[Federal Register Volume 85, Number 53 (Wednesday, March 18, 2020)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Pages 15363-15374]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2020-05694]



U.S. Customs and Border Protection


19 CFR Part 12

[CBP Dec. 20-04]
RIN 1515-AE53

Extension of Import Restrictions on Archaeological Material and 
Imposition of Import Restrictions on Ecclesiastical Ethnological 
Material From El Salvador

AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland 
Security; Department of the Treasury.

ACTION: Final rule.


SUMMARY: This document amends the U.S. Customs and Border Protection 
(CBP) regulations to reflect an extension of import restrictions on 
certain archaeological material from the Republic of El Salvador (El 
Salvador). The document further amends the Designated List contained in 
T.D. 95-20, which describes the types of articles to which the import 
restrictions apply, to reflect the addition of certain ecclesiastical 
ethnological material. The import restrictions, which were last 
extended by CBP Dec. 15-05, were due to expire on March 8, 2020, unless 
extended. The Assistant Secretary for Educational and Cultural Affairs, 
United States Department of State, has determined that conditions 
continue to warrant the imposition of import restrictions on 
archeological material from El Salvador. Additionally, the Assistant 
Secretary for Educational and Cultural Affairs, United States 
Department of State, has made the requisite determinations for adding 
import restrictions on certain categories of ecclesiastical 
ethnological material from the Colonial period through the first half 
of the twentieth century. On March 2, 2020, the Government of the 
United States and the Government of El Salvador entered into a 
Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) that supersedes the existing 
agreement that first became effective on March 8, 1995. Pursuant to the 
new MOU, the import restrictions for archaeological material will 
remain in effect for an additional five years until March 2, 2025. The 
new MOU further covers import restrictions on ecclesiastical 
ethnological material until March 2, 2025.

DATES: Effective March 16, 2020.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For legal aspects, Lisa L. Burley, 

[[Page 15364]]

Cargo Security, Carriers and Restricted Merchandise Branch, Regulations 
and Rulings, Office of Trade, (202) 325-0300, 
[email protected]. For operational aspects, Genevieve S. 
Dozier, Management and Program Analyst, Commercial Targeting and 
Analysis Center, Trade Policy and Programs, Office of Trade, (202) 945-
2952, [email protected].



    Pursuant to the Convention on Cultural Property Implementation Act, 
Public Law 97-446, 19 U.S.C. 2601 et seq. (hereinafter, ``the Cultural 
Property Implementation Act,'' or ``the Act''), which implements the 
1970 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 
(UNESCO) Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the 
Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property 
(823 U.N.T.S. 231 (1972)), the United States entered into a bilateral 
agreement with the Republic of El Salvador (El Salvador) on March 8, 
1995, concerning the imposition of import restrictions on certain 
categories of archaeological material from El Salvador's Pre-Hispanic 
cultures and ranging in date from approximately 8000 B.C. to 1550 A.D. 
On March 10, 1995, the former U.S. Customs Service (now U.S. Customs 
and Border Protection (CBP)) published T.D. 95-20 in the Federal 
Register (60 FR 13352), which amended Sec.  12.104g(a) of title 19 of 
the Code of Federal Regulations (19 CFR 12.104g(a)) to reflect the 
imposition of these import restrictions and included a list designating 
the types of archaeological material covered by the restrictions.
    Import restrictions listed at 19 CFR 12.104g(a) are effective for 
no more than five years beginning on the date on which the agreement 
enters into force with respect to the United States. This period may be 
extended for additional periods of not more than five years if it is 
determined that the factors which justified the initial agreement still 
pertain and no cause for suspension of the agreement exists. See 19 CFR 
    Since the initial notice was published on March 10, 1995, the 
import restrictions were subsequently extended four (4) times. First, 
on March 9, 2000, following the exchange of diplomatic notes, the 
former U.S. Customs Service (now CBP), published T.D. 00-16 in the 
Federal Register (65 FR 12470) to extend the import restrictions for a 
period of five years to March 8, 2005. Second, on March 9, 2005, 
following the exchange of diplomatic notes, CBP published CBP Dec. 05-
10 in the Federal Register (70 FR 11539) to extend the import 
restriction for an additional five-year period to March 8, 2010. Third, 
on March 8, 2010, following the exchange of diplomatic notes, CBP 
published CBP Dec. 10-01 in the Federal Register (75 FR 10411) to 
extend the import restriction for an additional period of five years to 
March 8, 2015. Fourth, on March 6, 2015, following the exchange of 
diplomatic notes, CBP published CBP Dec. 15-05 in the Federal Register 
(80 FR 12080) to reflect the extension of the import restrictions for 
an additional five-year period to March 8, 2020.
    On June 5, 2019, the United States Department of State proposed in 
the Federal Register (84 FR 26174) to extend the Memorandum of 
Understanding (MOU) between the United States and El Salvador 
concerning the imposition of import restrictions on certain categories 
of archeological material from the Pre-Hispanic Cultures of El 
    On November 7, 2019, after consultation with and recommendations by 
the Cultural Property Advisory Committee, the Assistant Secretary for 
Educational and Cultural Affairs, United States Department of State, 
determined that: (1) El Salvador's cultural heritage continues to be in 
jeopardy from pillage of Pre-Hispanic archeological resources and that 
the import restrictions should be extended for an additional five 
years; and (2) El Salvador's cultural heritage is in jeopardy from 
pillage of certain types of ecclesiastical ethnological material from 
the Colonial period through the first half of the twentieth century and 
import restrictions on such types of ecclesiastical ethnological 
material should be imposed.
    On March 2, 2020, the Government of the United States and 
Government of El Salvador entered into a MOU, titled ``Memorandum of 
Understanding between the Government of the United States of America 
and the Government of the Republic of El Salvador Concerning the 
Imposition of Import Restrictions on Categories of Archaeological and 
Ethnological Material of the Republic of El Salvador.'' The new MOU 
supersedes the existing agreement that first became effective on March 
8, 1995. Pursuant to the new MOU, the import restrictions for 
archaeological material will remain in effect for an additional five 
years until March 2, 2025. The new MOU further covers import 
restrictions on certain categories of ecclesiastical ethnological 
material (from the Colonial period through the first half of the 
twentieth century ranging in date from approximately A.D. 1525 to 1950) 
until March 2, 2025.
    Accordingly, CBP is amending 19 CFR 12.104g(a) to reflect the 
extension of the import restrictions, and the Designated List of 
cultural property described in T.D. 95-20 by adding certain categories 
of ecclesiastical ethnological material from El Salvador from the 
Colonial period through the first half of the twentieth century ranging 
in date from approximately A.D. 1525 to 1950, as set forth below. The 
restrictions on the importation of archaeological and ecclesiastical 
ethnological material will be in effect through March 2, 2025. 
Importation of such material from El Salvador will be restricted 
through that date unless the conditions set forth in 19 U.S.C. 2606 and 
19 CFR 12.104c are met.
    The Designated List and additional information may also be found at 
the following website address: https://eca.state.gov/cultural-heritage-center/cultural-property-advisory-committee/current-import-restrictions 
by selecting the material for ``El Salvador.''

Designated List of Archaeological and Ecclesiastical Ethnological 
Material of El Salvador

    The Designated List contained in T.D. 95-20, which describes the 
types of articles to which the import restrictions apply, is amended to 
reflect the addition of certain ecclesiastical ethnological material to 
the Designated List. In order to clarify certain provisions of the 
Designated List contained in T.D. 95-20, the amendment also includes 
minor revisions to the language, organization, and numbering of the 
Designated List. For the reader's convenience, CBP is reproducing the 
Designated List contained in T.D. 95-20 in its entirety, with the 
changes, below.
    The Designated List includes archaeological material from El 
Salvador ranging in date from approximately 8000 B.C. to A.D. 1550, and 
ecclesiastical ethnological material from El Salvador from the Colonial 
period through the first half of the twentieth century ranging in date 
from approximately A.D. 1525 to 1950.

Categories of Material

I. Archaeological Material
    A. Figurines
    B. Other Small Ceramic Artifacts
    C. Ceramic Vessels
    D. Ceramic Drums
    E. Incense Burners
    F. Mushroom Effigies
    G. Stone Sculptures
    H. Small Stone Artifacts
    I. Metal Artifacts
II. Ethnological Material

[[Page 15365]]

    A. Paintings
    B. Sculptures
    C. Furniture
    D. Metalwork
    E. Textiles
    F. Documents and Manuscripts

I. Archaeological Material

    Archaeological material covered by the MOU includes material from 
El Salvador ranging in date from approximately 8000 B.C. to A.D. 1550. 
Examples of archaeological material covered by the MOU include, but are 
not limited to, the following objects:

Simplified Chronology \1\

    \1\ This list of terms of time periods and their subdivisions 
contains some terms that overlap and are used to distinguish pivotal 
intervals in regional prehistory (these terms are: Protoclassic, 
Terminal Classic, and Protohistoric). Different references may vary 
slightly as to the beginning and end dates for the periods listed.

