportation, including commuter rail operations, in the State.

(2) To establish the period covered by the State rail plan.

(3) To present priorities and strategies to enhance rail service in the State that benefits the public.

(4) To serve as the basis for Federal and State rail investments within the State.


(b) Coordination.—A State rail plan shall be coordinated with other State transportation planning goals and programs, including the plan required under section 135 of title 23, and set forth rail transportation's role within the State transportation system.

(Added Pub. L. 110–432, div. B, title III, §303(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4948.)

§22704. Transparency; coordination; review

(a) Preparation.—A State shall provide adequate and reasonable notice and opportunity for comment and other input to the public, rail carriers, commuter and transit authorities operating in, or affected by rail operations within the State, units of local government, and other interested parties in the preparation and review of its State rail plan.

(b) Intergovernmental Coordination.—A State shall review the freight and passenger rail service activities and initiatives by regional planning agencies, regional transportation authorities, and municipalities within the State, or in the region in which the State is located, while preparing the plan, and shall include any recommendations made by such agencies, authorities, and municipalities as deemed appropriate by the State.

(Added Pub. L. 110–432, div. B, title III, §303(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4949.)

§22705. Content

(a) In General.—Each State rail plan shall, at a minimum, contain the following:

(1) An inventory of the existing overall rail transportation system and rail services and facilities within the State and an analysis of the role of rail transportation within the State's surface transportation system.

(2) A review of all rail lines within the State, including proposed high-speed rail corridors and significant rail line segments not currently in service.

(3) A statement of the State's passenger rail service objectives, including minimum service levels, for rail transportation routes in the State.

(4) A general analysis of rail's transportation, economic, and environmental impacts in the State, including congestion mitigation, trade and economic development, air quality, land-use, energy-use, and community impacts.

(5) A long-range rail investment program for current and future freight and passenger infrastructure in the State that meets the requirements of subsection (b).

(6) A statement of public financing issues for rail projects and service in the State, including a list of current and prospective public capital and operating funding resources, public subsidies, State taxation, and other financial policies relating to rail infrastructure development.

(7) An identification of rail infrastructure issues within the State that reflects consultation with all relevant stakeholders.

(8) A review of major passenger and freight intermodal rail connections and facilities within the State, including seaports, and prioritized options to maximize service integration and efficiency between rail and other modes of transportation within the State.

(9) A review of publicly funded projects within the State to improve rail transportation safety and security, including all major projects funded under section 130 of title 23.

(10) A performance evaluation of passenger rail services operating in the State, including possible improvements in those services, and a description of strategies to achieve those improvements.

(11) A compilation of studies and reports on high-speed rail corridor development within the State not included in a previous plan under this subchapter,1 and a plan for funding any recommended development of such corridors in the State.


(b) Long-Range Service and Investment Program.—

(1) Program content.—A long-range rail investment program included in a State rail plan under subsection (a)(5) shall, at a minimum, include the following matters:

(A) A list of any rail capital projects expected to be undertaken or supported in whole or in part by the State.

(B) A detailed funding plan for those projects.


(2) Project list content.—The list of rail capital projects shall contain—

(A) a description of the anticipated public and private benefits of each such project; and

(B) a statement of the correlation between—

(i) public funding contributions for the projects; and

(ii) the public benefits.


(3) Considerations for project list.—In preparing the list of freight and intercity passenger rail capital projects, a State rail transportation authority should take into consideration the following matters:

(A) Contributions made by non-Federal and non-State sources through user fees, matching funds, or other private capital involvement.

(B) Rail capacity and congestion effects.

(C) Effects on highway, aviation, and maritime capacity, congestion, or safety.

(D) Regional balance.

(E) Environmental impact.

(F) Economic and employment impacts.

(G) Projected ridership and other service measures for passenger rail projects.

(Added Pub. L. 110–432, div. B, title III, §303(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4949; amended Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11315(a)(2), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1674.)

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (a)(12). Pub. L. 114–94 struck out par. (12) which read as follows: "A statement that the State is in compliance with the requirements of section 22102."

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as a note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

1 So in original. Probably should be "chapter,".

§22706. Review

The Secretary shall prescribe procedures for States to submit State rail plans for review under this title, including standardized format and data requirements. State rail plans completed before the date of enactment of the Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of 2008 that substantially meet the requirements of this chapter, as determined by the Secretary, shall be deemed by the Secretary to have met the requirements of this chapter.

(Added Pub. L. 110–432, div. B, title III, §303(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4950.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of 2008, referred to in text, is the date of enactment of div. B of Pub. L. 110–432, which was approved Oct. 16, 2008.

PART C—PASSENGER TRANSPORTATION

CHAPTER 241—GENERAL

Sec.
24101.
Findings, mission, and goals.
24102.
Definitions.
24103.
Enforcement.
[24104, 20105. Repealed.]

        

Amendments

2015—Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §§11202(c)(2), 11301(c)(2), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1630, 1648, struck out items 24104 "Authorization of appropriations" and 24105 "Congestion grants".

2008—Pub. L. 110–432, div. B, title II, §201(e)(2), title III, §302(b), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4911, 4947, substituted "Findings, mission, and goals" for "Findings, purpose, and goals" in item 24101 and added item 24105.

§24101. Findings, mission, and goals

(a) Findings.—(1) Public convenience and necessity require that Amtrak, to the extent its budget allows, provide modern, cost-efficient, and energy-efficient intercity rail passenger transportation between crowded urban areas and in other areas of the United States.

(2) Rail passenger transportation can help alleviate overcrowding of airways and airports and on highways.

(3) A traveler in the United States should have the greatest possible choice of transportation most convenient to the needs of the traveler.

(4) A greater degree of cooperation is necessary among Amtrak, other rail carriers, State, regional, and local governments, the private sector, labor organizations, and suppliers of services and equipment to Amtrak to achieve a performance level sufficient to justify expending public money.

(5) Modern and efficient commuter rail passenger transportation is important to the viability and well-being of major urban areas and to the energy conservation and self-sufficiency goals of the United States.

(6) As a rail passenger transportation entity, Amtrak should be available to operate commuter rail passenger transportation through its subsidiary, Amtrak Commuter, under contract with commuter authorities that do not provide the transportation themselves as part of the governmental function of the State.

(7) The Northeast Corridor is a valuable resource of the United States used by intercity and commuter rail passenger transportation and freight transportation.

(8) Greater coordination between intercity and commuter rail passenger transportation is required.

(b) Mission.—The mission of Amtrak is to provide efficient and effective intercity passenger rail mobility consisting of high quality service that is trip-time competitive with other intercity travel options and that is consistent with the goals set forth in subsection (c).

(c) Goals.—Amtrak shall—

(1) use its best business judgment in acting to minimize United States Government subsidies, including—

(A) increasing fares;

(B) increasing revenue from the transportation of mail and express;

(C) reducing losses on food service;

(D) improving its contracts with operating rail carriers;

(E) reducing management costs; and

(F) increasing employee productivity;


(2) minimize Government subsidies by encouraging State, regional, and local governments and the private sector, separately or in combination, to share the cost of providing rail passenger transportation, including the cost of operating facilities;

(3) carry out strategies to achieve immediately maximum productivity and efficiency consistent with safe and efficient transportation;

(4) operate Amtrak trains, to the maximum extent feasible, to all station stops within 15 minutes of the time established in public timetables;

(5) develop transportation on rail corridors subsidized by States and private parties;

(6) implement schedules based on a systemwide average speed of at least 60 miles an hour that can be achieved with a degree of reliability and passenger comfort;

(7) encourage rail carriers to assist in improving intercity rail passenger transportation;

(8) improve generally the performance of Amtrak through comprehensive and systematic operational programs and employee incentives;

(9) provide additional or complementary intercity transportation service to ensure mobility in times of national disaster or other instances where other travel options are not adequately available;

(10) carry out policies that ensure equitable access to the Northeast Corridor by intercity and commuter rail passenger transportation;

(11) coordinate the uses of the Northeast Corridor, particularly intercity and commuter rail passenger transportation; and

(12) maximize the use of its resources, including the most cost-effective use of employees, facilities, and real property.


(d) Minimizing Government Subsidies.—To carry out subsection (c)(12) of this section, Amtrak is encouraged to make agreements with the private sector and undertake initiatives that are consistent with good business judgment and designed to maximize its revenues and minimize Government subsidies. Amtrak shall prepare a financial plan, consistent with section 204 of the Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of 2008, including the budgetary goals for fiscal years 2009 through 2013. Amtrak and its Board of Directors shall adopt a long-term plan that minimizes the need for Federal operating subsidies.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 899; Pub. L. 105–134, title I, §105(b), title II, §201, Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2573, 2578; Pub. L. 110–432, div. B, title II, §§201(e)(1), 218(a)(1), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4910, 4930; Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11316(l), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1678.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
24101(a) 45:501. Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, §101, 84 Stat. 1328; Sept. 29, 1979, Pub. L. 96–73, §102, 93 Stat. 537; restated Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–35, §1171, 95 Stat. 687.
24101(b) 45:541 (2d sentence words after 1st comma). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, §301 (2d sentence words after 1st comma), 84 Stat. 1330; Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–35, §1188(a), 95 Stat. 699.
24101(c) 45:501a (less (14) (last sentence)). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, 84 Stat. 1327, §102; added Sept. 29, 1979, Pub. L. 96–73, §103(a), 93 Stat. 537; Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–35, §1172, 95 Stat. 688.
24101(d) 45:501a(14) (last sentence).

In this part, the word "Amtrak" is substituted for "National Railroad Passenger Corporation", and the words "Amtrak Commuter" are substituted for "Amtrak Commuter Services Corporation", to reflect the more current and commonly used names of the entities. The words "rail transportation" are substituted for "rail service" and "rail services", the word "transportation" is substituted for "service" where appropriate, and the word "authority" is substituted for "agency", as being more appropriate and for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The words "rail carrier" are substituted for "railroad" because of the definitions of "rail carrier" and "railroad" in 49:10102.

In subsection (a), the words "The Congress finds that the" and "The Congress further finds that" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (a)(3), the words "greatest possible choice of" are substituted for "to the maximum extent feasible . . . the freedom to choose the mode of" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (c), before clause (1), the words "Amtrak shall" are substituted for "The Congress hereby establishes the following goals for Amtrak" to eliminate unnecessary words. The text of 45:501a(3) and (4) is omitted as executed. The text of 45:501a(9) is omitted as obsolete because there no longer are any technical assistance panels. In clause (2), the words "stations and other" are omitted as surplus. In clause (4), the words "for such operation" are omitted as surplus. In clause (10), the word "various" is omitted as surplus. In clause (11), the words "real property" are substituted for "real estate" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

References in Text

Section 204 of the Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of 2008, referred to in subsec. (d), is section 204 of Pub. L. 110–432, which was set out in a note below, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11203(d), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1634.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 114–94 substituted "set forth in subsection (c)" for "of subsection (d)".

2008—Pub. L. 110–432, §201(e)(1)(A), substituted "mission" for "purpose" in section catchline.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 110–432, §201(e)(1)(B), added subsec. (b) and struck out former subsec. (b). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "By using innovative operating and marketing concepts, Amtrak shall provide intercity and commuter rail passenger transportation that completely develops the potential of modern rail transportation to meet the intercity and commuter passenger transportation needs of the United States."

Subsec. (c)(9) to (12). Pub. L. 110–432, §201(e)(1)(C), added par. (9) and redesignated former pars. (9) to (11) as (10) to (12), respectively.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 110–432, §218(a)(1)(B), substituted "Amtrak and its Board of Directors shall adopt a long-term plan that minimizes the need for Federal operating subsidies." for "Commencing no later than the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the Amtrak Reform and Accountability Act of 1997, Amtrak shall operate without Federal operating grant funds appropriated for its benefit."

Pub. L. 110–432, §218(a)(1)(A), which directed substitution of "plan, consistent with section 204 of the Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of 2008, including the budgetary goals for fiscal years 2009 through 2013." for "plan to operate within the funding levels authorized by section 24104 of this chapter, including the budgetary goals for fiscal years 1998 through 2002." was executed by making the substitution for "plan to operate within the funding levels authorized by section 24104 of this chapter, including budgetary goals for fiscal years 1998 through 2002." to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 110–432, §201(e)(1)(D), substituted "subsection (c)(12)" for "subsection (c)(11)".

1997—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 105–134, §105(b), inserted ", separately or in combination," after "and the private sector".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 105–134, §201, inserted at end "Amtrak shall prepare a financial plan to operate within the funding levels authorized by section 24104 of this chapter, including budgetary goals for fiscal years 1998 through 2002. Commencing no later than the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the Amtrak Reform and Accountability Act of 1997, Amtrak shall operate without Federal operating grant funds appropriated for its benefit."

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as a note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Amtrak To Continue To Provide Non-High-Speed Services

Pub. L. 110–432, div. B, title II, §201(c), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4910, provided that: "Nothing in this division [see Short Title of 2008 Amendment note set out under section 20101 of this title] is intended to preclude Amtrak from restoring, improving, or developing non-high-speed intercity passenger rail service."

Amtrak Reform and Operational Improvements

Pub. L. 110–432, div. B, title II, §§203–209, Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4912–4917, as amended by Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §§11006(b)(2), 11202(c)(1), 11203(d), 11204(b)(2), 11206, 11214, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1624, 1630, 1634, 1637, 1644, provided that:

"SEC. 203. ESTABLISHMENT OF IMPROVED FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING SYSTEM.

"(a) In General.—The Amtrak Board of Directors—

"(1) may employ an independent financial consultant with experience in railroad accounting to assist Amtrak in improving Amtrak's financial accounting and reporting system and practices;

"(2) shall implement a modern financial accounting and reporting system not later than 3 years after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 16, 2008]; and

"(3) shall, not later than 90 days after the end of each fiscal year through fiscal year 2013—

"(A) submit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a comprehensive report that allocates all of Amtrak's revenues and costs to each of its routes, each of its lines of business, and each major activity within each route and line of business activity, including—

"(i) train operations;

"(ii) equipment maintenance;

"(iii) food service;

"(iv) sleeping cars;

"(v) ticketing;

"(vi) reservations; and

"(vii) unallocated fixed overhead costs;

"(B) include the report described in subparagraph (A) in Amtrak's annual report; and

"(C) post such report on Amtrak's website.

"(b) Verification of System; Report.—The Inspector General of the Department of Transportation shall review the accounting system designed and implemented under subsection (a) to ensure that it accomplishes the purposes for which it is intended. The Inspector General shall report his or her findings and conclusions, together with any recommendations, to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate.

"(c) Categorization of Revenues and Expenses.—In carrying out subsection (a), the Amtrak Board of Directors shall separately categorize assigned revenues and attributable expenses by type of service, including long-distance routes, State-sponsored routes, commuter contract routes, and Northeast Corridor routes.

"[SEC. 204. Repealed. Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11203(d), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1634.]

"SEC. 205. RESTRUCTURING LONG-TERM DEBT AND CAPITAL LEASES.

"(a) In General.—The Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation with the Secretary [of Transportation] and Amtrak, may make agreements to restructure Amtrak's indebtedness, to the extent provided in advance in appropriations Acts.

"(b) Debt Restructuring.—To the extent amounts are provided in advance in appropriations Acts, the Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation with the Secretary and Amtrak, shall enter into negotiations with the holders of Amtrak debt, including leases, outstanding for the purpose of restructuring (including repayment) and repaying that debt. The Secretary of the Treasury may secure agreements for restructuring or repayment on such terms as the Secretary of the Treasury deems favorable to the interests of the United States Government.

"(c) Criteria.—In restructuring Amtrak's indebtedness, the Secretary of the Treasury and Amtrak—

"(1) shall take into consideration repayment costs, the term of any loan or loans, and market conditions; and

"(2) shall ensure that the restructuring results in significant savings to Amtrak and the United States Government.

"(d) Payment of Renegotiated Debt.—If the criteria under subsection (c) are met, the Secretary of the Treasury may assume or repay the restructured debt, as appropriate, to the extent provided in advance in appropriations Acts.

"(e) Amtrak Principal and Interest Payments.—

"(1) Principal on debt service.—Unless the Secretary of the Treasury makes sufficient payments to creditors under subsection (d) so that Amtrak is required to make no payments to creditors in a fiscal year, the Secretary [of Transportation] shall use funds authorized for the use of Amtrak for retirement of principal or payment of interest on loans for capital equipment, or capital leases.

"(2) Reductions in authorization levels.—Whenever action taken by the Secretary of the Treasury under subsection (a) results in reductions in amounts of principal or interest that Amtrak must service on existing debt, the corresponding amounts authorized for Amtrak shall be reduced accordingly.

"(f) Legal Effect of Payments Under This Section.—The payment of principal and interest on secured debt, other than debt assumed under subsection (d), with the proceeds of grants under subsection (e) shall not—

"(1) modify the extent or nature of any indebtedness of Amtrak to the United States in existence;

"(2) change the private nature of Amtrak's or its successors' liabilities; or

"(3) imply any Federal guarantee or commitment to amortize Amtrak's outstanding indebtedness.

"(g) Secretary Approval.—Amtrak may not incur more debt after the date of enactment of this Act without the express advance approval of the Secretary [of Transportation], unless that debt receives credit assistance, including direct loans and loan guarantees, under chapter 6 of title 23, United States Code or title V of the Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976 (45 U.S.C. 821 et seq.).

"[SEC. 206. Repealed. Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11202(c)(1), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1630.]

"SEC. 207. METRICS AND STANDARDS.

"(a) In General.—Within 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 16, 2008], the Federal Railroad Administration and Amtrak shall jointly, in consultation with the Surface Transportation Board, rail carriers over whose rail lines Amtrak trains operate, States, Amtrak employees, nonprofit employee organizations representing Amtrak employees, and groups representing Amtrak passengers, as appropriate, develop new or improve existing metrics and minimum standards for measuring the performance and service quality of intercity passenger train operations, including cost recovery, on-time performance and minutes of delay, ridership, on-board services, stations, facilities, equipment, and other services. Such metrics, at a minimum, shall include the percentage of avoidable and fully allocated operating costs covered by passenger revenues on each route, ridership per train mile operated, measures of on-time performance and delays incurred by intercity passenger trains on the rail lines of each rail carrier and, for long-distance routes, measures of connectivity with other routes in all regions currently receiving Amtrak service and the transportation needs of communities and populations that are not well-served by other forms of intercity transportation. Amtrak shall provide reasonable access to the Federal Railroad Administration in order to enable the Administration to carry out its duty under this section.

"(b) Quarterly Reports.—The Administrator of the Federal Railroad Administration shall collect the necessary data and publish a quarterly report on the performance and service quality of intercity passenger train operations, including Amtrak's cost recovery, ridership, on-time performance and minutes of delay, causes of delay, on-board services, stations, facilities, equipment, and other services.

"(c) Contracts With Host Rail Carriers.—To the extent practicable, Amtrak and its host rail carriers shall incorporate the metrics and standards developed under subsection (a) into their access and service agreements.

"(d) Arbitration.—If the development of the metrics and standards is not completed within the 180-day period required by subsection (a), any party involved in the development of those standards may petition the Surface Transportation Board to appoint an arbitrator to assist the parties in resolving their disputes through binding arbitration.

"SEC. 208. METHODOLOGIES FOR AMTRAK ROUTE AND SERVICE PLANNING DECISIONS.

"(a) Methodology Development.—Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of the Passenger Rail Reform and Investment Act of 2015 [Dec. 4, 2015], Amtrak shall obtain the services of an independent entity to develop and recommend objective methodologies for Amtrak to use in determining what intercity rail passenger transportation routes and services it should provide, including the establishment of new routes, the elimination of existing routes, and the contraction or expansion of services or frequencies over such routes.

"(b) Considerations.—Amtrak shall require the independent entity, in developing the methodologies described in subsection (a), to consider—

"(1) the current and expected performance and service quality of intercity rail passenger transportation operations, including cost recovery, on-time performance, ridership, on-board services, stations, facilities, equipment, and other services;

"(2) the connectivity of a route with other routes;

"(3) the transportation needs of communities and populations that are not well served by intercity rail passenger transportation service or by other forms of intercity transportation;

"(4) the methodologies of Amtrak and major intercity rail passenger transportation service providers in other countries for determining intercity passenger rail routes and services;

"(5) the financial and operational effects on the overall network, including the effects on direct and indirect costs;

"(6) the views of States, rail carriers that own infrastructure over which Amtrak operates, Interstate Compacts established by Congress and States, Amtrak employee representatives, stakeholder organizations, and other interested parties; and

"(7) the funding levels that will be available under authorization levels that have been enacted into law.

"(c) Recommendations.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of the Passenger Rail Reform and Investment Act of 2015 [Dec. 4, 2015], Amtrak shall transmit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives the recommendations developed by the independent entity under subsection (a).

"(d) Consideration of Recommendations.—Not later than 90 days after the date on which the recommendations are transmitted under subsection (c), the Amtrak Board of Directors shall consider the adoption of each recommendation and transmit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives a report explaining the reasons for adopting or not adopting each recommendation.

"SEC. 209. STATE-SUPPORTED ROUTES.

"(a) In General.—Within 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 16, 2008], the Amtrak Board of Directors, in consultation with the Secretary [of Transportation], the governors of each relevant State, and the Mayor of the District of Columbia, or entities representing those officials, shall develop and implement a single, nationwide standardized methodology for establishing and allocating the operating and capital costs among the States and Amtrak associated with trains operated on each of the routes described in section 24102(7)(B) and (D) [49 U.S.C. 24102(7)(B), (D)] and section 24702 [49 U.S.C. 24702] that—

"(1) ensures, within 5 years after the date of enactment of this Act, equal treatment in the provision of like services of all States and groups of States (including the District of Columbia); and

"(2) allocates to each route the costs incurred only for the benefit of that route and a proportionate share, based upon factors that reasonably reflect relative use, of costs incurred for the common benefit of more than 1 route.

"(b) Review.—If Amtrak and the States (including the District of Columbia) in which Amtrak operates such routes do not voluntarily adopt and implement the methodology developed under subsection (a) in allocating costs and determining compensation for the provision of service in accordance with the date established therein, the Surface Transportation Board shall determine the appropriate methodology required under subsection (a) for such services in accordance with the procedures and procedural schedule applicable to a proceeding under section 24904(c) [now 24903(c)] of title 49, United States Code, and require the full implementation of this methodology with regards to the provision of such service within 1 year after the Board's determination of the appropriate methodology.

"(c) Use of Chapter 244 Funds.—Funds provided to a State under chapter 244 of title 49, United States Code, may be used, as provided in that chapter, to pay capital costs determined in accordance with this section."

