[U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual]
[Chapter 3 - Capitalization Rules]
[From the U.S. Government Publishing Office, www.gpo.gov]

3.1. 	It is impossible to give rules that will cover every 
conceivable problem in capitalization, but, by considering the purpose 
to be served and the underlying principles, it is possible to attain a 
 considerable degree of uniformity. The list of approved forms given in 
 Chapter 4 will serve as a guide. Obviously such a list cannot be 
complete. Th e correct usage with respect to any term not included can 
be determined by analogy or by application of the rules. 

Proper names 
3.2.  Proper names are capitalized.  
         Rome                  John Macadam             Italy  
         Brussels              Macadam family           Anglo-Saxon  

Derivatives of proper names 
3.3. 	Derivatives of proper names used with a proper meaning are 

         Roman (of Rome)       Johannean                Italian 

3.4. 	Derivatives of proper names used with acquired independent 
        common meaning, or no longer identified with such names, are 
        set lowercased. Since this depends upon general and long-
        continued usage, a more definite and all-inclusive rule cannot 
        be formulated in advance. 

        roman (type)          macadam (crushed rock)   italicize 
        brussels sprouts      watt (electric unit)     anglicize 
        venetian blinds       plaster of paris         pasteurize 

Common nouns and adjectives in proper names 
3.5. 	A common noun or adjective forming an essential part of a 
proper name is capitalized; the common noun used alone as a substitute 
for the name of a place or thing is not capitalized. 

        Massachusetts Avenue; the avenue 
        Washington Monument; the monument 
        Statue of Liberty; the statue 
        Hoover Dam; the dam 

        Boston Light; the light 
        Modoc National Forest; the national forest 
        Panama Canal; the canal 
        Soldiers' Home in Holyoke; the soldiers' home 
        Johnson House (hotel); Johnson house (residence) 
        Crow Reservation; the reservation 
        Cape of Good Hope; the cape 
        Jersey City 
        Washington City 
    but city of Washington; the city 

        Cook County; the county 

        Great Lakes; the lakes 

        Lake of the Woods; the lake 

        North Platte River; the river
        Lower California 

    but lower Mississippi 

        Charles the First; Charles I 

        Seventeenth Census; the 1960 census 

3.6. 	If a common noun or adjective forming an essential part of a 
        name becomes separated from the rest of the name by an 
        intervening common noun or adjective, the entire expression is 
        no longer a proper noun and is therefore not capitalized. 

        Union Station: union passenger station 

        Eastern States: eastern farming States 

        United States popularly elected government 

3.7. 	A common noun used alone as a well-known short form of a 
        specific proper name is capitalized. 

        the Capitol building in Washington, DC; but State capitol 
the Channel (English Channel) 
the Chunnel (tunnel 
        below English Channel) 
the District (District of Columbia) 

3.8. 	The plural form of a common noun capitalized as part of a 
        proper name is also capitalized. 

        Seventh and I Streets 

        Lakes Erie and Ontario 

        Potomac and James Rivers 

        State and Treasury Departments 

        British, French, and United States Governments 

        Presidents Washington and Adams 

3.9. 	A common noun used with a date, number, or letter, merely to 
        denote time or sequence, or for the purpose of reference, 
        record, or temporary convenience, does not form a proper name 
        and is therefore not capitalized. (See also rule 3.38.) 

        abstract B           figure 7                    room A722  
        act of 1928          first district (not         rule 8  
        amendment 5              congressional)          schedule K  
        apartment 2          flight 007                  section 3  
        appendix C           graph 8                     signature 4  
        article 1            group 7                     spring 1926  
        book II              history 301                 station 27  
        chapter III          mile 7.5                    table 4  
        chart B              page 2                      title IV  
        class I              paragraph 4                 treaty of 1919  
        collection 6         part I                      volume X  
        column 2             phase 3                     war of 1914  
        drawing 6            plate IV                    ward 2  
        exhibit D            region 3  

3.10. 	The following terms are lowercased, even with a name or number. 

        aqueduct             irrigation project          shipway
        breakwater           jetty                       slip 
        buoy                 levee                       spillway 
        chute                lock                        turnpike 
        dike                 pier                        watershed 
        dock                 reclamation project         weir 
        drydock              ship canal                  wharf 

