[Federal Register Volume 83, Number 122 (Monday, June 25, 2018)]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2018-13573]
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
40 CFR Part 271
[EPA-R09-RCRA-2018-0267; FRL-9979-60--Region 9]
Hawaii: Proposed Authorization of State Hazardous Waste
Management Program Revisions
AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
ACTION: Proposed rule.
SUMMARY: Hawaii has applied to the Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) for final authorization of certain changes to its hazardous waste
program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as amended
(RCRA). These changes correspond to certain federal rules promulgated
between May 26, 1998 and June 30, 2016 (also known as RCRA Checklist
167 and Clusters IX through XXIV) plus several changes initiated by the
State. EPA has reviewed Hawaii's application with regards to federal
requirements and is proposing to authorize the changes. The EPA seeks
public comment prior to taking final action.
DATES: Comments on this proposed rule must be received by July 25,
ADDRESSES: Submit your comments, identified by Docket ID Number EPA-
R09-RCRA-2018-0267 at http://www.regulations.gov. Follow the online
instructions for submitting comments. Once submitted, comments cannot
be edited or removed from Regulations.gov. The EPA may publish any
comment received to its public docket. Do not submit electronically any
information you consider to be Confidential Business Information (CBI)
or other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute.
Multimedia submissions (audio, video, etc.) must be accompanied by a
written comment. The written comment is considered the official comment
and should include discussion of all points you wish to make. The EPA
will generally not consider comments or comment contents located
outside of the primary submission (i.e. on the web, cloud, or other
file sharing system). For additional submission methods, the full EPA
public comment policy, information about CBI or multimedia submissions,
and general guidance on making effective comments, please visit http://www2.epa.gov/dockets/commenting-epa-dockets.
You may also view Hawaii's application from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. Monday
to Friday, excluding State holidays at Hawaii State Department of
Health OPPPD, 1250 Punchbowl Street, Room 120, Honolulu, Hawaii 96813,
phone number: 808-586-4188.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Laurie Amaro, U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency, Region 9, Land Division, 75 Hawthorne Street (LND-1-
1), San Francisco, CA 94105, phone number: 415-972-3364, email:
A. Why are revisions to State programs necessary?
States which have received final authorization from EPA under RCRA
section 3006(b), 42 U.S.C. 6926(b), must maintain a hazardous waste
program that is equivalent to, consistent with, and no less stringent
than the federal program. As the federal program changes, states must
change their programs and ask EPA to authorize the changes. Changes to
state programs may be necessary when federal or state statutory or
regulatory authority is modified or when certain other changes occur.
Most commonly, states must change their programs because of changes to
EPA's regulations in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) parts 124,
260 through 268, 270, 273, and 279.
B. What decisions has EPA made in this rule?
On December 13, 2017, Hawaii submitted a final complete program
revision application seeking authorization of changes to its hazardous
waste program corresponding to certain federal rules promulgated
between May 26, 1998 and June 30,
2016 (also known as RCRA Checklist 167 and Clusters IX through XXIV)
plus several changes initiated by the State. EPA concludes that
Hawaii's application to revise its authorized program meets all
statutory and regulatory requirements established by RCRA, as set forth
in RCRA section 3006(b), 42 U.S.C. 6926(b), and 40 CFR part 271.
Therefore, EPA proposes to grant Hawaii final authorization to operate
as part of its hazardous waste program the changes listed below in
Section F of this document, as further described in the authorization
Hawaii has responsibility for permitting treatment, storage, and
disposal facilities within its borders and for carrying out the aspects
of the RCRA program described in its revised program application,
subject to the limitations of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments
of 1984 (HSWA).
C. What is the effect of today's authorization decision?
The effect of this decision is that the changes described in
Hawaii's authorization application will become part of the authorized
state hazardous waste program, and therefore will be federally
enforceable. Hawaii will continue to have primary enforcement authority
and responsibility for its state hazardous waste program. EPA retains
its authorities under RCRA sections 3007, 3008, 3013, and 7003,
including its authority to:
Conduct inspections, and require monitoring, tests,
analyses or reports;
Enforce RCRA requirements, including authorized state
program requirements, and suspend or revoke permits; and
Take enforcement actions regardless of whether the state
has taken its own actions.
This action does not impose additional requirements on the
regulated community because the regulations for which Hawaii is being
authorized by today's action are already effective, and are not changed
by today's action.