On-Board Service Improvements

Pub. L. 110–432, div. B, title II, §222, Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4932, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Within 1 year after metrics and standards are established under section 207 of this division [set out above], Amtrak shall develop and implement a plan to improve on-board service pursuant to the metrics and standards for such service developed under that section.

"(b) Report.—Amtrak shall provide a report to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate on the on-board service improvements proscribed in the plan and the timeline for implementing such improvements."

Next Generation Corridor Train Equipment

Pub. L. 110–432, div. B, title III, §305, Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4951, as amended by Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11315(b), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1675, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Within 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 16, 2008], Amtrak shall establish a Next Generation Corridor Equipment Pool Committee, comprised of representatives of Amtrak, the Federal Railroad Administration, host freight railroad companies, passenger railroad equipment manufacturers, nonprofit organizations representing employees who perform overhaul and maintenance of passenger railroad equipment, interested States, and, as appropriate, other passenger railroad operators. The purpose of the Committee shall be to design, develop specifications for, and procure standardized next-generation corridor equipment.

"(b) Functions.—The Committee may—

"(1) determine the number of different types of equipment required, taking into account variations in operational needs and corridor infrastructure;

"(2) establish a pool of equipment to be used on corridor routes funded by participating States; and

"(3) subject to agreements between Amtrak and States, utilize services provided by Amtrak to design, maintain and remanufacture equipment.

"(c) Cooperative Agreements.—Amtrak and States participating in the Committee may enter into agreements for the funding, procurement, remanufacture, ownership, and management of corridor equipment, including equipment currently owned or leased by Amtrak and next-generation corridor equipment acquired as a result of the Committee's actions.

"(d) Funding.—In addition to the authorizations provided in this section, capital projects to carry out the purposes of this section shall be eligible for grants made pursuant to chapter 244 of title 49, United States Code.

"(e) Authorization of Appropriations.—There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary [of Transportation] $5,000,000 for fiscal year 2010, to remain available until expended, for grants to Amtrak and States participating in the Next Generation Corridor Train Equipment Pool Committee established under this section for the purpose of designing, developing specifications for, and initiating the procurement of an initial order of 1 or more types of standardized next-generation corridor train equipment."

Fair Competitive Bidding for State-Supported Intercity Rail Service

Pub. L. 108–447, div. H, title I, §150, Dec. 8, 2004, 118 Stat. 3221, which provided that for the purpose of assisting State-supported intercity rail service, in order to demonstrate whether competition would provide higher quality rail passenger service at reasonable prices, the Secretary of Transportation, working with affected States, was to develop and implement a procedure for fair competitive bidding by Amtrak and non-Amtrak operators for State-supported routes, was from the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2005, and was not repeated in subsequent appropriation acts.

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation act:

Pub. L. 108–199, div. F, title I, §151, Jan. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 303.

Amtrak Findings

Pub. L. 105–134, §2, Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2571, provided that: "The Congress finds that—

"(1) intercity rail passenger service is an essential component of a national intermodal passenger transportation system;

"(2) Amtrak is facing a financial crisis, with growing and substantial debt obligations severely limiting its ability to cover operating costs and jeopardizing its long-term viability;

"(3) immediate action is required to improve Amtrak's financial condition if Amtrak is to survive;

"(4) all of Amtrak's stakeholders, including labor, management, and the Federal Government, must participate in efforts to reduce Amtrak's costs and increase its revenues;

"(5) additional flexibility is needed to allow Amtrak to operate in a businesslike manner in order to manage costs and maximize revenues;

"(6) Amtrak should ensure that new management flexibility produces cost savings without compromising safety;

"(7) Amtrak's management should be held accountable to ensure that all investment by the Federal Government and State governments is used effectively to improve the quality of service and the long-term financial health of Amtrak;

"(8) Amtrak and its employees should proceed quickly with proposals to modify collective bargaining agreements to make more efficient use of manpower and to realize cost savings which are necessary to reduce Federal financial assistance;

"(9) Amtrak and intercity bus service providers should work cooperatively and develop coordinated intermodal relationships promoting seamless transportation services which enhance travel options and increase operating efficiencies;

"(10) Amtrak's Strategic Business Plan calls for the establishment of a dedicated source of capital funding for Amtrak in order to ensure that Amtrak will be able to fulfill the goals of maintaining—

"(A) a national passenger rail system; and

"(B) that system without Federal operating assistance; and

"(11) Federal financial assistance to cover operating losses incurred by Amtrak should be eliminated by the year 2002."

Fiscal Accountability

Pub. L. 105–134, title II, §§202–205, Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2578–2582, as amended by Pub. L. 108–271, §8(b), July 7, 2004, 118 Stat. 814; Pub. L. 110–432, div. B, title II, §218(a)(2), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4930, provided that:

"SEC. 202. INDEPENDENT ASSESSMENT.

"(a) Initiation.—Not later than 15 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 2, 1997], the Secretary of Transportation shall contract with an entity independent of Amtrak and not in any contractual relationship with Amtrak, and independent of the Department of Transportation, to conduct a complete independent assessment of the financial requirements of Amtrak through fiscal year 2002. The entity shall have demonstrated knowledge about railroad industry accounting requirements, including the uniqueness of the industry and of Surface Transportation Board accounting requirements. The Department of Transportation, Office of Inspector General, shall approve the entity's statement of work and the award and shall oversee the contract. In carrying out its responsibilities under the preceding sentence, the Inspector General's Office shall perform such overview and validation or verification of data as may be necessary to assure that the assessment conducted under this subsection meets the requirements of this section.

"(b) Assessment Criteria.—The Secretary and Amtrak shall provide to the independent entity estimates of the financial requirements of Amtrak for the period described in subsection (a), using as a base the fiscal year 1997 appropriation levels established by the Congress. The independent assessment shall be based on an objective analysis of Amtrak's funding needs.

"(c) Certain Factors To Be Taken into Account.—The independent assessment shall take into account all relevant factors, including Amtrak's—

"(1) cost allocation process and procedures;

"(2) expenses related to intercity rail passenger service, commuter service, and any other service Amtrak provides;

"(3) Strategic Business Plan, including Amtrak's projected expenses, capital needs, ridership, and revenue forecasts; and

"(4) assets and liabilities.

For purposes of paragraph (3), in the capital needs part of its Strategic Business Plan Amtrak shall distinguish between that portion of the capital required for the Northeast Corridor and that required outside the Northeast Corridor, and shall include rolling stock requirements, including capital leases, 'state of good repair' requirements, and infrastructure improvements.

"(d) Bidding Practices.—

"(1) Study.—The independent assessment also shall determine whether, and to what extent, Amtrak has performed each year during the period from 1992 through 1996 services under contract at amounts less than the cost to Amtrak of performing such services with respect to any activity other than the provision of intercity rail passenger transportation, or mail or express transportation. For purposes of this clause, the cost to Amtrak of performing services shall be determined using generally accepted accounting principles for contracting. If identified, such contracts shall be detailed in the report of the independent assessment, as well as the methodology for preparation of bids to reflect Amtrak's actual cost of performance.

"(2) Reform.—If the independent assessment performed under this subparagraph reveals that Amtrak has performed services under contract for an amount less than the cost to Amtrak of performing such services, with respect to any activity other than the provision of intercity rail passenger transportation, or mail or express transportation, then Amtrak shall revise its methodology for preparation of bids to reflect its cost of performance.

"(e) Deadline.—The independent assessment shall be completed not later than 180 days after the contract is awarded, and shall be submitted to the Council established under section 203, the Secretary of Transportation, the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the United States Senate, and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the United States House of Representatives.

"SEC. 203. AMTRAK REFORM COUNCIL.

"(a) Establishment.—There is established an independent commission to be known as the Amtrak Reform Council.

"(b) Membership.—

"(1) In general.—The Council shall consist of 11 members, as follows:

"(A) The Secretary of Transportation.

"(B) Two individuals appointed by the President, of which—

"(i) one shall be a representative of a rail labor organization; and

"(ii) one shall be a representative of rail management.

"(C) Three individuals appointed by the Majority Leader of the United States Senate.

"(D) One individual appointed by the Minority Leader of the United States Senate.

"(E) Three individuals appointed by the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives.

"(F) One individual appointed by the Minority Leader of the United States House of Representatives.

"(2) Appointment criteria.—

"(A) Time for initial appointments.—Appointments under paragraph (1) shall be made within 30 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 2, 1997].

"(B) Expertise.—Individuals appointed under subparagraphs (C) through (F) of paragraph (1)—

"(i) may not be employees of the United States;

"(ii) may not be board members or employees of Amtrak;

"(iii) may not be representatives of rail labor organizations or rail management; and

"(iv) shall have technical qualifications, professional standing, and demonstrated expertise in the field of corporate management, finance, rail or other transportation operations, labor, economics, or the law, or other areas of expertise relevant to the Council.

"(3) Term.—Members shall serve for terms of 5 years. If a vacancy occurs other than by the expiration of a term, the individual appointed to fill the vacancy shall be appointed in the same manner as, and shall serve only for the unexpired portion of the term for which, that individual's predecessor was appointed.

"(4) Chairman.—The Council shall elect a chairman from among its membership within 15 days after the earlier of—

"(A) the date on which all members of the Council have been appointed under paragraph (2)(A); or

"(B) 45 days after the date of enactment of this Act.

"(5) Majority required for action.—A majority of the members of the Council present and voting is required for the Council to take action. No person shall be elected chairman of the Council who receives fewer than 5 votes.

"(c) Administrative Support.—The Secretary of Transportation shall provide such administrative support to the Council as it needs in order to carry out its duties under this section.

"(d) Travel Expenses.—Each member of the Council shall serve without pay, but shall receive travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, in accordance with section[s] 5702 and 5703 of title 5, United States Code.

"(e) Meetings.—Each meeting of the Council, other than a meeting at which proprietary information is to be discussed, shall be open to the public.

"(f) Access to Information.—Amtrak shall make available to the Council all information the Council requires to carry out its duties under this section. The Council shall establish appropriate procedures to ensure against the public disclosure of any information obtained under this subsection that is a trade secret or commercial or financial information that is privileged or confidential.

"(g) Duties.—

"(1) Evaluation and recommendation.—The Council shall—

"(A) evaluate Amtrak's performance; and

"(B) make recommendations to Amtrak for achieving further cost containment and productivity improvements, and financial reforms.

"(2) Specific considerations.—In making its evaluation and recommendations under paragraph (1), the Council shall consider all relevant performance factors, including—

"(A) Amtrak's operation as a national passenger rail system which provides access to all regions of the country and ties together existing and emerging rail passenger corridors;

"(B) appropriate methods for adoption of uniform cost and accounting procedures throughout the Amtrak system, based on generally accepted accounting principles; and

"(C) management efficiencies and revenue enhancements, including savings achieved through labor and contracting negotiations.

"(3) Monitor work-rule savings.—If, after January 1, 1997, Amtrak enters into an agreement involving work-rules intended to achieve savings with an organization representing Amtrak employees, then Amtrak shall report quarterly to the Council—

"(A) the savings realized as a result of the agreement; and

"(B) how the savings are allocated.

"(h) Annual Report.—Each year before the fifth anniversary of the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 2, 1997], the Council shall submit to the Congress a report that includes an assessment of—

"(1) Amtrak's progress on the resolution of productivity issues; or

"(2) the status of those productivity issues,

and makes recommendations for improvements and for any changes in law it believes to be necessary or appropriate.

"(i) Authorization of Appropriations.—There are authorized to be appropriated to the Council such sums as may be necessary to enable the Council to carry out its duties.

"[SECS. 204, 205. Repealed. Pub. L. 110–432, div. B, title II, §218(a)(2), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4930.]"

Limitation on Use of Tax Refund

Pub. L. 105–134, title II, §209, Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2584, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Amtrak may not use any amount received under section 977 of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997 [Pub. L. 105–34, 26 U.S.C. 172 note]—

"(1) for any purpose other than making payments to non-Amtrak States (pursuant to section 977(c) of that Act), or the financing of qualified expenses (as that term is defined in section 977(e)(1) of that Act); or

"(2) to offset other amounts used for any purpose other than the financing of such expenses.

"(b) Report by ARC.—The Amtrak Reform Council shall report quarterly to the Congress on the use of amounts received by Amtrak under section 977 of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997."

Interstate Rail Compacts

Pub. L. 105–134, title IV, §410, Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2587, provided that:

"(a) Consent to Compacts.—Congress grants consent to States with an interest in a specific form, route, or corridor of intercity passenger rail service (including high speed rail service) to enter into interstate compacts to promote the provision of the service, including—

"(1) retaining an existing service or commencing a new service;

"(2) assembling rights-of-way; and

"(3) performing capital improvements, including—

"(A) the construction and rehabilitation of maintenance facilities;

"(B) the purchase of locomotives; and

"(C) operational improvements, including communications, signals, and other systems.

"(b) Financing.—An interstate compact established by States under subsection (a) may provide that, in order to carry out the compact, the States may—

"(1) accept contributions from a unit of State or local government or a person;

"(2) use any Federal or State funds made available for intercity passenger rail service (except funds made available for Amtrak);

"(3) on such terms and conditions as the States consider advisable—

"(A) borrow money on a short-term basis and issue notes for the borrowing; and

"(B) issue bonds; and

"(4) obtain financing by other means permitted under Federal or State law."

Definition

Pub. L. 110–432, div. B, §3, Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4908, provided that: "In this division [see Short Title of 2008 Amendment note set out under section 20101 of this title], the term 'Secretary' means the Secretary of Transportation."

§24102. Definitions

In this part—

(1) "auto-ferry transportation" means intercity rail passenger transportation—

(A) of automobiles or recreational vehicles and their occupants; and

(B) when space is available, of used unoccupied vehicles.


(2) "commuter authority" means a State, local, or regional entity established to provide, or make a contract providing for, commuter rail passenger transportation.

(3) "commuter rail passenger transportation" means short-haul rail passenger transportation in metropolitan and suburban areas usually having reduced fare, multiple-ride, and commuter tickets and morning and evening peak period operations.

(4) "intercity rail passenger transportation" means rail passenger transportation, except commuter rail passenger transportation.

(5) "long-distance route" means a route described in subparagraph (C) of paragraph (7).

(6) "National Network" includes long-distance routes and State-supported routes.

(7) "national rail passenger transportation system" means—

(A) the segment of the continuous Northeast Corridor railroad line between Boston, Massachusetts, and Washington, District of Columbia;

(B) rail corridors that have been designated by the Secretary of Transportation as high-speed rail corridors (other than corridors described in subparagraph (A)), but only after regularly scheduled intercity service over a corridor has been established;

(C) long-distance routes of more than 750 miles between endpoints operated by Amtrak as of the date of enactment of the Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of 2008; and

(D) short-distance corridors, or routes of not more than 750 miles between endpoints, operated by—

(i) Amtrak; or

(ii) another rail carrier that receives funds under chapter 244.


(8) "Northeast Corridor" means Connecticut, Delaware, the District of Columbia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island.

(9) "rail carrier" means a person, including a unit of State or local government, providing rail transportation for compensation.

(10) "rate" means a rate, fare, or charge for rail transportation.

(11) "regional transportation authority" means an entity established to provide passenger transportation in a region.

(12) "state-of-good-repair" means a condition in which physical assets, both individually and as a system, are—

(A) performing at a level at least equal to that called for in their as-built or as-modified design specification during any period when the life cycle cost of maintaining the assets is lower than the cost of replacing them; and

(B) sustained through regular maintenance and replacement programs.


(13) "State-supported route" means a route described in subparagraph (B) or (D) of paragraph (7), or in section 24702, that is operated by Amtrak, excluding those trains operated by Amtrak on the routes described in paragraph (7)(A).

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 900; Pub. L. 105–134, title IV, §407, Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2586; Pub. L. 110–432, div. B, title II, §201(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4909; Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11006(a), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1624.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
24102(1) 45:502(1). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, §103(1), 84 Stat. 1328; restated Sept. 29, 1979, Pub. L. 96–73, §§ 103(a), 104, 93 Stat. 537, 538.
  45:502(2). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, 84 Stat. 1327, §103(2); added Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–35, §1173(2), 95 Stat. 689.
  45:502(3). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, 84 Stat. 1327, §103(3); added Nov. 3, 1973, Pub. L. 93–146, §2(2), 87 Stat. 548; restated Sept. 29, 1979, Pub. L. 96–73, §§ 103(a), 104, 93 Stat. 537, 538; Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–35, §1173(1), 95 Stat. 689; Apr. 7, 1986, Pub. L. 99–272, §4012, 100 Stat. 109.
  45:502(6), (7), (10), (12), (14), (18). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, §103(4)–(7), (10), (12), (14)–(18), 84 Stat. 1328; restated Sept. 29, 1979, Pub. L. 96–73, §§ 103(a), 104, 93 Stat. 537, 538, 539; Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–35, §1173(1), 95 Stat. 689; Oct. 27, 1992, Pub. L. 102–533, §8(1), 106 Stat. 3519.
24102(2) 45:502(4).
24102(3) 45:502(5).
24102(4) 45:502(8). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, 84 Stat. 1327, §103(8), (9); added Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–35, §1173(3), 95 Stat. 689.
24102(5) 45:502(9).
24102(6) 45:502(11). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, §103(11), 84 Stat. 1328; Nov. 3, 1973, Pub. L. 93–146, §2(1), 87 Stat. 548; restated Sept. 29, 1979, Pub. L. 96–73, §§ 103(a), 104, 93 Stat. 537, 539; Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–35, §1173(1), (4), 95 Stat. 689.
24102(7) 45:502(13). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, 84 Stat. 1327, §103(13); added Oct. 27, 1992, Pub. L. 102–533, §8(2), 106 Stat. 3519.
  45:851(c). Feb. 5, 1976, Pub. L. 94–210, §701(c), 90 Stat. 120.
24102(8) 45:502(14).
24102(9) (no source).
24102(10) 45:502(15).
24102(11) 45:502(16).

In clause (1), before subclause (A), the text of 45:502(1), (2), and (10) is omitted as surplus. The text of 45:502(6), (7), (12), (14), and (18) is omitted because the complete names of the Performance Evaluation Center, Interstate Commerce Commission, Railroad Safety System Program, Technical Assistance Panel, and Secretary of Transportation are used the first time the terms appear in a section. The words "characterized by transportation" are omitted as surplus.

In clause (3), the text of 45:502(5)(A) and the words "on and after October 1, 1979" are omitted as obsolete. Reference to 45:564(e) is omitted as obsolete because 45:564(e) was repealed by section 1183(d) of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981 (Public Law 97–35, 95 Stat. 697).

In clauses (4) and (10), the words "authority, corporation, or other" are omitted as surplus.

In clause (4), the words "and includes the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, the Connecticut Department of Transportation, the Maryland Department of Transportation the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority, the New Jersey Transit Corporation, the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, the Port Authority Trans-Hudson Corporation, any successor agencies, and any entity created by one or more such agencies for the purpose of operating" are omitted as surplus.

In clause (5), the words "whether within or across the geographical boundaries of a State" are omitted as surplus.

Clause (9) is added to eliminate repetition of the words "fares or charges" throughout this part.

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of 2008, referred to in par. (7)(C), is the date of enactment of div. B of Pub. L. 110–432, which was approved Oct. 16, 2008.

Amendments

2015—Pars. (5) to (13). Pub. L. 114–94 added pars. (5), (6), (12), and (13) and redesignated former pars. (5) to (9) as (7) to (11), respectively.

2008—Pars. (2) to (5). Pub. L. 110–432 added par. (5), redesignated former pars. (3) to (5) as (2) to (4), respectively, and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: " 'basic system' means the system of intercity rail passenger transportation designated by the Secretary of Transportation under section 4 of the Amtrak Improvement Act of 1978 and approved by Congress, and transportation required to be provided under section 24705(a) of this title and section 4(g) of the Act, including changes in the system or transportation that Amtrak makes using the route and service criteria."

1997—Pars. (2) to (6). Pub. L. 105–134, §407(1), (2), redesignated pars. (3) to (7) as (2) to (6), respectively, and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: " 'avoidable loss' means the avoidable costs of providing rail passenger transportation, less revenue attributable to the transportation, as determined by the Interstate Commerce Commission under section 553 of title 5."

Par. (7). Pub. L. 105–134, §407(2), (3), redesignated par. (8) as (7) and inserted ", including a unit of State or local government," after "means a person". Former par. (7) redesignated (6).

Pars. (8) to (10). Pub. L. 105–134, §407(2), redesignated pars. (8) to (10) as (7) to (9), respectively.

Par. (11). Pub. L. 105–134, §407(1), struck out par. (11) which read as follows: " 'route and service criteria' means the criteria and procedures for making route and service decisions established under section 404(c)(1)–(3)(A) of the Rail Passenger Service Act."

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as a note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§24103. Enforcement

(a) General.—(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, only the Attorney General may bring a civil action for equitable relief in a district court of the United States when Amtrak or a rail carrier—

(A) engages in or adheres to an action, practice, or policy inconsistent with this part;

(B) obstructs or interferes with an activity authorized under this part;

(C) refuses, fails, or neglects to discharge its duties and responsibilities under this part; or

(D) threatens—

(i) to engage in or adhere to an action, practice, or policy inconsistent with this part;

(ii) to obstruct or interfere with an activity authorized by this part; or

(iii) to refuse, fail, or neglect to discharge its duties and responsibilities under this part.


(2) An employee affected by any conduct or threat referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection, or an authorized employee representative, may bring the civil action if the conduct or threat involves a labor agreement.

(b) Review of Discontinuance or Reduction.—A discontinuance of a route, a train, or transportation, or a reduction in the frequency of transportation, by Amtrak is reviewable only in a civil action for equitable relief brought by the Attorney General.

(c) Venue.—Except as otherwise prohibited by law, a civil action under this section may be brought in the judicial district in which Amtrak or the rail carrier resides or is found.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 901.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
24103(a) 45:547(a) (1st sentence less words between 13th–15th commas). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, §307(a) (1st sentence), (b), 84 Stat. 1333.
24103(b) 45:547(a) (last sentence). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, 84 Stat. 1327, §307(a) (last sentence); added Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–35, §1179, 95 Stat. 693.
24103(c) 45:547(a) (1st sentence words between 13th–15th commas), (b).

In subsections (a) and (b), the words "may bring a civil action", "may bring the civil action", and "in a civil action brought by" are substituted for "upon petition of" and "on petition of" for consistency with rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (28 App. U.S.C.).

