[Federal Register Volume 80, Number 177 (Monday, September 14, 2015)]
[Proposed Rules]
[Pages 55063-55077]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2015-22592]


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ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

40 CFR Part 131

[EPA-HQ-OW-2015-0174; FRL-9932-03-OW]
RIN 2040-AF56


Revision of Certain Federal Water Quality Criteria Applicable to 
Washington

AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

ACTION: Proposed rule.

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SUMMARY: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposes to revise 
the current federal Clean Water Act (CWA) human health criteria 
applicable to waters under the state of Washington's jurisdiction to 
ensure that the criteria are set at levels that will adequately protect 
Washington residents, including tribes with treaty-protected rights, 
from exposure to toxic pollutants. EPA promulgated Washington's 
existing criteria for the protection of human health in 1992 as part of 
the National Toxics Rule (NTR), (amended in 1999 for Polychlorinated 
Biphenyls (PCBs)) using the Agency's recommended criteria values at the 
time. EPA derived those criteria using a fish consumption rate (FCR) of 
6.5 grams per day (g/day) based on national surveys. However, the best 
available data now demonstrate that fish consumers in Washington, 
including tribes with treaty-protected rights, consume much more fish 
than 6.5 g/day. There are also new data and scientific information 
available to update the toxicity and exposure parameters used to 
calculate human health criteria. Therefore, EPA proposes to revise the 
federal human health criteria applicable to waters under Washington's 
jurisdiction to take into account the best available science, including 
local and regional information, as well as applicable EPA policies, 
guidance, and legal requirements, to protect human health.

DATES: Comments must be received on or before November 13, 2015.

ADDRESSES: Submit your comments, identified by Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OW-
2015-0174, to the Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov. Follow the online instructions for submitting 
comments. Once submitted, comments cannot be edited or withdrawn. EPA 
may publish any comment received to its public docket. Do not submit 
electronically any information you consider to be Confidential Business 
Information (CBI) or other information whose disclosure is restricted 
by statute. Multimedia submissions (audio, video, etc.) must be 
accompanied by a written comment. The written comment is considered the 
official comment and should include discussion of all points you wish 
to make. EPA will generally not consider comments or comment contents 
located outside of the primary submission (i.e. on the web, cloud, or 
other file sharing system). For additional submission methods, the full 
EPA public comment policy, information about CBI or multimedia 
submissions, and general guidance on making effective comments, please 
visit http://www2.epa.gov/dockets/commenting-epa-dockets.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Erica Fleisig, Office of Water, 
Standards and Health Protection Division (4305T), Environmental 
Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20460; 
telephone number: (202) 566-1057; email address: fleisig.erica@epa.gov.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This proposed rule is organized as follows:

I. General Information
    Does this action apply to me?
II. Background
    A. Statutory and Regulatory Background
    B. General Recommended Approach for Deriving Human Health 
Criteria
III. Necessity Determination for Washington
    A. Existing Criteria Are Not Protective of Designated Uses of 
Waters in the State of Washington
    B. CWA 303(c)(4)(B) Determination of Necessity
IV. Derivation of Human Health Criteria for Washington
    A. Tribal Reserved Fishing Rights and Washington's Designated 
Uses
    B. Scope of EPA's Proposal
    C. Washington-Specific Human Health Criteria Inputs
    D. Proposed Human Health Criteria for Washington
    E. Applicability of Criteria When Final
    F. Alternative Regulatory Approaches and Implementation 
Mechanisms
V. Economic Analysis
    A. Identifying Affected Entities
    B. Method for Estimating Costs
    C. Results
VI. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews
    A. Executive Order 12866 (Regulatory Planning and Review) and 
Executive Order 13563 (Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review)
    B. Paperwork Reduction Act
    C. Regulatory Flexibility Act
    D. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act
    E. Executive Order 13132 (Federalism)
    F. Executive Order 13175 (Consultation and Coordination with 
Indian Tribal Governments)
    G. Executive Order 13045 (Protection of Children From 
Environmental Health and Safety Risks)
    H. Executive Order 13211 (Actions That Significantly Affect 
Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use)
    I. National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995
    J. Executive Order 12898 (Federal Actions to Address 
Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income 
Populations)

I. General Information

Does this action apply to me?

    Entities such as industries, stormwater management districts, or 
publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) that discharge pollutants to 
waters of the United States under the state of Washington's 
jurisdiction could be indirectly affected by this rulemaking, because 
federal water quality standards (WQS) promulgated by EPA would be 
applicable to CWA regulatory programs, such as National Pollutant 
Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permitting. Citizens concerned 
with water quality in Washington could also be interested in this 
rulemaking. Categories and entities that could potentially be affected 
include the following:

[[Page 55064]]



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                                             Examples of potentially
                Category                        affected entities
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Industry...............................  Industries discharging
                                          pollutants to waters of the
                                          United States in Washington.
Municipalities.........................  Publicly owned treatment works
                                          or other facilities
                                          discharging pollutants to
                                          waters of the United States in
                                          Washington.
Stormwater Management Districts........  Entities responsible for
                                          managing stormwater runoff in
                                          the state of Washington.
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    This table is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather provides a 
guide for readers regarding entities that could be indirectly affected 
by this action. Any parties or entities who depend upon or contribute 
to the water quality of Washington's waters could be affected by this 
proposed rule. To determine whether your facility or activities could 
be affected by this action, you should carefully examine this proposed 
rule. If you have questions regarding the applicability of this action 
to a particular entity, consult the person listed in the FOR FURTHER 
INFORMATION CONTACT section.

II. Background

A. Statutory and Regulatory Background

    CWA section 101(a)(2) establishes as a national goal ``water 
quality which provides for the protection and propagation of fish, 
shellfish, and wildlife, and recreation in and on the water, wherever 
attainable.'' These are commonly referred to as the ``fishable/
swimmable'' goals of the CWA. EPA interprets ``fishable'' uses to 
include, at a minimum, designated uses providing for the protection of 
aquatic communities and human health related to consumption of fish and 
shellfish.\1\
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    \1\ USEPA. 2000. Memorandum #WQSP-00-03. U.S. Environmental 
Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/standards/upload/2000_10_31_standards_shellfish.pdf.
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    CWA section 303(c) (33 U.S.C. 1313(c)) directs states to adopt WQS 
for their waters subject to the CWA. CWA section 303(c)(2)(A) and EPA's 
implementing regulations at 40 CFR part 131 require, among other 
things, that a state's WQS specify appropriate designated uses of the 
waters, and water quality criteria that protect those uses. EPA's 
regulations at 40 CFR 131.11(a)(1) provide that such criteria ``must be 
based on sound scientific rationale and must contain sufficient 
parameters or constituents to protect the designated use.'' In 
addition, 40 CFR 131.10(b) provides that ``[i]n designating uses of a 
water body and the appropriate criteria for those uses, the state shall 
take into consideration the water quality standards of downstream 
waters and ensure that its water quality standards provide for the 
attainment and maintenance of the water quality standards of downstream 
waters.''
    States are required to review applicable WQS at least once every 
three years and, if appropriate, revise or adopt new standards (CWA 
section 303(c)(1)). Any new or revised WQS must be submitted to EPA for 
review and approval or disapproval (CWA section 303(c)(2)(A) and 
(c)(3)). CWA section 303(c)(4)(B) authorizes the Administrator to 
determine, even in the absence of a state submission, that a new or 
revised standard is needed to meet CWA requirements.
    Under CWA section 304(a), EPA periodically publishes criteria 
recommendations for states to consider when adopting water quality 
criteria for particular pollutants to meet the CWA section 101(a)(2) 
goals. In 2015, EPA updated its 304(a) recommended criteria for human 
health for 94 pollutants.\2\ Where EPA has published recommended 
criteria, states should consider adopting water quality criteria based 
on EPA's CWA section 304(a) criteria, section 304(a) criteria modified 
to reflect site-specific conditions, or other scientifically defensible 
methods (40 CFR 131.11(b)(1)). Ultimately, however, criteria must 
protect the designated use and be based on sound scientific rationale 
(40 CFR 131.11(a)(1)). CWA section 303(c)(2)(B) requires states to 
adopt numeric criteria for all toxic pollutants listed pursuant to CWA 
section 307(a)(1) for which EPA has published 304(a) criteria, as 
necessary to support the states' designated uses.
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    \2\ Final Updated Ambient Water Quality Criteria for the 
Protection of Human Health, (80 FR 36986, June 29, 2015). See also: 
USEPA. 2015. Final 2015 Updated National Recommended Human Health 
Criteria. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, 
Washington, DC. http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/standards/criteria/current/hhfinal.cfm.
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    In 1992, EPA promulgated the NTR at 40 CFR 131.36, establishing 
chemical-specific, numeric criteria for 85 priority toxic pollutants 
for 14 states and territories (states), including Washington, that were 
not in compliance with the requirements of CWA section 303(c)(2)(B). 
When states covered by the NTR subsequently adopted their own criteria 
for toxic pollutants that EPA approved as consistent with the CWA and 
EPA's implementing regulations, EPA amended the NTR to remove those 
states. Half of the original 14 states and territories remain covered 
for one or more criteria in the NTR. Washington has not yet adopted its 
own criteria for the protection of human health and, therefore, the 
Federal human health criteria that EPA promulgated in the NTR remain 
applicable to waters throughout the state.\3\
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    \3\ Washington adopted criteria for the protection of aquatic 
life from toxic pollutants at WAC 173-201A-240. On January 12, 2015, 
Washington proposed statewide human health criteria and new and 
revised implementation provisions. In July 2015, Governor Inslee 
directed Washington to reconsider its proposed human health criteria 
and implementation tool revisions. See http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wq/ruledev/wac173201A/1203ov.html.
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B. General Recommended Approach for Deriving Human Health Criteria

    Human health criteria are designed to minimize the risk of adverse 
cancer and non-cancer effects occurring from lifetime exposure to 
pollutants through the ingestion of drinking water and consumption of 
fish/shellfish obtained from inland and nearshore waters. EPA's 
practice is to establish a human health 304(a) criterion for both 
drinking water and consumption of fish/shellfish from inland and 
nearshore waters combined and a separate human health criterion based 
on ingestion of fish/shellfish from inland and nearshore waters alone. 
This latter criterion applies in cases where the designated uses of a 
waterbody include supporting fish/shellfish for human consumption but 
not drinking water supply sources (e.g., in non-potable estuarine 
waters).
    The criteria are based on two types of biological endpoints: (1) 
Carcinogenicity and (2) systemic toxicity (i.e., all adverse effects 
other than cancer). EPA takes an integrated approach and considers both 
cancer and non-cancer effects when deriving human health criteria. 
Where sufficient data are available, EPA derives criteria using both 
carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic toxicity endpoints and recommends the 
lower value. Human health criteria for carcinogenic effects are 
calculated using the following input parameters: Cancer slope factor, 
cancer risk level, body weight, drinking water intake rate, fish 
consumption rate, and a bioaccumulation factor(s). Human health 
criteria for non-carcinogenic and nonlinear carcinogenic effects are 
calculated using a reference dose in place of a cancer slope factor and 
cancer risk level, as well as a relative source contribution (RSC), 
which is intended to ensure that an individual's total exposure from 
all sources does not exceed the criteria. Each of these inputs is 
discussed in more detail below and in

