[Federal Register Volume 83, Number 37 (Friday, February 23, 2018)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Pages 8006-8011]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2018-03760]


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ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

40 CFR Part 180

[EPA-HQ-OPP-2016-0360; FRL-9972-30]


Quizalofop ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

ACTION: Final rule.

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SUMMARY: This regulation establishes tolerances for residues of 
quizalofop ethyl in or on the commodities wheat germ and milled 
byproducts, and increases the tolerances in or on wheat forage, hay, 
and straw. Albaugh, LLC requested these tolerances under the Federal 
Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA).

[[Page 8007]]


DATES: This regulation is effective February 23, 2018. Objections and 
requests for hearings must be received on or before April 24, 2018, and 
must be filed in accordance with the instructions provided in 40 CFR 
part 178 (see also Unit I.C. of the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION).

ADDRESSES: The docket for this action, identified by docket 
identification (ID) number EPA-HQ-OPP-2016-0360, is available at http://www.regulations.gov or at the Office of Pesticide Programs Regulatory 
Public Docket (OPP Docket) in the Environmental Protection Agency 
Docket Center (EPA/DC), West William Jefferson Clinton Bldg., Rm. 3334, 
1301 Constitution Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20460-0001. The Public 
Reading Room is open from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through 
Friday, excluding legal holidays. The telephone number for the Public 
Reading Room is (202) 566-1744, and the telephone number for the OPP 
Docket is (703) 305-5805. Please review the visitor instructions and 
additional information about the docket available at http://www.epa.gov/dockets.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michael Goodis, Registration Division 
(7505P), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, 
1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20460-0001; main telephone 
number: (703) 305-7090; email address: RDFRNotices@epa.gov.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: 

I. General Information

A. Does this action apply to me?

    You may be potentially affected by this action if you are an 
agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. 
The following list of North American Industrial Classification System 
(NAICS) codes is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather provides a 
guide to help readers determine whether this document applies to them. 
Potentially affected entities may include:
     Crop production (NAICS code 111).
     Animal production (NAICS code 112).
     Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311).
     Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532).

B. How can I get electronic access to other related information?

    You may access a frequently updated electronic version of EPA's 
tolerance regulations at 40 CFR part 180 through the Government 
Printing Office's e-CFR site at http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?&c=ecfr&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title40/40tab_02.tpl. To access the OCSPP 
test guidelines referenced in this document electronically, please go 
to http://www.epa.gov/test-guidelines-pesticides-and-toxic-substances.

C. How can I file an objection or hearing request?

    Under FFDCA section 408(g), 21 U.S.C. 346a, any person may file an 
objection to any aspect of this regulation and may also request a 
hearing on those objections. You must file your objection or request a 
hearing on this regulation in accordance with the instructions provided 
in 40 CFR part 178. To ensure proper receipt by EPA, you must identify 
docket ID number EPA-HQ-OPP-2016-0360 in the subject line on the first 
page of your submission. All objections and requests for a hearing must 
be in writing, and must be received by the Hearing Clerk on or before 
April 24, 2018. Addresses for mail and hand delivery of objections and 
hearing requests are provided in 40 CFR 178.25(b).
    In addition to filing an objection or hearing request with the 
Hearing Clerk as described in 40 CFR part 178, please submit a copy of 
the filing (excluding any Confidential Business Information (CBI)) for 
inclusion in the public docket. Information not marked confidential 
pursuant to 40 CFR part 2 may be disclosed publicly by EPA without 
prior notice. Submit the non-CBI copy of your objection or hearing 
request, identified by docket ID number EPA-HQ-OPP-2016-0360, by one of 
the following methods:
     Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov. 
Follow the online instructions for submitting comments. Do not submit 
electronically any information you consider to be CBI or other 
information whose disclosure is restricted by statute.
     Mail: OPP Docket, Environmental Protection Agency Docket 
Center (EPA/DC), (28221T), 1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW, Washington, DC 
20460-0001.
     Hand Delivery: To make special arrangements for hand 
delivery or delivery of boxed information, please follow the 
instructions at http://www.epa.gov/dockets/where-send-comments-epa-dockets.
    Additional instructions on commenting or visiting the docket, along 
with more information about dockets generally, is available at http://www.epa.gov/dockets.