In subsection (a)(1), before clause (A), the words "Except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection" are added for clarity. The word "only" is added for clarity. See National Railroad Passenger Corp. et al. v. National Association of Railroad Passengers, 414 U.S. 453 (1974). In clauses (A) and (D)(i), the words "the policies and purposes of" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (a)(2), the word "duly" is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the words "in any court" are omitted as surplus.

Subsection (c) is substituted for 45:547(a) (1st sentence words between 13th–15th commas) for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The text of 45:547(b) is omitted as surplus.

[§24104. Repealed. Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11202(c)(2), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1630]

Section, Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 902; Pub. L. 105–134, title III, §301(a), Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2585, authorized certain appropriations for the benefit of Amtrak.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Reform Board

Pub. L. 105–134, title IV, §411(b), Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2589, provided that provisions authorizing certain appropriations shall cease to be effective if the Reform Board had not assumed the responsibilities of the Board of Directors of Amtrak before July 1, 1998.

[§24105. Repealed. Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11301(c)(2), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1648]

Section, Pub. L. 110–432, div. B, title III, §302(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4947, related to congestion grants.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

CHAPTER 242—PROJECT DELIVERY

Sec.
24201.
Efficient environmental reviews.
24202.
Railroad rights-of-way.

        

Amendments

2015—Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §§11503(a), 11504(b), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1691, 1693, added chapter 242 and items 24201 and 24202.

§24201. Efficient environmental reviews

(a) Efficient Environmental Reviews.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary of Transportation shall apply the project development procedures, to the greatest extent feasible, described in section 139 of title 23 to any railroad project that requires the approval of the Secretary under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.).

(2) Regulations and procedures.—In carrying out paragraph (1), the Secretary shall incorporate into agency regulations and procedures pertaining to railroad projects described in paragraph (1) aspects of such project development procedures, or portions thereof, determined appropriate by the Secretary in a manner consistent with this section, that increase the efficiency of the review of railroad projects.

(3) Discretion.—The Secretary may choose not to incorporate into agency regulations and procedures pertaining to railroad projects described in paragraph (1) such project development procedures that could only feasibly apply to highway projects, public transportation capital projects, and multimodal projects.

(4) Applicability.—Subsection (l) of section 139 of title 23 shall apply to railroad projects described in paragraph (1), except that the limitation on claims of 150 days shall be 2 years.


(b) Additional Categorical Exclusions.—Not later than 6 months after the date of enactment of the Passenger Rail Reform and Investment Act of 2015, the Secretary shall—

(1) survey the use by the Federal Railroad Administration of categorical exclusions in transportation projects since 2005; and

(2) publish in the Federal Register for notice and public comment a review of the survey that includes a description of—

(A) the types of actions categorically excluded; and

(B) any actions the Secretary is considering for new categorical exclusions, including those that would conform to those of other modal administrations.


(c) New Categorical Exclusions.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of the Passenger Rail Reform and Investment Act of 2015, the Secretary shall publish a notice of proposed rulemaking to propose new and existing categorical exclusions for railroad projects that require the approval of the Secretary under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), including those identified under subsection (b), and develop a process for considering new categorical exclusions to the extent that the categorical exclusions meet the criteria for a categorical exclusion under section 1508.4 of title 40, Code of Federal Regulations.

(d) Transparency.—The Secretary shall maintain and make publicly available, including on the Internet, a database that identifies project-specific information on the use of a categorical exclusion on any railroad project carried out under this title.

(e) Protections for Existing Agreements and NEPA.—Nothing in subtitle E of the Passenger Rail Reform and Investment Act of 2015, or any amendment made by such subtitle, shall affect any existing environmental review process, program, agreement, or funding arrangement approved by the Secretary under title 49, as that title was in effect on the day preceding the date of enactment of such subtitle.

(Added Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11503(a), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1691.)

References in Text

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1) and (c), is Pub. L. 91–190, Jan. 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852, which is classified generally to chapter 55 (§4321 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4321 of Title 42 and Tables.

The date of enactment of the Passenger Rail Reform and Investment Act of 2015, referred to in subsecs. (b) and (c), is the date of enactment of title XI of div. A of Pub. L. 114–94, which was approved Dec. 4, 2015.

Subtitle E of the Passenger Rail Reform and Investment Act of 2015, referred to in subsec. (e), is subtitle E (§§11501–11504) of title XI of div. A of Pub. L. 114–94, known as the Track, Railroad, and Infrastructure Network Act and also as the TRAIN Act, which enacted this section and section 24202 of this title, amended section 303 of this title and section 138 of Title 23, Highways, and enacted provisions set out as a note under section 4370m of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this subtitle to the Code, see Short Title of 2015 Amendment note set out under section 20101 of this title and Tables.

The date of enactment of such subtitle, referred to in subsec. (e), is the date of enactment of subtitle E of title XI of div. A of Pub. L. 114–94, which was approved Dec. 4, 2015.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§24202. Railroad rights-of-way

(a) In General.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of the Passenger Rail Reform and Investment Act of 2015, the Secretary shall submit a proposed exemption of railroad rights-of-way from the review under section 306108 of title 54 to the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation for consideration, consistent with the exemption for interstate highways approved on March 10, 2005 (70 Fed. Reg. 11,928).

(b) Final Exemption.—Not later than 180 days after the date on which the Secretary submits the proposed exemption under subsection (a) to the Council, the Council shall issue a final exemption of railroad rights-of-way from review under chapter 3061 of title 54 consistent with the exemption for interstate highways approved on March 10, 2005 (70 Fed. Reg. 11,928).

(Added Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11504(a), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1692.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Passenger Rail Reform and Investment Act of 2015, referred to in subsec. (a), is the date of enactment of title XI of div. A of Pub. L. 114–94, which was approved Dec. 4, 2015.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

CHAPTER 243—AMTRAK

Sec.
24301.
Status and applicable laws.
24302.
Board of directors.
24303.
Officers.
24304.
Employee stock ownership plans.
24305.
General authority.
24306.
Mail, express, and auto-ferry transportation.
24307.
Special transportation.
24308.
Use of facilities and providing services to Amtrak.
24309.
Retaining and maintaining facilities.
24310.
Management accountability.
24311.
Acquiring interests in property by eminent domain.
24312.
Labor standards.
24313.
Rail safety system program.
[24314.
Repealed.]
24315.
Reports and audits.
24316.
Plans to address the needs of families of passengers involved in rail passenger accidents.1

        

24317.
Accounts.
24318.
Costs and revenues.
24319.
Grant process.
24320.
Amtrak 5-year business line and asset plans.
24321.
Food and beverage reform.
24322.
Rolling stock purchases.

        

Amendments

2015—Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §§11201(b), 11202(b), 11203(c), 11207(b), 11208(b), 11316(m), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1627, 1630, 1634, 1639, 1640, 1678, substituted "Plans to address the needs of families of passengers involved in rail passenger accidents" for "Plan to assist families of passengers involved in rail passenger accidents" in item 24316 and added items 24317 to 24322.

2008—Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title V, §502(b), div. B, title II, §221(b), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4899, 4932, added items 24310 and 24316.

1997—Pub. L. 105–134, title IV, §§403, 404, 415(a)(2), Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2585, 2586, 2590, substituted "Employee stock ownership plans" for "Capitalization" in item 24304 and struck out item 24310 "Assistance for upgrading facilities" and item 24314 "Demonstration of new technology".

1 So in original. Does not conform to section catchline.

§24301. Status and applicable laws

(a) Status.—Amtrak—

(1) is a railroad carrier under section 20102(2) 1 and chapters 261 and 281 of this title;

(2) shall be operated and managed as a for-profit corporation; and

(3) is not a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government, and shall not be subject to title 31.


(b) Principal Office and Place of Business.—The principal office and place of business of Amtrak are in the District of Columbia. Amtrak is qualified to do business in each State in which Amtrak carries out an activity authorized under this part. Amtrak shall accept service of process by certified mail addressed to the secretary of Amtrak at its principal office and place of business. Amtrak is a citizen only of the District of Columbia when deciding original jurisdiction of the district courts of the United States in a civil action.

(c) Application of Subtitle IV.—Subtitle IV of this title shall not apply to Amtrak, except for sections 11123, 11301, 11322(a), 11502, and 11706. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, Amtrak shall continue to be considered an employer under the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974, the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act, and the Railroad Retirement Tax Act.

(d) Application of Safety and Employee Relations Laws and Regulations.—Laws and regulations governing safety, employee representation for collective bargaining purposes, the handling of disputes between carriers and employees, employee retirement, annuity, and unemployment systems, and other dealings with employees that apply to a rail carrier subject to part A of subtitle IV of this title apply to Amtrak.

(e) Application of Certain Additional Laws.—Section 552 of title 5, this part, and, to the extent consistent with this part, the District of Columbia Business Corporation Act (D.C. Code §29–301 et seq.) apply to Amtrak. Section 552 of title 5, United States Code, applies to Amtrak for any fiscal year in which Amtrak receives a Federal subsidy.

(f) Tax Exemption for Certain Commuter Authorities.—A commuter authority that was eligible to make a contract with Amtrak Commuter to provide commuter rail passenger transportation but which decided to provide its own rail passenger transportation beginning January 1, 1983, is exempt, effective October 1, 1981, from paying a tax or fee to the same extent Amtrak is exempt.

(g) Nonapplication of Rate, Route, and Service Laws.—A State or other law related to rates, routes, or service does not apply to Amtrak in connection with rail passenger transportation.

(h) Nonapplication of Pay Period Laws.—A State or local law related to pay periods or days for payment of employees does not apply to Amtrak. Except when otherwise provided under a collective bargaining agreement, an employee of Amtrak shall be paid at least as frequently as the employee was paid on October 1, 1979.

(i) Preemption Related to Employee Work Requirements.—A State may not adopt or continue in force a law, rule, regulation, order, or standard requiring Amtrak to employ a specified number of individuals to perform a particular task, function, or operation.

(j) Nonapplication of Laws on Joint Use or Operation of Facilities and Equipment.—Prohibitions of law applicable to an agreement for the joint use or operation of facilities and equipment necessary to provide quick and efficient rail passenger transportation do not apply to a person making an agreement with Amtrak to the extent necessary to allow the person to make and carry out obligations under the agreement.

(k) Exemption From Additional Taxes.—(1) In this subsection—

(A) "additional tax" means a tax or fee—

(i) on the acquisition, improvement, ownership, or operation of personal property by Amtrak; and

(ii) on real property, except a tax or fee on the acquisition of real property or on the value of real property not attributable to improvements made, or the operation of those improvements, by Amtrak.


(B) "Amtrak" includes a rail carrier subsidiary of Amtrak and a lessor or lessee of Amtrak or one of its rail carrier subsidiaries.


(2) Amtrak is not required to pay an additional tax because of an expenditure to acquire or improve real property, equipment, a facility, or right-of-way material or structures used in providing rail passenger transportation, even if that use is indirect.

(l) Exemption From Taxes Levied After September 30, 1981.—(1) In general.—Amtrak, a rail carrier subsidiary of Amtrak, and any passenger or other customer of Amtrak or such subsidiary, are exempt from a tax, fee, head charge, or other charge, imposed or levied by a State, political subdivision, or local taxing authority on Amtrak, a rail carrier subsidiary of Amtrak, or on persons traveling in intercity rail passenger transportation or on mail or express transportation provided by Amtrak or such a subsidiary, or on the carriage of such persons, mail, or express, or on the sale of any such transportation, or on the gross receipts derived therefrom after September 30, 1981. In the case of a tax or fee that Amtrak was required to pay as of September 10, 1982, Amtrak is not exempt from such tax or fee if it was assessed before April 1, 1997.

(2) The district courts of the United States have original jurisdiction over a civil action Amtrak brings to enforce this subsection and may grant equitable or declaratory relief requested by Amtrak.

(m) Waste Disposal.—(1) An intercity rail passenger car manufactured after October 14, 1990, shall be built to provide for the discharge of human waste only at a servicing facility. Amtrak shall retrofit each of its intercity rail passenger cars that was manufactured after May 1, 1971, and before October 15, 1990, with a human waste disposal system that provides for the discharge of human waste only at a servicing facility. Subject to appropriations—

(A) the retrofit program shall be completed not later than October 15, 2001; and

(B) a car that does not provide for the discharge of human waste only at a servicing facility shall be removed from service after that date.


(2) Section 361 of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 264) and other laws of the United States, States, and local governments do not apply to waste disposal from rail carrier vehicles operated in intercity rail passenger transportation. The district courts of the United States have original jurisdiction over a civil action Amtrak brings to enforce this paragraph and may grant equitable or declaratory relief requested by Amtrak.

(n) Rail Transportation Treated Equally.—When authorizing transportation in the continental United States for an officer, employee, or member of the uniformed services of a department, agency, or instrumentality of the Government, the head of that department, agency, or instrumentality shall consider rail transportation (including transportation by extra-fare trains) the same as transportation by another authorized mode. The Administrator of General Services shall include Amtrak in the contract air program of the Administrator in markets in which transportation provided by Amtrak is competitive with other carriers on fares and total trip times.

(o) Applicability of District of Columbia Law.—Any lease or contract entered into between Amtrak and the State of Maryland, or any department or agency of the State of Maryland, after the date of the enactment of this subsection shall be governed by the laws of the District of Columbia.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 904; Pub. L. 104–88, title III, §308(g), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 947; Pub. L. 105–134, title I, §§106(b), 110(a), title II, §208, title IV, §§401, 402, 415(d)(1), Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2573, 2574, 2584, 2585, 2590; Pub. L. 108–199, div. F, title I, §150(2), Jan. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 303; Pub. L. 110–53, title XV, §1527, Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 452.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
24301(a) 45:541 (1st sentence). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, §301 (1st, 4th, last sentences), 84 Stat. 1330.
  45:541 (2d sentence words before 1st comma). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, §301 (2d sentence words before 1st comma), 84 Stat. 1330; Oct. 5, 1978, Pub. L. 95–421, §11, 92 Stat. 928.
  45:541 (3d sentence). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, §301 (3d sentence), 84 Stat. 1330; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §18(a), 102 Stat. 636.
  45:541 (last sentence).
  45:546(a) (words after "The Corporation" and before "and shall be subject to"). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, §306(a), 84 Stat. 1332; June 22, 1972, Pub. L. 92–316, §3(a), 86 Stat. 228; Sept. 29, 1979, Pub. L. 96–73, §112(a), 93 Stat. 541; Apr. 7, 1986, Pub. L. 99–272, §4015, 100 Stat. 110.
24301(b) 45:546(m). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, 84 Stat. 1327, §306(m); added Sept. 29, 1979, Pub. L. 96–73, §112(c), 93 Stat. 541; Apr. 7, 1986, Pub. L. 99–272, §4013, 100 Stat. 109.
24301(c)(1), (2)(A) 45:546(a) (less words after "The Corporation" and before "and shall be subject to").
24301(c) (2)(B) 45:546a. Oct. 5, 1978, Pub. L. 95–421, §7, 92 Stat. 927.
24301(d) 45:546(b). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, §§305(a) (last sentence), 306(b)–(e), 84 Stat. 1332, 1333.
24301(e) 45:541 (4th sentence).
  45:545(a) (last sentence).
  45:545(e)(8). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, 84 Stat. 1327, §305(e)(8); added Nov. 3, 1973, Pub. L. 93–146, §6, 87 Stat. 551.
  45:546(g). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, 84 Stat. 1327, §306(g); added June 22, 1972, Pub. L. 92–316, §3(b), 86 Stat. 228.
24301(f) 45:546(d).
24301(g) 45:546(c).
24301(h) 45:546(l). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, 84 Stat. 1327, §306(l); added Sept. 29, 1979, Pub. L. 96–73, §112(c), 93 Stat. 541.
24301(i) 45:797j (words ", the National Railroad Passenger Corporation,"). Jan. 2, 1974, Pub. L. 93–236, 87 Stat. 985, §711 (words ", the National Railroad Passenger Corporation,"); added Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–35, §1143(a), 95 Stat. 667.
24301(j) 45:546(e).
24301(k) 45:546(n). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, 84 Stat. 1327, §306(n); added Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–35, §1178, 95 Stat. 692; restated Oct. 27, 1992, Pub. L. 102–533, §6, 106 Stat. 3517.
24301(l) 45:546b. Sept. 10, 1982, Pub. L. 97–257, §107 (par. under heading "Grants to the National Railroad Passenger Corporation"), 96 Stat. 852.
24301(m) 45:546(i). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, 84 Stat. 1327, §306(i); added Feb. 5, 1976, Pub. L. 94–210, §706(e), 90 Stat. 124; Oct. 19, 1976, Pub. L. 94–555, §105, 90 Stat. 2615; May 30, 1980, Pub. L. 96–254, §206(a), 94 Stat. 412; Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–610, §601(a), 104 Stat. 3185.
24301(n) 45:546(f). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, 84 Stat. 1327, §306(f); added June 22, 1972, Pub. L. 92–316, §3(b), 86 Stat. 228; Apr. 7, 1986, Pub. L. 99–272, §4004, 100 Stat. 107.

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the text of 45:541 (1st sentence) is omitted as executed. The text of 45:541 (last sentence) is omitted as surplus. In clause (1), the words "rail carrier" are substituted for "common carrier by railroad" because of 49:10102. In clause (3), the words "department, agency, or instrumentality" are substituted for "agency, instrumentality, authority, or entity, or establishment" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The word "instrumentality" includes entities, authorities, establishments, and any other organizational unit of the United States Government that is not a department or agency.

In subsection (b), the words "In connection with the performance of such activities" and "to which the Corporation is a party" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(1)(B), the words "whether by trackage rights or otherwise" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(2)(B), the words "adversely affected" are substituted for "aggrieved" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

In subsection (d), the word "same" is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (e), the text of 45:545(a) (last sentence) and (e)(8) is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (f), the words "the place" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (h), the word "applicable" is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (j), the words "existing", "including the antitrust laws of the United States", and "contracts . . . leases" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (k)(2), the words "of funds" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (l)(1), the words "Notwithstanding any other provision of law", "other", "including such taxes and fees levied after September 30, 1982", and "notwithstanding any provision of law" are omitted as surplus. The text of 45:546b (2d sentence) is omitted as executed.

In subsection (l)(2), the words "Notwithstanding the provision of section 1341 of title 28" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (m)(1), before clause (A), the word "New" is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (m)(2), the word "vehicles" is substituted for "conveyances" for clarity.

In subsection (n), the words "uniformed services" are substituted for "Armed Forces or commissioned services" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

References in Text

Section 20102(2), referred to in subsec. (a)(1), was redesignated section 20102(3) by Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, §2(b)(1), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4850.

The Railroad Retirement Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (c), is act Aug. 29, 1935, ch. 812, as amended generally by Pub. L. 93–445, title I, §101, Oct. 16, 1974, 88 Stat. 1305, which is classified generally to subchapter IV (§231 et seq.) of chapter 9 of Title 45, Railroads. For further details and complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Codification note set out preceding section 231 of Title 45, section 231t of Title 45, and Tables.

The Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act, referred to in subsec. (c), is act June 25, 1938, ch. 680, 52 Stat. 1094, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 11 (§351 et seq.) of Title 45, Railroads. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 367 of Title 45 and Tables.

The Railroad Retirement Tax Act, referred to in subsec. (c), is act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, §§3201, 3202, 3211, 3212, 3221, and 3231 to 3233, 68A Stat. 431, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 22 (§3201 et seq.) of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 3233 of Title 26 and Tables.

The District of Columbia Business Corporation Act, referred to in subsec. (e), is act June 8, 1954, ch. 269, 68 Stat. 179, as amended, which is not classified to the Code.

The date of the enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (o), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–53, which was approved Aug. 3, 2007.

Amendments

2007—Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 110–53 added subsec. (o).

2004—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 108–199 inserted "11123," after "except for sections".

1997—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 105–134, §401(1), substituted "railroad carrier under section 20102(2) and chapters 261 and 281" for "rail carrier under section 10102".

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 105–134, §415(d)(1), inserted ", and shall not be subject to title 31" after "United States Government".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–134, §401(2), reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

"(1) Part A of subtitle IV of this title applies to Amtrak, except for provisions related to the—

"(A) regulation of rates;

"(B) abandonment or extension of rail lines used only for passenger transportation and the abandonment or extension of operations over those lines;

"(C) regulation of routes and service;

"(D) discontinuance or change of rail passenger transportation operations; and

"(E) issuance of securities or the assumption of an obligation or liability related to the securities of others.

"(2) Notwithstanding this subsection—

"(A) section 10721 of this title applies to Amtrak; and

"(B) on application of an adversely affected motor carrier, the Surface Transportation Board under part A of subtitle IV of this title may hear a complaint about an unfair or predatory rate or marketing practice of Amtrak for a route or service operating at a loss."

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 105–134, §110(a), inserted at end "Section 552 of title 5, United States Code, applies to Amtrak for any fiscal year in which Amtrak receives a Federal subsidy."

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 105–134, §106(b), amended heading and text of subsec. (f) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The laws of the District of Columbia govern leases and contracts of Amtrak, regardless of where they are executed."

Subsec. (l)(1). Pub. L. 105–134, §208, inserted heading and substituted in text "Amtrak, a rail carrier subsidiary of Amtrak, and any passenger or other customer of Amtrak or such subsidiary, are" for "Amtrak or a rail carrier subsidiary of Amtrak is", "tax, fee, head charge, or other charge, imposed or levied by a State, political subdivision, or local taxing authority on Amtrak, a rail carrier subsidiary of Amtrak, or on persons traveling in intercity rail passenger transportation or on mail or express transportation provided by Amtrak or such a subsidiary, or on the carriage of such persons, mail, or express, or on the sale of any such transportation, or on the gross receipts derived therefrom" for "tax or fee imposed by a State, a political subdivision of a State, or a local taxing authority and levied on it", and "In the case of a tax or fee that Amtrak was required to pay as of September 10, 1982, Amtrak is not exempt from such tax or fee if it was assessed before April 1, 1997." for "However, Amtrak is not exempt under this subsection from a tax or fee that it was required to pay as of September 10, 1982."

Subsec. (m)(1)(A). Pub. L. 105–134, §402, substituted "2001" for "1996".

1995—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 104–88, §308(g)(1)(A), substituted "Part A of subtitle IV" for "Subtitle IV".

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 104–88, §308(g)(1)(B), substituted "section 10721 of this title applies" for "sections 10721–10724 of this title apply".

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 104–88, §308(g)(1)(C), substituted "Transportation Board under part A of subtitle IV" for "Interstate Commerce Commission under any provision of subtitle IV of this title applicable to a carrier subject to subchapter I of chapter 105".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–88, §308(g)(2), substituted "rail carrier subject to part A of subtitle IV" for "common carrier subject to subchapter I of chapter 105".

