[U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual]
[Chapter 2 - General Instructions]
[From the U.S. Government Publishing Office, www.gpo.gov]

Job planning 

2.1.  The use of computers has dramatically altered every phase of 
      the printing industry beginning with the basic planning of each 
      new job. New publications are evaluated by application 
      specialists who review their requirements and design the 
      necessary formats. Each format is made to conform exactly to the 
      copy's specifications for page dimensions, line length, 
      indentions, typefaces, etc. Upon completion, sample pages are 
      produced and submitted to the customer. At this time, customer 
      agencies are requested to indicate precise details of any style 
      changes because this set of pages serves as a guide for the copy 
      preparer, the beginning of actual production. 

2.2.  In recent years, changes in the needs of the library community 
      have led to a move toward uniform treatment of the component 
      parts of publications. In developing standards to guide 
      publishers of Government documents, consideration has been given 
      to the changing needs of those who seek to produce, reference, 
      index, abstract, store, search, and retrieve data. Certain 
      identifying elements shall be printed on all publications in 
      accordance with this Manual and with standards developed by the 
      (ANSI) American National Standards Institute. 

Publications such as books and pamphlets should contain: 
(a) Title and other title information; 
(b) Name of department issuing or creating publication; 
(c) Name of author(s) and editor(s) (department or individual); 
(d) Date of issuance; 
(e) Availability (publisher, printer, or other source and address); 
(f) Superintendent of Documents classification and stock numbers if 
    applicable; and 
(g) The ISBN (International Standard Book Number). 

(See ANSI Standard Z39.15, Title Leaves of a Book.) 

Reports of a scientific or technical nature should contain: 
(a) Title and other title information; 
(b) Report number; 



 (1)  This sample report cover is reduced in size. 
 (2)  In this sample, items are justified left. Other cover designs 
      and typefaces are acceptable.

 (3)  This sample page was prepared according to the guidelines of 
      the American National Standards Institute, 25 West 43d St., 
      New York, NY 10036. Users of ANSI standards are cautioned that 
      all standards are reviewed periodically and subject to revision. 

(c)  Author(s); 
(d)  Performing organization; 
(e)  Sponsoring department; 
(f)  Date of issuance; 
(g)  Type of report and period covered; 
(h)  Availability (publisher, printer, or other source and address); 
(i)  Superintendent of Documents classification and stock numbers if 

(See ANSI/NISO Standard Z39.18--1995, Scientific and Technical 
Reports--Elements, Organization, and Design.) 

Journals, magazines, periodicals, and similar publications should 
(a) Title and other title information; 
(b) Volume and issue numbers; 
(c) Date of issue; 
(d) Publishing or sponsoring department; 
(e) Availability (publisher, printer, or other source and address); 
(f) International Standard Serial Number; and 
(g) Superintendent of Documents classification and stock numbers if 

(See ANSI Standard Z39.1, American Standard Reference Data and 
Arrangement of Periodicals.) 


2.3.  The design and makeup of a publication is the responsibility of 
      the publisher. However, when the following elements occur in 
      Government publications, they generally appear in the sequence 
      listed below. The designation ``new odd page'' generally refers 
      to bookwork and is not required in most pamphlet- and magazine-
      type publications.

 (a)  Frontispiece, faces title page.
 (b)  False title (frontispiece, if any, on back).
 (c)  Title page (new odd page). 
 (d)  Back of title, blank, but frequently carries such useful 
      bibliographic information as list of board members, congressional 
      resolution authorizing publication, note of editions and 
      printings, GPO imprint if departmental imprint appears on title 
      page, sales notice, etc.