Archaic period: c. 8000-1700 B.C.
Preclassic period: 1700 B.C.-A.D. 200
    Early Preclassic: 1700-800 B.C.
    Middle Preclassic: 800-400 B.C.
    Late Preclassic: 400 B.C.-A.D. 200
Classic period: 200 B.C.-A.D. 900
    Protoclassic: 200 B.C.-A.D. 200
    Early Classic: A.D. 200-600
    Late Classic: A.D. 600-900
    Terminal Classic: A.D. 800-900
Postclassic period: A.D. 900-1524
    Early Postclassic: A.D. 900-1200
    Late Postclassic: A.D. 1200-1524
    Protohistoric: c. A.D. 1400-1550

A. Figurines

1. Preclassic Figurines
    Most are solid ceramic figurines representing women with broad 
torsos and thighs, and small or virtually flat breasts. These are 
portrayed in a sitting or standing position. The eyes and mouth were 
typically represented by jabbing small holes into the still wet clay 
(punctation), many times with two or three holes used to depict each 
eye. Although the bodies are crafted without much detail, elaborate 
coiffures are commonly shown.
    a. Dating: Most Preclassic figurines date to the Late Preclassic 
(corresponding to the Chul and Caynac Ceramic Complexes of western El 
Salvador, and the Uapala Phase of eastern El Salvador).
    b. Appearance: Often cream to white, but may also be red or brown 
(ranging from dark brown to tan). Usually of very fine textured clay.
    c. Size: Most range between 4 in (10 cm) to 8 in (20 cm) in height. 
Examples smaller than about 4 in (10 cm) may be perforated for use as 
pendants. Rare figurines of 16 in (40 cm) or more in height have been 
    d. Important Variants: Some of the larger figurines are hollow 
rather than solid. Very rare examples have movable arms, with sockets 
set into the shoulders and separate arm pieces that were actuated by 
means of strings. Some figurines depict women cradling infants. Whistle 
mechanisms are very rarely present. Painted designs in black or other 
colors are very rare on these figurines.
    e. Formal Names: Bolinas figurines (Stanley H. Boggs, ``Pre-Maya 
Costumes and Coiffures'' in Americas 25(2): 19-24, Organization of 
American States, Washington, DC, United States (1973) (hereinafter, 
referred to as ``Boggs 1973a'')); Kulil, Xiquin, and Tat Complex 
figurines (Bruce H. Dahlin, ``Figurines'' in The Prehistory of 
Chalchuapa, El Salvador, Vol. 2, University of Pennsylvania Press, 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States (Robert A. Sharer ed. 1978) 
(hereinafter, referred to as ``Dahlin 1978'')); Quelepa Figurine Types 
1 and 2 (E. Wyllys Andrews, V., ``The Archaeology of Quelepa, EI 
Salvador'' in Middle American Research Institute 42, Tulane University, 
New Orleans, Louisiana, United States (1976) (hereinafter, referred to 
as ``Andrews 1976'')).
2. Lepa Figurines
    Most are solid ceramic figurines representing standing humans, 
while others are animal effigies that function as whistles, whistle 
flutes, or wheeled figurines incorporating whistle flutes.
    a. Human Figurines: These figurines have a generally flattened 
appearance and heads are usually crowned by a broad and narrow headband 
(or hairdo) resembling a long bar. Eyes are shown by a single 
punctuation (to represent the pupil) between two ridges, defining the 
eye itself. Feet are usually split in a ``Y'' shape to help support the 
figurine. The figurines may be adorned with necklaces shown by a series 
of clay pellets. Rarely is enough detail included to determine which 
sex is intended (in such cases, women are usually represented).
    b. Pelleted Tubular Whistle Flutes: Tubes with a whistle mechanism 
(blowhole) at one end and a rolling pellet within that produces a 
continuously varying tone when blown and tilted up and down. Simple 
bird or monkey heads may be added to the instrument's body.
    c. Wheeled Figurines: Human or animal effigies with four tabular 
legs, each with a perforation to accept wooden sticks as axles for the 
front and rear wheels (the wheels themselves were ceramic discs rarely 
found together with these artifacts). Decoration is mostly through 
appliqu[eacute] using relatively thick strips and pellets of clay.
    d. Animal Effigy Whistle Flutes: Made from a small sphere of clay 
with very simple (schematic) appliqu[eacute] to represent humans, 
birds, turtles, armadillos, opossums, and other animals. In addition to 
the whistle mechanism, these have one or two finger holes in their 
bodies that vary their tone when covered. The most elaborate examples 
may have punctate and ridge eyes like those found in the Lepa human 
figurines. May be perforated for suspension.
    e. Dating: Late Classic Lepa Phase of central and eastern El 
Salvador, represented in Quelepa, Tehuac[aacute]n, and other sites.
    f. Appearance: Usually reddish brown to brick red, with a rough or 
only moderately smoothed surface. Some have a polished white slip that, 
when well preserved, may have elaborate designs painted in black, red, 
and/or yellow. Pelleted tubular whistle flutes have been noted with 
fugitive (post-firing) white and/or blue paint.
    g. Size: Most human figurines range in height between 5 in (12 cm) 
to 10 in (25 cm). Unusually large examples are known to reach 15 in (38 
cm) in height, and these tend to bear painted designs more often than 
the normal sized figurines. The pelleted tubular whistle flutes known 
are 7 in (18 cm) or slightly shorter in length. The wheeled figurines 
known range from about 3.5 in (9 cm) to 5 in (13 cm) in length. The 
animal effigy whistle flutes measure about 2-3 in (5-8 cm) in maximum 
    h. Important Variants: Larger figurines may be hollow rather than 
solid, and may either contain pellets to act as a rattle, or may be 
equipped with holes for use as a flute (``ocarina'').
    i. Formal Names: The human figurines have been classed as Lower 
Lempa Culture figurines (Wolfgang Haberland, ``On Human Figurines from 
San Marcos Lempa, El Salvador, C.A.'' in El Mexico Antiguo 9: 509-524, 
M[eacute]xico, D.F. (1961) (hereinafter, referred to as ``Haberland 
1961'')) and as Quelepa Figurine Type 3 (Andrews 1976). The wheeled 
figurines have been termed Oriental Type (Stanley H. Boggs, 
``Figurillas con ruedas de Cihuat[aacute]n y el Oriente de El 
Salvador'' in Colecci[oacute]n de Antropolog[iacute]a 3, 
Direcci[oacute]n de Publicaciones, Ministerio de Educaci[oacute]n, San 
Salvador, El Salvador (1973) (hereinafter, referred to as ``Boggs 
1973b'')). The animal effigy whistle flutes have been referred to as 
Lepa Phase whistles (Andrews 1976; see also Stanley H. Boggs, ``Notes 
on Pre-

[[Page 15366]]