Effective Date of 1995 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–88 effective Jan. 1, 1996, see section 2 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1301 of this title.

Regulations

Pub. L. 101–610, title VI, §601(d), (e), Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 3186, provided that:

"(d) Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 16, 1990], the Secretary of Transportation, after appropriate notice and comment, and in consultation with the National Railroad Passenger Corporation, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Surgeon General, and State and local officials shall promulgate such regulations as may be necessary to mitigate the impact of the discharge of human waste from railroad passenger cars on areas that may be considered environmentally sensitive.

"(e) Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 16, 1990], the Secretary of Transportation shall promulgate regulations directing the National Railroad Passenger Corporation to, where appropriate, publish printed information, and make public address announcements, explaining its existing disposal technology and the retrofit and new equipment program, and encouraging passengers using existing equipment not to dispose of wastes in stations, railroad yards, or while the train is moving through environmentally sensitive areas."

Passenger Choice

Pub. L. 105–134, title I, §109, Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2574, provided that: "Federal employees are authorized to travel on Amtrak for official business where total travel cost from office to office is competitive on a total trip or time basis."

Application of Federal Property and Administrative Services Act

Pub. L. 105–134, title I, §110(b), Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2574, provided that: "Section 303B(m) of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949 ([former] 41 U.S.C. 253b(m)) [now 41 U.S.C. 4702] applies to a proposal in the possession or control of Amtrak."

Exemption From Laws Relating to Abandoned or Unclaimed Property

Pub. L. 104–205, title III, §347, Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 2976, provided that: "Hereinafter, the National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak) shall be exempted from any State or local law relating to the payment or delivery of abandoned or unclaimed personal property to any government authority, including any provision for the enforcement thereof, with respect to passenger rail tickets for which no refund has been or may be claimed, and such law shall not apply to funds held by Amtrak as a result of the purchase of tickets after April 30, 1972 for which no refund has been claimed."

1 See References in Text note below.

§24302. Board of directors

(a) Composition and Terms.—

(1) The Amtrak Board of Directors (referred to in this section as the "Board") is composed of the following 10 directors, each of whom must be a citizen of the United States:

(A) The Secretary of Transportation.

(B) The President of Amtrak, who shall serve as a nonvoting member of the Board.

(C) 8 individuals appointed by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, with general business and financial experience, experience or qualifications in transportation, freight and passenger rail transportation, travel, hospitality, cruise line, or passenger air transportation businesses, or representatives of employees or users of passenger rail transportation or a State government.


(2) In selecting individuals described in paragraph (1) for nominations for appointments to the Board, the President shall consult with the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the minority leader of the House of Representatives, the majority leader of the Senate, and the minority leader of the Senate and try to provide adequate and balanced representation of the major geographic regions of the United States served by Amtrak.

(3) An individual appointed under paragraph (1)(C) of this subsection shall be appointed for a term of 5 years. Such term may be extended until the individual's successor is appointed and qualified. Not more than 5 individuals appointed under paragraph (1)(C) may be members of the same political party.

(4) The Board shall elect a chairman and a vice chairman, other than the President of Amtrak, from among its membership. The vice chairman shall serve as chairman in the absence of the chairman.

(5) The Secretary may be represented at Board meetings by the Secretary's designee.


(b) Pay and Expenses.—Each director not employed by the United States Government or Amtrak is entitled to reasonable pay when performing Board duties. Each director not employed by the United States Government is entitled to reimbursement from Amtrak for necessary travel, reasonable secretarial and professional staff support, and subsistence expenses incurred in attending Board meetings.

(c) Travel.—(1) Each director not employed by the United States Government shall be subject to the same travel and reimbursable business travel expense policies and guidelines that apply to Amtrak's executive management when performing Board duties.

(2) Not later than 60 days after the end of each fiscal year, the Board shall submit a report describing all travel and reimbursable business travel expenses paid to each director when performing Board duties to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate.

(3) The report submitted under paragraph (2) shall include a detailed justification for any travel or reimbursable business travel expense that deviates from Amtrak's travel and reimbursable business travel expense policies and guidelines.

(d) Vacancies.—A vacancy on the Board is filled in the same way as the original selection, except that an individual appointed by the President of the United States under subsection (a)(1)(C) of this section to fill a vacancy occurring before the end of the term for which the predecessor of that individual was appointed is appointed for the remainder of that term. A vacancy required to be filled by appointment under subsection (a)(1)(C) must be filled not later than 120 days after the vacancy occurs.

(e) Quorum.—A majority of the members serving who are eligible to vote shall constitute a quorum for doing business.

(f) Bylaws.—The Board may adopt and amend bylaws governing the operation of Amtrak. The bylaws shall be consistent with this part and the articles of incorporation.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 906; Pub. L. 105–134, title IV, §411(a), Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2588; Pub. L. 110–432, div. B, title II, §202(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4911; Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11205, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1637.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
24302(a)(1) 45:543(a)(1) (words before (A)), (A) (1st sentence), (B)–(E) (words before comma). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, §303(a), 84 Stat. 1330; restated Nov. 3, 1973, Pub. L. 93–146, §3(a), 87 Stat. 548; Feb. 5, 1976, Pub. L. 94–210, §706(f), 90 Stat. 124; Oct. 19, 1976, Pub. L. 94–555, §103, 90 Stat. 2615; May 30, 1980, Pub. L. 96–254, §206(a), 94 Stat. 412; Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–35, §1174(a), 95 Stat. 689; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §18(b), 102 Stat. 636.
24302(a)(2) 45:543(a)(2)(A) (1st sentence words before comma, last sentence).
24302(a)(3) 45:543(a)(2)(B).
24302(a)(4) 45:543(a)(1)(E) (words after comma).
24302(a)(5) 45:543(a)(4).
24302(a)(6) 45:543(a)(1)(A) (last sentence).
24302(b) 45:543(a)(7).
  45:543(c). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, §303(b), (c), 84 Stat. 1331.
24302(c) 45:543(a)(6).
24302(d) 45:543(a)(5).
24302(e) 45:543(a)(2)(A) (1st sentence words after comma), (3), (8).
24302(f) 45:543(b).

In subsection (a)(1), before clause (A), the words "is composed of the following 9 directors, each of whom must be a citizen" are substituted for "consisting of nine individuals who are citizens" for consistency in the revised title. The words "as follows" are omitted as surplus. In clause (A), the words "ex officio" are omitted as surplus. In clause (C)(ii), the words "chief executive officer of a State" are substituted for "Governor" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. In clause (D), the text of 45:543(a)(1)(D)(i) and the words "after January 1, 1983" are omitted as executed.

In subsection (a)(2), the words "by the President" and "registered as" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (a)(3) and (4), the word "selected" is substituted for "appointed" for consistency.

In subsection (a)(6), the word "only" is added for clarity.

In subsection (b), the text of 45:543(a)(7) is omitted as obsolete because preferred stockholder representatives are always part of Amtrak's board of directors. The text of 45:543(c) (words after "all stockholders") is omitted as obsolete because Congress eliminated common stockholder representatives when it reconstituted the board.

In subsection (c), the words "direct or indirect" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d), the word "performing" is substituted for "engaged in the actual performance of" to eliminate unnecessary words. The word "board" is added for clarity. The words "and powers" are added for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. The word "reasonable" is substituted for "which is reasonably required" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (e), the words "the membership of" and "in the case of" are omitted as surplus. The words "occurring before the end of the term for which the predecessor of that individual was appointed is appointed for the remainder of the term" are substituted for "shall be appointed only for the unexpired term of the member he is appointed to succeed" for clarity and consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. The words "under subsection (a)(1)(C)" the 2d time they appear are substituted for "paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection" in 45:543(a)(8) to correct an erroneous cross-reference.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 114–94, §11205(1)(A), substituted "10 directors" for "9 directors".

Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 114–94, §11205(1)(B), inserted ", who shall serve as a nonvoting member of the Board" after "Amtrak".

Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Pub. L. 114–94, §11205(1)(C), substituted "8" for "7".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 114–94, §11205(2), inserted "who are eligible to vote" after "serving".

2008—Pub. L. 110–432 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related, in subsec. (a), to establishment, duties, membership, and confirmation procedure of Reform Board, in subsec. (b), to selection of the Board of Directors, and in subsec. (c), to authority of Reform Board to recommend to Congress a plan to implement transfer of Amtrak's infrastructure assets and responsibilities to a new separately governed corporation.

1997—Pub. L. 105–134 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related, in subsec. (a), to composition and terms of Amtrak board of directors, in subsec. (b), to cumulative voting by stockholders, in subsec. (c), to conflicts of interest of directors, in subsec. (d), to pay and expenses of directors, in subsec. (e), to vacancies on board, and in subsec. (f), to bylaws of board.

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as a note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–432, div. B, title II, §202(b), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4912, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect 6 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 16, 2008]. The members of the Amtrak Board of Directors serving as of the date of enactment of this Act may continue to serve for the remainder of the term to which they were appointed."

§24303. Officers

(a) Appointment and Terms.—Amtrak has a President and other officers that are named and appointed by the board of directors of Amtrak. An officer of Amtrak must be a citizen of the United States. Officers of Amtrak serve at the pleasure of the board.

(b) Pay.—The board may fix the pay of the officers of Amtrak. An officer may not be paid more than the general level of pay for officers of rail carriers with comparable responsibility. The preceding sentence shall not apply for any fiscal year for which no Federal assistance is provided to Amtrak.

(c) Conflicts of Interest.—When employed by Amtrak, an officer may not have a financial or employment relationship with another rail carrier, except that holding securities issued by a rail carrier is not deemed to be a violation of this subsection if the officer holding the securities makes a complete public disclosure of the holdings and does not participate in any decision directly affecting the rail carrier.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 907; Pub. L. 105–134, title II, §207, Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2584.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
24303(a) 45:543(d) (1st, 4th, 5th sentences). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, §303(d), 84 Stat. 1331; June 22, 1972, Pub. L. 92–316, §1(a), 86 Stat. 227; May 26, 1975, Pub. L. 94–25, §2, 89 Stat. 90; July 18, 1982, Pub. L. 97–216, §101 (par. under heading "Grants to the National Railroad Passenger Corporation"), 96 Stat. 187; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §18(c), 102 Stat. 636.
24303(b) 45:543(d) (2d, 3d sentences).
24303(c) 45:543(d) (last sentence).

In subsection (a), the words "of directors of Amtrak" are added for clarity.

In subsection (b), the words "rates of", "president and other", and "at a level" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c), the words "direct or indirect" are omitted as surplus. The word "another" is substituted for "any" for clarity.

Amendments

1997—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–134 inserted at end "The preceding sentence shall not apply for any fiscal year for which no Federal assistance is provided to Amtrak."

§24304. Employee stock ownership plans

In issuing stock pursuant to applicable corporate law, Amtrak is encouraged to include employee stock ownership plans.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 908; Pub. L. 105–134, title IV, §415(a)(1), Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2590.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
24304(a) 45:544(a) (1st sentence, last sentence words before (A), (A) (1st sentence), (B)(i) (1st sentence)). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, §304(a), 84 Stat. 1331; Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–35, §1175(1), (2), 95 Stat. 691.
24304(b) 45:544(a) (2d sentence).
  45:544(b). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, §304(b), 84 Stat. 1332; Oct. 28, 1974, Pub. L. 93–496, §2, 88 Stat. 1526.
24304(c) 45:544(a) (last sentence words before (A), (A) (last sentence), (B)(i) (last sentence), (ii), (iii)).
24304(d)(1) 45:544(c)(1), (2). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, §304(c)(1), (2), 84 Stat. 1332; restated Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–35, §1175(3), 95 Stat. 691.
24304(d)(2) 45:544(c)(3). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, 84 Stat. 1327, §304(c)(3); added Apr. 7, 1986, Pub. L. 99–272, §4003, 100 Stat. 107.
24304(d)(3) 45:544(c)(4). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, 84 Stat. 1327, §304(c)(4); added Oct. 27, 1992, Pub. L. 102–533, §5, 106 Stat. 3517.
24304(e) 45:544(e)(2). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, §304(d), (e), 84 Stat. 1332; restated Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–35, §1175(4), 95 Stat. 691.
24304(f) 45:544(d).
24304(g) 45:544(e)(1).

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words "issue and" are omitted because they are included in "have outstanding". The words "in such amounts as it shall determine" are omitted as surplus. The words "one issue of common stock and one issue of preferred stock" are substituted for "two issues of capital stock, a common and a preferred" for clarity. In clause (1), the word "designated" is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(1)(A), the words "may not hold" are substituted for "may be issued and held only by any person other than" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsections (b)(1)(B) and (c), the words "as defined in section 10102(6) of title 49" are omitted because of the definition of "rail carrier" in section 24102 of the revised title.

In subsection (b)(1)(B), the words "after the initial issue is completed" are omitted as executed. The words "single" and "directly or indirectly through subsidiaries or affiliated companies, nominees, or any person subject to its direction or control" are omitted as surplus. The words "may vote not more than one-third of the total number of shares of outstanding common stock of Amtrak" are substituted for "At no time . . . shall the aggregate of the shares of common stock of the Corporation voted by . . . exceed 331/3 per centum of such shares issued and outstanding" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (b)(2), the words "Additional common stock" are substituted for "a number of shares in excess of 331/3 per centum of the total number of common shares issued and outstanding, such excess number" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "issued and" are omitted because they are included in "outstanding".

Subsection (c)(1) is substituted for "Dividends shall be fixed at a rate not less than 6 per centum per annum, and shall be cumulative" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (c)(2), the text of 45:544(a) (last sentence) (A) (last sentence) and the words "for any dividend period" and "at the rate fixed in the articles of incorporation" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(3), the words "holders of preferred stock" are substituted for "preferred stockholders", and the words "holders of common stock" are substituted for "common stockholders", for consistency in this chapter.

In subsection (c)(4), the words "at such time and upon such terms as the articles of incorporation shall provide" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d)(1), the text of 45:544(c)(1) and the words "Commencing on October 1, 1981" are omitted as executed. The words "and in consideration of receiving further Federal financial assistance", "of the United States Government", "additional", and "of funds" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d)(3), the words "required to be issued" are omitted as surplus.

Subsection (e) is substituted for 45:544(e)(2) to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (f), the words "in addition to the stock authorized by subsection (a) of this section", "securities, bonds, debentures, notes, and other", and "as it may determine" are omitted as surplus.

Subsection (g) is substituted for 45:544(e)(1) to eliminate unnecessary words.

Amendments

1997—Pub. L. 105–134 amended section catchline and text generally, substituting provisions relating to employee stock ownership plans for provisions relating to capitalization of Amtrak.

Amtrak Stock

Pub. L. 105–134, title IV, §415(b), (c), Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2590, provided that:

"(b) Redemption of Common Stock.—Amtrak shall, before October 1, 2002, redeem all common stock previously issued, for the fair market value of such stock.

"(c) Elimination of Liquidation Preference and Voting Rights of Preferred Stock.—(1)(A) Preferred stock of Amtrak held by the Secretary of Transportation shall confer no liquidation preference.

"(B) Subparagraph (A) shall take effect 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 2, 1997].

"(2)(A) Preferred stock of Amtrak held by the Secretary of Transportation shall confer no voting rights.

"(B) Subparagraph (A) shall take effect 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act."

§24305. General authority

(a) Acquisition and Operation of Equipment and Facilities.—(1) Amtrak may acquire, operate, maintain, and make contracts for the operation and maintenance of equipment and facilities necessary for intercity and commuter rail passenger transportation, the transportation of mail and express, and auto-ferry transportation.

(2) Amtrak shall operate and control directly, to the extent practicable, all aspects of the rail passenger transportation it provides.

(3)(A) Except as provided in subsection (d)(2), Amtrak may enter into a contract with a motor carrier of passengers for the intercity transportation of passengers by motor carrier over regular routes only—

(i) if the motor carrier is not a public recipient of governmental assistance, as such term is defined in section 13902(b)(8)(A) of this title, other than a recipient of funds under section 5311 of this title;

(ii) for passengers who have had prior movement by rail or will have subsequent movement by rail; and

(iii) if the buses, when used in the provision of such transportation, are used exclusively for the transportation of passengers described in clause (ii).


(B) Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to transportation funded predominantly by a State or local government, or to ticket selling agreements.

(b) Maintenance and Rehabilitation.—Amtrak may maintain and rehabilitate rail passenger equipment and shall maintain a regional maintenance plan that includes—

(1) a review panel at the principal office of Amtrak consisting of members the President of Amtrak designates;

(2) a systemwide inventory of spare equipment parts in each operational region;

(3) enough maintenance employees for cars and locomotives in each region;

(4) a systematic preventive maintenance program;

(5) periodic evaluations of maintenance costs, time lags, and parts shortages and corrective actions; and

(6) other elements or activities Amtrak considers appropriate.


(c) Miscellaneous Authority.—Amtrak may—

(1) make and carry out appropriate agreements;

(2) transport mail and express and shall use all feasible methods to obtain the bulk mail business of the United States Postal Service;

(3) improve its reservation system and advertising;

(4) provide food and beverage services on its trains only if revenues from the services each year at least equal the cost of providing the services;

(5) conduct research, development, and demonstration programs related to the mission of Amtrak; and

(6) buy or lease rail rolling stock and develop and demonstrate improved rolling stock.


(d) Through Routes and Joint Fares.—(1) Establishing through routes and joint fares between Amtrak and other intercity rail passenger carriers and motor carriers of passengers is consistent with the public interest and the transportation policy of the United States. Congress encourages establishing those routes and fares.

(2) Amtrak may establish through routes and joint fares with any domestic or international motor carrier, air carrier, or water carrier.

(3) Congress encourages Amtrak and motor common carriers of passengers to use the authority conferred in sections 11322 and 14302 of this title for the purpose of providing improved service to the public and economy of operation.

(e) Rail Police.—Amtrak may directly employ or contract with rail police to provide security for rail passengers and property of Amtrak. Rail police directly employed by or contracted by Amtrak who have complied with a State law establishing requirements applicable to rail police or individuals employed in a similar position may be directly employed or contracted without regard to the law of another State containing those requirements.

(f) Domestic Buying Preferences.—(1) In this subsection, "United States" means the States, territories, and possessions of the United States and the District of Columbia.

(2) Amtrak shall buy only—

(A) unmanufactured articles, material, and supplies mined or produced in the United States; or

(B) manufactured articles, material, and supplies manufactured in the United States substantially from articles, material, and supplies mined, produced, or manufactured in the United States.


(3) Paragraph (2) of this subsection applies only when the cost of those articles, material, or supplies bought is at least $1,000,000.

(4) On application of Amtrak, the Secretary of Transportation may exempt Amtrak from this subsection if the Secretary decides that—

(A) for particular articles, material, or supplies—

(i) the requirements of paragraph (2) of this subsection are inconsistent with the public interest;

(ii) the cost of imposing those requirements is unreasonable; or

(iii) the articles, material, or supplies, or the articles, material, or supplies from which they are manufactured, are not mined, produced, or manufactured in the United States in sufficient and reasonably available commercial quantities and are not of a satisfactory quality; or


(B) rolling stock or power train equipment cannot be bought and delivered in the United States within a reasonable time.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 909; Pub. L. 105–134, title I, §107, Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2573; Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11412(c)(1), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1688.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
24305(a)(1) 45:545(a) (1st sentence 1st–32d words, words after last semicolon). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, §305(a) (1st, 2d sentences), 84 Stat. 1332; June 22, 1972, Pub. L. 92–316, §2(1), (2), 86 Stat. 228; Nov. 3, 1973, Pub. L. 93–146, §4, 87 Stat. 549; Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–35, §1188(b), 95 Stat. 699.
  45:545(b) (4th sentence). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, 84 Stat. 1327, §305(b) (4th sentence); added June 22, 1972, Pub. L. 92–316, §2(3), 86 Stat. 228; Nov. 3, 1973, Pub. L. 93–146, §5, 87 Stat. 550.
  45:545(e)(5). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, 84 Stat. 1327, §305(e)(1)–(6); added Nov. 3, 1973, Pub. L. 93–146, §6, 87 Stat. 551.
24305(a)(2) 45:545(a) (2d sentence).
24305(b) 45:545(e)(2).
  45:545(g). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, 84 Stat. 1327, §305(g); added Oct. 28, 1974, Pub. L. 93–496, §3, 88 Stat. 1527; restated Sept. 29, 1979, Pub. L. 96–73, §§106, 107, 93 Stat. 539, 540.
24305(c)(1) 45:851(a)(2). Feb. 5, 1976, Pub. L. 94–210, §701(a)(2), 90 Stat. 119.
24305(c)(2) 45:545(a) (1st sentence 33d word–1st semicolon).
  45:545a. Oct. 5, 1978, Pub. L. 95–421, §19, 92 Stat. 930.
24305(c)(3) 45:545(e)(1).
24305(c)(4) 45:545(n). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, 84 Stat. 1327, §305(n); added Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–35, §1177(a), 95 Stat. 692.
24305(c)(5) 45:545(a) (1st sentence words between 1st and last semicolons), (e)(3).
24305(c)(6) 45:545(e)(4), (6).
24305(d) 45:546(j). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, 84 Stat. 1327, §306(j); added Oct. 19, 1976, Pub. L. 94–555, §106, 90 Stat. 2615; Sept. 29, 1979, Pub. L. 96–73, §112(b), 93 Stat. 541.
24305(e) 45:545(j). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, 84 Stat. 1327, §305(j); added Oct. 19, 1976, Pub. L. 94–555, §104, 90 Stat. 2615; Sept. 29, 1979, Pub. L 96–73, §§106, 108, 93 Stat. 539, 540.
24305(f) 45:545(k). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, 84 Stat. 1327, §305(k); added Oct. 5, 1978, Pub. L. 95–421, §10, 92 Stat. 928; Sept. 29, 1979, Pub. L. 96–73, §§106, 109, 93 Stat. 539, 540.

In subsection (a)(1), the text of 45:545(e)(5) is omitted as obsolete. The words "acquire, operate, maintain, and make contracts for the operation and maintenance of" are substituted for "own, manage, operate, or contract for the operation of", "acquire by construction, purchase, or gift, or to contract for the use of", "acquire, lease, modify, or develop", and "or to enter into contracts for the provision of such service" to eliminate unnecessary words. The word "physical" is omitted as surplus. The words "intercity and commuter trains" are omitted as being included in "equipment". The words "the transportation of mail and express" are substituted for "mail, express . . . service" for consistency in this chapter.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the words "service" and "repair" are omitted as surplus. The words "not later than January 1, 1980" are omitted as executed. In clause (1), the words "principal office of Amtrak" are substituted for "corporate headquarters" for clarity and consistency. In clauses (3) and (4), the words "establishment of" are omitted as executed.

