The Commission shall monitor and investigate compliance with each license and permit issued under this subchapter and with each exemption granted from any requirement of this subchapter. The Commission shall conduct such investigations as may be necessary and proper in accordance with this chapter. After notice and opportunity for public hearing, the Commission may issue such orders as necessary to require compliance with the terms and conditions of licenses and permits issued under this subchapter and with the terms and conditions of exemptions granted from any requirement of this subchapter.
After notice and opportunity for an evidentiary hearing, the Commission may also issue an order revoking any license issued under this subchapter or any exemption granted from any requirement of this subchapter where any licensee or exemptee is found by the Commission:
(1) to have knowingly violated a final order issued under subsection (a) after completion of judicial review (or the opportunity for judicial review); and
(2) to have been given reasonable time to comply fully with such order prior to commencing any revocation proceeding.
In any such proceeding, the order issued under subsection (a) shall be subject to de novo review by the Commission. No order shall be issued under this subsection until after the Commission has taken into consideration the nature and seriousness of the violation and the efforts of the licensee to remedy the violation.
Any licensee, permittee, or exemptee who violates or fails or refuses to comply with any rule or regulation under this subchapter, any term, or condition of a license, permit, or exemption under this subchapter, or any order issued under subsection (a) shall be subject to a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed $10,000 for each day that such violation or failure or refusal continues. Such penalty shall be assessed by the Commission after notice and opportunity for public hearing. In determining the amount of a proposed penalty, the Commission shall take into consideration the nature and seriousness of the violation, failure, or refusal and the efforts of the licensee to remedy the violation, failure, or refusal in a timely manner. No civil penalty shall be assessed where revocation is ordered.
(1) Before issuing an order assessing a civil penalty against any person under this section, the Commission shall provide to such person notice of the proposed penalty. Such notice shall, except in the case of a violation of a final order issued under subsection (a), inform such person of his opportunity to elect in writing within 30 days after the date of receipt of such notice to have the procedures of paragraph (3) (in lieu of those of paragraph (2)) apply with respect to such assessment.
(2)(A) In the case of the violation of a final order issued under subsection (a), or unless an election is made within 30 calendar days after receipt of notice under paragraph (1) to have paragraph (3) apply with respect to such penalty, the Commission shall assess the penalty, by order, after a determination of violation has been made on the record after an opportunity for an agency hearing pursuant to section 554 of title 5 before an administrative law judge appointed under section 3105 of such title 5. Such assessment order shall include the administrative law judge's findings and the basis for such assessment.
(B) Any person against whom a penalty is assessed under this paragraph may, within 60 calendar days after the date of the order of the Commission assessing such penalty, institute an action in the United States court of appeals for the appropriate judicial circuit for judicial review of such order in accordance with chapter 7 of title 5. The court shall have jurisdiction to enter a judgment affirming, modifying, or setting aside in whole or in Part,1 the order of the Commission, or the court may remand the proceeding to the Commission for such further action as the court may direct.
(3)(A) In the case of any civil penalty with respect to which the procedures of this paragraph have been elected, the Commission shall promptly assess such penalty, by order, after the date of the receipt of the notice under paragraph (1) of the proposed penalty.
(B) If the civil penalty has not been paid within 60 calendar days after the assessment order has been made under subparagraph (A), the Commission shall institute an action in the appropriate district court of the United States for an order affirming the assessment of the civil penalty. The court shall have authority to review de novo the law and the facts involved, and shall have jurisdiction to enter a judgment enforcing, modifying, and enforcing as so modified, or setting aside in whole or in Part,1 such assessment.
(C) Any election to have this paragraph apply may not be revoked except with the consent of the Commission.
(4) The Commission may compromise, modify, or remit, with or without conditions, any civil penalty which may be imposed under this subsection, taking into consideration the nature and seriousness of the violation and the efforts of the licensee to remedy the violation in a timely manner at any time prior to a final decision by the court of appeals under paragraph (2) or by the district court under paragraph (3).
(5) If any person fails to pay an assessment of a civil penalty after it has become a final and unappealable order under paragraph (2), or after the appropriate district court has entered final judgment in favor of the Commission under paragraph (3), the Commission shall institute an action to recover the amount of such penalty in any appropriate district court of the United States. In such action, the validity and appropriateness of such final assessment order or judgment shall not be subject to review.
(6)(A) Notwithstanding the provisions of title 28 or of this chapter, the Commission may be represented by the general counsel of the Commission (or any attorney or attorneys within the Commission designated by the Chairman) who shall supervise, conduct, and argue any civil litigation to which paragraph (3) of this subsection applies (including any related collection action under paragraph (5)) in a court of the United States or in any other court, except the Supreme Court. However, the Commission or the general counsel shall consult with the Attorney General concerning such litigation, and the Attorney General shall provide, on request, such assistance in the conduct of such litigation as may be appropriate.
(B) The Commission shall be represented by the Attorney General, or the Solicitor General, as appropriate, in actions under this subsection, except to the extent provided in subparagraph (A) of this paragraph.
(June 10, 1920, ch. 285, pt. I, §31, as added Pub. L. 99–495, §12, Oct. 16, 1986, 100 Stat. 1255.)
Section applicable to licenses, permits, and exemptions without regard to when issued, see section 18 of Pub. L. 99–495, set out as an Effective Date of 1986 Amendment note under section 797 of this title.
1 So in original. Probably should not be capitalized.