[U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual]
[Chapter 8 - Punctuation]
[From the U.S. Government Publishing Office, www.gpo.gov]

8.1. 	Punctuation is used to clarify the meaning of written or 
        printed language. Well-planned word order requires a minimum of 
        punctuation. The trend toward less punctuation calls for 
        skillful phrasing to avoid ambiguity and to ensure exact
        interpretation. Th e GPO Style Manual can offer only general 
        rules of text treatment. A rigid design or pattern of 
        punctuation cannot be laid down, except in broad terms. The 
        adopted style, however, must be consistent and based on 
        sentence structure. 

8.2. 	The general principles governing the use of punctuation are: If 
        it does not clarify the text it should be omitted; and, in the 
        choice and placing of punctuation marks, the sole aim should be 
        to bring out more clearly the author�s thought. Punctuation 
        should aid reading and prevent misreading. 

Apostrophes and possessives 
8.3. 	The possessive case of a singular or plural noun not ending in 
        s is formed by adding an apostrophe and s. The possessive case 
        of a singular or plural noun ending in s or with an s sound is 
        formed by adding an apostrophe only. Some irregular plurals 
        require both an apostrophe and an s. (For possessives of 
        italicized nouns, see rule 11.6.) 

          boss', bosses'                          man's, men's 

          child's, children's                     medium's, media's
citizen's, citizens'                    people's, peoples'
Congress', Congresses'                  Essex's, Essexes'
criterion's, criteria's                 Jones', Joneses' 

          Co.'s, Cos.'                            Jesus' 

          erratum's, errata's                     Mars' 

          hostess', hostesses'                    Dumas' 

          lady's, ladies'                         Schmitz

8.4. 	In compound nouns, the 's is added to the element nearest the 
        object possessed. 

          comptroller general's decision          attorney at law's fee 
          attorneys general's appointments        John White, Jr.'s 
          Mr. Brown of New York's motion            (no comma) account 

8.5. 	Joint possession is indicated by placing an apostrophe on the 
        last element of a series, while individual or alternative 
        possession requires the use of an apostrophe on each element of 
        a series. 

          soldiers and sailors' home              editor's or 
          Brown & Nelson's store                    proofreader's 
          men's, women's,                           opinion                                                                
            and children's                        Clinton's or Bush's  
            clothing                                administration  
          St. Michael's Men's Club                Mrs. Smith's and Mrs. 
                                                    Allen's children 
                                                  the Army's and the
                                                    Navy's work 
                                                  master's and doctor's

8.6. 	In the use of an apostrophe in firm names, the names of 
        organizations and institutions, the titles of books, and 
        geographic names, the authentic form is to be followed. (Note 
        use of ``St.'') 

          Masters, Mates & Pilots'                Johns Hopkins 
            Association                             University
          Dentists' Supply Co. of New York        Hinds' Precedents
          International Ladies' Garment           Harpers Ferry 
            Workers' Union                        Hells Canyon 
          Court of St. James's                    Reader's Digest 
          St. Peter's Church                      Actor's Equity 
          St. Elizabeths Hospital                   Association  
                                              but Martha's Vineyard 

8.7. 	Generally, the apostrophe should not be used after names of 
        countries and other organized bodies ending in s, or after 
        words more descriptive than possessive (not indicating personal 
        possession), except when plural does not end in s. 

          United States control                   teachers college 
          United Nations meeting                  merchants exchange 
          Southern States industries              children's hospital
          Massachusetts laws                      Young Men's Christian
          Bureau of Ships report                    Association   
          House of Representatives 
            session                           but  
          Teamsters Union                         Veterans' 
          editors handbook                          Administration (now 
          syrup producers manual                      Department of 
          technicians guide                           Veterans Affairs)
                                                  Congress' attitude 

8.8. 	Possessive pronouns do not take an apostrophe. 

          its                                     yours 

          ours                                    hers 

          theirs                                  whose 

8.9. 	Possessive indefinite or impersonal pronouns require an 

          each other's books                      anothers idea 
          some others' plans                      someone's guesstimate 
          one's home is his castle 

8.10. 	The singular possessive case is used in such general terms as 
        the following: 

          arm's length                            fuller's earth 
          attorney's fees                         miner's inch 
          author's alterations                    printer's ink 
          confectioner's sugar                    traveler's checks 
          cow's milk                              writer's cramp 
          distiller's grain 

8.11. 	While an apostrophe is used to indicate possession and 
        contractions, it is not generally necessary to use an 
        apostrophe simply to show the plural form of most acronyms, 
        initialisms, or abbreviations, except where clarity and sense 
        demand such inclusion. 

          49ers                                   e'er (ever) 
          TVers                                   class of '08 (2008) 
          OKs                                     spirit of '76 (1776) 
          RIFing                              not in her '70s (age) 
          RIFs                                    better: in her 
          RIFed                                     seventies 
          YWCAs                               not during the '90s 
          ABCs                                    better: during the 
          1920s                                     1990s or 
          IOUs                                    during the twenties  
          10s (thread)                        but 
          4\1/2\s (bonds)                         he never crosses his 
          3s (golf)                                 t's  
          2 by 4s                                 she fails to dot her 
          IQs                                       i's 
          don't (do not)                          a's, &'s, 7's  
          I've (I have)                           watch your p's and q's
          it's (it is/it has)                     are they l's or 1's
          ne'er (never)                           the Oakland A's
                                                  a number of s's  
                                                  his resume had too 
                                                    many I's 

        When the plural form of an acronym appears in parentheses, a 
        lower case s is included within the parentheses. 