 (e)  Letter of transmittal (new odd page).
 (f)  Foreword, differs from a preface in that it is an introductory 
      note written as an endorsement by a person other than the 
      author (new odd page). An introduction differs from a foreword 
      or a preface in that it is the initial part of the text; if the 
      book is divided into chapters, it should be the first chapter.
 (g)  Preface, by author (new odd page).
 (h)  Acknowledgments (if not part of preface) (new odd page).
 (i)  Contents (new odd page), immediately followed by list of  
      illustrations and list of tables, as parts of contents.
 (j)  Text, begins with page 1 (if halftitle is used, begins with 
      p. 3). 
 (k)  Glossary (new odd page). 
 (l)  Bibliography (new odd page). 
 (m)  Appendix (new odd page). 
 (n)  Index (new odd page). 

2.4.  Preliminary pages use small-cap Roman numerals. Pages in the 
      back of the book (index, etc.), use lowercase Roman numerals. 
2.5.  Booklets of 32 pages or less can be printed more economically 
      with a self-cover. A table of contents, title page, foreword, 
      preface, etc., is not usually necessary with so few pages. If 
      some of this preliminary matter is necessary, it is more 
      practical if combined; i.e., contents on cover; contents, title, 
      and foreword on cover 2, etc. 
2.6.  Widow lines (lines less than full width of measure) at top of 
      pages are to be avoided, if possible, but are permitted if 
      absolutely necessary to maintain uniform makeup and page depth. 
      Rewording to fill the line is a preferred alternative. 
2.7.  Paragraphs may start on the last line of a page whenever 
      necessary. If it is found necessary to make a short page, the 
      facing page should be of approximate equal depth. 
2.8.  A blank space or sink of 6 picas should be placed at the head 
      of each new odd or even page of 46-pica or greater depth; pages 
      with a depth of from 36 to 45 picas, inclusive, will carry a 
      5-pica sink; pages less than 36 picas, 4 picas. 
2.9.  When top centered folios are used, the folio on a new page is 
      set 2 points smaller than the top folios. They are centered at 
      the bottom and enclosed in parentheses. 
2.10. Where running heads with folios are used, heads are included in 
      overall page depth. However, first pages of chapters and pages 
      with bottom folios do not include the folios as part of the 
      overall page depth. 
2.11. Jobs that have both running heads and bottom folios or just 
      bottom folios will align all of the page numbers on the bottom 
      in the margin, including those on preliminary pages. If at all 
      possible avoid use of running heads in conjunction with bottom 
2.12. Contents, list of illustrations, preface, or any other matter 
      that makes a page in itself will retain normal 6-pica sink. 
2.13. Footnote references are repeated in boxheads or in continued 
      lines over tables, unless special orders are given not to do so. 
2.14. When a table continues, its headnote is repeated without the 
      word Continued. 
2.15. A landscape or broadside table that continues from an even to 
      an odd page must be positioned to read through the center 
      (gutter) of the publication when its size is not suffi  cient 
      to fill both pages. 
2.16. A broadside table of less than page width will center on the 
2.17. Centerheads, whether in boldface, caps, caps and small caps, 
      small caps, or italic, should have more space above than below. 
      Uniform spacing should be maintained throughout the page. 
2.18. In making up a page of two or more columns, text preceding a 
      page-width illustration will be divided equally into the 
      appropriate number of columns above the illustration.  
2.19. Two or more short footnotes may be combined into one line, with 
      2 ems of space between.  

      \1\Preliminary.  \2\Including imported cases.  \3\Imported.  

2.20.  All backstrips should read down (from top to bottom).  

Copy preparation 
2.21. At the beginning of each job the proper formats must be plainly 
      marked. New Odd or New Page, Preliminary, Cover, Title, or Back 
      Title should also be plainly indicated. 
2.22. Copy preparers must mark those things not readily understood 
      when reading the manuscript. They must also mark the correct 
      element identifier code for each data element, as well as 
      indicate other matters of style necessary to give the 
      publication good typographic appearance. 
2.23. Preparers must indicate the proper subformat at the beginning 
      of each extension, verify folio numbers, and plainly indicate 
      references, footnotes, cut-ins, etc. Unless otherwise marked, 
      text matter will be set in 10-point solid and tables in 7 point. 
      In tables utilizing down rules, unless a specific weight is 
      requested by the customer, hairline rules will be used. 
      (See rule 13.3.) 
2.24. Quoted or extract matter and lists should be set smaller than 
      text with space above and below. Quotation marks at the beginning 
      and end of paragraphs should be omitted. If the same type size 
      is used, quoted matter should be indented 2 ems on both sides 
      with space top and bottom, and initial and closing quotes should 
      be omitted. 


