No State may enforce, or attempt to enforce, any State law or regulation relating to the taking of any species (which term for purposes of this section includes any population stock) of marine mammal within the State unless the Secretary has transferred authority for the conservation and management of that species (hereinafter referred to in this section as "management authority") to the State under subsection (b)(1).
(1) Subject to paragraph (2) and subsection (f) of this section, the Secretary shall transfer management authority for a species of marine mammal to a State if the Secretary finds, after notice and opportunity for public comment, that the State has developed and will implement a program for the conservation and management of the species that—
(A) is consistent with the purposes, policies, and goals of this chapter and with international treaty obligations;
(B) requires that all taking of the species be humane;
(C) does not permit the taking of the species unless and until—
(i) the State has determined, under a process consistent with the standards set forth in subsection (c)—
(I) that the species is at its optimum sustainable population (hereinafter in this section referred to as "OSP"), and
(II) the maximum number of animals of that species that may be taken without reducing the species below its OSP, and
(ii) the determination required under clause (i) is final and implemented under State law, and, if a cooperative allocation agreement for the species is required under subsection (d)(1), such an agreement is implemented;
(D) does not permit the taking of a number of animals of the species that exceeds the maximum number determined pursuant to subparagraph (C)(i)(II), and, in the case of taking for subsistence uses (as defined in subsection (f)(2)), does not permit the taking of a number of animals that would be inconsistent with the maintenance of the species at its OSP;
(E) does not permit the taking of the species for scientific research, public display, or enhancing the survival or recovery of a species or stock, except for taking for such purposes that is undertaken by, or on behalf of, the State;
(F) provides procedures for acquiring data, and evaluating such data and other new evidence, relating to the OSP of the species, and the maximum take that would maintain the species at the level, and, if required on the basis of such evaluation, for amending determinations under subparagraph (C)(i);
(G) provides procedures for the resolution of differences between the State and the Secretary that might arise during the development of a cooperative allocation agreement under subsection (d)(1); and
(H) provides for the submission of an annual report to the Secretary regarding the administration of the program during the reporting period.
(2) During the period between the transfer of management authority for a species to a State under paragraph (1) and the time at which the implementation requirements under paragraph (1)(C)(ii) are complied with—
(A) the State program shall not apply with respect to the taking of the species within the State for any purpose, or under any condition, provided for under section 1371 of this title; and
(B) the Secretary shall continue to regulate, under this subchapter, all takings of the species within the State.
(3) After the determination required under paragraph (1)(C)(i) regarding a species is final and implemented under State law and after a cooperative allocation agreement described in subsection (d)(1), if required, is implemented for such species—
(A) such determination shall be treated, for purposes of applying this subchapter beyond the territory of the State, as a determination made in accordance with section 1373 of this title and as an applicable waiver under section 1371(a)(3) of this title;
(B) the Secretary shall regulate, without regard to this section other than the allocations specified under such an agreement, the taking of the species—
(i) incidentally in the course of commercial fishing operations (whether provided for under section 1371(a)(2) or (4) of this title), or in the course of other specified activities provided for under section 1371(a)(5) of this title, in the zone described in section 1362(14)(B) 1 of this title, and
(ii) for scientific research, public display, or enhancing the survival or recovery of a species or stock (other than by, or on behalf of, the State), except that any taking authorized under a permit issued pursuant to section 1371(a)(1) of this title after October 9, 1981, allowing the removal of live animals from habitat within the State shall not be effective if the State agency disapproves, on or before the date of issuance of the permit, such taking as being inconsistent with the State program; and
(C) section 1371(b) of this title shall not apply.
The State process required under subsection (b)(1)(C) must comply with the following standards:
(1) The State agency with management authority for the species (hereinafter in this section referred to as the "State agency") must make an initial determination regarding the factors described in clause (i) of that subsection. The State agency must identify, and make available to the public under reasonable circumstances, the documentation supporting such initial determination. Unless request for a hearing under paragraph (2) regarding the initial determination is timely made, the initial determination shall be treated as final under State law.
