[U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual] [Chapter 8 - Punctuation] [From the U.S. Government Publishing Office, www.gpo.gov] 8.1. Punctuation is used to clarify the meaning of written or printed language. Well-planned word order requires a minimum of punctuation. The trend toward less punctuation calls for skillful phrasing to avoid ambiguity and to ensure exact interpretation. Th e GPO Style Manual can offer only general rules of text treatment. A rigid design or pattern of punctuation cannot be laid down, except in broad terms. The adopted style, however, must be consistent and based on sentence structure. 8.2. The general principles governing the use of punctuation are: If it does not clarify the text it should be omitted; and, in the choice and placing of punctuation marks, the sole aim should be to bring out more clearly the author�s thought. Punctuation should aid reading and prevent misreading. Apostrophes and possessives 8.3. The possessive case of a singular or plural noun not ending in s is formed by adding an apostrophe and s. The possessive case of a singular or plural noun ending in s or with an s sound is formed by adding an apostrophe only. Some irregular plurals require both an apostrophe and an s. (For possessives of italicized nouns, see rule 11.6.) boss', bosses' man's, men's child's, children's medium's, media's citizen's, citizens' people's, peoples' Congress', Congresses' Essex's, Essexes' criterion's, criteria's Jones', Joneses' Co.'s, Cos.' Jesus' erratum's, errata's Mars' hostess', hostesses' Dumas' lady's, ladies' Schmitz ' 8.4. In compound nouns, the 's is added to the element nearest the object possessed. comptroller general's decision attorney at law's fee attorneys general's appointments John White, Jr.'s Mr. Brown of New York's motion (no comma) account 8.5. Joint possession is indicated by placing an apostrophe on the last element of a series, while individual or alternative possession requires the use of an apostrophe on each element of a series. soldiers and sailors' home editor's or Brown & Nelson's store proofreader's men's, women's, opinion and children's Clinton's or Bush's clothing administration St. Michael's Men's Club Mrs. Smith's and Mrs. Allen's children the Army's and the Navy's work master's and doctor's degrees 8.6. In the use of an apostrophe in firm names, the names of organizations and institutions, the titles of books, and geographic names, the authentic form is to be followed. (Note use of ``St.'') Masters, Mates & Pilots' Johns Hopkins Association University Dentists' Supply Co. of New York Hinds' Precedents International Ladies' Garment Harpers Ferry Workers' Union Hells Canyon Court of St. James's Reader's Digest St. Peter's Church Actor's Equity St. Elizabeths Hospital Association but Martha's Vineyard 8.7. Generally, the apostrophe should not be used after names of countries and other organized bodies ending in s, or after words more descriptive than possessive (not indicating personal possession), except when plural does not end in s. United States control teachers college United Nations meeting merchants exchange Southern States industries children's hospital Massachusetts laws Young Men's Christian Bureau of Ships report Association House of Representatives session but Teamsters Union Veterans' editors handbook Administration (now syrup producers manual Department of technicians guide Veterans Affairs) Congress' attitude 8.8. Possessive pronouns do not take an apostrophe. its yours ours hers theirs whose 8.9. Possessive indefinite or impersonal pronouns require an apostrophe. each other's books anothers idea some others' plans someone's guesstimate one's home is his castle 8.10. The singular possessive case is used in such general terms as the following: arm's length fuller's earth attorney's fees miner's inch author's alterations printer's ink confectioner's sugar traveler's checks cow's milk writer's cramp distiller's grain 8.11. While an apostrophe is used to indicate possession and contractions, it is not generally necessary to use an apostrophe simply to show the plural form of most acronyms, initialisms, or abbreviations, except where clarity and sense demand such inclusion. 49ers e'er (ever) TVers class of '08 (2008) OKs spirit of '76 (1776) MCing RIFing not in her '70s (age) RIFs better: in her RIFed seventies YWCAs not during the '90s ABCs better: during the 1920s 1990s or IOUs during the twenties 10s (thread) but 4\1/2\s (bonds) he never crosses his 3s (golf) t's 2 by 4s she fails to dot her IQs i's don't (do not) a's, &'s, 7's I've (I have) watch your p's and q's it's (it is/it has) are they l's or 1's ne'er (never) the Oakland A's a number of s's his resume had too many I's When the plural form of an acronym appears in parentheses, a lower case s is included within the parentheses. (MPDs) (IPOs) (MP3s) (SUVs) (JPEGs) 8.12. The apostrophe is omitted in abbreviations, and also in shortened forms of certain other words. Danl., not Dan'l Halloween, not phone, not'phone Hallowe'en coon, not'coon copter, not'copter possum, not'possum but ma'am 8.13. The plural of spelled-out numbers, of words referred to as words, and of words containing an apostrophe is formed by adding s or es; but �s is added to indicate the plural of words used as words if omission of the apostrophe would cause difficulty in reading. twos, threes, sevens yeses and noes ands, ifs, and buts yeas and nays ins and outs the haves and have-nots but ups and downs do's and don'ts whereases and wherefores which's and that's pros and cons 8.14. The possessive case is often used in lieu of an objective phrase even though ownership is not involved. 