[Constitution of the United States of America:  Analysis, and Interpretation - 1992 Edition ]
[The Constitution of the United States of America (Literal Print)]
[From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov]

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                               OF AMERICA


                              LITERAL PRINT


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        We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more 
perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquillity, provide 
for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the 
Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and 
establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

                               Article. I.

        Section. 1. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be 
vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a 
Senate and House of Representatives.

        Section. 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of 
Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, 
and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite 
for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.
        No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained 
to the age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the 
United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that 
State in which he shall be chosen.
        Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the 
several States which may be included within this Union, according to 
their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the 
whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a 
Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all 
other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years 
after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within 

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every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law 
direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every 
thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; 
and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire 
shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and 
Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey 
four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, 
North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.
        When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the 
Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such 
        The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other 
Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

        Section. 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of 
two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six 
Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.
        Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the 
first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three 
Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated 
at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the 
Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration 
of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; 
and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess 
of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make tem

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porary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which 
shall then fill such Vacancies.
        No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the 
Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, 
and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for 
which he shall be chosen.
        The Vice President of the United States shall be President of 
the Senate but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.
        The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a 
President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he 
shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.
        The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. 
When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. 
When the President of the United States is tried the Chief Justice shall 
preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two 
thirds of the Members present.
        Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than 
to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any 
Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party 
convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, 
Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.

        Section. 4. The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections 
for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by 
the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at 

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any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places 
of chusing Senators.
        The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and 
such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall 
by Law appoint a different Day.

        Section. 5. Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, 
Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each 
shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may 
adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance 
of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each 
House may provide.
        Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish 
its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two 
thirds, expel a Member.
        Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from 
time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their 
Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either 
House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those 
Present, be entered on the Journal.
        Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without 
the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any 
other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

        Section. 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a 
Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out 
of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all Cases, except 
Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest 
during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and 
in going to and returning 

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from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall 
not be questioned in any other Place.
        No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he 
was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the 
United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof 
shall have been encreased during such time; and no Person holding any 
Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during 
his Continuance in Office.

        Section. 7. All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the 
House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with 
amendments as on other Bills.
        Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives 
and the Senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the 
President of the United States: If he approve he shall sign it, but if 
not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it 
shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their 
Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two 
thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, 
together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall 
likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, 
it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses 
shall be determined by Yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons 
voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each 
House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President 
within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to 
him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, 
unless the Congress 

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by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a 
        Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the 
Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a 
question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the 
United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved 
by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of 
the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and 
Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

        Section. 8. The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect 
Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the 
common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, 
Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;
        To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;
        To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several 
States, and with the Indian Tribes;
        To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws 
on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;
        To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, 
and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;
        To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities 
and current Coin of the United States;
        To establish Post Offices and post Roads;
        To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing 
for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their 
respective Writings and Discoveries;

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        To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;
        To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high 
Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations;
        To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make 
Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;
        To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to 
that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;
        To provide and maintain a Navy;
        To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and 
naval Forces;
        To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of 
the Union, suppress Insurrections and repeal Invasions;
        To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the 
Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the 
Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the 
Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia 
according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;
        To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over 
such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of 
Particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of 
the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over 
all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in 
which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, 
dock-Yards and other needful Buildings;--And
        To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for 
carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers and all other Powers vested 
by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any 
Department or Officer thereof.

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        Section. 9. The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any 
of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be 
prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred 
and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not 
exceeding ten dollars for each Person.
        The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be 
suspended, unless when in Cases or Rebellion or Invasion the public 
Safety may require it.
        No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.
        No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in 
Proportion to the Census of Enumeration herein before directed to be 
        No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any 
        No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or 
Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another: nor shall 
Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear or pay 
Duties in another.
        No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of 
Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the 
Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from 
time to time.
        No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And 
no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, 
without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, 
Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince or foreign 

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        Section. 10. No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or 
Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit 
Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in 
Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law 
impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.
        No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any 
Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely 
necessary for executing it's inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all 
Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be 
for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws 
shall be subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress.
        No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of 
Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any 
Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or 
engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as 
will not admit of delay.

                              Article. II.

        Section. 1. The executive Power shall be vested in a President 
of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the 
Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for 
the same Term, be elected, as follows:
        Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature 
thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of 
Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the 
Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office 
of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an 

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        The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by 
Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant 
of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the 
Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they 
shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the 
Government of the United States, directed to the President of the 
Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate 
and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes 
shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes 
shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number 
of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such 
Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of 
Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for 
President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest 
on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But 
in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the 
Representatives from each State having one Vote; a quorum for this 
Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the 
States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. 
In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the 
greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. 
But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate 
shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President.
        The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and 
the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the 
same throughout the United States.

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        No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the 
United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall 
be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any person be 
eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty 
five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.
        In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his 
Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of 
the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the 
Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation 
or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what 
Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act 
accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be 
        The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, 
a Compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor diminished during 
the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not 
receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, 
or any of them.
        Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take 
the following Oath or Affirmation:--``I do solemnly swear (or affirm) 
that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United 
States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend 
the Constitution of the United States.''

        Section. 2. The President shall be Commander in Chief of the 
Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several 
States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may 
require the Opinion, in writing, of the 

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principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject 
relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have 
Power to Grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United 
States, except in Cases of Impeachment.
        He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the 
Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present 
concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of 
the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and 
Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the 
United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, 
and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest 
the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the 
President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.
        The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may 
happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which 
shall expire at the End of their next Session.