(2) The State agency shall provide opportunity, at the request of any interested party, for a hearing with respect to the initial determination made by it under paragraph (1) at which interested parties may—
(A) present oral and written evidence in support of or against such determination; and
(B) cross-examine persons presenting evidence at the hearing.
The State agency must give public notice of the hearing and make available to the public within a reasonable time before commencing the hearing a list of the witnesses for the State and a general description of the documentation and other evidence that will be relied upon by such witnesses.
(3) The State agency, solely on the basis of the record developed at a hearing held pursuant to paragraph (2), must make a decision regarding its initial determination under paragraph (1) and shall include with the record a statement of the findings and conclusions, and the reason or basis therefor, on all material issues.
(4) Opportunity for judicial review of the decision made by the State agency on the record under paragraph (3), under scope of review equivalent to that provided for in section 706(2)(A) through (E) of title 5, must be available under State law. The Secretary may not initiate judicial review of any such decision.
(1) If the range of a species with respect to which a determination under paragraph (1)(C)(i) of subsection (b) is made extends beyond the territorial waters of the State, the State agency and the Secretary (who shall first coordinate with the Marine Mammal Commission and the appropriate Regional Fishery Management Council established under section 1852 of this title) shall enter into a cooperative allocation agreement providing procedures for allocating, on a timely basis, such of the number of animals, as determined under paragraph (1)(C)(i)(II) of subsection (b), as may be appropriate with priority of allocation being given firstly to taking for subsistence uses in the case of the State of Alaska, and secondly to taking for purposes provided for under section 1371(a) of this title within the zone described in section 1362(14)(B) 1 of this title.
(2) If the State agency requests the Secretary to regulate the taking of a species to which paragraph (1) applies within the zone described in section 1362(14)(B) 1 of this title for subsistence uses or for hunting, or both, in a manner consistent with the regulation by the State agency of such taking within the State, the Secretary shall adopt, and enforce within such zone, such of the State agency's regulatory provisions as the Secretary considers to be consistent with his administration of section 1371(a) of this title within such zone. The Secretary shall adopt such provisions through the issuance of regulations under section 553 of title 5, and with respect to such issuance the Regulatory Flexibility Act [5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.], the Paperwork Reduction Act,1 Executive Order Numbered 12291, dated February 17, 1981, and the thirty-day notice requirement in subsection (d) of such section 553 shall not apply. For purposes of sections 1375, 1376, and 1377 of this title, such regulations shall be treated as having been issued under this subchapter.
(1) Subject to paragraph (2), the Secretary shall revoke, after opportunity for a hearing, any transfer of management authority made to a State under subsection (b)(1) if the Secretary finds that the State program for the conservation and management of the species concerned is not being implemented, or is being implemented in a manner inconsistent with the provisions of this section or the provisions of the program. The Secretary shall also establish a procedure for the voluntary return by a State to the Secretary of species management authority that was previously transferred to the State under subsection (b)(1).
(2)(A) The Secretary may not revoke a transfer of management authority under paragraph (1) unless—
(i) the Secretary provides to the State a written notice of intent to revoke together with a statement, in detail, of those actions, or failures to act, on which such intent is based; and
(ii) during the ninety-day period after the date of the notice of intent to revoke—
(I) the Secretary provides opportunity for consultation between him and the State concerning such State actions or failures to act and the remedial measures that should be taken by the State, and
(II) the State does not take such remedial measures as are necessary, in the judgment of the Secretary, to bring its conservation and management program, or the administration or enforcement of the program, into compliance with the provisions of this section.
(B) When a revocation by the Secretary of a transfer of management authority to a State becomes final, or the State voluntarily returns management authority to the Secretary, the Secretary shall regulate the taking, and provide for the conservation and management, of the species within the State in accordance with the provisions of this chapter (and in the case of Alaskan Natives, section 1371(b) of this title and subsection (i) of this section shall apply upon such revocation or return of management authority).
