[114th Congress Public Law 195]
[From the U.S. Government Publishing Office]

[[Page 130 STAT. 675]]

Public Law 114-195
114th Congress

                                 An Act

   To authorize a comprehensive strategic approach for United States 
foreign assistance to developing countries to reduce global poverty and 
    hunger, achieve food and nutrition security, promote inclusive, 
   sustainable, agricultural-led economic growth, improve nutritional 
  outcomes, especially for women and children, build resilience among 
    vulnerable populations, and for other purposes. <<NOTE: July 20, 
                          2016 -  [S. 1252]>> 

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled, <<NOTE: Global Food 
Security Act of 2016. 22 USC 9301 note.>> 

    This Act may be cited as the ``Global Food Security Act of 2016''.
SEC. 2. <<NOTE: 22 USC 9301.>>  FINDINGS.

    Congress makes the following findings:
            (1) According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of 
        the United Nations (referred to in this section as the ``FAO''), 
        805,000,000 people worldwide suffer from chronic hunger. Hunger 
        and malnutrition rob people of health and productive lives and 
        stunt the mental and physical development of future generations.
            (2) According to the January 2014 ``Worldwide Threat 
        Assessment of the US Intelligence Community''--
                    (A) the ``[l]ack of adequate food will be a 
                destabilizing factor in countries important to US 
                national security that do not have the financial or 
                technical abilities to solve their internal food 
                security problems''; and
                    (B) ``[f]ood and nutrition insecurity in weakly 
                governed countries might also provide opportunities for 
                insurgent groups to capitalize on poor conditions, 
                exploit international food aid, and discredit 
                governments for their inability to address basic 
            (3) A comprehensive approach to sustainable food and 
        nutrition security should not only respond to emergency food 
        shortages, but should also address malnutrition, resilience to 
        food and nutrition insecurity, building the capacity of poor, 
        rural populations to improve their agricultural productivity and 
        incomes, removing institutional impediments to agricultural 
        development, value chain access and efficiency, including 
        processing and storage, enhancing agribusiness development, 
        access to markets and activities that address the specific needs 
        and barriers facing women and small-scale producers, education, 
        and collaborative research.

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                    SENSE OF CONGRESS.

    (a) Statement of Policy Objectives.--It is in the national interest 
of the United States to promote global food security, resilience, and 
nutrition, consistent with national food security investment plans, 
which is reinforced through programs, activities, and initiatives that--
            (1) place food insecure countries on a path toward self-
        sufficiency and economic freedom through the coordination of 
        United States foreign assistance programs;
            (2) accelerate inclusive, agricultural-led economic growth 
        that reduces global poverty, hunger, and malnutrition, 
        particularly among women and children;
            (3) increase the productivity, incomes, and livelihoods of 
        small-scale producers, especially women, by working across 
        agricultural value chains, enhancing local capacity to manage 
        agricultural resources effectively and expanding producer access 
        to local and international markets;
            (4) build resilience to food shocks among vulnerable 
        populations and households while reducing reliance upon 
        emergency food assistance;
            (5) create an enabling environment for agricultural growth 
        and investment, including through the promotion of secure and 
        transparent property rights;
            (6) improve the nutritional status of women and children, 
        with a focus on reducing child stunting, including through the 
        promotion of highly nutritious foods, diet diversification, and 
        nutritional behaviors that improve maternal and child health;
            (7) demonstrably meet, align with and leverage broader 
        United States strategies and investments in trade, economic 
        growth, national security, science and technology, agriculture 
        research and extension, maternal and child health, nutrition, 
        and water, sanitation, and hygiene;
            (8) continue to strengthen partnerships between United 
        States-based universities, including land-grant colleges, and 
        universities and institutions in target countries and 
        communities that build agricultural capacity; and
            (9) ensure the effective use of United States taxpayer 
        dollars to further these objectives.

    (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of the Congress that the 
President, in providing assistance to implement the Global Food Security 
Strategy, should--
            (1) coordinate, through a whole-of-government approach, the 
        efforts of relevant Federal departments and agencies to 
        implement the Global Food Security Strategy;
            (2) seek to fully utilize the unique capabilities of each 
        relevant Federal department and agency while collaborating with 
        and leveraging the contributions of other key stakeholders; and
            (3) utilize open and streamlined solicitations to allow for 
        the participation of a wide range of implementing partners 
        through the most appropriate procurement mechanisms, which may 
        include grants, contracts, cooperative agreements, and other 
        instruments as necessary and appropriate.
SEC. 4. <<NOTE: 22 USC 9303.>>  DEFINITIONS.

    In this Act:

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            (1) Appropriate congressional committees.--The term 
        ``appropriate congressional committees'' means--
                    (A) the Committee on Foreign Relations of the 
                    (B) the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and 
                Forestry of the Senate;
                    (C) the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate;
                    (D) the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of 
                    (E) the Committee on Agriculture of the House of 
                Representatives; and
                    (F) the Committee on Appropriations of the House of 
            (2) Feed the future innovation labs.--The term ``Feed the 
        Future Innovation Labs'' means research partnerships led by 
        United States universities that advance solutions to reduce 
        global hunger, poverty, and malnutrition.
            (3) Food and nutrition security.--The term ``food and 
        nutrition security'' means access to, and availability, 
        utilization, and stability of, sufficient food to meet caloric 
        and nutritional needs for an active and healthy life.
            (4) Global food security strategy.--The term ``Global Food 
        Security Strategy'' means the strategy developed and implemented 
        pursuant to section 5(a).
            (5) Key stakeholders.--The term ``key stakeholders'' means 
        actors engaged in efforts to advance global food security 
        programs and objectives, including--
                    (A) relevant Federal departments and agencies;
                    (B) national and local governments in target 
                    (C) other bilateral donors;
                    (D) international and regional organizations;
                    (E) international, regional, and local financial 
                    (F) international, regional, and local private 
                voluntary, nongovernmental, faith-based, and civil 
                society organizations;
                    (G) the private sector, including agribusinesses and 
                relevant commodities groups;
                    (H) agricultural producers, including farmer 
                organizations, cooperatives, small-scale producers, and 
                women; and
                    (I) agricultural research and academic institutions, 
                including land-grant universities and extension 
            (6) Malnutrition.--The term ``malnutrition'' means poor 
        nutritional status caused by nutritional deficiency or excess.
            (7) Relevant federal departments and agencies.--The term 
        ``relevant Federal departments and agencies'' means the United 
        States Agency for International Development, the Department of 
        Agriculture, the Department of Commerce, the Department of 
        State, the Department of the Treasury, the Millennium Challenge 
        Corporation, the Overseas Private Investment Corporation, the 
        Peace Corps, the Office of the United States Trade 
        Representative, the United States African Development 
        Foundation, the United States Geological Survey, and any other 
        department or agency specified by the President for purposes of 
        this section.
            (8) Resilience.--The term ``resilience'' means the ability 
        of people, households, communities, countries, and systems to 
        mitigate, adapt to, and recover from shocks and stresses to

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        food security in a manner that reduces chronic vulnerability and 
        facilitates inclusive growth.
            (9) Small-scale producer.--The term ``small-scale producer'' 
        means farmers, pastoralists, foresters, and fishers that have a 
        low asset base and limited resources, including land, capital, 
        skills and labor, and, in the case of farmers, typically farm on 
        fewer than 5 hectares of land.
            (10) Stunting.--The term ``stunting'' refers to a condition 
                    (A) is measured by a height-to-age ratio that is 
                more than 2 standard deviations below the median for the 
                    (B) manifests in children who are younger than 2 
                years of age;
                    (C) is a process that can continue in children after 
                they reach 2 years of age, resulting in an individual 
                being ``stunted'';
                    (D) is a sign of chronic malnutrition; and
                    (E) can lead to long-term poor health, delayed motor 
                development, impaired cognitive function, and decreased 
            (11) Sustainable.--The term ``sustainable'' means the 
        ability of a target country, community, implementing partner, or 
        intended beneficiary to maintain, over time, the programs 
        authorized and outcomes achieved pursuant to this Act.
            (12) Target country.--The term ``target country'' means a 
        developing country that is selected to participate in 
        agriculture and nutrition security programs under the Global 
        Food Security Strategy pursuant to the selection criteria 
        described in section 5(a)(2), including criteria such as the 
        potential for agriculture-led economic growth, government 
        commitment to agricultural investment and policy reform, 
        opportunities for partnerships and regional synergies, the level 
        of need, and resource availability.
SEC. 5. <<NOTE: President. Coordination. 22 USC 9304.>>  

    (a) Strategy.--The President shall coordinate the development and 
implementation of a United States whole-of-government strategy to 
accomplish the policy objectives set forth in section 3(a), which 
            (1) set specific and measurable goals, benchmarks, 
        timetables, performance metrics, and monitoring and evaluation 
        plans that reflect international best practices relating to 
        transparency, accountability, food and nutrition security, and 
        agriculture-led economic growth, consistent with the policy 
        objectives described in section 3(a);
            (2) <<NOTE: Criteria.>>  establish clear and transparent 
        selection criteria for target countries, communities, regions, 
        and intended beneficiaries of assistance;
            (3) describe the methodology and criteria for the selection 
        of target countries;
            (4) support and be aligned with country-owned agriculture, 
        nutrition, and food security policy and investment plans 
        developed with input from key stakeholders, as appropriate;
            (5) support inclusive agricultural value chain development, 
        with small-scale producers, especially women, gaining greater 
        access to the inputs, skills, resource management capacity,

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        networking, bargaining power, financing, and market linkages 
        needed to sustain their long-term economic prosperity;
            (6) support improvement of the nutritional status of women 
        and children, particularly during the critical first 1,000-day 
        window until a child reaches 2 years of age and with a focus on 
        reducing child stunting, through nutrition-specific and 
        nutrition-sensitive programs, including related water, 
        sanitation, and hygiene programs;
            (7) facilitate communication and collaboration, as 
        appropriate, among local stakeholders in support of a multi-
        sectoral approach to food and nutrition security, to include 
        analysis of the multiple underlying causes of malnutrition, 
        including lack of access to safe drinking water, sanitation, and 
            (8) support the long-term success of programs by building 
        the capacity of local organizations and institutions in target 
        countries and communities;
            (9) integrate resilience and nutrition strategies into food 
        security programs, such that chronically vulnerable populations 
        are better able to build safety nets, secure livelihoods, access 
        markets, and access opportunities for longer-term economic 
            (10) develop community and producer resilience to natural 
        disasters, emergencies, and natural occurrences that adversely 
        impact agricultural yield;
            (11) harness science, technology, and innovation, including 
        the research and extension activities supported by relevant 
        Federal Departments and agencies and Feed the Future Innovation 
        Labs, or any successor entities;
            (12) integrate agricultural development activities among 
        food insecure populations living in proximity to designated 
        national parks or wildlife areas into wildlife conservation 
        efforts, as necessary and appropriate;
            (13) leverage resources and expertise through partnerships 
        with the private sector, farm organizations, cooperatives, civil 
        society, faith-based organizations, and agricultural research 
        and academic institutions;
            (14) strengthen and expand collaboration between United 
        States universities, including public, private, and land-grant 
        universities, with higher education institutions in target 
        countries to increase their effectiveness and relevance to 
        promote agricultural development and innovation through the 
        creation of human capital, innovation, and cutting edge science 
        in the agricultural sector;
            (15) seek to ensure that target countries and communities 
        respect and promote land tenure rights of local communities, 
        particularly those of women and small-scale producers;
            (16) include criteria and methodologies for graduating 
        target countries and communities from assistance provided to 
        implement the Global Food Security Strategy as such countries 
        and communities meet the progress benchmarks identified pursuant 
        to section 8(b)(4); and
            (17) demonstrably support the United States national 
        security and economic interest in the countries where assistance 
        is being provided.

    (b) Coordination.--The President shall coordinate, through a whole-
of-government approach, the efforts of relevant Federal

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departments and agencies in the implementation of the Global Food 
Security Strategy by--
            (1) establishing monitoring and evaluation systems, 
        coherence, and coordination across relevant Federal departments 
        and agencies;
            (2) establishing linkages with other initiatives and 
        strategies of relevant Federal departments and agencies; and
            (3) establishing platforms for regular consultation and 
        collaboration with key stakeholders and the appropriate 
        congressional committees.

    (c) Strategy Submission.--
            (1) <<NOTE: Deadline. Consultation.>>  In general.--Not 
        later than October 1, 2016, the President, in consultation with 
        the head of each relevant Federal department and agency, shall 
        submit to the appropriate congressional committees the Global 
        Food Security Strategy required under this section, including a 
        detailed description of how the United States intends to advance 
        the objectives set forth in section 3(a) and the agency-specific 
        plans described in paragraph (2).
            (2) Agency-specific plans.--The Global Food Security 
        Strategy shall include specific implementation plans from each 
        relevant Federal department and agency that describes--
                    (A) the anticipated contributions of the department 
                or agency, including technical, financial, and in-kind 
                contributions, to implement the Global Food Security 
                Strategy; and
                    (B) the efforts of the department or agency to 
                ensure that the activities and programs carried out 
                pursuant to the strategy are designed to achieve maximum 
                impact and long-term sustainability.
SEC. 6. <<NOTE: President. 22 USC 9305.>>  ASSISTANCE TO IMPLEMENT 

    (a) Food Shortages.--The President is authorized to carry out 
activities pursuant to section 103, section 103A, title XII of chapter 2 
of part I, and chapter 4 of part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 
1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151a, 2151a-1, 2220a et seq., and 2346 et seq.) to 
prevent or address food shortages notwithstanding any other provision of 
    (b) Authorization of Appropriations.--There is authorized to be 
appropriated to the Secretary of State and the Administrator of the 
United States Agency for International Development $1,000,600,000 for 
each of fiscal years 2017 and 2018 to carry out those portions of the 
Global Food Security Strategy that relate to the Department of State and 
the United States Agency for International Development, respectively.
    (c) Monitoring and Evaluation.--The President shall seek to ensure 
that assistance to implement the Global Food Security Strategy is 
provided under established parameters for a rigorous accountability 
system to monitor and evaluate progress and impact of the strategy, 
including by reporting to the appropriate congressional committees and 
the public on an annual basis.

    (a) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
            (1) the crisis in Syria, which is characterized by acts of 
        terrorism and atrocities directed against civilians, including 
        mass murder, forced displacement, aerial bombardment, ethnic

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        and religious persecution, torture, kidnapping, rape and sexual 
        enslavement, has triggered one of the most profound humanitarian 
        crises of this century and poses a direct threat to regional 
        security and the national security interests of the United 
            (2) it is in the national security interests of the United 
        States to respond to the needs of displaced Syrian persons and 
        the communities hosting such persons, including with food 
        assistance; and
            (3) after four years of conflict in Syria and the onset of 
        other major humanitarian emergencies where, like Syria, the 
        provision of certain United States humanitarian assistance has 
        been particularly challenging, including the 2013 super-typhoon 
        in the Philippines, the 2014 outbreak of Ebola in west Africa, 
        the 2015 earthquake in Nepal, ongoing humanitarian disasters in 
        Yemen and South Sudan, and the threat of a major El Nino event 
        in 2016, United States international disaster assistance has 
        become severely stressed.

    (b) Statement of Policy.--It shall be the policy of the United 
States, in coordination with other donors, regional governments, 
international organizations, and international financial institutions, 
to fully leverage, enhance, and expand the impact and reach of available 
United States humanitarian resources, including for food assistance, to 
mitigate the effects of manmade and natural disasters by utilizing 
innovative new approaches to delivering aid that support affected 
persons and the communities hosting them, build resilience and early 
recovery, and reduce opportunities for waste, fraud, and abuse.
    (c) Amendments to the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961.--
            (1) Section 491 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 
        U.S.C. 2292) is amended--
                    (A) by redesignating subsection (c) as subsection 
                (d); and
                    (B) by inserting after subsection (b) the following 
                new subsection:

    ``(c) Emergency Food Security Program.--
            ``(1) <<NOTE: President.>>  In general.--Subject to the 
        limitations in section 492, and notwithstanding any other 
        provision of this or any other Act, the President is authorized 
        to make available emergency food assistance, including in the 
        form of funds, transfers, vouchers, and agricultural commodities 
        (including products derived from agricultural commodities) 
        acquired through local or regional procurement, to meet 
        emergency food needs arising from manmade and natural disasters.
            ``(2) Designation.--Funds made available under this 
        subsection shall be known as the `International Disaster 
        Assistance - Emergency Food Security Program'.''.
            (2) Section 492 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 
        U.S.C. 2292a) is amended--
                    (A) in subsection (a), by striking ``$25,000,000 for 
                the fiscal year 1986 and $25,000,000 for the fiscal year 
                1987.'' and inserting ``$2,794,184,000 for each of 
                fiscal years 2017 and 2018, of which up to 
                $1,257,382,000 should be made available to carry out 
                section 491(c).''; and
                    (B) by inserting after subsection (b) the following 
                new subsections:

    ``(c) Amounts in Addition to Other Amounts.--Amounts authorized to 
be appropriated pursuant to the authorizations of

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appropriations under section 491(c) are in addition to funds otherwise 
available for such purposes.
    ``(d) Flexibility.--
            ``(1) United states policy.--It is the policy of the United 
        States that the funds made available to carry out section 491 
        are intended to provide the President with the greatest possible 
        flexibility to address disaster-related needs as they arise and 
        to prepare for and reduce the impact of natural and man-made 
            ``(2) Sense of congress.--It is the sense of Congress that 
        any amendments to applicable legal provisions contained in this 
        Act are not intended to limit such authorities.

    ``(e) <<NOTE: President.>>  Report.--Not later than March 1 of each 
fiscal year, the President shall submit to the Committee on Foreign 
Relations and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate and the 
Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Committee on Appropriations of the 
House of Representatives a report that describes the activities 
undertaken by the President over the course of the prior fiscal year 
pursuant to section 491(c), including the amounts of assistance 
provided, intended beneficiaries, monitoring and evaluation strategies, 
anticipated outcomes, and, as practicable, actual outcomes.''.
SEC. 8. <<NOTE: 22 USC 9307.>>  REPORTS.

    (a) Global Food Security Strategy Implementation Reports.--Not later 
than 1 year <<NOTE: President.>>  and 2 years after the date of the 
submission of the strategy required under section 5(c), the President 
shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees reports that 
describe the status of the implementation of the Global Food Security 
Strategy for 2017 and 2018, which shall--
            (1) <<NOTE: Summary.>>  contain a summary of the Global Food 
        Security Strategy as an appendix;
            (2) identify any substantial changes made in the Global Food 
        Security Strategy during the preceding calendar year;
            (3) describe the progress made in implementing the Global 
        Food Security Strategy;
            (4) identify the indicators used to establish benchmarks and 
        measure results over time, as well as the mechanisms for 
        reporting such results in an open and transparent manner;
            (5) describe related strategies and benchmarks for 
        graduating target countries and communities from assistance 
        provided under the Global Food Security Strategy over time, 
        including by building resilience, reducing risk, and enhancing 
        the sustainability of outcomes from United States investments in 
        agriculture and nutrition security;
            (6) indicate how findings from monitoring and evaluation 
        were incorporated into program design and budget decisions;
            (7) contain a transparent, open, and detailed accounting of 
        spending by relevant Federal departments and agencies to 
        implement the Global Food Security Strategy, including, for each 
        Federal department and agency, the statutory source of spending, 
        amounts spent, implementing partners and targeted beneficiaries, 
        and activities supported to the extent practicable and 
            (8) describe how the Global Food Security Strategy leverages 
        other United States food security and development assistance 
        programs on the continuum from emergency food

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        aid through sustainable, agriculture-led economic growth and 
        eventual self-sufficiency;
            (9) describe the contributions of the Global Food Security 
        Strategy to, and assess the impact of, broader international 
        food and nutrition security assistance programs, including 
        progress in the promotion of land tenure rights, creating 
        economic opportunities for women and small-scale producers, and 
        stimulating agriculture-led economic growth in target countries 
        and communities;
            (10) <<NOTE: Assessment.>>  assess efforts to coordinate 
        United States international food security and nutrition 
        programs, activities, and initiatives with key stakeholders;
            (11) <<NOTE: Assessment.>>  assess United States Government-
        facilitated private investment in related sectors and the impact 
        of private sector investment in target countries and 
            (12) identify any United States legal or regulatory 
        impediments that could obstruct the effective implementation of 
        the programming referred to in paragraphs (8) and (9);
            (13) <<NOTE: Analysis.>>  contain a clear gender analysis of 
        programming, to inform project-level activities, that includes 
        established disaggregated gender indicators to better analyze 
        outcomes for food productivity, income growth, control of 
        assets, equity in access to inputs, jobs and markets, and 
        nutrition; and
            (14) <<NOTE: Plan.>>  incorporate a plan for regularly 
        reviewing and updating strategies, partnerships, and programs 
        and sharing lessons learned with a wide range of stakeholders in 
        an open, transparent manner.

    (b) Global Food Security Crosscut Report.--Not later than 120 days 
after the President submits the budget to Congress under section 1105(a) 
of title 31, United States Code, the Director of the Office of 
Management and Budget shall submit to the appropriate congressional 
committees a report including--
            (1) <<NOTE: Budget.>>  an interagency budget crosscut report 
                    (A) displays the budget proposed, including any 
                planned interagency or intra-agency transfer, for each 
                of the principal Federal agencies that carries out 
                global food security activities in the upcoming fiscal 
                year, separately reporting the amount of planned funding 
                to be provided under existing laws pertaining to the 
                global food security strategy to the extent available; 
                    (B) to the extent available, identifies all 
                assistance and research expenditures at the account 
                level in each of the five prior fiscal years by the 
                Federal Government and United States multilateral 
                commitments using Federal funds for global food security 
                strategy activities;
            (2) to the extent available, a detailed accounting of all 
        assistance funding received and obligated by the principal 
        Federal agencies identified in the report and United States 
        multilateral commitments using Federal funds, for global food 
        security activities during the current fiscal year; and
            (3) <<NOTE: Budget.>>  a breakout of the proposed budget for 
        the current and budget years by agency, categorizing 
        expenditures by type of funding, including research, resiliency, 
        and other food security activities to the extent that such 
        information is available.

    (c) <<NOTE: Web posting.>>  Public Availability of Information.--The 
information referred to in subsections (a) and (b) shall be made 
available on the public website of the United States Agency for 

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Development in an open, machine readable format, in a timely manner.

    (a) Effect on Other Programs.--Nothing in the Global Food Security 
Strategy or this Act or the amendments made by this Act shall be 
construed to supersede or otherwise affect the authority of the relevant 
Federal departments and agencies to carry out programs specified in 
subsection (b), in the manner provided, and subject to the terms and 
conditions, of those programs, including, but not limited to, the terms, 
conditions, and requirements relating to the procurement and 
transportation of food assistance furnished pursuant to such programs.
    (b) Programs Described.--The programs referred to in subsection (a) 
are the following:
            (1) The Food for Peace Act (7 U.S.C. 1691 et seq.).
            (2) The Food for Progress Act of 1985 (7 U.S.C. 1736o).
            (3) Section 416(b) of the Agriculture Act of 1949 (7 U.S.C. 
            (4) McGovern-Dole Food for Education Program (7 U.S.C.1736o-
            (5) Local and Regional Procurement Program (7 U.S.C. 1726c).
            (6) Bill Emerson Humanitarian Trust Act (7 U.S.C. 1736f-1).
            (7) Any other food and nutrition security and emergency and 
        non-emergency food assistance program of the Department of 

    Approved July 20, 2016.


HOUSE REPORTS: No. 114-482 (Comm. on Foreign Affairs) accompanying
                   H.R. 1567.
            Apr. 20, considered and passed Senate.
            July 5, 6, considered and passed House.