2.25. Unusual use of capital and lowercase letters should be indicated 
      by the customer to guarantee correct usage. 

Datelines, addresses, and signatures 
2.26. Copy preparers must mark caps, small caps, italic, abbreviations, 
      indentions, and line breaks where necessary. (For more detailed 
      instructions, see Chapter 16 ``Datelines, Addresses, and 

Decimals and common fractions 
2.27. In figure columns containing both decimals and common fractions, 
      such decimals and/or fractions will not be aligned. The columns 
      will be set flush right. 

``Et cetera,''``etc.,'' and ``and so forth'' 
2.28. In printing a speaker's language, the words and so forth or 
      et cetera are preferred, but in ``FIC & punc.'' matter etc., 
      is acceptable. If a quoted extract is set in type smaller than 
      that of the preceding text and the speaker has summed up the 
      remainder of the quotation with the words and so forth or 
      et cetera, these words should be placed at the beginning of 
      the next line, flush and lowercase, and an em dash should be 
      used at the end of the extract. 

Folioing and stamping copy 
2.29. Folio numbers should be placed in the upper right corner, 
      preferably half an inch from the top. 

2.30. The element identifier codes to be used for all headings must 
      be marked. Caps, caps and small caps, small caps, caps and 
      lowercase, lowercase first up (first word and proper nouns 
      capitalized), or italic must be prepared. (See rule 3.49.) 

2.31. The jacket number of a job from which matter is to be picked 
      up must be indicated. New matter and pickup matter should 
      conform in style. 

Sidenotes and cut-in notes 
2.32. Sidenotes and cut-in notes are set each line fl ush left and 
      ragged right, unless otherwise prepared, and are always set 
      solid. Sidenotes are usually set in 6 point, 4� picas wide. 
      Footnotes to sidenotes and text should be set 21� picas. 

Sec. 920. Abuse of the rule.  An alleged violation of the rule relating 
          to admission to the floor presents a question of privilege 
          (III, 2624, 2625; VI, 579), but not a higher question of 
          privilege than an election case (III, 2626). In one  
          case where an ex-Member was abusing the privilege * * *. 

Signs, symbols, etc. 
2.33. All signs, symbols, dashes, superiors, etc., must be plainly 
      marked. Names of Greek letters must be indicated, as they are 
      frequently mistaken for italic or symbols. 

2.34. Some typesetting systems produce characters that look the same 
      as figures. A lowercase l resembles a figure 1 and a capital O 
      looks like a figure 0. Questionable characters will be printed 
      as figures unless otherwise marked. 

Letters illustrating shape and form 
2.35. Capital letters of the text face will be used to illustrate shape 
      and form, as U-shape(d), A-frame, T-bone, and I-beam. 
2.36. Plurals are formed by adding an apostrophe and the letter s to 
      letters illustrating shape and form, such as T's and Y's. Golf 
      tee(s) should be spelled, as shape is not indicated. 
2.37. A capital letter is used in U-boat, V-8, and other expressions 
      which have no reference to shape or form. 

Fol. lit. and FIC & punc. 
2.38. After submittal to GPO, manuscript copy is rubber-stamped ``Fol. 
     lit.'' or ``FIC & punc.'' The difference between these two 
     typesetting instructions is explained thus: 

     Copy is followed when stamped ``Fol. lit.'' (follow literally). 
     Copy authorized to be marked ``Fol. lit.'' must be thoroughly 
     prepared by the requisitioning agency as to capitalization, 
     punctuation (including compounding), abbreviations, signs, 
     symbols, figures, and italic. Such copy, including even 
     obvious errors, will be followed. The lack of preparation 
     on copy so designated shall, in itself, constitute preparation. 
     ``Fol. lit.'' does not include size and style of type or spacing. 

