[Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: William J. Clinton (1998, Book I)]
[January 8, 1998]
[Pages 10-14]
[From the U.S. Government Publishing Office www.gpo.gov]

[[Page 10]]

Remarks at a Democratic National Committee Luncheon in New York City
January 8, 1998

    Thank you very much. The good news is this is the only speech I 
have. [Laughter] And I wrote it in the car on the way over from the 
airport. I want to thank Steve for what he 
said and for the extraordinary effort he's put in, in a very difficult 
and challenging year, as head of our National Democratic Party. I thank 
Craig and Jane for 
having us in their home. I have not been in this magnificent historic 
old building in, oh, about 10 or 11 years. And I'm a very schmaltzy 
person so I get all choked up when I come here. I keep imagining whether 
I'm standing someplace where John Lennon was, and all that. [Laughter] 
Thank you very much for letting us come here. Thank you, Judith 
Hope, for leading the New York Democratic Party.
    And I think what I would like to do today is just talk in kind of a 
larger sense about where I think we are at this moment in history and 
why what you're doing here matters. And I'd like to begin with two, 
maybe, apparently, unrelated things.
    The first is, you know we're 2 years from a new century in a new 
millennium, something that only happens every 1,000 years. I expect all 
the predictions of doom and the end of time to be rising up, and maybe 
there will be a lot of wonderful, glowing predictions as well. But the 
time just begs for historic drama. And the good news is you have it, 
because of the globalization of the world economy and society, because 
of the explosion in information and science and technology. People are 
fundamentally changing the way they work, the way they live, the way 
they relate to each other and the rest of the world. And that is 
changing everything else in ways that are, more often than not, quite 
positive, but sometimes quite troubling.
    We have a lot of people in the finance community here today. 
Everybody is trying to calculate what is going on in Asia: Is it going 
to keep going on; is it going to stop; is there something the United 
States can do to stop it; regardless, what impact will it have on us? 
There is a level of interdependence in the world today and a scope and 
speed of change in the world today that has hitherto been unknown to the 
American people, and that is changing things. And that will shape the 
new--in that sense, we already have a foot in the 21st century.
    The second thing I'd like you to think about is that--we have a lot 
of very distinguished actors here today. Hillary and I went to the 
premiere in Washington the other night of ``Amistad,'' the new movie 
about the slave ship. It culminates in the work of John Quincy Adams 
helping a young American lawyer to get these slaves freed so they could 
be free to go back home to Africa before the Civil War. And they won a 
case in the Supreme Court on a unique point of property law. But it's a 
very moving picture, I think.
    Why do I mention that? Because at that moment in our history, John 
Quincy Adams, a man who was a one-term President, got the living 
daylights beat out of him for reelection by Andrew Jackson, an American 
hero, and then was humble enough and dedicated enough to go back and 
serve nine terms in the House of Representatives, where he died in 
service in his early eighties--a unique American story. John Quincy 
Adams was the embodiment of the Nation's opposition to slavery, and to 
something called the gag rule which, believe it or not, was imposed by 
the Southerners on the Congress before the Civil War so that you weren't 
even supposed to be able to bring up petitions opposing slavery on the 
floor of Congress.
    Now, at that moment, Adams was the symbol for our country of the 
idea that the National Government ought to take a stand against slavery, 
to strengthen the Union and to, in effect, apply the guarantees of the 
Constitution to the present moment--in other words, to acknowledge that 
we were wrong when we started as a country and we said that black people 
were only three-fifths human and they didn't really count as citizens.
    What's that got to do with this time? In every period of profound 
change in the whole history of the country, the debate is always the 
same. The debate is between those who believe that the period of change 
requires us to come closer together as one nation and to extend the 
fundamental principles on which we were founded to the new moment--and 
there have been four

