[U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual] [Chapter 2 - General Instructions] [From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov] Job planning 2.1. The use of computers has dramatically altered every phase of the printing industry beginning with the basic planning of each new job. New publications are evaluated by application specialists who review their requirements and design the necessary formats. Each format is made to conform exactly to the copy's specifications for page dimensions, line length, indentions, typefaces, etc. Upon completion, sample pages are produced and submitted to the customer. At this time, customer agencies are requested to indicate precise details of any style changes because this set of pages serves as a guide for the copy preparer, the beginning of actual production. 2.2. In recent years, changes in the needs of the library community have led to a move toward uniform treatment of the component parts of publications. In developing standards to guide publishers of Government documents, consideration has been given to the changing needs of those who seek to produce, reference, index, abstract, store, search, and retrieve data. Certain identifying elements shall be printed on all publications in accordance with this Manual and with standards developed by the (ANSI) American National Standards Institute. Publications such as books and pamphlets should contain: (a) Title and other title information; (b) Name of department issuing or creating publication; (c) Name of author(s) and editor(s) (department or individual); (d) Date of issuance; (e) Availability (publisher, printer, or other source and address); (f) Superintendent of Documents classification and stock numbers if applicable; and (g) The ISBN (International Standard Book Number). (See ANSI Standard Z39.15, Title Leaves of a Book.) Reports of a scientific or technical nature should contain: (a) Title and other title information; (b) Report number; [GRAPHIC OMITTED IN TIFF FORMAT(S)] Notes: (1) This sample report cover is reduced in size. (2) In this sample, items are justified left. Other cover designs and typefaces are acceptable. (3) This sample page was prepared according to the guidelines of the American National Standards Institute, 25 West 43d St., New York, NY 10036. Users of ANSI standards are cautioned that all standards are reviewed periodically and subject to revision. (c) Author(s); (d) Performing organization; (e) Sponsoring department; (f) Date of issuance; (g) Type of report and period covered; (h) Availability (publisher, printer, or other source and address); and (i) Superintendent of Documents classification and stock numbers if applicable. (See ANSI/NISO Standard Z39.18--1995, Scientific and Technical Reports--Elements, Organization, and Design.) Journals, magazines, periodicals, and similar publications should contain: (a) Title and other title information; (b) Volume and issue numbers; (c) Date of issue; (d) Publishing or sponsoring department; (e) Availability (publisher, printer, or other source and address); (f) International Standard Serial Number; and (g) Superintendent of Documents classification and stock numbers if applicable. (See ANSI Standard Z39.1, American Standard Reference Data and Arrangement of Periodicals.) Makeup 2.3. The design and makeup of a publication is the responsibility of the publisher. However, when the following elements occur in Government publications, they generally appear in the sequence listed below. The designation ``new odd page'' generally refers to bookwork and is not required in most pamphlet- and magazine- type publications. (a) Frontispiece, faces title page. (b) False title (frontispiece, if any, on back). (c) Title page (new odd page). (d) Back of title, blank, but frequently carries such useful bibliographic information as list of board members, congressional resolution authorizing publication, note of editions and printings, GPO imprint if departmental imprint appears on title page, sales notice, etc. (e) Letter of transmittal (new odd page). (f) Foreword, differs from a preface in that it is an introductory note written as an endorsement by a person other than the author (new odd page). An introduction differs from a foreword or a preface in that it is the initial part of the text; if the book is divided into chapters, it should be the first chapter. (g) Preface, by author (new odd page). (h) Acknowledgments (if not part of preface) (new odd page). (i) Contents (new odd page), immediately followed by list of illustrations and list of tables, as parts of contents. (j) Text, begins with page 1 (if halftitle is used, begins with p. 3). (k) Glossary (new odd page). (l) Bibliography (new odd page). (m) Appendix (new odd page). (n) Index (new odd page). 2.4. Preliminary pages use small-cap Roman numerals. Pages in the back of the book (index, etc.), use lowercase Roman numerals. 2.5. Booklets of 32 pages or less can be printed more economically with a self-cover. A table of contents, title page, foreword, preface, etc., is not usually necessary with so few pages. If some of this preliminary matter is necessary, it is more practical if combined; i.e., contents on cover; contents, title, and foreword on cover 2, etc. 2.6. Widow lines (lines less than full width of measure) at top of pages are to be avoided, if possible, but are permitted if absolutely necessary to maintain uniform makeup and page depth. Rewording to fill the line is a preferred alternative. 2.7. Paragraphs may start on the last line of a page whenever necessary. If it is found necessary to make a short page, the facing page should be of approximate equal depth. 2.8. A blank space or sink of 6 picas should be placed at the head of each new odd or even page of 46-pica or greater depth; pages with a depth of from 36 to 45 picas, inclusive, will carry a 5-pica sink; pages less than 36 picas, 4 picas. 2.9. When top centered folios are used, the folio on a new page is set 2 points smaller than the top folios. They are centered at the bottom and enclosed in parentheses. 2.10. Where running heads with folios are used, heads are included in overall page depth. However, first pages of chapters and pages with bottom folios do not include the folios as part of the overall page depth. 2.11. Jobs that have both running heads and bottom folios or just bottom folios will align all of the page numbers on the bottom in the margin, including those on preliminary pages. If at all possible avoid use of running heads in conjunction with bottom folios. 2.12. Contents, list of illustrations, preface, or any other matter that makes a page in itself will retain normal 6-pica sink. 2.13. Footnote references are repeated in boxheads or in continued lines over tables, unless special orders are given not to do so. 2.14. When a table continues, its headnote is repeated without the word Continued. 2.15. A landscape or broadside table that continues from an even to an odd page must be positioned to read through the center (gutter) of the publication when its size is not suffi cient to fill both pages. 2.16. A broadside table of less than page width will center on the page. 2.17. Centerheads, whether in boldface, caps, caps and small caps, small caps, or italic, should have more space above than below. Uniform spacing should be maintained throughout the page. 2.18. In making up a page of two or more columns, text preceding a page-width illustration will be divided equally into the appropriate number of columns above the illustration. 2.19. Two or more short footnotes may be combined into one line, with 2 ems of space between. \1\Preliminary. \2\Including imported cases. \3\Imported. 2.20. All backstrips should read down (from top to bottom). Copy preparation 2.21. At the beginning of each job the proper formats must be plainly marked. New Odd or New Page, Preliminary, Cover, Title, or Back Title should also be plainly indicated. 2.22. Copy preparers must mark those things not readily understood when reading the manuscript. They must also mark the correct element identifier code for each data element, as well as indicate other matters of style necessary to give the publication good typographic appearance. 2.23. Preparers must indicate the proper subformat at the beginning of each extension, verify folio numbers, and plainly indicate references, footnotes, cut-ins, etc. Unless otherwise marked, text matter will be set in 10-point solid and tables in 7 point. In tables utilizing down rules, unless a specific weight is requested by the customer, hairline rules will be used. (See rule 13.3.) 2.24. Quoted or extract matter and lists should be set smaller than text with space above and below. Quotation marks at the beginning and end of paragraphs should be omitted. If the same type size is used, quoted matter should be indented 2 ems on both sides with space top and bottom, and initial and closing quotes should be omitted. Capitalization 2.25. Unusual use of capital and lowercase letters should be indicated by the customer to guarantee correct usage. Datelines, addresses, and signatures 2.26. Copy preparers must mark caps, small caps, italic, abbreviations, indentions, and line breaks where necessary. (For more detailed instructions, see Chapter 16 ``Datelines, Addresses, and Signatures.'') Decimals and common fractions 2.27. In figure columns containing both decimals and common fractions, such decimals and/or fractions will not be aligned. The columns will be set flush right. ``Et cetera,''``etc.,'' and ``and so forth'' 2.28. In printing a speaker's language, the words and so forth or et cetera are preferred, but in ``FIC & punc.'' matter etc., is acceptable. If a quoted extract is set in type smaller than that of the preceding text and the speaker has summed up the remainder of the quotation with the words and so forth or et cetera, these words should be placed at the beginning of the next line, flush and lowercase, and an em dash should be used at the end of the extract. Folioing and stamping copy 2.29. Folio numbers should be placed in the upper right corner, preferably half an inch from the top. Headings 2.30. The element identifier codes to be used for all headings must be marked. Caps, caps and small caps, small caps, caps and lowercase, lowercase first up (first word and proper nouns capitalized), or italic must be prepared. (See rule 3.49.) Pickup 2.31. The jacket number of a job from which matter is to be picked up must be indicated. New matter and pickup matter should conform in style. Sidenotes and cut-in notes 2.32. Sidenotes and cut-in notes are set each line fl ush left and ragged right, unless otherwise prepared, and are always set solid. Sidenotes are usually set in 6 point, 4� picas wide. Footnotes to sidenotes and text should be set 21� picas. Sec. 920. Abuse of the rule. An alleged violation of the rule relating to admission to the floor presents a question of privilege (III, 2624, 2625; VI, 579), but not a higher question of privilege than an election case (III, 2626). In one case where an ex-Member was abusing the privilege * * *. Signs, symbols, etc. 2.33. All signs, symbols, dashes, superiors, etc., must be plainly marked. Names of Greek letters must be indicated, as they are frequently mistaken for italic or symbols. 2.34. Some typesetting systems produce characters that look the same as figures. A lowercase l resembles a figure 1 and a capital O looks like a figure 0. Questionable characters will be printed as figures unless otherwise marked. Letters illustrating shape and form 2.35. Capital letters of the text face will be used to illustrate shape and form, as U-shape(d), A-frame, T-bone, and I-beam. 2.36. Plurals are formed by adding an apostrophe and the letter s to letters illustrating shape and form, such as T's and Y's. Golf tee(s) should be spelled, as shape is not indicated. 2.37. A capital letter is used in U-boat, V-8, and other expressions which have no reference to shape or form. Fol. lit. and FIC & punc. 2.38. After submittal to GPO, manuscript copy is rubber-stamped ``Fol. lit.'' or ``FIC & punc.'' The difference between these two typesetting instructions is explained thus: Copy is followed when stamped ``Fol. lit.'' (follow literally). Copy authorized to be marked ``Fol. lit.'' must be thoroughly prepared by the requisitioning agency as to capitalization, punctuation (including compounding), abbreviations, signs, symbols, figures, and italic. Such copy, including even obvious errors, will be followed. The lack of preparation on copy so designated shall, in itself, constitute preparation. ``Fol. lit.'' does not include size and style of type or spacing. Obvious errors are corrected in copy marked ``FIC & punc.'' (follow, including capitalization and punctuation). 2.39. In congressional hearings, the name of the interrogator or witness who continues speaking is repeated following a head set in boldface, a paragraph enclosed in parentheses, and a paragraph enclosed in brackets. In a head set in boldface, the title ``Mr.'' is not used, and ``the Honorable'' preceding a name is shortened to ``Hon.'' Street addresses are also deleted. Example: ``Statement of Hon. John P. Blank, Member, American Bar Association, Washington, DC.'' 2.40. Paragraph or section numbers (or letters) followed by figures or letters in parentheses will close up, as ``section 7(B)(1)(a),'' ``paragraph 23(a),'' ``paragraph b(7),'' ``paragraph (a)(2)''; but ``section 9(a) (1) and (2)'', ``section 7 a and b''. In case of an unavoidable break, division will be made after elements in parentheses, and no hyphen is used. 2.41. Bill style.--Bill copy will be followed as supplied. Bills will be treated as ``FIC & punc.'' This data is transmitted to the GPO via fiber optic transmission with element identifier codes in place. Therefore, it is not cost effective to prepare the manuscript as per the GPO Style Manual and update the data once it is in type form. 2.42. Copy preparer's instructions, which accompany each job, are written to cover the general style and certain peculiarities or deviations from style. These instructions must be followed. Abbreviations 2.43. In marking abbreviations to be spelled, preparers must show what the spelled form should be, unless the abbreviations are common and not susceptible to more than one construction. An unfamiliar abbreviation, with spelled-out form unavailable, is not changed. Type composition 2.44. Operators and revisers must study carefully the rules governing composition. 2.45. In correcting pickup matter, the operator must indicate plainly on the proof what portion, if any, was actually reset. 2.46. Every precaution must be taken to prevent the soiling of proofs, as it is necessary for the reviser to see clearly every mark on the margin of a proof after it has been corrected. 2.47. Corrections of queries intended for the author are not to be made. Such queries, however, are not to be carried on jobs going directly to press. Leading and spacing 2.48. Spacing of text is governed by the leading, narrow spacing being more desirable in solid than in leaded matter. 2.49. A single justified word space will be used between sentences. This applies to all types of composition. 2.50. Center or flush heads set in caps, caps and small caps, small caps, or boldface are keyed with regular justified spaces between words. 2.51. Centerheads are set apart from the text by the use of spacing. The amount of space varies with each publication. However, more space is always inserted above a heading than below. In 10-point type, the spacing would be 10 points over and 8 points under a heading; in 8and 6-point type, the spacing would be 8 points above and 6 points below. 2.52. Solid matter (text) is defined as those lines set without horizontal space between them. Leaded text is defined as lines separated by 1 or 2 points of space. 2.53. Unless otherwise marked, flush heads are separated from text by 4 points of space above and 2 points of space below in solid matter, and by 6 points of space above and 4 points of space below in leaded matter. 2.54. Full-measure numbered or lettered paragraphs and quoted extracts are not separated by space from adjoining matter. 2.55. Extracts which are set off from the text by smaller type or are indented on both sides or indented 3 ems on the left side (courtwork only) are separated by 6 points of space in leaded matter and by 4 points of space in solid matter. 2.56. Extracts set solid in leaded matter are separated from the text by 6 points. 2.57. Flush lines following extracts are separated by 6 points of space in leaded matter and by 4 points in solid matter. 2.58. Footnotes are leaded if the text is leaded, and are solid if the text is solid. 2.59. Legends are leaded if the text is leaded, and solid if the text is solid. Leaderwork is separated from text by 4 points above and 4 points below. Indentions 2.60. In measures less than 30 picas, the paragraph indention is 1 em. Paragraph indentions in cut-in matter are 3 ems, overs are 2 ems. Datelines and signatures are indented in multiples of 2 ems. Addresses are set flush left . 2.61. In matter set 30 picas or wider, the paragraph indention is 2 ems. Paragraph indentions in cut-in matter are 6 ems, overs are 4 ems. Datelines and signatures are indented in multiples of 2 ems. Addresses are set flush left . 2.62. In measures less than 30 picas, overruns in hanging indentions are 1 em more than the first line, except that to avoid conflict with a following indention (for example, of a subentry or paragraph), the overrun indention is made 1 em more than the following line. 2.63. In matter set 30 picas or wider, overruns in hanging indentions are 2 ems more than the first line, except that to avoid conflict with a following indention (for example, of a subentry or paragraph), the overrun indention is made 2 ems more than the following line. 2.64. Indention of matter set in smaller type should be the same, in points, as that of adjoining main-text indented matter. 2.65. Two-line centerheads are centered, but heads of three or more lines are set with a hanging indention. 2.66. Overs in flush heads are indented 2 ems in measures less than 30 picas, and 3 ems in wider measures. Legends for illustrations 2.67. It is preferred that legends and explanatory data consisting of one or two lines are set centered, while those with more than two lines are set with a hanging indention. Legends are set full measure regardless of the width of the illustration. Paragraph style is acceptable. 2.68. Legend lines for illustrations that appear broad or turn page (landscape) should be printed to read up; an even-page legend should be on the inside margin and an odd-page legend on the outside margin. 2.69. Unless otherwise indicated, legends for illustrations are set in 8-point roman, lowercase. 2.70. Periods are used after legends and explanatory remarks beneath illustrations. However, legends without descriptive language do not use a period. (See rule 8.112.) 2.71. At the beginning of a legend or standing alone, Figure preceding the identifying number or letter is set in caps and small caps and is not abbreviated. Figure 5, not Fig. 5 Figure A, not Fig. A 2.72. If a chart carries both a legend and footnotes, the legend is placed above the chart. 2.73. Letter symbols used in legends for illustrations are set in lowercase italic without periods. Proofreading 2.74. All special instructions, layouts, and style sheets must be included with the first installment of each job. 2.75. If the proofreader detects inconsistent or erroneous statements, it is his or her responsibility to query them. 2.76. If the grammatical construction of a sentence or clause is questioned by a proofreader and it seems desirable to change the form, he or she must indicate the proposed correction, add a query mark, and enclose all in a circle. 2.77. All queries appearing on the copy must be carried to the author's set of proofs. 2.78. Proofs that are illegible or are in any manner defective must be called to the attention of the deskperson. 2.79. The manner in which correction marks are made on a proof is of considerable importance. Straggling, unsymmetrical characters, disconnected marks placed in the margin above or below the lines to which they relate, irregular lines leading from an incorrect letter or word to a correction, large marks, marks made with a blunt pencil, indistinct marks, and frequent use of the eraser to obliterate marks hastily or incorrectly made are faults to be avoided. 2.80. In reading proof of wide tables, the proofreader should place the correction as near as possible to the error. The transposition mark should not be used in little-known words or in figures. It is better to cancel the letters or figures and write them in the margin in the order in which they are to appear. 2.81. To assure proper placement of footnotes, the proofreader and reviser must draw a ring around footnote references on the proofs, then check off each corresponding footnote number. 2.82. Proofreaders must not make important changes in indentions or tables without consulting the referee. 2.83. The marks of the copy preparer will be followed, as he or she is in a position to know more about the peculiarities of a job than one who reads but a small portion of it. 2.84. Any mark that will change the proof from the copy as prepared must be circled in the margin. 2.85. All instructions on copy must be carried on proof by readers. 2.86. Folios of copy must be run by the proofreader and marked on the proof. 2.87. All instructions, comments, and extraneous notes on both copy and proofs that are not intended to be set as part of the text must be circled. Revising galley proofs 2.88. The importance of revising proofs cannot be overemphasized. Although a reviser is not expected to read proof, it is not enough to follow the marks found on the proof. He or she should be alert to detect errors and inconsistencies and must see that all corrections have been properly made and that words or lines have not been transposed or eliminated in making the corrections. 2.89. A reviser must not remodel the punctuation of the proofreaders or make any important changes. If an important change should be made, the reviser must submit the proposed change to the supervisor for a decision. 2.90. In the body of the work, new pages must be properly indicated on the proof. (For new page information, see rule 2.3 ``Makeup.'') 2.91. All instructions and queries on proofs must be transferred to the revised set of proofs. Revising page proofs 2.92. Page revising requires great diligence and care. The reviser must see that the rules governing the instructions of previous workers have been followed. 2.93. The reviser is responsible for marking all bleed and off-center pages. 2.94. A blank page must be indicated at the bottom of the preceding page. 2.95. Special care must be exercised in revising corrected matter. If it appears that a correction has not been made, the reviser should carefully examine each line on the page to see if the correction was inserted in the wrong place. 2.96. The following rules must be carefully observed: (a) See that the proof is clean and clear; request another if necessary. (b) Verify that the galley proofs are in order and that the data on the galleys runs in properly to facilitate continuous makeup. (c) Make sure that diff erent sets of proofs of the same job are correctly marked in series (``R,'' ``2R,'' ``3R,'' etc.); where a sheet is stamped ``Another proof,'' carry the same designating ``R'' on the corresponding clean proof. Advance the ``R,'' ``2R,'' ``3R,'' etc., on each set of page proofs returned from the originating office. (d) Run the page folios, make sure they are consecutive and that the running heads, if used, are correct. Check connection pages. Verify correct sequence for footnote references and placement. It is imperative that footnotes appear or begin on the same page as their reference, unless style dictates that all footnotes are to appear together in one location. (e) Watch for dropouts, doublets, and transpositions. (f) Legend lines of full-page illustrations that appear broad should be printed to read up--the even-page legend on the binding or inside margin and the odd-page legend on the outside margin. (g) If a footnote is eliminated, do not renumber the footnotes; change footnote to read ``Footnote eliminated.'' 2.97. If a footnote is added in proof, use the preceding number with a superior letter added, as \15a\. 2.98. Where a table with footnotes falls at the bottom of a page containing footnotes to text, print the table footnotes above the text footnotes, separated by a rule 50 points long, flush left, with spacing on each side of the rule. (See also rule 13.77.) Press revising 2.99. Press revising calls for the exercise of utmost care. The press reviser must be thoroughly familiar with the style and makeup of Government publications. He or she is required to OK all forms that go to press--bookwork, covers, jobwork, etc.--and must see that all queries are answered. A knowledge of the bindery operations required to complete a book or job and familiarity with all types of imposition, folds, etc., is helpful. The reviser must be capable of ascertaining the proper head, back, and side margins for all work, to ensure proper trimming of the completed job. 2.100. Although speed is essential when forms reach the press reviser, accuracy is still paramount and must not be sacrificed. Signature marks, etc. 2.101. Unless otherwise indicated, signature marks are set in 6-point lowercase and indented 3 ems. 2.102. Figures indicating the year should follow the jacket number in signature marks: 125-327--08---4 116-529--08--vol. 1---3 116-529--08--pt. 5---3 2.103. When the allmark (o) and signature or the imprint and signature appear on same page, the signature line is placed below the allmark or imprint. (See rule 2.117.) 2.104. The allmark is placed below the page, bulletin, or circular number but above the signature line, if both appear on the same page. 2.105. Imprints and signature lines appearing on short pages of text are placed at the bottom of the page. 2.106. On a congressional job reprinted because of change, the House and Senate have approved the following styles: House of Representatives: Senate: 17-234--08----2 17-235-08----2 (Star Print) 2.107. The following forms are used for signature marks in House and Senate documents and reports printed on session jackets: H. Doc. 73, 08-1---2 S. Doc. 57, 08-1---2 S. Doc. 57, 08-2, pt. 1---2 S. Doc. 57, 08-2, vol. 1---2 H. Rept. 120, 08-2---8 S. Rept. 100, 08-2---9 2.108. In a document or report printed on other than a session jacket, use the jacket number, year, and signature number only, omitting the document or report number. (See rule 2.102.) 2.109. For pasters, the jacket number, the year, and the page to be faced by the paster are used as follows (note punctuation): 12-344---08 (Face p. 10) 2.110. On a paster facing an even page, the marks are placed on the lower right-hand side; on a paster facing an odd page, the marks are placed on the lower left-hand side. 2.111. If more than one paster faces the same page, each is numbered as follows: 12-344---08 (Face p. 19) No. 1 12-344---08 (Face p. 19) No. 2 2.112. When a paster follows the text, the allmark is placed on the last page of the text and never on the paster. Reprints 2.113. To aid bibliographic identification of reprints or revisions, the dates of the original edition and of reprint or revision should be supplied by the author on the title page or in some other suitable place. Thus: First edition July 1990 Original edition May 1990 Reprinted July 1995 Reprinted May 1995 Revised July 1997 First printed June 1990 Revised June 1995 2.114. The year in the imprint on cover, title page, or elsewhere is not changed from that in the original print, nor are the signatures changed, unless other mends are necessary. Imprints 2.115. Unless otherwise stipulated, the GPO imprint must appear on all printed matter, with the exception of certain classified work. 2.116. The full GPO imprint is used on the title page of a congressional speech. 2.117. The imprint and allmark are not used together on any page; if one is used, the other is omitted. 2.118. The imprint is not used on a halftitle or on any page of a cover, with the exception of congressional hearings. 2.119. If there is a title page, the imprint is placed on the title page; but if there is no title page, or if the title page is entirely an illustration, the imprint is placed on the last page of the text 4 ems from fl ush right and below the bottom folio. 2.120. The GPO logo is used only on GPO publications. If it is printed on page ii, the full imprint is used on the title page; if it is printed on the title page, use the half imprint only, thus--Washington : 2008. Sales notices 2.121. The use of sales notices is discouraged. 2.122. If there is a cover but no title page, the sales notice is printed on the cover. Unless otherwise indicated, if there is a title page, with or without a cover, the sales notice is printed at the bottom of the title page below a cross rule. If there is no cover or title page, any sales notice is printed at the end of the text, below the imprint, and the two are separated by a cross rule. Imprint variations 2.123. This is one style of an imprint that can appear on the title page. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office . Internet: bookstore.gpo.gov Phone: Toll Free 866-512-1800 DC area 202-512-1800 Fax: 202-512-2104 Mail: Stop SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-0001 www.gpoaccess.gov 2.124. In the event that a title page is not used, the imprint is printed on the last page and positioned fl ush left below the text. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office. Internet: bookstore.gpo.gov. Phone: toll free 866-512-1800. DC area 202-512-1800. Fax: 202-512-2250. Mail: Stop SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-0001. www.gpoaccess.gov 2.125. Outside-purchase publications are identified by an open star at the beginning of the imprint line. These lines are positioned 4 ems from the right margin. (star) U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 2008-456-789 2.126. Publications purchased outside which are reprinted by the GPO use an em dash in lieu of the open star. --U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 2008-456-789 2.127. Jobs set on outside purchase but printed by the GPO use an asterisk in lieu of the open star. *U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 2008-456-789 2.128. Publications produced from camera copy supplied to the GPO are identified by cc printed at the end of the line. U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 2008--123-456-cc Franking 2.129. The franking (mailing) privilege on covers for Government publications should be at least 1. inches from the trim. Bibliographies or references 2.130. There are many styles available to bibliographers, for there are many classes of documents. A Government bulletin citation, according to one authority, would be treated as follows: Author's name (if the article is signed); title of article (in quotation marks); the publication (usually in italic), with correct references to volume, number, series, pages, date, and publisher (U.S. Govt. Print. Off .). Therefore the example would read: U.S. Department of the Interior, ``Highlights in history of forest and related natural source conservation,'' Conservation Bulletin, No. 41 (serial number not italic), Washington, U.S. Dept. of the Interior (or U.S. Govt. Print. Off .), 1997. 1 p. (or p. 1). Another Government periodical citation would read as follows: Reese, Herbert Harshman, ``How To Select a Sound Horse,'' Farmers' Bulletin, No. 779, pp. 1-26 (1926), U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Clarity may be maintained by capitalizing each word in book titles, but only the first word in the title of articles. Other examples are: Preston W. Slosson, The Great Crusade And After: 1914-1928 (New York: Macmillan, 1940) Edward B. Rosa, ``The economic importance of the scientific work of the government,'' J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 10, 342 (1920) or: Preston W. Slosson, The Great Crusade and After: 1914-1928 (New York: Macmillan, 1940) Edward B. Rosa, ``The Economic Importance of the Scientific Work of the Government,'' J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 10, 342 (1920) Note that the principal words in both book titles and titles of articles are capitalized. Consistency is more important in bibliographic style than the style itself. The science of bibliography is covered in many texts, and the following references are available for study: Better Report Writing, by Willis H. Waldo. Reinhold Publishing Corp., New York, 1965. Macmillan Handbook of English, by Robert F. Wilson. Macmillan Co., New York, 1982. The Chicago Manual of Style, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2003. Words Into Type, Prentice-Hall, New York, 1974.