     Obvious errors are corrected in copy marked ``FIC & punc.'' 
     (follow, including capitalization and punctuation). 

2.39. In congressional hearings, the name of the interrogator or 
      witness who continues speaking is repeated following a head set 
      in boldface, a paragraph enclosed in parentheses, and a 
      paragraph enclosed in brackets. 

      In a head set in boldface, the title ``Mr.'' is not used, and 
      ``the Honorable'' preceding a name is shortened to ``Hon.'' 
      Street addresses are also deleted. Example: ``Statement of 
      Hon. John P. Blank, Member, American Bar Association, 
      Washington, DC.'' 

2.40. Paragraph or section numbers (or letters) followed by figures 
      or letters in parentheses will close up, as ``section 
      7(B)(1)(a),'' ``paragraph 23(a),'' ``paragraph b(7),'' 
      ``paragraph (a)(2)''; but ``section 9(a) (1) and (2)'', ``section 
      7 a and b''. In case of an unavoidable break, division will be 
      made after elements in parentheses, and no hyphen is used. 

2.41. Bill style.--Bill copy will be followed as supplied. Bills will 
      be treated as ``FIC & punc.'' This data is transmitted to the 
      GPO via fiber optic transmission with element identifier codes 
      in place. Therefore, it is not cost effective to prepare the 
      manuscript as per the GPO Style Manual and update the data 
      once it is in type form. 
2.42. Copy preparer's instructions, which accompany each job, are 
      written to cover the general style and certain peculiarities or 
      deviations from style. These instructions must be followed. 

2.43. In marking abbreviations to be spelled, preparers must show 
      what the spelled form should be, unless the abbreviations are 
      common and not susceptible to more than one construction. An 
      unfamiliar abbreviation, with spelled-out form unavailable, is 
      not changed. 

Type composition 
2.44. Operators and revisers must study carefully the rules governing 
2.45. In correcting pickup matter, the operator must indicate plainly 
      on the proof what portion, if any, was actually reset. 
2.46. Every precaution must be taken to prevent the soiling of proofs, 
      as it is necessary for the reviser to see clearly every mark on 
      the margin of a proof after it has been corrected. 
2.47. Corrections of queries intended for the author are not to be 
      made. Such queries, however, are not to be carried on jobs going 
      directly to press. 

Leading and spacing 
2.48. Spacing of text is governed by the leading, narrow spacing being 
      more desirable in solid than in leaded matter. 
2.49. A single justified word space will be used between sentences. 
      This applies to all types of composition. 
2.50. Center or flush heads set in caps, caps and small caps, small 
      caps, or boldface are keyed with regular justified spaces 
      between words. 
2.51. Centerheads are set apart from the text by the use of spacing. 
      The amount of space varies with each publication. However, 
      more space is always inserted above a heading than below. In 
      10-point type, the spacing would be 10 points over and 8 points 
      under a heading; in 8and 6-point type, the spacing would be 8 
      points above and 6 points below. 
2.52. Solid matter (text) is defined as those lines set without 
      horizontal space between them. Leaded text is defined as lines 
      separated by 1 or 2 points of space. 
2.53. Unless otherwise marked, flush heads are separated from text by 
      4 points of space above and 2 points of space below in solid 
      matter, and by 6 points of space above and 4 points of space 
      below in leaded matter. 
2.54. Full-measure numbered or lettered paragraphs and quoted extracts 
      are not separated by space from adjoining matter.  
2.55. Extracts which are set off from the text by smaller type or are 
      indented on both sides or indented 3 ems on the left side 
      (courtwork only) are separated by 6 points of space in leaded 
      matter and by 4 points of space in solid matter.  
2.56. Extracts set solid in leaded matter are separated from the text 
      by 6 points.  
2.57. Flush lines following extracts are separated by 6 points of space 
      in leaded matter and by 4 points in solid matter.  
2.58. Footnotes are leaded if the text is leaded, and are solid if the 
      text is solid.  
2.59. Legends are leaded if the text is leaded, and solid if the text 
      is solid. Leaderwork is separated from text by 4 points above and 
      4 points below.  