[[Page 55065]]

EPA's 2000 Human Health Methodology.\4\
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    \4\ USEPA. 2000. Methodology for Deriving Ambient Water Quality 
Criteria for the Protection of Human Health. U.S. Environmental 
Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC. EPA-822-B-00-
004. http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/criteria/humanhealth/method/complete.pdf.
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a. Cancer Risk Level
    EPA's 304(a) national recommended human health criteria generally 
assume that carcinogenicity is a ``non-threshold phenomenon,'' which 
means that there are no ``safe'' or ``no-effect'' levels because even 
extremely small doses are assumed to cause a finite increase in the 
incidence of cancer. Therefore, EPA calculates 304(a) human health 
criteria for carcinogenic effects as pollutant concentrations 
corresponding to lifetime increases in the risk of developing 
cancer.\5\ EPA calculates its 304(a) human health criteria values at a 
10-\6\ (one in one million) cancer risk level and recommends 
cancer risk levels of 10-\6\ or 10-\5\ (one in 
one hundred thousand) for the general population.\6\ EPA notes that 
states and authorized tribes can also choose a more stringent risk 
level, such as 10-\7\ (one in ten million), when deriving 
human health criteria.
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    \5\ As noted above, EPA recommends the criteria derived for non-
carcinogenic effects if it is more protective (lower) than that 
derived for carcinogenic effects.
    \6\ EPA's 2000 Human Health Methodology also states: ``Criteria 
based on a 10-\5\ risk level are acceptable for the 
general population as long as states and authorized tribes ensure 
that the risk to more highly exposed subgroups (sport fishers or 
subsistence fishers) does not exceed the 10-\4\ level.'' 
Since EPA is proposing criteria to protect the target general 
population in Washington (tribes with reserved rights in Washington 
waters), the applicable EPA-recommended cancer risk levels are those 
for the general population. See section IV for additional 
discussion.
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    If the pollutant is not considered to have the potential for 
causing cancer in humans (i.e., systemic toxicants), EPA assumes that 
the pollutant has a threshold below which a physiological mechanism 
exists within living organisms to avoid or overcome the adverse effects 
of the pollutant.
b. Cancer Slope Factor and Reference Dose
    A dose-response assessment is required to understand the 
quantitative relationships between the amount of exposure to a 
pollutant and the onset of human health effects. EPA evaluates dose-
response relationships derived from animal toxicity and human 
epidemiological studies to derive dose-response metrics for regulatory 
purposes. To evaluate carcinogenic effects, the dose-response metric 
used to characterize a chemical's human cancer-causing potential is 
referred to as a cancer slope factor (CSF). For non-carcinogenic 
effects, EPA uses the reference dose (RfD) to calculate human health 
criteria. Doses that are below the RfD are less likely to be associated 
with health risks. EPA's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) \7\ 
was the primary source of toxicity values (i.e., RfD and CSF) for EPA's 
2015 updated 304(a) human health criteria.\8\ For some pollutants, 
however, more recent peer-reviewed and publicly available toxicological 
data were available from other EPA program offices (e.g., Office of 
Pesticide Programs, Office of Water, Office of Solid Waste and 
Emergency Response), other national and international programs, and 
state programs.
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    \7\ USEPA. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). U.S. 
Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, 
Washington, DC. www.epa.gov/iris.
    \8\ Final Updated Ambient Water Quality Criteria for the 
Protection of Human Health, (80 FR 36986, June 29, 2015). See also: 
USEPA. 2015. Final 2015 Updated National Recommended Human Health 
Criteria. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, 
Washington, DC. http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/standards/criteria/current/hhfinal.cfm.
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c. Exposure Assumptions
    Per EPA's latest 304(a) national human health criteria, EPA uses a 
default drinking water intake rate of 2.4 liters per day (L/day) and 
default rate of 22 g/day for consumption of fish and shellfish from 
inland and nearshore waters, multiplied by pollutant-specific 
bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) to account for the amount of the 
pollutant in the edible portions of the ingested species. EPA's 
methodology for deriving human health criteria emphasizes using, when 
possible, measured or estimated BAFs, which account for chemical 
accumulation in aquatic organisms from all potential exposure 
routes.\9\ In the 2015 national 304(a) human health criteria update, 
EPA primarily used field-measured BAFs and laboratory-measured 
bioconcentration factors (BCFs) available from peer-reviewed, publicly 
available databases to develop national BAFs for three trophic levels 
of fish.\10\ If this information was not available, EPA selected 
octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow values) from peer-
reviewed sources for use in calculating national BAFs.
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    \9\ USEPA. 2000. Methodology for Deriving Ambient Water Quality 
Criteria for the Protection of Human Health. U.S. Environmental 
Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC. EPA-822-B-00-
004. http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/criteria/humanhealth/method/complete.pdf.
    \10\ Final Updated Ambient Water Quality Criteria for the 
Protection of Human Health, (80 FR 36986, June 29, 2015). See also: 
USEPA. 2015. Final 2015 Updated National Recommended Human Health 
Criteria. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, 
Washington, DC. http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/standards/criteria/current/hhfinal.cfm.
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    EPA's national default drinking water intake rate of 2.4 L/day 
represents the per capita estimate of combined direct and indirect 
community water ingestion at the 90th percentile for adults ages 21 and 
older.\11\ EPA's national FCR of 22 g/day represents the 90th 
percentile consumption rate of fish and shellfish from inland and 
nearshore waters for the U.S. adult population 21 years of age and 
older, based on National Health and Nutrient Examination Survey 
(NHANES) data from 2003 to 2010.12 13 EPA calculates human 
health criteria using a default body weight of 80 kilograms (kg), the 
average weight of a U.S. adult age 21 and older, based on NHANES data 
from 1999 to 2006.
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    \11\ USEPA. 2011. EPA Exposure Factors Handbook. 2011 edition 
(EPA 600/R-090/052F). http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/risk/recordisplay.cfm?deid=236252.
    \12\ USEPA. 2014. Estimated Fish Consumption Rates for the U.S. 
Population and Selected Subpopulations (NHANES 2003-2010). United 
States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA. EPA 
820-R-14-002.
    \13\ EPA's national FCR is based on the total rate of 
consumption of fish and shellfish from inland and nearshore waters 
(including fish and shellfish from local, commercial, aquaculture, 
interstate, and international sources). This is consistent with a 
principle that each state does its share to protect people who 
consume fish and shellfish that originate from multiple 
jurisdictions. USEPA. January 2013. Human Health Ambient Water 
Quality Criteria and Fish Consumption Rates: Frequently Asked 
Questions. http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/standards/criteria/health/methodology/upload/hhfaqs.pdf.
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    Although EPA uses these values to calculate national 304(a) 
recommended criteria, EPA's methodology notes a preference for the use 
of local data to calculate human health criteria (e.g., locally derived 
FCRs, drinking water intake rates and body weights, and waterbody-
specific bioaccumulation rates) over national default values, to better 
represent local conditions.\14\ EPA also generally recommends, where 
sufficient data are available, selecting a FCR that reflects 
consumption that is not suppressed by fish availability or concerns 
about the safety of available fish.\15\ Deriving criteria using an 
unsuppressed FCR furthers the restoration goals of the CWA, and ensures 
protection of human health as pollutant levels decrease, fish habitats

[[Page 55066]]

are restored, and fish availability increases. While EPA encourages 
doing so in general, where tribal treaty or other reserved fishing 
rights apply, selecting a FCR that reflects unsuppressed fish 
consumption could be necessary in order to satisfy such rights. If 
sufficient data regarding unsuppressed fish consumption levels are 
unavailable, consultation with tribes is important in deciding which 
fish consumption data should be used. See section IV.C.a.
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    \14\ USEPA. 2000. Methodology for Deriving Ambient Water Quality 
Criteria for the Protection of Human Health. U.S. Environmental 
Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC. EPA-822-B-00-
004. http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/criteria/humanhealth/method/complete.pdf.
    \15\ USEPA. January 2013. Human Health Ambient Water Quality 
Criteria and Fish Consumption Rates: Frequently Asked Questions. 
http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/standards/criteria/health/methodology/upload/hhfaqs.pdf.
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d. Relative Source Contribution
    When deriving human health criteria for non-carcinogens and 
nonlinear carcinogens, EPA recommends including a RSC factor to account 
for sources of exposure other than drinking water and fish and 
shellfish from inland and nearshore waters, so that the pollutant 
effect threshold (i.e., RfD) is not apportioned to drinking water and 
fish consumption alone. These other exposures include exposure to a 
particular pollutant from ocean fish consumption (which is not included 
in EPA's default national FCR), non-fish food consumption (e.g., 
fruits, vegetables, grains, meats, poultry), dermal exposure, and 
respiratory exposure. EPA's guidance includes a procedure for 
determining an appropriate RSC for a given pollutant ranging in value 
from 0.2 to 0.8.