        Section. 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress 
Information on the State of the Union, and recommend to their 
Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; 
he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of 
them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time 
of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think 
proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he 
shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall 
Commission all the Officers of the United States.

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        Section. 4. The President, Vice President and all Civil Officers 
of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for 
and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and 

                              Article. III.

        Section. 1. The judicial Power of the United States, shall be 
vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress 
may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the 
supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good 
Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a 
Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in 

        Section. 2. The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law 
and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United 
States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their 
Authority;--to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public ministers 
and Consuls;--to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;--to 
Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party;--to 
Controversies between two or more States;--between a State and Citizens 
of another State;--between Citizens of different States;--between 
Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different 
States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign 
States, Citizens or Subjects.
        In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and 
Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court 
shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before 
mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appel

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late Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and 
under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.
        The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall 
be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said 
Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any 
State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by 
Law have directed.

        Section. 3. Treason against the United States, shall consist 
only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, 
giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason 
unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on 
Confession in open Court.
        The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of 
Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or 
Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted.

                              Article. IV.

        Section. 1. Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State 
to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other 
State. And the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the Manner in 
which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect 

        Section. 2. The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all 
Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.
        A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other 
Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall 
on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be 
delivered up, to be removed to the State having Jurisdiction of the 

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        No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws 
thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or 
Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall 
be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may 
be due.

        Section. 3. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this 
Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the 
Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction 
of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the 
Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.
        The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful 
Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property 
belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall 
be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States, or of 
any particular State.

        Section. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State in 
this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of 
them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the 
Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic 

                               Article. V.

        The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it 
necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the 
Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, 
shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, 
shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this 
Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the 
several States, or by 

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Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of 
Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment 
which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight 
shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth 
Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, 
shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.

                              Article. VI.

        All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the 
Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United 
States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.
        This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall 
be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be 
made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law 
of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any 
Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any state to the Contrary 
        The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the 
Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and 
judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, 
shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but 
no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any 
Office or public Trust under the United States. 

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                              Article. VII.

        The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be 
sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States 
so ratifying the same.

                                  done in Convention by the Unanimous      
The Word, ``the,'' being                                                   
interlined between the seventh    Consent of the States present the Sev-   
and eighth Lines of the first                                              
Page, The Word ``Thirty'' being   enteenth Day of September in the Year    
partly written on an Erazure in                                            
the fifteenth Line of the first   of our Lord one thousand seven hun-      
Page, The Words ``is tried''                                               
being interlined between the      dred and Eighty seven and of the Inde-   
thirty second and thirty third                                             
Lines of the first Page and the   pendence of the United States of Amer-   
Word ``the'' being interlined be-                                          
tween the forty third and forty   ica the Twelfth. In witness whereof We   
fourth Lines of the second                                                 
Page.                             have hereunto subscribed our Names,      
Attest William Jackson            Go. Washington--Presidt.
                       Secretary               and deputy from Virginia

New Hampshire     John Langdon
                  Nicholas Gilman

Massachusetts     Nathaniel Gorham
                  Rufus King

Connecticut       WM SamL Johnson
                  Roger Sherman

New York . . . .  Alexander Hamilton

New Jersey        Wil: Livingston
                  David Brearley.
                  WM Patterson.
                  Jona: Dayton

Pennsylvania      B Franklin
                  Thomas Mifflin
                  RobT Morris
                  Geo. Clymer
                  ThoS FitzSimons
                  Jared Ingersol
                  James Wilson
                  Gouv Morris
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Delaware          Geo: Read
                  Gunning Bedford jun
                  John Dickinson
                  Richard Bassett
                  Jaco: Broom

Maryland          James McHenry
                  Dan of ST ThoS Jenifer
                  DanL Carroll

Virginia          John Blair--
                  James Madison Jr.

North Carolina    WM Blount
                  RichD Dobbs Spaight
                  Hu Williamson
                  J. Rutledge

South Carolina    Charles Cotesworth Pinckney
                  Charles Pinckney
                  Pierce Butler

Georgia           William Few
                  Abr Baldwin
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             In Convention Monday, September 17th 1787.


                              The States of

New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, MR Hamilton from New 
York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North 
Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia.

        That the preceeding Constitution be laid before the United 
States in Congress assembled, and that it is the Opinion of this 
Convention, that it should afterwards be submitted to a Convention of 
Delegates, chosen in each State by the People thereof, under the 
Recommendation of its Legislature, for their Assent and Ratification; 
and that each Convention assenting to, and ratifying the Same, should 
give Notice thereof to the United States in Congress assembled. 
Resolved, That it is the Opinion of this Convention, that as soon as the 
Conventions of nine States shall have ratified this Constitution, the 
United States in Congress assembled should fix a Day on which Electors 
should be appointed by the States which shall have ratified the same, 
and a Day on which the Electors should assemble to vote for the 
President, and the Time and Place for commencing Proceedings under this 
Constitution. That after such Publication the Electors should be 
appointed, and the Senators and Representatives elected: That the 
Electors should meet on the Day fixed for the Election of the President, 
and should transmit their Votes certified, signed, sealed and directed, 
as the Constitution requires, to the Secretary of the United States in 
Congress assembled, that the Senators and Representatives should convene 
at the Time and Place assigned; that the Senators 

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should appoint a President of the Senate, for the sole Purpose of 
receiving, opening and counting the Votes for President; and, that after 
he shall be chosen, the Congress, together with the President, should, 
without Delay, proceed to execute this Constitution.

        By the Unanimous Order of the Convention

                         Go: Washington--Presidt.
        W. Jackson Secretary.