2.60. In measures less than 30 picas, the paragraph indention is 
      1 em. Paragraph indentions in cut-in matter are 3 ems, overs 
      are 2 ems. Datelines and signatures are indented in multiples 
      of 2 ems. Addresses are set flush left . 
2.61. In matter set 30 picas or wider, the paragraph indention is 
      2 ems. Paragraph indentions in cut-in matter are 6 ems, overs 
      are 4 ems. Datelines and signatures are indented in multiples 
      of 2 ems. Addresses are set flush left . 
2.62. In measures less than 30 picas, overruns in hanging indentions 
      are 1 em more than the first line, except that to avoid conflict 
      with a following indention (for example, of a subentry or 
      paragraph), the overrun indention is made 1 em more than the 
      following line. 
2.63. In matter set 30 picas or wider, overruns in hanging indentions 
      are 2 ems more than the first line, except that to avoid conflict 
      with a following indention (for example, of a subentry or 
      paragraph), the overrun indention is made 2 ems more than the 
      following line. 
2.64. Indention of matter set in smaller type should be the same, 
      in points, as that of adjoining main-text indented matter. 
2.65. Two-line centerheads are centered, but heads of three or more 
      lines are set with a hanging indention. 
2.66. Overs in flush heads are indented 2 ems in measures less than 
      30 picas, and 3 ems in wider measures. 

Legends for illustrations 
2.67. It is preferred that legends and explanatory data consisting of 
      one or two lines are set centered, while those with more than 
      two lines are set with a hanging indention. Legends are set 
      full measure regardless of the width of the illustration. 
      Paragraph style is acceptable. 
2.68. Legend lines for illustrations that appear broad or turn page 
      (landscape) should be printed to read up; an even-page legend 
      should be on the inside margin and an odd-page legend on the 
      outside margin. 
2.69. Unless otherwise indicated, legends for illustrations are set 
      in 8-point roman, lowercase. 
2.70. Periods are used after legends and explanatory remarks beneath 
      illustrations. However, legends without descriptive language do 
      not use a period. (See rule 8.112.) 
2.71. At the beginning of a legend or standing alone, Figure preceding 
      the identifying number or letter is set in caps and small caps 
      and is not abbreviated. 

        Figure 5, not Fig. 5            Figure A, not Fig. A 

2.72. If a chart carries both a legend and footnotes, the legend is 
      placed above the chart. 
2.73. Letter symbols used in legends for illustrations are set in 
      lowercase italic without periods. 

2.74. All special instructions, layouts, and style sheets must be 
      included with the first installment of each job. 
2.75. If the proofreader detects inconsistent or erroneous 
      statements, it is his or her responsibility to query them. 
2.76. If the grammatical construction of a sentence or clause is 
      questioned by a proofreader and it seems desirable to change 
      the form, he or she must indicate the proposed correction, add 
      a query mark, and enclose all in a circle. 
2.77. All queries appearing on the copy must be carried to the 
      author's set of proofs. 
2.78. Proofs that are illegible or are in any manner defective must 
      be called to the attention of the deskperson. 
2.79. The manner in which correction marks are made on a proof is of 
      considerable importance. Straggling, unsymmetrical characters, 
      disconnected marks placed in the margin above or below the lines 
      to which they relate, irregular lines leading from an incorrect 
      letter or word to a correction, large marks, marks made with a 
      blunt pencil, indistinct marks, and frequent use of the eraser 
      to obliterate marks hastily or incorrectly made are faults to 
      be avoided. 
2.80. In reading proof of wide tables, the proofreader should place 
      the correction as near as possible to the error. The 
      transposition mark should not be used in little-known words or in
      figures. It is better to cancel the letters or figures and write 
      them in the margin in the order in which they are to appear. 
2.81. To assure proper placement of footnotes, the proofreader and 
      reviser must draw a ring around footnote references on the 
      proofs, then check off each corresponding footnote number. 
2.82. Proofreaders must not make important changes in indentions or 
      tables without consulting the referee. 
2.83. The marks of the copy preparer will be followed, as he or she 
      is in a position to know more about the peculiarities of a job 
      than one who reads but a small portion of it. 
2.84. Any mark that will change the proof from the copy as prepared 
      must be circled in the margin. 
2.85. All instructions on copy must be carried on proof by readers. 
2.86. Folios of copy must be run by the proofreader and marked on the 
2.87. All instructions, comments, and extraneous notes on both copy 
      and proofs that are not intended to be set as part of the text 
      must be circled. 