In subsection (c)(1), the words "contracts and" and "necessary or . . . in the conduct of its functions" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(2), the words "on such trains" in 45:545(a), and the words "including taking into account the needs of the United States Postal Service in establishing schedules" and "and service" in 45:545a, are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(4), the text of 45:545(n) (1st sentence) and the words "Beginning October 1, 1982" are omitted as executed.

In subsection (d)(1), the words "rail passenger carriers" are substituted for "common carriers of passengers by rail" for consistency in the revised title. The words "establishing those routes and fares" are substituted for "the making of such arrangements" for clarity.

In subsection (e), the words "and protection" and "licensing, residency, or related" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (f)(1), the words "several" and "the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (f)(2), the words "Except as provided in paragraph (2) or (3) of this subsection", "which have been", "all", and "as the case may be" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (f)(3), the text of 45:545(k)(4)(B) is omitted as executed.

In subsection (f)(4)(A) and (B), the words "the purchase of" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (f)(4)(A)(i), the words "imposing" and "with respect to such articles, materials, and supplies" are omitted as surplus.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 114–94 substituted "may directly employ or contract with" for "may employ", "directly employed by or contracted by" for "employed by", and "directly employed or contracted without" for "employed without".

1997—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 105–134, §107(a), added par. (3).

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 105–134, §107(b), added par. (3).

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as a note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Local Products and Promotional Events

Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11209, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1640, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 6 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2015], Amtrak shall establish a pilot program for a State or States that sponsor a State-supported route operated by Amtrak to facilitate—

"(1) onboard purchase and sale of local food and beverage products; and

"(2) partnerships with local entities to hold promotional events on trains or in stations.

"(b) Program Design.—The pilot program under paragraph (1) shall—

"(1) allow a State or States to nominate and select a local food and beverage products supplier or suppliers or local promotional event partner;

"(2) allow a State or States to charge a reasonable price or fee for local food and beverage products or promotional events and related activities to help defray the costs of program administration and State-supported routes; and

"(3) provide a mechanism to ensure that State products can effectively be handled and integrated into existing food and beverage services, including compliance with all applicable regulations and standards governing such services.

"(c) Program Administration.—The pilot program shall—

"(1) for local food and beverage products, ensure the products are integrated into existing food and beverage services, including compliance with all applicable regulations and standards;

"(2) for promotional events, ensure the events are held in compliance with all applicable regulations and standards, including terms to address insurance requirements; and

"(3) require an annual report that documents revenues and costs and indicates whether the products or events resulted in a reduction in the financial contribution of a State or States to the applicable State-supported route.

"(d) Report.—Not later than 4 years after the date of enactment of this Act, Amtrak shall report to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives on which States have participated in the pilot programs under this section. The report shall summarize the financial and operational outcomes of the pilot programs and include any plan for future action.

"(e) Rule of Construction.—Nothing in this section shall be construed as limiting Amtrak's ability to operate special trains in accordance with section 216 of the Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of 2008 [div. B of Pub. L. 110–432] (49 U.S.C. 24308 note)."

Amtrak Pilot Program for Passengers Transporting Domesticated Cats and Dogs

Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11210, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1641, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2015], Amtrak shall develop a pilot program that allows passengers to transport domesticated cats or dogs on certain trains operated by Amtrak.

"(b) Pet Policy.—In developing the pilot program required under subsection (a), Amtrak shall—

"(1) in the case of a passenger train that is comprised of more than 1 car, designate, where feasible, at least 1 car in which a ticketed passenger may transport a domesticated cat or dog in the same manner as carry-on baggage if—

"(A) the cat or dog is contained in a pet kennel;

"(B) the pet kennel complies with Amtrak size requirements for carriage of carry-on baggage;

"(C) the passenger is traveling on a train operating on a route described in subparagraph (A), (B), or (D) of section 24102(7) of title 49, United States Code; and

"(D) the passenger pays a fee described in paragraph (3);

"(2) allow a ticketed passenger to transport a domesticated cat or dog on a train in the same manner as cargo if—

"(A) the cat or dog is contained in a pet kennel;

"(B) the pet kennel complies with Amtrak size requirements for carriage of carry-on baggage;

"(C) the passenger is traveling on a train operating on a route described in subparagraph (A), (B), or (D) of section 24102(7) of title 49, United States Code;

"(D) the cargo area is temperature controlled in a manner protective of cat and dog safety and health; and

"(E) the passenger pays a fee described in paragraph (3); and

"(3) collect fees for each cat or dog transported by a ticketed passenger in an amount that, in the aggregate and at a minimum, covers the full costs of the pilot program.

"(c) Report.—Not later than 1 year after the pilot program required under subsection (a) is first implemented, Amtrak shall transmit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives a report containing an evaluation of the pilot program.

"(d) Limitation on Statutory Construction.—

"(1) Service animals.—The pilot program under subsection (a) shall be separate from and in addition to the policy governing Amtrak passengers traveling with service animals. Nothing in this section may be interpreted to limit or waive the rights of passengers to transport service animals.

"(2) Additional train cars.—Nothing in this section may be interpreted to require Amtrak to add additional train cars or modify existing train cars.

"(3) Federal funds.—No Federal funds may be used to implement the pilot program required under this section."

Right-of-Way Leveraging

Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11211, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1641, provided that:

"(a) Request for Proposals.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2015], Amtrak shall issue a Request for Proposals seeking qualified persons or entities to utilize right-of-way and real estate owned, controlled, or managed by Amtrak for telecommunications systems, energy distribution systems, and other activities considered appropriate by Amtrak.

"(2) Contents.—The Request for Proposals shall provide sufficient information on the right-of-way and real estate assets to enable respondents to propose an arrangement that will monetize or generate additional revenue from such assets through revenue sharing or leasing agreements with Amtrak, to the extent possible.

"(3) Deadline.—Amtrak shall set a deadline for the submission of proposals that is not later than 1 year after the issuance of the Request for Proposals under paragraph (1).

"(b) Consideration of Proposals.—Not later than 180 days after the deadline for the receipt of proposals under subsection (a), the Amtrak Board of Directors shall review and consider each qualified proposal. Amtrak may enter into such agreements as are necessary to implement any qualified proposal.

"(c) Report.—Not later than 1 year after the deadline for the receipt of proposals under subsection (a), Amtrak shall transmit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives a report on the Request for Proposals required by this section, including summary information of any proposals submitted to Amtrak and any proposals accepted by the Amtrak Board of Directors.

"(d) Savings Clause.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit Amtrak's ability to utilize right-of-way or real estate assets that it currently owns, controls, or manages or constrain Amtrak's ability to enter into agreements with other parties to utilize such assets."

Station Development

Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11212, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1642, provided that:

"(a) Report on Development Options.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2015], Amtrak shall submit a report to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives that describes—

"(1) options to enhance economic development and accessibility of and around Amtrak stations and terminals, for the purposes of—

"(A) improving station condition, functionality, capacity, and customer amenities;

"(B) generating additional investment capital and development-related revenue streams;

"(C) increasing ridership and revenue; and

"(D) strengthening multimodal connections, including transit, intercity buses, roll-on and roll-off bicycles, and airports, as appropriate; and

"(2) options for additional Amtrak stops that would have a positive incremental financial impact to Amtrak, based on Amtrak feasibility studies that demonstrate a financial benefit to Amtrak by generating additional revenue that exceeds any incremental costs.

"(b) Request for Information.—Not later than 90 days after the date the report is submitted under subsection (a), Amtrak shall issue a Request for Information for 1 or more owners of stations served by Amtrak to formally express an interest in completing the requirements of this section.

"(c) Proposals.—

"(1) Request for proposals.—Not later than 180 days after the date the Request for Information is issued under subsection (b), Amtrak shall issue a Request for Proposals from qualified persons, including small business concerns owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals and veteran-owned small businesses, to lead, participate, or partner with Amtrak, a station owner that responded under subsection (b), and other entities in enhancing development in and around such stations and terminals using applicable options identified under subsection (a) at facilities selected by Amtrak.

"(2) Consideration of proposals.—Not later than 1 year after the date the Request for Proposals is issued under paragraph (1), the Amtrak Board of Directors shall review and consider qualified proposals submitted under paragraph (1). Amtrak or a station owner that responded under subsection (b) may enter into such agreements as are necessary to implement any qualified proposal.

"(d) Report.—Not later than 4 years after the date of enactment of this Act, Amtrak shall transmit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives a report on the Request for Proposals process required under this section, including summary information of any qualified proposals submitted to Amtrak and any proposals acted upon by Amtrak or a station owner that responded under subsection (b).

"(e) Definitions.—In this section, the terms 'small business concern', 'socially and economically disadvantaged individual', and 'veteran-owned small business' have the meanings given the terms in section 11310(c) of this Act [129 Stat. 1670].

"(f) Savings Clause.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit Amtrak's ability to develop its stations, terminals, or other assets, to constrain Amtrak's ability to enter into and carry out agreements with other parties to enhance development at or around Amtrak stations or terminals, or to affect any station development initiatives ongoing as of the date of enactment of this Act."

Amtrak Security Evaluation and Development of Procedures for Firearm Storage and Carriage in Checked Baggage Cars and Stations

Pub. L. 111–117, div. A, title I, §159, Dec. 16, 2009, 123 Stat. 3061, as amended by Pub. L. 111–212, title III, §3009, July 29, 2010, 124 Stat. 2340, provided that:

"(a) Amtrak Security Evaluation.—No later than 180 days after the enactment of this Act [Dec. 16, 2009], Amtrak, in consultation with the Assistant Secretary of Homeland Security (Transportation Security Administration), shall submit a report to Congress that contains—

"(1) a comprehensive, system-wide, security evaluation; and

"(2) proposed guidance and procedures necessary to implement a new checked firearms program.

"(b) Developement and Implementation of Guidance and Procedures.—

"(1) In General.—Not later than one year after the enactment of this Act [Dec. 16, 2009], Amtrak, in consultation with the Assistant Secretary, shall develop and implement guidance and procedures to carry out the duties and responsibilities of firearm storage and carriage in checked baggage cars and at Amtrak stations that accept checked baggage.

"(2) Scope.—The guidance and procedures developed under paragraph (1) shall—

"(A) permit Amtrak passengers holding a ticket for a specific Amtrak route to place an unloaded firearm or starter pistol in a checked bag on such route if—

"(i) the Amtrak station accepts checked baggage for such route;

"(ii) the passenger declares to Amtrak, either orally or in writing, at the time the reservation is made or not later than 24 hours before departure, that the firearm will be placed in his or her bag and will be unloaded;

"(iii) the firearm is in a hard-sided container;

"(iv) such container is locked; and

"(v) only the passenger has the key or combination for such container;

"(B) permit Amtrak passengers holding a ticket for a specific Amtrak route to place small arms ammunition for personal use in a checked bag on such route if the ammunition is securely packed—

"(i) in fiber, wood, or metal boxes; or

"(ii) in other packaging specifically designed to carry small amounts of ammunition; and

"(C) include any other measures needed to ensure the safety and security of Amtrak employees, passengers, and infrastructure, including—

"(i) requiring inspections of any container containing a firearm or ammunition; and

"(ii) the temporary suspension of firearm carriage service if credible intelligence information indicates a threat related to the national rail system or specific routes or trains.

"(c) Definitions.—

"(1) [sic] For purposes of this section, the term 'checked baggage' refers to baggage transported that is accessible only to select Amtrak employees."

General Services Administration Services

Pub. L. 110–432, div. B, title II, §218(b), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4930, provided that: "Amtrak may obtain from the Administrator of General Services, and the Administrator may provide to Amtrak, services under sections 502(a) and 602 of title 40, United States Code."

Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(4) [div. A, §1110], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–202, provided that: "Amtrak is authorized to obtain services from the Administrator of General Services, and the Administrator is authorized to provide services to Amtrak, under sections 201(b) and 211(b) of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949 (40 U.S.C. 481(b) and 491(b)) [now 40 U.S.C. 502, 602, 603(a)(1)] for fiscal year 2001 and each fiscal year thereafter until the fiscal year that Amtrak operates without Federal operating grant funds appropriated for its benefit, as required by sections 24101(d) and [former] 24104(a) of title 49, United States Code."

Rail and Motor Carrier Passenger Service

Pub. L. 105–134, title I, §108, Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2574, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law (other than section 24305(a)(3) of title 49, United States Code), Amtrak and motor carriers of passengers are authorized—

"(1) to combine or package their respective services and facilities to the public as a means of increasing revenues; and

"(2) to coordinate schedules, routes, rates, reservations, and ticketing to provide for enhanced intermodal surface transportation.

"(b) Review.—The authority granted by subsection (a) is subject to review by the Surface Transportation Board and may be modified or revoked by the Board if modification or revocation is in the public interest."

Educational Participation

Pub. L. 105–134, title IV, §412, Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2589, provided that: "Amtrak shall participate in educational efforts with elementary and secondary schools to inform students on the advantages of rail travel and the need for rail safety."

§24306. Mail, express, and auto-ferry transportation

(a) Actions To Increase Revenues.—Amtrak shall take necessary action to increase its revenues from the transportation of mail and express. To increase its revenues, Amtrak may provide auto-ferry transportation as part of the basic passenger transportation authorized by this part.

(b) Authority of Others To Provide Auto-Ferry Transportation.—State and local laws and regulations that impair the provision of auto-ferry transportation do not apply to Amtrak or a rail carrier providing auto-ferry transportation. A rail carrier may not refuse to participate with Amtrak in providing auto-ferry transportation because a State or local law or regulation makes the transportation unlawful.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 910; Pub. L. 105–134, title I, §102, Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2572.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
24306(a) 45:545(b) (1st, 2d sentence words before 2d comma, last sentence). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, 84 Stat. 1327, §305(b) (1st–3d, last sentences); added June 22, 1972, Pub. L. 92–316, §2(3), 86 Stat. 228; Nov. 3, 1973, Pub. L. 93–146, §5, 87 Stat. 549.
24306(b)(1) 45:545(b) (2d sentence words after 2d comma).
24306(b)(2) 45:545(b) (3d sentence).
24306(b)(3) 45:546(h). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, 84 Stat. 1327, §306(h); added Nov. 3, 1973, Pub. L. 93–146, §7, 87 Stat. 551.

In subsection (a), the words "and to better accomplish the purposes of this chapter" and "modify its services to" are omitted as surplus. The words "a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government" are substituted for "Federal departments and agencies" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The words "consistent with the provisions of existing law" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(1), before clause (A), the words "A person primarily providing auto-ferry transportation and any other person not a rail carrier may provide" are substituted for "except that nothing contained in this chapter shall prevent any other person, other than a railroad (except that for purposes of this section a person primarily engaged in auto-ferry service shall not be deemed to be a railroad), from providing such" to eliminate unnecessary words. The text of 45:545(b) (2d sentence words after "the public") is omitted as obsolete.

In subsection (b)(2), the words "may provide" are substituted for "Nothing in this section shall be construed to restrict the right of . . . from performing" to eliminate unnecessary words and for clarity. The words "rail lines" are substituted for "lines" for clarity and consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

In subsection (b)(3), the words "has the effect of prohibiting or", "fine, penalty, or other", and "for violation of" are omitted as surplus. The words "rail carrier" are substituted for "common carrier by railroad" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

Amendments

1997—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–134, §102(1), struck out at end "When requested by Amtrak, a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government shall assist in carrying out this section."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–134, §102(2), added subsec. (b) and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (b). Text read as follows:

"(1) A person primarily providing auto-ferry transportation and any other person not a rail carrier may provide auto-ferry transportation over any route under a certificate issued by the Interstate Commerce Commission if the Commission finds that the auto-ferry transportation—

"(A) will not impair the ability of Amtrak to reduce its losses or increase its revenues; and

"(B) is required to meet the public demand.

"(2) A rail carrier that has not made a contract with Amtrak to provide rail passenger transportation may provide auto-ferry transportation over its own rail lines.

"(3) State and local laws and regulations that impair the provision of auto-ferry transportation do not apply to Amtrak or a rail carrier providing auto-ferry transportation. A rail carrier may not refuse to participate with Amtrak in providing auto-ferry transportation because a State or local law or regulation makes the transportation unlawful."

§24307. Special transportation

(a) Reduced Fare Program.—Amtrak shall maintain a reduced fare program for the following:

(1) individuals at least 65 years of age.

(2) individuals (except alcoholics and drug abusers) who—

(A) have a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits a major life activity of the individual;

(B) have a record of an impairment; or

(C) are regarded as having an impairment.


(b) Employee Transportation.—(1) In this subsection, "rail carrier employee" means—

(A) an active full-time employee of a rail carrier or terminal company and includes an employee on furlough or leave of absence;

(B) a retired employee of a rail carrier or terminal company; and

(C) a dependent of an employee referred to in clause (A) or (B) of this paragraph.


(2) Amtrak shall ensure that a rail carrier employee eligible for free or reduced-rate rail transportation on April 30, 1971, under an agreement in effect on that date is eligible, to the greatest extent practicable, for free or reduced-rate intercity rail passenger transportation provided by Amtrak under this part, if space is available, on terms similar to those available on that date under the agreement. However, Amtrak may apply to all rail carrier employees eligible to receive free or reduced-rate transportation under any agreement a single systemwide schedule of terms that Amtrak decides applied to a majority of employees on that date under all those agreements. Unless Amtrak and a rail carrier make a different agreement, the carrier shall reimburse Amtrak at the rate of 25 percent of the systemwide average monthly yield of each revenue passenger-mile. The reimbursement is in place of costs Amtrak incurs related to free or reduced-rate transportation, including liability related to travel of a rail carrier employee eligible for free or reduced-rate transportation.

(3) This subsection does not prohibit the Surface Transportation Board from ordering retroactive relief in a proceeding begun or reopened after October 1, 1981.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 911; Pub. L. 105–134, title IV, §406(b), Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2586; Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title II, §32932(c)(1), July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 829.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
24307(a) 45:545(c)(2). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, 84 Stat. 1327, §305(c)(2); added Sept. 29, 1979, Pub. L. 96–73, §105(2), 93 Stat. 539.
24307(b) 45:545(c)(1). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, 84 Stat. 1327, §305(c)(1); added Nov. 3, 1973, Pub. L. 93–146, §6, 87 Stat. 550; Sept. 29, 1979, Pub. L. 96–73, §105(1), 93 Stat. 539.
24307(c) 45:565(f). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, 84 Stat. 1327, §405(f); added June 22, 1972, Pub. L. 92–316, §8, 86 Stat. 230; Sept. 29, 1979, Pub. L. 96–73, §120(a), 93 Stat. 547; Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–35, §1184, 95 Stat. 697.

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the word "maintain" is substituted for "Within 90 days after September 29, 1979" and "establish" for clarity.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the word "act" is substituted for "take all steps necessary to" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "access to" are added for clarity. In clause (1), the words "and devices" are omitted as surplus. In clause (4), the words "architectural and other" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(1)(A), the words "period of" and "while on" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(2), the words "take such action as may be necessary to", "the terms of . . . policy or", and "to such railroad employee" are omitted as surplus. The words "or group of railroads" are omitted because of 1:1.

Amendments

2012—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 112–141 substituted "Surface Transportation Board" for "Interstate Commerce Commission".

1997—Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 105–134 redesignated subsec. (c) as (b) and struck out former subsec. (b) which read as follows:

"(b) Actions To Ensure Access.—Amtrak may act to ensure access to intercity transportation for elderly or handicapped individuals on passenger trains operated by or for Amtrak. That action may include—

"(1) acquiring special equipment;

"(2) conducting special training for employees;

"(3) designing and acquiring new equipment and facilities;

"(4) eliminating barriers in existing equipment and facilities to comply with the highest standards of design, construction, and alteration of property to accommodate elderly and handicapped individuals; and

"(5) providing special assistance to elderly and handicapped individuals when getting on and off trains and in terminal areas."

Effective Date of 2012 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–141 effective Oct. 1, 2012, see section 3(a) of Pub. L. 112–141, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment note under section 101 of Title 23, Highways.

Accessibility by Individuals With Disabilities

Pub. L. 110–432, div. B, title II, §219, Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4931, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Amtrak, in consultation with station owners and other railroads operating service through the existing stations that it serves, shall evaluate the improvements necessary to make these stations readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities, as required by such section 242(e)(2) of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12162(e)(2)). The evaluation shall include, for each applicable station, improvements required to bring it into compliance with the applicable parts of such section 242(e)(2), any potential barriers to achieving compliance, including issues related to passenger rail station platforms, the estimated cost of the improvements necessary, the identification of the responsible person (as defined in section 241(5) of that Act (42 U.S.C. 12161(5))), and the earliest practicable date when such improvements can be made. The evaluation shall also include a detailed plan and schedule for bringing all applicable stations into compliance with the applicable parts of section 242(e)(2) by the 2010 statutory deadline for station accessibility. Amtrak shall submit the evaluation to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives; the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate; the Department of Transportation; and the National Council on Disability by February 1, 2009, along with recommendations for funding the necessary improvements. Should the Department of Transportation issue any rule related to transportation for individuals with disabilities by intercity passenger rail after Amtrak submits its evaluation, Amtrak shall, within 120 days after the date that such rule is published, submit to the above parties a supplemental evaluation on any impact of the rule on its cost and schedule for achieving full compliance.

"(b) Accessibility Improvements and Barrier Removal for People With Disabilities.—There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary [of Transportation] for the use of Amtrak such sums as may be necessary to improve the accessibility of facilities, including rail platforms, and services."

Pub. L. 110–432, div. B, title II, §220, Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4931, provided that: "Using the funds authorized by section 103 of this division [122 Stat. 4909], the Federal Railroad Administration shall monitor and conduct periodic reviews of Amtrak's compliance with applicable sections of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 [42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq.] and the Rehabilitation Act of 1974 [probably means Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 29 U.S.C. 701 et seq.] to ensure that Amtrak's services and facilities are accessible to individuals with disabilities to the extent required by law."

Pub. L. 105–134, title IV, §406(a), Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2586, provided that:

"(1) Access improvements at certain shared stations.—Amtrak is responsible for its share, if any, of the costs of accessibility improvements required by the Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990 [42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq.] at any station jointly used by Amtrak and a commuter authority.

"(2) Certain requirements not to apply until 1998.—Amtrak shall not be subject to any requirement under subsection (a)(1), (a)(3), or (e)(2) of section 242 of the Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12162) until January 1, 1998."

§24308. Use of facilities and providing services to Amtrak

(a) General Authority.—(1) Amtrak may make an agreement with a rail carrier or regional transportation authority to use facilities of, and have services provided by, the carrier or authority under terms on which the parties agree. The terms shall include a penalty for untimely performance.

