[Federal Register Volume 83, Number 193 (Thursday, October 4, 2018)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Pages 50026-50035]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2018-21463]


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ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

40 CFR Part 82

[EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118; FRL-9984-77-OAR]
RIN 2060-AG12


Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Determination 34 for 
Significant New Alternatives Policy Program

AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

ACTION: Determination of acceptability.

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SUMMARY: This determination of acceptability expands the list of 
acceptable substitutes pursuant to the U.S. Environmental Protection 
Agency's (EPA) Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) program. This 
action lists as acceptable additional substitutes for use in the 
refrigeration and air conditioning, foam blowing, fire suppression, 
cleaning solvents, and aerosols sectors.

DATES: This determination is applicable on October 4, 2018.

ADDRESSES: EPA established a docket for this action under Docket ID No. 
EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118 (continuation of Air Docket A-91-42). All 
electronic documents in the docket are listed in the index at 
www.regulations.gov. Although listed in the index, some information is 
not publicly available, i.e., Confidential Business Information (CBI) 
or other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute. 
Publicly available docket materials are available either electronically 
at www.regulations.gov or in hard copy at the EPA Air Docket (Nos. A-
91-42 and EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118), EPA Docket Center (EPA/DC), William J. 
Clinton West, Room 3334, 1301 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 
20460. The Public Reading Room is open from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., 
Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. The telephone number 
for the Public Reading Room is (202) 566-1744, and the telephone number 
for the Air Docket is (202) 566-1742.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gerald Wozniak by telephone at (202) 
343-9624, by email at wozniak.gerald@epa.gov, or by mail at U.S. 
Environmental Protection Agency, Mail Code 6205T, 1200 Pennsylvania 
Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20460. Overnight or courier deliveries should 
be sent to the office location at 1201 Constitution Avenue NW, 
Washington, DC 20004.
    For more information on the Agency's process for administering the 
SNAP program or criteria for the evaluation of substitutes, refer to 
the initial SNAP rulemaking published in the Federal Register on March 
18, 1994 (59 FR 13044). Notices and rulemakings under the SNAP program, 
as well as other EPA publications on protection of stratospheric ozone, 
are available at EPA's Ozone Layer Protection website at www.epa.gov/ozone-layer-protection including the SNAP portion at www.epa.gov/snap/.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: 

Table of Contents

I. Listing of New Acceptable Substitutes
    A. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
    B. Foam Blowing
    C. Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection
    D. Cleaning Solvents
    E. Aerosols
Appendix A: Summary of Decisions for New Acceptable Substitutes


[[Page 50027]]



I. Listing of New Acceptable Substitutes \1\
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    \1\ On April 27, 2018 (83 FR 18431) EPA provided information on 
the Agency's plan to address the decision of the Court of Appeals 
for the District of Columbia Circuit in the case of Mexichem Fluor, 
Inc. v. EPA. That decision vacated the 2015 Rule (80 FR 42870) ``to 
the extent it requires manufacturers to replace HFCs with a 
substitute substance'' and remanded the rule to EPA for further 
proceedings. EPA plans to issue a proposed rule to address the 
court's vacatur and remand in early 2019.
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    This action is limited to listing as acceptable additional 
substitutes for use in the refrigeration and air conditioning, foam 
blowing, fire suppression, cleaning solvents, and aerosols sectors. 
This action presents EPA's most recent decision to list as acceptable 
several substitutes throughout different SNAP end-uses. New substitutes 
are:
     R-448A in ice skating rinks (retrofit equipment only);
     R-449A in ice skating rinks (retrofit equipment only);
     R-449B in ice skating rinks (retrofit equipment only);
     R-450A in ice skating rinks (new and retrofit equipment);
     R-513A in ice skating rinks (new and retrofit equipment);
     Acetone/isopentane blend in rigid polyurethane and 
polyisocyanurate laminated boardstock;
     Powdered Aerosol E in total flooding fire suppression 
(normally occupied areas); and
     HFO-1336mzz(Z) in electronics cleaning, metals cleaning, 
and precision cleaning and aerosol solvents.
    EPA's review of certain substitutes listed in this document is 
pending for other end-uses. Listing in the end-uses and applications in 
this document does not prejudge EPA's listing decision for these 
substitutes for other end-uses. For many of the substitutes being added 
through this document to the acceptable lists for specific end-uses, 
there are other listed substitutes for the end-use whose overall risk 
is comparable except that they have a lower risk in one SNAP criterion, 
for example toxicity or global warming potential (GWP). However, for 
the end-uses addressed in this action, those alternatives have not yet 
proven feasible in those specific end-uses.
    For additional information on SNAP, visit the SNAP portion of EPA's 
Ozone Layer Protection website at: www.epa.gov/snap. Copies of the full 
lists of acceptable substitutes for ozone depleting substances (ODS) in 
all industrial sectors are available at www.epa.gov/snap/substitutes-sector. For more information on the Agency's process for administering 
the SNAP program or criteria for evaluation of substitutes, refer to 
the initial SNAP rulemaking published March 18, 1994 (59 FR 13044), 
codified at 40 CFR part 82, subpart G. SNAP decisions and the 
appropriate Federal Register citations are found at: www.epa.gov/snap/snap-regulations. Substitutes listed as unacceptable; acceptable, 
subject to narrowed use limits; or acceptable, subject to use 
conditions are also listed in the appendices to 40 CFR part 82, subpart 
G.
    The sections below discuss each substitute listing in detail. 
Appendix A contains tables summarizing this action's listing decisions. 
The statements in the ``Further Information'' column in the tables 
provide additional information but these are not legally binding under 
section 612 of the Clean Air Act (CAA). In addition, the ``Further 
Information'' column may not include a comprehensive list of other 
legal obligations you may need to meet when using the substitute. 
Although you are not required to follow recommendations in the 
``Further Information'' column of the table to use a substitute 
consistent with section 612 of the CAA, some of these statements may 
refer to obligations that are enforceable or binding under federal or 
state programs other than the SNAP program. In many instances, the 
information simply refers to standard operating practices in existing 
industry standards and/or building codes. When using these substitutes, 
EPA strongly encourages you to apply the information in this column. 
Many of these recommendations, if adopted, would not require 
significant changes to existing operating practices.
    You can find submissions to EPA for the substitutes listed in this 
document, as well as other materials supporting the decisions in this 
action, in Docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118 at www.regulations.gov.

A. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

1. R-448A
    EPA's decision: EPA finds R-448A acceptable as a substitute for use 
in:
 Ice Skating Rinks (Retrofit Equipment Only)
    R-448A, marketed under the trade name Solstice[supreg] N-40, is a 
weighted blend of 26 percent hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-32, which is also 
known as difluoromethane (Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 
[CAS Reg. No.] 75-10-5); 26 percent HFC-125, which is also known as 
1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoroethane (CAS Reg. No. 354-33-6); 21 percent HFC-
134a, which is also known as 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (CAS Reg. No. 
811-97-2); 20 percent hydrofluoroolefin (HFO)-1234yf, which is also 
known as 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-1-ene (CAS Reg. No 754-12-1); and 
seven percent HFO-1234ze(E), which is also known as trans-1,3,3,3-
tetrafluoroprop-1-ene (CAS Reg. No. 29118-24-9).
    You may find the redacted submission in Docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118 
at www.regulations.gov under the name, ``Supporting Documentation for 
Notice 30 Listing of R-448A (N-40) in Certain Refrigeration and Air 
Conditioning End-Uses Submission Received May 29, 2014.'' EPA performed 
assessments to examine the health and environmental risks of this 
substitute. These assessments are available in Docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-
0118 under the following name:
 ``Risk Screen on Substitutes in Ice Skating Rinks Substitute: 
R-448A (Solstice[supreg] N-40)''
    EPA previously listed R-448A as an acceptable refrigerant in a 
number of other refrigeration and air conditioning end-uses (e.g., July 
16, 2015, 80 FR 42053; October 11, 2016, 81 FR 70029; July 21, 2017, 82 
FR 33809).
    Environmental information: R-448A has an ozone depletion potential 
(ODP) of zero. Its components, HFC-32, HFC-125, HFC-134a, HFO-1234yf, 
and HFO-1234ze(E) have GWPs of 675; 3,500; 1,430; one to four; 
2 3 and one to six; \4\ respectively. If these values are 
weighted by mass percentage, then R-448A has a GWP of about 1,390. The 
components of R-448A are excluded from the definition of volatile 
organic compounds (VOC) under CAA regulations (see 40 CFR 51.100(s)) 
addressing the development of state implementation plans (SIPs) to 
attain and maintain the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). 
Knowingly venting or releasing this refrigerant blend is limited by the 
venting prohibition under section 608(c)(2) of