Revising galley proofs 
2.88. The importance of revising proofs cannot be overemphasized. 
      Although a reviser is not expected to read proof, it is not 
      enough to follow the marks found on the proof. He or she should 
      be alert to detect errors and inconsistencies and must see that 
      all corrections have been properly made and that words or lines 
      have not been transposed or eliminated in making the corrections. 
2.89. A reviser must not remodel the punctuation of the proofreaders 
      or make any important changes. If an important change should be 
      made, the reviser must submit the proposed change to the 
      supervisor for a decision. 
2.90. In the body of the work, new pages must be properly indicated on 
      the proof. (For new page information, see rule 2.3 ``Makeup.'') 
2.91. All instructions and queries on proofs must be transferred to the 
      revised set of proofs. 

Revising page proofs 
2.92. Page revising requires great diligence and care. The reviser 
      must see that the rules governing the instructions of previous 
      workers have been followed. 
2.93. The reviser is responsible for marking all bleed and off-center 
2.94. A blank page must be indicated at the bottom of the preceding 
2.95. Special care must be exercised in revising corrected matter. 
      If it appears that a correction has not been made, the reviser 
      should carefully examine each line on the page to see if the 
      correction was inserted in the wrong place. 
2.96. The following rules must be carefully observed:

     (a) See that the proof is clean and clear; request another if 

     (b) Verify that the galley proofs are in order and that the data 
         on the galleys runs in properly to facilitate continuous 

     (c) Make sure that diff erent sets of proofs of the same job 
         are correctly marked in series (``R,'' ``2R,'' ``3R,'' etc.); 
         where a sheet is stamped ``Another proof,'' carry the same 
         designating ``R'' on the corresponding clean proof. Advance 
         the ``R,'' ``2R,'' ``3R,'' etc., on each set of page proofs 
         returned from the originating office.

     (d) Run the page folios, make sure they are consecutive and that 
         the running heads, if used, are correct. Check connection 
         pages. Verify correct sequence for footnote references and 
         placement. It is imperative that footnotes appear or begin 
         on the same page as their reference, unless style dictates 
         that all footnotes are to appear together in one location.

     (e) Watch for dropouts, doublets, and transpositions.

     (f) Legend lines of full-page illustrations that appear broad 
         should be printed to read up--the even-page legend on the 
         binding or inside margin and the odd-page legend on the 
         outside margin.

     (g) If a footnote is eliminated, do not renumber the footnotes; 
         change footnote to read ``Footnote eliminated.'' 

2.97. If a footnote is added in proof, use the preceding number with 
      a superior letter added, as \15a\. 

2.98. Where a table with footnotes falls at the bottom of a page 
      containing footnotes to text, print the table footnotes above 
      the text footnotes, separated by a rule 50 points long, flush 
      left, with spacing on each side of the rule. (See also rule 

Press revising 

2.99. Press revising calls for the exercise of utmost care. The 
      press reviser must be thoroughly familiar with the style and 
      makeup of Government publications. He or she is required to OK 
      all forms that go to press--bookwork, covers, jobwork, etc.--and 
      must see that all queries are answered. A knowledge of the 
      bindery operations required to complete a book or job and 
      familiarity with all types of imposition, folds, etc., is 
      helpful. The reviser must be capable of ascertaining the proper 
      head, back, and side margins for all work, to ensure proper 
      trimming of the completed job. 
2.100. Although speed is essential when forms reach the press reviser, 
       accuracy is still paramount and must not be sacrificed. 