(2)(A) If the parties cannot agree and if the Surface Transportation Board finds it necessary to carry out this part, the Board shall—

(i) order that the facilities be made available and the services provided to Amtrak; and

(ii) prescribe reasonable terms and compensation for using the facilities and providing the services.


(B) When prescribing reasonable compensation under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, the Board shall consider quality of service as a major factor when determining whether, and the extent to which, the amount of compensation shall be greater than the incremental costs of using the facilities and providing the services.

(C) The Board shall decide the dispute not later than 90 days after Amtrak submits the dispute to the Board.

(3) Amtrak's right to use the facilities or have the services provided is conditioned on payment of the compensation. If the compensation is not paid promptly, the rail carrier or authority entitled to it may bring an action against Amtrak to recover the amount owed.

(4) Amtrak shall seek immediate and appropriate legal remedies to enforce its contract rights when track maintenance on a route over which Amtrak operates falls below the contractual standard.

(b) Operating During Emergencies.—To facilitate operation by Amtrak during an emergency, the Board, on application by Amtrak, shall require a rail carrier to provide facilities immediately during the emergency. The Board then shall promptly prescribe reasonable terms, including indemnification of the carrier by Amtrak against personal injury risk to which the carrier may be exposed. The rail carrier shall provide the facilities for the duration of the emergency.

(c) Preference Over Freight Transportation.—Except in an emergency, intercity and commuter rail passenger transportation provided by or for Amtrak has preference over freight transportation in using a rail line, junction, or crossing unless the Board orders otherwise under this subsection. A rail carrier affected by this subsection may apply to the Board for relief. If the Board, after an opportunity for a hearing under section 553 of title 5, decides that preference for intercity and commuter rail passenger transportation materially will lessen the quality of freight transportation provided to shippers, the Board shall establish the rights of the carrier and Amtrak on reasonable terms.

(d) Accelerated Speeds.—If a rail carrier refuses to allow accelerated speeds on trains operated by or for Amtrak, Amtrak may apply to the Board for an order requiring the carrier to allow the accelerated speeds. The Board shall decide whether accelerated speeds are unsafe or impracticable and which improvements would be required to make accelerated speeds safe and practicable. After an opportunity for a hearing, the Board shall establish the maximum allowable speeds of Amtrak trains on terms the Board decides are reasonable.

(e) Additional Trains.—(1) When a rail carrier does not agree to provide, or allow Amtrak to provide, for the operation of additional trains over a rail line of the carrier, Amtrak may apply to the Board for an order requiring the carrier to provide or allow for the operation of the requested trains. After a hearing on the record, the Board may order the carrier, within 60 days, to provide or allow for the operation of the requested trains on a schedule based on legally permissible operating times. However, if the Board decides not to hold a hearing, the Board, not later than 30 days after receiving the application, shall publish in the Federal Register the reasons for the decision not to hold the hearing.

(2) The Board shall consider—

(A) when conducting a hearing, whether an order would impair unreasonably freight transportation of the rail carrier, with the carrier having the burden of demonstrating that the additional trains will impair the freight transportation; and

(B) when establishing scheduled running times, the statutory goal of Amtrak to implement schedules that attain a system-wide average speed of at least 60 miles an hour that can be adhered to with a high degree of reliability and passenger comfort.


(3) Unless the parties have an agreement that establishes the compensation Amtrak will pay the carrier for additional trains provided under an order under this subsection, the Board shall decide the dispute under subsection (a) of this section.

(f) Passenger Train Performance and Other Standards.—

(1) Investigation of substandard performance.—If the on-time performance of any intercity passenger train averages less than 80 percent for any 2 consecutive calendar quarters, or the service quality of intercity passenger train operations for which minimum standards are established under section 207 of the Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of 2008 fails to meet those standards for 2 consecutive calendar quarters, the Surface Transportation Board (referred to in this section as the "Board") may initiate an investigation, or upon the filing of a complaint by Amtrak, an intercity passenger rail operator, a host freight railroad over which Amtrak operates, or an entity for which Amtrak operates intercity passenger rail service, the Board shall initiate such an investigation, to determine whether and to what extent delays or failure to achieve minimum standards are due to causes that could reasonably be addressed by a rail carrier over whose tracks the intercity passenger train operates or reasonably addressed by Amtrak or other intercity passenger rail operators. As part of its investigation, the Board has authority to review the accuracy of the train performance data and the extent to which scheduling and congestion contribute to delays. In making its determination or carrying out such an investigation, the Board shall obtain information from all parties involved and identify reasonable measures and make recommendations to improve the service, quality, and on-time performance of the train.

(2) Problems caused by host rail carrier.—If the Board determines that delays or failures to achieve minimum standards investigated under paragraph (1) are attributable to a rail carrier's failure to provide preference to Amtrak over freight transportation as required under subsection (c), the Board may award damages against the host rail carrier, including prescribing such other relief to Amtrak as it determines to be reasonable and appropriate pursuant to paragraph (3) of this subsection.

(3) Damages and relief.—In awarding damages and prescribing other relief under this subsection the Board shall consider such factors as—

(A) the extent to which Amtrak suffers financial loss as a result of host rail carrier delays or failure to achieve minimum standards; and

(B) what reasonable measures would adequately deter future actions which may reasonably be expected to be likely to result in delays to Amtrak on the route involved.


(4) Use of damages.—The Board shall, as it deems appropriate, order the host rail carrier to remit the damages awarded under this subsection to Amtrak or to an entity for which Amtrak operates intercity passenger rail service. Such damages shall be used for capital or operating expenditures on the routes over which delays or failures to achieve minimum standards were the result of a rail carrier's failure to provide preference to Amtrak over freight transportation as determined in accordance with paragraph (2).

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 911; 110–432, div. B, title II, §213(a), (d), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4925, 4926.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
24308(a)(1)– (3) 45:562(a)(1). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, §402(a)(1), 84 Stat. 1335; June 22, 1972, Pub. L. 92–316, §5(1), 86 Stat. 229; Nov. 3, 1973, Pub. L. 93–146, §10(1), 87 Stat. 552; Oct. 5, 1978, Pub. L. 95–421, §15, 92 Stat. 929; Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–35, §1181, 95 Stat. 693; Apr. 7, 1986, Pub. L. 99–272, §4017(b)(1), 100 Stat. 110.
24308(a)(4) 45:562 (note). July 11, 1987, Pub. L. 100–71 (last proviso under heading "Grants to the National Railroad Passenger Corporation"), 101 Stat. 447.
24308(b) 45:562(c). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, 84 Stat. 1327, §402(c); added June 22, 1972, Pub. L. 92–316, §5(2), 86 Stat. 229.
24308(c) 45:562(e). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, 84 Stat. 1327, §402(e); added Nov. 3, 1973, Pub. L. 93–146, §10(2), 87 Stat. 552; Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–35, §1188(c), 95 Stat. 699.
24308(d) 45:562(f). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, 84 Stat. 1327, §402(f); added Nov. 3, 1973, Pub. L. 93–146, §10(2), 87 Stat. 552.
24308(e) 45:562(g). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, 84 Stat. 1327, §402(g); added May 30, 1980, Pub. L. 96–254, §216, 94 Stat. 418; Apr. 7, 1986, Pub. L. 99–272, §4006(2), 100 Stat. 107.

In subsection (a)(1), the word "authority" is substituted for "agencies" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The words "tracks and other" are omitted as surplus. The words "of . . . by, the carrier or authority" are added for clarity. The words "and conditions" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (a)(2)(A), before clause (i), the words "the purposes of" are omitted as surplus. In clause (ii), the words "just and" are omitted as surplus.

Subsection (a)(2)(B) is substituted for 45:562(a)(1) (3d sentence) to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (a)(2)(C), the words "shall decide the dispute" are added, and the words "submits the dispute" are substituted for "application", for clarity.

In subsection (a)(3), the words "Amtrak's right to use the facilities or have the services provided is conditioned on payment of the compensation" are substituted for "and the rights of the Corporation to such services or to the use of tracks or facilities of the railroad or agency under such order . . . shall be conditioned upon payment by the Corporation of the compensation fixed by the Commission" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "or under an order issued under subsection (b) of this section" are omitted as obsolete because 45:562(b) is executed. The words "amount of", "fixed", "duly and", and "properly" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (a)(4), the words "notwithstanding any other provision of law", "hereafter", and "becomes inadequate or otherwise" are omitted as surplus.

In subsections (b)–(d), the words "just and" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the words "as may be deemed by it to be necessary", "tracks and other", and "proceed to" are omitted as surplus. The words "personal injury" are substituted for "casualty" for consistency.

In subsections (c) and (d), the words "an opportunity for a" are added for clarity and consistency.

In subsection (c), the word "given" is omitted as surplus. The words "rail line" are substituted for "line of track" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. The word "appropriate" is omitted as surplus. The words "the carrier" are substituted for "trains" for clarity and consistency. The words "and Amtrak" are added for clarity.

In subsection (d), the words "upon request of the Corporation" and "otherwise" are omitted as surplus. The words "which improvements would be required" are substituted for "and with respect to the nature and extent of improvements to track, signal systems, and other facilities that would be required" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (e)(1), the words "satisfactory, voluntary" are omitted as surplus. The words "provide, or allow Amtrak to provide" are added, and the words "Amtrak may apply to the Secretary for an order requiring the carrier to provide or allow for the operation of the requested trains" are substituted for "Upon receipt of an application from the Corporation", for clarity.

In subsection (e)(2)(A), the words "involved" and "seeking to oppose the operation of an additional train" are omitted as surplus. The words "when conducting a hearing" are added for clarity.

In subsection (e)(2)(B), the word "proper" is omitted as surplus. The words "60 miles" are substituted for "55 miles" for consistency with 45:501a(8), restated in section 24101(c)(6) of the revised title. Section 1172(3) of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981 (Public Law 91–35, 95 Stat. 688) raised the speed from 55 to 60 in 45:501a but did not make a corresponding change in 45:562(g).

In subsection (e)(3), the words "Unless the parties have an agreement that establishes the compensation Amtrak will pay the carrier for additional trains provided under an order under this subsection" are substituted for 45:562(g) (last sentence words before last comma) to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "the dispute" are added for clarity and consistency in this section.

References in Text

Section 207 of the Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of 2008, referred to in subsec. (f)(1), is section 207 of Pub. L. 110–432, which is set out in a note under section 24101 of this title.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 110–432, §213(d)(2), substituted "Board" for "Commission" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 110–432, §213(d)(1), substituted "Surface Transportation Board" for "Interstate Commerce Commission" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 110–432, §213(d)(2), substituted "Board" for "Commission" in two places.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 110–432, §213(d)(3), (4), substituted "Board" for "Secretary of Transportation" after "unless the" and for "Secretary" in three places.

Subsecs. (d), (e)(1), (2). Pub. L. 110–432, §213(d)(4), substituted "Board" for "Secretary" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 110–432, §213(d)(2), substituted "Board" for "Commission".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 110–432, §213(a), added subsec. (f).

Fees

Pub. L. 110–432, div. B, title II, §213(b), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4926, provided that: "The Surface Transportation Board may establish and collect filing fees from any entity that files a complaint under section 24308(f)(1) of title 49, United States Code, or otherwise requests or requires the Board's services pursuant to this division [see Short Title of 2008 Amendment note set out under section 20101 of this title]. The Board shall establish such fees at levels that will fully or partially, as the Board determines to be appropriate, offset the costs of adjudicating complaints under that section and other requests or requirements for Board action under this division. The Board may waive any fee established under this subsection for any governmental entity as determined appropriate by the Board."

Special Passenger Trains

Pub. L. 110–432, div. B, title II, §216, Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4930, provided that: "Amtrak is encouraged to increase the operation of special trains funded by, or in partnership with, private sector operators through competitive contracting to minimize the need for Federal subsidies. Amtrak shall utilize the provisions of section 24308 of title 49, United States Code, when necessary to obtain access to facilities, train and engine crews, or services of a rail carrier or regional transportation authority that are required to operate such trains."

§24309. Retaining and maintaining facilities

(a) Definitions.—In this section—

(1) "facility" means a rail line, right of way, fixed equipment, facility, or real property related to a rail line, right of way, fixed equipment, or facility, including a signal system, passenger station and repair tracks, a station building, a platform, and a related facility, including a water, fuel, steam, electric, and air line.

(2) downgrading a facility means reducing a track classification as specified in the Federal Railroad Administration track safety standards or altering a facility so that the time required for rail passenger transportation to be provided over the route on which a facility is located may be increased.


(b) Approval Required for Downgrading or Disposal.—A facility of a rail carrier or regional transportation authority that Amtrak used to provide rail passenger transportation on February 1, 1979, or on January 1, 1997, may be downgraded or disposed of only after approval by the Secretary of Transportation under this section.

(c) Notification and Analysis.—(1) A rail carrier intending to downgrade or dispose of a facility Amtrak currently is not using to provide transportation shall notify Amtrak of its intention. If, not later than 60 days after Amtrak receives the notice, Amtrak and the carrier do not agree to retain or maintain the facility or to convey an interest in the facility to Amtrak, the carrier may apply to the Secretary for approval to downgrade or dispose of the facility.

(2) After a rail carrier notifies Amtrak of its intention to downgrade or dispose of a facility, Amtrak shall survey population centers with rail passenger transportation facilities to assist in preparing a valid and timely analysis of the need for the facility and shall update the survey as appropriate. Amtrak also shall maintain a system for collecting information gathered in the survey. The system shall collect the information based on geographic regions and on whether the facility would be part of a short haul or long haul route. The survey should facilitate an analysis of—

(A) ridership potential by ascertaining existing and changing travel patterns that would provide maximum efficient rail passenger transportation;

(B) the quality of transportation of competitors or likely competitors;

(C) the likelihood of Amtrak offering transportation at a competitive fare;

(D) opportunities to target advertising and fares to potential classes of riders;

(E) economic characteristics of rail passenger transportation related to the facility and the extent to which the characteristics are consistent with sound economic principles of short haul or long haul rail transportation; and

(F) the feasibility of applying effective internal cost controls to the facility and route served by the facility to improve the ratio of passenger revenue to transportation expenses (excluding maintenance of tracks, structures, and equipment and depreciation).


(d) Approval of Application and Payment of Avoidable Costs.—(1) If Amtrak does not object to an application not later than 30 days after it is submitted, the Secretary shall approve the application promptly.

(2) If Amtrak objects to an application, the Secretary shall decide by not later than 180 days after the objection those costs the rail carrier may avoid if it does not have to retain or maintain a facility in the condition Amtrak requests. If Amtrak does not agree by not later than 60 days after the decision to pay the carrier these avoidable costs, the Secretary shall approve the application. When deciding whether to pay a carrier the avoidable costs of retaining or maintaining a facility, Amtrak shall consider—

(A) the potential importance of restoring rail passenger transportation on the route on which the facility is located;

(B) the market potential of the route;

(C) the availability, adequacy, and energy efficiency of an alternate rail line or alternate mode of transportation to provide passenger transportation to or near the places that would be served by the route;

(D) the extent to which major population centers would be served by the route;

(E) the extent to which providing transportation over the route would encourage the expansion of an intercity rail passenger system in the United States; and

(F) the possibility of increased ridership on a rail line that connects with the route.


(e) Compliance With Other Obligations.—Downgrading or disposing of a facility under this section does not relieve a rail carrier from complying with its other common carrier or legal obligations related to the facility.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 913; Pub. L. 105–134, title I, §162, Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2578.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
24309(a) 45:566(e)(1), (2). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, 84 Stat. 1327, §406; added Sept. 29, 1979, Pub. L. 96–73, §121, 93 Stat. 548.
24309(b) 45:566(a).
24309(c)(1) 45:566(b).
24309(c)(2) 45:566(d)(2).
24309(d)(1) 45:566(c)(1).
24309(d)(2) 45:566(c)(2), (d)(1).
24309(e) 45:566(e)(3).

In subsection (a)(1), the words "rail line" are substituted for "railroad tracks" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (b), the word "authority" is substituted for "agency" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. The words "obtaining the" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(1), the words "first" and "to take such action" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(2), before clause (A), the words "need for the" are added for clarity. The words "necessary or" are omitted as surplus. The words "Within 90 days after September 29, 1979" and 45:566(d)(2)(A)(i) are omitted as executed. The word "maintain" is substituted for "take steps to prepare" for clarity. The words "survey plan which shall provide for" and "compilation, and storage" are omitted as surplus. In clause (F), the words "over time" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d)(2), before clause (A), the word "timely" is omitted as surplus. In clause (F), the words "rail line" are substituted for "lines of railroad" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

In subsection (e), the words "approval of" are omitted as surplus.

Amendments

1997—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–134 inserted "or on January 1, 1997," after "1979,".

§24310. Management accountability

(a) In General.—Within 3 years after the date of enactment of the Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of 2008, and 2 years thereafter, the Inspector General of the Department of Transportation shall complete an overall assessment of the progress made by Amtrak management and the Department of Transportation in implementing the provisions of that Act.

(b) Assessment.—The management assessment undertaken by the Inspector General may include a review of—

(1) effectiveness in improving annual financial planning;

(2) effectiveness in implementing improved financial accounting;

(3) efforts to implement minimum train performance standards;

(4) progress maximizing revenues, minimizing Federal subsidies, and improving financial results; and

(5) any other aspect of Amtrak operations the Inspector General finds appropriate to review.

(Added Pub. L. 110–432, div. B, title II, §221(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4931.)

References in Text

The Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of 2008, referred to in subsec. (a), is div. B of Pub. L. 110–432, Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4907. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2008 Amendment note set out under section 20101 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 24310, Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 914, allowed petition or application for assistance in upgrading facilities to correct dangerous conditions or State and local violations, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–134, title IV, §403, Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2585.

§24311. Acquiring interests in property by eminent domain

(a) General Authority.—(1) To the extent financial resources are available, Amtrak may acquire by eminent domain under subsection (b) of this section interests in property—

(A) necessary for intercity rail passenger transportation, except property of a rail carrier, a State, a political subdivision of a State, or a governmental authority; or

(B) requested by the Secretary of Transportation in carrying out the Secretary's duty to design and build an intermodal transportation terminal at Union Station in the District of Columbia if the Secretary assures Amtrak that the Secretary will reimburse Amtrak.


(2) Amtrak may exercise the power of eminent domain only if it cannot—

(A) acquire the interest in the property by contract; or

(B) agree with the owner on the purchase price for the interest.


(b) Civil Actions.—(1) A civil action to acquire an interest in property by eminent domain under subsection (a) of this section must be brought in the district court of the United States for the judicial district in which the property is located or, if a single piece of property is located in more than one judicial district, in any judicial district in which any piece of the property is located. An interest is condemned and taken by Amtrak for its use when a declaration of taking is filed under this subsection and an amount of money estimated in the declaration to be just compensation for the interest is deposited in the court. The declaration may be filed with the complaint in the action or at any time before judgment. The declaration must contain or be accompanied by—

(A) a statement of the public use for which the interest is taken;

(B) a description of the property sufficient to identify it;

(C) a statement of the interest in the property taken;

(D) a plan showing the interest taken; and

(E) a statement of the amount of money Amtrak estimates is just compensation for the interest.


(2) When the declaration is filed and the deposit is made under paragraph (1) of this subsection, title to the property vests in Amtrak in fee simple absolute or in the lesser interest shown in the declaration, and the right to the money vests in the person entitled to the money. When the declaration is filed, the court may decide—

(A) the time by which, and the terms under which, possession of the property is given to Amtrak; and

(B) the disposition of outstanding charges related to the property.


(3) After a hearing, the court shall make a finding on the amount that is just compensation for the interest in the property and enter judgment awarding that amount and interest on it. The rate of interest is 6 percent a year and is computed on the amount of the award less the amount deposited in the court from the date of taking to the date of payment.

(4) On application of a party, the court may order immediate payment of any part of the amount deposited in the court for the compensation to be awarded. If the award is more than the amount received, the court shall enter judgment against Amtrak for the deficiency.

(c) Authority To Condemn Rail Carrier Property Interests.—(1) If Amtrak and a rail carrier cannot agree on a sale to Amtrak of an interest in property of a rail carrier necessary for intercity rail passenger transportation, Amtrak may apply to the Surface Transportation Board for an order establishing the need of Amtrak for the interest and requiring the carrier to convey the interest on reasonable terms, including just compensation. The need of Amtrak is deemed to be established, and the Board, after holding an expedited proceeding and not later than 120 days after receiving the application, shall order the interest conveyed unless the Board decides that—

(A) conveyance would impair significantly the ability of the carrier to carry out its obligations as a common carrier; and

(B) the obligations of Amtrak to provide modern, efficient, and economical rail passenger transportation can be met adequately by acquiring an interest in other property, either by sale or by exercising its right of eminent domain under subsection (a) of this section.


(2) If the amount of compensation is not determined by the date of the Board's order, the order shall require, as part of the compensation, interest at 6 percent a year from the date prescribed for the conveyance until the compensation is paid.

(3) Amtrak subsequently may reconvey to a third party an interest conveyed to Amtrak under this subsection or prior comparable provision of law if the Board decides that the reconveyance will carry out the purposes of this part, regardless of when the proceeding was brought (including a proceeding pending before a United States court on November 28, 1990).

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 915; Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title II, §32932(c)(2), July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 829.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
24311(a) 45:545(d)(1) (less words between 11th comma and proviso). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, 84 Stat. 1327, §305(d)(1); added Nov. 3, 1973, Pub. L. 93–146, §6, 87 Stat. 550; restated Oct. 28, 1974, Pub. L. 93–496, §6, 88 Stat. 1528; Feb. 5, 1976, Pub. L. 94–210, §706(g), 90 Stat. 125; May 30, 1980, Pub. L. 96–254, §206(a), 94 Stat. 412.
24311(b)(1) 45:545(d)(1) (words between 11th comma and proviso).
  45:545(d)(2), (3) (1st sentence). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, 84 Stat. 1327, §305(d)(2)–(5); added Nov. 3, 1973, Pub. L. 93–146, §6, 87 Stat. 550.
24311(b)(2) 45:545(d)(3) (2d sentence), (5).
24311(b)(3) 45:545(d)(3) (3d, last sentences).
24311(b)(4) 45:545(d)(4).
24311(c) 45:562(d). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, 84 Stat. 1327, §402(d); added Nov. 3, 1973, Pub. L. 93–146, §10(2), 87 Stat. 552; Feb. 5, 1976, Pub. L. 94–210, §706(h), 90 Stat. 125; May 30, 1980, Pub. L. 96–254, §206(a), 94 Stat. 412; Nov. 28, 1990, Pub. L. 101–641, §9(a), 104 Stat. 4658.
  45:562 (note). Nov. 28, 1990, Pub. L. 101–641, §9(b), 104 Stat. 4658.