[[Page 50028]]

the CAA, codified at 40 CFR 82.154(a)(1).
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    \2\ Hodnebrog [Oslash]., Etminan, M., Fuglestvedt, J.S., 
Marston, G., Myhre, G., Nielsen, C.J., Shine, K.P., Wallington, 
T.J.: Global Warming Potentials and Radiative Efficiencies of 
Halocarbons and Related Compounds: A Comprehensive Review, Reviews 
of Geophysics, 51, 300-378, doi:10.1002/rog.20013, 2013.
    \3\ Nielsen, O.J., Javadi, M.S., Sulbaek Andersen, M.P., Hurley, 
M.D., Wallington, T.J., Singh, R. Atmospheric chemistry of 
CF3CF=CH2: Kinetics and mechanisms of gas-
phase reactions with Cl atoms, OH radicals, and O3. 
Chemical Physics Letters 439, 18-22, 2007.
    \4\ Hodnebrog et al., 2013 and Atmospheric chemistry of trans-
CF3CH=CHF: products and mechanisms of hydroxyl radical and chlorine 
atom initiated oxidation'', M.S. Javadi, R. S[oslash]ndergaard, O.J. 
Nielsen, M.D., Hurley, and T.J. Wellington, Atmospheric Chemistry 
and Physics Discussions 8, 1069-1088, 2008.
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    Flammability information: R-448A, as formulated and even 
considering the worst-case fractionation for flammability, is not 
flammable.
    Toxicity and exposure data: Potential health effects of exposure to 
this substitute include drowsiness or dizziness. The substitute may 
also irritate the skin or eyes or cause frostbite. At sufficiently high 
concentrations, the substitute may cause irregular heartbeat. The 
substitute could cause asphyxiation if air is displaced by vapors in a 
confined space. These potential health effects are common to many 
refrigerants.
    The American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) has established 
workplace environmental exposure limits (WEELs) of 1,000 ppm as an 
eight-hour time-weighted (TWA) for HFC-32, HFC-125, and HFC-134a; 500 
ppm for HFO-1234yf; and 800 ppm for HFO-1234ze(E), the components of R-
448A. The manufacturer of R-448A recommends an acceptable exposure 
limit (AEL) of 890 ppm on an 8-hour TWA for the blend. EPA anticipates 
that users will be able to meet the AIHA WEELs and manufacturer's AEL 
and address potential health risks by following requirements and 
recommendations in the manufacturer's safety data sheet (SDS), in the 
American Society for Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning 
Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 15, and other safety precautions common to 
the refrigeration and air conditioning industry.
    Comparison to other substitutes in this end-use: R-448A has an ODP 
of zero, comparable to or lower than other listed substitutes in this 
end-use, with ODPs ranging from zero to 0.098.
    R-448A's GWP of 1,390 is lower than or comparable to that of 
acceptable substitutes for ice skating rinks (retrofit), such as HFC-
134a, R-407C, and R-507A, with GWPs ranging from 1,430 to 3,990. R-
448A's GWP is higher than the GWPs of other acceptable substitutes for 
ice skating rinks (retrofit), including R-401A and R-401B with GWPs 
ranging from 1,182 to 1,288.
    Flammability and toxicity risks are comparable to or lower than 
flammability and toxicity risks of other available substitutes in the 
same end-use. Toxicity risks can be minimized by use consistent with 
the AIHA WEELs, ASHRAE 15 and other industry standards, recommendations 
in the manufacturer's SDS, and other safety precautions common in the 
refrigeration and air conditioning industry.
    EPA finds R-448A acceptable in the end-use listed above because it 
does not pose greater overall environmental and human health risk than 
other available substitutes in the same end-use.
2. R-449A
    EPA's decision: EPA finds R-449A acceptable as a substitute for use 
in:
 Ice Skating Rinks (Retrofit Equipment Only)
    R-449A, marketed under the trade name Opteon[supreg] XP 40, is a 
weighted blend of 24.3 percent HFC-32, which is also known as 
difluoromethane (CAS Reg. No. 75-10-5); 24.7 percent HFC-125, which is 
also known as 1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoroethane (CAS Reg. No. 354-33-6); 25.7 
percent HFC-134a, which is also known as 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (CAS 
Reg. No. 811-97-2); and 25.3 percent HFO-1234yf, which is also known as 
2,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-1-ene (CAS Reg. No. 754-12-1).
    You may find the redacted submission in Docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118 
at www.regulations.gov under the name, ``Supporting Documentation for 
Notice 30 Listing of R-449A (XP40) in Certain Refrigeration and Air 
Conditioning End-Uses. SNAP Submission Received August 6, 2014.'' EPA 
performed assessments to examine the health and environmental risks of 
this substitute. These assessments are available in Docket EPA-HQ-OAR-
2003-0118 under the following name:
 ``Risk Screen on Substitutes in Ice Skating Rinks Substitute: 
R-449A (Opteon[supreg] XP40)''
    EPA previously listed R-449A as an acceptable refrigerant in a 
number of other refrigeration and air conditioning end-uses (e.g., July 
16, 2015, 80 FR 42053; October 11, 2016, 81 FR 70029; July 21, 2017, 82 
FR 33809).
    Environmental information: R-449A has an ODP of zero. Its 
components, HFC-32, HFC-125, HFC-134a, and HFO-1234yf, have GWPs of 
675; 3,500; 1,430; and one to four,\5\ respectively. If these values 
are weighted by mass percentage, then R-449A has a GWP of about 1,400. 
The components of R-449A are excluded from the definition of VOC under 
CAA regulations (see 40 CFR 51.100(s)) addressing the development of 
SIPs to attain and maintain the NAAQS. Knowingly venting or releasing 
this refrigerant blend is limited by the venting prohibition under 
section 608(c)(2) of the CAA, codified at 40 CFR 82.154(a)(1).
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    \5\ Hodnebrog et al., 2013 and Nielsen et al., 2007. Op. cit.
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    Flammability information: R-449A, as formulated and even 
considering the worst-case fractionation for flammability, is not 
flammable.
    Toxicity and exposure data: Potential health effects of exposure to 
this substitute include drowsiness or dizziness. The substitute may 
also irritate the skin or eyes or cause frostbite. At sufficiently high 
concentrations, the substitute may cause irregular heartbeat. The 
substitute could cause asphyxiation if air is displaced by vapors in a 
confined space. These potential health effects are common to many 
refrigerants.
    The AIHA has established WEELs of 1,000 ppm as an 8-hr TWA for HFC-
32, HFC-125, and HFC-134a and 500 ppm for HFO-1234yf, the components of 
R-449A. The manufacturer of R-449A recommends an AEL of 830 ppm on an 
8-hour TWA for the blend. EPA anticipates that users will be able to 
meet each of the AIHA WEELs and the manufacturer's AEL and address 
potential health risks by following requirements and recommendations in 
the manufacturer's SDS, in ASHRAE 15, and other safety precautions 
common to the refrigeration and air conditioning industry.
    Comparison to other substitutes in this end-use: R-449A has an ODP 
of zero, comparable to or lower than the other listed substitutes in 
this end-use, with ODPs ranging from zero to 0.098.
    R-449A's GWP of 1,400 is lower than or comparable to that of 
acceptable substitutes for ice skating rinks (retrofit), such as HFC-
134a, R-407C, and R-507A with GWPs ranging from 1,430 to 3,990. R-
449A's GWP is higher than the GWPs of other acceptable substitutes for 
ice skating rinks (retrofit), including R-401A and R-401B with GWPs 
ranging from 1,182 to 1,288.
    Flammability and toxicity risks are comparable to or lower than 
flammability and toxicity risks of other available substitutes in the 
same end-uses. Toxicity risks can be minimized by use consistent with 
the AIHA WEELs, ASHRAE 15 and other industry standards, recommendations 
in the manufacturer's SDS, and other safety precautions common in the 
refrigeration and air conditioning industry.
    EPA finds R-449A acceptable in the end-use listed above because it 
does not pose greater overall environmental and human health risk than 
other available substitutes in the same end-use.
3. R-449B
    EPA's decision: EPA finds R-449B acceptable as a substitute for use 
in:

[[Page 50029]]

 Ice Skating Rinks (Retrofit Equipment Only)
    R-449B, marketed under the trade name Forane[supreg] 449B, is a 
weighted blend of 25.2 percent HFC-32, which is also known as 
difluoromethane (CAS Reg. No. 75-10-5); 24.3 percent HFC-125, which is 
also known as 1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoroethane (CAS Reg. No. 354-33-6); 27.3 
percent HFC-134a, which is also known as 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (CAS 
Reg. No. 811-97-2); and 23.2 percent HFO-1234yf, which is also known as 
2,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-1-ene (CAS Reg. No. 754-12-1).
    You may find the redacted submission in Docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118 
at www.regulations.gov under the name, ``Supporting Documentation for 
Notice 32 Listing of R-449B in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning. SNAP 
Submission Received October 2, 2015.'' EPA performed assessments to 
examine the health and environmental risks of this substitute. These 
assessments are available in Docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118 under the 
following name:
 ``Risk Screen on Substitutes in Ice Skating Rinks Substitute: 
R-449B (Forane[supreg] 449B)''
    EPA previously listed R-449B as an acceptable refrigerant in a 
number of other refrigeration and air conditioning end-uses (e.g., 
October 11, 2016, 81 FR 70029; July 21, 2017, 82 FR 33809).
    Environmental information: R-449B has an ODP of zero. Its 
components, HFC-32, HFC-125, HFC-134a, and HFO-1234yf, have GWPs of 
675; 3,500; 1,430; and one to four,\6\ respectively. If these values 
are weighted by mass percentage, then R-449B has a GWP of about 1,410. 
The components of R-449B are excluded from the definition of VOC under 
CAA regulations (see 40 CFR 51.100(s)) addressing the development of 
SIPs to attain and maintain the NAAQS. Knowingly venting or releasing 
this refrigerant blend is limited by the venting prohibition under 
section 608(c)(2) of the CAA, codified at 40 CFR 82.154(a)(1).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \6\ Hodnebrog et al., 2013 and Nielsen et al., 2007. Op. cit.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Flammability information: R-449B, as formulated and even 
considering the worst-case fractionation for flammability, is not 
flammable.
    Toxicity and exposure data: Potential health effects of exposure to 
this substitute include drowsiness or dizziness. The substitute may 
also irritate the skin or eyes or cause frostbite. At sufficiently high 
concentrations, the substitute may cause irregular heartbeat. The 
substitute could cause asphyxiation if air is displaced by vapors in a 
confined space. These potential health effects are common to many 
refrigerants.
    The AIHA has established WEELs of 1,000 ppm as an 8-hr TWA for HFC-
32, HFC-125, and HFC-134a and 500 ppm for HFO-1234yf, the components of 
R-449B. The manufacturer of R-449B recommends an AEL of 865 ppm on an 
8-hour TWA for the blend. EPA anticipates that users will be able to 
meet each of the AIHA WEELs and the manufacturer's AEL and address 
potential health risks by following requirements and recommendations in 
the manufacturer's SDS, in ASHRAE 15, and other safety precautions 
common to the refrigeration and air conditioning industry.
    Comparison to other substitutes in this end-use: R-449B has an ODP 
of zero, comparable to or lower than the other listed substitutes in 
this end-use, with ODPs ranging from zero to 0.098.
    R-449B's GWP of 1,410 is lower than or comparable to that of 
acceptable substitutes for ice skating rinks (retrofit), such as HFC-
134a, R-407C, and R-507A with GWPs ranging from 1,430 to 3,990. R-
449B's GWP is higher than the GWPs of other acceptable substitutes for 
ice skating rinks (retrofit), including R-401A and R-401B with GWPs 
ranging from 1,182 to 1,288.
    Flammability and toxicity risks are comparable to or lower than 
flammability and toxicity risks of other available substitutes in the 
same end-use. Toxicity risks can be minimized by use consistent with 
the AIHA WEELs, ASHRAE 15 and other industry standards, recommendations 
in the manufacturer's SDS, and other safety precautions common in the 
refrigeration and air conditioning industry.
    EPA finds R-449B acceptable in the end-use listed above because it 
does not pose greater overall environmental and human health risk than 
other available substitutes in the same end-use.
4. R-450A
    EPA's decision: EPA finds R-450A acceptable as a substitute for use 
in:
 Ice Skating Rinks (New and Retrofit Equipment)
    R-450A, marketed under the trade name Solstice[supreg] N-13, is a 
weighted blend of 42 percent HFC-134a, which is also known as 1,1,1,2 
tetrafluoroethane (CAS Reg. No. 811-97-2), and 58 percent HFO-
1234ze(E), which is also known as trans-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropro-l-ene 
(CAS Reg. No. 29118-24-9).
    You may find the redacted submission in Docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118 
at www.regulations.gov under the name, ``Supporting Materials for 
Notice 30 Listing of R-450A in Vending Machines.'' EPA performed an 
assessment to examine the health and environmental risks of this 
substitute. This assessment is available in Docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118 
under the following name:
 ``Risk Screen on Substitutes for Use in Ice Skating Rinks 
Substitute: R-450A''
    EPA previously listed R-450A as acceptable for use as a refrigerant 
in several refrigeration and air conditioning end-uses (October 21, 
2014, 79 FR 62863; July 16, 2015, 80 FR 42053).
    Environmental information: R-450A has an ODP of zero. Its 
components, HFC-134a and HFO-1234ze(E), have GWPs of 1,430 and one to 
six,\7\ respectively. If these values are weighted by mass percentage, 
then R-450A has a GWP of about 600. The components of R-450A are both 
excluded from the definition of VOC under CAA regulations (see 40 CFR 
51.100(s)) addressing the development of SIPs to attain and maintain 
the NAAQS. Knowingly venting or releasing this refrigerant blend is 
limited by the venting prohibition under section 608(c)(2) of the CAA, 
codified at 40 CFR 82.154(a)(1).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \7\ Hodnebrog et al., 2013 and Nielsen et al., 2007. Op. cit.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Flammability information: R-450A, as formulated and even 
considering the worst-case fractionation for flammability, is not 
flammable.
    Toxicity and exposure data: Potential health effects of exposure to 
this substitute include drowsiness or dizziness. The substitute may 
also irritate the skin or eyes or cause frostbite. At sufficiently high 
concentrations, the substitute may cause irregular heartbeat. The 
substitute could cause asphyxiation if air is displaced by vapors in a 
confined space. These potential health effects are common to many 
refrigerants.
    The AIHA has established WEELs of 1,000 ppm and 800 ppm as an 8-
hour TWA for HFC-134a and HFO-1234ze(E), respectively, the components 
of R-450A. The manufacturer of R-450A recommends an AEL of 880 ppm on 
an 8-hour TWA for the blend. EPA anticipates that users will be able to 
meet each of the manufacturer's AEL and AIHA WEELs and address 
potential health risks by following requirements and recommendations in 
the manufacturer's SDS, in ASHRAE 15, and other safety precautions 
common to the refrigeration and air conditioning industry.