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or five moments in American history which were literally break points, 
where we were being tested.
    First, we got started; we had to decide, are we going to be one 
country or just a collection of States, kind of like an eating club, and 
every now and then we'll get together? And we decided to be one country. 
And then in the Civil War, when slavery and sectionalism threatened one 
nation and Abraham Lincoln literally gave his life, first for the Union 
and second to get rid of slavery.
    Then in the industrial revolution, where first Theodore Roosevelt 
and then Woodrow Wilson's administration, and all the way through FDR, 
had to deal with the consequences of America moving from an agricultural 
to an industrial society--most of them were good, but not all of them 
were. How do you get the benefit of all this new wealth and say it's 
still not okay to work children 15 hours a day, 6 days a week in coal 
mines? How do you do that? How do you deal with all these people teeming 
into the cities of America from all over the world, and how do you 
assimilate them into our country, and how do you make immigrants a part 
of the American fabric of life? If the whole system breaks down, as it 
did in the Great Depression, how do you get it back up?
    And throughout, there was the debate between--going from Lincoln to 
Roosevelt and Wilson to FDR--between those who say we have to strengthen 
the Union in order to preserve and enhance liberty, and those who said, 
``Ah, the Government, it will screw it up. They will mess up a one-car 
parade--[laughter]--and this country was founded on the principle that 
we've got to limit it and just let the market take its course.'' Then we 
had World War II and the cold war, which was a 50-year battle against 
totalitarianism, when there was much more of a consensus among the 
conservatives and the liberals for united policies to make the Nation 
strong because our very existence was at stake.
    Now we literally are facing an era of globalization and information 
revolution which is upsetting the established patterns of life to an 
extent never before known. Most of it's positive. Some of it's not.
    What are the problems we're facing? Well, first of all, we've got 
more people in the work force than ever before, more women in the work 
force than ever before, and nearly every family with children has 
trouble balancing the demands of work and family, even wealthy people. I 
don't know a single couple with young children that hasn't felt a moment 
of guilt at some time in the conflict between the demands of work and 
the demands of childrearing. That's fundamentally different, and 
    Second, there is the question of--the perennial question--how do you 
get the benefits of these new changes but make them available to 
everybody, give everyone a chance to participate? America has the lowest 
unemployment rate in 24 years; New York City has an unemployment rate of 
9 percent. How do you bring the benefits of the new market to the 
neighborhoods that it hasn't reached? We have children who know more 
about computers than their parents, but not every child has access to a 
computer. How do you make sure that the benefits of technology are made 
more universal?
    Third question--that you saw debated at Kyoto in the climate change 
conference--how do you continue to grow the economy and bring all these 
vast new countries like China and India--the two biggest countries in 
the world--into the mainstream of economic life to stabilize the lives 
of the people there and still not only preserve but indeed restore the 
    Last question--big question--how do you accept the fact that the 
global marketplace is dominant and the cold war is over and say we're 
not going to disintegrate into chaos and anarchy? That is, how can you 
have a social contract where everybody has a chance, at least, and where 
people who deserve a hand up get it, and where people learn to live with 
each other amidst all their diversity and localism?
    You said your daughter said it was not necessary for Socks and Buddy 
to like each other, but they did have to get along. Maybe that should be 
my policy in Bosnia. [Laughter] I mean--you laugh, but you think about 
it. This is a significant thing. How do we deal with the fact that the 
old structures that people used as magnets for identity in the world are 
breaking down, giving vast new freedoms, and still find ways for people 
to integrate and make sense of their lives? These are huge challenges.
    I believe--and the reason I ran for President in 1991 and 1992--that 
we had to take a new direction. The progressive party, my party, I 
thought, had the right idea about trying to hold the country together, 
but they didn't seem too willing to change to develop new approaches