          (MPDs)                                  (IPOs) 
          (MP3s)                                  (SUVs) 

8.12. 	The apostrophe is omitted in abbreviations, and also in 
        shortened forms of certain other words. 

          Danl., not Dan'l                        Halloween, not 
          phone, not'phone                         Hallowe'en 
          coon, not'coon                          copter, not'copter 
          possum, not'possum                  but ma'am 

8.13. 	The plural of spelled-out numbers, of words referred to as 
        words, and of words containing an apostrophe is formed by 
        adding s or es; but �s is added to indicate the plural of words 
        used as words if omission of the apostrophe would cause 
        difficulty in reading. 

          twos, threes, sevens                    yeses and noes 
          ands, ifs, and buts                     yeas and nays 
          ins and outs 
          the haves and have-nots             but 
          ups and downs                           do's and don'ts 
          whereases and wherefores                which's and that's 
          pros and cons 

8.14. 	The possessive case is often used in lieu of an objective 
        phrase even though ownership is not involved. 

          1 day's labor (labor for 1 day)         for charity's sake 
          12 days' labor                          for pity's sake 
          2 hours' traveltime                     several billion 
          a stone's throw                           dollars' worth 
          2 weeks' pay                        but $10 billion worth 

8.15. 	The possessive case is not used in such expressions as the 
        following, in which one noun modifies another. 

          day labor (labor by the day)            State prison 
          quartermaster stores                    State rights 

8.16.  For euphony, nouns ending in s or ce and followed by a word 
       beginning with s form the possessive by adding an apostrophe 

         for goodness' sake                       for acquaintance'
         Mr. Hughes' service                        sake 
         for old times' sake                      for conscience' sake  

8.17.  A possessive noun used in an adjective sense requires the 
       addition of 's.  

         He is a friend of John's.                Stern's is running a 

8.18.  A noun preceding a gerund should be in the possessive case.  

         in the event of Mary's leaving           the ship's hovering 

Brackets, in pairs, are used--
8.19. 	In transcripts, congressional hearings, the Congressional 
Record, testimony in courtwork, etc., to enclose interpolations that 
are not specifically a part of the original quotation, such as a correction, 
explanation, omission, editorial comment, or a caution that an error 
is reproduced literally. 

         We found this to be true at the Government Printing Office 

         He came on the 3d [2d] of July. 

         Our conference [lasted] 2 hours. 

         The general [Washington] ordered him to leave. 

         The paper was as follows [reads]: 

         I do not know. [Continues reading:] 

         [Chorus of ``Mr. Chairman.''] 

         They fooled only themselves. [Laughter.] 

         Our party will always serve the people [applause] in spite of 
           the opposition 
[loud applause]. (If more than one bracketed 
           interpolation, both are included within the sentence.) 
         The Witness. He did it that way [indicating]. 
         Q. Do you know these men [handing witness a list]? 

         The bill had not been paid. [Italic added.] or 
           [Emphasis added.] 

         The statue [sic] was on the statute books. 

         The Witness. This matter is classified. [Deleted.] 


         Mr. Jones. Hold up your hands. [Show of hands.] 

         Answer [after examining list]. Yes; I do. 

         Q. [Continuing.] 

         A. [Reads:] 

         A. [Interrupting.] 

         [Discussion off the record.] 


         The Witness [interrupting]. It is known--
Mr. Jones [continuing]. Now let us take the next item. 

         Mr. Smith [presiding]. Do you mean that literally? 

         Mr. Jones [interposing]. Absolutely. 

         [The matter referred to is as follows:] 

         The Chairman [to Mr. Smith]. 

         The Chairman [reading]: 

         Mr. Kelley [to the chairman]. From 15 to 25 percent. 

         [Objected to.] 

         [Mr. Smith nods.] 

         [Mr. Smith aside.] 

         [Mr. Smith makes further statement off the record.] 

         Mr. Jones [for Mr. Smith]. 

         A Voice From Audience. Speak up. 

         Several Voices. Quiet! 

8.20. 	In bills, contracts, laws, etc., to indicate matter that is to 
        be omitted. 

8.21. 	In mathematics, to denote that enclosed matter is to be treated 
        as a unit. 

8.22. 	When matter in brackets makes more than one paragraph, start 
        each paragraph with a bracket and place the closing bracket at 
        end of last paragraph. 

The colon is used--

8.23. 	Before a final clause that extends or amplifies preceding 

          Give up conveniences; do not demand special privileges; 
            do not stop work: these are necessary while we are at 
          Railroading is not a variety of outdoor sport: it is service. 

8.24. 	To introduce formally any matter that forms a complete 
        sentence, question, or quotation. 

          The following question came up for discussion: What policy 
            should be adopted? 
          She said: ``I believe the time is now or never.'' [When a 
            direct quotation follows that has more than a few words.] 
          There are three factors, as follows: First, military 
            preparation; second, industrial mobilization; and third, 

8.25.	 After a salutation. 

           My Dear Sir: 
           Ladies and Gentlemen: 

           To Whom It May Concern: 

8.26. 	In expressing clock time. 

          2:40 p.m. 

8.27. 	After introductory lines in lists, tables, and leaderwork, if  
        subentries follow. 

          Seward Peninsula: 
            Council district: 
              Northern Light Mining Co. 
              Wild Goose Trading Co. 
            Fairhaven district: Alaska Dredging Association (single 
                                  subitem runs in). 
        Seward Peninsula: Council district (single subitem runs in): 
              Northern Light Mining Co. 

              Wild Goose Trading Co. 

