The Bureau is authorized to exercise its authorities under Federal consumer financial law to administer, enforce, and otherwise implement the provisions of Federal consumer financial law.
The Director may prescribe rules and issue orders and guidance, as may be necessary or appropriate to enable the Bureau to administer and carry out the purposes and objectives of the Federal consumer financial laws, and to prevent evasions thereof.
In prescribing a rule under the Federal consumer financial laws—
(A) the Bureau shall consider—
(i) the potential benefits and costs to consumers and covered persons, including the potential reduction of access by consumers to consumer financial products or services resulting from such rule; and
(ii) the impact of proposed rules on covered persons, as described in section 5516 of this title, and the impact on consumers in rural areas;
(B) the Bureau shall consult with the appropriate prudential regulators or other Federal agencies prior to proposing a rule and during the comment process regarding consistency with prudential, market, or systemic objectives administered by such agencies; and
(C) if, during the consultation process described in subparagraph (B), a prudential regulator provides the Bureau with a written objection to the proposed rule of the Bureau or a portion thereof, the Bureau shall include in the adopting release a description of the objection and the basis for the Bureau decision, if any, regarding such objection, except that nothing in this clause shall be construed as altering or limiting the procedures under section 5513 of this title that may apply to any rule prescribed by the Bureau.
The Bureau, by rule, may conditionally or unconditionally exempt any class of covered persons, service providers, or consumer financial products or services, from any provision of this title,1 or from any rule issued under this title,1 as the Bureau determines necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes and objectives of this title,1 taking into consideration the factors in subparagraph (B).
In issuing an exemption, as permitted under subparagraph (A), the Bureau shall, as appropriate, take into consideration—
(i) the total assets of the class of covered persons;
(ii) the volume of transactions involving consumer financial products or services in which the class of covered persons engages; and
(iii) existing provisions of law which are applicable to the consumer financial product or service and the extent to which such provisions provide consumers with adequate protections.
Notwithstanding any other provisions of Federal law and except as provided in section 5581(b)(5) of this title, to the extent that a provision of Federal consumer financial law authorizes the Bureau and another Federal agency to issue regulations under that provision of law for purposes of assuring compliance with Federal consumer financial law and any regulations thereunder, the Bureau shall have the exclusive authority to prescribe rules subject to those provisions of law.
Notwithstanding any power granted to any Federal agency or to the Council under this title,1 and subject to section 5581(b)(5)(E) of this title, the deference that a court affords to the Bureau with respect to a determination by the Bureau regarding the meaning or interpretation of any provision of a Federal consumer financial law shall be applied as if the Bureau were the only agency authorized to apply, enforce, interpret, or administer the provisions of such Federal consumer financial law.
In order to support its rulemaking and other functions, the Bureau shall monitor for risks to consumers in the offering or provision of consumer financial products or services, including developments in markets for such products or services.
In allocating its resources to perform the monitoring required by this section, the Bureau may consider, among other factors—
(A) likely risks and costs to consumers associated with buying or using a type of consumer financial product or service;
(B) understanding by consumers of the risks of a type of consumer financial product or service;
(C) the legal protections applicable to the offering or provision of a consumer financial product or service, including the extent to which the law is likely to adequately protect consumers;
(D) rates of growth in the offering or provision of a consumer financial product or service;
(E) the extent, if any, to which the risks of a consumer financial product or service may disproportionately affect traditionally underserved consumers; or
(F) the types, number, and other pertinent characteristics of covered persons that offer or provide the consumer financial product or service.
The Bureau shall publish not fewer than 1 report of significant findings of its monitoring required by this subsection in each calendar year, beginning with the first calendar year that begins at least 1 year after the designated transfer date.
The Bureau may make public such information obtained by the Bureau under this section as is in the public interest, through aggregated reports or other appropriate formats designed to protect confidential information in accordance with paragraphs (4), (6), (8), and (9).
In conducting any monitoring or assessment required by this section, the Bureau shall have the authority to gather information from time to time regarding the organization, business conduct, markets, and activities of covered persons and service providers.
In order to gather information described in subparagraph (A), the Bureau may—
(i) gather and compile information from a variety of sources, including examination reports concerning covered persons or service providers, consumer complaints, voluntary surveys and voluntary interviews of consumers, surveys and interviews with covered persons and service providers, and review of available databases; and
(ii) require covered persons and service providers participating in consumer financial services markets to file with the Bureau, under oath or otherwise, in such form and within such reasonable period of time as the Bureau may prescribe by rule or order, annual or special reports, or answers in writing to specific questions, furnishing information described in paragraph (4), as necessary for the Bureau to fulfill the monitoring, assessment, and reporting responsibilities imposed by Congress.
The Bureau may not use its authorities under this paragraph to obtain records from covered persons and service providers participating in consumer financial services markets for purposes of gathering or analyzing the personally identifiable financial information of consumers.