1 day's labor (labor for 1 day) for charity's sake 12 days' labor for pity's sake 2 hours' traveltime several billion a stone's throw dollars' worth 2 weeks' pay but $10 billion worth 8.15. The possessive case is not used in such expressions as the following, in which one noun modifies another. day labor (labor by the day) State prison quartermaster stores State rights 8.16. For euphony, nouns ending in s or ce and followed by a word beginning with s form the possessive by adding an apostrophe only. for goodness' sake for acquaintance' Mr. Hughes' service sake for old times' sake for conscience' sake 8.17. A possessive noun used in an adjective sense requires the addition of 's. He is a friend of John's. Stern's is running a sale. 8.18. A noun preceding a gerund should be in the possessive case. in the event of Mary's leaving the ship's hovering nearby Brackets Brackets, in pairs, are used-- 8.19. In transcripts, congressional hearings, the Congressional Record, testimony in courtwork, etc., to enclose interpolations that are not specifically a part of the original quotation, such as a correction, explanation, omission, editorial comment, or a caution that an error is reproduced literally. We found this to be true at the Government Printing Office [GPO]. He came on the 3d [2d] of July. Our conference [lasted] 2 hours. The general [Washington] ordered him to leave. The paper was as follows [reads]: I do not know. [Continues reading:] [Chorus of ``Mr. Chairman.''] They fooled only themselves. [Laughter.] Our party will always serve the people [applause] in spite of the opposition [loud applause]. (If more than one bracketed interpolation, both are included within the sentence.) The Witness. He did it that way [indicating]. Q. Do you know these men [handing witness a list]? The bill had not been paid. [Italic added.] or [Emphasis added.] The statue [sic] was on the statute books. The Witness. This matter is classified. [Deleted.] [Deleted.] Mr. Jones. Hold up your hands. [Show of hands.] Answer [after examining list]. Yes; I do. Q. [Continuing.] A. [Reads:] A. [Interrupting.] [Discussion off the record.] [Pause.] The Witness [interrupting]. It is known-- Mr. Jones [continuing]. Now let us take the next item. Mr. Smith [presiding]. Do you mean that literally? Mr. Jones [interposing]. Absolutely. [The matter referred to is as follows:] The Chairman [to Mr. Smith]. The Chairman [reading]: Mr. Kelley [to the chairman]. From 15 to 25 percent. [Objected to.] [Mr. Smith nods.] [Mr. Smith aside.] [Mr. Smith makes further statement off the record.] Mr. Jones [for Mr. Smith]. A Voice From Audience. Speak up. Several Voices. Quiet! 8.20. In bills, contracts, laws, etc., to indicate matter that is to be omitted. 8.21. In mathematics, to denote that enclosed matter is to be treated as a unit. 8.22. When matter in brackets makes more than one paragraph, start each paragraph with a bracket and place the closing bracket at end of last paragraph. Colon The colon is used-- 8.23. Before a final clause that extends or amplifies preceding matter. Give up conveniences; do not demand special privileges; do not stop work: these are necessary while we are at war. Railroading is not a variety of outdoor sport: it is service. 8.24. To introduce formally any matter that forms a complete sentence, question, or quotation. The following question came up for discussion: What policy should be adopted? She said: ``I believe the time is now or never.'' [When a direct quotation follows that has more than a few words.] There are three factors, as follows: First, military preparation; second, industrial mobilization; and third, manpower. 8.25. After a salutation. My Dear Sir: Ladies and Gentlemen: To Whom It May Concern: 8.26. In expressing clock time. 2:40 p.m. 8.27. After introductory lines in lists, tables, and leaderwork, if subentries follow. Seward Peninsula: Council district: Northern Light Mining Co. Wild Goose Trading Co. Fairhaven district: Alaska Dredging Association (single subitem runs in). Seward Peninsula: Council district (single subitem runs in): Northern Light Mining Co. Wild Goose Trading Co. 8.28. In Biblical and other citations. Luke 4:3. I Corinthians 13:13. Journal of Education 3:342-358. 8.29. In bibliographic references, between place of publication and name of publisher. Congressional Directory. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office. 8.30. To separate book titles and subtitles. Financial Aid for College Students: Graduate Germany Revisited: Education in the Federal Republic 8.31. In imprints before the year (en space each side of colon). U.S. Government Printing Office Washington : 2008 8.32. In proportions. Concrete mixed 5:3:1 but 5-2-1 or 5-2-1 (when so in copy) 8.33. In double colon as ratio sign. 1:2::3:6 Comma The comma is used-- 8.34. To separate two words or figures that might otherwise be misunderstood. Instead of hundreds, thousands came. Instead of 20, 50 came. December 7, 1941. In 2003, 400 men were dismissed. To John, Smith was very kind. What the difficulty is, is not known. but He suggested that that committee be appointed. 8.35. Before a direct quotation of only a few words following an introductory phrase. He said, ``Now or never. ' 8.36. To indicate the omission of a word or words. Then we had much; now, nothing. 8.37. After each of a series of coordinate qualifying words. short, swift streams; but short tributary streams 8.38. Between an introductory modifying phrase and the subject modified. Beset by the enemy, they retreated. 8.39. Before and aft er Jr., Sr., Esq., Ph.D., F.R.S., Inc., etc., within a sentence except where possession is indicated. Henry Smith, Jr., chairman but Peter Johns, F.R.S., London John Smith 2d (or II); Washington, DC, schools Smith, John, II Motorola, Inc., factory Mr. Smith, Junior, Brown, A.H., Jr. (not Brown, also spoke (where Jr., A.H.) only last name is used) Alexandria, VA's waterfront 8.40. To set off parenthetic words, phrases, or clauses. Mr. Jefferson, who was then Secretary of State, favored the location of the National Capital at Washington. It must be remembered, however, that the Government had no guarantee. It is obvious, therefore, that this office cannot function. The atom bomb, which was developed at the Manhattan project, was first used in World War II. Their high morale might, he suggested, have caused them to put success of the team above the reputation of the college. The restriction is laid down in title IX, chapter 8, section 15, of the code. but The man who fell [restrictive clause] broke his back. The dam that gave way [restrictive clause] was poorly constructed. He therefore gave up the search. 8.41. To set off words or phrases in apposition or in contrast. Mr. Green, the lawyer, spoke for the defense. Mr. Jones, attorney for the plaintiff, signed the petition. Mr. Smith, not Mr. Black, was elected. James Roosevelt, Democrat, of California. Jean's sister, Joyce, was the eldest. (Jean had one sister.) but Jonathan's brother Moses Taylor was appointed. (Jonathan had more than one brother.) 8.42. After each member within a series of three or more words, phrases, letters, or figures used with and, or, or nor. red, white, and blue horses, mules, and cattle; but horses and mules and cattle by the bolt, by the yard, or in remnants a, b, and c neither snow, rain, nor heat 2 days, 3 hours, and 4 minutes (series); but 70 years 11 months 6 days (age) 8.43. Before the conjunction in a compound sentence containing two or more independent clauses, each of which could have been written as a simple sentence. Fish, mollusks, and crustaceans were plentiful in the lakes, and turtles frequented the shores. The boy went home alone, and his sister remained with the crowd. 8.44. After a noun or phrase in direct address. Senator, will the measure be defeated? Mr. Chairman, I will reply to the gentleman later. but Yes, sir; he did see it. No, ma'am; I do not recall. 8.45. After an interrogative clause, followed by a direct question. You are sure, are you not? You will go, will you not? 8.46. Between the title of a person and the name of an organization in the absence of the words of or of the. Chief, Division of Finance colonel, 12th Cavalry chairman, Committee on Regiment Appropriations president, University of Virginia 8.47. Inside closing quotation mark. He said ``four,'' not ``five.'' ``Freedom is an inherent right,'' he insisted. Items marked ``A,'' ``B,'' and ``C,'' inclusive, were listed. 8.48. To separate thousands and millions in numerical figures. 4,230 but 1,000,000,000 is more 50,491 clearly illustrated 1,250,000 as 1 billion 8.49. After the year in complete dates (month, day, year) within a sentence. The dates of September 11, 1993, to June 12, 1994, were erroneous. This was reflected in the June 13, 2007, report. but Production for June 2008 was normal. The 10 February 2008 deadline passed. The comma is omitted-- 8.50. Between superior figures or letters in footnote references. Numerous instances may be cited.\1\ \2\ Data are based on October production.\a\ \b\ 8.51. Before ZIP (Zone Improvement Plan) Code postal-delivery number. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20401-0003 East Rochester, OH 44625-9701 8.52. Between month, holiday, or season and year in dates. June 2008 150 B.C. 22d of May 2008 Labor Day 2006 February and March 2008 Easter Sunday 2006 January, February, and 5 January 2006 March 2008 (military usage) January 24 A.D. 2008; 15th spring 2007 of June A.D. 2008 autumn 2007 8.53. Between the name and number of an organization. Columbia Typographical Union No. 101-12 American Legion Post No. 33 8.54. In fractions, in decimals, and in serial numbers, except patent numbers. 1/2500 1.0947 page 2632 202-275-2303 (telephone number) 1721-1727 St. Clair Avenue Executive Order 11242 motor No. 189463 1450 kilocycles; 1100 meters 8.55. Between two nouns one of which identifies the other. The Children's Bureau's booklet ``Infant Care'' continues to be a bestseller. 8.56. Before an ampersand (&). Brown, Wilson & Co. Mine, Mill & Smelter Workers 8.57. Before abbreviations of compass directions. 6430 Princeton Dr. SW. 8.58. In bibliographies, between name of the publication and volume or similar number. American Library Association Bulletin 34:238, April 1940. 8.59. Wherever possible without danger of ambiguity. $2 gold Executive Order No. 21 General Order No. 12; but General Orders, No. 12 Public Law 85-1 He graduates in the year 2010 (not the year 2,010) My age is 30 years 6 months 12 days. John Lewis 2d (or II) Murphy of Illinois; Murphy of New York (where only last name is used) Carroll of Carrollton; Henry of Navarre (person closely identified with place); but Clyde Leo Downs, of Maryland; President Levin, of Yale University James Bros. et al.; but James Bros., Nelson Co., et al. (last element of series) Dash A 1-em dash is used-- 8.60. To mark a sudden break or abrupt change in thought. He said--and no one contradicted him--``The battle is lost.'' If the bill should pass--which God forbid!--the service will be wrecked. The auditor--shall we call him a knave or a fool?--approved an inaccurate statement. 8.61. To indicate an interruption or an unfinished word or sentence. A 2-em dash is used when the interruption is by a person other than the speaker, and a 1-em dash will show self-interruption. Note that extracts must begin with a true paragraph. Following extracts, colloquy must start as a paragraph. ``Such an idea can scarcely be--'' ``The word `donation'--'' ``The word `dona'--'' He said: ``Give me lib--'' The bill reads ``repeal,'' not ``am--'' Q. Did you see-- A. No, sir. Mr. Brown [reading]: ``The report goes on to say that--'' Observe this closely--``during the fiscal year * * *.'' 8.62. Instead of commas or parentheses if the meaning may thus be clarified. These are shore deposits--gravel, sand, and clay--but marine sediments underlie them. 8.63. Before a final clause that summarizes a series of ideas. Freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom from want, freedom from fear--these are the fundamentals of moral world order. 8.64. After an introductory phrase reading into the following lines and indicating repetition of such phrase. I recommend-- That we submit them for review and corrections; That we then accept them as corrected; and That we also publish them. 8.65. With a preceding question mark, in lieu of a colon. How can you explain this?--``Fee paid, $5.'' 8.66. To precede a credit line or a run-in credit or signature. Lay the proud usurpers low! Tyrants fall in every foe! Liberty's in every blow! Let us do or die! --Robert Burns. Every man's work shall be made manifest.--I Corinthians 3:13. This statement is open to question.--Gerald H. Forsythe. 8.67. After a run-in sidehead. 8.68. To separate run-in questions and answers in testimony. Q. Did he go?--A. No. A 1-em dash is not used-- 8.69. At the beginning of any line of type, except as shown in rule 8.66. 8.70. Immediately after a comma, colon, or semicolon. A 3-em dash is used-- 8.71. In bibliographies to indicate repetition. Powell, James W., Jr., Hunting in Virginia's lowlands. 1972. 200 pp. ---- Fishing off Delmarva. 1972. 28 pp. An en dash is used-- 8.72. In a combination of (1) figures, (2) capital letters, or (3) figures and capital letters. An en dash, not a hyphen, is used, even when such terms are adjectival modifiers. figures: 5-20 (bonds) 85-1-85-20 (Public laws. Note em dash between two elements with en dashes) 1-703-765-6593 (telephone number) 230-20-8030 (Social Security number) $15-$25 (range) capital letters: WTOP-AM-FM-TV (radio and television stations) CBS-TV AFL-CIO (union merger) C-SPAN (satellite television) figures and capitals: 6-A (exhibit identification) DC-14 (airplane) I-95 (interstate roadway) 4-H (Club) LK-66-A(2)-74 (serial number) but Rule 13e-4 section 12(a)-(b) (en dash used for the word ``to'') ACF-Brill Motors Co. (hyphen with capital letters and a word) loran-C (hyphen with lowercase word and capital letter) MiG-25 (hyphen with mixed letters with figure) ALL-AMERICAN ESSAY CONTEST (hyphen in capitalized heading) Four Corners Monument, AZ-NM-UT-CO (hyphen with two-letter state abbreviations) 8.73. In the absence of the word to when denoting a span of time. 2005-2008 January-June Monday-Friday An en dash is not used-- 8.74. For to when the word from precedes the first of two related figures or expressions. From June 1 to July 30, 2005; not from June 1-July 30, 2005 8.75. For and when the word between precedes the first of two related figures or expressions. Between 2000 and 2008; not between 2000-08 Ellipses 8.76. Three asterisks (preferred form) or three periods, separated by en spaces, are used to denote an ellipsis within a sentence, at the beginning or end of a sentence, or in two or more consecutive sentences. To achieve faithful reproduction of excerpt material, editors using period ellipses should indicate placement of the terminal period