D. What happens if EPA receives comments that oppose this proposed
EPA will consider all comments received during the comment period
and address all such comments in a final rule. You may not have another
opportunity to comment. If you want to comment on this authorization,
you must do so during the comment period for this proposed rule.
E. For what has Hawaii previously been authorized?
Hawaii initially received final authorization to implement its base
hazardous waste management program including federal program revisions
through May 25, 1998 (Cluster VIII partial) on November 13, 2001 (66 FR
55115). Since initial authorization Hawaii has not applied for or
received authorization for revisions to its hazardous waste program.
F. What changes is EPA proposing with today's action?
Hawaii has applied to EPA for authorization of changes to its
hazardous waste program that correspond to certain federal rules
promulgated between May 25, 1998 and July 1, 2016 (also known RCRA
Cluster VIII through XXIV) and for authorization of state-initiated
changes that are equivalent to or more stringent than the federal
EPA proposes to determine, subject to public review and comment,
that Hawaii's hazardous waste program revisions as described in the
State's authorization revision application dated November 22, 2017 are
equivalent to, consistent with, and no less stringent than the Federal
program, and therefore satisfy all the requirements necessary to
qualify for final authorization. Regulatory revisions that are less
stringent than the Federal program requirements and those regulatory
revisions that are broader in scope than the Federal program
requirements are not authorized. Accordingly, EPA proposes to grant
Hawaii final authorization for the program changes described below.
Hawaii has revised the format of its hazardous waste regulations
from verbatim adoption to incorporation by reference of the Federal
hazardous waste management regulations into their counterpart Hawaii
Administrative Rules (HAR). HAR chapter 11-280 has been repealed
without replacement. The requirements for public availability of
information (RCRA Sec. 3006(f)) previously found in 11-280 are met by
HAR chapters 2-71 and 11-1, HRS chapter 92F and sections 342J-14 and
342J-14.5, and provisions adopted from Federal rules (40 CFR 260.2) in
HAR chapter 11-260.1.
The repeal of the verbatim adoption of the Federal program in HAR
Title 11 chapters 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 268, 270, 271,
273, 279, and 280 is replaced by incorporation by reference (``IBR'')
into HAR Title 11 chapters 260.1, 261.1, 262.1, 263.1, 264.1, 265.1,
266.1, 268.1, 270.1, 271.1, 273.1, and 279.1 and are effective July 17,
2017. The applicable Federal rules and analogous State rules are
identified in the table below.
Federal hazardous waste requirements Analogous State authority
40 CFR parts 260-266, 268, 270, 273, Hawaii Administrative Rules
279, effective by July 1, 2016. (HAR) 11-260.1-266.1, 11-
268.1, 11-270.1, 11-273.1, 11-
279.1, effective July 17,
40 CFR Part 124 subparts A and B....... HAR 11-271.1, effective July
G. Where are the revised State rules different from the Federal rules?
Under RCRA Sec. 3009, the EPA may not authorize state rules that
are less stringent than the Federal program. Any state rules that are
less stringent do not supplant the federal regulations. State rules
that are broader in scope than the Federal program requirements are
allowed but do not become part of the enforceable federal program.
State rules that are equivalent to or more stringent than the federal
program may be authorized, in which case they are enforceable by the
This section does not discuss the program differences previously
published in Hawaii's base program authorization in 2001, at 66 FR
55115 (November 1, 2001). Areas identified in the base program
authorization as more stringent or broader in scope than the federal
program have been carried forward into the new regulations as
amendments or additions to the incorporation by reference of the
federal regulations. This section discusses new State requirements that
are more stringent, or new requirements that are broader in scope and
cannot be authorized.
1. More Stringent
States may seek authorization for state requirements that are more
stringent than federal requirements. The EPA has the authority to
authorize and enforce those parts of a state's program the EPA finds to
be more stringent than the
federal program. This section does not discuss each more stringent
finding made by the EPA, but rather rules of particular interest that
were not previously described in 2001, available at 66 FR 55115,
November 1, 2001. Persons should consult the docket for this rule,
including Hawaii's revised Program Description, dated May 1, 2018 for a
complete list of rules determined to be more stringent than federal
i. More stringent regulation of specific wastes
a. Solvent-Contaminated Wipes: Hawaii is adopting the conditional
exclusions for solvent-contaminated wipes addressed by Revision
Checklist 229, but is adding one additional condition to the
incorporated version of 40 CFR 261.4(a)(26) and 261.4(b)(18):
Containers in which solvent-contaminated wipes eligible for the
exclusion are being accumulated must be labeled with the accumulation
b. Spent lead-acid batteries: Hawaii regulates persons who
generate, transport, collect, or store spent-lead acid batteries sent
for reclamation (other than through regeneration) as handlers/
transporters of universal waste under chapter 11-273.1. This is more
stringent than the federal program, which exempts these groups from
many regulations under 40 CFR 266.80.