II. Summary of Petitioned-For Tolerances

    In the Federal Register of December 20, 2016 (81 FR 92758) (FRL-
9956-04), EPA issued a document pursuant to FFDCA section 408(d)(3), 21 
U.S.C. 346a(d)(3), announcing the filing of a pesticide petition (PP 
6F8476) by Albaugh, LLC, P.O. Box 2127, Valdosta, GA 31604. The 
petition requested that 40 CFR part 180.441 be amended by establishing 
tolerances for residues of the herbicide quizalofop ethyl, in or on 
wheat, bran at 0.40 parts per million (ppm); wheat, forage at 2.0 ppm; 
wheat, germ at 0.40 ppm; wheat, hay at 2.0 ppm; wheat, milled 
byproducts at 0.40 ppm; and wheat, straw at 0.80 ppm. That document 
referenced a summary of the petition prepared by Albaugh, LLC, the 
registrant, which is available in the docket, http://www.regulations.gov. There were no comments received in response to the 
notice of filing.
    EPA determined that a separate tolerance is not needed for wheat 
bran. The reason for this change is explained in Unit IV.C.

III. Aggregate Risk Assessment and Determination of Safety

    Section 408(b)(2)(A)(i) of FFDCA allows EPA to establish a 
tolerance (the legal limit for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a 
food) only if EPA determines that the tolerance is ``safe.'' Section 
408(b)(2)(A)(ii) of FFDCA defines ``safe'' to mean that ``there is a 
reasonable certainty that no harm will result from aggregate exposure 
to the pesticide chemical residue, including all anticipated dietary 
exposures and all other exposures for which there is reliable 
information.'' This includes exposure through drinking water and in 
residential settings, but does not include occupational exposure. 
Section 408(b)(2)(C) of FFDCA requires EPA to give special 
consideration to exposure of infants and children to the pesticide 
chemical residue in establishing a tolerance and to ``ensure that there 
is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result to infants and 
children from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue. . . 
.''
    Consistent with FFDCA section 408(b)(2)(D), and the factors 
specified in FFDCA section 408(b)(2)(D), EPA has reviewed the available 
scientific data and other relevant information in support of this 
action. EPA has sufficient data to assess the hazards of and to make a 
determination on aggregate exposure for quizalofop ethyl, including 
exposure resulting from the tolerances established by this action. 
EPA's assessment of exposures and risks associated with quizalofop 
ethyl follows.

A. Toxicological Profile

    EPA has evaluated the available toxicity data and considered its 
validity, completeness, and reliability as well as

[[Page 8008]]