in relation to an ellipsis at the end of a sentence. Note, in the following examples, the additional spacing necessary to clearly defi ne commas and the terminal period when period ellipses are employed. The Senate having tried Andrew Johnson, President of the United States, upon articles of impeachment exhibited against him by the House of Representatives, and two-thirds of the Senators present not having found him guilty of the charges contained in the second, third, and eleventh articles of impeachment, it is therefore Ordered and adjudged. That the said Andrew Johnson, President of the United States be, and he is, acquitted of the charges in said articles made and set forth. The Senate having tried Andrew Johnson * * * upon articles of impeachment * * * and two-thirds of the Senators present not having found him guilty of the charges * * *, it is therefore Ordered and adjudged. That the said Andrew Johnson, President of the United States be * * * acquitted of the charges * * *. The Senate having tried Andrew Johnson. . . upon articles of impeachment. . . and two-thirds of the Senators present not having found him guilty of the charges. . . , it is therefore Ordered and adjudged. That the said Andrew Johnson, President of the United States be. . . acquitted of the charges. . . . 8.77. Ellipses are not overrun alone at the end of a paragraph. 8.78. When periods are not specifically requested for ellipses in copy that has both periods and asterisks, asterisks will be used. 8.79. A line of asterisks indicates an omission of one or more entire paragraphs. In 26\1/2\-pica or wider measure, a line of ``stars'' means seven asterisks indented 2 ems at each end of the line, with the remaining space divided evenly between the asterisks. In measures less than 26\1/2\ picas, five asterisks are used. Quotation marks are not used on a line of asterisks in quoted matter. Where an ellipsis line ends a complete quotation, no closing quote is used. * * * * * * * 8.80. Indented matter in 26\1/2\-pica or wider measure also requires a seven-asterisk line to indicate the omission of one or more entire paragraphs. 8.81. If an omission occurs in the last part of a paragraph immediately before a line of asterisks, three asterisks are used, in addition to the line of asterisks, to indicate such an omission. 8.82. Equalize spacing above and below an ellipsis line. Exclamation point 8.83. The exclamation point is used to mark surprise, incredulity, admiration, appeal, or other strong emotion which may be expressed even in a declarative or interrogative sentence. Who shouted, ``All aboard!'' [Note omission of question mark.] ``Great!'' he shouted. [Note omission of comma.] He acknowledged the fatal error! How breathtakingly beautiful! Timber! Mayday! Mayday! 8.84. In direct address, either to a person or a personified object, O is used without an exclamation point, or other punctuation; but if strong feeling is expressed, an exclamation point is placed at the end of the statement. O my friend, let us consider this subject impartially. O Lord, save Th y people! 8.85. In exclamations without direct address or appeal, oh is used instead of O, and the exclamation point is omitted. Oh, but the gentleman is mistaken. Oh dear; the time is so short. Hyphen The hyphen (a punctuation mark, not an element in the spelling of words) is used-- 8.86. To connect the elements of certain compound words. (See Chapter 6 ``Compounding Rules.'') 8.87. To indicate continuation of a word divided at the end of a line. (See Word Division, supplement to the Style Manual.) 8.88. Between the letters of a spelled word. The Style Board changed New Jerseyite to New J-e-r-s-e-y-a-n. A native of Halifax is a H-a-l-i-g-o-n-i-a-n. The Chinese repressive action took place in T-i-a-n-a-n-m-e-n Square. 8.89. To separate elements of chemical formulas. The hyphen, as an element, may be used-- 8.90. To represent letters deleted or illegible words in copy. Oakland's - - bonic plague Richard Emory H - - - Parentheses Parentheses are used-- 8.91. To set off important matter not intended to be part of the main statement that is not a grammatical element of the sentence. In colloquy, brackets must be substituted. This case (124 U.S. 329) is not relevant. The result (see fig. 2) is most surprising. The United States is the principal purchaser (by value) of these exports (23 per- cent in 1995 and 19 percent in 1996). 8.92. To enclose a parenthetic clause where the interruption is too great to be indicated by commas. You can find it neither in French dictionaries (at any rate, not in Littr�) nor in English dictionaries. 8.93. To enclose an explanatory word not part of a written or printed statement. the Winchester (VA) Star; but the Star of Winchester, VA Portland (OR) Chamber of Commerce; but Athens, GA, schools 8.94. To enclose letters or numbers designating items in a series, either at the beginning of paragraphs or within a paragraph. The order of delivery will be: (a) Food, (b) clothing, and (c) tents and other housing equipment. You will observe that the sword is (1) old fashioned, (2) still sharp, and (3) unusually light for its size. Paragraph 7(B)(1)(a) will be found on page 6. (Note parentheses closed up.) 8.95. To enclose a figure inserted to confirm a written or printed statement given in words if double form is specifi cally requested. This contract shall be completed in sixty (60) days. 8.96. A reference in parentheses at the end of a sentence is placed before the period, unless it is a complete sentence in itself. The specimen exhibits both phases (pl. 14, A, B). The individual cavities show great variation. (See pl. 4.) 