III. Necessity Determination for Washington

A. Existing Criteria Are Not Protective of Designated Uses of Waters in 
the State of Washington

    In the NTR, 40 CFR 131.36(d)(14), EPA stated that the federal human 
health criteria applied to all waters assigned to Washington's use 
classifications identified at WAC 173-201-045, including fish and 
shellfish, fish, water supply (domestic), and recreation. As currently 
defined in Washington's WQS (WAC 173-201A-600 and WAC 173-201A-610), 
the uses subject to federal human health criteria in Washington include 
the following: Fresh waters--Harvesting (fish harvesting), Domestic 
Water (domestic water supply), and Recreational Uses; Marine waters--
Shellfish Harvesting (shellfish--clam, oyster, and mussel--harvesting), 
Harvesting (salmonid and other fish harvesting, and crustacean and 
other shellfish--crabs, shrimp, scallops, etc.--harvesting), and 
Recreational Uses.
    Per EPA's regulations at Sec.  131.11(a), water quality criteria 
must contain sufficient parameters or constituents to protect the 
designated use, and for waters with multiple use designations, the 
criteria must support the most sensitive use. In determining whether 
WQS comply with the CWA and EPA's regulations, when setting criteria to 
support the most sensitive use in Washington, it is necessary to 
consider other applicable laws, including federal treaties.\16\ In 
Washington, many tribes hold reserved rights to take fish for 
subsistence, ceremonial, religious, and commercial purposes, including 
treaty-reserved rights to fish at all usual and accustomed fishing 
grounds and stations in waters under state jurisdiction, which cover 
the majority of waters in the state. Such rights include not only a 
right to take those fish, but necessarily include an attendant right to 
not be exposed to unacceptable health risks by consuming those fish.
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    \16\ In addition to treaties, executive orders and federal 
statutes, such as land claim settlement acts, could also apply.
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    In 1992, EPA selected input values based on available national data 
to derive protective human health criteria in the NTR. To ensure 
protection of human health in waters where fish and shellfish are 
caught and consumed, EPA used data available at the time on the average 
per-capita consumption rate of fish from inland and nearshore waters 
for the U.S. population. This average rate was 6.5 g/day.
    Surveys of local residents in the Pacific Northwest, including 
tribes and recreational anglers, reflect high consumption levels of 
fish and shellfish--much higher than the 6.5 g/day rate that EPA used 
in 1992 to derive Washington's human health criteria in the NTR. Since 
that time, data have become available that better represent regional 
and local fish consumption in Washington, including:
     A Fish Consumption Survey of the Umatilla, Nez Perce, 
Yakama, and Warm Springs Tribes of the Columbia River Basin (Columbia 
River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC), 1994).
     A Fish Consumption Survey of the Tulalip and Squaxin 
Island Tribes of the Puget Sound Region (Toy et al., 1996).
     Fish Consumption Survey of the Suquamish Indian Tribe of 
the Port Madison Indian Reservations, Puget Sound Region (Suquamish 
Tribe, 2000).
     Asian and Pacific Islander Seafood Consumption Study 
(Sechena et al., 1999).
    The average FCRs \17\ from these surveys range from 63 to 214 g/
day, far in excess of 6.5 g/day. The 90th percentile FCRs from these 
surveys range from 113 to 489 g/day, also far in excess of EPA's 
current national FCR of 22 g/day, which represents the 90th percentile 
national FCR (see section II.B.c). The 6.5 g/day FCR that EPA used to 
derive the current human health criteria applicable to Washington does 
not account for these more recent local data, nor suppression in fish 
consumption (as discussed earlier).\18\ In addition, the 6.5 g/day FCR 
does not account for EPA's 2000 recommendation to use an upper 
percentile of fish consumption data for the target general population 
(as with EPA's current national FCR of 22 g/day) rather than an 
average. EPA considered the fish consumption data cited above, in 
conjunction with Washington's current designated uses as informed by 
tribal reserved rights in Washington (as discussed in section IV.A), 
and determined that the federal human health criteria in the NTR as 
applied to Washington no longer protect the relevant designated uses of 
Washington's waters.
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    \17\ Cited FCRs are based on total fish consumption regardless 
of source.
    \18\ Historical or heritage FCRs could be of relevance to 
establishing unsuppressed FCRs for Washington tribes. Extensively 
researched historical average FCRs for the Columbia River Basin 
Tribes range from 401 to 995 g/day (Craig and Hacker (1940) & Hewes 
(1947); Swindell (1942); Marshall (1977); Walker (1967)). More 
limited average historic FCRs for Washington Tribes range from 454 
to 746 g/day (Hewes 1973). In United States v. Washington (1974), 
the court accepted a heritage FCR of 620 g/day. A number of factors 
could cause these FCRs to be underestimates (Schalk 1986), including 
the fact that, with the exception of Craig and Hacker (1940), they 
only include consumption of salmon. Upper percentile values are not 
reported in these historical studies but would be higher than the 
reported average values. The highest estimated current FCRs in 
Washington come from the Suquamish Tribal survey (Suquamish 2000), 
with a reported FCR as high as 1,600 g/day (Table C5). The 95th 
percentile Suquamish FCR is 767 g/day (Ecology 2013). Recent 
publications by Harper and Walker (2015) comprehensively summarize 
and further support these heritage and contemporary fish consumption 
rates.
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B. CWA 303(c)(4)(B) Determination of Necessity

    Because Washington's existing human health criteria, as promulgated 
by EPA in the NTR, are no longer protective of the applicable 
designated uses per the CWA and EPA's regulations at 40 CFR 131.11, EPA 
determines under CWA section 303(c)(4)(B) that new or revised WQS for 
the protection of human health are necessary to meet the requirements 
of the CWA for Washington. EPA, therefore, proposes the revised human 
health criteria for Washington in this rule in accordance with this 
303(c)(4)(B) determination. EPA's determination is not itself a final 
action, nor part of a final action, at this time. After consideration 
of comments on the

[[Page 55067]]

proposed rule, EPA will take final agency action on this rulemaking. It 
is at that time that any change to the water quality standards 
applicable to Washington would occur.

IV. Derivation of Human Health Criteria for Washington

A. Tribal Reserved Fishing Rights and Washington's Designated Uses

    A majority of waters under Washington's jurisdiction are covered by 
reserved rights, including tribal treaty-reserved rights (see section 
III.A). Many areas where reserved rights are exercised cannot be 
directly protected or regulated by the tribal governments and, 
therefore, the responsibility falls to the state and federal 
governments to ensure their protection.\19\ In order to effectuate and 
harmonize these reserved rights, including treaty rights, with the CWA, 
EPA determined that such rights appropriately must be considered when 
determining which criteria are necessary to adequately protect 
Washington's fish and shellfish harvesting designated uses (see 
sections IV.C.a and IV.C.b).
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    \19\ Note that for formal and informal reservation lands, 
eligible tribes can obtain treatment in a similar manner as a state 
(TAS) status and set their own WQS under the CWA, including human 
health criteria.
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    Protecting Washington's fish and shellfish harvesting designated 
uses, which include consumption of such fish and shellfish, 
necessitates protecting the population exercising those uses. Where a 
population exercising such uses has a legal right to do so, the 
criteria protecting such uses must be consistent with such right. Thus, 
EPA proposes to consider the tribal population exercising their 
reserved fishing rights in Washington as the target general population 
for the purposes of deriving protective criteria that allow the tribes 
to harvest and consume fish consistent with their reserved rights.
    Although treaties do not cover all waters in Washington, they cover 
the vast majority of the state's waters. Additionally, where treaty and 
non-treaty reserved rights apply on waters downstream of waters without 
reserved fishing rights, upstream WQS must provide for the attainment 
and maintenance of downstream WQS in accordance with EPA's regulations 
at 40 CFR 131.10(b). For any remaining waters in Washington where 
reserved rights do not apply and that are not upstream of waters with 
such rights or waters in Oregon (see section IV.C.a), it would be 
administratively burdensome and difficult to implement separate 
criteria because it would create a patchwork of protection among these 
areas leading to potential difficulties in administering the WQS, NPDES 
permitting, and other programs. In addition, delineating the precise 
boundaries could itself be complicated. Therefore, EPA proposes to 
apply these criteria to all waters under Washington's jurisdiction.

B. Scope of EPA's Proposal

    In 1992, EPA did not establish human health criteria in the NTR for 
some priority toxic pollutants for reasons articulated in the preamble 
to the final rule at 57 FR 60848, December 22, 1992. EPA had no 304(a) 
recommendations for those pollutants at the time. EPA now has 304(a) 
recommendations for 99 priority toxic pollutants listed pursuant to CWA 
section 307(a)(1) (85 for which EPA established criteria in the NTR, 
plus 14 additional pollutants). Therefore, EPA proposes to derive 
Washington-specific criteria for all 99 priority toxic pollutants in 
this rule. For those priority pollutants for which EPA does not have 
304(a) national recommended criteria, and are thus not included in this 
proposed rule, EPA expects that Washington will continue to apply their 
existing narrative toxics criterion in the state's WQS at WAC 173-201A-
260(2)(a).
    This rule proposes to change the criteria that EPA promulgated for 
Washington in the NTR and establish new human health criteria for the 
14 additional chemicals for which EPA now has 304(a) recommended 
criteria: Copper, Selenium, Zinc, 1,2-Dichloropropane, 1,2-Trans-
Dichloroethylene, 2-Chlorophenol, 2,4-Dimethylphenol, Acenaphthene, 
Butylbenzyl Phthalate, 2-Chloronaphthalene, N-Nitrosodi-n-Propylamine, 
1,1,1-Trichloroethane, 3-Methyl-4-Chlorophenol, and 1,2,4-
Trichlorobenzene. Since 1992, EPA replaced its recommended human health 
criteria for mercury with a fish tissue-based human health criterion 
for methylmercury. EPA proposes to replace the criteria for mercury 
that EPA promulgated for Washington in the NTR with a methylmercury 
fish tissue criterion, adjusted for the FCR that EPA proposes to use to 
derive human health criteria in Washington.\20\ This proposed rule 
would not change or supersede any criteria that EPA previously 
promulgated for other states in the NTR, nor does it change any other 
elements of the NTR such as EPA's original basis for promulgation. EPA 
proposes to remove Washington from the NTR at 40 CFR 131.36 and 
incorporate the Washington-specific criteria proposed in this rule into 
proposed 40 CFR 131.45 so there is a single comprehensive rule for 
Washington.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \20\ USEPA. 2001. Water Quality Criterion for the Protection of 
Human Health: Methylmercury. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 
Office of Water, Washington, DC EPA-823-R-01-001. http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/standards/criteria/health/upload/2009_01_15_criteria_methylmercury_mercury-criterion.pdf.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    This proposed rule would apply to waters under the state of 
Washington's jurisdiction, and not to waters within Indian Country 
\21\, unless otherwise specified in federal law. Some waters located 
within Indian Country already have CWA-effective human health criteria, 
while others do not.\22\ Several tribes are working with EPA to either 
revise their existing CWA-effective WQS, or obtain treatment in a 
similar manner as a state (TAS) status in order to adopt their own WQS 
in the near future. EPA will continue to work closely with tribes in 
Washington to ensure that they adopt human health criteria that are 
scientifically supported and protective of designated uses, in 
accordance with the CWA and EPA's regulations.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \21\ See 18 U.S.C. 1151 for definition of Indian Country.
    \22\ Indian Country waters with CWA-effective WQS are (a) those 
Indian Country waters where EPA explicitly found that a tribe has 
jurisdiction to adopt WQS under the CWA, and where the tribe adopted 
standards in accordance with EPA regulations, and (b) where EPA 
promulgated federal WQS.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

C. Washington-Specific Human Health Criteria Inputs

a. Fish Consumption Rate
    EPA proposes to derive human health criteria for Washington using a 
FCR of 175 g/day as this FCR accounts for local data (consistent with 
EPA's methodology), reflects input received during consultation with 
tribes, and appropriately addresses protection of Oregon's downstream 
WQS, per EPA's regulations at 40 CFR 131.10(b).
    EPA considered the input received during consultation with tribes 
when selecting which fish consumption data would be used to estimate a 
FCR for calculating human health criteria to protect the designated 
uses. A FCR of 175 g/day approximates the 95th percentile consumption 
rate of surveyed tribal members from the CRITFC study.\23\ Although 
EPA's national default FCR only includes consumption of fish from 
inland and nearshore waters, 175 g/day in this case includes anadromous 
fish, which is appropriate given that anadromous species reside in

[[Page 55068]]