8.28. 	In Biblical and other citations. 

          Luke 4:3. 
          I Corinthians 13:13. 

          Journal of Education 3:342-358. 

8.29. 	In bibliographic references, between place of publication and 
        name of publisher. 

          Congressional Directory. Washington: U.S. Government Printing 

8.30. 	To separate book titles and subtitles. 

           Financial Aid for College Students: Graduate 
           Germany Revisited: Education in the Federal Republic 

8.31. 	In imprints before the year (en space each side of colon). 

                       U.S. Government Printing Office 

                             Washington : 2008 

8.32.	 In proportions. 
            Concrete mixed 5:3:1 

        but 5-2-1 or 5-2-1 (when so in copy) 

8.33. 	In double colon as ratio sign. 

The comma is used--
8.34. 	To separate two words or figures that might otherwise be 

          Instead of hundreds, thousands came. 
          Instead of 20, 50 came. 
          December 7, 1941. 
          In 2003, 400 men were dismissed. 
          To John, Smith was very kind. 
          What the difficulty is, is not known. 

      but He suggested that that committee be appointed. 

8.35. 	Before a direct quotation of only a few words following an 
        introductory phrase. 

          He said, ``Now or never.

8.36. 	To indicate the omission of a word or words. 

          Then we had much; now, nothing. 

8.37. 	After each of a series of coordinate qualifying words. 

          short, swift streams; but short tributary streams 

8.38. 	Between an introductory modifying phrase and the subject 

          Beset by the enemy, they retreated. 

8.39. 	Before and aft er Jr., Sr., Esq., Ph.D., F.R.S., Inc., etc., 
        within a sentence except where possession is indicated.

          Henry Smith, Jr., chairman              but 
          Peter Johns, F.R.S., London             John Smith 2d (or II); 
          Washington, DC, schools                 Smith, John, II 
          Motorola, Inc., factory                 Mr. Smith, Junior,  
          Brown, A.H., Jr. (not Brown,              also spoke (where                    
            Jr., A.H.)                              only last name is 
                                                  Alexandria, VA's 

8.40. 	To set off parenthetic words, phrases, or clauses. 

          Mr. Jefferson, who was then Secretary of State, favored the 
            location of the National Capital at Washington. 
          It must be remembered, however, that the Government had no 
          It is obvious, therefore, that this office cannot function. 
          The atom bomb, which was developed at the Manhattan project, 
            was first used in World War II. 
          Their high morale might, he suggested, have caused them to 
            put success of the team above the reputation of the 
          The restriction is laid down in title IX, chapter 8, section 
            15, of the code. 
      but The man who fell [restrictive clause] broke his back.
          The dam that gave way [restrictive clause] was poorly 
          He therefore gave up the search. 

8.41. 	To set off words or phrases in apposition or in contrast. 
          Mr. Green, the lawyer, spoke for the defense. 
          Mr. Jones, attorney for the plaintiff, signed the petition. 
          Mr. Smith, not Mr. Black, was elected. 
          James Roosevelt, Democrat, of California. 
          Jean's sister, Joyce, was the eldest. (Jean had one sister.) 
      but Jonathan's brother Moses Taylor was appointed. (Jonathan had 
          more than one brother.) 

8.42. 	After each member within a series of three or more words, 
        phrases, letters, or figures used with and, or, or nor. 

          red, white, and blue 
          horses, mules, and cattle; but horses and mules and cattle 
          by the bolt, by the yard, or in remnants 
          a, b, and c 
          neither snow, rain, nor heat 
          2 days, 3 hours, and 4 minutes (series); but 70 years 11 
            months 6 days (age) 

8.43. 	Before the conjunction in a compound sentence containing two or 
        more independent clauses, each of which could have been written 
        as a simple sentence. 

          Fish, mollusks, and crustaceans were plentiful in the lakes,
            and turtles frequented the shores. 
          The boy went home alone, and his sister remained with the 

8.44.	 After a noun or phrase in direct address. 

           Senator, will the measure be defeated? 
           Mr. Chairman, I will reply to the gentleman later. 
       but Yes, sir; he did see it. 
           No, ma'am; I do not recall. 

8.45.	 After an interrogative clause, followed by a direct question. 
           You are sure, are you not?             You will go, will you 

8.46. 	Between the title of a person and the name of an organization 
        in the absence of the words of or of the.  

          Chief, Division of Finance              colonel, 12th Cavalry
          chairman, Committee on                    Regiment 
            Appropriations                        president, University 
                                                    of Virginia 

8.47.  Inside closing quotation mark.  

         He said ``four,'' not ``five.''  
         ``Freedom is an inherent right,'' he insisted. 

         Items marked ``A,'' ``B,'' and ``C,'' inclusive, were listed. 

8.48. 	To separate thousands and millions in numerical figures. 

          4,230                               but 1,000,000,000 is more
          50,491                                    clearly illustrated 
          1,250,000                                 as 1 billion 

8.49. 	After the year in complete dates (month, day, year) within a 

          The dates of September 11, 1993, to June 12, 1994, were 
          This was reflected in the June 13, 2007, report. 
      but Production for June 2008 was normal. 
          The 10 February 2008 deadline passed. 

The comma is omitted--
8.50. 	Between superior figures or letters in footnote references. 

