[Federal Register Volume 83, Number 178 (Thursday, September 13, 2018)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Pages 46403-46405]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2018-19958]


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ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

40 CFR Part 180

[EPA-HQ-OPP-2017-0703; FRL-9983-10]


Bacteriophage Active Against Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri; 
Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

ACTION: Final rule.

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SUMMARY: This regulation establishes an exemption from the requirement 
of a tolerance for residues of lytic bacteriophage active against 
Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri that are produced in Xanthomonas citri 
subsp. citri in or on food commodities included in the fruit, citrus 
groups 10 and 10-10, when used in accordance with label directions and 
good agricultural practices. OmniLytics, Inc. submitted a petition to 
EPA under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), requesting 
an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. This regulation 
eliminates the need to establish a maximum permissible level for 
residues of bacteriophage active against Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri 
in or on food commodities of the fruit, citrus groups 10 and 10-10 
under FFDCA.

DATES: This regulation is effective September 13, 2018. Objections and 
requests for hearings must be received on or before November 13, 2018, 
and must be filed in accordance with the instructions provided in 40 
CFR part 178 (see also Unit I.C. of the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION).

ADDRESSES: The docket for this action, identified by docket 
identification (ID) number EPA-HQ-OPP-2017-0703, is available at http://www.regulations.gov or at the Office of Pesticide Programs Regulatory 
Public Docket (OPP Docket) in the Environmental Protection Agency 
Docket Center (EPA/DC), West William Jefferson Clinton Bldg., Rm. 3334, 
1301 Constitution Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20460-0001. The Public 
Reading Room is open from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through 
Friday, excluding legal holidays. The telephone number for the Public 
Reading Room is (202) 566-1744, and the telephone number for the OPP 
Docket is (703) 305-5805. Please review the visitor instructions and 
additional information about the docket available at http://www.epa.gov/dockets.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert McNally, Biopesticides and 
Pollution Prevention Division (7511P),

[[Page 46404]]

Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 
Pennsylvania Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20460-0001; main telephone number: 
(703) 305-7090; email address: BPPDFRNotices@epa.gov.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: 

I. General Information

A. Does this Action Apply to Me?

    You may be potentially affected by this action if you are an 
agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. 
The following list of North American Industrial Classification System 
(NAICS) codes is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather provides a 
guide to help readers determine whether this document applies to them. 
Potentially affected entities may include:
     Crop production (NAICS code 111).
     Animal production (NAICS code 112).
     Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311).
     Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532).

B. How can I get electronic access to other related information?

    You may access a frequently updated electronic version of 40 CFR 
part 180 through the Government Printing Office's e-CFR site at http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?&c=ecfr&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title40/40tab_02.tpl.
    C. How can I file an objection or hearing request?
    Under FFDCA section 408(g), 21 U.S.C. 346a(g), any person may file 
an objection to any aspect of this regulation and may also request a 
hearing on those objections. You must file your objection or request a 
hearing on this regulation in accordance with the instructions provided 
in 40 CFR part 178. To ensure proper receipt by EPA, you must identify 
docket ID number EPA-HQ-OPP-2017-0703 in the subject line on the first 
page of your submission. All objections and requests for a hearing must 
be in writing, and must be received by the Hearing Clerk on or before 
November 13, 2018. Addresses for mail and hand delivery of objections 
and hearing requests are provided in 40 CFR 178.25(b).
    In addition to filing an objection or hearing request with the 
Hearing Clerk as described in 40 CFR part 178, please submit a copy of 
the filing (excluding any Confidential Business Information (CBI)) for 
inclusion in the public docket. Information not marked confidential 
pursuant to 40 CFR part 2 may be disclosed publicly by EPA without 
prior notice. Submit the non-CBI copy of your objection or hearing 
request, identified by docket ID number EPA-HQ-OPP-2017-0703, by one of 
the following methods:
     Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov. 
Follow the online instructions for submitting comments. Do not submit 
electronically any information you consider to be CBI or other 
information whose disclosure is restricted by statute.
     Mail: OPP Docket, Environmental Protection Agency Docket 
Center (EPA/DC), (28221T), 1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW, Washington, DC 
20460-0001.
     Hand Delivery: To make special arrangements for hand 
delivery or delivery of boxed information, please follow the 
instructions at http://www.epa.gov/dockets/contacts.html. Additional 
instructions on commenting or visiting the docket, along with more 
information about dockets generally, is available at http://www.epa.gov/dockets.