Washington's nearshore waters, especially Puget Sound, and accumulate 
pollutants discharged to these waters.\24\ A FCR of 175 g/day, 
therefore, accounts for local fish consumption data. Additionally, 
Oregon, much of which is downstream from Washington, used this FCR to 
derive statewide human health criteria, which EPA approved in 2011. Use 
of this FCR to derive Washington's criteria should thus help provide 
for the attainment and maintenance of downstream WQS in Oregon.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \23\ Fish Consumption Survey of the Umatilla, Nez Perce, Yakama, 
and Warm Springs Tribes of the Columbia River Basin (Columbia River 
Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC), 1994)
    \24\ O'Neill, S.M., and J.E. West. 2009. Marine distribution, 
life history traits, and the accumulation of polychlorinated 
biphenyls in Chinook salmon from Puget Sound, Washington. 
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 138: 616-632.
    O'Neill, S.M., G.M. Ylitalo, J.E. West, J. Bolton, C.A. Sloan, 
and M.M. Krahn. 2006. Regional patterns of persistent organic 
pollutants in five Pacific salmon species (Oncorhynchus spp) and 
their contributions to contaminant levels in northern and southern 
resident killer whales (Orcinus orca). 2006 Southern Resident Killer 
Whale Symposium, NOAA Fisheries Service Northwest Regional Office 
April 3-5, 2006. Seattle, WA. Extended Abstract. 5pp.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    After consideration of the full range of available local fish 
consumption data and after consultation with Washington tribes and 
Columbia River Basin tribes in Oregon and Idaho, EPA determined that a 
FCR of 175 g/day very likely does not reflect unsuppressed consumption 
rates of tribes within the state (see section II.B.c). EPA considered 
this fact as well as tribal input in selecting a cancer risk level of 
10-6 to account for this uncertainty and ensure that EPA's 
proposed criteria protect Washington's fishing uses, including the 
tribes' reserved fishing rights. See discussion in section IV.C.b.
b. Cancer Risk Level
    Based on Washington's longstanding use of a cancer risk level of 
10-6, along with EPA's consideration of tribal reserved 
rights, EPA guidance, and downstream protection, EPA proposes to derive 
human health criteria for carcinogens in Washington using a 
10-6 cancer risk level.
    To derive final human health criteria for each state in the NTR, 
EPA selected a cancer risk level based on each state's policy or 
practice regarding what risk level should be used when regulating 
carcinogens in surface waters. In its official comments on EPA's 
proposed NTR, Washington asked EPA to promulgate human health criteria 
using a cancer risk level of 10-6, stating, ``The State of 
Washington supports adoption of a risk level of one in one million for 
carcinogens. If EPA decides to promulgate a risk level below one in one 
million, the rule should specifically address the issue of multiple 
contaminants so as to better control overall site risks.'' (57 FR 
60848, December 22, 1992). Accordingly, in the NTR, EPA used a cancer 
risk level of 10-6 (one in one million) to derive human 
health criteria for Washington. Subsequently, Washington adopted and 
EPA approved a provision in the state's WQS that reads: ``Risk-based 
criteria for carcinogenic substances shall be selected such that the 
upper-bound excess cancer risk is less than or equal to one in a 
million'' (WAC 173-201A-240(6)). This provision has been in effect in 
Washington's WQS since 1993.
    In order to effectuate reserved fishing rights, including the 
rights that federal treaties afford to tribes in Washington, EPA 
proposes to derive criteria that will protect the tribe's reserved 
fishing rights in Washington, treating the tribal population exercising 
those rights as the target general population (see section IV.A). EPA's 
selection of a 10-6 cancer risk level for the tribal target 
general population is consistent with EPA's 2000 Human Health 
Methodology, which states that when promulgating water quality criteria 
for states and tribes, EPA intends to use the 10-6 level, 
which reflects an appropriate risk for the general population.\25\ 
EPA's 2000 Human Health Methodology did not consider how CWA decisions 
should account for applicable reserved fishing rights, including 
treaty-reserved rights. As discussed in section IV.C.a, because a FCR 
of 175 g/day very likely does not reflect unsuppressed consumption, 
using a cancer risk level of 10-6 ensures protection of 
tribal members' unsuppressed consumption. Independently, the treaties 
themselves could require higher levels of protection. The treaties 
themselves could be interpreted to require a certain level of risk; 
e.g., a de minimis level of risk that would most reasonably approximate 
conditions at the time the treaties were signed and the fishing rights 
were reserved. In policy development regarding management of cancer 
risks, EPA often uses 10-6 as a de minimis risk level.\26\ 
In this case, EPA considers 10-6 to be sufficiently 
protective, and the tribes have supported this during consultation.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \25\ EPA 2000 Human Health Methodology, pages 2-6. The 
Methodology recommends that states set human health criteria cancer 
risk levels for the target general population at either 10 \-5\ or 
10-6 (pages 2-6) and also notes that states and 
authorized tribes can always choose a more stringent risk level, 
such as 10 \-7\ (pages 1-12).
    \26\ See Castorina, Rosemary and Tracey J. Woodruff. Assessment 
of Potential Risk Levels Associated with the U.S. EPA Reference 
Values. Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 111, No. 10, page 
1318. August 2003. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1241613/pdf/ehp0111-001318.pdf.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Finally, many of Washington's rivers are in the Columbia River 
basin, upstream of Oregon's portion of the Columbia River. Oregon's 
criteria are based on a FCR of 175 g/day and a cancer risk level of 
10-6. EPA's proposal to derive human health criteria for 
Washington using a cancer risk level of 10-6 along with a 
FCR of 175 g/day helps ensure that Washington's criteria will provide 
for the attainment and maintenance of Oregon's downstream WQS as 
required by 40 CFR 131.10(b).
c. Relative Source Contribution
    EPA recommends using a RSC for non-carcinogens and nonlinear 
carcinogens to account for sources of exposure other than drinking 
water and consumption of inland and nearshore fish and shellfish (see 
section II.B.d). In 2015, after evaluating information on chemical 
uses, properties, occurrences, releases to the environment and 
regulatory restrictions, EPA developed chemical-specific RSCs for non-
carcinogens and nonlinear carcinogens ranging from 0.2 (20 percent) to 
0.8 (80 percent) following the Exposure Decision Tree approach 
described in EPA's 2000 Human Health Methodology.27 28 EPA 
proposes to use these same RSCs to derive human health criteria for 
Washington. Where EPA did not update the nationally recommended 
criteria for certain pollutants in 2015, EPA proposes to use a RSC of 
0.2 to derive human health criteria for those pollutants in Washington 
to ensure protectiveness. See Table 1, column B2 for a list of EPA's 
proposed RSCs by pollutant.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \27\ USEPA. 2000. Methodology for Deriving Ambient Water Quality 
Criteria for the Protection of Human Health. U.S. Environmental 
Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC. EPA-822-B-00-
004. http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/criteria/humanhealth/method/complete.pdf.
    \28\ Final Updated Ambient Water Quality Criteria for the 
Protection of Human Health, (80 FR 36986, June 29, 2015). See also: 
USEPA. 2015. Final 2015 Updated National Recommended Human Health 
Criteria. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, 
Washington, DC. http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/standards/criteria/current/hhfinal.cfm.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

d. Body Weight
    EPA proposes to calculate human health criteria for Washington 
using a body weight of 80 kg, which represents the average weight of a 
U.S. adult. In 2015, EPA updated its national adult body weight to 80 
kg based on national survey data (see section II.B.c).\29\ Local

[[Page 55069]]

tribal survey data relevant to Washington are consistent with EPA's 
national adult body weight of 80 kg.\30\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \29\ Final Updated Ambient Water Quality Criteria for the 
Protection of Human Health, (80 FR 36986, June 29, 2015). See also: 
USEPA. 2015. Final 2015 Updated National Recommended Human Health 
Criteria. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, 
Washington, DC. http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/standards/criteria/current/hhfinal.cfm.
    \30\ USEPA Region 10. August 2007. Framework for Selecting and 
Using Tribal Fish and Shellfish Consumption Rates for Risk-Based 
Decision Making at CERCLA and RCRA Cleanup Sites in Puget Sound and 
the Strait of Georgia. Appendix B. http://yosemite.epa.gov/r10/
CLEANUP.NSF/7780249be8f251538825650f0070bd8b/
e12918970debc8e488256da6005c428e/$FILE/
Tribal%20Shellfish%20Framework.pdf.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

e. Drinking Water Intake
    EPA proposes to calculate human health criteria for Washington 
using a rate of 2.4 L/day. In 2015, EPA updated its national default 
drinking water intake rate to 2.4 L/day based on national survey data 
(see section II.B.c).\31\ EPA is not aware of any local data applicable 
to Washington that suggest a more appropriate rate.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \31\ Final Updated Ambient Water Quality Criteria for the 
Protection of Human Health, (80 FR 36986, June 29, 2015). See also: 
USEPA. 2015. Final 2015 Updated National Recommended Human Health 
Criteria. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, 
Washington, DC http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/standards/criteria/current/hhfinal.cfm.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

f. Pollutant-Specific Reference Doses and Cancer Slope Factors
    As part of EPA's 2015 updates to its 304(a) recommended human 
health criteria, EPA conducted a systematic search of eight peer-
reviewed, publicly available sources to obtain the most current 
toxicity values for each pollutant (RfDs for non-carcinogenic effects 
and CSFs for carcinogenic effects).\32\ EPA proposes to calculate human 
health criteria for Washington using the same toxicity values that EPA 
used in its 2015 304(a) criteria updates, to ensure that the resulting 
criteria are based on a sound scientific rationale. Where EPA did not 
update criteria for certain pollutants in 2015, EPA proposes to use the 
toxicity values that the Agency used the last time it updated its 
304(a) criteria for those pollutants as the best available scientific 
information. See Table 1, columns B1 and B3 for a list of EPA's 
proposed toxicity factors by pollutant.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \32\ Final Updated Ambient Water Quality Criteria for the 
Protection of Human Health, (80 FR 36986, June 29, 2015). See also: 
USEPA. 2015. Final 2015 Updated National Recommended Human Health 
Criteria. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, 
Washington, DC http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/standards/criteria/current/hhfinal.cfm.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

g. Pollutant-Specific Bioaccumulation Factors
    For the 2015 national 304(a) human health criteria update, EPA 
estimated chemical-specific BAFs using a framework for deriving 
national BAFs described in EPA's 2000 Human Health Methodology.\33\ 
Because the surveyed population upon which the 175 g/day FCR is based 
consumed almost exclusively trophic level four fish (i.e., predator 
fish species), EPA proposes to apply the trophic level four BAF from 
the 2015 304(a) human health criteria updates in conjunction with the 
175 g/day FCR, in order to ensure protectiveness.\34\ Where EPA did not 
update criteria for certain pollutants in 2015, EPA proposes to use the 
BCFs that the Agency used the last time it updated its 304(a) criteria 
for those pollutants as the best available scientific information. See 
Table 1, columns B4 and B5 for a list of EPA's proposed bioaccumulation 
factors by pollutant.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \33\ USEPA. 2000. Methodology for Deriving Ambient Water Quality 
Criteria for the Protection of Human Health. U.S. Environmental 
Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC EPA-822-B-00-004. 
http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/criteria/humanhealth/method/complete.pdf.
    \34\ Fish Consumption Survey of the Umatilla, Nez Perce, Yakama, 
and Warm Springs Tribes of the Columbia River Basin (Columbia River 
Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC), 1994).
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

D. Proposed Human Health Criteria for Washington

    EPA proposes 195 human health criteria for 99 different pollutants 
(97 organism-only criteria and 98 water-plus-organism criteria) to 
protect the applicable designated uses of Washington's waters (see 
Table 1). The water-plus-organism criteria in column C1 of Table 1 are 
the applicable criteria for any waters that include the Domestic Water 
(domestic water supply) use defined in Washington's WQS (WAC 173-201A-
600). The organism-only criteria in column C2 of Table 1 apply to 
waters that do not include the Domestic Water (domestic water supply) 
use and that Washington defines at WAC 173-201A-600 and 173-201A-610 as 
the following: Fresh waters--Harvesting (fish harvesting), and 
Recreational Uses; Marine waters--Shellfish Harvesting (shellfish--
clam, oyster, and mussel--harvesting), Harvesting (salmonid and other 
fish harvesting, and crustacean and other shellfish--crabs, shrimp, 
scallops, etc.--harvesting), and Recreational Uses.
    EPA solicits comment on the criteria, the inputs EPA used to derive 
these criteria, and specifically solicits additional Washington-
specific information such as data from local fish or drinking water 
consumption rate studies, or bioaccumulation field studies from 
Washington waters.

