The Congress finds that—
(1) the presence of acidic compounds and their precursors in the atmosphere and in deposition from the atmosphere represents a threat to natural resources, ecosystems, materials, visibility, and public health;
(2) the principal sources of the acidic compounds and their precursors in the atmosphere are emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides from the combustion of fossil fuels;
(3) the problem of acid deposition is of national and international significance;
(4) strategies and technologies for the control of precursors to acid deposition exist now that are economically feasible, and improved methods are expected to become increasingly available over the next decade;
(5) current and future generations of Americans will be adversely affected by delaying measures to remedy the problem;
(6) reduction of total atmospheric loading of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides will enhance protection of the public health and welfare and the environment; and
(7) control measures to reduce precursor emissions from steam-electric generating units should be initiated without delay.
The purpose of this subchapter is to reduce the adverse effects of acid deposition through reductions in annual emissions of sulfur dioxide of ten million tons from 1980 emission levels, and, in combination with other provisions of this chapter, of nitrogen oxides emissions of approximately two million tons from 1980 emission levels, in the forty-eight contiguous States and the District of Columbia. It is the intent of this subchapter to effectuate such reductions by requiring compliance by affected sources with prescribed emission limitations by specified deadlines, which limitations may be met through alternative methods of compliance provided by an emission allocation and transfer system. It is also the purpose of this subchapter to encourage energy conservation, use of renewable and clean alternative technologies, and pollution prevention as a long-range strategy, consistent with the provisions of this subchapter, for reducing air pollution and other adverse impacts of energy production and use.
(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title IV, §401, as added Pub. L. 101–549, title IV, §401, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2584.)
Another section 401 of act July 14, 1955, as added by Pub. L. 91–604, §14, Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1709, is set out as a Short Title note under section 7401 of this title.
Pub. L. 101–549, title IV, §404, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2632, directed Administrator of Environmental Protection Agency, not later than 36 months after Nov. 15, 1990, to transmit to Congress a report on the feasibility and effectiveness of an acid deposition standard or standards to protect sensitive and critically sensitive aquatic and terrestrial resources.
Pub. L. 101–549, title IV, §406, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2632, provided that:
[For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of reporting provisions in section 406(a) of Pub. L. 101–549, set out above, see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and the 10th item on page 162 of House Document No. 103–7.]
Pub. L. 101–549, title IV, §407, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2633, provided that: "It is the sense of the Congress that the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 [Pub. L. 101–549, see Tables for classification], through the allowance program, allocates the costs of achieving the required reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen among sources in the United States. Broad based taxes and emissions fees that would provide for payment of the costs of achieving required emissions reductions by any party or parties other than the sources required to achieve the reductions are undesirable."
Pub. L. 101–549, title IV, §408, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2633, provided that: