[U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual] [Chapter 5 - Spelling] [From the U.S. Government Publishing Office, www.gpo.gov] (See also Chapter 7 ``Compounding Examples'' and Chapter 9 ``Abbreviations and Letter Symbols'') 5.1. GPO uses Webster's Third New International Dictionary as its guide for the spelling of words not appearing in the GPO Style Manual. Colloquial and dialect spellings are not used unless required by the subject matter or specially requested. The tendency of some producers of computer-assisted publications to rely on the limited capability of some spell-checking programs adds importance to this list. Preferred and dif. cult spellings 5.2. In addition to indicating the preferred forms of words with variant spellings, the list also contains other words frequently misspelled or causing uncertainty. (See also ``Word Division,'' a supplement to the GPO Style Manual.) [GRAPHIC OMITTED IN TIFF FORMAT(S)] Anglicized and foreign words 5.3. Diacritical marks are not used with anglicized words. [GRAPHIC OMITTED IN TIFF FORMAT(S)] 5.4. Foreign words carry the diacritical marks as an essential part of their spelling. [GRAPHIC OMITTED IN TIFF FORMAT(S)] Plural forms 5.5. Nouns ending in o immediately preceded by a vowel add s to form the plural; nouns ending in o preceded by a consonant add es to form the plural, except as indicated in the following list. [GRAPHIC OMITTED IN TIFF FORMAT(S)] 5.6. When a noun is hyphenated with an adverb or preposition, the plural is formed on the noun. [GRAPHIC OMITTED IN TIFF FORMAT(S)] 5.7. When neither word is a noun, the plural is formed on the last word. [GRAPHIC OMITTED IN TIFF FORMAT(S)] 5.8. In forming the plurals of compound terms, the significant word takes the plural form. [GRAPHIC OMITTED IN TIFF FORMAT(S)] 5.9. Nouns ending with ful form the plural by adding s at the end; if it is necessary to express the idea that more than one container was filled, the two elements of the solid compound are printed as separate words and the plural is formed by adding s to the noun. [GRAPHIC OMITTED IN TIFF FORMAT(S)] 5.10. The following list comprises other words the plurals of which may cause difficulty. [GRAPHIC OMITTED IN TIFF FORMAT(S)] Endings ``ible'' and ``able'' 5.11. The following words end in ible; other words in this class end in able. [GRAPHIC OMITTED IN TIFF FORMAT(S)] Endings ``ise,'' ``ize,'' and ``yze'' 5.12. A large number of words have the termination ise, ize, or yze. The letter l is followed by yze if the word expresses an idea of loosening or separating, as analyze; all other words of this class, except those ending with the suffix wise and those in the following list, end in ize. [GRAPHIC OMITTED IN TIFF FORMAT(S)] Endings ``cede,'' ``ceed,'' and ``sede'' 5.13. Only one word ends in sede (supersede); only three end in ceed (exceed, proceed, succeed); all other words of this class end in cede (precede, secede, etc.). Doubled consonants 5.14. A single consonant following a single vowel and ending in a monosyllable or a final accented syllable is doubled before a suffix beginning with a vowel. bag, bagging red, reddish but format, formatting rob, robbing total, totaled, totaling input, inputting transfer, transferred travel, traveled, traveling 5.15. If the accent in a derivative falls upon an earlier syllable than it does in the root word, the consonant is not doubled. refer, reference prefer, preference infer, inference Indefinite articles 5.16. The indefinite article a is used before a consonant and an aspirated h; an is used before a silent h and all vowels except u pronounced as in visual and o pronounced as in one. a historic occasion an herbseller but a hotel an hour an H-U-D directive a human being an honor a HUD directive a humble man an onion a union an oyster 5.17. When a group of initials begins with b, c, d, g, j, k, p, q, t, u, v, w, y, or z, each having a consonant sound, the indefinite article a is used. a BLS compilation a GAO limitation a WWW search a CIO finding a UFO sighting 5.18. When a group of initials begins with a, e, f, h, i, l, m, n, o, r, s, or x, each having a vowel sound, the indefi nite article an is used. an AEC report an NSC (en) proclamation an FCC (ef) ruling an RFC (ahr) loan 5.19. Use of the indefinite article a or an before a numerical expression is determined by the consonant or vowel sound of the beginning syllable. an 11-year-old an VIII (eight) classification a onetime winner a IV-F (four ef) category (military draft) a III (three) group a 4-H Club Geographic names 5.20. The spelling of geographic names must conform to the decisions of the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN) (http://geonames. usgs.gov). In the absence of such a decision, the U.S. Directory of Post Offices is to be used. 5.21. If the decisions or the rules of the BGN permit the use of either the local official form or the conventional English form, it is the prerogative of the originating office to select the form that is most suitable for the matter in hand; therefore, in marking copy or reading proof, it is required only to verify the spelling of the particular form used. GPO's preference is for the conventional English form. Copy will be followed as to accents, but these should be consistent throughout the entire job. Nationalities, etc. 5.22. The table on Demonyms in Chapter 17 ``Useful Tables'' shows forms to be used for nouns and adjectives denoting nationality. 5.23. In designating the natives of the States, the following forms will be used. Alabamian Louisianian Ohioan Alaskan Mainer Oklahoman Arizonan Marylander Oregonian Arkansan Massachusettsan Pennsylvanian Californian Michiganian Rhode Islander Coloradan Minnesotan South Carolinian Connecticuter Mississippian South Dakotan Delawarean Missourian Tennessean Floridian Montanan Texan Georgian Nebraskan Utahn Hawaiian Nevadan Vermonter Idahoan New Hampshirite Virginian Illinoisan New Jerseyan Washingtonian Indianian New Mexican West Virginian Iowan New Yorker Wisconsinite Kansan North Carolinian Wyomingite Kentuckian North Dakotan 5.24. Observe the following forms: African-American Alaska Native (Aleuts, Eskimos, Indians of Alaska) Amerindian Native American (American Indian) Puerto Rican Part-Hawaiian (legal status) but part-Japanese, etc. Native American words 5.25. Words, including tribal and other proper names of Indian, Aleut, Hawaiian, and other groups, are to be followed literally as to spelling and the use of spaces, hyphens, etc. Transliteration 5.26. In the spelling of nongeographic words transliterated from Chinese, Japanese, or any other language that does not have a Latin alphabet, copy is to be followed literally.