Signature marks, etc. 

2.101. Unless otherwise indicated, signature marks are set in 6-point 
       lowercase and indented 3 ems. 
2.102. Figures indicating the year should follow the jacket number 
       in signature marks: 
        125-327--08---4                116-529--08--vol. 1---3 
        116-529--08--pt. 5---3 

2.103. 	When the allmark (o) and signature or the imprint and signature 
        appear on same page, the signature line is placed below the 
        allmark or imprint. (See rule 2.117.) 
2.104.  The allmark is placed below the page, bulletin, or circular 
        number but above the signature line, if both appear on the same 
2.105.  Imprints and signature lines appearing on short pages of text 
        are placed at the bottom of the page. 
2.106.  On a congressional job reprinted because of change, the House 
        and Senate have approved the following styles: 

         House of Representatives:             Senate: 

          17-234--08----2                   17-235-08----2 (Star Print) 

2.107.  The following forms are used for signature marks in House 
        and Senate documents and reports printed on session jackets: 
         H. Doc. 73, 08-1---2              S. Doc. 57, 08-1---2 
         S. Doc. 57, 08-2, pt. 1---2       S. Doc. 57, 08-2, vol. 1---2 
         H. Rept. 120, 08-2---8            S. Rept. 100, 08-2---9 

2.108.  In a document or report printed on other than a session 
        jacket, use the jacket number, year, and signature number 
        only, omitting the document or report number. (See rule 2.102.) 

2.109. 	For pasters, the jacket number, the year, and the page to be 
         faced by the paster are used as follows (note punctuation): 

              12-344---08 (Face p. 10) 

2.110. 	On a paster facing an even page, the marks are placed on the 
        lower right-hand side; on a paster facing an odd page, the 
        marks are placed on the lower left-hand side. 

2.111. 	If more than one paster faces the same page, each is numbered 
        as follows: 
           12-344---08 (Face p. 19) No. 1 

           12-344---08 (Face p. 19) No. 2 

2.112. 	When a paster follows the text, the allmark is placed on the 
        last page of the text and never on the paster. 


2.113. 	To aid bibliographic identification of reprints or revisions, 
        the dates of the original edition and of reprint or revision 
        should be supplied by the author on the title page or in some 
        other suitable place. Thus: 

         First edition July 1990         Original edition May 1990 
         Reprinted July 1995             Reprinted May 1995 
                                         Revised July 1997 
         First printed June 1990 

         Revised June 1995 

2.114.  The year in the imprint on cover, title page, or elsewhere 
        is not changed from that in the original print, nor are the 
        signatures changed, unless other mends are necessary. 


2.115. 	Unless otherwise stipulated, the GPO imprint must appear 
        on all printed matter, with the exception of certain classified 

2.116.  The full GPO imprint is used on the title page of a 
        congressional speech. 

2.117.  The imprint and allmark are not used together on any page; 
        if one is used, the other is omitted. 

2.118.  The imprint is not used on a halftitle or on any page of a 
        cover, with the exception of congressional hearings. 

2.119.  If there is a title page, the imprint is placed on the title 
        page; but if there is no title page, or if the title page is 
        entirely an illustration, the imprint is placed on the last 
        page of the text 4 ems from fl ush right and below the bottom 

2.120.  The GPO logo is used only on GPO publications. If it is 
        printed on page ii, the full imprint is used on the title 
        page; if it is printed on the title page, use the half imprint 
        only, thus--Washington : 2008. 