the relationship of the results of the studies to human risk. EPA has 
also considered available information concerning the variability of the 
sensitivities of major identifiable subgroups of consumers, including 
infants and children.
    Quizalofop ethyl is a 50/50 racemic mixture of R- and S-
enantiomers. Quizalofop-P-ethyl, the purified R-enantiomer, is the 
pesticidally-active isomer. Since the toxicological profiles of 
quizalofop ethyl and quizalofop-P-ethyl are similar, the available 
toxicity studies are adequate to support both compounds. For the 
purposes of this final rule, both quizalofop ethyl and quizalofop-P-
ethyl are collectively referred to as ``quizalofop ethyl.''
    Quizalofop ethyl has very low acute toxicity via the oral, dermal, 
and inhalation routes of exposure, is not an eye or skin irritant, and 
is not a skin sensitizer. There were no adverse effects observed in the 
oral toxicity studies that could be attributable to a single-dose 
exposure.
    Repeated-dose toxicity studies indicate the liver as the target 
organ, as evidenced by increased liver weights and histopathological 
changes. Following oral administration, quizalofop ethyl is rapidly 
excreted via urine and feces. In the subchronic oral toxicity rat 
study, effects of decreased body weight gains, increased liver weight, 
and centrilobular liver cell enlargement were observed. In the 
subchronic oral toxicity dog study, an increased incidence of 
testicular atrophy was observed. In the combined chronic toxicity/
carcinogenicity study in rats, an increased incidence of centrilobular 
liver cell enlargement was observed in both sexes and mild anemia in 
males.
    No dermal toxicity effects were observed in the subchronic dermal 
toxicity rabbit study at up to the limit dose. Subchronic inhalation 
toxicity is assumed to be equivalent to oral toxicity. In the chronic 
oral toxicity dog study, no toxicity effects were observed at the 
highest dose tested.
    In the rat and rabbit developmental toxicity studies, maternal 
effects including decreased body weight gains and food consumption were 
observed; no developmental effects were observed up to the highest dose 
tested. In the 2-generation reproduction toxicity study in rats, 
maternal effects including decreased body weight and decreased body 
weight gains were observed at the same dose level that resulted in 
prenatal and postnatal effects (decreased percentage of pups born alive 
and decreased pup weights); no evidence of adverse effects on the 
functional development of pups was observed.
    Although tumors were observed in male and female mice after 
exposure to quizalofop ethyl, the overall evidence for carcinogenicity 
is weak, as discussed in supporting documents. Additionally, the point 
of departure used for establishing the chronic reference dose for 
quizalofop ethyl is significantly lower (30X) than the dose that 
induced tumors in male and female mice. EPA has determined that 
quantification of cancer risk using a non-linear approach would 
adequately account for all chronic toxicity, including carcinogenicity, 
which could result from exposure to quizalofop ethyl.
    Based on the results of acceptable toxicity studies, quizalofop 
ethyl does not show evidence of neurotoxicity or neuropathology. 
Quizalofop ethyl showed no evidence of immunotoxicity.
    Specific information on the studies received and the nature of the 
adverse effects caused by quizalofop ethyl as well as the no-observed-
adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) and the lowest-observed-adverse-effect-
level (LOAEL) from the toxicity studies can be found at http://www.regulations.gov in document Quizalofop-P-ethyl. Human Health Risk 
assessment in Support of the Proposed New Use on Rice in docket ID 
number EPA-HQ-OPP-2015-0412.

B. Toxicological Points of Departure/Levels of Concern

    Once a pesticide's toxicological profile is determined, EPA 
identifies toxicological points of departure (POD) and levels of 
concern to use in evaluating the risk posed by human exposure to the 
pesticide. For hazards that have a threshold below which there is no 
appreciable risk, the toxicological POD is used as the basis for 
derivation of reference values for risk assessment. PODs are developed 
based on a careful analysis of the doses in each toxicological study to 
determine the dose at which no adverse effects are observed (the NOAEL) 
and the lowest dose at which adverse effects of concern are identified 
(the LOAEL). Uncertainty/safety factors are used in conjunction with 
the POD to calculate a safe exposure level--generally referred to as a 
population-adjusted dose (PAD) or a reference dose (RfD)--and a safe 
margin of exposure (MOE). For non-threshold risks, the Agency assumes 
that any amount of exposure will lead to some degree of risk. Thus, the 
Agency estimates risk in terms of the probability of an occurrence of 
the adverse effect expected in a lifetime. For more information on the 
general principles EPA uses in risk characterization and a complete 
description of the risk assessment process, see http://www.epa.gov/pesticide-science-and-assessing-pesticide-risks/assessing-human-health-risk-pesticides.
    A summary of the toxicological endpoints for quizalofop ethyl used 
for human risk assessment is discussed in Unit II.B. of the final rule 
published in the Federal Register of December 1, 2016 (81 FR 86581) 
(FRL-9950-89).