Columbian Wind Instruments from El Salvador'' in Baessler-Archiv 22, 
Baessler-Institut, Berlin, Germany (1974) (hereinafter, referred to as 
``Boggs 1974'')).
3. Cotzumalhuapa Figurines and Molds
    Ceramic figurines, usually hollow and typically mold-made in part 
(especially heads). About half the known examples represent women, and 
most of the remainder depict a variety of animals (men are rare). Some 
representations of plants and furniture (litters) are known. Whistle 
mechanisms were optional for all forms of Cotzumalhuapa figurines. 
Pelleted tubular whistle flutes and recently identified Cotzumalhuapa 
wheeled figurines are also included here.
    a. Molds: The molds used to produce these figurines were press 
molds made of coarse textured fired clay, usually brick red or reddish 
brown in color. The working faces of these molds present a complicated 
depressed area that produces the impression, while the opposite side of 
the mold is usually rounded and carelessly finished. A sheet of wet 
clay was pressed into the mold and then carefully extracted with the 
impression of, for examples, the front half of a female figurine (the 
other half was added by hand modeling, as were optional details like 
headgear if these were absent from the mold used).
    b. Female Figurines: The figurines representing women have been 
referred to as ``bell-form'' due to the shape of their conical hollow 
bases. They usually portray elaborately dressed women, adorned with 
necklaces, earplugs, and large headgear of variable shape (but often 
resembling a half moon). The uniformity in portrayal suggests that we 
are dealing with a personage, and it is not too speculative to suggest 
that she was an important Cotzumalhuapa goddess. Rare figurines exist 
where the female's body is covered by cacao pods, indicating a 
relationship to agricultural production and, in these latter examples, 
with the intensive production of cacao that has been documented as an 
important Cotzumalhuapa economic focus. Whistle mechanisms, when 
present, are usually worked into one shoulder (the larger female 
figurines tend not to possess whistle mechanisms).
    c. Male Figurines: The very rare male figurines are known to 
include representations of warriors (with clubs and shields) and 
injured or diseased individuals (one example shows an individual with 
patches of flesh missing from the maxillary area and nose).
    d. Animal Figurines: Among the animals present in Cotzumalhuapa 
figurines are parrots, vultures, owls, doves, monkeys, felines 
(probably jaguars are intended), bats, dogs, deer, frogs or toads, 
turtles, iguanas, snakes, crocodiles, fish, clams, crabs, and others. 
These reflect the rich fauna of the Cotzumalhuapa area, which included 
mangrove lined estuaries, the adjoining coastal plains, and nearby 
mountain ranges. Monkeys and parrots are, however, the most common 
animals depicted. Most animal figurines have whistle mechanisms. 
Because of the complicated forms required for animals, use of molds may 
sometimes be limited to face areas, and some are entirely hand modeled.
    e. Plant Figurines: Representations of corn cobs and cacao pods 
have been found.
    f. Pelleted Tubular Whistle Flutes: Tubes with a whistle mechanism 
(blowhole) at one end and a rolling pellet within that produces a 
continuously varying tone when blown and tilted up and down. One 
example is apparently a bat effigy, with a bat head and disk 
(representing the wings) added to the tubular body of the instrument.
    g. Wheeled Figurines: Cotzumalhuapa wheeled figurines have only 
recently been identified. One has a tubular body with four tabular 
supports, each with a perforation to accept the wooden sticks that 
acted as axles for the front and rear wheels. A mold-made dog head was 
added to one end of the tube, and a tail to the other.
    h. Other Figurines: Two figurines have been documented representing 
the litters that were probably used to transport Cotzumalhuapa elites. 
They resemble a small rectangular box with a canopy, supported by four 
spiked feet. A pair of holes at each extreme permitted two sticks to be 
inserted to act as the carrying poles. On one example, the canopy was 
modeled to represent the stretched skin of a crocodile arranged with 
the head at one extreme and the tail at the other, with a spiked crest 
running between the two. Other Cotzumalhuapa modeled clay artifacts 
that may be included as figurines include objects resembling scepters, 
bells, lidded boxes, and plaques with human faces.
    i. Dating: Late Classic products of the Cotzumalhuapa culture, 
which in El Salvador included the western coastal plain to the upper 
drainage of the Paz River. Trade brought examples into Payu Ceramic 
Complex contexts elsewhere in western and central El Salvador.
    j. Appearance: Most are brown (from tan through reddish brown) to 
red (brownish red to brick red), with a coarsely finished to moderately 
smoothed surface. Rare examples are of Tiquisate Ware (characterized by 
a very smooth, lustrous, and hard surface, cream to orange in color), 
and may be ancient imports from the Pacific coast of Guatemala. Traces 
of paint may be present (blue, black, red, yellow, and white have been 
documented); the paint was usually applied after firing and tends to be 
easily eroded. Those parts of figurines made without the benefit of 
molds tend to be rather carelessly modeled.
    k. Size: Female figurines usually range in height from 4 in (10 cm) 
to 12 in (30 cm), but some rare specimens reach 24 in (60 cm) and 
perhaps more in height. Animal and plant figurines tend to be small, 
typically ranging from 3 in (8 cm) to 6 in (16 cm) in their maximum 
dimension, though larger examples occur. The pelleted tubular whistle 
flute mentioned measures 6 in (16 cm) in length. Wheeled figurines 
measure 5.5 in (14 cm) in length. The models of litters are 
approximately 9 in (23 cm) in length.
    l. Important Variants: Cotzumalhuapa use of clay was very creative 
and the observer should expect figurine forms not mentioned here.
4. Payu Figurine Flutes and Whistles
    Most Payu ceramic figurines known are musical instruments that have 
been classified as whistles, whistle flutes, and flutes (commonly 
called ``ocarinas''). Although their decoration varies considerably, 
important hallmarks (when present) are the decorative use of parallel 
strips of clay (sometimes with longitudinal grooves), and 
appliqu[eacute] of clay pellets with a distinctive dimple in their 
center. Molds were sometimes employed to render the faces of humans and 
monkeys. Human faces may include details commonly associated with 
Classic Maya conventions, including cheek decorations (from tattoos or 
scarification), extension of the bridge of the nose to above eye level, 
and/or a steeply inclined forehead (representing cranial deformation).
    a. Globular Flutes (``ocarinas''): Payu figurine globular flutes 
have a very distinctive construction. Three spheres of clay were joined 
together in a column or in an ``L'' shape (and pierced at the 
junctures). The uppermost sphere was equipped with a blowhole. Clay was 
then packed around this assembly and decorative elements added. All 
``L''-shaped flutes known were decorated to represent a standing 
quadruped animal whose open mouth forms the blowhole. Other (straight) 
flutes were almost always modeled to represent a human

[[Page 15367]]

(either full-body or just the head portion).
    b. Tubular Whistle Flutes: A tubular form with a whistle mechanism 
(blowhole) at one end and three to five finger holes along the body of 
the tube. The appliqu[eacute]d head and arms of a monkey or human are 
always present next to the blowhole.
    c. Whistle Flutes: A small, spherical body with a whistle mechanism 
and one or two finger holes is hidden to a lesser or greater degree 
under effigy decoration. This decoration tends to be notably more 
carefully executed and detailed than Lepa or Cotzumalhuapa examples. 
Examples include effigies of humans (full-body or heads), monkeys, 
dogs, birds, and reptiles. Smaller whistle flutes may be perforated for 
    d. Dating: An artifact class belonging to the assemblage associated 
with the Payu Ceramic Complex (Late Classic Period).
    e. Appearance: Most Payu figurines are of medium textured clay with 
a moderately smoothed surface (and almost always unslipped). Color is 
usually reddish brown but may range from tan to brick red. Traces of 
paint are rare and may include blue-green, white, yellow, red, or 
black. Painted decoration, when present, was usually added after firing 
and tends to easily wear away.
    f. Size: Globular flutes: 3-8 in (8-21 cm); tubular whistle flutes: 
6-8 in (15-21 cm); whistle flutes: 2-8 in (5-20 cm).
    g. Formal Names: None. Many examples are illustrated in Boggs 1974 
(noted as Late Classic, from western and part of central El Salvador).
5. Guazapa Figurines
    Early Postclassic ceramic figurines whose style is derived from 
central Mexico and form part of the Guazapa Phase of central and 
western El Salvador. The Guazapa Phase has been interpreted as marking 
the large-scale migration of Nahua speakers into this area, these being 
the ancestors of the historical Pipil.
    a. Mazapan-Related Figurines: Very flat figurines whose rendition 
of the human figure has been compared to gingerbread cookies. These 
objects were made by pressing a sheet of clay into a mold, obtaining a 
thin (0.75-1 in (2-3 cm)) solid figurine. The rear portion of the 
figurine is left unfinished and may exhibit finger marks from when the 
clay was pressed into its mold. The front displays a woman with a 
blouse with a triangular front, coming to a point in the middle of the 
waist. This type of blouse was referred to as a quechquemitl in central 
Mexico at the time of the Conquest, when its use was restricted to 
images of goddesses and goddess impersonators. These figurines are 
named for their close similarity to figurines of the Mazapan (Toltec) 
Phase of central Mexico.
    b. Toad Effigies: Hand modeled large hollow toad effigies. They are 
usually shown as sitting as erect as possible for a toad, looking 
upwards. The front and rear of the toad's body is decorated with strips 
and buttons of clay meant to represent festive ribbons and bows. The 
tongue may be shown hanging from the mouth. In Postclassic Nahua 
mythology, toads were considered Tlaloc's (the rain god) helpers, and 
it was they who announced the coming of the rains (the extended tongues 
are probably meant to represent their thirsty anticipation of rain). 
Due to this association, some examples of toad effigies include two 
rings around the eyes (a diagnostic trait of Tlaloc himself).
    c. Tlaloc Bottles: Bottles with a more or less spherical body 
crowned by a straight tubular neck with a flat, flaring rim. The body 
is decorated with the face of the rain god Tlaloc whose most 
distinctive trait is a ring around each eye. Many Tlaloc Bottles are in 
fact plugged in the neck or body and could not have actually functioned 
as vessels. Tlaloc was considered to dwell in the mountain peaks and 
pour out the rains from a bottle. These artifacts were probably 
household votive images of that bottle.
    d. Very Large Effigy Figurines or Statues: Hand modeled hollow 
figurines representing jaguars, gods, or god impersonators. The larger 
examples reach life size and may truly be considered ceramic statuary 
(in any case, they have been included under ``Figurines'' to facilitate 
discussion). Known examples of gods or god impersonators represent the 
gods Tlaloc (identifiable by the rings around his eyes), Mictlantecutli 
(represented as a skeletal personage), and Xipe Totec (portrayed as 
wearing a flayed human skin). The largest figures may be crafted in 
several mating parts (for example, a Xipe Totec effigy was made in two 
large halves joining at the waist, with a separate head). Seventeen 
jaguar effigies were found in one excavation at Cihuat[aacute]n; all of 
these portray a jaguar sitting on its haunches, decorated with 
necklaces and a few bulbous objects placed on different parts of the 
    e. Small Solid Figurines: Hand modeled figurines of humans that are 
usually solid or mostly so, and that occasionally employed molds to 
form the face. Most appear to represent males who may carry war 
equipment (such as a dart thrower or atlatl) and large headgear. These 
figurines tend to be relatively small and crudely modeled.
    f. Wheeled Figurines: Small wheeled figurine, consisting of a 
tubular hollow body with four tabular supports, each with a hole to 
accept wooden sticks acting as axles for the front and rear wheels. The 
wheels are flat ceramic disks. A tail was added to one end of the 
tubular body and a head to the other. Examples are known with deer 
heads with antlers and dog heads with tongue extended over the lower 
    g. Dating: Artifacts of the Early Postclassic Guazapa Phase of 
central and western El Salvador (at Cihuat[aacute]n, Igualtepeque, El 
Cajete, Ulata, Santa Mar[iacute]a, Pueblo Viejo Las Mar[iacute]as, and 
other sites).
    h. Appearance: Generally reddish brown to brick red, but may be as 
light as tan in color. The surface may be smoothed but not polished and 
has a sandy texture. Many give the impression of having been hastily 
made. Traces of white, black, blue, yellow, and/or red fugitive paint 
have been found on some figurines.
    i. Size: Height of Mazapan-related figurines: 6-10 in (15-25 cm); 
height of toad effigies: 6-9 in (15-23 cm); height of Tlaloc bottles: 
4-10 in (10-25 cm); height of very large effigy figurines or statues: 
24-55 in (61-140 cm); height of small solid figurines: 6-18 in (15-30 
cm); length of wheeled figurines: 5.5-8.5 in (14-22 cm).
    j. Formal Names: Encompassed by the Guazapa Phase, the type site of 
which is Cihuat[aacute]n (see Stanley H. Boggs, ``A Human-Effigy Figure 
from Chalchuapa, El Salvador'' in Notes on Middle American Archaeology 
and Ethnology 31, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC, 
United States (1944) (hereinafter, referred to as ``Boggs 1944''); 
Stanley H. Boggs, ``Apuntes sobre varios objetos de barro procedentes 
de Los Guapotes en El Lago de Guija'' in Antropolog[iacute]a e Historia 
de Guatemala 15(1), Instituto de Antropolog[iacute]a e Historia, 
Guatemala (1963) (hereinafter, referred to as ``Boggs 1963''); Boggs 
1973b; Stanley H. Boggs, ``Antig[uuml]edades salvadore[ntilde]as 
errantes: dos Xipe Totecs del lago de G[uuml]ija'' in Anales del Museo 
Nacional ``David J. Guzm[aacute]n'' 49, Direcci[oacute]n de 
Publicaciones, Ministerio de Educaci[oacute]n, San Salvador, El 
Salvador (1976) (hereinafter, referred to as ``Boggs 1976''); Karen 
Olson Bruhns, ``Cihuat[aacute]n: An Early Postclassic Town of El 
Salvador, the 1977-78 Excavations'' in Monographs in Anthropology 5, 
The Museum of Anthropology, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, 
United States (1980) (hereinafter, referred to as ``Bruhns 1980''); 
William R. Fowler, Jr.,