          Numerous instances may be cited.\1\ \2\ 
          Data are based on October production.\a\ \b\ 

8.51. 	Before ZIP (Zone Improvement Plan) Code postal-delivery number. 

          Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20401-0003 
          East Rochester, OH 44625-9701 

8.52. 	Between month, holiday, or season and year in dates. 

          June 2008                               150 B.C. 
          22d of May 2008                         Labor Day 2006 
          February and March 2008                 Easter Sunday 2006 
          January, February, and                  5 January 2006
            March 2008                              (military usage) 
          January 24 A.D. 2008; 15th              spring 2007 
           of June A.D. 2008 	                  autumn 2007 

8.53. 	Between the name and number of an organization. 

          Columbia Typographical Union No. 101-12 

          American Legion Post No. 33 

8.54. 	In fractions, in decimals, and in serial numbers, except patent 

          page 2632 
          202-275-2303 (telephone number) 
          1721-1727 St. Clair Avenue 
          Executive Order 11242 
          motor No. 189463 

          1450 kilocycles; 1100 meters 

8.55. 	Between two nouns one of which identifies the other. 

          The Children's Bureau's booklet ``Infant Care'' continues to
            be a bestseller. 

8.56. 	Before an ampersand (&). 

          Brown, Wilson & Co. 

          Mine, Mill & Smelter Workers 

8.57. 	Before abbreviations of compass directions. 
          6430 Princeton Dr. SW. 

8.58. 	In bibliographies, between name of the publication and volume 
        or similar number. 

          American Library Association Bulletin 34:238, April 1940. 

8.59. 	Wherever possible without danger of ambiguity. 

          $2 gold 
          Executive Order No. 21 
          General Order No. 12; but General Orders, No. 12 
          Public Law 85-1 
          He graduates in the year 2010 (not the year 2,010) 
          My age is 30 years 6 months 12 days. 
          John Lewis 2d (or II) 
          Murphy of Illinois; Murphy of New York (where only last name 
            is used) 
          Carroll of Carrollton; Henry of Navarre (person closely 
            identified with place); 
      but Clyde Leo Downs, of Maryland; President Levin, of Yale 
          James Bros. et al.; but James Bros., Nelson Co., et al. (last 
            element of series) 

A 1-em dash is used--

8.60. 	To mark a sudden break or abrupt change in thought. 

          He said--and no one contradicted him--``The battle is lost.'' 

          If the bill should pass--which God forbid!--the service will 
            be wrecked. 

          The auditor--shall we call him a knave or a fool?--approved 
            an inaccurate

8.61. 	To indicate an interruption or an unfinished word or sentence. 
        A 2-em dash is used when the interruption is by a person other 
        than the speaker, and a 1-em dash will show self-interruption. 
        Note that extracts must begin with a true paragraph. Following 
        extracts, colloquy must start as a paragraph. 

          ``Such an idea can scarcely be--''
``The word `donation'--''

          ``The word `dona'--'' 

          He said: ``Give me lib--'' 

          The bill reads ``repeal,'' not ``am--'' 

          Q. Did you see--
          A. No, sir. 

          Mr. Brown [reading]: ``The report goes on to say that--''
            Observe this  closely--``during the fiscal year * * *.''
8.62. 	Instead of commas or parentheses if the meaning may thus be 

          These are shore deposits--gravel, sand, and clay--but marine 
            sediments underlie them. 

8.63. 	Before a final clause that summarizes a series of ideas. 

          Freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom from want, 
            freedom from fear--these are the fundamentals of moral 
            world order. 

8.64. 	After an introductory phrase reading into the following lines 
        and indicating repetition of such phrase. 

          I recommend--
            That we submit them for review and corrections;  
            That we then accept them as corrected; and  
            That we also publish them. 

8.65. 	With a preceding question mark, in lieu of a colon. 

          How can you explain this?--``Fee paid, $5.'' 

8.66. 	To precede a credit line or a run-in credit or signature. 

                     Lay the proud usurpers low! 
                     Tyrants fall in every foe! 
                     Liberty's in every blow! 
                       Let us do or die! 
                                               --Robert Burns. 

          Every man's work shall be made manifest.--I Corinthians 3:13. 
          This statement is open to question.--Gerald H. Forsythe. 

8.67.	 After a run-in sidehead. 

8.68. 	To separate run-in questions and answers in testimony. 

         Q. Did he go?--A. No. 

A 1-em dash is not used--
8.69. 	At the beginning of any line of type, except as shown in rule 8.66. 

8.70. Immediately after a comma, colon, or semicolon. 

A 3-em dash is used--
8.71. 	In bibliographies to indicate repetition. 

          Powell, James W., Jr., Hunting in Virginia's lowlands. 1972. 
            200 pp. 
          ---- Fishing off Delmarva. 1972. 28 pp. 

An en dash is used--
8.72. 	In a combination of (1) figures, (2) capital letters, or (3) 
        figures and capital letters. An en dash, not a hyphen, is used, 
        even when such terms are adjectival modifiers. 

            5-20 (bonds) 
            85-1-85-20 (Public laws. Note em dash between two elements 
              with en dashes) 
            1-703-765-6593 (telephone number) 
            230-20-8030 (Social Security number)
            $15-$25 (range) 
        capital letters: 
            WTOP-AM-FM-TV (radio and television stations)
            AFL-CIO (union merger) 
            C-SPAN (satellite television) 
        figures and capitals: 
            6-A (exhibit identification)
            DC-14 (airplane) 
            I-95 (interstate roadway)
            4-H (Club) 
            LK-66-A(2)-74 (serial number) 
       but  Rule 13e-4 
            section 12(a)-(b) (en dash used for the word ``to'') 
            ACF-Brill Motors Co. (hyphen with capital letters and a 
            loran-C (hyphen with lowercase word and capital letter) 
            MiG-25 (hyphen with mixed letters with figure) 
            ALL-AMERICAN ESSAY CONTEST (hyphen in capitalized heading) 
            Four Corners Monument, AZ-NM-UT-CO (hyphen with two-letter 
              state abbreviations) 

8.73. 	In the absence of the word to when denoting a span of time. 

          2005-2008           January-June        Monday-Friday 

An en dash is not used--
8.74. 	For to when the word from precedes the first of two related 
        figures or expressions. 