[[Page 50030]]

    Comparison to other substitutes in this end-use: R-450A has an ODP 
of zero, comparable to other listed substitutes in this end-use, with 
ODPs ranging from zero to 0.098.
    R-450A's GWP of 600 is lower than that of other acceptable 
substitutes (for new and retrofit use for ice skating rinks) such as 
HFC-134a, R-407C, and R-507A with GWPs ranging from 1,430 to 3,990. R-
450A's GWP is higher than the GWPs of other acceptable substitutes for 
new ice skating rinks, including ammonia absorption, ammonia vapor 
compression and carbon dioxide with GWPs ranging from zero to 1.
    Flammability and toxicity risks are comparable to or lower than 
flammability and toxicity risks of other available substitutes in the 
same end-use. Toxicity risks can be minimized by use consistent with 
the AIHA WEELs, ASHRAE 15, and other industry standards, 
recommendations in the manufacturer's SDS, and other safety precautions 
common in the refrigeration and air conditioning industry.
    EPA finds R-450A acceptable in the end-use listed above because it 
does not pose greater overall environmental and human health risk than 
other available substitutes in the same end-use.
5. R-513A
    EPA's decision: EPA finds R-513A acceptable as a substitute for use 
in:
 Ice Skating Rinks (New and Retrofit Equipment)
    R-513A, marketed under the trade name Opteon[supreg] XP 10, is a 
weighted blend of 44 percent HFC-134a, which is also known as 1,1,1,2 
tetrafluoroethane (CAS Reg. No. 811-97-2), and 56 percent HFO-1234yf, 
which is also known as 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-1-ene (CAS Reg. No. 754-
12-1).
    You may find the redacted submission in Docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118 
at www.regulations.gov under the name, ``Supporting Documentation for 
Notice 30 Listing of R-513A (XP10) in Certain Refrigeration and Air 
Conditioning End-Uses. SNAP Submission Received July 24, 2014.'' EPA 
performed an assessment to examine the health and environmental risks 
of this substitute. This assessment is available in Docket EPA-HQ-OAR-
2003-0118 under the following name:
 ``Risk Screen on Substitutes for Use in Ice Skating Rinks 
Substitute: R-513A''
    EPA previously listed R-513A as acceptable for use as a refrigerant 
in several refrigeration and air conditioning end-uses (July 16, 2015, 
80 FR 42053; May 23, 2016, 81 FR 32241; July 21, 2017, 82 FR 33809).
    Environmental information: R-513A has an ODP of zero. Its 
components, HFC-134a and HFO-1234yf, have GWPs of 1,430 and one to 
four,\8\ respectively. If these values are weighted by mass percentage, 
then R-513A has a GWP of about 630. The components of R-513A are both 
excluded from the definition of VOC under CAA regulations (see 40 CFR 
51.100(s)) addressing the development of SIPs to attain and maintain 
the NAAQS. Knowingly venting or releasing this refrigerant blend is 
limited by the venting prohibition under section 608(c)(2) of the CAA, 
codified at 40 CFR 82.154(a)(1).
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    \8\ Hodnebrog et al., 2013 and Nielsen et al., 2007. Op. cit.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Flammability information: R-513A, as formulated and even 
considering the worst-case fractionation for flammability, is not 
flammable.
    Toxicity and exposure data: Potential health effects of exposure to 
this substitute include drowsiness or dizziness. The substitute may 
also irritate the skin or eyes or cause frostbite. At sufficiently high 
concentrations, the substitute may cause irregular heartbeat. The 
substitute could cause asphyxiation if air is displaced by vapors in a 
confined space. These potential health effects are common to many 
refrigerants.
    The AIHA has established WEELs of 1,000 ppm and 500 ppm as an 8-
hour TWA for HFC-134a and HFO-1234yf, respectively, the components of 
R-513A. The manufacturer of R-513A recommends an AEL of 653 ppm on an 
8-hour TWA for the blend. EPA anticipates that users will be able to 
meet each of the manufacturer's AEL and AIHA WEELs and address 
potential health risks by following requirements and recommendations in 
the manufacturer's SDS, in ASHRAE 15, and other safety precautions 
common to the refrigeration and air conditioning industry.
    Comparison to other substitutes in this end-use: R-513A has an ODP 
of zero, comparable to other listed substitutes in this end-use, with 
ODPs ranging from zero to 0.098.
    R-513A's GWP of 630 is lower than that of other acceptable 
substitutes for new and retrofit use for ice skating rinks, such as 
HFC-134a, R-407C, and R-507A with GWPs ranging from 1,430 to 3,990. R-
513A's GWP is higher than the GWPs of other acceptable substitutes for 
new ice skating rinks, including ammonia absorption, ammonia vapor 
compression and carbon dioxide with GWPs ranging from zero to 1.
    Flammability and toxicity risks are comparable to or lower than 
flammability and toxicity risks of other available substitutes in the 
same end-use. Toxicity risks can be minimized by use consistent with 
the AIHA WEELs, ASHRAE 15, and other industry standards, 
recommendations in the manufacturer's SDS, and other safety precautions 
common in the refrigeration and air conditioning industry.
    EPA finds R-513A acceptable in the end-use listed above because it 
does not pose greater overall environmental and human health risk than 
other available substitutes in the same end-use.

B. Foam Blowing

1. Acetone/Isopentane Blend
    EPA's decision: EPA finds Acetone/Isopentane blend acceptable as a 
substitute for use in:
 Rigid Polyurethane and Polyisocyanurate Laminated Boardstock
    Acetone/Isopentane, is a weighted blend of 10-30 percent acetone 
(CAS Reg. No. 67-64-1) and 70-90 percent isopentane (CAS Reg. No. 78-
78-4).
    You may find the redacted submission in Docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118 
at www.regulations.gov under the name, ``Supporting Documentation for 
Notice 34 Listing of Acetone/Isopentane blend in rigid polyurethane and 
polyisocyanurate laminated boardstock. SNAP Submission Received August 
8, 2017.'' EPA performed an assessment to examine the health and 
environmental risks of this substitute. This assessment is available in 
Docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118 under the following name:
 ``Risk Screen on Substitutes for Use in Rigid Polyurethane and 
Polyisocyanurate Laminated Boardstock Substitute: Acetone/Isopentane 
Blend''
    EPA previously listed acetone as acceptable for use as a foam-
blowing agent in flexible polyurethane and in integral skin 
polyurethane (March 18, 1994, 59 FR 13044; February 24, 1998, 63 FR 
9151). EPA previously listed C3-C6 light saturated hydrocarbons, which 
include isopentane, as acceptable for use as a foam-blowing agent in a 
number of foam-blowing end-uses. (August 26, 1994, 59 FR 44240; April 
11, 2000, 65 FR 19327).
    Environmental information: Acetone/isopentane blend has an ODP of 
zero. Its components, acetone and isopentane, have GWPs of 0.5 and <10, 
respectively.\9\ Acetone is excluded from