[[Page 15368]]

The Pipil-Nicarao of Central America (unpublished dissertation) (on 
file with Department of Anthropology, University of Calgary, Canada 
(1981) (hereinafter, referred to as ``Fowler 1981''); William R. 
Fowler, Jr., ``The Figurines of Cihuat[aacute]n, El Salvador'' in The 
New World Figurine Project, Vol. 1, Research Press, Provo, Utah, United 
States (Terry Stocker ed. 1990) (hereinafter, referred to as ``Fowler 

B. Other Small Ceramic Artifacts

1. Spindle Whorls or Malacates
    Small ceramic disc-shaped artifacts with a central perforation. As 
viewed in section, these are thicker towards the center. They may have 
incised or mold-made decoration. These are often mistaken for ceramic 
beads and many may be strung together for transport or display.
    a. Dating: Late Classic to Protohistoric Periods. Different 
varieties are documented in relation to Late Classic Phases and ceramic 
complexes (Lepa, Payu, Tamasha) through the Postclassic (Guazapa, 
Cuscatl[aacute]n, and others).
    b. Appearance: Carefully formed and smoothed. Many were slipped, 
and run the full range of black through brown through red. Fugitive 
white paint has been noted as a rare filler for incised designs.
    c. Size: 0.8-1.2 in (2.1-3.2 cm) in diameter. Holes are always 
close to 0.25 in (0.6 cm) in diameter.
    d. Formal Names: Referred to as spindle whorls or malacates (see, 
e.g., John M. Longyear, III, ``Archaeological Investigations in El 
Salvador'' in Memoirs of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and 
Ethnology 9(2), Harvard University, Cambridge, United States (1944) 
(hereinafter, referred to as ``Longyear 1944''); Robert J. Sharer, ed., 
The Prehistory of Chalchuapa, El Salvador, University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States (1978) (hereinafter, referred 
to as ``Sharer 1978''); Andrews 1976).
2. Ceramic Seals
    Ceramic seals present a high-relief pattern on clay surface and are 
thought to have been used with paint to stamp designs for body and/or 
textile decoration. Some were used to impress designs on still-wet 
pottery objects. Some seals have been found still covered with red 
pigment. Seals may be flat, with a spike handle on the rear, or 
cylindrical and used by rolling. Cylinder seals usually have a central 
perforation that would have allowed a stick to be passed through and 
facilitate their use like rolling pins.
    a. Dating: To date, seals have been found in El Salvador in 
contexts ranging from the Late Preclassic and Late Classic Periods (in 
relation to the Chul, Caynac and Payu Ceramic Complexes and the Tamasha 
    b. Appearance: Well-smoothed and sometimes slipped surfaces. Color 
ranges from black-brown through reddish-brown and red.
    c. Size: Flat seals: 1.2-5 in (3-13 cm) in diameter; cylinder seals 
may be 2.4-5 in (6-12 cm) in length.
    d. Formal Names: Usually referred to as seals or stamps, flat or 
cylindrical (see Sharer 1978; Arthur A. Demarest, ``The Archaeology of 
Santa Leticia and the Rise of the Maya Civilization'' in Publication 
52, Middle American Research Institute, Tulane University, New Orleans, 
Louisiana, United States (1986) (hereinafter, referred to as ``Demarest 
1986''); Paul E. Amaroli, Informe preliminar de las excavaciones 
arqueol[oacute]gicas en Cara Sucia, departamento de Ahuachap[aacute]n, 
El Salvador (unpublished manuscript) (on file with Direcci[oacute]n de 
Patrimonio Cultural, San Salvador, El Salvador) (1987) (hereinafter, 
referred to as ``Amaroli 1987'').
3. Miniatures
    Very small ceramic objects made in the form of jars or flasks. 
Often made of a very fine cream colored ceramic. These may be modeled 
to resemble squash effigies, or may include stamped designs of Maya 
glyphs, human forms, or animals. Miniature vessels often contain 
residuals of red pigment. Late Classic Period.
    a. Size: 1.5-4 in (4-10 cm) in height.
    b. Formal Names: None.
4. Spools
    This category includes several varieties of spool-shaped artifacts 
that functioned as earspools and as labrets. Often a short tab extends 
from one side, while the other may have modeled (and sometimes mold-
made) decoration. Alternatively, the spool sides may have incised 
    a. Dating: Early Preclassic through Postclassic Periods (Sharer 
1978; Amaroli 1987).
    b. Size: Normally do not exceed 1.3 in (3.4 cm) in their maximum 

C. Ceramic Vessels

1. Polychrome Vessels
    a. Copador Polychrome Vessels: Hemispherical bowls, bowls with 
composite walls, cylindrical vases, and jars with painted designs in 
red, black, and optionally yellowish orange on a cream to light orange 
base. The red paint used is almost always specular (small flecks of 
crystals flash as the vessel is moved in strong light). Copador paste 
is cream colored (or sometimes very light brown) and is not very hard 
or dense. Designs (usually on the exterior) may include bands of motifs 
derived from Maya glyphs, seated individuals, individuals in a swimming 
position, melon-like stripes, birds or other animals, and others. Rare 
examples have excavated lines or patterns. Copador Polychrome may 
usually be distinguished on the basis of its specular red paint and 
cream colored paste.
    i. Dating: Late Classic Period (defined as a member of the Payu 
Ceramic Complex, which is commonly in Tamasha Phase deposits (Cara 
    ii. Size: Bowl diameter may vary from 4-12 in (10-30 cm), the 
height of cylindrical vases may range from 6-12.5 in (15-32 cm), and 
jar height ranges from approximately 5-11 in (12-28 cm).
    iii. Formal Names: Referred to as the Copador Ceramic Group (Sharer 
    b. Gualpopa Polychrome: This type is closely related to Copador 
Polychrome, with which it shares a cream colored paste and the 
hemispherical bowl form (rarer forms in Gualpopa are: Flat bottomed 
bowls with vertical walls and composite walled bowls). Designs in 
Gualpopa are painted in red (which, unlike the Copador, are not 
specular) and black on a cream-orange base. Gualpopa motifs are simpler 
than Copador. Most common designs are geometric designs (spirals, 
``melon'' bands, chevrons, and others), but repeating birds, monkeys, 
or designs derived from Maya glyphs may be found.
    i. Dating: Late Classic, especially the first part of this period. 
Defined as a member of the Payu Ceramic Complex.
    ii. Size: Diameters range from 6-15 in (16-38 cm).
    iii. Formal Names: Termed as the Gualpopa Ceramic Group (Sharer 
    c. Arambala Polychrome: Formerly referred to as ``false Copador'' 
due to its close resemblance to Copador Polychrome. Arambala may be 
differentiated from Copador by its reddish paste (contrasting with 
Copador's cream paste) and the use of a dull red paint (rather than 
Copador's specular red paint). Apart from these two differences, 
however, Arambala closely duplicates Copador's repertoire of vessel 
forms, dimensions, and decoration (which are described above). A cream-
orange slip was added over Arambala's reddish paste to approximate 
Copador's base color, but this slip often has a streaky appearance.
    i. Dating: Late Classic Period. A member of the Payu Ceramic 