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to deal with the new challenges. The Republicans had basically abandoned 
what might have been a basis for being a very successful modern party if 
they had essentially been like traditional northeast Republicans and 
modified their position. And instead, they adopted the Reagan position, 
which was, the Government is always the problem, is inherently bad, and 
is oppressing people, and what we really need to do is just to get it 
out of the way and everything will be fine. It seems to me that that is 
self-evidently untrue.
    So what we tried to do was to take an approach that said that 
Government could not do everything, but it couldn't sit on the 
sidelines; and what we really should focus on is to create the 
conditions and give people the tools to make the most of their own lives 
and to build successful families and communities and to enable America 
to reach out to the rest of the world in a positive way. That's why we 
focused on an economic policy that works. That's why we supported local 
crime policies that work. That's why we've worked on--we've moved 
historic numbers of people from welfare to work.
    And I think we've had a fair measure of success in meeting the new 
security challenges of the world beyond our borders. And after 5 years, 
as I said, we have the lowest unemployment rate in 24 years, the lowest 
crime rate in 24 years, the biggest drop in welfare rolls in history. 
The air is cleaner; the water is cleaner; the food is safer. We have 
cleaned up record numbers of toxic waste dumps, and we're tackling the 
big challenges of our time. So I think we're moving in the right 
    Now, what are we about to do in Washington? Congress is about to 
come back to town, and I have to give the State of the Union Address. 
And I will very briefly tell you what I think is still out there to be 
done. First of all, we have got to find a way to bring economic 
opportunity to the areas in this country which haven't received it. 
We've got to bring economic empowerment and enterprise into isolated 
inner-city and rural communities. And I won't bore you with the 
details--you may have better ideas than I do--but we're going to have an 
agenda to do that.
    Secondly, in the area of crime, the crime rate is dropping, but the 
juvenile crime rate is not dropping as fast. Kids get in trouble--almost 
all juvenile crime is committed between 2 and 6 o'clock in the 
afternoon, almost 100 percent of it. It is a very foolish thing for us 
to keep building prisons to put young people in to become permanent 
criminals as a strategy to lower the crime rate, when for much less 
money we could leave the schools open, give them something to say yes to 
and build their lives around. And so we're going to try to deal with 
    In the area of welfare reform, the fundamental issue is we've 
reduced the welfare rolls by 3.8 million; all the people that are left 
are going to be harder to place. Therefore, there needs to be more 
training, more child care, but also jobs that are created, if necessary, 
in community service work so that people aren't just cut off welfare.
    The other thing we have to examine is how do we make sure that 
people aren't required to give up their educational programs if they're 
actually going to school. There's been a lot of publicity about that 
here in New York. And one of the things we're trying to do there is to 
make sure that people on welfare can qualify for work-study while 
they're going to college and they can work their way through school like 
everybody else does who has to work their way through school. So we're 
trying to work through that.
    On the issue of balancing family and work, the most single 
meaningful action that I've taken as President, I think, if you took a 
poll, most people would probably say, ``I like the Family and Medical 
Leave Act.'' Probably around 15 million people have been able to take 
some time off from work when a baby was born or a parent was sick.
    Yesterday Hillary and I and the Vice President and Mrs. Gore 
announced the largest child care initiative in the history of the 
country, to try to make child care more affordable, more available, and 
of a higher quality and safer than ever before to millions more 
    The next big challenge we have to face is all of us around here in 
this room who are baby boomers--some of you are not, some of you are a 
little older, some of you are a little younger--but the baby boom 
generation, until--this generation now in the public schools is the 
biggest we've ever had, but until they were in the public schools, we 
were the largest generation. If we don't make some changes in Social 
Security and Medicare, when we retire we either won't be able to draw 
them in the way that they're now being enjoyed by seniors, or we will 
impose incredible tax burdens on our

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children to do it, in ways that I think are morally unacceptable. So we 
have to undertake in the next 2 years a significant review of Social 
Security and Medicare, and they have to be modernized so that the baby 
boom generation can actually access them in a way that is universal and 
fair, but so that they actually work for the 21st century.
    Over and above that, we have to recognize that half the people in 
this country have no retirement savings. And almost no one can maintain 
their standard of living on Social Security alone. There are very few 
people living on that little money. So we have to do more to get people 
to save for their own retirement. We've done a lot of work on that in 
the last 5 years; we must do more.
    The next issue I'd like to mention is education. I spent, in my 
years in public life, more time on this than any other issue. In the 
end, a lot of Americans, a lot of you in this room over the last 5 
years, have told me that you're very glad you've done well in life, but 
you're very concerned about the increasing inequality of wealth in 
America because people in the lower 40 percent of our work force have 
not had their earnings increase in a proportionate way--for 20 years 
now. Now, there's some indication, by the way, that that's turning 
around the last 2 or 3 years, and we've worked very hard on it.
    What can a country do if it has great inequality and you don't 
believe in punishing the successful; what can you do? Well, in 1993 we 
asked upper income people to pay more and gave lower income working 
families a tax break as part of our strategy to bring down the deficit, 
but that's a one-time deal. We can expand trade and try to change the 
job mix in America, and we're doing that. For the last 2 years, more 
than half the new jobs in this country paid above-average wages. That's 
a slow process, since most people are not in jobs that were created last 
year. The only other thing you can do is to set up a system of lifetime 
education and training which starts with an excellent primary and 
secondary education and gives people the chance always to continuously 
upgrade their skills so they're on the cutting edge of change. In the 
end, that is the only answer to this. And, therefore, it is imperative 
that we do that.
    History will record that the best thing about the balanced budget 
bill we passed last August was that we made community college free for 
all Americans, that we gave tax breaks for any kind of education after 
high school, from graduate school to workers in factories who have to go 
back to school to upgrade their skills.
    The second thing we did was to launch the debate on whether America 
should have high national standards. And I want to talk about that a 
little bit. Fifteen big city school districts, including New York City, 
said, we support the President's desire to have national standards and 
national tests and measure kids by how well they do and tell their 
parents. But there is still an enormous resistance to that in this 
country. Now, there was a study that's in the paper today--you may have 
seen it--showing that big city school districts perform at significantly 
lower levels by any measure than non-city school districts in America.
    You can say, well, what do you expect, the kids there are poorer. 
They may be poorer, but we spend more money on average on them. And I 
say that to make this point: We cannot pretend, if we have a truly 
progressive vision of the future, that we can ever achieve what we want 
to achieve unless we hold our children--all of our children, without 
regard to their race, their income, or their background--to high 
standards of learning, and then give them the support they need to meet 
those standards, and measure whether they do or not, and if they don't, 
keep on working at it until they do.
    Chicago has just undertaken a complete overhaul of its school system 
in which local parent councils are involved in local school districts, 
and they have ended social promotion. You have to pass an exam to go on 
to the next grade. If you don't, you've got to go to summer school. If 
you get through summer school and you pass the exam, you can go on. If 
you don't, you have to stay back. But because it's a community-based, 
parent-based thing, you don't hear one word about it being 
discriminatory, about it being unfair, about anything else. Why? Because 
people have taken control of their children's education. They say, our 
kids have got to learn something.
    In the end, when they're 50, their self-esteem will be more harmed 
by not being able to read and write and learn new skills than it will by 
having been held back one year in school when they were 10. And we have 
got to have that kind of commitment to national standards, to rigorous 