[[Page 50031]]

the definition of VOC under CAA regulations (see 40 CFR 51.100(s)) 
addressing the development of SIPs to attain and maintain the NAAQS, 
while isopentane is defined as VOC under those regulations.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \9\ GWP for acetone comes from IPCC, 2007. GWP for isopentane is 
estimated based on GWP of butane from IPCC, 2007 and the relative 
atmospheric lifetimes of butane and isopentane from: Safeguarding 
the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System. IPCC/TEAP, 2005--Bert 
Metz, Lambert Kuijpers, Susan Solomon, Stephen O. Anderson, Ogunlade 
Davidson, Jose Pons, David de Jager, Tahl Kestin, Martin Manning, 
and Leo Meyer (Eds.). Cambridge University Press, UK. pp 478. 
Available from Cambridge University Press, The Edinburgh Building 
Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge CB2 2RU ENGLAND Available online at 
https://www.ipcc.ch/report/sroc.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Flammability information: Acetone/isopentane blend is flammable.
    Toxicity and exposure data: Potential health effects of exposure to 
this substitute include drowsiness or dizziness. Higher concentrations 
may cause central nervous system depression and loss of consciousness. 
The substitute may also irritate the skin or eyes. The substitute could 
cause asphyxiation if air is displaced by vapors in a confined space. 
These potential health effects are common to many foam-blowing agents.
    For acetone, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration 
(OSHA) has established a permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 1000 ppm 
and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists 
(ACGIH) has established a threshold limit value (TLV) of 750 ppm, both 
on an 8-hr TWA. For isopentane, ACGIH has established a TLV of 600 ppm 
on an 8-hr TWA. EPA anticipates that users will be able to meet the 
ACGIH's TLVs for both components and address potential health risks by 
following requirements and recommendations in the manufacturer's SDS 
and other safety precautions common to the foam-blowing industry.
    Comparison to other substitutes in this end-use: Acetone/isopentane 
blend has an ODP of zero, comparable to other listed substitutes in 
this end-use, with ODPs ranging from zero to 0.012.
    For rigid polyurethane and polyisocyanurate laminated boardstock, 
acetone/isopentane blend's GWP of <10 is comparable to the GWPs of 
other acceptable substitutes for rigid polyurethane and 
polyisocyanurate laminated boardstock, including EcomateTM, 
CO2, HFO-1336mzz(Z) and C3-C6 light saturated hydrocarbons 
with GWPs ranging from less than 1 to approximately 12.
    Flammability and toxicity risks are comparable to or lower than 
flammability and toxicity risks of other available substitutes in the 
same end-use. Toxicity risks can be minimized by use consistent with 
the ACGIH TLVs, recommendations in the manufacturer's SDS, and other 
safety precautions common in the foam-blowing industry.
    EPA finds acetone/isopentane blend acceptable in the end-use listed 
above because it does not pose greater overall environmental and human 
health risk than other available substitutes in the same end-use.

C. Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection

1. Powdered Aerosol E (FireProTM)
    EPA's decision: EPA finds Powdered Aerosol E acceptable as a 
substitute for:
 Total Flooding Uses
    Powdered Aerosol E is generated in an automated manufacturing 
process during which the chemicals, in powder form, are mixed and then 
supplied to end users as a solid contained within a fire extinguisher. 
In the presence of heat, the solid converts to an aerosol consisting 
mainly of potassium salts. EPA previously listed Powdered Aerosol E as 
acceptable subject to use conditions in areas that are not normally 
occupied (71 FR 56359; September 27, 2006). Based on a review of 
additional information from the submitter to support the safe use of 
Powdered Aerosol E in normally occupied spaces, EPA now determines that 
Powdered Aerosol E is also acceptable for use in total flooding systems 
for normally occupied spaces, and EPA is adding Powdered Aerosol E to 
the list of acceptable substitutes for total flooding uses, which would 
include both unoccupied and occupied spaces. In a subsequent rulemaking 
EPA will remove the previous listing as acceptable subject to use 
conditions. In the ``Further Information'' column of the tables 
summarizing today's listing decisions and found at the end of this 
document, we also state that use of this agent should continue to be in 
accordance with the safety guidelines in the latest edition of the 
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 2010 Standard for Aerosol 
Extinguishing Systems.
    You may find the redacted submission in Docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118 
at www.regulations.gov under the name, ``Supporting Documentation for 
Notice 34 Listing of Powdered Aerosol E (FirePro) in Fire Suppression. 
SNAP Submission Received November 17, 2016.'' EPA performed an 
assessment to examine the health and environmental risks of this 
substitute. This assessment is available in Docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118 
under the following name:
 ``Risk Screen on Substitutes for Total Flooding Systems in 
Occupied Spaces Substitute: Powdered Aerosol E (FirePro)''
    Environmental information: The active ingredients of Powdered 
Aerosol E are solids both before and after use; thus, their ODP and GWP 
are both zero. The gaseous post-activation products for Powdered 
Aerosol E also have zero ODP and GWPs of 120 or less. The solid active 
ingredients and particulate post-activation products do not participate 
in atmospheric photochemical reactions and are not VOCs. The gaseous 
post-activation products are either not organic or excluded from the 
definition of VOC under CAA regulations (see 40 CFR 51.100(s)) 
addressing the development of SIPs to attain and maintain the NAAQS.
    Flammability information: Powdered Aerosol E's post-activation 
products are nonflammable.
    Toxicity and exposure data: Exposure to Powdered Aerosol E after 
activation may cause temporary, mild irritation of the mucous membrane. 
If eye or skin contact occurs, end users should flush eyes with water 
or wash skin with soap and water. If inhaled, end users should be 
removed and exposed to fresh air. Exposure to the post-discharge 
products is expected to be below the relevant workplace exposure limits 
for those compounds. Because it is housed in a hermetically sealed 
container, exposure should not occur unless the system is activated.
    The post-activation components of the proposed substitute are 
common compounds that are not expected to exceed immediately dangerous 
to life or health (IDLH) levels from the National Institute for 
Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) that apply to occupational and 
end use exposure.
    Information on additional safety recommendations: The discharge of 
the aerosol results in a reduction of visibility in the protected space 
due to the uniform distribution of the particulate generated. Use 
according to the NFPA 2010 Standard will reduce any safety risks due to 
reduced visibility. In addition, EPA recommends that cross-zone 
detection systems and abort switches located near an exit from the 
protected space be employed; improved detection systems within the 
protected space and manual abort switches outside of the space could 
help avoid inadvertent discharge.
    In the ``Further Information'' column of the tables summarizing 
today's listing decisions, EPA recommends the following for 
establishments manufacturing Powdered Aerosol E and

[[Page 50032]]

filling containers to be used in total flooding applications:

--Workers should use appropriate safety and protective equipment (e.g., 
protective gloves, tightly sealed goggles, protective work clothing, 
and particulate-removing respirators using NIOSH type N95 or better 
filters) consistent with OSHA guidelines.
--A local exhaust system should be installed and operated to provide 
adequate ventilation to reduce airborne exposure to Powdered Aerosol E 
constituents.
--An eye wash fountain and quick drench facility should be close to the 
production area.
--Training for safe handling procedures should be provided to all 
employees that would be likely to handle the containers of the agent or 
extinguishing units filled with the agent.
--Workers responsible for cleanup should allow particulates to settle 
before reentering area and wear appropriate personal protective 
equipment.
--All spills should be cleaned up immediately in accordance with good 
industrial hygiene practices.