[[Page 15369]]

and present in the Tamasha Phase of Cara Sucia.
    ii. Size: See the description for Copador Polychrome.
    iii. Formal Names: Defined as the Arambala Ceramic Group (Sharer 
    d. Campana Polychrome Vessels: Flat bottomed bowls with flaring 
walls, usually large. Provided with four hollow supports that may take 
the form of pinched cylinders or cylinders with human or animal 
effigies. Intricate painted designs were executed in black-brown, dull 
red, and orange, on a cream to cream-orange base. A large portrayal of 
a human or animal is featured on the interior center of these vessels, 
and the rims often have a distinctive encircling twisted rope and dot 
design. Some examples have a few curving lines of broad (up to 0.5 in 
(1.3 cm)) Usulut[aacute]n negative decoration. Campana Polychrome paste 
is dense, hard, and brick red. Other forms include small bowls without 
supports, with flat bottoms and flaring walls, and cylindrical vases 
with bulging and sometimes faceted midsections and occasionally short 
ring bases. The cylindrical vases usually feature panels on opposing 
sides of the vessel, with human or animal designs, and may have very 
short and wide tabular supports.
    i. Dating: Late Classic Period. Present in association with the 
Payu Ceramic Complex (Sharer 1978), the Lepa Phase (Andrews 1976), and 
the Tamasha Phase (Amaroli 1987).
    ii. Size: The large bowls with supports range from 10-20 in (25-50 
cm) in diameter. The small bowls without supports are usually 6-9 in 
(16-22 cm) in diameter. Cylindrical vases range in height from 7-10 in 
(18-25 cm).
    iii. Formal Names: Termed as the Campana Polychrome Ceramic Group 
(Sharer 1978).
    e. Salua Polychrome: Mostly cylindrical vases, usually with very 
short and wide tabular supports. The larger examples may have two 
opposing modeled head handles, just below the rim, representing monkeys 
or other animals. Bold designs are painted on a cream to orange base, 
using different combinations of black, dull red, dark orange, and 
yellow. The normally invisible paste is brick red. Black was often used 
to create ample panels (or even to cover almost the entire vessel) as a 
backdrop for featured designs. The principal designs are strikingly 
displayed and can include: Mat patterns (petates), twisted cord 
patterns, animals (jaguars, parrots, owls, and others), humans, sea 
shells, ballcourts (represented by a two or four colored ``I''-shaped 
drawing), and other motifs. Humans are often arrayed in finely detailed 
costumes and may be represented playing musical instruments, sowing 
with a digging stick, armed for battle, seated within a structure, or 
in other attitudes. A decorative option was to excise or stamp designs 
in panels or registers.
    The remainder of the vessel (or, if a featured motif is lacking, 
all of the vessel) is decorated with panels and registers with 
circumferencial bands near the rim and geometric patterns elsewhere. 
Other vessel forms known for Salua are short cylinders, bowls, convex 
walled bowls (i.e., with bulging sides), composite walled bowls, and 
jars. Despite their exceptional decoration, colored stucco was 
sometimes used to cover areas of Salua vessels (when eroded this stucco 
leaves chalky traces). Salua vessels have rarely been found filled with 
red pigment.
    i. Dating: Late Classic (associated with the Payu Ceramic Complex 
and the Lepa Phase).
    ii. Size: The cylindrical vessels grade into vertical walled bowls 
over a range of heights from 3.5-12.5 in (9-32 cm). Bowl diameters 
range from 6-12 in (15-30 cm).
    iii. Formal Names: The name Salua is a local term employed in the 
National Museum of El Salvador. It has been long recognized that 
probably several different ceramic groups are lumped under this term, 
and that at least some of these groups probably correspond with the so-
called Ulua or Sula Valley Polychromes of neighboring Honduras (which, 
in recent years, have been divided among several ceramic groups).\2\ 
Sharer cites Salua as a special group of the Payu complex, termed 
Special: Polychrome B, and he also mentions the name Salua Polychrome 
(Sharer 1978). At Quelepa, it was noted as an unnamed ceramic group 
referred to as Dark Orange and Black on Orange (Andrews 1976). Several 
examples are illustrated in Longyear 1944 and John M. Longyear, III, 
``Archaeological Survey of El Salvador'' in Handbook of Middle American 
Indians, Vol. 4, University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas, United 
States (Gordon F. Ekholm and Gordon R. Willey eds. 1966) (hereinafter, 
referred to as ``Longyear 1966'').

    \2\ In comparison with Honduran collections, there is a relative 
abundance of Salua Polychrome in national and private collections in 
El Salvador.

    f. Quelepa Polychrome: Hemispherical and composite wall bowls and 
jars. Bowls may have basal flanges or slight angle changes near the 
rim, and small solid or larger hollow supports. Quelepa Polychrome has 
a hard and very white base (slip) over a fine red paste. On this white 
base were painted designs in orange (often applied as a wash over most 
of the vessel), red, and black; very rarely a purple paint may be 
present. Designs include ``checkerboards'', sunbursts, circles, bands, 
wavy lines, and others. Animals may be depicted on the interior or 
exterior (jaguars, birds, and monkeys have been noted).
    i. Dating: Late Classic (a member of the Lepa Ceramic Complex).
    ii. Size: Bowls may measure from 4.5-15 in (11-38 cm) in diameter.
    iii. Formal Names: Termed as the Quelepa Polychrome Ceramic Group 
in Andrews 1976.
    g. Los Llanitos Polychrome: Flaring walled bowls, most or all with 
solid tabular supports (supports may have effigy decoration). A cream 
colored slip was applied on a red paste. Orange paint was applied to 
the entire interior of the bowl and in small areas bordered by black on 
the exterior. In addition to orange and black, colors may include dull 
red, sepia, and rarely purple. Two designs diagnostic of Los Llanitos 
Polychrome are a ``five-fingered flame'' and stacks of three or four 
horizontal bars of decreasing length.
    i. Dating: Late Classic (a member of the Lepa Ceramic Complex).
    ii. Size: 7-12.5 in (18-32 cm) in diameter.
    iii. Formal Names: Termed Los Llanitos Polychrome by Longyear 
(Longyear 1944) and Los Llanitos Polychrome Ceramic Group by Andrews 
(Andrews 1976).
    h. ``Chinautla'' Polychrome: Flaring walled bowls with flat bases 
and three or four hollow conical supports with simple appliqu[eacute]. 
Red and black-brown designs were painted over a cream slip in 
registers, including spirals, stepped frets, bars, and dots.
    i. Dating: Late Postclassic (a member of the Ahal Ceramic Complex).
    ii. Size: 6.5-10 in (17-26 cm) in diameter.
    iii. Formal Names: First defined in Chalchuapa as the Chinautla 
Ceramic Group by Sharer (Sharer 1978) due to its similarities with the 
``Chinautla Polychrome tradition'' found mostly in the Guatemalan 
highlands, which is subdivided into several distinct and locally 
distributed ceramic groups, of which the Chalchuapa variety would be 
    i. Machacal Purple Polychrome: Bowls (hemispherical, composite 
walled, or vertical walled with convex bases). With the exception of 
vertical walled bowls, these may be supported by ring bases, pedestal 
bases, or four hollow cylindrical supports. Possesses an orange base 
slip with red and dark

[[Page 15370]]

purple designs. Purple designs in the form of a horizontal ``S'' on the 
vessel exterior are common. Vessel bottoms usually have a simple purple 
design that some people have considered to vaguely resemble a bird. The 
generous use of purple paint on an orange base slip is a distinctive 
characteristic of this variety.
    i. Dating: End of the Early Classic and beginning of the Late 
    ii. Size: 5-11.5 in (13-29 cm) in diameter.
    iii. Formal Names: Termed Red and Purple on Orange by Boggs (in 
Longyear 1944), and Machacal Purple-polychrome by Sharer (Sharer 1978).
    j. Nicoya Polychrome: Hemispherical bowls, bowls with rounded to 
almost flat bases and flaring walls (these may have three hollow 
cylindrical or conical supports with effigy decoration as an option, 
often in the form of bird heads), cylindrical vases with ring bases, 
and jars. Red, black, and yellow paint was applied over a very smooth 
white slip with a ``soapy'' texture. Usually over half of the vessel 
was left white. Designs include registers with geometric designs, human 
figures, and others. Rare vessels may have unusual forms and 
    i. Dating: Early Postclassic.
    ii. Size: Bowls range from 6-11 in (15-28 cm) in diameter; 
cylindrical vases range from 6.5-12 in (17-30 cm) in height.
    iii. Formal Names: Long called Nicoya Polychrome due to its 
relationship with the different varieties grouped under that name first 
defined for Nicaragua and Costa Rica. The variety found in El Salvador 
differs sufficiently from those varieties in forms and decoration to be 
considered as an additional type.
    k. Chancala Polychrome: Hemispherical bowls, often slightly flaring 
from just under the rim. A cream base slip (often streaky in 
appearance) was painted with designs in brown-black and red. Animals 
rendered in a distinctive silhouette style were painted on opposing 
sides of the exterior (monkeys, lizards, and birds seem to be 
represented), with large solid circles, squares or cross-hatch designs 
between the two. The upper portion of the exterior body is divided by 
bands in a register holding step frets, circles, and/or other designs.
    i. Dating: Late Classic.
    ii. Size: 6-8 in (15-20 cm) in diameter.
    iii. Formal Names: Termed Chancala Polychrome by Boggs (Stanley H. 
Boggs, ``Cer[aacute]mica cl[aacute]sica del barrio Santa Anita, San 
Salvador en la colecci[oacute]n Orlando de Sola'' in Anales del Museo 
Nacional ``David J. Guzm[aacute]n'' 9 (37-41), Museo Nacional de San 
Salvador, San Salvador, El Salvador (1972) (hereinafter, referred to as 
``Boggs 1972'')).
    l. Salinitas Polychrome: Known in bowl forms with a streaky cream 
to orange base slip. Black circumferencial bands define registers that 
usually enclose alternating spirals and stylized animals outlined in 
black with orange infilling.
    i. Dating: Late Classic Period.
    ii. Formal Names: Termed Salinitas Polychrome by Boggs.
2. Vessels With Usulut[aacute]n Decoration
    Here are included several different varieties of ceramics that 
prominently feature Usulut[aacute]n decoration as their distinctive 
trait. Usulut[aacute]n decoration is a negative technique, resulting in 
light-colored lines against a darker background. The light lines were 
achieved by applying a resist substance and then covering the vessel 
with a slip that fired a darker color. Since this failed to adhere to 
the areas with resist, these maintained their lighter shade (a 
simplified explanation). In its most elaborate version, the resist 
substance was applied with a multiple brush with as many as seven small 
brushes fastened in a row, allowing the creation of swirling parallel 
lines. The base color on these vessels ranges from salmon pink to dark 
yellow, with the lines being a lighter shade of the same. Some 
varieties have red paint added as rim bands or (in the case of the 
Chilanga Ceramic Group) simple designs. Formal names for the ceramic 
groups considered here are: Jicalapa, Puxtla, Izalco, and Chilanga 
(Sharer 1978, Demarest 1986, Andrews 1976).
3. Plumbate Vessels
    Unpainted vessels with a glazed appearance. Surface color ranges 
from dark brown-black to lead-colored to salmon-orange, and sometimes 
all are found on a single vessel. Some areas may be iridescent. This is 
an extremely hard ceramic and ``rings'' when tapped. Vessel forms 
include a variety of forms of jars, bowls, cylindrical vases, and may 
even include figurines. Effigy decoration is common.
    a. Dating: Terminal Classic (San Juan variety) and Early 
Postclassic (Tohil variety).
    b. Formal Names: Both San Juan and Tohil varieties \3\ are found in 
El Salvador (Sharer 1978).