C. Exposure Assessment

    1. Dietary exposure from food and feed uses. In evaluating dietary 
exposure to quizalofop ethyl, EPA considered exposure under the 
petitioned-for tolerances as well as all existing quizalofop ethyl 
tolerances in 40 CFR 180.441. EPA assessed dietary exposures from 
quizalofop ethyl in food as follows:
    i. Acute exposure. Quantitative acute dietary exposure and risk 
assessments are performed for a food-use pesticide, if a toxicological 
study has indicated the possibility of an effect of concern occurring 
as a result of a 1-day or single exposure. No such effects were 
identified in the toxicological studies for quizalofop ethyl; 
therefore, a quantitative acute dietary exposure assessment is 
unnecessary.
    ii. Chronic exposure. In conducting the chronic dietary exposure 
assessment, EPA used the food consumption data from the USDA 2003-2008 
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, What We Eat in 
America (NHANES/WWEIA). As to residue levels in food, EPA incorporated 
tolerance-level residues, average percent crop treated (PCT) 
information, and default processing factors for all processed 
commodities except sunflower oil, where an empirical factor was used.
    iii. Cancer. Based on the data summarized in Unit III.A., EPA has 
concluded that the chronic reference dose will be protective of any 
potential carcinogenicity; therefore, a separate dietary exposure 
assessment for the purpose of assessing cancer risk is unnecessary.
    iv. Anticipated residues and percent crop treated (PCT) 
information. EPA did not use anticipated residue information to assess 
exposure for these tolerances; rather, EPA used tolerance-level 
residues in its exposure assessment.
    Section 408(b)(2)(F) of FFDCA states that the Agency may use data 
on the actual percent of food treated for assessing chronic dietary 
risk only if:
     Condition a: The data used are reliable and provide a 
valid basis to show what percentage of the food

[[Page 8009]]

derived from such crop is likely to contain the pesticide residue.
     Condition b: The exposure estimate does not underestimate 
exposure for any significant subpopulation group.
     Condition c: Data are available on pesticide use and food 
consumption in a particular area, the exposure estimate does not 
understate exposure for the population in such area.
    In addition, the Agency must provide for periodic evaluation of any 
estimates used. To provide for the periodic evaluation of the estimate 
of PCT as required by FFDCA section 408(b)(2)(F), EPA may require 
registrants to submit data on PCT.
    The Agency estimated the average PCT for existing uses as follows: 
Barley: 1%; beans, green: 2.5%; canola: 5%; cotton: 1%; dry beans/peas: 
15%; peas, green: 2.5%; soybeans: 2.5%; sugar beets: 2.5%; and 
sunflowers: 5%. For all other existing uses, including the amended use 
on wheat, 100% of the crop treated was assumed.
    In most cases, EPA uses available data from United States 
Department of Agriculture/National Agricultural Statistics Service 
(USDA/NASS), proprietary market surveys, and the National Pesticide Use 
Database for the chemical/crop combination for the most recent 6 to 7 
years. EPA uses an average PCT for chronic dietary risk analysis. The 
average PCT value for each existing use is derived by combining 
available public and private market survey data for that use, averaging 
across all observations, and is rounded to the nearest multiple of 5% 
for use in the analysis; unless the average PCT value is estimated at 
less than 2.5% or 1%, in which case the Agency uses 2.5% or 1%, 
respectively, as the average PCT value in the analysis.
    The Agency believes that the three conditions discussed in Unit 
III.C.1.iv. have been met. With respect to Condition a, PCT estimates 
are derived from Federal and private market survey data, which are 
reliable and have a valid basis. The Agency is reasonably certain that 
the percentage of the food treated is not likely to be an 
underestimation. As to Conditions b and c, regional consumption 
information and consumption information for significant subpopulations 
is taken into account through EPA's computer-based model for evaluating 
the exposure of significant subpopulations including several regional 
groups. Use of this consumption information in EPA's risk assessment 
process ensures that EPA's exposure estimate does not understate 
exposure for any significant subpopulation group and allows the Agency 
to be reasonably certain that no regional population is exposed to 
residue levels higher than those estimated by the Agency. Other than 
the data available through national food consumption surveys, EPA does 
not have available reliable information on the regional consumption of 
food to which quizalofop ethyl may be applied in a particular area.
    2. Dietary exposure from drinking water. The Agency used screening 
level water exposure models in the dietary exposure analysis and risk 
assessment for quizalofop ethyl in drinking water. These simulation 
models take into account data on the physical, chemical, and fate/
transport characteristics of quizalofop ethyl. Further information 
regarding EPA drinking water models used in pesticide exposure 
assessment can be found at http://www.epa.gov/pesticide-science-and-assessing-pesticide-risks/about-water-exposure-models-used-pesticide.
    Based on the Modified Tier 1 Rice Model and Pesticide Root Zone 
Model Ground Water (PRZM GW), the estimated drinking water 
concentrations (EDWCs) of quizalofop ethyl for chronic exposures for 
non-cancer assessments are estimated to be 125 parts per billion (ppb) 
for surface water and 89 ppb for ground water.
    Modeled estimates of drinking water concentrations were directly 
entered into the dietary exposure model. For chronic dietary risk 
assessment, the water concentration value of 125 ppb was used to assess 
the contribution to drinking water.
    3. From non-dietary exposure. The term ``residential exposure'' is 
used in this document to refer to non-occupational, non-dietary 
exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, 
termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets). Quizalofop ethyl is 
not registered for any specific use patterns that would result in 
residential exposure.
    4. Cumulative effects from substances with a common mechanism of 
toxicity. Section 408(b)(2)(D)(v) of FFDCA requires that, when 
considering whether to establish, modify, or revoke a tolerance, the 
Agency consider ``available information'' concerning the cumulative 
effects of a particular pesticide's residues and ``other substances 
that have a common mechanism of toxicity.''
    EPA has not found quizalofop ethyl to share a common mechanism of 
toxicity with any other substances, and quizalofop ethyl does not 
appear to produce a toxic metabolite produced by other substances. For 
the purposes of this tolerance action, therefore, EPA has assumed that 
quizalofop ethyl does not have a common mechanism of toxicity with 
other substances. For information regarding EPA's efforts to determine 
which chemicals have a common mechanism of toxicity and to evaluate the 
cumulative effects of such chemicals, see EPA's website at http://www.epa.gov/pesticide-science-and-assessing-pesticide-risks/cumulative-assessment-risk-pesticides.

