22 U.S.C.
United States Code, 2010 Edition
Part I - General Provisions
Sec. 2373 - Eastern Mediterranean policy requirements
From the U.S. Government Publishing Office, www.gpo.gov

§2373. Eastern Mediterranean policy requirements

(a) Congressional declaration and statement of findings

The Congress declares that the achievement of a just and lasting Cyprus settlement is and will remain a central objective of United States foreign policy. The Congress further declares that any action of the United States with respect to section 2370(x) 1 of this title shall not signify a lessening of the United States commitment to a just solution to the conflict on Cyprus but is authorized in the expectation that this action will be conducive to achievement of a Cyprus solution and a general improvement in relations among Greece, Turkey, and Cyprus and between those countries and the United States. The Congress finds that—

(1) a just settlement on Cyprus must involve the establishment of a free and independent government on Cyprus and must guarantee that the human rights of all of the people of Cyprus are fully protected;

(2) a just settlement on Cyprus must include the withdrawal of Turkish military forces from Cyprus;

(3) the guidelines for inter-communal talks agreed to in Nicosia in February 1977 and the United Nations resolutions regarding Cyprus provide a sound basis for negotiation of a just settlement on Cyprus;

(4) serious negotiations, under United Nations auspices, will be necessary to achieve agreement on, and implementation of, constitutional and territorial terms within such guidelines; and

(5) the recent proposals by both Cypriot communities regarding the return of the refugees to the city of New Famagusta (Varosha) constitute a positive step and the United States should actively support the efforts of the Secretary General of the United Nations with respect to this issue.

(b) Governing principles

United States policy regarding Cyprus, Greece, and Turkey shall be directed toward the restoration of a stable and peaceful atmosphere in the Eastern Mediterranean region and shall therefore be governed by the following principles:

(1) The United States shall actively support the resolution of differences through negotiations and internationally established peaceful procedures, shall encourage all parties to avoid provocative actions, and shall strongly oppose any attempt to resolve disputes through force or threat of force.

(2) The United States will accord full support and high priority to efforts, particularly those of the United Nations, to bring about a prompt, peaceful settlement on Cyprus.

(3) All defense articles furnished by the United States to countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region will be used only in accordance with the requirements of this chapter, the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.], and the agreements under which those defense articles were furnished.

(4) The United States will furnish security assistance for Greece and Turkey only when furnishing that assistance is intended solely for defensive purposes, including when necessary to enable the recipient country to fulfill its responsibilities as a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and shall be designed to ensure that the present balance of military strength among countries of the region, including between Greece and Turkey, is preserved. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to prohibit the transfer of defense articles to Greece or Turkey for legitimate self defense or to enable Greece or Turkey to fulfill their North Atlantic Treaty Organization obligations.

(5) The United States shall use its influence to ensure the continuation of the ceasefire on Cyprus until an equitable negotiated settlement is reached.

(6) The United States shall use its influence to achieve the withdrawal of Turkish military forces from Cyprus in the context of a solution to the Cyprus problem.

(c) Review of policy; report to Congress

Because progress toward a Cyprus settlement is a high priority of United States policy in the Eastern Mediterranean, the President and the Congress shall continually review that progress and shall determine United States policy in the region accordingly. To facilitate such a review the President shall, within 60 days after the date of enactment of this section and at the end of each succeeding 60-day period, transmit to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate a report on progress made toward the conclusion of a negotiated solution of the Cyprus problem. Such transmissions shall include any relevant reports prepared by the Secretary General of the United Nations for the Security Council.

(d) Certification by President to Congress of assistance to Greece and Turkey

In order to ensure that United States assistance is furnished consistent with the policies established in this section, the President shall, whenever requesting any funds for security assistance under this chapter or the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] for Greece and Turkey, transmit to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate his certification, with a full explanation thereof, that the furnishing of such assistance will be consistent with the principles set forth in subsection (b). The President shall also submit such a certification with any notification to the Congress, pursuant to section 36(b) of the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2776(b)], of a proposed sale of defense articles or services to Greece or Turkey.