    \3\ One third of all Tohil vessels recorded in the only pan-
Mesoamerican inventory to date were from El Salvador (Ann O. 
Shepard, ``Plumbate: A Mesoamerican Trade Ware'' in Publication 573, 
Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC, United States 

4. Olocuilta Orange and Santa Tecla Red Vessels
    These two distinctive varieties of Late Preclassic ceramic vessels 
share many forms and types of decoration. Forms include a variety of 
bowls that may have very wide everted rims with scalloped and incised 
designs (in extreme cases, the rims may be extended to form fish or 
other animal effigies when viewed from above). Bowls may also include 
faceted flanges. Some bowls may take the form of toad effigies. 
Usulut[aacute]n decoration (very often poorly preserved) may be 
present. The Santa Tecla Red variety is distinguished by its dense dark 
red slip, while Olocuilta Orange has a light orange slip (often with a 
powdery texture when slightly eroded). Santa Tecla Red may have 
graphite rubbed into grooves.
    a. Dating: Late Preclassic (Chul and Caynac Ceramic Complexes).
    b. Formal Names: Santa Tecla and Olocuilta Ceramic Groups (Sharer 
1978; Demarest 1986).\4\

    \4\ In these sources, ``Olocuilta'' (which is the name of a 
Salvadoran town) was misspelled ``Olocuitla''.

5. Incised or Excised Vessels
    Here are considered different varieties of ceramic vessels whose 
salient visual trait is decoration based on incision or excision.
    a. Pinos: Pinos vessels have a smooth streaky black to brown slip 
with (post-slip) incisions on the exterior forming geometric designs. 
These incisions are sometimes filled with red or white pigment. Forms 
include a variety of bowl forms. Defined as part of the Chul and Caynac 
Ceramic Complexes of the Late Preclassic Period (Sharer 1978; Demarest 
    b. Lolotique: A variety of bowl forms of a dark and dull red color 
with fine post-slip incised geometric patterns. Defined as part of the 
Chul and Caynac Ceramic Complexes of the Late Preclassic Period (Sharer 
1978; Demarest 1986).
    c. Chalate Carved: Cylindrical vessels with a band of false glyphs 
or geometric designs carved below the rim. Details within this 
excavated band may be emphasized with incision. Vessel bodies are 
usually tan colored, and cream slip was sometimes added over the 
exterior, avoiding the carved band which was sometimes painted with red 
slip. When the cream slip is present, negative designs of dots, 
circles, water lilies, or egrets may be barely visible on the vessel 
body. The name of this Late Classic type is provisional and was 
proposed by Boggs based on its abundance in the Chalatenango area.

[[Page 15371]]

    d. Red Excised: Cylindrical vessels with a band of false glyphs or 
geometric decoration excised below the rim and vertical excised grooves 
usually covering the rest of the exterior, sometimes with two opposing 
excised panels representing animal heads or other designs. Slipped with 
a dark red-orange color. Short solid tabular or nubbin supports may be 
present. Provisional name for a Late Classic type common in central El 
    e. Cotzumalhuapa Incised Cylindrical Vases: Cylindrical vases, 
orange to brown in color, with fine incision including geometric motifs 
and monkeys. The rim area is distinguished by a band or groove. Late 
Classic Period.
6. Vessels With Red Decoration
    Here are grouped together varieties of ceramic vessels whose 
principal decoration was executed in red paint.
    a. Marihua Red on Buff: Forms include: Hemispherical bowls, bowls 
with rounded bases and flaring walls (these usually have three hollow 
or cylindrical supports, sometimes in the form of bird heads), and jars 
with three handles. Broad red lines form geometric designs on the buff 
colored interior of bowls and the exterior of jars. Designs include 
arcs, crosses, step frets, ehecatcozcatl (split snail shell motif), and 
others. Very rare are finely incised designs in a band on the exterior 
of bowls. Postclassic Period (Wolfgang Haberland, ``Marihua Red-on-Buff 
and the Pipil Question'' in Ethnos 29 (1-2), National Museum of 
Ethnography, Stockholm, Sweden (1964) (hereinafter, referred to as 
``Haberland 1964'')).
    b. Guarumal: Almost all known examples are jars. Part of the jar 
exterior (reddish brown in color) is painted with a dense and hard red 
paint that is finely crazed. The paint may cover the upper portion of 
vessels, or may be distributed as panels, large dots or arcs. Rarely 
the entire vessel exterior is covered in red. A decorative option was 
to apply white paint in circles (applied with a hollow cane) and/or 
zigzagging lines. This white paint is also very hard and was applied 
over red painted areas. A small rabbit appliqu[eacute] may appear on 
the vessel body. Late Classic Period (Marilyn P. Beaudry, ``The 
Ceramics of the Zapotit[aacute]n Valley'' in Archaeology and Volcanism 
in Central America: The Zapotit[aacute]n Valley of El Salvador, 
University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas, United States (Payson D. 
Sheets ed. 1983) (hereinafter, referred to as ``Beaudry 1983'')).
    c. Delirio Red on White: Hemispherical bowls (sometimes made into 
an armadillo effigy by means of a shingled exterior and 
appliqu[eacute]d head and tail), bowls with flat or slightly rounded 
bottoms and flaring walls (these may have hollow cylindrical supports), 
jars (which may have a pair of effigy head handles below the rim), and 
other minor forms. A hard white slip was painted in red with very 
intricate geometric designs. Naturalistic forms are very rare. Late 
Classic Period (Lepa Ceramic Complex--Andrews 1976).
    d. Cara Sucia Red Painted: Jars with dull red-orange paint over a 
cream-orange slip. The lower body is divided by vertical pairs of 
bands. Birds or other motifs may be painted on the shoulder of the 
vessel. Late Classic Period.
7. Jars With Modeled Effigy Faces
    Here are grouped together different varieties of ceramic jars that 
share the presence of effigy faces or heads applied to the vessel neck. 
Motifs include: Old man, man with goatee and closed eyes, monkey, bird, 
and schematic humans.
8. Tiquisate Vessels
    Tiquisate vessels are entirely orange (ranging from light cream-
orange to deep orange in color). Their surface is very hard and may 
``ring'' when tapped. Vessel forms include hemispherical bowls and 
cylindrical vases. Decoration may take the form of rows of bosses, 
incised geometric designs, or stamped scenes of humans, animal heads, 
twisted bands, or other designs. Late Classic.
9. Fine Paste Vessels
    Forms include small flat bottomed bowls with vertical walls and 
hollow rattle supports, and piriform vessels with ring bases. Vessel 
walls are very thin and ``ring'' when tapped. An orange may be applied 
to the vessel with the exception of the base. Fine incising may be 
found on the exterior of bowls and may retain white and blue post-fire 
paint. Terminal Classic Period.
10. Cara Sucia Pedestal-Based Bowls
    A distinctive type of bowl with a tall pedestal base. The bowls 
often have a basal flange, and red painted zones are sometimes found on 
the interior. Late Classic Period.
11. Stuccoed Vessels
    Here are grouped a variety of vessel forms and types whose common 
denominator for the purposes at hand is the presence of stuccoed 
decoration. The stucco involved is usually a white kaolin clay with 
blue, blue-green, red, yellow, or brown pigment mixed in, and probably 
had (originally) an organic binder or agglutinate. Since that binder 
long since ceased to function, the stuccoed decoration tends to be very 
fragile. Designs are usually simple bands or geometric motifs, but 
occasionally human or animal figures may be represented. Entirely 
stuccoed vessels seem to be most common in the Late Classic, and 
especially in the Terminal Classic.
12. Guazapa Scraped Slip Vessels
    Jars with a brown body over which was applied a cream colored slip 
that was finger dragged (like finger painting) while it was still wet, 
creating curving or wavy designs. A reddish-orange wash was sometimes 
applied over the scraped slip. Early and Late Classic Periods.
13. Ancient Imports
    Late Classic Palmar and Other Lowland Maya Ceramics Several vessels 
of so-called ``Peten Glossware'' have been found in El Salvador that 
include the formally defined Palmar Ceramic Group, and may also include 
examples of the Saxche Ceramic Group and others (Sharer 1978). To date, 
three of such vessels have been found in scientific excavations (one in 
a Tazumal tomb in the 1940s, a Palmar vessel in an offering with an 
eccentric flint in San Andr[eacute]s in the 1970s, and a Palmar vessel 
in a grave on the outskirts of San Salvador in 1993). Several others 
have been documented in looting situations, including three recorded by 
Sharer (Sharer 1978), and in private collections. Although these 
vessels were not made in the territory of El Salvador, they were 
ancient imports, and, as such, form part of the Salvadoran cultural 
heritage, providing important testimony relative to long-distance 
social and economic relationships.
    Forms include bowls with flat or slightly rounded bottoms and walls 
ranging from slightly flaring (nearly vertical) to broadly flaring 
walls, shallow simple bowls, tecomates (spherical forms with a small 
orifice), and cylindrical vases. Bowls may have ring bases, hollow 
cylindrical supports, or other forms of supports. Decoration consists 
of an orange or cream base slip over which were painted designs in 
black, red, and sometimes yellow. Designs include: Glyph bands, humans 
standing, seated, dancing, or in other attitudes, heads (human, animal, 
God K, and others), animals in different positions, and other themes 
rendered in Late Classic Lowland Maya style.