Definite article in proper place names 
3.11. 	To achieve greater distinction or to adhere to the authorized 
        form, the word the (or its equivalent in a foreign language) is 
        capitalized when used as a part of an official name or title. 
        When such name or title is used adjectively, the is not 
        capitalized, nor is the supplied at any time when not in copy.
        British Consul v. Th e Mermaid (title of legal case) 
        The Dalles (OR); The Weirs (NH); but the Dalles region; the 
          Weirs streets 
        The Hague; but the Hague Court; the Second Hague Conference 
        El Salvador; Las Cruces; L'Esterel 
        The National Mall; The Mall (Washington, DC only) 
        The Gambia 
    but the Congo, the Sudan, the Netherlands 

3.12. 	Rule 3.11 does not apply in references to 
        newspapers, periodicals, vessels, airships, trains, firm names, 

        the Washington Post                      the U-3 
        the Times                                the Los Angeles 
        the Atlantic Monthly                     the Federal Express 
        the Mermaid                              the National Photo Co. 

Particles in names of persons 
3.13. 	In foreign names such particles as d�, da, de, della, den, du, 
        van, and von are capitalized unless preceded by a forename or 
        title. Individual usage, if ascertainable, should be followed. 

        Da Ponte; Cardinal da Ponte 
        Den Uyl; Johannes den Uyl; Prime Minister den Uyl 
        Du Pont; E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. 
        Van Rensselaer; Stephen van Rensselaer 
        Von Braun; Dr. Wernher von Braun 
    but d'Orbigny; Alcide d'Orbigny; de la Madrid; Miguel de la Madrid 

3.14. 	In anglicized names such particles are usually capitalized, 
        even if preceded by a forename or title, but individual usage, 
        if ascertainable, should be followed. 

        Justice Van Devanter; Reginald De Koven 

        Thomas De Quincey; William De Morgan 

        Henry van Dyke (his usage) 

        Samuel F. Du Pont (his usage); Ir�n�e du Pont 

3.15. 	If copy is not clear as to the form of such a name (for 
        example, La Forge or Laforge), the two-word form should be 

        De Kalb County (AL, GA, IL, IN) 

    but DeKalb County (TN) 

3.16. 	In names set in capitals, de, von, etc., are also capitalized. 

Names of organized bodies 
3.17. 	The full names of existing or proposed organized bodies and 
        their shortened names are capitalized; other substitutes, which 
        are most often regarded as common nouns, are capitalized only 
        in certain specified instances to indicate preeminence or 

National governmental units: 
  U.S. Congress: 110th Congress; the Congress; Congress; the Senate; 
       the House; Committee of the Whole, the Committee; but committee 
       (all other con  gressional committees) 
  Department of Agriculture: the Department; Division of Publications, 
       the Division; similarly all major departmental units; but 
       legislative, executive, and judicial departments 
  Bureau of the Census: the Census Bureau, the Bureau; but the agency 
  Environmental Protection Agency: the Agency 
  Geological Survey: the Survey 
  Government Printing Office: the Printing Office, the Office 
  American Embassy, British Embassy: the Embassy; but the consulate; 
       the consulate general 
  Treasury of the United States: General Treasury; National Treasury; 
       Public Treasury; the Treasury; Treasury notes; New York 
       Subtreasury, the subtreasury 
  Department of Defense: Military Establishment; Armed Forces; 
       All-Volunteer Forces; but armed services 
  U.S. Army: the Army; All-Volunteer Army; the Infantry; 81st Regiment; 
       Army Establishment; the Army Band; Army officer; Regular Army 
       officer; Reserve offi  cer; Volunteer offi  cer; but army shoe; 
       Grant's army; Robinson�s brigade; the brigade; the corps; the 
       regiment; infantryman 
  U.S. Navy: the Navy; the Marine Corps; Navy (Naval) Establishment; 
       Navy officer; but naval shipyard; naval officer; naval station 
  U.S. Air Force: the Air Force 
  U.S. Coast Guard: the Coast Guard 
  French Ministry of Foreign Affairs; the Ministry; French Army; 
       British Navy 
International organizations: 
  United Nations: the Council; the Assembly; the Secretariat 
  Permanent Court of Arbitration: the Court; the Tribunal (only in the 
       proceedings of a specific arbitration tribunal) 
  Hague Peace Conference of 1907: the Hague Conference; the Peace 
       Conference; the Conference 
Common-noun substitutes: 
  Virginia General Assembly: the assembly 
  California State Highway Commission: Highway Commission of 
       California; the highway commission; the commission 
  Montgomery County Board of Health: the Board of Health, Montgomery 
       County; the board of health; the board 
  Common Council of the City of Pittsburgh: the common council; the 
  Buffalo Consumers' League: the consumers' league; the league 
  Republican Party: the party 
  Southern Railroad Co.: the Southern Railroad; Southern Co.; Southern 
       Road; the railroad company; the company 
  Riggs National Bank: the Riggs Bank; the bank 
  Metropolitan Club: the club 
  Yale School of Law: Yale University School of Law; School of Law, 
       Yale University; school of law 