                                                 Table 1--Proposed Human Health Criteria for Washington
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       A                                                               B                                                    C
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                 Cancer slope     Relative      Reference   Bio-accumulation        Bio-
                                                  factor, CSF      source       dose, RfD      factor for       concentration     Water &     Organisms
             Chemical                 CAS No.      (per mg/    contribution,      (mg/       trophic level 4   factor LI>(L/kg   organisms   only ([mu]g/
                                                 kg[middot]d)     RSC (-)     kg[middot]d)    (L/kg tissue)        tissue)       ([mu]g/L)        L)
                                    ...........          (B1)          (B2)           (B3)              (B4)              (B5)         (C1)         (C2)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane..........        71556  ............          0.20              2                10  ................        8,000       20,000
2. 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane......        79345           0.2  .............  ............               8.4  ................          0.1          0.3
3. 1,1,2-Trichloroethane..........        79005         0.057  .............  ............               8.9  ................         0.35         0.90
4. 1,1-Dichloroethylene...........        75354  ............          0.20           0.05               2.6  ................          300        2,000
5. 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene.........       120821         0.029  .............  ............               430  ................        0.036        0.037
6. 1,2-Dichlorobenzene............        95501  ............          0.20            0.3                82  ................          300          300
7. 1,2-Dichloroethane.............       107062        0.0033  .............  ............               1.9  ................          8.9           73
8. 1,2-Dichloropropane............        78875         0.036  .............  ............               3.9  ................         0.72          3.3
9. 1,2-Diphenylhydrazine..........       122667           0.8  .............  ............                27  ................         0.01         0.02
10. 1,2-Trans-Dichloroethylene....       156605  ............          0.20           0.02               4.7  ................          100          400
11. 1,3-Dichlorobenzene...........       541731  ............          0.20          0.002               190  ................          0.9            1
12. 1,3-Dichloropropene...........       542756         0.122  .............  ............               3.0  ................         0.22          1.2
13. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene...........       106467  ............          0.20           0.07                84  ................           70           80
14. 2,3,7,8-TCDD (Dioxin).........      1746016       156,000  .............  ............  ................             5,000      5.8E-10      5.9E-10

[[Page 55070]]

 
15. 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol.........        88062         0.011  .............  ............               150  ................         0.25         0.28
16. 2,4-Dichlorophenol............       120832  ............          0.20          0.003                48  ................            4            6
17. 2,4-Dimethylphenol............       105679  ............          0.20           0.02                 7  ................           90          300
18. 2,4-Dinitrophenol.............        51285  ............          0.20          0.002  ................               4.4           10           40
19. 2,4-Dinitrotoluene............       121142         0.667  .............  ............               3.9  ................        0.039         0.18
20. 2-Chloronaphthalene...........        91587  ............          0.80           0.08               240  ................          100          100
21. 2-Chlorophenol................        95578  ............          0.20          0.005               5.4  ................           20           80
22. 2-Methyl-4,6-Dinitrophenol....       534521  ............          0.20         0.0003                10  ................            1            3
23. 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine........        91941          0.45  .............  ............                69  ................        0.012        0.015
24. 3-Methyl-4-Chlorophenol.......        59507  ............          0.20            0.1                39  ................          200          200
25. 4,4'-DDD......................        72548          0.24  .............  ............           240,000  ................      7.9E-06      7.9E-06
26. 4,4'-DDE......................        72559         0.167  .............  ............         3,100,000  ................      8.8E-07      8.8E-07
27. 4,4'-DDT......................        50293          0.34  .............  ............         1,100,000  ................      1.2E-06      1.2E-06
28. Acenaphthene..................        83329  ............          0.20           0.06  ................               510           10           10
29. Acrolein......................       107028  ............          0.20         0.0005               1.0  ................            3           50
30. Acrylonitrile.................       107131          0.54  .............  ............               1.0  ................        0.058         0.85
31. Aldrin........................       309002            17  .............  ............           650,000  ................      4.1E-08      4.1E-08
32. alpha-BHC.....................       319846           6.3  .............  ............             1,500  ................      4.8E-05      4.8E-05
33. alpha-Endosulfan..............       959988  ............          0.20          0.006               200  ................            3            3
34. Anthracene....................       120127  ............          0.20            0.3  ................               610           40           40
35. Antimony......................      7440360  ............          0.20         0.0004  ................                 1          2.5           37
36. Arsenic.......................      7440382          1.75  .............  ............  ................                44   \a\ 0.0045   \a\ 0.0059
37. Asbestos......................      1332214  ............  .............  ............  ................  ................          \b\  ...........
                                                                                                                                  7,000,000
                                                                                                                                 (fibers/L)
38. Benzene.......................        71432     \c\ 0.055  .............  ............               5.0  ................     \c\ 0.44      \c\ 1.7
39. Benzidine.....................        92875           230  .............  ............               1.7  ................      0.00013       0.0012
40. Benzo(a) Anthracene...........        56553          0.73  .............  ............  ................             3,900      0.00016      0.00016
41. Benzo(a) Pyrene...............        50328           7.3  .............  ............  ................             3,900      1.6E-05      1.6E-05
42. Benzo(b) Fluoranthene.........       205992          0.73  .............  ............  ................             3,900      0.00016      0.00016
43. Benzo(k) Fluoranthene.........       207089         0.073  .............  ............  ................             3,900       0.0016       0.0016
44. beta-BHC......................       319857           1.8  .............  ............               180  ................       0.0013       0.0014
45. beta-Endosulfan...............     33213659  ............          0.20          0.006               130  ................            4            4
46. Bis(2-Chloroethyl) Ether......       111444           1.1  .............  ............               1.7  ................        0.027         0.24
47. *Bis(2-Chloro-1-Methylethyl)         108601  ............          0.20           0.04                10  ................          200          400
 Ether............................
48. Bis(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate...       117817         0.014  .............  ............  ................               710        0.045        0.046
49. Bromoform.....................        75252        0.0045  .............  ............               8.5  ................          4.6           12
50. Butylbenzyl Phthalate.........        85687        0.0019  .............  ............  ................            19,000        0.013        0.013
51. Carbon Tetrachloride..........        56235          0.07  .............  ............                14  ................          0.2          0.5
52. Chlordane.....................        57749          0.35  .............  ............            60,000  ................      2.2E-05      2.2E-05
53. Chlorobenzene.................       108907  ............          0.20           0.02                22  ................           50           80
54. Chlorodibromomethane..........       124481          0.04  .............  ............               5.3  ................         0.60          2.2
55. Chloroform....................        67663  ............          0.20           0.01               3.8  ................           50          200
56. Chrysene......................       218019        0.0073  .............  ............  ................             3,900        0.016        0.016
57. Copper........................      7440508  ............  .............  ............  ................  ................     \d\ 1300  ...........
58. Cyanide.......................        57125  ............          0.20         0.0006  ................                 1            4           50
59. Dibenzo(a,h) Anthracene.......        53703           7.3  .............  ............  ................             3,900      1.6E-05      1.6E-05
60. Dichlorobromomethane..........        75274         0.034  .............  ............               4.8  ................         0.73          2.8
61. Dieldrin......................        60571            16  .............  ............           410,000  ................      7.0E-08      7.0E-08
62. Diethyl Phthalate.............        84662  ............          0.20            0.8  ................               920           80           80
63. Dimethyl Phthalate............       131113  ............          0.20             10  ................             4,000          200          200
64. Di-n-Butyl Phthalate..........        84742  ............          0.20            0.1  ................             2,900            3            3
65. Endosulfan Sulfate............      1031078  ............          0.20          0.006               140  ................            4            4
66. Endrin........................        72208  ............          0.80         0.0003            46,000  ................        0.002        0.002
67. Endrin Aldehyde...............      7421934  ............          0.80         0.0003               850  ................          0.1          0.1
68. Ethylbenzene..................       100414  ............          0.20          0.022               160  ................           12           13
69. Fluoranthene..................       206440  ............          0.20           0.04  ................             1,500            2            2
70. Fluorene......................        86737  ............          0.20           0.04               710  ................            5            5
71. gamma-BHC; Lindane............        58899  ............          0.50         0.0047             2,500  ................         0.43         0.43
72. Heptachlor....................        76448           4.1  .............  ............           330,000  ................      3.4E-07      3.4E-07
73. Heptachlor Epoxide............      1024573           5.5  .............  ............            35,000  ................      2.4E-06      2.4E-06
74. Hexachlorobenzene.............       118741          1.02  .............  ............            90,000  ................      5.0E-06      5.0E-06
75. Hexachlorobutadiene...........        87683          0.04  .............  ............             1,100  ................         0.01         0.01
76. Hexachlorocyclopentadiene.....        77474  ............          0.20          0.006             1,300  ................          0.4          0.4
77. Hexachloroethane..............        67721          0.04  .............  ............               600  ................         0.02         0.02
78. Indeno(1,2,3-cd) Pyrene.......       193395          0.73  .............  ............  ................             3,900      0.00016      0.00016
79. Isophorone....................        78591       0.00095  .............  ............               2.4  ................           30          200
80. Methyl Bromide................        74839  ............          0.20           0.02               1.4  ................          100        1,000
81. Methylene Chloride............        75092         0.002  .............  ............               1.6  ................           10          100
82. Methylmercury.................     22967926  ............       2.7E-05         0.0001  ................  ................  ...........    \e\ 0.033
                                                                                                                                                 (mg/kg)
83. Nickel........................      7440020  ............          0.20           0.02  ................                47           30           39
84. Nitrobenzene..................        98953  ............          0.20          0.002               3.1  ................           10           60
85. N-Nitrosodimethylamine........        62759            51  .............  ............  ................             0.026      0.00065         0.34

[[Page 55071]]

 
86. N-Nitrosodi-n-Propylamine.....       621647             7  .............  ............  ................              1.13       0.0044        0.058
87. N-Nitrosodiphenylamine........        86306        0.0049  .............  ............  ................               136         0.62         0.69
88. Pentachlorophenol (PCP).......        87865           0.4  .............  ............               520  ................        0.002        0.002
89. Phenol........................       108952  ............          0.20            0.6               1.9  ................        4,000       30,000
90. Polychlorinated Biphenyls       ...........             2  .............  ............  ................            31,200  \f\ 7.3E-06  \f\ 7.3E-06
 (PCBs)...........................
91. Pyrene........................       129000  ............          0.20           0.03  ................               860            3            3
92. Selenium......................      7782492  ............          0.20          0.005  ................               4.8           25           95
93. Tetrachloroethylene...........       127184        0.0021  .............  ............                76  ................          2.4          2.9
94. Thallium......................      7440280  ............          0.20       0.000068  ................               116        0.048        0.054
95. Toluene.......................       108883  ............          0.20         0.0097                17  ................           29           52
96. Toxaphene.....................      8001352           1.1  .............  ............             6,300  ................      6.6E-05      6.6E-05
97. Trichloroethylene.............        79016          0.05  .............  ............                13  ................          0.3          0.7
98. Vinyl Chloride................        75014           1.5  .............  ............               1.7  ................        0.020         0.18
99. Zinc..........................      7440666  ............          0.20            0.3  ................                47          450          580
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\a\ This criterion refers to the inorganic form of arsenic only.
\b\ This criterion is expressed as fibers per liter (fibers/L). The criterion for asbestos is the Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) developed under
  the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) (56 FR 3526, January 30, 1991).
\c\ EPA's national 304(a) recommended criteria for benzene use a CSF range of 0.015 to 0.055 per mg/kg-day. EPA proposes to use the higher end of the
  CSF range (0.055 per mg/kg-day) to derive the proposed benzene criteria for Washington.
\d\ The criterion for copper is the Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) developed under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) (40 CFR 141.80, June 7,
  1991).
\e\ This criterion is expressed as the fish tissue concentration of methylmercury (mg methylmercury/kg fish). See Water Quality Criterion for the
  Protection of Human Health: Methylmercury (EPA-823-R-01-001, January 3, 2001) for how this value is calculated using the criterion equation in EPA's
  2000 Human Health Methodology rearranged to solve for a protective concentration in fish tissue rather than in water.
\f\ This criterion applies to total PCBs (e.g., the sum of all congener or isomer or homolog or Aroclor analyses).
* Bis(2-Chloro-1-Methylethyl) Ether was previously listed as Bis(2-Chloroisopropyl) Ether.

E. Applicability of Criteria When Final

    The EPA does not propose to revise or replace any existing criteria 
(related to human health or otherwise) that were already adopted and 
submitted to EPA by Washington (and for those adopted after May 30, 
2000, approved by EPA), such as the state's narrative toxics criteria 
statement at WAC 173-201A-260(2)(a). Rather, EPA proposes to revise the 
current federal human health criteria applicable to waters in the state 
of Washington, as promulgated in the NTR, and establish new criteria 
for 14 additional priority pollutants. These new and revised human 
health criteria would apply for CWA purposes in addition to any 
existing criteria already applicable to Washington's waters.
    EPA proposes to replicate in 40 CFR 131.45 the same general rules 
of applicability for human health criteria as in 40 CFR 131.36(c), with 
one exception. For waters suitable for the establishment of low flow 
return frequencies (i.e., streams and rivers), EPA proposes that 
Washington must not use a low flow value below which numeric standards 
can be exceeded that is less stringent than the harmonic mean flow (a 
long-term mean flow value calculated by dividing the number of daily 
flows analyzed by the sum of the reciprocals of those daily flows). Per 
65 FR 66444, November 3, 2000, EPA now recommends harmonic mean flow be 
used to implement human health criteria for both carcinogens and non-
carcinogens.\35\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \35\ See also USEPA. 2014. Water Quality Standards Handbook--
Chapter 5: General Policies. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 
Office of Water. Washington, D.C. EPA-820-B-14-004. http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/standards/handbook/chapter05.cfm#section52.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Under the CWA, Congress gave states primary responsibility for 
developing and adopting WQS for their navigable waters (CWA section 
303(a)-(c)). Although EPA proposes human health criteria for Washington 
to update the existing federally promulgated criteria, Washington 
continues to have the option to adopt and submit to EPA human health 
criteria for the state's waters consistent with CWA section 303(c) and 
EPA's implementing regulations at 40 CFR part 131. EPA encourages 
Washington to expeditiously adopt protective human health criteria. 
Consistent with CWA section 303(c)(4), if Washington adopts and submits 
human health criteria and EPA approves such criteria before finalizing 
this proposed rule, EPA would not proceed with the final rulemaking for 
those waters and/or pollutants for which EPA approves Washington's 
criteria.
    If EPA finalizes this proposed rule, and Washington subsequently 
adopts and submits human health criteria, EPA proposes that once EPA 
approves Washington's WQS, the pollutant-specific or site-specific EPA-
approved criteria in Washington's WQS would become effective for CWA 
purposes and EPA's promulgated criteria for those pollutants or for 
that site would no longer apply. EPA would still undertake a rulemaking 
to withdraw the federal criteria for those pollutants, but any delay in 
that process would not delay Washington's approved criteria from 
becoming the sole applicable criteria for CWA purposes. EPA solicits 
comment on this approach.

F. Alternative Regulatory Approaches and Implementation Mechanisms

    Once finalized, Washington will have considerable discretion to 
implement these revised federal human health criteria through various 
water quality control programs including the NPDES program, which 
limits discharges to waters except in compliance with a NPDES permit. 
EPA's regulations at 40 CFR 131.14, once effective, authorize states 
and authorized tribes to adopt WQS variances to provide time to achieve 
the applicable WQS. 40 CFR part 131 defines WQS variances at 131.3(o) 
as time-limited designated uses and supporting criteria for a specific 
pollutant(s) or water quality parameter(s) that reflect the highest 
attainable conditions during the term of the WQS variance. WQS 
variances adopted in accordance with 40 CFR part 131 allow states and 
authorized tribes to

[[Page 55072]]

address water quality challenges in a transparent and predictable way. 
Variances help states and authorized tribes focus on making incremental 
progress in improving water quality, rather than pursuing a downgrade 
of the underlying water quality goals through a designated use change, 
when the current designated use is difficult to attain. EPA's 
regulations at 40 CFR 122.47 and 40 CFR 131.15, once effective, allow 
states and authorized tribes to include permit compliance schedules in 
their NPDES permits if dischargers need additional time to meet their 
water quality based limits based on the applicable WQS. EPA's updated 
regulations at 40 CFR part 131 also include provisions authorizing the 
use of permit compliance schedules to ensure that a decision to allow 
permit compliance schedules includes public engagement and 
transparency. (80 FR 51022, August 21, 2015).
    40 CFR 131.10 specifies how states and authorized tribes establish, 
modify or remove designated uses for their waters. 40 CFR 131.11 
specifies the requirements for establishing criteria to protect 
designated uses, including criteria modified to reflect site-specific 
conditions. In the context of this rulemaking, a site-specific 
criterion (SSC) is an alternative value to the federal human health 
criteria that would be applied on a watershed, area-wide, or waterbody-
specific basis that meets the regulatory test of protecting the 
designated use, being scientifically defensible, and ensuring the 
protection and maintenance of downstream WQS. A SSC may be more or less 
stringent than the otherwise applicable federal criteria. A SSC may be 
appropriate when further scientific data and analyses can bring added 
precision to express the concentration of a particular pollutant that 
protects the human health-related designated use in a particular 
waterbody.
    EPA does not propose to change any of the flexibilities afforded to 
Washington by EPA's regulations to modify or remove designated uses, 
adopt variances, issue compliance schedules or establish site-specific 
criteria. Washington may continue to use any of these regulatory 
flexibilities when implementing the revised federal human health 
criteria.
a. Designating Uses
    EPA's proposed human health criteria apply to waters that 
Washington has designated for the following: Fresh waters--Harvesting 
(fish harvesting), Domestic Water (domestic water supply), and 
Recreational Uses; Marine waters--Shellfish Harvesting (shellfish--
clam, oyster, and mussel--harvesting), Harvesting (salmonid and other 
fish harvesting, and crustacean and other shellfish--crabs, shrimp, 
scallops, etc.--harvesting), and Recreational Uses (see WAC 173-201A-
600 and WAC 173-201A-610). If Washington removes the Domestic Water use 
but retains any of the other above designated uses for any particular 
waterbody ultimately affected by this rule, and EPA finds that removal 
to be consistent with CWA section 303(c) and EPA's implementing 
regulations at 40 CFR part 131, then the federal organism-only criteria 
would apply in place of the federal water-plus-organism criteria. If 
Washington removes designated uses such that none of the above uses 
apply to any particular waterbody ultimately affected by this rule and 
adopts the highest attainable use, as defined by 40 CFR 131.3(m), 
consistent with 40 CFR 131.10(g), and EPA finds that removal to be 
consistent with CWA section 303(c) and EPA's implementing regulations 
at 40 CFR part 131, then the federal human health criteria would no 
longer apply to that waterbody. Instead, any criteria associated with 
the newly designated highest attainable use would apply to that 
waterbody.
b. Variances and Compliance Schedules
    EPA is proposing human health criteria that apply to use 
designations that Washington has already established. Washington has 
sufficient authority to use variances when implementing the human 
health criteria as long as such variances are adopted consistent with 
40 CFR 131.14. Washington may use its currently EPA-approved variance 
procedures with respect to a temporary modification of its uses as it 
pertains to any federal criteria (see WAC 173-201A-420) when adopting 
such variances. Similarly, Washington already has an EPA-approved 
regulation authorizing the use of permit compliance schedules (see WAC 
173-201A-510), consistent with 40 CFR 131.15. That state regulation is 
not affected by this rule, and Washington is authorized to grant 
compliance schedules, as appropriate, based on the federal criteria.
c. Site-Specific Criteria
    As discussed in section IV.E, EPA proposes that once EPA approves 
human health criteria that Washington adopts and submits after EPA 
finalizes this proposed rule, the pollutant-specific or site-specific 
EPA-approved criteria in Washington's WQS would become effective for 
CWA purposes and EPA's promulgated criteria for those pollutants or for 
that site would no longer apply.