          From June 1 to July 30, 2005; not from June 1-July 30, 2005 

8.75. 	For and when the word between precedes the first of two related 
        figures or expressions. 

          Between 2000 and 2008; not between 2000-08 

8.76. 	Three asterisks (preferred form) or three periods, separated by 
        en spaces, are used to denote an ellipsis within a sentence, at 
        the beginning or end of a sentence, or in two or more 
        consecutive sentences. To achieve faithful reproduction of 
        excerpt material, editors using period ellipses should indicate 
        placement of the terminal period in relation to an ellipsis at 
        the end of a sentence. Note, in the following examples, the 
        additional spacing necessary to clearly defi ne commas and the 
        terminal period when period ellipses are employed.

          The Senate having tried Andrew Johnson, President of the 
            United States, upon articles of impeachment exhibited 
            against him by the House of Representatives, and two-thirds 
            of the Senators present not having found him guilty of the 
            charges contained in the second, third, and eleventh 
            articles of impeachment, it is therefore 
          Ordered and adjudged. That the said Andrew Johnson, President 
            of the United States be, and he is, acquitted of the 
            charges in said articles made and set forth.
          The Senate having tried Andrew Johnson * * * upon articles of 
            impeachment * * * and two-thirds of the Senators present 
            not having found him guilty of the charges * * *, it is 
          Ordered and adjudged. That the said Andrew Johnson, President 
            of the United States be * * * acquitted of the charges 
            * * *.
          The Senate having tried Andrew Johnson. . . upon articles of 
            impeachment. . . and two-thirds of the Senators present not 
            having found him guilty of the charges. . . , it is 
          Ordered and adjudged. That the said Andrew Johnson, President 
            of the United States be. . . acquitted of the charges. . . . 

8.77. 	Ellipses are not overrun alone at the end of a paragraph. 

8.78. 	When periods are not specifically requested for ellipses in 
        copy that has both periods and asterisks, asterisks will be 

8.79. 	A line of asterisks indicates an omission of one or more entire 
        paragraphs. In 26\1/2\-pica or wider measure, a line of 
        ``stars'' means seven asterisks indented 2 ems at each end of 
        the line, with the remaining space divided evenly between the 
        asterisks. In measures less than 26\1/2\ picas, five asterisks 
        are used. Quotation marks are not used on a line of asterisks 
        in quoted matter. Where an ellipsis line ends a complete 
        quotation, no closing quote is used. 

          *          *         *         *         *        *        * 

8.80.  Indented matter in 26\1/2\-pica or wider measure also requires a 
       seven-asterisk line to indicate the omission of one or more 
       entire paragraphs.  

8.81.  If an omission occurs in the last part of a paragraph 
       immediately before a line of asterisks, three asterisks are 
       used, in addition to the line of asterisks, to indicate such an 

8.82.  Equalize spacing above and below an ellipsis line.  

Exclamation point 
8.83. 	The exclamation point is used to mark surprise, incredulity, 
        admiration, appeal, or other strong emotion which may be 
        expressed even in a declarative or interrogative sentence. 

          Who shouted, ``All aboard!'' [Note omission of question 

          ``Great!'' he shouted. [Note omission of comma.] 

          He acknowledged the fatal error! 

          How breathtakingly beautiful! 


          Mayday! Mayday! 

8.84. 	In direct address, either to a person or a personified object, 
        O is used without an exclamation point, or other punctuation; 
        but if strong feeling is expressed, an exclamation point is 
        placed at the end of the statement. 

          O my friend, let us consider this subject impartially. 
          O Lord, save Th y people! 

8.85. 	In exclamations without direct address or appeal, oh is used 
        instead of O, and the exclamation point is omitted. 

          Oh, but the gentleman is mistaken. 
          Oh dear; the time is so short. 

The hyphen (a punctuation mark, not an element in the spelling of 
words) is used--

8.86. 	To connect the elements of certain compound words. (See Chapter 
        6 ``Compounding Rules.'') 

8.87. 	To indicate continuation of a word divided at the end of a 
        line. (See Word Division, supplement to the Style Manual.) 

8.88. 	Between the letters of a spelled word. 
          The Style Board changed New Jerseyite to New J-e-r-s-e-y-a-n. 
          A native of Halifax is a H-a-l-i-g-o-n-i-a-n. 

          The Chinese repressive action took place in T-i-a-n-a-n-m-e-n

8.89. 	To separate elements of chemical formulas. 

The hyphen, as an element, may be used--
8.90. 	To represent letters deleted or illegible words in copy. 

          Oakland's - - bonic plague              Richard Emory H - - - 

Parentheses are used--
8.91. 	To set off important matter not intended to be part of the main 
        statement that is not a grammatical element of the sentence. In
        colloquy, brackets must be substituted.

          This case (124 U.S. 329) is not relevant. 

          The result (see fig. 2) is most surprising. 

          The United States is the principal purchaser (by value) of 
            these exports (23 per-
cent in 1995 and 19 percent in 1996). 

8.92. 	To enclose a parenthetic clause where the interruption is too 
        great to be indicated by commas. 

          You can find it neither in French dictionaries (at any rate, 
            not in Littr�) nor in English dictionaries. 

