(Added Pub. L. 107–56, title III, §371(c), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 337; amended Pub. L. 108–458, title VI, §6203(h), Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3747.)
Section 413 of the Controlled Substances Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(3), (4), is classified to section 853 of Title 21, Food and Drugs.
Another section 371(c) of Pub. L. 107–56 amended the table of sections at the beginning of this chapter.
2004—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 108–458, §6203(h)(1), struck out “, subject to subsection (d) of this section” before period at end.
Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 108–458, §6203(h)(2), struck out “, subject to subsection (d) of this section,” after “may be seized and”.
Amendment by Pub. L. 108–458 effective as if included in Pub. L. 107–56, as of the date of enactment of such Act, and no amendment made by Pub. L. 107–56 that is inconsistent with such amendment to be deemed to have taken effect, see section 6205 of Pub. L. 108–458, set out as a note under section 1828 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.
Pub. L. 107–56, title III, §371(a), (b), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 336, 337, provided that:
“(1) Effective enforcement of the currency reporting requirements of subchapter II of chapter 53 of title 31, United States Code, and the regulations prescribed under such subchapter, has forced drug dealers and other criminals engaged in cash-based businesses to avoid using traditional financial institutions.
“(2) In their effort to avoid using traditional financial institutions, drug dealers and other criminals are forced to move large quantities of currency in bulk form to and through the airports, border crossings, and other ports of entry where the currency can be smuggled out of the United States and placed in a foreign financial institution or sold on the black market.
“(3) The transportation and smuggling of cash in bulk form may now be the most common form of money laundering, and the movement of large sums of cash is one of the most reliable warning signs of drug trafficking, terrorism, money laundering, racketeering, tax evasion and similar crimes.
“(4) The intentional transportation into or out of the United States of large amounts of currency or monetary instruments, in a manner designed to circumvent the mandatory reporting provisions of subchapter II of chapter 53 of title 31, United States Code,, [sic] is the equivalent of, and creates the same harm as, the smuggling of goods.
“(5) The arrest and prosecution of bulk cash smugglers are important parts of law enforcement's effort to stop the laundering of criminal proceeds, but the couriers who attempt to smuggle the cash out of the United States are typically low-level employees of large criminal organizations, and thus are easily replaced. Accordingly, only the confiscation of the smuggled bulk cash can effectively break the cycle of criminal activity of which the laundering of the bulk cash is a critical part.
“(6) The current penalties for violations of the currency reporting requirements are insufficient to provide a deterrent to the laundering of criminal proceeds. In particular, in cases where the only criminal violation under current law is a reporting offense, the law does not adequately provide for the confiscation of smuggled currency. In contrast, if the smuggling of bulk cash were itself an offense, the cash could be confiscated as the corpus delicti of the smuggling offense.
“(1) to make the act of smuggling bulk cash itself a criminal offense;
“(2) to authorize forfeiture of any cash or instruments of the smuggling offense; and
“(3) to emphasize the seriousness of the act of bulk cash smuggling.”