D. Safety Factor for Infants and Children

    1. In general. Section 408(b)(2)(C) of FFDCA provides that EPA 
shall apply an additional tenfold (10X) margin of safety for infants 
and children in the case of threshold effects to account for prenatal 
and postnatal toxicity and the completeness of the database on toxicity 
and exposure unless EPA determines based on reliable data that a 
different margin of safety will be safe for infants and children. This 
additional margin of safety is commonly referred to as the FQPA Safety 
Factor (SF). In applying this provision, EPA either retains the default 
value of 10X, or uses a different additional safety factor when 
reliable data available to EPA support the choice of a different 
factor.
    2. Prenatal and postnatal sensitivity. As summarized in Unit 
III.A., results from the rat and rabbit developmental toxicity and the 
2-generation rat reproduction toxicity studies indicated no qualitative 
or quantitative evidence of increased susceptibility in developing 
fetuses or in the offspring following prenatal and/or postnatal 
exposure to quizalofop ethyl.
    3. Conclusion. EPA has determined that reliable data show the 
safety of infants and children would be adequately protected if the 
FQPA SF were reduced to 1X. That decision is based on the following 
findings:
    i. The toxicity database for quizalofop ethyl is complete.
    ii. There is no indication that quizalofop ethyl is a neurotoxic 
chemical and there is no need for a developmental neurotoxicity study 
or additional UFs to account for neurotoxicity.
    iii. There is no qualitative or quantitative evidence that 
quizalofop ethyl results in increased susceptibility in in utero rats 
or rabbits in the prenatal developmental studies or in young rats in 
the 2-generation reproduction study.
    iv. There are no residual uncertainties identified in the exposure 
databases. The dietary food exposure assessments were performed based 
on tolerance-level residues, average PCTs for certain existing uses, 
and 100 PCT for other existing uses including the amended wheat use. 
EPA made conservative

[[Page 8010]]

(protective) assumptions in the ground and surface water modeling used 
to assess exposure to quizalofop ethyl in drinking water. These 
assessments will not underestimate the exposure and risks posed by 
quizalofop ethyl.