(1) The Secretary may not transfer management authority to the State of Alaska under subsection (b)(1) for any species of marine mammal unless—
(A) the State has adopted and will implement a statute and regulations that insure that the taking of the species for subsistence uses—
(i) is accomplished in a nonwasteful manner,
(ii) will be the priority consumptive use of the species, and
(iii) if required to be restricted, such restriction will be based upon—
(I) the customary and direct dependence upon the species as the mainstay of livelihood,
(II) local residency, and
(III) the availability of alternative resources; and
(B) the State has adopted a statute or regulation that requires that any consumptive use of marine mammal species, other than for subsistence uses, will be authorized during a regulatory year only if the appropriate agency first makes findings, based on an administrative record before it, that—
(i) such use will have no significant adverse impact upon subsistence uses of the species, and
(ii) the regulation of such use, including, but not limited to, licensing of marine mammal hunting guides and the assignment of guiding areas, will, to the maximum extent practicable, provide economic opportunities for the residents of the rural coastal villages of Alaska who engage in subsistence uses of that species.
(2) For purposes of paragraph (1), the term "subsistence uses" means the customary and traditional uses by rural Alaska residents of marine mammals for direct personal or family consumption as food, shelter, fuel, clothing, tools, or transportation; for the making and selling of handicraft articles out of nonedible byproducts of marine mammals taken for personal or family consumption; and for barter, or sharing for personal or family consumption. As used in this paragraph—
(A) The term "family" means all persons related by blood, marriage, or adoption, or any person living within a household on a permanent basis.
(B) The term "barter" means the exchange of marine mammals or their parts, taken for subsistence uses—
(i) for other wildlife or fish or their parts, or
(ii) for other food or for nonedible items other than money if the exchange is of a limited and noncommercial nature.
Neither the transfer of management authority to a State under subsection (b)(1), nor the revocation or voluntary return of such authority under subsection (e), shall be deemed to be an action for which an environmental impact statement is required under section 4332 of title 42.
(1) Nothing in this subchapter or subchapter V shall prevent a Federal, State, or local government official or employee or a person designated under section 1382(c) of this title from taking, in the course of his or her duties as an official, employee, or designee, a marine mammal in a humane manner (including euthanasia) if such taking is for—
(A) the protection or welfare of the mammal,
(B) the protection of the public health and welfare, or
(C) the nonlethal removal of nuisance animals.
(2) Nothing in this subchapter shall prevent the Secretary or a person designated under section 1382(c) of this title from importing a marine mammal into the United States if such importation is necessary to render medical treatment that is not otherwise available.
(3) In any case in which it is feasible to return to its natural habitat a marine mammal taken or imported under circumstances described in this subsection, steps to achieve that result shall be taken.
The Secretary may (after providing notice thereof in the Federal Register and in newspapers of general circulation, and through appropriate electronic media, in the affected area and providing opportunity for a hearing thereon in such area) prescribe regulations requiring the marking, tagging, and reporting of animals taken pursuant to section 1371(b) of this title.
The Secretary may make grants to States to assist them—
(1) in developing programs, to be submitted for approval under subsection (b), for the conservation and management of species of marine mammals; and
(2) in administering such programs if management authority for such species is transferred to the State under such subsection.
Grants made under this subsection may not exceed 50 per centum of the costs of developing a State program before Secretarial approval, or of administering the program thereafter.
The Secretary is authorized and directed to enter into cooperative arrangements with the appropriate officials of any State for the delegation to such State of the administration and enforcement of this subchapter: Provided, That any such arrangement shall contain such provisions as the Secretary deems appropriate to insure that the purposes and policies of this chapter will be carried out.
(1) There are authorized to be appropriated to the Department of the Interior, for the purposes of carrying out this section, not to exceed $400,000 for each of the fiscal years ending September 30, 1979, September 30, 1980, and September 30, 1981.
(2) There are authorized to be appropriated to the Department of Commerce, for the purposes of carrying out this section, not to exceed $225,000 for each of the fiscal years ending September 30, 1979, September 30, 1980, and September 30, 1981.
(Pub. L. 92–522, title I, §109, Oct. 21, 1972, 86 Stat. 1040; Pub. L. 95–316, §1, July 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 380; Pub. L. 97–58, §4(a), Oct. 9, 1981, 95 Stat. 982; Pub. L. 100–711, §5(a), (e)(3), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4769, 4771; Pub. L. 102–587, title III, §3004(a)(2), Nov. 4, 1992, 106 Stat. 5067; Pub. L. 103–238, §24(c)(10), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 566.)
