(A) seizes or exercises control over a ship by force or threat thereof or any other form of intimidation;
(B) performs an act of violence against a person on board a ship if that act is likely to endanger the safe navigation of that ship;
(C) destroys a ship or causes damage to a ship or to its cargo which is likely to endanger the safe navigation of that ship;
(D) places or causes to be placed on a ship, by any means whatsoever, a device or substance which is likely to destroy that ship, or cause damage to that ship or its cargo which endangers or is likely to endanger the safe navigation of that ship;
(E) destroys or seriously damages maritime navigational facilities or seriously interferes with their operation, if such act is likely to endanger the safe navigation of a ship;
(F) communicates information, knowing the information to be false and under circumstances in which such information may reasonably be believed, thereby endangering the safe navigation of a ship;
(G) injures or kills any person in connection with the commission or the attempted commission of any of the offenses set forth in subparagraphs (A) through (F); or
(H) attempts or conspires to do any act prohibited under subparagraphs (A) through (G),
shall be fined under this title, imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both; and if the death of any person results from conduct prohibited by this paragraph, shall be punished by death or imprisoned for any term of years or for life.
(1) in the case of a covered ship, if—
(A) such activity is committed—
(i) against or on board a ship flying the flag of the United States at the time the prohibited activity is committed;
(ii) in the United States; or
(iii) by a national of the United States or by a stateless person whose habitual residence is in the United States;
(B) during the commission of such activity, a national of the United States is seized, threatened, injured or killed; or
(C) the offender is later found in the United States after such activity is committed;
(2) in the case of a ship navigating or scheduled to navigate solely within the territorial sea or internal waters of a country other than the United States, if the offender is later found in the United States after such activity is committed; and
(3) in the case of any vessel, if such activity is committed in an attempt to compel the United States to do or abstain from doing any act.
“covered ship” means a ship that is navigating or is scheduled to navigate into, through or from waters beyond the outer limit of the territorial sea of a single country or a lateral limit of that country's territorial sea with an adjacent country.
“national of the United States” has the meaning stated in section 101(a)(22) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(22)).
“territorial sea of the United States” means all waters extending seaward to 12 nautical miles from the baselines of the United States determined in accordance with international law.
“ship” means a vessel of any type whatsoever not permanently attached to the sea-bed, including dynamically supported craft, submersibles or any other floating craft, but does not include a warship, a ship owned or operated by a government when being used as a naval auxiliary or for customs or police purposes, or a ship which has been withdrawn from navigation or laid up.
“United States”, when used in a geographical sense, includes the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and all territories and possessions of the United States.
(Added Pub. L. 103–322, title VI, §60019(a), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1975; amended Pub. L. 104–132, title VII, §§722, 723(a)(1), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1299, 1300.)
1996—Subsec. (a)(1)(H). Pub. L. 104–132, §723(a)(1), inserted “or conspires” after “attempts”.
Subsec. (b)(1)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 104–132, §722(1), struck out “and the activity is not prohibited as a crime by the State in which the activity takes place” after “the United States”.
Subsec. (b)(1)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 104–132, §722(2), struck out “the activity takes place on a ship flying the flag of a foreign country or outside the United States,” before “by a national of the United States”.
Section 60019(c) of Pub. L. 103–322 provided that: “This section [enacting this section and section 2281 of this title] and the amendments made by this section shall take effect on the later of—
“(1) the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 13, 1994]; or
“(2)(A) in the case of section 2280 of title 18, United States Code, the date the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Maritime Navigation has come into force and the United States has become a party to that Convention; and
“(B) in the case of section 2281 of title 18, United States Code, the date the Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Fixed Platforms Located on the Continental Shelf has come into force and the United States has become a party to that Protocol.”
[Convention and Protocol came into force Mar. 1, 1992, and entered into force with respect to the United States Mar. 6, 1995, Treaty Doc. 101–1.]
For extension of territorial sea of United States, see Proc. No. 5928, set out as a note under section 1331 of Title 43, Public Lands.
1 So in original. Probably should be section “13(c)”.