8.97. If a sentence contains more than one parenthetic reference, the one at the end is placed before the period. This sandstone (see pl. 6) is in every county of the State (see pl. 1). 8.98. When a figure is followed by a letter in parentheses, no space is used between the figure and the opening parenthesis; but, if the letter is not in parentheses and the figure is repeated with each letter, the letter is closed up with the figure. 15(a). Classes, grades, and sizes. 15a. Classes, grades, and sizes. 8.99. If both a figure and a letter in parentheses are used before each paragraph, a period and an en space are used after the closing parenthesis. If the figure is not repeated before each letter in parentheses but is used only before the first letter, the period is placed aft er the figure. However, if the figure is not repeated before each letter in parentheses and no period is used, space is inserted aft er the number if at least one other lettered subsection appears. 15(a). When the figure is used before the letter in each paragraph-- 15(b). The period is placed after the closing parenthesis. 15. (a) When the figure is used before the letter in the first paragraph but not repeated with subsequent letters-- (b) The period is used after the figure only. Sec. 12 (a) When no period is used and a letter in parentheses appears after a numbered item-- (b) Space must be used after the number if at least one other lettered subsection is shown. 8.100. Note position of the period relative to closing parenthesis: The vending stand sells a variety of items (sandwiches, beverages, cakes, etc.). The vending stand sells a variety of items (sandwiches, beverages, cakes, etc. (sometimes ice cream)). The vending stand sells a variety of items. (These include sandwiches, beverages, cakes, etc. (6).) 8.101. To enclose bylines in congressional work. (By Harvey Hagman, archeological correspondent) 8.102. When matter in parentheses makes more than one paragraph, start each paragraph with a parenthesis and place the closing parenthesis at the end of the last paragraph. Period The period is used-- 8.103. After a declarative sentence that is not exclamatory or after an imperative sentence. Stars are suns. He was employed by Sampson & Co. Do not be late. On with the dance. 8.104. After an indirect question or after a question intended as a suggestion and not requiring an answer. Tell me how he did it. May we hear from you. May we ask prompt payment. 8.105. In place of a closing parenthesis after a letter or number denoting a series. a. Bread well baked 1. Punctuate freely b. Meat cooked rare 2. Compound sparingly c. Cubed apples stewed 3. Index thoroughly 8.106. Sometimes to indicate ellipsis. 8.107. After a run-in sidehead. Conditional subjunctive.--The conditional subjunctive is required for all unreal and doubtful conditions. 2. Peacetime preparation.--a. The Chairman of the National Security Resources Board, etc. 2. Peacetime preparation--Industrial mobilization plans.--The Chairman of the National Security Resources Board, etc. 2. Peacetime preparation.--Industrial mobilization.--The Chairman of the National Security Resources Board, etc. 62. Determination of types.--a. Statement of characteristics.-- Before types of equipment, etc. Steps in planning for procurement.--(1) Determination of needs.--To plan for the procurement of such arms, etc. 62. Determination of types.--(a) Statement of characteristics.--Before, etc. DETERMINATION OF TYPES.--Statement of characteristics.-- Before types of, etc. Note.--The source material was furnished. but Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. 8.108. Paragraphs and subparagraphs may be arranged according to the following scheme. The sequence is not fixed, and variations, in addition to the use of center and side heads or indented paragraphs, may be adopted, depending on the number of parts. I. Outlines can begin with a capital Roman numeral. A. The number of levels and the width of the column determine alignment and indention. 1. A set space (en space) following the identifier aids alignment. a. Usually, typefaces and sizes are chosen to agree with the hierarchy of the head breakdowns. (1) Aligning runover lines with the first word which follows the number or letter aids readability. (a) It is important to vary (alternate) the use of letters and numbers in any outline. (i) The lowercase Roman numerals (i), (ii), etc. may be used as parts of the outline or to identify subparts of any previous parts. (aa) When absolutely necessary, double (or triple) lowercase letters may be used. II. Where not needed, the capital Roman numerals may be discarded and the outline can begin with the letter A. As in any composition, consistency in indentions and order is essential. 