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    The survey also reported that children in Virginia, for example, in 
urban school districts--let me--I live across the river from one, from 
the most diverse school district in America, Fairfax County, Virginia--
children from 180 different national and ethnic groups in one school 
district. And the survey concluded that the reason that the urban 
students in Virginia scored better was because they had specific, 
rigorous standards to which they were held and consequences for failure. 
So I say to you, I hope you will all support that.
    Finally, let me say--in this old world we've got a lot of 
challenges; I just want to mention two. We need a national consensus to 
do something on global warming. It is real; it is significant; and what 
we need is an understanding that we can grow the economy and still 
preserve the environment. Just with the pressures that--public pressure 
that has been created in the last few months, look at all the new 
announcements that Detroit has made about cars that no one had 
anticipated before. We can do this. But we will pay a terrible price if 
we do not.
    The second issue I'd like to raise is that the wonderful explosion 
in science and technology and information that allow kids in New York 
City to get on the Internet and talk to kids in Australia about school 
projects also mean that crazy people in New York can talk to crazy 
people somewhere else about how to make chemical weapons or biological 
weapons. You remember when we had the Oklahoma City bombing trial, the 
publicity came out that there was a webpage where, if you could hook 
into it, you could figure out how to make the bomb.
    I say that simply to make the point that when you see me on behalf 
of the United States trying to stand up against the spread of chemical 
and biological weapons, or trying to devise ways to stop the spread of 
disease, or more rigorous standards to preserve the quality of our food 
supply as we import more food and more food goes across national 
borders--see that as part of this larger issue. We want all the benefits 
of globalization, but we have to preserve the integrity and the value of 
our life and that of people around the world.
    And since we're in New York, I'll make my last pitch. I need your 
support for convincing the Congress that they should support and we 
should pay our way in the United Nations, in the World Bank, in the 
International Monetary Fund, and all the other international 
institutions. We live in an era of interdependence, and we have richly 
benefited from it. We were able to do what we did in Bosnia because 
others would help us. And I could give you lots of other examples.
    Now, why should you be here and why are you doing this? Because we 
believe that Government is not the enemy, but it has to be an agent of 
change; because we believe this is an age in which we have to form a 
more perfect Union by giving people the tools to make the most of their 
own lives, to serve in their communities, and to build a strong country; 
and because the evidence is, after 5 years, that this approach is right 
for America.
    You've made it possible for it to continue, and I very much 
appreciate it. Thank you very much.

Note: The President spoke at 2:10 p.m. at a private residence in the 
Dakota apartment building. In his remarks, he referred to Steve 
Grossman, national chair, Democratic National Committee; luncheon hosts 
Craig Hatkoff and Jane Rosenthal; and Judith Hope, chair, New York State 
Democratic Party.