V. Economic Analysis

    These WQS may serve as a basis for development of NPDES permit 
limits. Washington has NPDES permitting authority, and retains 
considerable discretion in implementing standards. EPA evaluated the 
potential costs to NPDES dischargers associated with state 
implementation of EPA's proposed criteria. This analysis is documented 
in ``Economic Analysis for the Revision of Certain Federal Water 
Quality Criteria Applicable to Washington,'' which can be found in the 
record for this rulemaking.
    Any NPDES-permitted facility that discharges pollutants for which 
the revised human health criteria are more stringent than the 
applicable aquatic life criteria (or for which human health criteria 
are the only applicable criteria) could potentially incur compliance 
costs. The types of affected facilities could include industrial 
facilities and POTWs discharging wastewater to surface waters (i.e., 
point sources). Once in compliance with water quality-based effluent 
limitations (WQBELs) reflective of existing federal human health 
criteria applicable to Washington (hereafter referred to as ``baseline 
criteria''), EPA expects that dischargers will continue to use the same 
types of controls to come into compliance with the revised criteria; 
EPA did not attribute compliance with WQBELs reflective of baseline 
criteria to the proposed rule. EPA did not fully evaluate the potential 
for costs to nonpoint sources, such as agricultural runoff, for this 
preliminary analysis.
    EPA recognizes that the permitting authority may require controls 
for nonpoint sources (e.g., agricultural runoff). However, it is 
difficult to model and evaluate the potential cost impacts of this 
proposed rule to nonpoint sources because they are intermittent, 
variable, and occur under hydrologic or climatic conditions associated 
with precipitation events. Also, data on instream and discharge levels 
of the pollutants of concern after dischargers have implemented 
controls to meet current WQS, total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) for 
impaired waters, or other water quality improvement plans, are not 
available. Therefore, trying to determine which sources would not 
achieve WQS based on the revised human health criteria after complying 
with existing regulations and policies may not be possible.
    Finally, legacy contamination (e.g., in sediment) may be a source 
of ongoing loading. Atmospheric deposition may

[[Page 55073]]

also contribute loadings of the pollutants of concern (e.g., mercury). 
EPA did not estimate sediment remediation costs, or air pollution 
controls costs, for this preliminary analysis.

A. Identifying Affected Entities

    EPA identified 406 point source facilities that could ultimately be 
affected by this proposed rule. Of these potentially affected 
facilities, 73 are major dischargers and 333 are minor dischargers. EPA 
did not include general permit facilities in its analysis because data 
for such facilities are limited, and flows are usually negligible. Of 
the potentially affected facilities, EPA evaluated a sample of 17 major 
facilities. Minor facilities are unlikely to incur costs as a result of 
implementation of the rule. Minor facilities are typically those that 
discharge less than 1 million gallons per day (mgd) and do not 
discharge toxics in toxic amounts. Although lower human health criteria 
could potentially change this categorization, EPA did not have effluent 
data on toxic pollutants to evaluate minor facilities for this 
preliminary analysis. Table 2 summarizes these potentially affected 
facilities by type and category.

                                    Table 2--Potentially Affected Facilities
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                            Category                                   Minor           Major            All
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Municipal.......................................................             184              48             232
Industrial......................................................             149              25             174
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total.......................................................             333              73             406
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

B. Method for Estimating Costs

    EPA evaluated the 2 major municipal facilities with design flows 
greater than 100 mgd and the largest industrial facility, to attempt to 
capture the facilities with the potential for the largest costs. For 
the remaining major facilities, EPA evaluated a random sample of 
facilities to represent discharger type and category. For all sample 
facilities, EPA evaluated existing baseline permit conditions, 
reasonable potential to exceed human health criteria based on the 
proposed rule, and potential to exceed projected effluent limitations 
based on the last three years of effluent monitoring data (if 
available). In instances of baseline effluent limitations not being 
reflective of baseline criteria, EPA estimated baseline effluent 
limitations, compliance actions, and costs. In instances of exceedances 
of projected effluent limitations under the proposed criteria, EPA 
determined the likely compliance scenarios and costs. Only compliance 
actions and costs that would be needed above the baseline level of 
controls are attributable to the proposed rule.
    EPA assumed that dischargers will pursue the least cost means of 
compliance with WQBELs. Incremental compliance actions attributable to 
the proposed rule may include pollution prevention, end-of-pipe 
treatment, and alternative compliance mechanisms (e.g., variances). EPA 
annualized capital costs, including study (e.g., variance) and program 
(e.g., pollution prevention) costs, over 20 years using a 7% discount 
rate to obtain total annual costs per facility. For the random sample, 
EPA extrapolated the annualized costs based on the sampling weight for 
each sample facility. To obtain an estimate of total costs to point 
sources, EPA added the results for the certainty sample to the 
extrapolated random sample costs.
C. Results
    Based on the results for 17 sample facilities across 8 industrial 
and municipal categories,\36\ EPA estimated a total annual cost of 
approximately $13.0 million to $13.1 million for all major dischargers 
in the state. The low end of the range reflects the assumption that the 
compliance actions will result in compliance with projected effluent 
limits through pollution prevention programs and end-of-pipe treatment, 
whereas the high scenario reflects the assumption that these actions 
will not result in compliance with very low limits and dischargers will 
also need to apply for variances. All of the incremental costs are 
attributable to industrial dischargers, primarily for treatment of 
arsenic. Overall, compliance with revised human health criteria for 
arsenic accounts for 99% of the costs, while compliance with revised 
human health criteria for mercury accounts for the remaining 1% of 
costs.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \36\ Seven industrial categories (mining, food and kindred 
products, paper and allied products, chemicals and allied products, 
petroleum refining and related industries, primary metal industries, 
and transportation and public utilities (except POTWs)) and 
municipal POTWs.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    If the revised criteria result in an incremental increase in 
impaired waters, resulting in the need for TMDL development, there 
could also be some costs to nonpoint sources of pollution. Using 
available ambient monitoring data, EPA compared pollutant 
concentrations to the baseline and proposed criteria, identifying 
waterbodies that may be incrementally impaired (i.e., impaired under 
the proposed criteria but not under the baseline). For the 26 
parameters and stations for which EPA had sufficient monitoring data 
available to evaluate, there were 205 impairments under the baseline 
criteria and 254 under the proposed criteria, for a total of 49 
potential incremental impairments (or a 24% increase relative to the 
baseline; including for mercury and DDT). This increase indicates the 
potential for nonpoint sources to bear some compliance costs, although 
data are not available to estimate the magnitude of these costs. The 
control of nonpoint sources such as in the context of a TMDL could 
result in less stringent requirements, and thus lower costs, for point 
sources.

VI. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews

A. Executive Order 12866 (Regulatory Planning and Review) and Executive 
Order 13563 (Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review)

    It has been determined that this proposed rule is not a 
``significant regulatory action'' under the terms of Executive Order 
12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993) and is, therefore, not subject to 
review under Executive Orders 12866 and 13563 (76 FR 3821, January 21, 
2011). The proposed rule does not establish any requirements directly 
applicable to regulated entities or other sources of toxic pollutants. 
However, these WQS may serve as a basis for development of NPDES permit 
limits. Washington has NPDES permitting authority, and retains 
considerable discretion in implementing standards. In the spirit of 
Executive Order 12866, EPA evaluated the potential costs to NPDES 
dischargers associated with state implementation of EPA's proposed 
criteria. This analysis,

[[Page 55074]]

Economic Analysis for the Revision of Certain Federal Water Quality 
Criteria Applicable to Washington, is summarized in section V of the 
preamble and is available in the docket.

B. Paperwork Reduction Act

    This action does not impose any direct new information collection 
burden under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act, 44 U.S.C. 
3501 et seq. Actions to implement these WQS could entail additional 
paperwork burden. Burden is defined at 5 CFR 1320.3(b). This action 
does not include any information collection, reporting, or record-
keeping requirements.

C. Regulatory Flexibility Act

    This action will not have a significant economic impact on a 
substantial number of small entities under the Regulatory Flexibility 
Act (RFA). Small entities, such as small businesses or small 
governmental jurisdictions, are not directly regulated by this rule. 
This proposed rule will thus not impose any requirements on small 
entities. We continue to be interested, however, in the potential 
impacts of the proposed rule on small entities and welcome comments on 
issues related to such impacts.

D. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act

    This action contains no federal mandates under the provisions of 
Title II of the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (UMRA), 2 U.S.C. 
1531-1538 for state, local, or tribal governments or the private 
sector. As these water quality criteria are not self-implementing, 
EPA's action imposes no enforceable duty on any state, local or tribal 
governments or the private sector. Therefore, this action is not 
subject to the requirements of sections 202 or 205 of the UMRA.
    This action is also not subject to the requirements of section 203 
of UMRA because it contains no regulatory requirements that could 
significantly or uniquely affect small governments.

E. Executive Order 13132 (Federalism)

    This action does not have federalism implications. It will not have 
substantial direct effects on the states, on the relationship between 
the national government and the states, or on the distribution of power 
and responsibilities among the various levels of government. This rule 
does not alter Washington's considerable discretion in implementing 
these WQS, nor would it preclude Washington from adopting WQS that EPA 
concludes meet the requirements of the CWA, either before or after 
promulgation of the final rule, which would eliminate the need for 
federal standards. Thus, Executive Order 13132 does not apply to this 
action.
    In the spirit of Executive Order 13132 and consistent with EPA 
policy to promote communications between EPA and state and local 
governments, EPA specifically solicits comments on this proposed action 
from state and local officials.

F. Executive Order 13175 (Consultation and Coordination With Indian 
Tribal Governments)

    This action has tribal implications. However, it will neither 
impose substantial direct compliance costs on federally recognized 
tribal governments, nor preempt tribal law. In the state of Washington, 
there are 29 federally recognized Indian tribes. To date, nine of these 
Indian tribes have been approved for TAS for CWA sections 303 and 
401.\37\ Of these nine tribes, seven have EPA-approved WQS in their 
respective jurisdictions.\38\ This rule could affect federally 
recognized Indian tribes in Washington because the numeric criteria for 
Washington will apply to waters adjacent to (or upstream or downstream 
of) the tribal waters, and because the proposed Washington criteria are 
informed by tribal reserved rights. Additionally, there are ten 
federally recognized Indian tribes in the Columbia River Basin located 
in the states of Oregon and Idaho that this rule could affect because 
their waters could affect or be affected by the water quality of 
Washington's downstream or upstream waters.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \37\ http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/standards/wqslibrary/approvtable.cfm.
    \38\ http://yosemite.epa.gov/r10/water.nsf/34090d07b77d50bd88256b79006529e8/dd2a4df00fd7ae1a88256e0500680e86!OpenDocument. Note that this number 
does not include the Confederated Tribes of the Colville 
Reservation, which has federally-promulgated WQS from 1989. EPA is 
currently reviewing the Colville Tribe's application for TAS.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    EPA consulted with federally recognized tribal officials under 
EPA's Policy on Consultation and Coordination with Indian tribes early 
in the process of developing this proposed rule to permit them to have 
meaningful and timely input into its development. In February and March 
2015, EPA held tribes-only technical staff and leadership consultation 
sessions to hear their views and answer questions of all interested 
tribes on the proposed rule. Representatives from approximately 23 
tribes and four tribal consortia participated in two leadership 
meetings held in March 2015. EPA and tribes have also met regularly 
since November 2012 to discuss Washington's human health criteria at 
both the tribal leadership level and technical staff level. The tribes 
have repeatedly asked EPA to promulgate federal human health criteria 
for Washington if the state did not do so in a timely and protective 
manner. At these meetings, the tribes consistently emphasized that the 
human health criteria should be derived using at least a minimum FCR 
value of 175 g/day, a cancer risk level of 10-6, and the 
latest scientific information from EPA's 304(a) recommended criteria. 
EPA considered the input received during consultation with tribes when 
developing this proposal (see section IV for additional discussion of 
how EPA considered tribal input).