3.18. 	The names of members and adherents of organized bodies are 
        capitalized to distinguish them from the same words used merely 
        in a descriptive sense.  

          a Representative (U.S.)       a Shriner       a Boy Scout  
          a Republican                  a Socialist     a Knight (K.C.,           
                                                          K.P., etc.)
          an Elk                        an Odd Fellow         
          a Federalist                  a Communist  

Names of countries, domains, and administrative divisions 
3.19. 	The official designations of countries, national domains, and 
        their principal administrative divisions are capitalized only 
        if used as part of proper names, as proper names, or as proper 
        adjectives. (See Chapter 17, Principal Foreign Countries 

          United States: the Republic; the Nation; the Union; the 
              Government; also Federal, Federal Government; but 
              republic (when not referring specifi cally to one such 
              entity); republican (in general sense); a nation devoted 
              to peace 
          New York State: the State, a State (a definite political 
              subdivision of fi rst rank); State of Veracruz; Balkan 
              States; six States of Australia; State rights; but state 
              (referring to a federal government, the body politic); 
              foreign states; church and state; statehood; state's 
          Territory (Canada): Yukon, Northwest Territories; the 
              Territory(ies), Territorial; but territory of American 
              Samoa, Guam, Virgin Islands 
          Dominion of Canada: the Dominion; but dominion (in general 
          Ontario Province, Province of Ontario: the Province, 
              Provincial; but province, provincial (in general sense) 

3.20. 	The similar designations commonwealth, confederation (federal), 
        government, nation (national), powers, republic, etc., are 
        capitalized only if used as part of proper names, as proper 
        names, or as proper adjectives. 

          British Commonwealth, Commonwealth of Virginia: the 
              Commonwealth; but a commonwealth government (general 
          Swiss Confederation: the Confederation; the Federal Council; 
              the Federal Government; but confederation, federal (in 
              general sense) 
          French Government: the Government; French and Italian 
              Governments: the Governments; but government (in general 
              sense); the Churchill government; European governments 
          Cherokee Nation: the nation; but Greek nation; American 
          National Government (of any specifi c nation); but national 
              customs Allied Powers, Allies (in World Wars I and II); 
              but our allies, weaker allies; Central Powers (in World 
              War I); but the powers; European powers 
          Republic of South Africa: the Republic; but republic (in 
              general sense) 

Names of regions, localities, and geographic features 
3.21. 	A descriptive term used to denote a definite region, locality, 
        or geographic feature is a proper name and is therefore 
        capitalized; also for temporary distinction a coined name of a 
        region is capitalized. 

        the North Atlantic States             Middle East 
        the Gulf States                       Middle Eastern 
        the Central States                    Mideast 
        the Pacific Coast States              Mideastern (Asia) 
        the Lake States                       Near East (Balkans, etc.)
        East North Central States             the Promised Land 
        Eastern North Central States          the Continent 
                                                (continental Europe)
        Far Western States                    the Western Hemisphere 
        Eastern United States                 the North Pole 
        the West                              the North and South Poles 
        the Midwest                           the Temperate Zone 
        the Middle West                       the Torrid Zone 
        the Far West                          the East Side 
        the Eastern Shore (Chesapeake Bay)    Lower East Side (sections 
        the Badlands (SD and NE)                of a city)
        the Continental Divide                Western Europe, Central     
        Deep South                              (political entities)
        the Far East                          but
        Far Eastern                           lower 48 (States) 
        the East                              the Northeast corridor 
3.22. 	A descriptive term used to denote mere direction or position is 
        not a proper name and is therefore not capitalized. 