In subsection (a)(1), before clause (A), the words "the exercise of the right of" and "right-of-way, land, or other" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(1) and (2), the words "estate or" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(1), before clause (A), the words "A civil action to acquire an interest in property by eminent domain under subsection (a) of this section must be brought" are added, the words "any judicial district in which any piece of the property is located" are substituted for "any such court", and the words "under this subsection" are added, for clarity.

In subsection (b)(2), before clause (A), the words "When the declaration is filed and the deposit is made under paragraph (1) of this subsection" are substituted for "shall thereupon" for clarity. The word "immediately" is omitted as surplus. In clause (A), the words "possession of the property is given to Amtrak" are substituted for "the parties in possession are required to surrender possession to the Corporation" to eliminate unnecessary words. Clause (B) is substituted for 45:545(d)(5) (last sentence) to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (b)(3), the words "of money" are omitted as surplus. The words "awarding that amount and interest on it" are substituted for "make an award and . . . accordingly. Such judgment shall include, as part of the just compensation awarded, interest" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "of interest" are added for clarity. The words "finally . . . as the value of the property on the date of taking" and "on such date" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(4), the word "award" is substituted for "compensation finally awarded" for consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "of the money . . . by any person entitled to compensation" and "amount of the" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(1), before clause (A), the words "terms for", "at issue", "to the Corporation", "and conditions", "for the property", "in any event", "from the Corporation", and "to the Corporation on such reasonable terms and conditions as it may prescribe, including just compensation" are omitted as surplus. In clause (A), the words "of the property to the Corporation" are omitted as surplus. In clause (B), the words "either by sale or by exercising its right of eminent domain under subsection (a) of this section" are substituted for "which is available for sale on reasonable terms to the Corporation, or available to the Corporation by the exercise of its authority under section 545(d) of this title" for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (c)(3), the words "reconvey . . . an interest conveyed to Amtrak under this subsection or prior comparable provision of law" are substituted for "convey title or other interest in such property" for consistency in the revised title and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "regardless of when the proceeding was brought" are substituted for section 9(b) (less words in parentheses) of the Independent Safety Board Act Amendments of 1990 (Public Law 101–641, 104 Stat. 4658) to eliminate unnecessary words.

Amendments

2012—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 112–141, §32932(c)(2)(B), substituted "Board" for "Commission" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 112–141, §32932(c)(2)(A), substituted "Surface Transportation Board" for "Interstate Commerce Commission".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 112–141, §32932(c)(2)(C), substituted "Board's" for "Commission's".

Effective Date of 2012 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–141 effective Oct. 1, 2012, see section 3(a) of Pub. L. 112–141, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment note under section 101 of Title 23, Highways.

§24312. Labor standards

(a) Prevailing Wages and Health and Safety Standards.—Amtrak shall ensure that laborers and mechanics employed by contractors and subcontractors in construction work financed under an agreement made under section 24308(a) of this title will be paid wages not less than those prevailing on similar construction in the locality, as determined by the Secretary of Labor under sections 3141–3144, 3146, and 3147 of title 40. Amtrak may make such an agreement only after being assured that required labor standards will be maintained on the construction work. Health and safety standards prescribed by the Secretary under section 3704 of title 40 apply to all construction work performed under such an agreement, except for construction work performed by a rail carrier.

(b) Wage Rates.—Wage rates in a collective bargaining agreement negotiated under the Railway Labor Act (45 U.S.C. 151 et seq.) are deemed to comply with sections 3141–3144, 3146, and 3147 of title 40.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 916; Pub. L. 105–134, title I, §§101(f), 105(c), 121(a), Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2572–2574; Pub. L. 107–217, §3(n)(4), Aug. 21, 2002, 116 Stat. 1302.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
24312(a) 45:565(d). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, §405(d), 84 Stat. 1337.
24312(b) 45:565(e). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, §405(e), 84 Stat. 1337; Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–35, §1177(b), 95 Stat. 692.

In subsection (a)(1), the words "take such action as may be necessary to", "the performance of", "with the assistance of funds received", "contract or", "at rates", and "adequate" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (a)(2), the words "provided for" and "and pursuant to" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(1), the words "Except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection" are omitted as surplus.

References in Text

The Railway Labor Act, referred to in subsec. (b), is act May 20, 1926, ch. 347, 44 Stat. 577, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 8 (§151 et seq.) of Title 45, Railroads. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 151 of Title 45 and Tables.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–217, §3(n)(4)(A), substituted "sections 3141–3144, 3146, and 3147 of title 40" for "the Act of March 3, 1931 (known as the Davis-Bacon Act) (40 U.S.C. 276a—276a–5)" and "section 3704 of title 40" for "section 107 of the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act (40 U.S.C. 333)".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–217, §3(n)(4)(B), substituted "sections 3141–3144, 3146, and 3147 of title 40" for "the Act of March 3, 1931 (known as the Davis-Bacon Act) (40 U.S.C. 276a—276a–5)".

1997—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 105–134, §121(a)(2), redesignated par. (1) as subsec. (a).

Pub. L. 105–134, §§101(f), 105(c), struck out ", 24701(a), or 24704(b)(2)" after "24308(a)".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 105–134, §121(a)(3), redesignated par. (2) as subsec. (b).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–134, §121(a)(1), (3), redesignated subsec. (a)(2) as (b), inserted heading, and struck out former subsec. (b), which read as follows:

"(b) Contracting Out.—(1) Amtrak may not contract out work normally performed by an employee in a bargaining unit covered by a contract between a labor organization and Amtrak or a rail carrier that provided intercity rail passenger transportation on October 30, 1970, if contracting out results in the layoff of an employee in the bargaining unit.

"(2) This subsection does not apply to food and beverage services provided on trains of Amtrak."

Contracting Out

Pub. L. 105–134, title I, §121(b)–(d), Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2574, 2575, provided that:

"(b) Amendment of Existing Collective Bargaining Agreement.—

"(1) Contracting out.—Any collective bargaining agreement entered into between Amtrak and an organization representing Amtrak employees before the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 2, 1997] is deemed amended to include the language of section 24312(b) of title 49, United States Code, as that section existed on the day before the effective date [Dec. 2, 1997] of the amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section].

"(2) Enforceability of amendment.—The amendment to any such collective bargaining agreement deemed to be made by paragraph (1) of this subsection is binding on all parties to the agreement and has the same effect as if arrived at by agreement of the parties under the Railway Labor Act [45 U.S.C. 151 et seq.].

"(c) Contracting-out Issues To Be Included in Negotiations.—Proposals on the subject matter of contracting out work, other than work related to food and beverage service, which results in the layoff of an Amtrak employee—

"(1) shall be included in negotiations under section 6 of the Railway Labor Act (45 U.S.C. 156) between Amtrak and an organization representing Amtrak employees, which shall be commenced by—

"(A) the date on which labor agreements under negotiation on the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 2, 1997] may be re-opened; or

"(B) November 1, 1999,

whichever is earlier;

"(2) may, at the mutual election of Amtrak and an organization representing Amtrak employees, be included in any negotiation in progress under section 6 of the Railway Labor Act (45 U.S.C. 156) on the date of enactment of this Act; and

"(3) may not be included in any negotiation in progress under section 6 of the Railway Labor Act (45 U.S.C. 156) on the date of enactment of this Act, unless both Amtrak and the organization representing Amtrak employees agree to include it in the negotiation.

No contract between Amtrak and an organization representing Amtrak employees, that is under negotiation on the date of enactment of this Act, may contain a moratorium that extends more than 5 years from the date of expiration of the last moratorium.

"(d) No Inference.—The amendment made by subsection (a)(1) [amending this section] is without prejudice to the power of Amtrak to contract out the provision of food and beverage services on board Amtrak trains or to contract out work not resulting in the layoff of Amtrak employees."

§24313. Rail safety system program

In consultation with rail labor organizations, Amtrak shall maintain a rail safety system program for employees working on property owned by Amtrak. The program shall be a model for other rail carriers to use in developing safety programs. The program shall include—

(1) periodic analyses of accident information, including primary and secondary causes;

(2) periodic evaluations of the activities of the program, particularly specific steps taken in response to an accident;

(3) periodic reports on amounts spent for occupational health and safety activities of the program;

(4) periodic reports on reduced costs and personal injuries because of accident prevention activities of the program;

(5) periodic reports on direct accident costs, including claims related to accidents; and

(6) reports and evaluations of other information Amtrak considers appropriate.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 917.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
24313 45:646. Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, 84 Stat. 1327, §807; added Oct. 5, 1978, Pub. L. 95–421, §13, 92 Stat. 929.

In this section, before clause (1), the words "No later than January 1, 1979" are omitted as executed. The word "maintain" is substituted for "develop and implement" for clarity. The words "designed to serve as" and "required under this section" are omitted as surplus. In clause (1), the words "if known" are omitted as surplus. In clause (2), the words "undertaken" and "causes" are omitted as surplus. In clauses (3)–(6), the word "reports" is substituted for "identification" for clarity. In clause (3), the word "included" is omitted as surplus. In clause (4), the words "personal injuries" are substituted for "fatalities, and casualties" for consistency in the revised title. The word "activities" is added for clarity. In clause (6), the words "or data" and "necessary or" are omitted as surplus.

[§24314. Repealed. Pub. L. 105–134, title IV, §404, Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2586]

Section, Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 917; Pub. L. 104–287, §5(48), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3393, related to Amtrak developing plan for demonstrating new technology that may increase train speed in intercity rail passenger system.

§24315. Reports and audits

(a) Amtrak Annual Operations Report.—Not later than February 15 of each year, Amtrak shall submit to Congress a report that—

(1) for each route on which Amtrak provided intercity rail passenger transportation during the prior fiscal year, includes information on—

(A) ridership;

(B) passenger-miles;

(C) the short-term avoidable profit or loss for each passenger-mile;

(D) the revenue-to-cost ratio;

(E) revenues;

(F) the United States Government subsidy;

(G) the subsidy not provided by the United States Government; and

(H) on-time performance;


(2) provides relevant information about a decision to pay an officer of Amtrak more than the rate for level I of the Executive Schedule under section 5312 of title 5; and

(3) specifies—

(A) significant operational problems Amtrak identifies; and

(B) proposals by Amtrak to solve those problems.


(b) Amtrak General and Legislative Annual Report.—(1) Not later than February 15 of each year, Amtrak shall submit to the President and Congress a complete report of its operations, activities, and accomplishments, including a statement of revenues and expenditures for the prior fiscal year. The report—

(A) shall include a discussion and accounting of Amtrak's success in meeting the goal of section 24902(b) 1 of this title; and

(B) may include recommendations for legislation, including the amount of financial assistance needed for operations and capital improvements, the method of computing the assistance, and the sources of the assistance.


(2) Amtrak may submit reports to the President and Congress at other times Amtrak considers desirable.

(c) Secretary's Report on Effectiveness of This Part.—The Secretary of Transportation shall prepare a report on the effectiveness of this part in meeting the requirements for a balanced transportation system in the United States. The report may include recommendations for legislation. The Secretary shall include this report as part of the annual report the Secretary submits under section 308(a) of this title.

(d) Independent Audits.—An independent certified public accountant shall audit the financial statements of Amtrak each year. The audit shall be carried out at the place at which the financial statements normally are kept and under generally accepted auditing standards. A report of the audit shall be included in the report required by subsection (a) of this section.

(e) Comptroller General Audits.—The Comptroller General may conduct performance audits of the activities and transactions of Amtrak. Each audit shall be conducted at the place at which the Comptroller General decides and under generally accepted management principles. The Comptroller General may prescribe regulations governing the audit.

(f) Availability of Records and Property of Amtrak and Rail Carriers.—Amtrak and, if required by the Comptroller General, a rail carrier with which Amtrak has made a contract for intercity rail passenger transportation shall make available for an audit under subsection (d) or (e) of this section all records and property of, or used by, Amtrak or the carrier that are necessary for the audit. Amtrak and the carrier shall provide facilities for verifying transactions with the balances or securities held by depositories, fiscal agents, and custodians. Amtrak and the carrier may keep all reports and property.

(g) Comptroller General's Report to Congress.—The Comptroller General shall submit to Congress a report on each audit, giving comments and information necessary to inform Congress on the financial operations and condition of Amtrak and recommendations related to those operations and conditions. The report also shall specify any financial transaction or undertaking the Comptroller General considers is carried out without authority of law. When the Comptroller General submits a report to Congress, the Comptroller General shall submit a copy of it to the President, the Secretary, and Amtrak at the same time.

(h) Access to Records and Accounts.—A State shall have access to Amtrak's records, accounts, and other necessary documents used to determine the amount of any payment to Amtrak required of the State.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 918; Pub. L. 105–134, title II, §206, Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2584.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
24315(a) 45:548(a). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, §308(a), 84 Stat. 1333; June 22, 1972, Pub. L. 92–316, §4, 86 Stat. 228; Sept. 29, 1979, Pub. L. 96–73, §113, 93 Stat. 542; Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–35, §1180(a), 95 Stat. 693; restated Apr. 7, 1986, Pub. L. 99–272, §4005, 100 Stat. 107; June 22, 1988, Pub. L. 100–342, §18(d), 102 Stat. 637.
24315(b) 45:548(b). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, §308(b), 84 Stat. 1333; restated June 22, 1972, Pub. L. 92–316, §4, 86 Stat. 229; Nov. 3, 1973, Pub. L. 93–146, §8, 87 Stat. 551; May 26, 1975, Pub. L. 94–25, §4(a), 89 Stat. 90.
  45:851(d)(2). Feb. 5, 1976, Pub. L. 94–210, 90 Stat. 31, §701(d)(2); added May 30, 1980, Pub. L. 96–254, §205, 94 Stat. 412.
24315(c) 45:548(c). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, §308(c), 84 Stat. 1333; restated June 22, 1972, Pub. L. 92–316, §4, 86 Stat. 229; May 26, 1975, Pub. L. 94–25, §4(b), 89 Stat. 90; Aug. 13, 1981, Pub. L. 97–35, §1180(b), 95 Stat. 693.
24315(d) 45:644(1)(A) (1st, 2d sentences), (B). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, §805(1), 84 Stat. 1340.
24315(e) 45:644(2)(A) (1st, 2d sentences). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, §805(2)(A), 84 Stat. 1340; Oct. 28, 1974, Pub. L. 93–496, §11, 88 Stat. 1531; Apr. 7, 1986, Pub. L. 99–272, §4007(a), 100 Stat. 108.
24315(f) 45:644(1)(A) (last sentence), (2)(A) (3d, last sentences).
  45:644(2)(B). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, 84 Stat. 1327, §805(2)(B); added June 22, 1972, Pub. L. 92–316, §11(2), 86 Stat. 233; Apr. 7, 1986, Pub. L. 99–272, §4007(a)(2), 100 Stat. 108.
24315(g) 45:644(2)(C). Oct. 30, 1970, Pub. L. 91–518, §805(2)(C), 84 Stat. 1340; June 22, 1972, Pub. L. 92–316, §11(2), 86 Stat. 233.

In subsection (a)(2), the words "to . . . compensation" and "prescribed" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(1), before clause (A), the words "(beginning with 1973)" are omitted as executed. The word "complete" is substituted for "comprehensive and detailed" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "under this chapter" are omitted as surplus. The word "revenues" is substituted for "receipts" for consistency. In clause (B), the words "may include recommendations for legislation" are substituted for "At the time of its annual report, the Corporation shall submit such legislative recommendations as it deems desirable", the words "the method of computing the assistance" are substituted for "the manner and form in which the amount of such assistance should be computed", and the words "of the assistance" are substituted for "from which such assistance should be derived", to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (c), the words "(beginning with 1974)" are omitted as executed. The word "prepare" is substituted for "transmit to the President and to the Congress by March 15 of each year" for clarity because the report is now part of the annual report under 49:308(a). The words "Beginning in 1976" are omitted as executed. The word "Secretary" is substituted for "Department of Transportation" because of 49:102(b). The words "submits under section 308(a) of this title" are substituted for "to the Congress" for clarity.

In subsection (d), the words "independent licensed public accountants certified or licensed by a regulatory authority of a State or other political subdivision of the United States" are omitted as obsolete because only certified public accountants are used for the audit. Only noncertified public accountants licensed before December 30, 1970, who were already conducting audits were allowed to continue. The words "or places" are omitted because of 1:1. The words "financial statements" are substituted for "accounts" because audits are performed on financial statements, not accounts. The words "independent" and "annual" are omitted as surplus. The text of 45:644(1)(B) (last sentence) is omitted as surplus because those requirements are included in "generally accepted auditing standards".

In subsection (e), the word "rules" is omitted as being synonymous with "regulations". The words "or places" are omitted because of 1:1. The word "appropriate" is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (f), the words "if required" are substituted for "To the extent . . . deems necessary" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "the person conducting", "The representatives of the Comptroller General", "his representatives", "as he may make of the financial transactions of the Corporation", "things, or", and "full" are omitted as surplus. The words "may keep" are substituted for "shall remain in possession and custody of" and "shall remain in the possession and custody of" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (g), the word "giving" is substituted for "The report to the Congress shall contain such" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "as the Comptroller General may deem", "as he may deem advisable", "program, expenditure or other", "observed in the course of the audit", and "or made" are omitted as surplus.

References in Text

Section 24902(b) of this title, referred to in subsec. (b)(1)(A), was redesignated section 24902(a) and section 24902(e) was redesignated section 24902(b) by Pub. L. 105–134, title IV, §405(b)(1)(A), Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2586.

Amendments

1997—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 105–134 added subsec. (h).

Termination of Reporting Requirements

For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of provisions in subsecs. (a), (b)(1), (c), and (d) of this section relating to requirements to submit regular periodic reports to Congress, see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance. See, also, the 3rd item on page 176 and the 6th and 7th items on page 204 of House Document No. 103–7.

Funding for Valuation of Amtrak's Assets

Pub. L. 108–447, div. H, title I, Dec. 8, 2004, 118 Stat. 3221, provided in part: "That the Secretary of Transportation is authorized to retain up to $4,000,000 of the funds provided to be used to retain a consultant or consultants to assist the Secretary in preparing a comprehensive valuation of Amtrak's assets to be completed not later than September 30, 2005: Provided further, That these funds shall be available to the Secretary of Transportation until expended: Provided further, That this valuation shall to be used to retain a consultant or consultants to develop to the Secretary's satisfaction a methodology for determining the avoidable and fully allocated costs of each Amtrak route: Provided further, That once the Secretary has approved the methodology for determining the avoidable and fully allocated costs of each Amtrak route, Amtrak shall apply that methodology in compiling an annual report to Congress on the avoidable and fully allocated costs of each of its routes, with the initial report for fiscal year 2005 to be submitted to the House and Senate Committees on Appropriations, the House Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, and the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation before December 31, 2005, and each subsequent report to be submitted within 90 days after the end of the fiscal year to which the report pertains."

Reports on Operating Losses

Pub. L. 108–7, div. I, title III, §350, Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. 419, provided that: "On February 15, 2003, and on each year thereafter, the National Railroad Passenger Corporation shall submit to the appropriate Congressional Committees a report detailing the per passenger operating loss on each rail line."

Amtrak To Notify Congress of Lobbying Relationships

Pub. L. 105–134, title IV, §414, Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2589, provided that: "If, at any time, during a fiscal year in which Amtrak receives Federal assistance, Amtrak enters into a consulting contract or similar arrangement, or a contract for lobbying, with a lobbying firm, an individual who is a lobbyist, or who is affiliated with a lobbying firm, as those terms are defined in section 3 of the Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995 (2 U.S.C. 1602), Amtrak shall notify the United States Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, and the United States House of Representatives Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of—

"(1) the name of the individual or firm involved;

"(2) the purpose of the contract or arrangement; and

"(3) the amount and nature of Amtrak's financial obligation under the contract.

This section applies only to contracts, renewals or extensions of contracts, or arrangements entered into after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 2, 1997]."

1 See References in Text note below.

§24316. Plans to address needs of families of passengers involved in rail passenger accidents

(a) Submission of Plan.—Not later than 6 months after the date of the enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, a rail passenger carrier shall submit to the Chairman of the National Transportation Safety Board, the Secretary of Transportation, and the Secretary of Homeland Security a plan for addressing the needs of the families of passengers involved in any rail passenger accident involving a rail passenger carrier intercity train and resulting in a major loss of life.

(b) Contents of Plans.—A plan to be submitted by a rail passenger carrier under subsection (a) shall include, at a minimum, the following:

(1) A process by which a rail passenger carrier will maintain and provide to the National Transportation Safety Board, the Secretary of Transportation, and the Secretary of Homeland Security immediately upon request, a list (which is based on the best available information at the time of the request) of the names of the passengers aboard the train (whether or not such names have been verified), and will periodically update the list. The plan shall include a procedure, with respect to unreserved trains and passengers not holding reservations on other trains, for the rail passenger carrier to use reasonable efforts to ascertain the names of passengers aboard a train involved in an accident.

(2) A process for notifying the families of the passengers, before providing any public notice of the names of the passengers, either by utilizing the services of the organization designated for the accident under section 1139(a)(2) of this title or the services of other suitably trained individuals.

(3) A plan for creating and publicizing a reliable, toll-free telephone number within 4 hours after such an accident occurs, and for providing staff, to handle calls from the families of the passengers.

(4) A process for providing the notice described in paragraph (2) to the family of a passenger as soon as the rail passenger carrier has verified that the passenger was aboard the train (whether or not the names of all of the passengers have been verified).

(5) An assurance that, upon request of the family of a passenger, the rail passenger carrier will inform the family of whether the passenger's name appeared on any preliminary passenger manifest for the train involved in the accident.

(6) A process by which the family of each passenger will be consulted about the disposition of all remains and personal effects of the passenger within the control of the rail passenger carrier and by which any possession of the passenger within the control of the rail passenger carrier (regardless of its condition)—

(A) will be retained by the rail passenger carrier for at least 18 months; and

(B) will be returned to the family unless the possession is needed for the accident investigation or any criminal investigation.


(7) A process by which the treatment of the families of nonrevenue passengers will be the same as the treatment of the families of revenue passengers.

(8) An assurance that the rail passenger carrier will provide adequate training to the employees and agents of the carrier to meet the needs of survivors and family members following an accident.

(9) An assurance that the family of each passenger or other person killed in the accident will be consulted about construction by the rail passenger carrier of any monument to the passengers, including any inscription on the monument.