Sales notices 

2.121.  The use of sales notices is discouraged. 

2.122.  If there is a cover but no title page, the sales notice is 
        printed on the cover. Unless otherwise indicated, if there is 
        a title page, with or without a cover, the sales notice is 
        printed at the bottom of the title page below a cross rule. 
        If there is no cover or title page, any sales notice is printed 
        at the end of the text, below the imprint, and the two are 
        separated by a cross rule. 

Imprint variations 

2.123.  This is one style of an imprint that can appear on the title 
        page. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. 
        Government Printing Office . Internet: bookstore.gpo.gov 
        Phone: Toll Free 866-512-1800 DC area 202-512-1800 
        Fax: 202-512-2104 Mail: Stop SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-0001 

2.124.  In the event that a title page is not used, the imprint is 
        printed on the last page and positioned fl ush left below the 
            For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. 
            Government Printing Office. Internet: bookstore.gpo.gov. 
            Phone: toll free 866-512-1800. DC area 202-512-1800. Fax: 
            202-512-2250. Mail: Stop SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-0001. 

2.125.  Outside-purchase publications are identified by an open star 
        at the beginning of the imprint line. These lines are 
        positioned 4 ems from the right margin.

                (star) U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 2008-456-789 

2.126.  Publications purchased outside which are reprinted by the GPO 
        use an em dash in lieu of the open star. 
                     --U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 2008-456-789 

2.127.  Jobs set on outside purchase but printed by the GPO use an 
        asterisk in lieu of the open star. 
                      *U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 2008-456-789 

2.128. 	Publications produced from camera copy supplied to the GPO 
        are identified by cc printed at the end of the line. 
                    U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 2008--123-456-cc 


2.129.	  The franking (mailing) privilege on covers for Government 
          publications should be at least 1. inches from the trim. 

Bibliographies or references 

2.130.  There are many styles available to bibliographers, for there 
        are many classes of documents. A Government bulletin citation, 
        according to one authority, would be treated as follows: 
           Author's name (if the article is signed); title of article 
         (in quotation marks); the publication (usually in italic), 
         with correct references to volume, number, series, pages, 
         date, and publisher (U.S. Govt. Print. Off .). 

  Therefore the example would read: 

          U.S. Department of the Interior, ``Highlights in history 
          of forest and related natural source conservation,'' 
          Conservation Bulletin, No. 41 (serial number not italic), 
          Washington, U.S. Dept. of the Interior (or U.S. Govt. 
          Print. Off .), 1997. 1 p. (or p. 1). 
  Another Government periodical citation would read as follows: 

          Reese, Herbert Harshman, ``How To Select a Sound Horse,'' 
          Farmers' Bulletin, No. 779, pp. 1-26 (1926), U.S. Dept. 
          of Agriculture. 
  Clarity may be maintained by capitalizing each word in book titles, 
  but only the first word in the title of articles. 

  Other examples are: 

         Preston W. Slosson, The Great Crusade And After: 1914-1928 
         (New York: Macmillan, 1940) Edward B. Rosa, ``The economic 
         importance of the scientific work of the government,'' 
         J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 10, 342 (1920)
         Preston W. Slosson, The Great Crusade and After: 1914-1928 
         (New York: Macmillan, 1940) Edward B. Rosa, ``The Economic 
         Importance of the Scientific Work of the Government,'' 
         J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 10, 342 (1920) 

  Note that the principal words in both book titles and titles of 
  articles are capitalized. Consistency is more important in 
  bibliographic style than the style itself.
  The science of bibliography is covered in many texts, and the 
  following references are available for study: 

        Better Report Writing, by Willis H. Waldo. Reinhold Publishing 
      Corp., New York, 1965.
        Macmillan Handbook of English, by Robert F. Wilson. Macmillan 
      Co., New York, 1982. 
        The Chicago Manual of Style, University of Chicago Press, 
        Chicago, 2003. Words Into Type, Prentice-Hall, New York, 1974.