ii. Notification before cancellation of certain financial assurance
instruments. Hawaii requires hazardous waste treatment, storage, and
disposal facilities, and reclamation and intermediate facilities
managing hazardous secondary materials, to notify both the State
Director and the Regional Administrator before cancellation of certain
financial assurance instruments. The federal regulations require only
one authority to be notified, so the requirement to notify the Regional
Administrator in addition to the State Director is more stringent than
the federal regulation. This applies to surety bonds, letters of
credit, corporate guarantees, liability endorsements, certificates of
liability insurance, and standby letters of credit (Incorporated
version of 40 CFR 261.151(b), (c), (g), (h), (i), (j), (k), 264.151(b),
(c), (d), (h), (i), (j), (k), and (l)).
iii. Used oil processor facility standards: The State does not
allow for exceptions to the requirement that used oil processors have
emergency equipment listed in 40 CFR 279.52(a)(2). The State also does
not allow for the possibility that aisle space required in 279.52(a)(5)
is not necessary.
iv. Notification in case of emergency. Hawaii requires notification
of emergencies to the State Hazard Evaluation and Emergency Response
(HEER) office designated on-scene coordinator in addition to the
National Response Center (NRC) for: Facilities handling secondary
hazardous materials (HSM), generators of hazardous waste, transporters
of hazardous waste and used oil, treatment, storage, and disposal
facilities and used oil processors.
v. Recordkeeping requirements. The State requires the following
additional recordkeeping requirements:
a. Generator container storage area inspection log: Generators must
keep a log of the weekly container storage area inspections.
b. Universal waste transporters: Universal waste transporters must
maintain the same type of records that Large Quantity Handlers of
Universal Waste and Destination Facilities must maintain. Records must
be maintained for three years.
c. Used oil generators: Used oil generators must keep records of
shipments, similar to the records required for used oil transporters
under the federal program. These records must be maintained for three
d. Used oil processors: Used oil processors must keep records of
the equipment testing and maintenance required by 40 CFR 279.52(a)(3)
(in the incorporated version of 279.57(a)(2)).
vi. Permits: The State limits the duration of Remedial Action Plans
to five years instead of ten (40 CFR 270.195).
vii. No standard permit option: The State has not adopted federal
regulations allowing standardized permits.
viii. Used oil management.
a. Used oil testing: The State requires that used oil transporters
and processors make a hazardous waste determination for used oil sent
for disposal. The State regulations allow used oil burners and
marketers to either test used oil for halogens or obtain results of
tests performed by the processor.
b. Annual reporting for used oil processors: The State requires
used oil processors to submit an annual report of used oil activities
by July 31. The content of the report is similar to the biennial report
required in the federal program and replaces the used oil biennial
reporting requirement (40 CFR 279.57(b)).
ix. Alternative groundwater monitoring plans. The State has added a
requirement that any interim status facility opting for an alternative
groundwater monitoring plan under the incorporated version of 40 CFR
265.90(d) submit a copy of the plan to the department, in addition to
maintaining the plan on-site at the facility.
x. Notification of newly regulated hazardous waste activity. State
regulations (HRS 342J-6.5) require generators, transporters, and owners
or operators of treatment, storage, or disposal facilities newly
regulated due to a change in the definition of hazardous waste (HAR
chapter 11-261.1) to submit a notification within 45 days of the
regulatory revision (rather than the federal requirement of 90 days)
(40 CFR 270.1(b)).
xi. Academic laboratory generator standards: The State is not
adopting the alternative requirements for hazardous waste determination
and accumulation of unwanted materials at academic laboratories, (73 FR
72912, December 1, 2008 and 75 FR 79304, December 20, 2010).