8.93. 	To enclose an explanatory word not part of a written or printed 

          the Winchester (VA) Star; but the Star of Winchester, VA 
          Portland (OR) Chamber of Commerce; but Athens, GA, schools 

8.94. 	To enclose letters or numbers designating items in a series, 
        either at the beginning of paragraphs or within a paragraph. 

          The order of delivery will be: (a) Food, (b) clothing, and 
            (c) tents and other housing equipment. 
          You will observe that the sword is (1) old fashioned, (2) 
            still sharp, and (3) unusually light for its size. 
          Paragraph 7(B)(1)(a) will be found on page 6. (Note 
            parentheses closed up.) 

8.95. 	To enclose a figure inserted to confirm a written or printed 
        statement given in words if double form is specifi cally 

          This contract shall be completed in sixty (60) days. 

8.96. 	A reference in parentheses at the end of a sentence is placed 
        before the period, unless it is a complete sentence in itself. 

          The specimen exhibits both phases (pl. 14, A, B). 

          The individual cavities show great variation. (See pl. 4.) 

8.97. 	If a sentence contains more than one parenthetic reference, the 
        one at the end is placed before the period. 

         This sandstone (see pl. 6) is in every county of the State 
           (see pl. 1). 

8.98. 	When a figure is followed by a letter in parentheses, no space 
        is used between the figure and the opening parenthesis; but, if 
        the letter is not in parentheses and the figure is repeated 
        with each letter, the letter is closed up with the figure. 

          15(a). Classes, grades, and sizes. 

          15a. Classes, grades, and sizes. 

8.99. 	If both a figure and a letter in parentheses are used before 
        each paragraph, a period and an en space are used after the 
        closing parenthesis. If the figure is not repeated before each 
        letter in parentheses but is used only before the first letter, 
        the period is placed aft er the figure. However, if the figure 
        is not repeated before each letter in parentheses and no period 
        is used, space is inserted aft er the number if at least one 
        other lettered subsection appears. 

          15(a). When the figure is used before the letter in each 
          15(b). The period is placed after the closing parenthesis. 
          15. (a) When the figure is used before the letter in the 
            first paragraph but not repeated with subsequent letters-- 
          (b) The period is used after the figure only. 
          Sec. 12 (a) When no period is used and a letter in 
            parentheses appears after a numbered item-- 
          (b) Space must be used after the number if at least one other 
            lettered subsection is shown. 

8.100. 	Note position of the period relative to closing parenthesis: 

          The vending stand sells a variety of items (sandwiches, 
            beverages, cakes, etc.). 
          The vending stand sells a variety of items (sandwiches, 
            beverages, cakes, etc.  (sometimes ice cream)). 
          The vending stand sells a variety of items. (These include
            sandwiches, beverages, cakes, etc. (6).) 

8.101. 	To enclose bylines in congressional work. 

         (By Harvey Hagman, archeological correspondent) 

8.102. 	When matter in parentheses makes more than one paragraph, start 
        each paragraph with a parenthesis and place the closing 
        parenthesis at the end of the last paragraph. 

The period is used--
8.103. 	After a declarative sentence that is not exclamatory or after 
        an imperative sentence. 
          Stars are suns. 

          He was employed by Sampson & Co. 

          Do not be late. 

          On with the dance. 

8.104. 	After an indirect question or after a question intended as a 
        suggestion and not requiring an answer. 

          Tell me how he did it. 

          May we hear from you. 

          May we ask prompt payment. 

8.105. 	In place of a closing parenthesis after a letter or number 
        denoting a series.  

          a. Bread well baked                     1. Punctuate freely
          b. Meat cooked rare                     2. Compound sparingly
          c. Cubed apples stewed                  3. Index thoroughly

8.106.  Sometimes to indicate ellipsis.  

8.107.  After a run-in sidehead. 

          Conditional subjunctive.--The conditional subjunctive is 
        required for all unreal and doubtful conditions. 
          2. Peacetime preparation.--a. The Chairman of the National 
        Security Resources Board, etc. 
          2. Peacetime preparation--Industrial mobilization plans.--The 
        Chairman of the National Security Resources Board, etc. 
          2. Peacetime preparation.--Industrial mobilization.--The 
        Chairman of the National Security Resources Board, etc. 

          62. Determination of types.--a. Statement of characteristics.--
        Before types of equipment, etc. 
          Steps in planning for procurement.--(1) Determination of 
        needs.--To plan for the procurement of such arms, etc.

          62. Determination of types.--(a) Statement of 
        characteristics.--Before, etc. 

          DETERMINATION OF TYPES.--Statement of characteristics.--
        Before types of, etc. 
          Note.--The source material was furnished. but Source: U.S. 
        Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. 

8.108. 	Paragraphs and subparagraphs may be arranged according to the 
        following scheme. The sequence is not fixed, and variations, in 
        addition to the use of center and side heads or indented 
        paragraphs, may be adopted, depending on the number of parts. 