D. Ceramic Drums

    Ceramic drums comprise a globular body with a short rim on one 
extreme (over which the drum surface was stretched) and a long open 
shaft on the other extreme (which served as a stand).

[[Page 15372]]

The body may have incised decoration. Surfaces are usually slipped and 
well-polished, and may range from dark brown-black to brown to brownish 
red in color. Late Classic Period.

E. Incense Burners

1. Ladle Censers
    This category groups together a variety of different spoon- or 
ladle-shaped incense burners. These have a handle (which may be a 
hollow tube or a flattened loop) which supports the ``spoon'' or 
``ladle'' that actually held the embers over which incense was 
sprinkled. The ladle portion may have holes perforated to facilitate 
the circulation of air, and in the taller, more cup-like versions these 
holes may take the form of crosses or step frets (these are the so-
called ``Mixteca-Puebla'' style censers). Animal heads, claws, or other 
effigies may be added to end of the handle.
2. Three-Pronged Censers
    Standing cylinders with three vertical prongs at the top and two 
long vertical flanges on the sides. Effigy faces may be added to the 
vessel bodies (bats have been noted). Post-fire paint added in red, 
orange, and white. Late Preclassic and Early Classic Periods (Sharer 
3. Lolotique Spiked Censers
    The bowl-shaped censer body is supported by a tall pedestal base 
with perforations in the form of two large squares or circles, or 
slits. Short spikes cover the base and body. May retain remnants of 
post-fire red or white paint. Late Classic Period (Andrews 1978).
4. Las Lajas Spiked Censers
    Large hourglass-shaped censer covered by short spikes. Incised or 
modeled decoration may be found on the everted rims found at top and 
bottom. An internal shelf may be present to hold the large clay dish 
that supported the embers. Early Postclassic Period (Fowler 1981).
5. San Andr[eacute]s Stone Censers
    Squat barrel-shaped censers of hard volcanic stone with columns of 
spikes on part of the exterior. The upper part of these censers have a 
dish-like depression to contain embers. Late Classic Period.
6. Large Effigy Censers
    Different varieties of censers whose common traits are their 
relatively large size and the prominent presence of elaborate effigies 
covering much or all of the censer body. In extreme cases, the censer 
is entirely concealed within a virtual ceramic sculpture. As an 
alternative to a single large effigy, some present several figures on a 
single censer, or a single element (like a head) repeated several 
times. Recorded effigies have included: The god Tlaloc (identifiable by 
a large ring around each eye), an individual with bulbous protruding 
eyes, the god Xipe Totec (appearing as an individual wearing a flayed 
human skin), jaguars, monkeys, iguanas, large saurians (so-called Earth 
Monsters), GIII (a manifestation of the Sun god identifiable by a 
twisted cord extending vertically between the eyes and catfish-like 
barbels curling from the sides of the mouth), and others. Mostly Late 
Classic and Postclassic Periods.
7. Cotzumalhuapa Goblet Censers
    Large goblet shaped vessel forms (essentially a large bowl with 
walls that begin as vertical and midway to the rim moderately flare 
outward, with a pedestal base), usually with signs of burning on the 
interior base. These censers may be unadorned, or may have two or three 
hollow head effigies rising directly from the rim, or they may have 
many small effigy heads attached in a row around the vessel just below 
its rim (monkey and iguana heads have been documented). Lids, when 
present, may appear as inverted bowls, with or without an effigy figure 
on top (one example has a large seated monkey). Late Classic Period.

F. Mushroom Effigies

    Though some regard these as phallic effigies, most agree that 
mushrooms are represented. Two varieties are presented here.
1. Ceramic Mushroom Effigies
    Tall hollow bases rise from a flaring base and taper upwards to 
support the mushroom ``cap''. The body may be plain or may carry red 
paint and fine incisions (usually in the form of rows of triangles). 
Probably Late Preclassic and Early Classic Periods.
2. Stone Mushroom Effigies
    Usually made of fine-grained volcanic stone. The shaft of the 
mushroom rises from a base that may be cylindrical or square, and 
occasionally has short supports. Near the ``cap'' may often be found 
two raised bands representing the point from which the cap separates 
from its stem as it opens. Late Preclassic and Early Classic Periods.

G. Stone Sculpture

1. Preclassic Animal Head Sculptures
    Monumental sculptures in volcanic stone representing very stylized 
animal heads (Demarest 1986). These have usually been interpreted as 
jaguar heads, and, thus, are commonly called Jaguar Heads, but 
reptilian elements may also be present. These were apparently 
architectural elements associated with Late Preclassic Period pyramids.
2. Cotzumalhuapa Sculpture
    Monumental sculptures in volcanic stone in the Cotzumalhuapa style 
(see Lee A. Parsons, ``Bilbao, Guatemala'' (Vol. 1) in Publications in 
Anthropology 11, Milwaukee Public Museum, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United 
States (1967) (hereinafter, referred to as ``Parsons 1967''); Lee A. 
Parsons, ``Bilbao, Guatemala'' (Vol. 2) in Publications in Anthropology 
12, Milwaukee Public Museum, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States (1969) 
(hereinafter, referred to as ``Parsons 1969'')). Themes known from El 
Salvador include: A snake emerging from the ground, a skeletal figure 
with a hat resembling a derby, a coiled snake, and a disk with a jaguar 
face. Some of these are made from two stones which connect by means of 
a hidden tenon. Late Classic Period.
3. Tenoned Head Sculptures
    Long sculptures of volcanic stone with an animal head at one end 
and an undecorated tenon at the other, intended to be mounted in 
monumental architecture. The heads usually represent a bird or reptile. 
Late Classic Period.
4. Balsamo Sculpture
    These portable sculptures are usually made of vesicular volcanic 
stone and represent a human form in a squatting position. The vertebrae 
are usually indicated as a notched ridge on the individual's back. 
Although this form predominates, a grasshopper sculpture is also 
documented. Postclassic Period.
5. Yugos
    ``U''-shaped ballgame yugos (yokes) made of dense volcanic stone. 
Very rare examples may carry carved decoration. Late Classic Period.
6. Hachas
    Thin ballgame hachas usually representing animal or human heads (a 
variety of other designs are also found, such as, a coiled snake and a 
skull). Made of fine-grained volcanic stone. Some examples have iron 
pyrite ``eyes'' and traces of red paint. Late Classic Period.
7. Effigy Metates
    Metates with a thin and slightly curving body, with an animal head 
at one end. A tail may be present at the

[[Page 15373]]

other end. These are usually supported by three tall supports. Made of 
dense volcanic stone. Late Classic and Early Postclassic Periods.