xii. Used oil storage requirements: The State has added language to
the incorporated version of 40 CFR 279.22, 279.45, 279.54, 279.64, to
clarify that containers and aboveground tanks storing used oil must be
2. Areas Where the State Program Is Broader in Scope
i. Coal combustion residuals: The State is not adopting the Federal
final rule that added a list of coal combustion residuals to 40 CFR
261.4(b)(4)(ii) to the ash and other waste types from coal combustion
that were already included in an exemption from the definition of
hazardous waste, if these residuals are co-disposed with the waste
types originally listed (80 FR 21302-21501, October 19, 2015). Hawaii
does not exclude these waste types from the definition of solid waste.
ii. Cathode Ray Tubes and Carbon Dioxide Streams in Geological
Sequestration Activities: Hawaii is not adopting the Federal final
rules that introduced and/or revised conditional exclusions for (1)
Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) from the definition of solid waste (40 CFR
261.4(a)(22)) and (2) carbon dioxide (CO2) streams in
geological sequestration activities from the definition of hazardous
waste (at 40 CFR 261.4(h)). Hawaii program is broader in scope so long
as all the conditions of the Federal exclusion are met.
3. Universal Waste: Electronic Item Added
The State has added a category of universal waste to HAR chapter
11-273.1 called ``electronic items'' and defined waste management and
labeling/marking requirements for this type of universal waste. The
State determined, based on extensive
research, that most waste electronic items are toxicity characteristic
hazardous wastes due to the presence and concentration of one or more
metals (e.g. lead, cadmium) and may also contain other dangerous
constituents, such as a brominated (flame retardant) plastics. The
State also determined that electronic items (as defined in HAR chapters
11-260.1 and 11-273.1) as a category meet the criteria of 40 CFR
273.81. EPA allows authorized States to create regulations for State-
only universal wastes provided that these criteria are met for the
waste or waste category, including the key requirements that universal
waste management is sufficiently protective of human health and the
environment and that regulation as universal waste increases the
likelihood of similar unregulated wastes (such as CESQG or household
wastes) being diverted from non-hazardous to hazardous waste management
4. Procedural Rules
i. Contested case hearings and declaratory orders: The State's
previous regulations governing contested case hearings (HAR chapter 11-
271 subchapter B, based on 40 CFR part 22) and declaratory rulings (HAR
chapter 11-271 subchapter C) for the hazardous waste program have been
repealed. The State Department of Health has similar department-wide
procedures for case hearings and declaratory orders that now apply (HAR
chapter 11-1). The State is not adopting an equivalent to 40 CFR 124.19
and instead adds procedures for requesting a contested case hearing in
the incorporated version of 40 CFR 124.15 in HAR chapter 11-271.1.
ii. Public availability of information: The State's previous
regulations regarding public availability of information and treatment
of confidential business information (HAR chapter 11-280) have been
repealed. Requests for public information will be handled under HRS
342J-14 and 342J-14.5 and applicable provisions of HRS chapter 92F and
HAR chapter 2-71, which are referenced in the incorporated version of
40 CFR 260.2. EPA determines that Hawaii's requirements for public
availability of information and treatment of confidential business
information are substantially similar to EPA's federal regulations.
Other than the differences discussed above, Hawaii incorporates by
reference the remaining federal rules listed in Section F; therefore,
there are no significant differences between the remaining federal
rules and the revised state rules being authorized today.
H. Who handles permits after the authorization takes effect?
Hawaii will continue to issue permits for all the provisions for
which it is authorized and will administer the permits it issues.
Section 3006(g)(1) of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6926(g)(1), gives EPA the
authority to issue or deny permits or parts of permits for requirements
for which the State is not authorized. Therefore, whenever EPA adopts
standards under HSWA for activities or wastes not currently covered by
the authorized program, EPA may process RCRA permits in Hawaii for the
new or revised HSWA standards until Hawaii has received final
authorization for such new or revised HSWA standards.
I. What is codification and is EPA codifying Hawaii's hazardous waste
program as authorized in this rule?
Codification is the process of placing the state's statutes and
regulations that comprise the state's authorized hazardous waste
program into the Code of Federal Regulations. EPA does this by
referencing the authorized state rules in 40 CFR part 272. EPA is not
codifying the authorization of Hawaii's changes at this time. However,
EPA reserves the amendment of 40 CFR part 272, subpart M for this
authorization of Hawaii's program changes until a later date.
J. Administrative Requirements
The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has exempted this action
(RCRA State authorization) from the requirements of Executive Order
12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993) and 13563 (76 FR 3821, January 21,
2011). This action authorizes state requirements for the purpose of
RCRA 3006 and imposes no additional requirements beyond those imposed
by state law. Therefore, this action is not subject to review by OMB.