          I. Outlines can begin with a capital Roman numeral.
              A. The number of levels and the width of the column 
                 determine alignment and indention. 
                 1. A set space (en space) following the identifier 
                    aids alignment. 
                    a. Usually, typefaces and sizes are chosen to agree 
                       with the hierarchy of the head breakdowns. 
                       (1) Aligning runover lines with the first word 
                           which follows the number or letter aids
                           (a) It is important to vary (alternate) the 
                               use of letters and numbers in any 
                               (i) The lowercase Roman numerals (i), 
                                   (ii), etc. may be used as parts of 
                                   the outline or to identify subparts 
                                   of any previous parts. (aa) When 
                                   absolutely necessary, double (or 
                                   triple) lowercase letters may be 
         II. Where not needed, the capital Roman numerals may be 
             discarded and the outline can begin with the letter A. As 
             in any composition, consistency in indentions and order is 

8.109. 	To separate integers from decimals in a single expression. 

          13.75 percent                           1.25 meters 

          $3.50                                   0.08 mile 

8.110. 	In continental European languages, to indicate thousands. 

          1.317	                                  72.190.175 

8.111. 	After abbreviations, unless otherwise specified. (See Chapter 
        9, ``Abbreviations and Letter Symbols.'') 

          Apr.                                    RR. 

          fig.                                    but 

          Ph.D.                                   m (meter) 

          NE. (Northeast)                         kc (kilocycle) 

          SSE. (South-Southeast)                  NY (New York) 

8.112. 	After legends and explanatory matter beneath illustrations. 
        Legends without descriptive language do not receive periods. 
          Figure 1.--Schematic drawing. 
          Figure 1.--Continued. 

      but Figure 1 (without legend, no period) 

8.113.	 After Article 1, Section 1, etc., at the beginning of 

A center period is sometimes used--

8.114. 	To indicate multiplication. (Use of a multiplication sign is 

          ab                                     axb 

The period is omitted--

8.115.	 After--

           Lines in title pages 
           Center, side, and running heads; but is not omitted after 
             run-in sideheads 
           Continued lines 
           Boxheads of tables 
           Scientific, chemical, or other symbols
        This rule does not apply to abbreviation periods. 

8.116.	 After a quotation mark that is preceded by a period. 

           She said: ``I believe the time is now or never.''

8.117.	 After letters used as names without specific designation. 
           Officer B, Subject A, Brand X, etc. 
           A said to B that all is well. 
           Mr. A told Mr. B that the case was closed. 

           Mr. X (for unknown or censored name). 

       but Mr. A. [for Mr. Andrews]. I do not want to go. 

           Mr. K. [for Mr. King]. The meeting is adjourned. 

8.118. 	After a middle initial which is merely a letter and not an 
        abbreviation of a name. 

          Daniel D Tompkins 
          Ross T McIntire 

      but Harry S. Truman (President Truman's preference) 

8.119.	 After a short name which is not an abbreviation of the longer

           Alex                                   Mac 

           Ed                                     Sam 

8.120.	 After Roman numerals used as ordinals. 
           King George V                          Super Bowl XLII 
           Apollo XII insigne 

8.121. 	After words and incomplete statements listed in columns. Full-
        measure matter is not to be regarded as a column. 

8.122. 	Explanatory matter should be set in 6 point type under leaders 
        or rules. 

          ...............     ..................       ...............  
               (Name) 	          (Address)               (Position) 

8.123. 	Immediately before leaders, even if an abbreviation precedes 
        the leaders. 

Question mark 
The question mark is used--
8.124. 	To indicate a direct query, even if not in the form of a 

          Did he do it? 
          He did what? 
          Can the money be raised? is the question. 
          Who asked, ``Why?'' [Note single question mark.] 

          ``Did you hurt yourself, my son?'' she asked. 

8.125. 	To express more than one query in the same sentence. 

          Can he do it? or you? or anyone? 

8.126. 	To express doubt. 

          He said the boy was 8(?) feet tall. (No space before question 

          The statue(?) was on the statute books. 

          The scientific identification Dorothia? was noted. 
            (Roman ``?''.) 

Quotation marks 
Quotation marks are used--
8.127. 	To enclose direct quotations. (Each part of an interrupted 
        quotation begins and ends with quotation marks.) 

          The answer is ``No.'' He said, ``John said, `No.' '' (Note 
            thin space between single and double closing quotes.) 
          ``John,'' asked Henry, ``why do you go?''

8.128. 	To enclose any matter following such terms as entitled, the
        word, the term, marked, designated, classified, named, 
        endorsed, cited as, referred to as, or signed; however, quotation
        marks are not used to enclose expressions following the terms 
        known as, called, so-called, etc., unless such expressions are 
        misnomers or slang. 

          Congress passed the act entitled ``An act * * *.
          After the word ``treaty,'' insert a comma. 

          Of what does the item ``Miscellaneous debts'' consist?
          The column ``Imports from foreign countries'' was not * * *. 

          The document will be marked ``Exhibit No. 21;'' but The 
            document may be 
made exhibit No. 21.
          The check was endorsed ``John Adamson.'' 

          It was signed ``John.'' 

      but Beryllium is known as glucinium in some European countries. 
          It was called profit and loss. 
          The so-called investigating body. 

8.129. 	To enclose titles of addresses, articles, awards, books, 
        captions, editorials, essays, headings, subheadings, headlines, 
        hearings, motion pictures and plays (including television and 
        radio programs), operas, papers, short poems, reports, songs, 
        studies, subjects, and themes. All principal words are to be 

          An address on ``Uranium-235 in the Atomic Age
          The article ``Germany Revisited'' appeared in the last issue. 