    EPA expects that procedures identified in the SDS for Powdered 
Aerosol E and good manufacturing practices will be adhered to, and that 
the appropriate safety and personal protective equipment (PPE) 
consistent with OSHA guidelines will be used during installation, 
servicing, post-discharge clean-up and disposal of total flooding 
systems using Powdered Aerosol E. The manufacturer should provide 
guidance upon installation of the system regarding the appropriate time 
after which workers may re-enter the area for disposal to allow the 
maximum settling of all particulates.
    Comparison to other substitutes in this end-use: Powdered Aerosol E 
has an ODP of zero, comparable to other listed substitutes in this end-
use, with ODPs ranging from zero to 0.048.
    For total flooding agents, Powdered Aerosol E's GWP of 0 (and 1 to 
120 for certain post-activation products) is lower than that of other 
acceptable substitutes, such as HFC-227ea, other HFCs, and some HCFC 
fire suppressants, with GWPs which range from about 1,550 to 14,800. 
Other acceptable substitutes in this end-use have comparable GWPs 
ranging from zero to one, such as water, inert gases, and a number of 
other powdered aerosol fire suppressants.
    Toxicity risks can be minimized by use consistent with the NFPA 
2010 standard, recommendations in the SDS, and other safety precautions 
common in the fire suppression industry. The potential toxicity risks 
due to inhalation exposure are common to many total flooding agents, 
including those already listed as acceptable under SNAP for this same 
end-use. Powdered Aerosol E's post-activation products are 
nonflammable, as are all other available total flooding agents.
    EPA finds Powdered Aerosol E acceptable in the end-use listed above 
because it does not pose greater overall environmental and human health 
risk than other available substitutes in the same end-use.

D. Cleaning Solvents

1. HFO-1336mzz(Z)
    EPA's decision: EPA finds HFO-1336mzz(Z)) acceptable as a 
substitute for use in:

 Electronics cleaning
 Metals cleaning
 Precision cleaning

    HFO-1336mzz(Z) is also known as (Z)-1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluoro-2-butene 
and cis-1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluoro-2-butene (CAS Reg. No. 692-49-9).
    You may find the redacted submission in Docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118 
at www.regulations.gov under the name, ``Supporting Documentation for 
Notice 34 Listing of HFO-1336mzz(Z) in Cleaning Solvents and Aerosol 
Solvents. SNAP Submission Received June 19, 2017.'' EPA performed an 
assessment to examine the health and environmental risks of this 
substitute. This assessment is available in Docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118 
under the following name:
 ``Risk Screen on Substitutes for Use in Cleaning Solvents 
Substitute: HFO-1336mzz(Z)''
    EPA previously listed HFO-1336mzz(Z) as acceptable for use in 
several refrigeration and air conditioning and foam-blowing end-uses 
(October 21, 2014, 79 FR 62863; July 16, 2015, 80 FR 42053; May 23, 
2016, 81 FR 32241).
    Environmental information: HFO-1336mzz(Z) has an ODP of zero. It 
has a 100-year GWP of about nine.\10\ HFO-1336mzz(Z) is a VOC, and it 
is not exempted from the definition of VOC under CAA regulation (see 40 
CFR 51.100(s)) addressing the development of SIPs to attain and 
maintain the NAAQS. EPA has issued a proposed rule that, if finalized 
as proposed, would exclude HFO-1336mzz(Z) from the definition of VOC 
under CAA regulations (see 40 CFR 51.100(s)) addressing the development 
of SIPs to attain and maintain the NAAQS (May 1, 2018; 83 FR 19026).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \10\ Baasandorj, M., Ravishankara, A.R., Burkholder, J.B., 
Atmospheric Chemistry of (Z)-CF3CH[Otilde]CHCF3: OH Radical Reaction 
Rate Coefficient and Global Warming Potential, Journal of Physical 
Chemistry A, 2011, 115, 10,539-10,549, 2011.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Flammability information: HFO-1336mzz(Z) is not flammable.
    Toxicity and exposure data: Potential health effects of exposure to 
this substitute include skin or eye irritation or frostbite. At 
sufficiently high concentrations, the substitute may cause irregular 
heartbeat. The substitute could cause asphyxiation if air is displaced 
by vapors in a confined space. EPA issued a Significant New Use Rule 
under the Toxic Substances Control Act on June 5, 2015, to require 
persons to submit a Significant New Use Notice to EPA at least 90 days 
before they manufacture or process HFO-1336mzz(Z) for uses other than 
those described in the Premanufacture Notice (80 FR 32003).
    EPA anticipates that HFO-1336mzz(Z) will be used consistent with 
the recommendations specified in the SDS. The WEEL committee of the 
Occupational Alliance for Risk Science (OARS) recommends a WEEL for the 
workplace of 500 ppm on an 8-hour TWA. EPA anticipates that users will 
be able to meet the WEEL and address potential health risks by 
following requirements and recommendations in the SDS and other safety 
precautions common to the cleaning solvents industry.
    Comparison to other substitutes in this end-use: HFO-1336mzz(Z) has 
an ODP of zero, comparable to other listed substitutes in this end-use, 
with ODPs ranging from zero to 0.033.
    For cleaning solvents, HFO-1336mzz(Z)'s GWP of about nine is lower 
than that of other acceptable substitutes, such as HFE-7200, HFE-7100, 
HFC-365mfc and HFC-4310mee with GWPs ranging from 59 to 1,640. HFO-
1336mzz(Z)'s GWP is higher than or comparable to the GWPs of other 
acceptable substitutes for cleaning solvents, including acetone, 
methoxytridecafluoroheptene isomers (MPHE), and trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-
trifluoroprop-1-ene with GWPs ranging from less than 1 to 7.
    Flammability and toxicity risks are comparable to or lower than 
flammability and toxicity risks of other available substitutes in the 
same end-use. Toxicity risks can be minimized by use consistent with 
the OARS WEEL, recommendations in the manufacturer's SDS, and other 
safety precautions common in the cleaning solvents industry; moreover, 
those risks are common to many cleaning solvents,

[[Page 50033]]

including many of those already listed as acceptable under SNAP for 
this end-use.
    EPA finds HFO-1336mzz(Z) acceptable in the end-uses listed above 
because it does not pose greater overall environmental and human health 
risk than other available substitutes in the same end-uses.