In order to assess whether a nondepository is a covered person, as defined in section 5481 of this title, the Bureau may require such nondepository to file with the Bureau, under oath or otherwise, in such form and within such reasonable period of time as the Bureau may prescribe by rule or order, annual or special reports, or answers in writing to specific questions.
The Bureau shall prescribe rules regarding the confidential treatment of information obtained from persons in connection with the exercise of its authorities under Federal consumer financial law.
Upon providing reasonable assurances of confidentiality, the Bureau shall have access to any report of examination or financial condition made by a prudential regulator or other Federal agency having jurisdiction over a covered person or service provider, and to all revisions made to any such report.
In addition to the reports described in clause (i), a prudential regulator or other Federal agency having jurisdiction over a covered person or service provider may, in its discretion, furnish to the Bureau any other report or other confidential supervisory information concerning any insured depository institution, credit union, or other entity examined by such agency under authority of any provision of Federal law.
Upon providing reasonable assurances of confidentiality, a prudential regulator, a State regulator, or any other Federal agency having jurisdiction over a covered person or service provider shall have access to any report of examination made by the Bureau with respect to such person, and to all revisions made to any such report.
In addition to the reports described in clause (i), the Bureau may, in its discretion, furnish to a prudential regulator or other agency having jurisdiction over a covered person or service provider any other report or other confidential supervisory information concerning such person examined by the Bureau under the authority of any other provision of Federal law.
The Bureau may prescribe rules regarding registration requirements applicable to a covered person, other than an insured depository institution, insured credit union, or related person.
Subject to rules prescribed by the Bureau, the Bureau may publicly disclose registration information to facilitate the ability of consumers to identify covered persons that are registered with the Bureau.
In developing and implementing registration requirements under this paragraph, the Bureau shall consult with State agencies regarding requirements or systems (including coordinated or combined systems for registration), where appropriate.
In collecting information from any person, publicly releasing information held by the Bureau, or requiring covered persons to publicly report information, the Bureau shall take steps to ensure that proprietary, personal, or confidential consumer information that is protected from public disclosure under section 552(b) or 552a of title 5 or any other provision of law, is not made public under this title.1
The Bureau may not obtain from a covered person or service provider any personally identifiable financial information about a consumer from the financial records of the covered person or service provider, except—
(i) if the financial records are reasonably described in a request by the Bureau and the consumer provides written permission for the disclosure of such information by the covered person or service provider to the Bureau; or
(ii) as may be specifically permitted or required under other applicable provisions of law and in accordance with the Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978 (12 U.S.C. 3401 et seq.).
With respect to the application of any provision of the Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978,2 to a disclosure by a covered person or service provider subject to this subsection, the covered person or service provider shall be treated as if it were a "financial institution", as defined in section 1101 of that Act (12 U.S.C. 3401).
The Bureau shall conduct an assessment of each significant rule or order adopted by the Bureau under Federal consumer financial law. The assessment shall address, among other relevant factors, the effectiveness of the rule or order in meeting the purposes and objectives of this title 1 and the specific goals stated by the Bureau. The assessment shall reflect available evidence and any data that the Bureau reasonably may collect.
The Bureau shall publish a report of its assessment under this subsection not later than 5 years after the effective date of the subject rule or order.
Before publishing a report of its assessment, the Bureau shall invite public comment on recommendations for modifying, expanding, or eliminating the newly adopted significant rule or order.
(Pub. L. 111–203, title X, §1022, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1980.)
This title, where footnoted in subsecs. (b)(3)(A), (4)(B), (c)(8), and (d)(1), is title X of Pub. L. 111–203, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1955, known as the Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010, which enacted this subchapter and enacted, amended, and repealed numerous other sections and notes in the Code. For complete classification of title X to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5301 of this title and Tables.
The Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978, referred to in subsec. (c)(9)(A)(ii), (B), is title XI of Pub. L. 95–630, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3697, which is classified generally to chapter 35 (§3401 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3401 of this title and Tables.
Section effective July 21, 2010, see section 1029A of Pub. L. 111–203, set out as a note under section 5511 of this title.
Pub. L. 114–94, div. G, title LXXXIX, §89002, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1799, provided that:
"(1) Criteria used by the Director of the Bureau of the Census for classifying geographical areas as rural or urban.
"(2) Criteria used by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget to designate counties as metropolitan or micropolitan or neither.
"(3) Criteria used by the Secretary of Agriculture to determine property eligibility for rural development programs.
"(4) The Department of Agriculture rural-urban commuting area codes.
"(5) A written opinion provided by the State's bank supervisor, as defined under section 3(r) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (12 U.S.C. 1813(r)).
"(6) Population density.
"(A) publish such application in the Federal Register; and
"(B) make such application available for public comment for not fewer than 90 days.
"(1) grant or deny such application, in whole or in part; and
"(2) publish such grant or denial in the Federal Register, along with an explanation of what factors the Bureau relied on in making such determination.
1 See References in Text note below.
2 So in original. The comma probably should not appear.