          He received the ``Man of the Year'' award.
          ``The Conquest of Mexico,'' a published work (book) 

          Under the caption ``Long-Term Treasurys Rise
          The subject was discussed in ``Punctuation.'' (chapter 

          It will be found in ``Part XI: Early Thought.''
          The editorial ``Haphazard Budgeting''
          ``Compensation,'' by Emerson (essay) 
          ``United States To Appoint Representative to U.N.'' (heading 
            for headline) 
          In ``Search for Paradise'' (motion picture); ``South 
            Pacific'' (play) 
          A paper on ``Constant-Pressure Combustion'' was read. 
          ``O Captain! My Captain!'' (short poem) 
          The report ``Atomic Energy: What It Means to the Nation''; 
            but annual report of the Public Printer
          This was followed by the singing of ``The Star-Spangled 
          Under the subhead ``Sixty Days of Turmoil'' will be found 
            * * *.
          The subject (or theme) of the conference is ``Peaceful Uses 
            of Atomic Energy.''
     also Account 5, ``Management fees.'' 
          Under the heading ``Management and Operation.'' 
          Under the appropriation ``Building of ships, Navy.'' 

8.130. 	At the beginning of each paragraph of a quotation, but at the 
        end of the last paragraph only. 

8.131. 	To enclose a letter or communication that bears both date and 

8.132. 	To enclose misnomers, slang expressions, sobriquets, coined 
        words, or ordinary words used in an arbitrary way. 

          His report was ``bunk.'' 
          It was a ``gentlemen's agreement.'' 
          The ``invisible government'' is responsible. 
          George Herman ``Babe'' Ruth. 

      but He voted for the lameduck amendment. 

8.133. 	To close up characters except when they precede a fraction 
        or an apostrophe or precede or follow a superior figure or 
        letter, in which case a thin space is used. A thin space 
        is used to separate double and single quotation marks. 

Quotation marks are not used-- 
8.134. 	In poetry. The lines of a poem should align on the left, those 
        that rhyme taking the same indention. 

          Why seek to scale Mount Everest, 
              Queen of the air? 
          Why strive to crown that cruel crest 

              And deathward dare? 

          Said Mallory of dauntless quest: 

              ``Because it's there.'' 

8.135. 	To enclose titles of works of art: paintings, statuary, etc. 

8.136. 	To enclose names of newspapers or magazines. 

8.137. 	To enclose complete letters having date and signature. 

8.138. 	To enclose extracts that are indented or set in smaller type, 
        or solid extracts in leaded matter; but indented matter in text 
        that is already quoted carries quotation marks. 

8.139. 	In indirect quotations. Tell her yes. He could not say no. 

8.140. 	Before a display initial which begins a quoted paragraph. 

8.141. 	The comma and the final period will be placed inside the 
        quotation marks. Other punctuation marks should be placed 
        inside the quotation marks only if they are a part of the 
        matter quoted. 

          Ruth said, ``I think so.'' 

          ``The President,'' he said, ``will veto the bill.'' 

          The trainman shouted, ``All aboard!'' 

          Who asked, ``Why?'' 

          The President suggests that ``an early occasion be sought 
            * * *.'' 

          Why call it a ``gentlemen's agreement''? 

8.142. 	In congressional and certain other classes of work showing 
        amendments, and in courtwork with quoted language, punctuation 
        marks are printed after the quotation marks when not a part of 
        the quoted matter. 

          Insert the words ``growth'', ``production'', and 

          To be inserted after the words ``cadets, U.S. Coast Guard;''.
Change ``February 1, 1983'', to ``June 30, 2008''. 

          ``Insert in lieu thereof `July 1, 1983,'.'' 

8.143. 	When occurring together, quotation marks should precede 
        footnote reference numbers. 

          The commissioner claimed that the award was 
          Kelly's exact words were: ``The facts in the case prove 

8.144. 	Quotation marks should be limited, if possible, to three sets 
        (double, single, double). 

          ``The question in the report is, `Can a person who obtains 
            his certificate of naturalization by fraud be considered a 
            ``bona fide'' citizen of the United  States?' '' 

The semicolon is used--
8.145. 	To separate clauses containing commas. 

          Donald A. Peters, Jr., president of the First National Bank, 
            was also a director of New York Central; Harvey D. Jones 
            was a director of Oregon Steel Co. and New York Central; 
            Thomas W. Harrison, chairman of the board of McBride & Co., 
            was also on the board of Oregon Steel Co. 
          Reptiles, amphibians, and predatory mammals swallow their 
            prey whole or in large pieces, bones included; waterfowl 
            habitually take shellfish entire; and gallinaceous birds 
            are provided with gizzards that grind up the hardest seeds. 
          Yes, sir; he did see it. 

          No, sir; I do not recall. 

8.146. 	To separate statements that are too closely related in meaning 
        to be written as separate sentences, and also statements of 

          Yes; that is right. 
          No; we received one-third. 
          It is true in peace; it is true in war. 

          War is destructive; peace, constructive. 

8.147. 	To set off explanatory abbreviations or words that summarize 
        or explain preceding matter. 

          The industry is related to groups that produce finished 
            goods; i.e., electrical machinery and transportation 
          There were three metal producers involved; namely, Jones & 
            Laughlin, Armco, and Kennecott. 

The semicolon is not used--
8.148. 	Where a comma will suffice. 

          Offices are located in New York, NY, Chicago, IL, and Dallas, 

Single punctuation 
8.149. 	Single punctuation should be used wherever possible without 

          124 U.S. 321 (no comma) 
          Sir: (no dash) 

          Joseph replied, ``It is a worthwhile effort.'' (no outside 

8.150. 	All punctuation marks, including parentheses, brackets, and 
        superior reference figures, are set to match the type of the 
        words which they adjoin. A lightface dash is used after a run-
        in boldface side-head followed by lightface matter. Lightface
        brackets, parentheses, or quotation marks shall be used when 
        both boldface and lightface matter are enclosed. 

          Charts: C&GS 5101 (N.O. 18320), page 282 (see above); N.O. 
            93491 (Plan); page 271.