          north; south; east; west 
          northerly; northern; northward 

          eastern; oriental; occidental 

          east Pennsylvania
          southern California
          northern Virginia 

          west Florida; but West Florida (1763-1819) 

          eastern region; western region
          north-central region 

          east coast; eastern seaboard
          northern Italy
          southern France 

      but East Germany; West Germany (former political entities) 

Names of calendar divisions 
3.23.	 The names of calendar divisions are capitalized. 

           January; February; March; etc. 

           Monday; Tuesday; Wednesday; etc. 

         but spring; summer; autumn (fall); winter 

Names of holidays, etc. 
3.24. 	The names of holidays and ecclesiastic feast and fast days are          

           April Fools' Day                       Independence Day 
           Arbor Day                              Labor Day 
           Armed Forces Day                       Lincoln's Birthday 
           Birthday of Martin Luther              Memorial Day (also 
               King, Jr.                            Decoration Day) 
           Christmas Day, Eve                     Mother's Day 
           Columbus Day                           New Year's Day, Eve 
           Father's Day                           Presidents Day 
           Feast of the Passover; the Passover    Ramadan 
           Flag Day                               Rosh Hashanah 
           Fourth of July; the Fourth             St. Valentine's Day 
           Halloween                              Thanksgiving Day 
           Hanukkah                               Washington's Birthday 
           Hogmanay                               Yom Kippur 
           Inauguration Day (Federal)         but election day, 
                                                    primary day 

Trade names and trademarks 
3.25. 	Trade names, variety names, and names of market grades and 
        brands are capitalized. Some trade names have come into usage 
        as generic terms (e.g., cellophane, thermos, and aspirin); when 
        reference is being made to the formal company or specifi c 
        product name, capitalization should be used. (See Chapter 4 
        ``Capitalization Examples'' trade names and trademarks.) 
        Choice lamb (market grade)              Xerox  (the company) 
        Red Radiance rose (variety)         but photocopy (the process) 

Scientific names 
3.26. 	The name of a phylum, class, order, family, or genus is 
        capitalized. The name of a species is not capitalized, even 
        though derived from a proper name. (See rule 11.9.) 

        Arthropoda (phylum), Crustacea (class), Hypoparia (order), 
            Agnostidae (family), Agnostus (genus) 
        Agnostus canadensis; Aconitum wilsoni; Epigaea repens (genus 
            and species) 

3.27. 	In scientific descriptions coined terms derived from proper 
        names are not capitalized. 

        aviculoid                menodontine 

3.28. 	Any plural formed by adding s to a Latin generic name is 

        Rhynchonellas            Spirifers 

3.29. 	In soil science the 12 soil orders are capitalized. (See 
        Chapter 4 ``Capitalization Examples'' soil orders.) 

        Alfi sols                Andisols          Aridisols 

3.30. 	Capitalize the names of the celestial bodies as well as the 

        Sun                      Earth             Venus  
        Moon                     Mercury           Mars  
        Jupiter                  Uranus        but the moons of Jupiter  
        Saturn                   Neptune  

Historical or political events 
3.31. Names of historical or political events used as a proper name are 

      Battle of Bunker Hill      Middle Ages       Revolution, the  
      Christian Era              New Deal              American, 1775  
      D-day                      New Federalism        English, 1688  
      Dust Bowl                  New Frontier          French, 1789  
      Fall of Rome               Prohibition           Russian, 1917  
      Great Depression           Restoration, the    V-E Day  
      Great Society              Reformation         War of 1812  
      Holocaust, the             Renaissance         War on Poverty  
but Korean war; cold war; Vietnam war; gulf war 

3.32. 	A vivid personification is capitalized.

          The Chair recognizes the gentlewoman from New York; 
      but I spoke with the chair yesterday. 
          For Nature wields her scepter mercilessly. 
          All are architects of Fate, 
                Working in these walls of Time. 