8.109. To separate integers from decimals in a single expression. 13.75 percent 1.25 meters $3.50 0.08 mile 8.110. In continental European languages, to indicate thousands. 1.317 72.190.175 8.111. After abbreviations, unless otherwise specified. (See Chapter 9, ``Abbreviations and Letter Symbols.'') Apr. RR. fig. but Ph.D. m (meter) NE. (Northeast) kc (kilocycle) SSE. (South-Southeast) NY (New York) 8.112. After legends and explanatory matter beneath illustrations. Legends without descriptive language do not receive periods. Figure 1.--Schematic drawing. Figure 1.--Continued. but Figure 1 (without legend, no period) 8.113. After Article 1, Section 1, etc., at the beginning of paragraphs. A center period is sometimes used-- 8.114. To indicate multiplication. (Use of a multiplication sign is preferable.) ab axb The period is omitted-- 8.115. After-- Lines in title pages Center, side, and running heads; but is not omitted after run-in sideheads Continued lines Boxheads of tables Scientific, chemical, or other symbols This rule does not apply to abbreviation periods. 8.116. After a quotation mark that is preceded by a period. She said: ``I believe the time is now or never.'' 8.117. After letters used as names without specific designation. Officer B, Subject A, Brand X, etc. A said to B that all is well. Mr. A told Mr. B that the case was closed. Mr. X (for unknown or censored name). but Mr. A. [for Mr. Andrews]. I do not want to go. Mr. K. [for Mr. King]. The meeting is adjourned. 8.118. After a middle initial which is merely a letter and not an abbreviation of a name. Daniel D Tompkins Ross T McIntire but Harry S. Truman (President Truman's preference) 8.119. After a short name which is not an abbreviation of the longer form. Alex Mac Ed Sam 8.120. After Roman numerals used as ordinals. King George V Super Bowl XLII Apollo XII insigne 8.121. After words and incomplete statements listed in columns. Full- measure matter is not to be regarded as a column. 8.122. Explanatory matter should be set in 6 point type under leaders or rules. ............... .................. ............... (Name) (Address) (Position) 8.123. Immediately before leaders, even if an abbreviation precedes the leaders. Question mark The question mark is used-- 8.124. To indicate a direct query, even if not in the form of a question. Did he do it? He did what? Can the money be raised? is the question. Who asked, ``Why?'' [Note single question mark.] ``Did you hurt yourself, my son?'' she asked. 8.125. To express more than one query in the same sentence. Can he do it? or you? or anyone? 8.126. To express doubt. He said the boy was 8(?) feet tall. (No space before question mark.) The statue(?) was on the statute books. The scientific identification Dorothia? was noted. (Roman ``?''.) Quotation marks Quotation marks are used-- 8.127. To enclose direct quotations. (Each part of an interrupted quotation begins and ends with quotation marks.) The answer is ``No.'' He said, ``John said, `No.' '' (Note thin space between single and double closing quotes.) ``John,'' asked Henry, ``why do you go?'' 8.128. To enclose any matter following such terms as entitled, the word, the term, marked, designated, classified, named, endorsed, cited as, referred to as, or signed; however, quotation marks are not used to enclose expressions following the terms known as, called, so-called, etc., unless such expressions are misnomers or slang. Congress passed the act entitled ``An act * * *. '' After the word ``treaty,'' insert a comma. Of what does the item ``Miscellaneous debts'' consist? The column ``Imports from foreign countries'' was not * * *. The document will be marked ``Exhibit No. 21;'' but The document may be made exhibit No. 21. The check was endorsed ``John Adamson.'' It was signed ``John.'' but Beryllium is known as glucinium in some European countries. It was called profit and loss. The so-called investigating body. 8.129. To enclose titles of addresses, articles, awards, books, captions, editorials, essays, headings, subheadings, headlines, hearings, motion pictures and plays (including television and radio programs), operas, papers, short poems, reports, songs, studies, subjects, and themes. All principal words are to be capitalized. An address on ``Uranium-235 in the Atomic Age '' The article ``Germany Revisited'' appeared in the last issue. He received the ``Man of the Year'' award. ``The Conquest of Mexico,'' a published work (book) Under the caption ``Long-Term Treasurys Rise '' The subject was discussed in ``Punctuation.'' (chapter heading) It will be found in ``Part XI: Early Thought.'' The editorial ``Haphazard Budgeting'' ``Compensation,'' by Emerson (essay) ``United States To Appoint Representative to U.N.'' (heading for headline) In ``Search for Paradise'' (motion picture); ``South Pacific'' (play) A paper on ``Constant-Pressure Combustion'' was read. ``O Captain! My Captain!'' (short poem) The report ``Atomic Energy: What It Means to the Nation''; but annual report of the Public Printer This was followed by the singing of ``The Star-Spangled Banner.'' Under the subhead ``Sixty Days of Turmoil'' will be found * * *. The subject (or theme) of the conference is ``Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy.'' also Account 5, ``Management fees.'' Under the heading ``Management and Operation.'' Under the appropriation ``Building of ships, Navy.'' 8.130. At the beginning of each paragraph of a quotation, but at the end of the last paragraph only. 8.131. To enclose a letter or communication that bears both date and signature. 