(e) Arms sales agreements to prohibit transfer to Cyprus

(1) Any agreement for the sale or provision of any article on the United States Munitions List (established pursuant to section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2778]) entered into by the United States after December 22, 1987, shall expressly state that the article is being provided by the United States only with the understanding that it will not be transferred to Cyprus or otherwise used to further the severance or division of Cyprus.

(2) The President shall report to Congress any substantial evidence that equipment provided under any such agreement has been used in a manner inconsistent with the purposes of this subsection.

(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. III, §620C, as added Pub. L. 95–384, §13(b), Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 737; amended Pub. L. 100–202, §101(e) [title V, §562], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–131, 1329–171.)

References in Text

Section 2370(x) of this title, referred to in subsec. (a), was omitted. See Codification note set out under section 2370 of this title.

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (b)(3) and (d), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.

The Arms Export Control Act, referred to in subsecs. (b)(3) and (d), is Pub. L. 90–629, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1320, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 39 (§2751 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in subsec. (e) of this section were contained in the following appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 102–391, title V, §557, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1676.

Pub. L. 101–513, title V, §560, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 2026.

Pub. L. 101–167, title V, §570, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1245.

Pub. L. 100–461, title V, §579, Oct. 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 2268–48.


1987—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–202 added subsec. (e).

Delegation of Functions

For delegation of congressional reporting functions of President under subsec. (c) of this section, see section 1 of Ex. Ord. No. 13313, July 31, 2003, 68 F.R. 46073, set out as a note under section 301 of Title 3, The President.

Special Ambassadorial Commission for Cyprus and the Aegean

Section 101(e) [title V, §586] of Pub. L. 100–202 provided that:

“(a) Findings.—The Congress finds that—

“(1) the inability to achieve a just and lasting Cyprus settlement will continue to affect relations among the United States and its close NATO allies, Greece and Turkey, to the detriment of larger, mutually shared, security interests in the Eastern Mediterranean region;

“(2) it is of paramount importance that Cyprus, Greece, and Turkey resolve their differences through negotiations and otherwise peaceful procedures, and that the United States should support the resolution of these differences through all the diplomatic means at its disposal;

“(3) it is in the national interest of the United States that the President make a significant new diplomatic demarche towards bringing this dispute to a resolution; and

“(4) it is also in the national interest of the United States to undertake a diplomatic initiative to promote the peaceful and equitable resolution of differences between Greece and Turkey in the Aegean by fostering a renewed and sustained bilateral dialogue between those countries on such issues as: the delineation of the continental shelf, the definition of the territorial seas, air traffic control over the Aegean, NATO command and control arrangements in the Aegean, and the status of Lemnos and NATO exercises in the Aegean.

“(b) Appointment of Special Ambassador.—The President is authorized to appoint a special ambassadorial level envoy who shall be responsible for representing the United States in direct negotiations with the parties to the Cyprus dispute, for representing the United States in negotiations through international intermediaries and, generally, lending the good offices of the United States to the parties in this dispute in order to facilitate a peaceful settlement on Cyprus. As agreed to by Greece and Turkey, the special envoy shall also represent the United States in promoting mutual discussions between those countries concerning their differences on Aegean issues. The special ambassador appointed under this section shall have available the services of two deputies (one to specialize on the Cyprus question, the other on general Aegean issues) and such senior level Department of State personnel as may be required by the special ambassador in order to carry out his responsibilities.

“(c) Report.—Not later than June 1, 1988, the President shall submit a report to the Congress describing in detail the activities being undertaken by the special ambassador, the progress being made toward achievement of a peaceful resolution of the Cyprus dispute, an assessment of the obstacles to achievement of such a resolution and of the future role of the United States in acheiving [sic] a settlement on Cyprus, and an assessment of the progress being made toward resolution of issues affecting the Aegean region.

“(d) Funding.—Up to $500,000 of the funds appropriated under any heading of this Act [Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1988, as enacted by section 101(e) of Pub. L. 101–202] which are allocated for Greece and up to $500,000 of the funds appropriated under any heading of this Act which are allocated for Turkey, may be used by the Department of State for any administrative costs associated with the activities of the special ambassador and supporting personnel, including transportation, salaries and per diem.”

1 See References in Text note below.