E. Aggregate Risks and Determination of Safety

    EPA determines whether acute and chronic dietary pesticide 
exposures are safe by comparing aggregate exposure estimates to the 
acute PAD (aPAD) and chronic PAD (cPAD). For linear cancer risks, EPA 
calculates the lifetime probability of acquiring cancer given the 
estimated aggregate exposure. Short-, intermediate-, and chronic-term 
risks are evaluated by comparing the estimated aggregate food, water, 
and residential exposure to the appropriate PODs to ensure that an 
adequate MOE exists.
    1. Acute risk. An acute aggregate risk assessment takes into 
account acute exposure estimates from dietary consumption of food and 
drinking water. No adverse effect resulting from a single-dose oral 
exposure was identified and no acute dietary endpoint was selected. 
Therefore, quizalofop ethyl is not expected to pose an acute risk.
    2. Chronic risk. Using the exposure assumptions described in this 
unit for chronic exposure, EPA has concluded that chronic exposure to 
quizalofop ethyl from food and water will utilize 84% of the cPAD for 
all infants less than 1-year old, the population group receiving the 
greatest exposure. Most of the dietary exposure is attributed to 
drinking water, utilizing 75% of the cPAD for all infants less than 1-
year old. There are no residential uses for quizalofop ethyl.
    3. Short- and intermediate-term risk. Short- and intermediate-term 
aggregate exposure takes into account short- and intermediate-term 
residential exposure plus chronic exposure to food and water 
(considered to be a background exposure level). Because there are no 
residential uses, quizalofop ethyl is not expected to pose short- or 
intermediate-term risk.
    4. Aggregate cancer risk for U.S. population. As discussed in Unit 
III.A., EPA has concluded that regulating on the chronic reference dose 
will be protective of potential carcinogenicity. Based on the results 
of the chronic risk assessment, EPA concludes that quizalofop ethyl is 
not expected to pose a cancer risk to humans.
    5. Determination of safety. Based on these risk assessments, EPA 
concludes that there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result 
to the general population, or to infants and children from aggregate 
exposure to quizalofop ethyl residues.

IV. Other Considerations

A. Analytical Enforcement Methodology

    An adequate enforcement methodology (Morse Meth-147, a liquid 
chromatography method using tandem mass spectrometry detection (LC-MS/
MS) for plant commodities including wheat) is available to enforce the 
tolerance expression.
    The method may be requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry 
Branch, Environmental Science Center, 701 Mapes Rd., Ft. Meade, MD 
20755-5350; telephone number: (410) 305-2905; email address: 
residuemethods@epa.gov.

B. International Residue Limits

    In making its tolerance decisions, EPA seeks to harmonize U.S. 
tolerances with international standards whenever possible, consistent 
with U.S. food safety standards and agricultural practices. EPA 
considers the international maximum residue limits (MRLs) established 
by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex), as required by FFDCA 
section 408(b)(4). The Codex Alimentarius is a joint United Nations 
Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization food 
standards program, and it is recognized as an international food safety 
standards-setting organization in trade agreements to which the United 
States is a party. EPA may establish a tolerance that is different from 
a Codex MRL; however, FFDCA section 408(b)(4) requires that EPA explain 
the reasons for departing from the Codex level. The Codex has not 
established a MRL for quizalofop ethyl.

C. Revisions to Petitioned-For Tolerances

    EPA determined that a separate tolerance is not needed for wheat 
bran, since it is included in the commodity definition for wheat, 
milled byproducts, which includes wheat bran, middlings, and shorts.

V. Conclusion

    Therefore, tolerances are established for residues of quizalofop 
ethyl in or on wheat, germ at 0.40 ppm and wheat, milled byproducts at 
0.40 ppm. Existing tolerances are increased for residues of quizalofop 
ethyl in or on wheat, forage from 0.05 to 2.0 ppm; wheat, hay from 0.05 
to 2.0 ppm; and wheat, straw from 0.05 to 0.80 ppm.

