(a) An individual who is a victim of a violation of this chapter may bring a civil action against the perpetrator (or whoever knowingly benefits, financially or by receiving anything of value from participation in a venture which that person knew or should have known has engaged in an act in violation of this chapter) in an appropriate district court of the United States and may recover damages and reasonable attorneys fees.
(b)(1) Any civil action filed under this section shall be stayed during the pendency of any criminal action arising out of the same occurrence in which the claimant is the victim.
(2) In this subsection, a "criminal action" includes investigation and prosecution and is pending until final adjudication in the trial court.
(c) No action may be maintained under this section unless it is commenced not later than the later of—
(1) 10 years after the cause of action arose; or
(2) 10 years after the victim reaches 18 years of age, if the victim was a minor at the time of the alleged offense.
(Added Pub. L. 108–193, §4(a)(4)(A), Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2878; amended Pub. L. 110–457, title II, §221(2), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5067; Pub. L. 114–22, title I, §120, May 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 247.)
2015—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 114–22 substituted "not later than the later of—" for "not later than 10 years after the cause of action arose." and added pars. (1) and (2).
2008—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–457, §221(2)(A), struck out "of section 1589, 1590, or 1591" after "victim of a violation" and inserted "(or whoever knowingly benefits, financially or by receiving anything of value from participation in a venture which that person knew or should have known has engaged in an act in violation of this chapter)" after "perpetrator".
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 110–457, §221(2)(B), added subsec. (c).