This action is not an Executive Order 13771 (82 FR 9339, February 3,
2017) regulatory action because actions such as this proposed
authorization of Hawaii's revised hazardous waste program under RCRA
are exempted under Executive Order 12866. This action will not have a
significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities
under the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.). Because
this action authorizes pre-existing requirements under state law and
does not impose any additional enforceable duty beyond that required by
state law, it does not contain any unfunded mandate or significantly or
uniquely affect small governments, as described in the Unfunded
Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-4). For the same reason, this
action also does not significantly or uniquely affect the communities
of Tribal governments, as specified by Executive Order 13175 (65 FR
67249, November 9, 2000). This action will not have substantial direct
effects on the States, on the relationship between the national
government and the States, or on the distribution of power and
responsibilities among the various levels of government, as specified
in Executive Order 13132 (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999), because it
merely authorizes state requirements as part of the state RCRA
hazardous waste program without altering the relationship or the
distribution of power and responsibilities established by RCRA. This
action also is not subject to Executive Order 13045 (62 FR 19885, April
23, 1997), because it is not economically significant and it does not
make decisions based on environmental health or safety risks. This rule
is not subject to Executive Order 13211, ``Actions Concerning
Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or
Use'' (66 FR 28355, May 22, 2001), because it is not a significant
regulatory action under Executive Order 12866.
Under RCRA 3006(b), the EPA grants a State's application for
authorization, as long as the State meets the criteria required by
RCRA. It would thus be inconsistent with applicable law for the EPA,
when it reviews a state authorization application, to require the use
of any particular voluntary consensus standard in place of another
standard that otherwise satisfies the requirements of RCRA. Thus, the
requirements of section 12(d) of the National Technology Transfer and
Advancement Act of 1995 (15 U.S.C. 272 note) do not apply. As required
by section 3 of Executive Order 12988 (61 FR 4729, February 7, 1996),
in issuing this rule, the EPA has taken the necessary steps to
eliminate drafting errors and ambiguity, minimize potential litigation,
and provide a clear legal standard for affected conduct. The EPA has
complied with Executive Order 12630 (53 FR 8859, March 15, 1988) by
examining the takings implications of the rule in accordance with the
``Attorney General's Supplemental Guidelines for the Evaluation of Risk
and Avoidance of Unanticipated Takings'' issued under the Executive
Order. This rule does not impose an information collection burden under
the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501
et seq.). Executive Order 12898 (59 FR 7629,
February 16, 1994) establishes federal executive policy on
environmental justice. Its main provision directs federal agencies, to
the greatest extent practicable and permitted by law, to make
environmental justice part of their mission by identifying and
addressing, as appropriate, disproportionately high and adverse human
health or environmental effects of their programs, policies, and
activities on minority populations and low-income populations in the
United States. Because this rule authorizes pre-existing state rules
which are at least equivalent to, and no less stringent than existing
federal requirements, and impose no additional requirements beyond
those imposed by state law, and there are no anticipated significant
adverse human health or environmental effects, the rule is not subject
to Executive Order 12898. The Congressional Review Act, 5 U.S.C. 801 et
seq., as added by the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness
Act of 1996, generally provides that before a rule may take effect, the
agency promulgating the rule must submit a rule report, which includes
a copy of the rule to each House of the Congress and to the Comptroller
General of the United States. The EPA will submit a report containing
this document and other required information to the U.S. Senate, the
U.S. House of Representatives, and the Comptroller General of the
United States prior to publication in the Federal Register. A major
rule cannot take effect until 60 days after it is published in the
Federal Register. This action is not a ``major rule'' as defined by 5
U.S.C. 804(2). This action nevertheless will be effective 60 days after
the final approval is published in the Federal Register.
List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 271
Environmental protection, Administrative practice and procedure,
Confidential business information, Hazardous materials transportation,
Hazardous waste, Incorporation by reference, Indian--lands, Hazardous
waste transportation, Intergovernmental relations, Penalties, Reporting
and recordkeeping requirements, Water pollution control, Water supply.
Authority: This action is issued under the authority of
sections 2002(a), 3006, and 7004(b) of the Solid Waste Disposal Act
as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6912(a), 6926, and 6974(b).
Dated: June 8, 2018.
Acting Regional Administrator, Region 9.
[FR Doc. 2018-13573 Filed 6-22-18; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 6560-50-P