H. Small Stone Artifacts

1. Jade or Similar Greenstone Artifacts
    Lustrous and hard green-colored stone crafted into: Beads 
(spherical, globular, tubular, or discoidal), pendants (plain or with 
human or animal effigies, including so called ``axe gods'' and canine 
tooth effigies), plaques (or pectorals) with elaborate designs, masks, 
mosaics, earspools, animal or human effigies (heads or full figure), or 
schematic squatting human forms (similar to examples from the El 
Caj[oacute]n area of Honduras).
2. Eccentric Chipped Stone
    Flint, chert, or obsidian flaked into eccentric forms. These may 
include: A zigzag lance point form, a disc with three prongs or spike 
on one side, and elaborate large effigy eccentrics apparently meant to 
serve as scepters (similar to those found in caches at Cop[aacute]n, 
Quirigu[aacute], and other sites). Late Classic Period.
3. Obsidian Artifacts in General
    Prismatic blades, bifacial artifacts (lance points, arrow points, 
``knives''), cores, and other objects made from obsidian (a black 
colored volcanic glass).
4. Pyrite Mosaic ``Mirrors''
    A mosaic of carefully fitted plaques of iron pyrite placed on a 
thin disc-shaped backing made of stone or clay that may have designs on 
one side. When new, the pyrite reflected light brilliantly, but 
archaeological specimens have often lost their shine due to oxidation 
(the pyrite may convert to a brownish black crust). Late Classic and 
perhaps other periods.
5. Paint Pallets
    Small artifacts of vesicular volcanic stone with a dish-shaped or 
squared depression on one surface. Some pallets are simple, being 
essentially natural cobbles of a flattened oblong shape with the 
depression worked on one surface, or sometimes two depressions on 
opposing surfaces. Others are elaborately carved and may include four 
supports and animal or human head effigies. Traces of red pigment have 
been found on some pallets. Late Classic and possibly other periods.
6. Translucent Stone Bowls
    Thin bowls carved from light colored translucent stone (which in 
different cases has been labeled as marble, alabaster, and onyx). At 
least some of these may be ancient imports from the territory of 
Honduras. Late Classic Period.
7. Barkbeaters
    Tabular dense stone artifacts with numerous longitudinal parallel 
incisions worked on one or both broad faces. On one variety (Classic 
and Postclassic Periods), three of the four narrow sides have a broad 
groove meant to receive a very pliable stick wound around it as a 
handle. The other variety considered here has an integral stone handle 
(Late Preclassic).
8. Celts
    These were originally mounted on wood handles for use as hatchets 
or adzes. Made of very dense, fine-grained stone and are often highly 
polished near the bit and sometimes over the entire body. Some examples 
are made of jade or stone resembling jade.

I. Metal Artifacts

1. Copper Celts
    Mounted on wooden handles for use as hatchets or adzes. Long copper 
celts with a rectangular cross section. May have a dark patina. 
Postclassic Period.
2. Copper Rings
    Copper finger rings made with the lost wax technique. Documented 
examples include filigree details or effigy heads. Terminal Classic and 
Postclassic Periods.
3. Copper Bells
    Copper bells, plain or with effigies, usually made by the lost wax 
technique. Postclassic Period.
4. Tumbaga Artifacts
    Tumbaga is an alloy of copper and gold. Artifacts made of Tumbaga 
may present a mottled surface looking golden in parts. Documented 
Tumbaga artifacts from El Salvador include small animal figurines made 
by the lost wax technique, and a small hammered sheet mask with eyes 
and mouth cutouts. Late Classic Period.

II. Ecclesiastical Ethnological Material

    Ethnological material covered by the MOU includes ecclesiastical 
material from the Colonial period through the first half of the 
twentieth century ranging in date from approximately A.D. 1525 to 1950 
that was made by artisans and used for religious purposes. Salvadoran 
artisans created paintings, sculptures, furniture, metalwork, textiles, 
and craftwork for religious use in churches and cofradias, or 
ecclesiastical lay organizations, until the mid-twentieth century. This 
ethnological material was not mass-produced or industrially produced, 
and most works were anonymous. Examples of ethnological material 
covered by the MOU include, but are not limited to, the following 

A. Paintings

    Paintings depicting figures, narratives, and events, relating to 
ecclesiastical themes, usually done in oil on wood, metal, walls, or 
canvas (linen, jute, or cotton).

B. Sculptures

    Sculptural images of scenes or figures, carved in wood and usually 
painted, relating to ecclesiastical themes, including Christ, the 
Virgin Mary, saints, Anima Sola (souls in purgatory), and other 
1. Relief Sculptures
    Low-relief plaques, often with polychrome painting, relating to 
ecclesiastical themes.
2. Sculpted Figures
    Wood carvings of figures relating to ecclesiastical themes. Figures 
are decorated with polychrome painting, sometimes using the estofado 
technique. Hands and faces may be more finely carved than the torso. 
Eyelashes, eyes, and hair may be added. Clothing might be sculpted and 
painted. In some cases, the torso consists of a simple wood frame 
covered in fabric clothing. Figures may have articulated arms, and 
sometimes legs, so they can be posed to represent various religious 
scenes. Sculpted figures may be life-sized or miniaturized. Some 
figures have metal accessories, such as, halos, aureoles, and staves.

C. Furniture

    Furniture used for ecclesiastical purposes, usually made from wood 
with glass, metal, and/or textiles attached.
1. Altarpieces or Retablos
    Elaborate ornamental structures placed behind the altar, including 
attached paintings, sculptures, and other religious objects.
2. Reliquaries and Coffins
    Containers made from wood, glass, and/or metal that hold and 
exhibit sacred objects or human remains.
3. Church Furnishings
    Furnishings used for liturgical rites, including pulpits, 
tabernacles, lecterns, confessionals, pews, choir stalls, chancels, 
baldachins, and palanquins.

[[Page 15374]]

4. Processional Furnishings
    Litters, canopies, coffins, cases, crosses, banners, and cofradia 
insignias carried in processions and made of wood, glass, and/or 

D. Metalwork

    Ritual objects for ceremonial ecclesiastical use made of gold, 
silver, and/or other metals, such as, monstrances, lecterns, chalices, 
censers, candlesticks, crucifixes, crosses, decorative plaques, 
tabernacles, processional banners, church bells, and cofradia 
insignias; and objects used to dress sculptures, including, among 
others, crowns, halos, and aureoles.

E. Textiles

    Textiles used to perform religious services made from cotton or 
silk that may be embroidered with metallic and/or silk thread, 
brocades, prints, lace, fabrics, braids, and/or bobbin lace.
1. Religious Vestments
    Garments worn by priests and/or other ecclesiastics, including 
cloaks, tunics, surplices, chasubles, dalmatics, albs, amices, stoles, 
maniples, cinctures, rochets, miters, bonnets, and humeral veils.
2. Garments To Dress Sculptures
    Life-sized or miniaturized garments, including tunics, robes, 
dresses, jackets, capes, stoles, veils, belts, and embroidered cloths.
3. Coverings and Hangings
    Altar cloths, towels, and tabernacle veils used for religious 

F. Documents and Manuscripts

    Original handwritten texts or printed texts of limited circulation, 
primarily on paper, parchment, or vellum, including religious texts, 
hymnals, and church records. Documents may contain wax, clay, or ink 
seals or stamps denoting an ecclesiastical institution. Documents are 
generally written in Spanish, but may include words from indigenous 
languages, such as, Nawat, Lenca, or Mayan languages.

Inapplicability of Notice and Delayed Effective Date

    This amendment involves a foreign affairs function of the United 
States and is, therefore, being made without notice or public procedure 
(5 U.S.C. 553(a)(1)). For the same reason, a delayed effective date is 
not required under 5 U.S.C. 553(d)(3).

Regulatory Flexibility Act

    Because no notice of proposed rulemaking is required, the 
provisions of the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) do 
not apply.

Executive Orders 12866 and 13771

    CBP has determined that this document is not a regulation or rule 
subject to the provisions of Executive Order 12866 or Executive Order 
13771 because it pertains to a foreign affairs function of the United 
States, as described above, and therefore is specifically exempted by 
section 3(d)(2) of Executive Order 12866 and section 4(a) of Executive 
Order 13771.

Signing Authority

    This regulation is being issued in accordance with 19 CFR 0.1(a)(1) 
pertaining to the Secretary of the Treasury's authority (or that of 
his/her delegate) to approve regulations related to customs revenue 

List of Subjects in 19 CFR Part 12

    Cultural property, Customs duties and inspection, Imports, 
Prohibited merchandise, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements.

Amendment to CBP Regulations

    For the reasons set forth above, part 12 of Title 19 of the Code of 
Federal Regulations (19 CFR part 12), is amended as set forth below:


1. The general authority citation for part 12 and the specific 
authority for Sec.  12.104g continue to read as follows:

    Authority: 5 U.S.C. 301; 19 U.S.C. 66, 1202 (General Note 3(i), 
Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTSUS)), 1624;
* * * * *
    Sections 12.104 through 12.104i also issued under 19 U.S.C. 
* * * * *

2. In Sec.  12.104g, paragraph (a), the entry for El Salvador in the 
table is revised to read as follows:

Sec.  12.104g   Specific items or categories designated by agreements 
or emergency actions.

    (a) * * *

        State party                         Cultural property                            Decision No.
                                                  * * * * * * *
El Salvador................  Archaeological material representing El          CBP Dec. 20-04.
                              Salvador's Pre-Hispanic cultures ranging in
                              date from approximately 8000 B.C. through A.D.
                              1550 and ecclesiastical ethnological material
                              from the Colonial period through the first
                              half of the twentieth century ranging in date
                              from approximately A.D. 1525 to 1950.
                                                  * * * * * * *

* * * * *

    Dated: March 6, 2020.
Mark A. Morgan
Acting Commissioner, U.S. Customs and Border Protection.

Timothy E. Skud,
Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Treasury.
[FR Doc. 2020-05694 Filed 3-16-20; 11:15 am]