E. Aerosols

1. HFO-1336mzz(Z)
    EPA's decision: EPA finds HFO-1336mzz(Z) acceptable as a substitute 
for use in:
 Aerosol Solvents
    HFO-1336mzz(Z) is also known as (Z)-1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluoro-2-butene 
and cis-1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluoro-2-butene (CAS Reg. No. 692-49-9).
    You may find the redacted submission in Docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118 
at www.regulations.gov under the name, ``Supporting Documentation for 
Notice 34 Listing of HFO-1336mzz(Z) in Cleaning Solvents and Aerosol 
Solvents. SNAP Submission Received June 19, 2017.'' EPA performed an 
assessment to examine the health and environmental risks of this 
substitute. This assessment is available in Docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2003-0118 
under the following name:
 ``Risk Screen on Substitutes for Use in Aerosol Solvents 
Substitute: HFO-1336mzz(Z)''
    EPA previously listed HFO-1336mzz(Z) as acceptable for use in 
several refrigeration and air conditioning and foam-blowing end-uses 
(October 21, 2014, 79 FR 62863; July 16, 2015, 80 FR 42053; May 23, 
2016, 81 FR 32241).
    Environmental information: The environmental information for this 
substitute is set forth in the ``Environmental information'' section in 
listing I.D.1.
    Flammability information: HFO-1336mzz(Z) is not flammable.
    Toxicity and exposure data: The toxicity information for this 
substitute is set forth in the ``Toxicity and exposure data'' section 
in listing I.D.1, above.
    EPA anticipates that HFO-1336mzz(Z) will be used consistent with 
the recommendations specified in the SDS. The WEEL committee of the 
Occupational Alliance for Risk Science (OARS) recommends a WEEL for the 
workplace of 500 ppm on an 8-hour TWA. EPA anticipates that users will 
be able to meet the WEEL and address potential health risks by 
following requirements and recommendations in the SDS and other safety 
precautions common to the aerosols industry.
    Comparison to other substitutes in this end-use: HFO-1336mzz(Z) has 
an ODP of zero, comparable to other listed substitutes in this end-use, 
with ODPs ranging from zero to 0.033.
    For aerosol solvents, HFO-1336mzz(Z)'s GWP of about nine is lower 
than that of other acceptable substitutes, such as HFE-7200, HFE-7000, 
HFC-365mfc and HFC-4310mee with GWPs ranging from 59 to 1,640. HFO-
1336mzz(Z)'s GWP is higher than or comparable to the GWPs of other 
acceptable substitutes for aerosol solvents, including acetone, MPHE, 
and trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene with GWPs ranging from 
less than 1 to 7.
    Flammability and toxicity risks are comparable to or lower than 
flammability and toxicity risks of other available substitutes in the 
same end-use. Toxicity risks can be minimized by use consistent with 
the OARS WEEL, recommendations in the manufacturer's SDS, and other 
safety precautions common in the aerosols industry; moreover, those 
risks are common to many aerosol solvents, including many of those 
already listed as acceptable under SNAP for this end-use.
    EPA finds HFO-1336mzz(Z) acceptable in the end-use listed above 
because it does not pose greater overall environmental and human health 
risk than other available substitutes in the same end-use.

List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 82

    Environmental protection, Administrative practice and procedure, 
Air pollution control, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements.

    Dated: September 19, 2018.
Sarah Dunham,
Director, Office of Atmospheric Programs.

Appendix A: Summary of Decisions for New Acceptable Substitutes



----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
             End-use                    Substitute             Decision             Further Information \1\
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                       Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ice skating rinks (retrofit        R-448A..............  Acceptable.........  R-448A has a 100-yr global warming
 equipment only).                                                              potential (GWP) of approximately
                                                                               1,390. This substitute is a blend
                                                                               of HFC-32, which is also known as
                                                                               difluoromethane (CAS Reg. No. 75-
                                                                               10-5); HFC-125, which is also
                                                                               known as 1,1,1,2,2-
                                                                               pentafluoroethane (CAS Reg. No.
                                                                               354-33-6); HFC-134a, which is
                                                                               also known as 1,1,1,2-
                                                                               tetrafluoroethane (CAS Reg. No.
                                                                               811-97-2); HFO-1234yf, which is
                                                                               also known as 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-
                                                                               prop-l-ene (CAS Reg. No. 754-12-
                                                                               1); and HFO-1234ze(E), which is
                                                                               also known as trans-1,3,3,3-
                                                                               tetrafluoroprop-l-ene (CAS Reg.
                                                                               No. 29118-24-9).
                                                                              The blend is nonflammable.
                                                                              The American Industrial Hygiene
                                                                               Association (AIHA) has
                                                                               established Workplace
                                                                               Environmental Exposure Limits
                                                                               (WEELs) of 1,000 ppm on an eight-
                                                                               hour time-weighted average (8-hr
                                                                               TWA) basis for HFC-32, HFC-125,
                                                                               and HFC-134a; 500 ppm for HFO-
                                                                               1234yf; and 800 ppm for HFO-
                                                                               1234ze(E). The manufacturer
                                                                               recommends an acceptable exposure
                                                                               limit (AEL) for the workplace for
                                                                               R-448A of 890 ppm (8-hr TWA).
Ice skating rinks (retrofit        R-449A..............  Acceptable.........  R-449A has a 100-year GWP of
 equipment only).                                                              approximately 1,400. This
                                                                               substitute is a blend of HFC-32,
                                                                               which is also known as
                                                                               difluoromethane (CAS Reg. No. 75-
                                                                               10-5); HFC-125, which is also
                                                                               known as 1,1,1,2,2-
                                                                               pentafluoroethane (CAS Reg. No.
                                                                               354-33-6); HFC-134a, which is
                                                                               also known as 1,1,1,2-
                                                                               tetrafluoroethane (CAS Reg. No.
                                                                               811-97-2); and HFO-1234yf, which
                                                                               is also known as 2,3,3,3-
                                                                               tetrafluoroprop-l-ene (CAS Reg.
                                                                               No. 754-12-1).
                                                                              The blend is nonflammable.
                                                                              The AIHA has established WEELs of
                                                                               1,000 ppm (8-hr TWA) for HFC-32,
                                                                               HFC-125, and HFC-134a; and 500
                                                                               ppm for HFO-1234yf. The
                                                                               manufacturer recommends an AEL
                                                                               for the workplace for R-449A of
                                                                               830 ppm (8-hr TWA).

[[Page 50034]]