Section 1362(14) of this title, referred to in subsecs. (b)(3)(B)(i) and (d), was redesignated section 1362(15) by Pub. L. 102–582, title IV, §401(a), Nov. 2, 1992, 106 Stat. 4909.
The Regulatory Flexibility Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(2), is Pub. L. 96–354, Sept. 19, 1980, 94 Stat. 1164, which is classified generally to chapter 6 (§601 et seq.) of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 601 of Title 5 and Tables.
The Paperwork Reduction Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(2), probably means the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980, Pub. L. 96–511, Dec. 11, 1980, 94 Stat. 2812, as amended, which was classified principally to chapter 35 (§3501 et seq.) of Title 44, Public Printing and Documents, prior to the general amendment of that chapter by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Pub. L. 104–13, §2, May 22, 1995, 109 Stat. 163. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1980 Amendment note set out under section 101 of Title 44 and Tables.
Executive Order Numbered 12291, dated February 17, 1981, referred to in subsec. (d)(2), was formerly set out as a note under section 601 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12866, §11, Sept. 30, 1993, 58 F.R. 51735.
1994—Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 103–238 made technical amendment to reference to subchapter V of this chapter to reflect renumbering of corresponding title of original act.
1992—Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 102–587 inserted "or subchapter V" after "this subchapter" in introductory provisions.
1988—Subsec. (b)(1)(E). Pub. L. 100–711, §5(e)(3)(A), substituted "research, public display, or enhancing the survival or recovery of a species or stock" for "research and public display purposes".
Subsec. (b)(3)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 100–711, §5(e)(3)(B), substituted "research, public display, or enhancing the survival or recovery of a species or stock" for "research or public display purposes".
Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 100–711, §5(a), amended subsec. (h) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (h) read as follows: "Nothing in this subchapter shall prevent a Federal, State, or local government official or employee or a person designated under section 1382(c) of this title from taking, in the course of his duties as an official, employee, or designee, a marine mammal in a humane manner (including euthanasia) if such taking is for—
"(1) the protection or welfare of the mammal,
"(2) the protection of the public health and welfare, or
"(3) the nonlethal removal of nuisance animals,
and, in any case in which the return of the mammal to its natural habitat is feasible, includes steps designed to achieve that result."
1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–58, §4(a)(2), added subsec. (a). Former subsec. (a), relating to State regulation of the taking of marine mammals, was struck out.
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–58, §4(a)(2), added subsec. (b). Former subsec. (b), relating to the making of grants to States by the Secretary, was struck out. See subsec. (j) of this section.
Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 97–58, §4(a)(1), (2), added subsecs. (c) and (d). Former subsecs. (c) and (d) redesignated (k) and (l), respectively.
Subsecs. (e) to (j). Pub. L. 97–58, §4(a)(2), added subsecs. (e) to (j).
Subsecs. (k), (l). Pub. L. 97–58, §4(a)(1), redesignated subsecs. (c) and (d) as (k) and (l), respectively.
1978—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–316 added subsec. (d).
Section effective upon the expiration of the sixty-day period following Oct. 21, 1972, see section 4 of Pub. L. 92–522, set out as a note under section 1361 of this title.
Pub. L. 108–447, div. B, title II, §213, Dec. 8, 2004, 118 Stat. 2884, provided that: "Hereafter, notwithstanding any other Federal law related to the conservation and management of marine mammals, the State of Hawaii may enforce any State law or regulation with respect to the operation in State waters of recreational and commercial vessels, for the purpose of conservation and management of humpback whales, to the extent that such law or regulation is no less restrictive than Federal law."
Pub. L. 97–58, §4(b), Oct. 9, 1981, 95 Stat. 986, provided that: "Nothing in the amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall be construed as affecting in any manner, or to any extent, any cooperative agreement entered into by a State under section 6(c) of the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1535(c)) before, on, or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 9, 1981]."
1 See References in Text note below.