II. Background

    In the Federal Register of March 21, 2018 (83 FR 12311) (FRL-9974-
76), EPA issued a document pursuant to FFDCA section 408(d)(3), 21 
U.S.C. 346a(d)(3), announcing the filing of a pesticide tolerance 
petition (PP 7F8574) by OmniLytics, Inc., 9100 South 500 West, Sandy, 
UT 84070. The petition requested that 40 CFR part 180 be amended by 
establishing an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for 
residues of the bactericide bacteriophage active against Xanthomonas 
citri subsp. citri in or on citrus fruit, including orange, grapefruit, 
pummelo, mandarin, lemon, lime, tangerine, tangelo, and kumquat. That 
document referenced a summary of the petition prepared by the 
petitioner OmniLytics, Inc. and available in the docket via http://www.regulations.gov. There were no comments regarding this exemption 
received in response to the notice of filing.
    Based upon review of data and other information supporting the 
petition, EPA is granting a tolerance exemption that differs slightly 
from what the petition requested. The reason for this difference is 
explained in Unit III.C.

III. Final Rule

A. EPA's Safety Determination

    Section 408(c)(2)(A)(i) of FFDCA allows EPA to establish an 
exemption from the requirement of a tolerance (the legal limit for a 
pesticide chemical residue in or on a food) only if EPA determines that 
the exemption is ``safe.'' Section 408(c)(2)(A)(ii) of FFDCA defines 
``safe'' to mean that ``there is a reasonable certainty that no harm 
will result from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue, 
including all anticipated dietary exposures and all other exposures for 
which there is reliable information.'' This includes exposure through 
drinking water and in residential settings but does not include 
occupational exposure. Pursuant to FFDCA section 408(c)(2)(B), in 
establishing or maintaining in effect an exemption from the requirement 
of a tolerance, EPA must take into account the factors set forth in 
FFDCA section 408(b)(2)(C), which require EPA to give special 
consideration to exposure of infants and children to the pesticide 
chemical residue in establishing a tolerance or tolerance exemption and 
to ``ensure that there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will 
result to infants and children from aggregate exposure to the pesticide 
chemical residue. . . .'' Additionally, FFDCA section 408(b)(2)(D) 
requires that EPA consider ``available information concerning the 
cumulative effects of [a particular pesticide's] . . . residues and 
other substances that have a common mechanism of toxicity.''
    EPA evaluated the available toxicological and exposure data on 
bacteriophage active against Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and 
considered their validity, completeness, and reliability, as well as 
the relationship of this information to human risk. A full explanation 
of the data upon which EPA relied and its risk assessment based on 
those data can be found within the document entitled ``Federal Food, 
Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) Safety Determination for Bacteriophage 
Active Against Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri.'' This document, as well 
as other relevant information, is available in the docket for this 
action as described under ADDRESSES.
    The available data demonstrated that bacteriophage active against 
Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri are not anticipated to be toxic, 
pathogenic, or infective via any route of exposure. Furthermore, 
humans, including infants and children, have been exposed to 
bacteriophage through food and water, where they are commonly found, 
with no known adverse effects. Although there may be some exposure to 
residues of bacteriophage active against Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri 
that are used on citrus fruit in accordance with label directions and 
good agricultural practices, there is a lack of concern due to the lack 
of potential for adverse effects. EPA also determined that retention of 
the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) safety factor was not

[[Page 46405]]

necessary as part of the qualitative assessment conducted for 
bacteriophage active against Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri.
    Based upon its evaluation, EPA concludes that there is a reasonable 
certainty that no harm will result to the U.S. population, including 
infants and children, from aggregate exposure to residues of 
bacteriophage active against Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri. Therefore, 
an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for 
residues of lytic bacteriophage active against Xanthomonas citri subsp. 
citri that are produced in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri in or on food 
commodities included in the fruit, citrus groups 10 and 10-10, when 
used in accordance with label directions and good agricultural 
practices.

B. Analytical Enforcement Methodology

    An analytical method is not required because EPA is establishing an 
exemption from the requirement of a tolerance without any numerical 
limitation.