8.132. To enclose misnomers, slang expressions, sobriquets, coined words, or ordinary words used in an arbitrary way. His report was ``bunk.'' It was a ``gentlemen's agreement.'' The ``invisible government'' is responsible. George Herman ``Babe'' Ruth. but He voted for the lameduck amendment. 8.133. To close up characters except when they precede a fraction or an apostrophe or precede or follow a superior figure or letter, in which case a thin space is used. A thin space is used to separate double and single quotation marks. Quotation marks are not used-- 8.134. In poetry. The lines of a poem should align on the left, those that rhyme taking the same indention. Why seek to scale Mount Everest, Queen of the air? Why strive to crown that cruel crest And deathward dare? Said Mallory of dauntless quest: ``Because it's there.'' 8.135. To enclose titles of works of art: paintings, statuary, etc. 8.136. To enclose names of newspapers or magazines. 8.137. To enclose complete letters having date and signature. 8.138. To enclose extracts that are indented or set in smaller type, or solid extracts in leaded matter; but indented matter in text that is already quoted carries quotation marks. 8.139. In indirect quotations. Tell her yes. He could not say no. 8.140. Before a display initial which begins a quoted paragraph. 8.141. The comma and the final period will be placed inside the quotation marks. Other punctuation marks should be placed inside the quotation marks only if they are a part of the matter quoted. Ruth said, ``I think so.'' ``The President,'' he said, ``will veto the bill.'' The trainman shouted, ``All aboard!'' Who asked, ``Why?'' The President suggests that ``an early occasion be sought * * *.'' Why call it a ``gentlemen's agreement''? 8.142. In congressional and certain other classes of work showing amendments, and in courtwork with quoted language, punctuation marks are printed after the quotation marks when not a part of the quoted matter. Insert the words ``growth'', ``production'', and ``manufacture''. To be inserted after the words ``cadets, U.S. Coast Guard;''. Change ``February 1, 1983'', to ``June 30, 2008''. ``Insert in lieu thereof `July 1, 1983,'.'' 8.143. When occurring together, quotation marks should precede footnote reference numbers. The commissioner claimed that the award was ``unjustified.''\1\ Kelly's exact words were: ``The facts in the case prove otherwise.''\2\ 8.144. Quotation marks should be limited, if possible, to three sets (double, single, double). ``The question in the report is, `Can a person who obtains his certificate of naturalization by fraud be considered a ``bona fide'' citizen of the United States?' '' Semicolon The semicolon is used-- 8.145. To separate clauses containing commas. Donald A. Peters, Jr., president of the First National Bank, was also a director of New York Central; Harvey D. Jones was a director of Oregon Steel Co. and New York Central; Thomas W. Harrison, chairman of the board of McBride & Co., was also on the board of Oregon Steel Co. Reptiles, amphibians, and predatory mammals swallow their prey whole or in large pieces, bones included; waterfowl habitually take shellfish entire; and gallinaceous birds are provided with gizzards that grind up the hardest seeds. Yes, sir; he did see it. No, sir; I do not recall. 8.146. To separate statements that are too closely related in meaning to be written as separate sentences, and also statements of contrast. Yes; that is right. No; we received one-third. It is true in peace; it is true in war. War is destructive; peace, constructive. 8.147. To set off explanatory abbreviations or words that summarize or explain preceding matter. The industry is related to groups that produce finished goods; i.e., electrical machinery and transportation equipment. There were three metal producers involved; namely, Jones & Laughlin, Armco, and Kennecott. The semicolon is not used-- 8.148. Where a comma will suffice. Offices are located in New York, NY, Chicago, IL, and Dallas, TX. Single punctuation 8.149. Single punctuation should be used wherever possible without ambiguity. 124 U.S. 321 (no comma) Sir: (no dash) Joseph replied, ``It is a worthwhile effort.'' (no outside period) Type 8.150. All punctuation marks, including parentheses, brackets, and superior reference figures, are set to match the type of the words which they adjoin. A lightface dash is used after a run- in boldface side-head followed by lightface matter. Lightface brackets, parentheses, or quotation marks shall be used when both boldface and lightface matter are enclosed. Charts: C&GS 5101 (N.O. 18320), page 282 (see above); N.O. 93491 (Plan); page 271.