(a) A civil action or criminal prosecution that is commenced in a State court and that is against or directed to any of the following may be removed by them to the district court of the United States for the district and division embracing the place wherein it is pending:
(1) The United States or any agency thereof or any officer (or any person acting under that officer) of the United States or of any agency thereof, in an official or individual capacity, for or relating to any act under color of such office or on account of any right, title or authority claimed under any Act of Congress for the apprehension or punishment of criminals or the collection of the revenue.
(2) A property holder whose title is derived from any such officer, where such action or prosecution affects the validity of any law of the United States.
(3) Any officer of the courts of the United States, for or relating to any act under color of office or in the performance of his duties;
(4) Any officer of either House of Congress, for or relating to any act in the discharge of his official duty under an order of such House.
(b) A personal action commenced in any State court by an alien against any citizen of a State who is, or at the time the alleged action accrued was, a civil officer of the United States and is a nonresident of such State, wherein jurisdiction is obtained by the State court by personal service of process, may be removed by the defendant to the district court of the United States for the district and division in which the defendant was served with process.
(c) As used in subsection (a), the terms “civil action” and “criminal prosecution” include any proceeding (whether or not ancillary to another proceeding) to the extent that in such proceeding a judicial order, including a subpoena for testimony or documents, is sought or issued. If removal is sought for a proceeding described in the previous sentence, and there is no other basis for removal, only that proceeding may be removed to the district court.
(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 938; Pub. L. 104–317, title II, §206(a), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3850; Pub. L. 112–51, §2(a), (b), Nov. 9, 2011, 125 Stat. 545.)
Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§76 and 77 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §§33, 34, 36 Stat. 1097, 1098; Aug. 23, 1916, ch. 399, 39 Stat. 532).
Section consolidates sections 76 and 77 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed.
The revised subsection (a)(1) is extended to apply to all officers and employees of the United States or any agency thereof. Section 76 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., was limited to revenue officers engaged in the enforcement of the criminal or revenue laws.
The procedural provisions of section 76 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., are incorporated in sections 1446 and 1447 of this title. (See reviser's notes under those sections.)
Changes were made in phraseology.
2011—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 112–51, §2(a)(1), inserted “that is” after “or criminal prosecution”, “and that is” after “in a State court”, and “or directed to” after “against” in introductory provisions.
Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 112–51, §2(b)(1), substituted “capacity, for or relating to” for “capacity for” and struck out “sued” after “thereof,”.
Subsec. (a)(3), (4). Pub. L. 112–51, §2(b)(2), inserted “or relating to” after “for”.
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 112–51, §2(a)(2), added subsec. (c).
1996—Pub. L. 104–317, §206(a)(1), inserted “or agencies” after “officers” in section catchline.
Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–317, §206(a)(2), struck out “persons” after “following” in introductory provisions and substituted “The United States or any agency thereof or any officer (or any person acting under that officer) of the United States or of any agency thereof, sued in an official or individual capacity for any act under color of such office” for “Any officer of the United States or any agency thereof, or person acting under him, for any act under color of such office” in par. (1).