VI. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews

    This action establishes tolerances under FFDCA section 408(d) in 
response to a petition submitted to the Agency. The Office of 
Management and Budget (OMB) has exempted these types of actions from 
review under Executive Order 12866, entitled ``Regulatory Planning and 
Review'' (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993). Because this action has been 
exempted from review under Executive Order 12866, this action is not 
subject to Executive Order 13211, entitled ``Actions Concerning 
Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or 
Use'' (66 FR 28355, May 22, 2001); Executive Order 13045, entitled 
``Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety 
Risks'' (62 FR 19885, April 23, 1997); or Executive Order 13771, 
entitled ``Reducing Regulations and Controlling Regulatory Costs'' (82 
FR 9339, February 3, 2017). This action does not contain any 
information collections subject to OMB approval under the Paperwork 
Reduction Act (PRA) (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.), nor does it require any 
special considerations under Executive Order 12898, entitled ``Federal 
Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and 
Low-Income Populations'' (59 FR 7629, February 16, 1994).
    Since tolerances and exemptions that are established on the basis 
of a petition under FFDCA section 408(d), such as the tolerance in this 
final rule, do not require the issuance of a proposed rule, the 
requirements of the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA) (5 U.S.C. 601 et 
seq.), do not apply.
    This action directly regulates growers, food processors, food 
handlers, and food retailers, not States or tribes, nor does this 
action alter the relationships or distribution of power and 
responsibilities established by Congress in the preemption provisions 
of FFDCA section 408(n)(4). As such, the Agency has determined that 
this action will not have a substantial direct effect on States or 
tribal governments, on the relationship between the national government 
and the States or tribal governments, or on the distribution of power 
and responsibilities among the various levels of government or between 
the Federal Government and Indian tribes. Thus, the Agency has 
determined that Executive Order 13132, entitled ``Federalism'' (64 FR 
43255, August 10, 1999) and Executive Order 13175, entitled 
``Consultation and Coordination with Indian Tribal Governments'' (65 FR 
67249, November 9, 2000) do not apply

[[Page 8011]]

to this action. In addition, this action does not impose any 
enforceable duty or contain any unfunded mandate as described under 
Title II of the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (UMRA) (2 U.S.C. 1501 et 
seq.).
    This action does not involve any technical standards that would 
require Agency consideration of voluntary consensus standards pursuant 
to section 12(d) of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement 
Act (NTTAA) (15 U.S.C. 272 note).

VII. Congressional Review Act

    Pursuant to the Congressional Review Act (5 U.S.C. 801 et seq.), 
EPA will submit a report containing this rule and other required 
information to the U.S. Senate, the U.S. House of Representatives, and 
the Comptroller General of the United States prior to publication of 
the rule in the Federal Register. This action is not a ``major rule'' 
as defined by 5 U.S.C. 804(2).

List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 180

    Environmental protection, Administrative practice and procedure, 
Agricultural commodities, Pesticides and pests, Reporting and 
recordkeeping requirements.

    Dated: February 9, 2018.
Michael Goodis,
Director, Registration Division, Office of Pesticide Programs.

    Therefore, 40 CFR chapter I is amended as follows:

PART 180--[AMENDED]

0
1. The authority citation for part 180 continues to read as follows:

    Authority:  21 U.S.C. 321(q), 346a and 371.


0
2. In Sec.  180.441,
0
a. Add alphabetically the entries ``Wheat, germ'' and ``Wheat, milled 
byproducts'' to the table in paragraph (a)(1).
    b. Revise the entries ``Wheat, forage''; ``Wheat, hay''; and 
``Wheat, straw'' in the table in paragraph (a)(1).
    The additions and revisions read as follows:


Sec.  180.441   Quizalofop ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    (a) * * *
    (1) * * *

------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                               Parts per
                          Commodity                             million
------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
                                * * * * *
Wheat, forage...............................................         2.0
Wheat, germ.................................................        0.40
 
                                * * * * *
Wheat, hay..................................................         2.0
Wheat, milled byproducts....................................        0.40
Wheat, straw................................................        0.80
------------------------------------------------------------------------

* * * * *
[FR Doc. 2018-03760 Filed 2-22-18; 8:45 am]
 BILLING CODE 6560-50-P