Religious terms 
3.33. 	Words denoting the Deity except who, whose, and whom; names for 
        the Bible and other sacred writings and their parts; names of 
        confessions of faith and of religious bodies and their 
        adherents; and words specifically denoting Satan are all 

        Heavenly Father; the Almighty; Lord; Th ee; Thou; He; Him; but 
            himself; You, Your; Thy, Thine; [God's] fatherhood 
        Mass; red Mass; Communion 
        Divine Father; but divine providence; divine guidance; divine 
        Son of Man; Jesus' sonship; the Messiah; but a messiah; 
            messiahship; messianic; messianize; christology; 
        Bible, Holy Scriptures, Scriptures, Word; Koran; also Biblical; 
            Scriptural; Koranic 
        New Testament; Ten Commandments 
        Gospel (memoir of Christ); but gospel music 
        Apostles' Creed; Augsburg Confession; Thirty-nine Articles 
        Episcopal Church; an Episcopalian; Catholicism; a Protestant 
        Christian; also Christendom; Christianity; Christianize 
        Black Friars; Brother(s); King�s Daughters; Daughter(s); 
            Ursuline Sisters; 
        Sister(s) Satan; the Devil; but a devil; the devils; devil's advocate 

Titles of persons 
3.34. 	Civil, religious, military, and professional titles, as well as 
        those of nobility, immediately preceding a name are 

        President Bush                             Dr. Bellinger 
        Queen Elizabeth II                         Nurse Joyce Norton 
        Ambassador Acton                           Professor Leverett 
        Lieutenant Fowler                          Examiner Jones (law) 
        Chairman Williams                          Vice-Presidential 
                                                       candidate Smith 
but baseball player Ripken; maintenance man Flow; foreman Collins 

3.35. 	To indicate preeminence or distinction in certain specifi ed 
        instances, a common-noun title immediately following the name 
        of a person or used alone as a substitute for it is 

Title of a head or assistant head of state: 

       George W. Bush, President of the United States: the President; 
           the President-elect; the Executive; the Chief Magistrate; 
           the Commander in Chief; ex-President Clinton; former 
           President Truman; similarly the Vice President; the 
           Vice-President-elect; ex-Vice-President Gore 
       Tim Kaine, Governor of Virginia: the Governor of Virginia; the 
           Governor; similarly the Lieutenant Governor; but secretary 
           of state of Idaho; attorney general of Maine 
Title of a head or assistant head of an existing or a proposed National 
governmental unit: 
      Condoleezza Rice, Secretary of State: the Secretary; similarly 
          the Acting Secretary; the Under Secretary; the Assistant 
          Secretary; the Director; the Chief or Assistant Chief; the 
          Chief Clerk; but Secretaries of the military departments; 
Titles of the military: 
      General of the Army(ies): United States only; Supreme Allied 
          Commander; Admiral Michael Mullen, Chairman, Joint Chiefs of 
          Staff; Joint Chiefs of Staff; Chief of Staff, U.S. Air Force; 
          the Chief of Staff ; but the commanding general; general 
          (military title standing alone not capitalized) 
Titles of members of diplomatic corps: 
      Walter S. Gifford, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary: 
          the American Ambassador; the British Ambassador; the 
          Ambassador; the Senior Ambassador; His Excellency; similarly 
          the Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary; the 
          Envoy; the Minister; the Charg� d'Affaires; the Charg�; 
          Ambassador at Large; Minister Without Portfolio; but the 
          consul general; the consul; the attach�
Title of a ruler or prince: 
      Elizabeth II, Queen of England: the Queen; the Crown; Her Most 
          Gracious Majesty; Her Majesty; similarly the Emperor; the 
      Charles, Prince of Wales: the Prince; His Royal Highness Titles 
          not capitalized: 
      Charles F. Hughes, rear admiral, U.S. Navy: the rear admiral 
      Steven Knapp, president of The George Washington University: the 
      C.H. Eckles, professor of dairy husbandry: the professor 
      Barbara Prophet, chairwoman of the committee; the chairman; the 
      chairperson; the chair 

3.36. 	In formal lists of delegates and representatives of 
        governments, all titles and descriptive designations 
        immediately following the names should be capitalized if any 
        one is capitalized.  