C. Differences Between Petition and Tolerance Exemption Rule

    In its petition, the petitioner requested generally that EPA issue 
an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of 
bacteriophage active against Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri in or on 
citrus fruit, including orange, grapefruit, pummelo, mandarin, lemon, 
lime, tangerine, tangelo, and kumquat. The petitioner's supporting 
materials indicated that the actual pesticide that would be used would 
be safe because the bacteriophage was lytic and were produced in 
Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri. EPA believes that only bacteriophage 
that have these same characteristics as the organism tested would be 
safe and should be exempt from the requirement of a tolerance. 
Therefore, EPA is issuing a tolerance exemption that differs slightly 
from the petition by limiting the exemption to residues of the 
bacteriophage that possess the same characteristics as the 
bacteriophage that were tested to support this exemption.

IV. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews

    This action establishes a tolerance exemption under FFDCA section 
408(d) in response to a petition submitted to EPA. The Office of 
Management and Budget (OMB) has exempted these types of actions from 
review under Executive Order 12866, entitled ``Regulatory Planning and 
Review'' (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993). Because this action has been 
exempted from review under Executive Order 12866, this action is not 
subject to Executive Order 13211, entitled ``Actions Concerning 
Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or 
Use'' (66 FR 28355, May 22, 2001), or Executive Order 13045, entitled 
``Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety 
Risks'' (62 FR 19885, April 23, 1997), nor is it considered a 
regulatory action under Executive Order 13771, entitled ``Reducing 
Regulations and Controlling Regulatory Costs'' (82 FR 9339, February 3, 
2017). This action does not contain any information collections subject 
to OMB approval under the Paperwork Reduction Act, 44 U.S.C. 3501 et 
seq., nor does it require any special considerations under Executive 
Order 12898, entitled ``Federal Actions to Address Environmental 
Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations'' (59 FR 
7629, February 16, 1994).
    Since tolerances and exemptions that are established on the basis 
of a petition under FFDCA section 408(d), such as the tolerance 
exemption in this action, do not require the issuance of a proposed 
rule, the requirements of the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 
et seq.) do not apply.
    This action directly regulates growers, food processors, food 
handlers, and food retailers, not States or tribes. As a result, this 
action does not alter the relationships or distribution of power and 
responsibilities established by Congress in the preemption provisions 
of FFDCA section 408(n)(4). As such, EPA has determined that this 
action will not have a substantial direct effect on States or tribal 
governments, on the relationship between the national government and 
the States or tribal governments, or on the distribution of power and 
responsibilities among the various levels of government or between the 
Federal Government and Indian tribes. Thus, EPA has determined that 
Executive Order 13132, entitled ``Federalism'' (64 FR 43255, August 10, 
1999), and Executive Order 13175, entitled ``Consultation and 
Coordination with Indian Tribal Governments'' (65 FR 67249, November 9, 
2000), do not apply to this action. In addition, this action does not 
impose any enforceable duty or contain any unfunded mandate as 
described under Title II of the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (2 U.S.C. 
1501 et seq.).
    This action does not involve any technical standards that would 
require EPA's consideration of voluntary consensus standards pursuant 
to section 12(d) of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement 
Act (15 U.S.C. 272 note).

V. Congressional Review Act

    Pursuant to the Congressional Review Act (5 U.S.C. 801 et seq.), 
EPA will submit a report containing this rule and other required 
information to the U.S. Senate, the U.S. House of Representatives, and 
the Comptroller General of the United States prior to publication of 
the rule in the Federal Register. This action is not a ``major rule'' 
as defined by 5 U.S.C. 804(2).

List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 180

    Environmental protection, Administrative practice and procedure, 
Agricultural commodities, Pesticides and pests, Reporting and 
recordkeeping requirements.

    Dated: September 4, 2018.
Richard P. Keigwin, Jr.,
Director, Office of Pesticide Programs.

    Therefore, 40 CFR chapter I is amended as follows:

PART 180--[AMENDED]

0
1. The authority citation for part 180 continues to read as follows:

    Authority: 21 U.S.C. 321(q), 346a and 371.

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2. Add Sec.  180.1360 to subpart D to read as follows:


Sec.  180.1360  Bacteriophage active against Xanthomonas citri subsp. 
citri; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for 
residues of lytic bacteriophage active against Xanthomonas citri subsp. 
citri that are produced in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri in or on food 
commodities included in the fruit, citrus groups 10 and 10-10, when 
used in accordance with label directions and good agricultural 
practices.

[FR Doc. 2018-19958 Filed 9-12-18; 8:45 am]
 BILLING CODE 6560-50-P