(10) An assurance that the rail passenger carrier will work with any organization designated under section 1139(a)(2) of this title on an ongoing basis to ensure that families of passengers receive an appropriate level of services and assistance following each accident.

(11) An assurance that the rail passenger carrier will provide reasonable compensation to any organization designated under section 1139(a)(2) of this title for services provided by the organization.


(c) Use of Information.—Neither the National Transportation Safety Board, the Secretary of Transportation, the Secretary of Homeland Security, nor a rail passenger carrier may release to the public any personal information on a list obtained under subsection (b)(1), but may provide information on the list about a passenger to the passenger's family members to the extent that the Board or a rail passenger carrier considers appropriate.

(d) Limitation on Statutory Construction.—

(1) Rail passenger carriers.—Nothing in this section may be construed as limiting the actions that a rail passenger carrier may take, or the obligations that a rail passenger carrier may have, in providing assistance to the families of passengers involved in a rail passenger accident.

(2) Investigational authority of board and secretary.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to abridge the authority of the Board or the Secretary of Transportation to investigate the causes or circumstances of any rail accident, including the development of information regarding the nature of injuries sustained and the manner in which they were sustained, for the purpose of determining compliance with existing laws and regulations or identifying means of preventing similar injuries in the future.


(e) Limitation on Liability.—A rail passenger carrier shall not be liable for damages in any action brought in a Federal or State court arising out of the performance of the rail passenger carrier in preparing or providing a passenger list, or in providing information concerning a train reservation, pursuant to a plan submitted by the rail passenger carrier under subsection (b), unless such liability was caused by conduct of the rail passenger carrier which was grossly negligent or which constituted intentional misconduct.

(f) Definitions.—In this section, the terms "passenger" and "rail passenger accident" have the meaning given those terms by section 1139 of this title.

(g) Funding.—Out of funds appropriated pursuant to section 20117(a)(1)(A), there shall be made available to the Secretary of Transportation $500,000 for fiscal year 2010 to carry out this section. Amounts made available pursuant to this subsection shall remain available until expended.

(Added Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title V, §502(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4897.)

References in Text

The date of the enactment of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, referred to in subsec. (a), is the date of enactment of div. A of Pub. L. 110–432, which was approved Oct. 16, 2008.

§24317. Accounts

(a) Purpose.—The purpose of this section is to—

(1) promote the effective use and stewardship by Amtrak of Amtrak revenues, Federal, State, and third party investments, appropriations, grants and other forms of financial assistance, and other sources of funds; and

(2) enhance the transparency of the assignment of revenues and costs among Amtrak business lines while ensuring the health of the Northeast Corridor and National Network.


(b) Account Structure.—Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of the Passenger Rail Reform and Investment Act of 2015, the Secretary of Transportation, in consultation with Amtrak, shall define an account structure and improvements to accounting methodologies, as necessary, to support, at a minimum, the Northeast Corridor and the National Network.

(c) Financial Sources.—In defining the account structure and improvements to accounting methodologies required under subsection (b), the Secretary shall ensure, to the greatest extent practicable, that Amtrak assigns the following:

(1) For the Northeast Corridor account, all revenues, appropriations, grants and other forms of financial assistance, compensation, and other sources of funds associated with the Northeast Corridor, including—

(A) grant funds appropriated for the Northeast Corridor pursuant to section 11101(a) of the Passenger Rail Reform and Investment Act of 2015 or any subsequent Act;

(B) compensation received from commuter rail passenger transportation providers for such providers' share of capital and operating costs on the Northeast Corridor provided to Amtrak pursuant to section 24905(c); and

(C) any operating surplus of the Northeast Corridor, as allocated pursuant to section 24318.


(2) For the National Network account, all revenues, appropriations, grants and other forms of financial assistance, compensation, and other sources of funds associated with the National Network, including—

(A) grant funds appropriated for the National Network pursuant to section 11101(b) of the Passenger Rail Reform and Investment Act of 2015 or any subsequent Act;

(B) compensation received from States provided to Amtrak pursuant to section 209 of the Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of 2008 (42 U.S.C. 24101 note); 1 and

(C) any operating surplus of the National Network, as allocated pursuant to section 24318.


(d) Financial Uses.—In defining the account structure and improvements to accounting methodologies required under subsection (b), the Secretary shall ensure, to the greatest extent practicable, that amounts assigned to the Northeast Corridor and National Network accounts shall be used by Amtrak for the following:

(1) For the Northeast Corridor, all associated costs, including—

(A) operating activities;

(B) capital activities as described in section 24904(a)(2)(E);

(C) acquiring, rehabilitating, manufacturing, remanufacturing, overhauling, or improving equipment and associated facilities used for intercity rail passenger transportation by Northeast Corridor train services;

(D) payment of principal and interest on loans for capital projects described in this paragraph or for capital leases attributable to the Northeast Corridor;

(E) other capital projects on the Northeast Corridor, determined appropriate by the Secretary, and consistent with section 24905(c)(1)(A)(i); and

(F) if applicable, capital projects described in section 24904(b).


(2) For the National Network, all associated costs, including—

(A) operating activities;

(B) capital activities; and

(C) the payment of principal and interest on loans or capital leases attributable to the National Network.


(e) Implementation and Reporting.—

(1) In general.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of the Passenger Rail Reform and Investment Act of 2015, Amtrak, in consultation with the Secretary, shall implement any account structures and improvements defined under subsection (b) so that Amtrak is able to produce profit and loss statements for each of the business lines described in section 24320(b)(1) and, as appropriate, each of the asset categories described in section 24320(c)(1) that identify sources and uses of—

(A) revenues;

(B) appropriations; and

(C) transfers between business lines.


(2) Updated profit and loss statements.—Not later than 1 month after the implementation under paragraph (1), and monthly thereafter, Amtrak shall submit updated profit and loss statements for each of the business lines and asset categories to the Secretary.


(f) Account Management.—For the purposes of account management, Amtrak may transfer funds between the Northeast Corridor account and National Network account without prior notification and approval under subsection (g) if such transfers—

(1) do not materially impact Amtrak's ability to achieve its anticipated financial, capital, and operating performance goals for the fiscal year; and

(2) would not materially change any grant agreement entered into pursuant to section 24319(d), or other agreements made pursuant to applicable Federal law.


(g) Transfer Authority.—

(1) In general.—If Amtrak determines that a transfer between the accounts defined under subsection (b) does not meet the account management standards established under subsection (f), Amtrak may transfer funds between the Northeast Corridor and National Network accounts if—

(A) Amtrak notifies the Amtrak Board of Directors, including the Secretary, at least 10 days prior to the expected date of transfer; and

(B) solely for a transfer that will materially change a grant agreement, the Secretary approves.


(2) Report.—Not later than 5 days after the Amtrak Board of Directors receives notification from Amtrak under paragraph (1)(A), the Board shall transmit to the Secretary, the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate, a report that includes—

(A) the amount of the transfer; and

(B) a detailed explanation of the reason for the transfer, including—

(i) the effects on Amtrak services funded by the account from which the transfer is drawn, in comparison to a scenario in which no transfer was made; and

(ii) the effects on Amtrak services funded by the account receiving the transfer, in comparison to a scenario in which no transfer was made.


(3) Notifications.—Not later than 5 days after the date that Amtrak notifies the Amtrak Board of Directors of a transfer under paragraph (1) to or from an account, Amtrak shall transmit to the State-Supported Route Committee and Northeast Corridor Commission a letter that includes the information described under subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (2).


(h) Report.—Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of the Passenger Rail Reform and Investment Act of 2015, Amtrak shall submit to the Secretary a report assessing the account and reporting structure established under this section and providing any recommendations for further action. Not later than 180 days after the date of receipt of such report, the Secretary shall provide an assessment that supplements Amtrak's report and submit the Amtrak report with the supplemental assessment to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives.

(i) Definition of Northeast Corridor.—Notwithstanding section 24102, for purposes of this section, the term "Northeast Corridor" means the Northeast Corridor main line between Boston, Massachusetts, and the District of Columbia, and facilities and services used to operate and maintain that line.

(Added Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11201(a), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1625.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Passenger Rail Reform and Investment Act of 2015, referred to in subsecs. (b), (e)(1), and (h), is the date of enactment of title XI of div. A of Pub. L. 114–94, which was approved Dec. 4, 2015.

Section 11101 of the Passenger Rail Reform and Investment Act of 2015, referred to in subsec. (c)(1)(A), (2)(A), is section 11101 of title XI of div. A of Pub. L. 114–94, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1622, which is not classified to the Code.

Section 209 of the Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of 2008 (42 U.S.C. 24101 note), referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(B), probably means section 209 of div. B of Pub. L. 110–432, which is set out as a note under section 24101 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

1 See References in Text note below.

§24318. Costs and revenues

(a) Allocation.—Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of the Passenger Rail Reform and Investment Act of 2015, Amtrak shall establish and maintain internal controls to ensure Amtrak's costs, revenues, and other compensation are appropriately allocated to the Northeast Corridor, including train services or infrastructure, or the National Network, including proportional shares of common and fixed costs.

(b) Rule of Construction.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit the ability of Amtrak to enter into an agreement with 1 or more States to allocate operating and capital costs under section 209 of the Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of 2008 (49 U.S.C. 24101 note).

(c) Definition of Northeast Corridor.—Notwithstanding section 24102, for purposes of this section, the term "Northeast Corridor" means the Northeast Corridor main line between Boston, Massachusetts, and the District of Columbia, and facilities and services used to operate and maintain that line.

(Added Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11202(a), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1628.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Passenger Rail Reform and Investment Act of 2015, referred to in subsec. (a), is the date of enactment of title XI of div. A of Pub. L. 114–94, which was approved Dec. 4, 2015.

Section 209 of the Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of 2008, referred to in subsec. (b), is section 209 of div. B of Pub. L. 110–432, which is set out as a note under section 24101 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§24319. Grant process

(a) Procedures for Grant Requests.—Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of the Passenger Rail Reform and Investment Act of 2015, the Secretary of Transportation shall establish and transmit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives substantive and procedural requirements, including schedules, for grant requests under this section.

(b) Grant Requests.—Amtrak shall transmit to the Secretary grant requests for Federal funds appropriated to the Secretary of Transportation for the use of Amtrak.

(c) Contents.—A grant request under subsection (b) shall, as applicable—

(1) describe projected operating and capital costs for the upcoming fiscal year for Northeast Corridor activities, including train services and infrastructure, and National Network activities, including State-supported routes and long-distance routes, in comparison to prior fiscal year actual financial performance;

(2) describe the capital projects to be funded, with cost estimates and an estimated timetable for completion of the projects covered by the request; and

(3) assess Amtrak's financial condition.


(d) Review and Approval.—

(1) Thirty-day approval process.—

(A) In general.—Not later than 30 days after the date that Amtrak submits a grant request under this section, the Secretary of Transportation shall complete a review of the request and provide notice to Amtrak that—

(i) the request is approved; or

(ii) the request is disapproved, including the reason for the disapproval and an explanation of any incomplete or deficient items.


(B) Grant agreement.—If a grant request is approved, the Secretary shall enter into a grant agreement with Amtrak.


(2) Fifteen-day modification period.—Not later than 15 days after the date of a notice under paragraph (1)(A)(ii), Amtrak shall submit a modified request for the Secretary's review.

(3) Modified requests.—Not later than 15 days after the date that Amtrak submits a modified request under paragraph (2), the Secretary shall either approve the modified request, or, if the Secretary finds that the request is still incomplete or deficient, the Secretary shall identify in writing to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives the remaining deficiencies and recommend a process for resolving the outstanding portions of the request.


(e) Payments to Amtrak.—

(1) In general.—A grant agreement entered into under subsection (d) shall specify the operations, services, and other activities to be funded by the grant. The grant agreement shall include provisions, consistent with the requirements of this chapter, to measure Amtrak's performance and ensure accountability in delivering the operations, services, or activities to be funded by the grant.

(2) Schedule.—Except as provided in paragraph (3), in each fiscal year for which amounts are appropriated to the Secretary for the use of Amtrak, and for which the Secretary and Amtrak have entered into a grant agreement under subsection (d), the Secretary shall disburse grant funds to Amtrak on the following schedule:

(A) 50 percent on October 1.

(B) 25 percent on January 1.

(C) 25 percent on April 1.


(3) Exceptions.—The Secretary may make a payment to Amtrak of appropriated funds—

(A) more frequently than the schedule under paragraph (2) if Amtrak, for good cause, requests more frequent payment before the end of a payment period; or

(B) with a different frequency or in different percentage allocations in the event of a continuing resolution or in the absence of an appropriations Act for the duration of a fiscal year.


(f) Availability of Amounts and Early Appropriations.—Amounts appropriated to the Secretary for the use of Amtrak shall remain available until expended. Amounts for capital acquisitions and improvements may be appropriated for a fiscal year before the fiscal year in which the amounts will be obligated.

(g) Limitations on Use.—Amounts appropriated to the Secretary for the use of Amtrak may not be used to cross-subsidize operating losses or capital costs of commuter rail passenger or freight rail transportation.

(h) Definition of Northeast Corridor.—Notwithstanding section 24102, for purposes of this section, the term "Northeast Corridor" means the Northeast Corridor main line between Boston, Massachusetts, and the District of Columbia, and facilities and services used to operate and maintain that line.

(Added Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11202(a), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1628.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Passenger Rail Reform and Investment Act of 2015, referred to in subsec. (a), is the date of enactment of title XI of div. A of Pub. L. 114–94, which was approved Dec. 4, 2015.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§24320. Amtrak 5-year business line and asset plans

(a) In General.—

(1) Final plans.—Not later than February 15 of each year, Amtrak shall submit to Congress and the Secretary of Transportation final 5-year business line plans and 5-year asset plans prepared in accordance with this section. These final plans shall form the basis for Amtrak's general and legislative annual report to the President and Congress required by section 24315(b). Each plan shall cover a period of 5 fiscal years, beginning with the first fiscal year after the date on which the plan is completed.

(2) Fiscal constraint.—Each plan prepared under this section shall be based on funding levels authorized or otherwise available to Amtrak in a fiscal year. In the absence of an authorization or appropriation of funds for a fiscal year, the plans shall be based on the amount of funding available in the previous fiscal year, plus inflation. Amtrak may include an appendix to the asset plan required in subsection (c) that describes any funding needs in excess of amounts authorized or otherwise available to Amtrak in a fiscal year.


(b) Amtrak 5-Year Business Line Plans.—

(1) Amtrak business lines.—Amtrak shall prepare a 5-year business line plan for each of the following business lines and services:

(A) Northeast Corridor train services.

(B) State-supported routes operated by Amtrak.

(C) Long-distance routes operated by Amtrak.

(D) Ancillary services operated by Amtrak, including commuter operations and other revenue generating activities as determined by the Secretary in coordination with Amtrak.


(2) Contents of 5-year business line plans.—The 5-year business line plan for each business line shall include, at a minimum—

(A) a statement of Amtrak's objectives, goals, and service plan for the business line, in consultation with any entities that are contributing capital or operating funding to support passenger rail services within those business lines, and aligned with Amtrak's Strategic Plan and 5-year asset plans under subsection (c);

(B) all projected revenues and expenditures for the business line, including identification of revenues and expenditures incurred by—

(i) passenger operations;

(ii) non-passenger operations that are directly related to the business line; and

(iii) governmental funding sources, including revenues and other funding received from States;


(C) projected ridership levels for all passenger operations;

(D) estimates of long-term and short-term debt and associated principal and interest payments (both current and forecasts);

(E) annual profit and loss statements and forecasts and balance sheets;

(F) annual cash flow forecasts;

(G) a statement describing the methodologies and significant assumptions underlying estimates and forecasts;

(H) specific performance measures that demonstrate year over year changes in the results of Amtrak's operations;

(I) financial performance for each route within each business line, including descriptions of the cash operating loss or contribution and productivity for each route;

(J) specific costs and savings estimates resulting from reform initiatives;

(K) prior fiscal year and projected equipment reliability statistics; and

(L) an identification and explanation of any major adjustments made from previously-approved plans.


(3) 5-year business line plans process.—In meeting the requirements of this section, Amtrak shall—

(A) consult with the Secretary in the development of the business line plans;

(B) for the Northeast Corridor business line plan, consult with the Northeast Corridor Commission and transmit to the Commission the final plan under subsection (a)(1), and consult with other entities, as appropriate;

(C) for the State-supported route business line plan, consult with the State-Supported Route Committee established under section 24712;

(D) for the long-distance route business line plan, consult with any States or Interstate Compacts that provide funding for such routes, as appropriate;

(E) ensure that Amtrak's general and legislative annual report, required under section 24315(b), to the President and Congress is consistent with the information in the 5-year business line plans; and

(F) identify the appropriate Amtrak officials that are responsible for each business line.


(4) Definition of northeast corridor.—Notwithstanding section 24102, for purposes of this section, the term "Northeast Corridor" means the Northeast Corridor main line between Boston, Massachusetts, and the District of Columbia, and facilities and services used to operate and maintain that line.


(c) Amtrak 5-Year Asset Plans.—

(1) Asset categories.—Amtrak shall prepare a 5-year asset plan for each of the following asset categories:

(A) Infrastructure, including all Amtrak-controlled Northeast Corridor assets and other Amtrak-owned infrastructure, and the associated facilities that support the operation, maintenance, and improvement of those assets.

(B) Passenger rail equipment, including all Amtrak-controlled rolling stock, locomotives, and mechanical shop facilities that are used to overhaul equipment.

(C) Stations, including all Amtrak-controlled passenger rail stations and elements of other stations for which Amtrak has legal responsibility or intends to make capital investments.

(D) National assets, including national reservations, security, training and training centers, and other assets associated with Amtrak's national rail passenger transportation system.


(2) Contents of 5-year asset plans.—Each asset plan shall include, at a minimum—

(A) a summary of Amtrak's 5-year strategic plan for each asset category, including goals, objectives, any relevant performance metrics, and statutory or regulatory actions affecting the assets;

(B) an inventory of existing Amtrak capital assets, to the extent practicable, including information regarding shared use or ownership, if applicable;

(C) a prioritized list of proposed capital investments that—

(i) categorizes each capital project as being primarily associated with—

(I) normalized capital replacement;

(II) backlog capital replacement;

(III) improvements to support service enhancements or growth;

(IV) strategic initiatives that will improve overall operational performance, lower costs, or otherwise improve Amtrak's corporate efficiency; or

(V) statutory, regulatory, or other legal mandates;


(ii) identifies each project or program that is associated with more than 1 category described in clause (i); and

(iii) describes the anticipated business outcome of each project or program identified under this subparagraph, including an assessment of—

(I) the potential effect on passenger operations, safety, reliability, and resilience;

(II) the potential effect on Amtrak's ability to meet regulatory requirements if the project or program is not funded; and

(III) the benefits and costs; and


(D) annual profit and loss statements and forecasts and balance sheets for each asset category.


(3) 5-year asset plan process.—In meeting the requirements of this subsection, Amtrak shall—

(A) consult with each business line described in subsection (b)(1) in the preparation of each 5-year asset plan and ensure integration of each 5-year asset plan with the 5-year business line plans;

(B) as applicable, consult with the Northeast Corridor Commission, the State-Supported Route Committee, and owners of assets affected by 5-year asset plans; and

(C) identify the appropriate Amtrak officials that are responsible for each asset category.


(4) Evaluation of national assets costs.—The Secretary shall—

(A) evaluate the costs and scope of all national assets; and

(B) determine the activities and costs that are—

(i) required in order to ensure the efficient operations of a national rail passenger system;

(ii) appropriate for allocation to 1 of the other Amtrak business lines; and

(iii) extraneous to providing an efficient national rail passenger system or are too costly relative to the benefits or performance outcomes they provide.


(5) Definition of national assets.—In this section, the term "national assets" means the Nation's core rail assets shared among Amtrak services, including national reservations, security, training and training centers, and other assets associated with Amtrak's national rail passenger transportation system.

(6) Restructuring of national assets.—Not later than 1 year after the date of completion of the evaluation under paragraph (4), the Administrator of the Federal Railroad Administration, in consultation with the Amtrak Board of Directors, the governors of each relevant State, and the Mayor of the District of Columbia, or their designees, shall restructure or reallocate, or both, the national assets costs in accordance with the determination under that section, including making appropriate updates to Amtrak's cost accounting methodology and system.

(7) Exemption.—

(A) In general.—Upon written request from the Amtrak Board of Directors, the Secretary may exempt Amtrak from including in a plan required under this subsection any information described in paragraphs (1) and (2).

(B) Public availability.—The Secretary shall make available to the public on the Department's Internet Web site any exemption granted under subparagraph (A) and a detailed justification for granting such exemption.

(C) Inclusion in plan.—Amtrak shall include in the plan required under this subsection any request granted under subparagraph (A) and justification under subparagraph (B).


(d) Standards to Promote Financial Stability.—In preparing plans under this section, Amtrak shall—

(1) apply sound budgetary practices, including reducing costs and other expenditures, improving productivity, increasing revenues, or combinations of such practices; and

(2) use the categories specified in the financial accounting and reporting system developed under section 203 of the Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of 2008 (49 U.S.C. 24101 note).

(Added Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11203(a), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1630.)

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11203(b), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1634, provided that: "The requirement for Amtrak to submit 5-year business line plans under section 24320(a)(1) of title 49, United States Code, shall take effect on February 15, 2017, the due date of the first business line plans. The requirement for Amtrak to submit 5-year asset plans under section 24320(a)(1) of such title shall take effect on February 15, 2019, the due date of the first asset plans."

Elimination of Duplicative Reporting

Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11215, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1644, provided that: "Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2015], the Secretary [of Transportation] shall—

"(1) review existing Amtrak reporting requirements and identify where the existing requirements are duplicative with the business line and asset plans required by section 24320 of title 49, United States Code, or any other planning or reporting requirements under Federal law or regulation;

"(2) if the duplicative requirements identified under paragraph (1) are administrative, eliminate such requirements; and

"(3) submit to Congress a report with any recommendations for repealing any other duplicative requirements."

§24321. Food and beverage reform

(a) Plan.—Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of the Passenger Rail Reform and Investment Act of 2015, Amtrak shall develop and begin implementing a plan to eliminate, within 5 years of such date of enactment, the operating loss associated with providing food and beverage service on board Amtrak trains.

(b) Considerations.—In developing and implementing the plan, Amtrak shall consider a combination of cost management and revenue generation initiatives, including—

(1) scheduling optimization;

(2) on-board logistics;

(3) product development and supply chain efficiency;

(4) training, awards, and accountability;

(5) technology enhancements and process improvements; and

(6) ticket revenue allocation.


(c) Savi