3.37.  A title in the second person is capitalized.  

       Your Excellency        Mr. Chairman         but not salutations:
       Your Highness          Madam Chairman       my dear General
       Your Honor             Mr. Secretary        my dear sir  

Titles of publications, papers, documents, acts, laws, etc. 

3.38. 	In the full or short English titles of periodicals, series of 
        publications, annual reports, historic documents, and works of 
        art, the first word and all important words are capitalized. 

          Statutes at Large; Revised Statutes; District Code; 
              Bancroft's History; Journal (House or Senate) (short 
              titles); but the code; the statutes 
          Atlantic Charter; Balfour Declaration; but British white 
          Chicago's American; but Chicago American Publishing Co. 
          Reader's Digest; but New York Times Magazine; Newsweek 
          Monograph 55; Research Paper 123; Bulletin 420; Circular A; 
              Article 15: Uniform Code of Military Justice; Senate 
              Document 70; House Resolution 45; Presidential 
              Proclamation No. 24; Executive Order No. 24; Royal Decree 
              No. 24; Public Law 89-1; Private and Union Calendars; 
              Calendar No. 80; Calendar Wednesday; Committee Print No. 
              32, committee print; but Senate bill 416; House bill 61; 
              Congressional Record 
          Annual Report of the Public Printer, 2007; but seventh annual 
              report, 19th annual report 
          Declaration of Independence; the Declaration 
          Constitution (United States or with name of country); 
              constitutional; but New York State constitution: first 
              amendment, 12th amendment 
          Kellogg Pact; North Atlantic Pact; Atlantic Pact; Treaty of 
              Versailles; Jay Treaty; but treaty of peace, the treaty 
              (descriptive designations); treaty of 1919 
          United States v. Four Hundred Twenty-two Casks of Wine (law) 
              American Gothic, Nighthawks (paintings) 

3.39. 	All principal words are capitalized in titles of addresses, 
        articles, books, captions, chapter and part headings, 
        editorials, essays, headings, headlines, motion pictures and 
        plays (including television and radio programs), papers, short 
        poems, reports, songs, subheadings, subjects, and themes. The 
        foregoing are also quoted. 

3.40. 	In the short or popular titles of acts (Federal, State, or 
        foreign) the first word and all important words are 

            Revenue Act; Walsh-Healey Act; Freedom of Information Act; 
            Classification Act; but the act; Harrison narcotic law; 
            Harrison narcotic bill; interstate commerce law; sunset law 

3.41. 	The capitalization of the titles of books, etc., written in a 
        foreign language is to conform to the national practice in that 

First words 
3.42. 	The first word of a sentence, of an independent clause or 
        phrase, of a direct quotation, of a formally introduced series 
        of items or phrases following a comma or colon, or of a line of 
        poetry, is capitalized. 

            The question is, Shall the bill pass? 

            He asked, ``And where are you going?'' 

            The vote was as follows: In the affirmative, 23; in the 
                negative, 11; not voting, 3. 

                                  Lives of great men all remind us 
                                    We can make our lives sublime. 

3.43.	 The first word of a fragmentary quotation is not capitalized. 
         She objected ``to the phraseology, not to the ideas.''

3.44. 	The first word following a colon, an exclamation point, or a 
        question mark is not capitalized if the matter following is 
        merely a supplementary remark making the meaning clearer. 

            Revolutions are not made: they come. 

            Intelligence is not replaced by mechanism: even the televox 
                must be guided by 
its master's voice. 
            But two months dead! nay, not so much; not two. 
            What is this? Your knees to me? to your corrected son? 

3.45. 	The first word following Whereas in resolutions, contracts, 
        etc., is not capitalized; the first word following an enacting 
        or resolving clause is capitalized. 