 
Ice skating rinks (retrofit        R-449B..............  Acceptable.........  R-449B has a 100-year GWP of
 equipment only).                                                              approximately 1,410. This
                                                                               substitute is a blend of HFC-32,
                                                                               which is also known as
                                                                               difluoromethane (CAS Reg. No. 75-
                                                                               10-5); HFC-125, which is also
                                                                               known as 1,1,1,2,2-
                                                                               pentafluoroethane (CAS Reg. No.
                                                                               354-33-6); HFC-134a, which is
                                                                               also known as 1,1,1,2-
                                                                               tetrafluoroethane (CAS Reg. No.
                                                                               811-97-2); and HFO-1234yf, which
                                                                               is also known as 2,3,3,3-
                                                                               tetrafluoroprop-l-ene (CAS Reg.
                                                                               No. 754-12-1).
                                                                              The blend is nonflammable.
                                                                              The AIHA has established WEELs of
                                                                               1,000 ppm (8-hr TWA) for HFC-32,
                                                                               HFC-125, and HFC-134a; and 500
                                                                               ppm for HFO-1234yf. The
                                                                               manufacturer recommends an AEL
                                                                               for the workplace for R-449B of
                                                                               865 ppm (8-hr TWA).
Ice skating rinks (new and         R-450A..............  Acceptable.........  R-450A has a 100-year GWP of
 retrofit equipment).                                                          approximately 600. This
                                                                               substitute is a blend of HFC-
                                                                               134a, which is also known as
                                                                               1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (CAS
                                                                               Reg. No. 811-97-2); and HFO-
                                                                               1234ze(E), which is also known as
                                                                               trans-1,3,3,3, -tetrafluoropro-1-
                                                                               ene (CAS Reg. No. 29118-24-9).
                                                                              This blend is nonflammable.
                                                                              The AIHA has established WEELs of
                                                                               1,000 ppm and 800 ppm (8-hr TWA)
                                                                               for HFC-134a and HFO-1234yf,
                                                                               respectively. The manufacturer
                                                                               recommends an AEL for the
                                                                               workplace for R-450A of 880 ppm
                                                                               (8-hr TWA).
Ice skating rinks (new and         R-513A..............  Acceptable.........  R-513A has a 100-year GWP of
 retrofit equipment).                                                          approximately 630. This
                                                                               substitute is a blend of HFC-
                                                                               134a, which is also known as
                                                                               1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (CAS
                                                                               Reg. No. 811-97-2); and HFO-
                                                                               1234yf, which is also known as
                                                                               2,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-l-ene
                                                                               (CAS Reg. No. 754-12-1).
                                                                              This blend is nonflammable.
                                                                              The AIHA has established WEELs of
                                                                               1,000 ppm and 500 ppm (8-hr TWA)
                                                                               for HFC-134a and HFO-1234yf,
                                                                               respectively. The manufacturer
                                                                               recommends an AEL for the
                                                                               workplace for R-513A of 653 ppm
                                                                               (8-hr TWA).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                  Foam Blowing
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rigid polyurethane and             Acetone/isopentane    Acceptable.........  Acetone/isopentane blend has no
 polyisocyanurate laminated         blend.                                     ozone depletion potential (ODP)
 boardstock.                                                                   and a 100-year GWP of
                                                                               approximately <10. Acetone is
                                                                               excluded from the definition of
                                                                               volatile organic compounds (VOC)
                                                                               under CAA regulations (see 40 CFR
                                                                               51.100(s)) addressing the
                                                                               development of state
                                                                               implementation plans (SIPs) to
                                                                               attain and maintain the National
                                                                               Ambient Air Quality Standards
                                                                               (NAAQS), while isopentane is
                                                                               defined as VOC.
                                                                              This foam-blowing agent is
                                                                               flammable.
                                                                              For acetone, the Occupational
                                                                               Safety and Health Administration
                                                                               (OSHA) has established a
                                                                               permissible exposure limit of
                                                                               1000 ppm and the American
                                                                               Conference of Governmental
                                                                               Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has
                                                                               established a threshold limit
                                                                               value (TLV) of 750 ppm, both on
                                                                               an 8-hr TWA. For isopentane,
                                                                               ACGIH has established a TLV of
                                                                               600 ppm on an 8-hr TWA.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                Fire Suppression
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total flooding...................  Powdered Aerosol E..  Acceptable.........  Use of this agent should be in
                                                                               accordance with the safety
                                                                               guidelines in the latest edition
                                                                               of the National Fire Protection
                                                                               Association 2010 standard for
                                                                               Aerosol Extinguishing Systems.
                                                                              For establishments manufacturing
                                                                               the agent or filling, installing,
                                                                               or servicing containers or
                                                                               systems to be used in total
                                                                               flooding applications, EPA
                                                                               recommends the following:
                                                                              --The appropriate safety and
                                                                               personal protective equipment
                                                                               (PPE) (e.g., protective gloves,
                                                                               tightly sealed goggles,
                                                                               protective work clothing, and
                                                                               particulate-removing respirators
                                                                               with National Institute for
                                                                               Occupational Safety and Health
                                                                               type N95 or better filters)
                                                                               consistent with Occupational
                                                                               Safety and Health Administration
                                                                               (OSHA) guidelines should be used
                                                                               during manufacture, installation,
                                                                               servicing, and disposal of total
                                                                               flooding systems using the agent;
                                                                              --adequate ventilation should be
                                                                               in place to reduce airborne
                                                                               exposure to constituents of
                                                                               agent;
                                                                              --an eye wash fountain and quick
                                                                               drench facility should be close
                                                                               to the production area;
                                                                              --training for safe handling
                                                                               procedures should be provided to
                                                                               all employees that would be
                                                                               likely to handle containers of
                                                                               the agent or extinguishing units
                                                                               filled with the agent;
                                                                              --workers responsible for clean-up
                                                                               should allow for maximum settling
                                                                               of all particulates before
                                                                               reentering area and wear
                                                                               appropriate personal protective
                                                                               equipment; and
                                                                              --all spills should be cleaned up
                                                                               immediately in accordance with
                                                                               good industrial hygiene
                                                                               practices.

[[Page 50035]]

 
                                                                              As required by the manufacturer,
                                                                               units installed in normally
                                                                               occupied spaces will be equipped
                                                                               with features such as a system-
                                                                               isolate switch and cross-zone
                                                                               detection system to reduce risk
                                                                               of accidental activation of an
                                                                               agent generator while persons are
                                                                               present in the protected space.
                                                                               Also required by the manufacturer
                                                                               is warning of pending discharge
                                                                               and delay in release to ensure
                                                                               egress prior to activation of the
                                                                               agent to reduce the risk of
                                                                               exposure.
                                                                              See additional comments 1, 2, 3,
                                                                               4, 5.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. The EPA recommends that users consult Section VIII of the OSHA Technical Manual for information on selecting
  the appropriate types of personal protective equipment for all listed fire suppression agents. The EPA has no
  intention of duplicating or displacing OSHA coverage related to the use of personal protective equipment
  (e.g., respiratory protection), fire protection, hazard communication, worker training or any other
  occupational safety and health standard with respect to halon substitutes.
2. Use of all listed fire suppression agents should conform to relevant OSHA requirements, including 29 CFR part
  1910, subpart L, sections 1910.160 and 1910.162.
3. Per OSHA requirements, protective gear (SCBA) should be available in the event personnel should reenter the
  area.
4. Discharge testing should be strictly limited to that which is essential to meet safety or performance
  requirements.
5. The agent should be recovered from the fire protection system in conjunction with testing or servicing, and
  recycled for later use or destroyed.


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
             End-use                    Substitute             Decision             Further Information \1\
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                Cleaning Solvents
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Electronics cleaning, metals       HFO-1336mzz(Z)......  Acceptable.........  HFO-1336mzz(Z) has no ozone
 cleaning, precision cleaning.                                                 depletion potential (ODP) and a
                                                                               100-year GWP of approximately
                                                                               nine. EPA has proposed to exclude
                                                                               it from the definition of
                                                                               volatile organic compounds under
                                                                               CAA regulations (see 40 CFR
                                                                               51.100(s)) addressing the
                                                                               development of state
                                                                               implementation plans (SIPs) to
                                                                               attain and maintain the National
                                                                               Ambient Air Quality Standards
                                                                               (NAAQS).
                                                                              This compound is nonflammable.
                                                                              The Occupational Alliance for Risk
                                                                               Science (OARS) has established a
                                                                               Workplace Environmental Exposure
                                                                               Limit (WEEL) of 500 ppm (8-hr
                                                                               TWA) for HFO-1336mzz(Z).
                                                                              This substitute is subject to a
                                                                               Toxic Substance Control Act
                                                                               (TSCA) section 5(a)(2)
                                                                               Significant New Use Rule (SNUR)
                                                                               (40 CFR 721.10830).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                    Aerosols
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Aerosol solvents.................  HFO-1336mzz(Z)......  Acceptable.........  HFO-1336mzz(Z) has no ozone
                                                                               depletion potential (ODP) and a
                                                                               100-year GWP of approximately
                                                                               nine. EPA has proposed to exclude
                                                                               it from the definition of
                                                                               volatile organic compounds under
                                                                               CAA regulations (see 40 CFR
                                                                               51.100(s)) addressing the
                                                                               development of state
                                                                               implementation plans (SIPs) to
                                                                               attain and maintain the National
                                                                               Ambient Air Quality Standards
                                                                               (NAAQS).
                                                                              This compound is nonflammable.
                                                                              The OARS has established a
                                                                               Workplace Environmental Exposure
                                                                               Limit (WEEL) of 500 ppm (8-hr
                                                                               TWA) for HFO-1336mzz(Z).
                                                                              This substitute is subject to a
                                                                               Toxic Substance Control Act
                                                                               (TSCA) section 5(a)(2)
                                                                               Significant New Use Rule (SNUR)
                                                                               (40 CFR 721.10830).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ Observe recommendations in the manufacturer's SDS and guidance for all listed substitutes.

[FR Doc. 2018-21463 Filed 10-3-18; 8:45 am]
 BILLING CODE 6560-50-P