            Whereas the Constitution provides * * *; and 
            Whereas, moreover, * * *: Therefore be it 
            Whereas the Senate provided for the * * *: Now, therefore, 
                be it 
            Resolved, That * * *; and be it further 
            Resolved (jointly), That * * * 
            Resolved by the House of Representatives (the Senate 
                concurring), That * * *. 
                (Concurrent resolution, Federal Government.) 
            Resolved by the Senate of Oklahoma (the House of 
                Representatives concurring therein), That * * *. 
                (Concurrent resolution, using name of State.) 
            Resolved by the senate (the house of representatives 
                concurring therein), That* * *. 
                (Concurrent resolution, not using name of State.) 
            Resolved by the Assembly and Senate of the State of 
                California (jointly), That* * *. 
                (Joint resolution, using name of State.) 
            Resolved by the Washington Board of Trade, That * * * 
            Provided, That * * * 
            Provided further, That * * * 
            Provided, however, That * * * 
            And provided further, That * * * 
            Ordered, That * * * 
            Be it enacted, That * * * 

Center and side heads 
3.46. 	Unless otherwise marked, centerheads are set in capitals, and 
        side-heads are set in lowercase and only the first word and 
        proper names are capitalized. In centerheads making two lines, 
        wordbreaks should be avoided. Th e first line should be 
        centered and set as full as possible. 

3.47. 	In heads set in caps, a small-cap c or ac, if available, is 
        used in such names as McLean or MacLeod; otherwise a lowercase 
        c or ac is used. In heads set in small caps, a thin space is 
        used aft er the c or the ac. 

3.48. 	In such names as LeRoy, DeHostis, LaFollette, etc. (one-word 
        forms only), set in caps, the second letter of the particle is 
        made a small cap, if available; otherwise lowercase is used. In 
        heads set in small caps, a thin space is used. (See rule 3.15.) 

3.49. 	In matter set in caps and small caps or caps and lowercase, 
        capitalize all principal words, including parts of compounds 
        which would be capitalized standing alone. Th e articles a, an, 
        and the; the prepositions at, by, for, in, of, on, to, and up; 
        the conjunctions and, as, but, if, or, and nor; and the second 
        element of a compound numeral are not capitalized. (See also 
        rule 8.129.) 

            World en Route to All-Out War 
            Curfew To Be Set for 10 o�Clock 
            Man Hit With 2-Inch Pipe 
            No-Par-Value Stock for Sale 
            Yankees May Be Winners in Zig-Zag Race 
            Ex-Senator Is To Be Admitted 
            Notice of Filing and Order on Exemption From Requirements 
            but Building on Twenty-first Street (if spelled) 
            One Hundred Twenty-three Years (if spelled) 
            Only One-tenth of Shipping Was Idle 
            Many 35-Millimeter Films in Production 
            Built-Up Stockpiles Are Necessary (Up is an adverb here) 
            His Per Diem Was Increased (Per Diem is used as a noun 
                here); Lower Taxes per Person (per is a preposition 

3.50. 	If a normally lowercased short word is used in juxtaposition 
        with a capitalized word of like significance, it should also be 

             Buildings In and Near the Minneapolis Mall 

3.51. 	In a heading set in caps and lowercase or in caps and small 
        caps, a normally lowercased last word, if it is the only 
        lowercased word in the heading, should also be capitalized. 

             All Returns Are In 

3.52.	 The first element of an infinitive is capitalized. 

             Controls To Be Applied 

         but Aid Sent to Disaster Area 

3.53. 	In matter set in caps and small caps, such abbreviations as 
        etc., et al., and p.m. are set in small caps; in matter set in 
        caps and lowercase, these abbreviations are set in lowercase. 

             Planes, Guns, Ships, etc.         In re the 8 p.m. Meeting 

             Planes, Guns, Ships, etc.         In re the 8 p.m. Meeting 

             James Bros. et al. (no comma) 
             James Bros. et al. 

3.54. 	Paragraph series letters in parentheses appearing in heads set 
        in caps, caps and small caps, small caps, or in caps and 
        lowercase are to be set as in copy. 

          section 1.580(f)(1) 

Addresses, salutations, and signatures 
3.55. 	The first word and all principal words in addresses, 
        salutations, and signatures are capitalized. See Chapter 16 
        ``Datelines, Addresses, and Signatures.''  

3.56. 	The interjection ``O'' is always capitalized. Interjections 
        within a sentence are not capitalized. 

          Sail on, O Ship of State! 
          For lo! the days are hastening on. 

          But, oh, how fortunate! 

Historic or documentary accuracy 
3.57. 	Where historic, documentary, technical, or scientific accuracy 
        is required, capitalization and other features of style of the 
        original text should be followed.