G. Executive Order 13045 (Protection of Children From Environmental 
Health and Safety Risks)

    This rule is not subject to Executive Order 13045, because it is 
not economically significant as defined in Executive Order 12866, and 
because the environmental health or safety risks addressed by this 
action do not present a disproportionate risk to children.
    The public is invited to submit comments or identify peer-reviewed 
studies and data that assess effects of early life exposure.

H. Executive Order 13211 (Actions That Significantly Affect Energy 
Supply, Distribution, or Use)

    This action is not a ``significant energy action'' because it is 
not likely to have a significant adverse effect on the supply, 
distribution, or use of energy.

I. National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995

    This proposed rulemaking does not involve technical standards.

J. Executive Order 12898 (Federal Actions To Address Environmental 
Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations)

    This action will not have disproportionately high and adverse human 
health or environmental effects on minority or low-income populations. 
Conversely, this action identifies and ameliorates disproportionately 
high and adverse human health effects on minority populations and low-
income populations in Washington. EPA developed the human health 
criteria included in this proposed rule specifically to protect 
Washington's designated uses, using the most current science, including 
local and regional information on fish consumption. Applying these 
criteria to waters in the state of Washington will afford a greater

[[Page 55075]]

level of protection to both human health and the environment.

List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 131

    Environmental protection, Indians-lands, Intergovernmental 
relations, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Water pollution 
control.

    Dated: August 31, 2015.
Gina McCarthy,
Administrator.
    For the reasons set forth in the preamble, EPA proposes to amend 40 
CFR part 131 as follows:

PART 131--WATER QUALITY STANDARDS

0
1. The authority citation for part 131 continues to read as follows:

    Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.

Subpart D--Federally Promulgated Water Quality Standards


Sec.  131.36  [Amended]

0
2. In Sec.  131.36, remove paragraph (d)(14).
0
3. Add Sec.  131.45 to read as follows:


Sec.  131.45  Revision of certain Federal water quality criteria 
applicable to Washington.

    (a) Scope. This section promulgates human health criteria for 
priority toxic pollutants in surface waters in Washington.
    (b) Criteria for priority toxic pollutants in Washington. The 
applicable human health criteria are shown in Table 1.

                                                 Table 1--Proposed Human Health Criteria for Washington
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       A                                                               B                                                    C
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                 Cancer slope     Relative      Reference   Bio-accumulation        Bio-
                                                  factor, CSF      source       dose, RfD      factor for       concentration     Water &     Organisms
             Chemical                 CAS No.      (per mg/    contribution,      (mg/       trophic level 4    factor (L/kg     organisms   only ([mu]g/
                                                 kg[middot]d)     RSC (-)     kg[middot]d)    (L/kg tissue)        tissue)       ([mu]g/L)        L)
                                    ...........          (B1)          (B2)           (B3)              (B4)              (B5)         (C1)         (C2)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane..........        71556  ............          0.20              2                10  ................        8,000       20,000
2. 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane......        79345           0.2  .............  ............               8.4  ................          0.1          0.3
3. 1,1,2-Trichloroethane..........        79005         0.057  .............  ............               8.9  ................         0.35         0.90
4. 1,1-Dichloroethylene...........        75354  ............          0.20           0.05               2.6  ................          300        2,000
5. 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene.........       120821         0.029  .............  ............               430  ................        0.036        0.037
6. 1,2-Dichlorobenzene............        95501  ............          0.20            0.3                82  ................          300          300
7. 1,2-Dichloroethane.............       107062        0.0033  .............  ............               1.9  ................          8.9           73
8. 1,2-Dichloropropane............        78875         0.036  .............  ............               3.9  ................         0.72          3.3
9. 1,2-Diphenylhydrazine..........       122667           0.8  .............  ............                27  ................         0.01         0.02
10. 1,2-Trans-Dichloroethylene....       156605  ............          0.20           0.02               4.7  ................          100          400
11. 1,3-Dichlorobenzene...........       541731  ............          0.20          0.002               190  ................          0.9            1
12. 1,3-Dichloropropene...........       542756         0.122  .............  ............               3.0  ................         0.22          1.2
13. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene...........       106467  ............          0.20           0.07                84  ................           70           80
14. 2,3,7,8-TCDD (Dioxin).........      1746016       156,000  .............  ............  ................             5,000      5.8E-10      5.9E-10
15. 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol.........        88062         0.011  .............  ............               150  ................         0.25         0.28
16. 2,4-Dichlorophenol............       120832  ............          0.20          0.003                48  ................            4            6
17. 2,4-Dimethylphenol............       105679  ............          0.20           0.02                 7  ................           90          300
18. 2,4-Dinitrophenol.............        51285  ............          0.20          0.002  ................               4.4           10           40
19. 2,4-Dinitrotoluene............       121142         0.667  .............  ............               3.9  ................        0.039         0.18
20. 2-Chloronaphthalene...........        91587  ............          0.80           0.08               240  ................          100          100
21. 2-Chlorophenol................        95578  ............          0.20          0.005               5.4  ................           20           80
22. 2-Methyl-4,6-Dinitrophenol....       534521  ............          0.20         0.0003                10  ................            1            3
23. 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine........        91941          0.45  .............  ............                69  ................        0.012        0.015
24. 3-Methyl-4-Chlorophenol.......        59507  ............          0.20            0.1                39  ................          200          200
25. 4,4'-DDD......................        72548          0.24  .............  ............           240,000  ................      7.9E-06      7.9E-06
26. 4,4'-DDE......................        72559         0.167  .............  ............         3,100,000  ................      8.8E-07      8.8E-07
27. 4,4'-DDT......................        50293          0.34  .............  ............         1,100,000  ................      1.2E-06      1.2E-06
28. Acenaphthene..................        83329  ............          0.20           0.06  ................               510           10           10
29. Acrolein......................       107028  ............          0.20         0.0005               1.0  ................            3           50
30. Acrylonitrile.................       107131          0.54  .............  ............               1.0  ................        0.058         0.85
31. Aldrin........................       309002            17  .............  ............           650,000  ................      4.1E-08      4.1E-08
32. alpha-BHC.....................       319846           6.3  .............  ............             1,500  ................      4.8E-05      4.8E-05
33. alpha-Endosulfan..............       959988  ............          0.20          0.006               200  ................            3            3
34. Anthracene....................       120127  ............          0.20            0.3  ................               610           40           40
35. Antimony......................      7440360  ............          0.20         0.0004  ................                 1          2.5           37
36. Arsenic.......................      7440382          1.75  .............  ............  ................                44   \a\ 0.0045   \a\ 0.0059
37. Asbestos......................      1332214  ............  .............  ............  ................  ................          \b\  ...........
                                                                                                                                  7,000,000
                                                                                                                                 (fibers/L)
38. Benzene.......................        71432     \c\ 0.055  .............  ............               5.0  ................     \c\ 0.44      \c\ 1.7
39. Benzidine.....................        92875           230  .............  ............               1.7  ................      0.00013       0.0012
40. Benzo(a) Anthracene...........        56553          0.73  .............  ............  ................             3,900      0.00016      0.00016
41. Benzo(a) Pyrene...............        50328           7.3  .............  ............  ................             3,900      1.6E-05      1.6E-05
42. Benzo(b) Fluoranthene.........       205992          0.73  .............  ............  ................             3,900      0.00016      0.00016
43. Benzo(k) Fluoranthene.........       207089         0.073  .............  ............  ................             3,900       0.0016       0.0016
44. beta-BHC......................       319857           1.8  .............  ............               180  ................       0.0013       0.0014
45. beta-Endosulfan...............     33213659  ............          0.20          0.006               130  ................            4            4
46. Bis(2-Chloroethyl) Ether......       111444           1.1  .............  ............               1.7  ................        0.027         0.24
47. * Bis(2-Chloro-1-Methylethyl)        108601  ............          0.20           0.04                10  ................          200          400
 Ether............................
48. Bis(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate...       117817         0.014  .............  ............  ................               710        0.045        0.046
49. Bromoform.....................        75252        0.0045  .............  ............               8.5  ................          4.6           12
50. Butylbenzyl Phthalate.........        85687        0.0019  .............  ............  ................            19,000        0.013        0.013
51. Carbon Tetrachloride..........        56235          0.07  .............  ............                14  ................          0.2          0.5
52. Chlordane.....................        57749          0.35  .............  ............            60,000  ................      2.2E-05      2.2E-05
53. Chlorobenzene.................       108907  ............          0.20           0.02                22  ................           50           80
54. Chlorodibromomethane..........       124481          0.04  .............  ............               5.3  ................         0.60          2.2

[[Page 55076]]

 
55. Chloroform....................        67663  ............          0.20           0.01               3.8  ................           50          200
56. Chrysene......................       218019        0.0073  .............  ............  ................             3,900        0.016        0.016
57. Copper........................      7440508  ............  .............  ............  ................  ................     \d\ 1300  ...........
58. Cyanide.......................        57125  ............          0.20         0.0006  ................                 1            4           50
59. Dibenzo(a,h) Anthracene.......        53703           7.3  .............  ............  ................             3,900      1.6E-05      1.6E-05
60. Dichlorobromomethane..........        75274         0.034  .............  ............               4.8  ................         0.73          2.8
61. Dieldrin......................        60571            16  .............  ............           410,000  ................      7.0E-08      7.0E-08
62. Diethyl Phthalate.............        84662  ............          0.20            0.8  ................               920           80           80
63. Dimethyl Phthalate............       131113  ............          0.20             10  ................             4,000          200          200
64. Di-n-Butyl Phthalate..........        84742  ............          0.20            0.1  ................             2,900            3            3
65. Endosulfan Sulfate............      1031078  ............          0.20          0.006               140  ................            4            4
66. Endrin........................        72208  ............          0.80         0.0003            46,000  ................        0.002        0.002
67. Endrin Aldehyde...............      7421934  ............          0.80         0.0003               850  ................          0.1          0.1
68. Ethylbenzene..................       100414  ............          0.20          0.022               160  ................           12           13
69. Fluoranthene..................       206440  ............          0.20           0.04  ................             1,500            2            2
70. Fluorene......................        86737  ............          0.20           0.04               710  ................            5            5
71. gamma-BHC; Lindane............        58899  ............          0.50         0.0047             2,500  ................         0.43         0.43
72. Heptachlor....................        76448           4.1  .............  ............           330,000  ................      3.4E-07      3.4E-07
73. Heptachlor Epoxide............      1024573           5.5  .............  ............            35,000  ................      2.4E-06      2.4E-06
74. Hexachlorobenzene.............       118741          1.02  .............  ............            90,000  ................      5.0E-06      5.0E-06
75. Hexachlorobutadiene...........        87683          0.04  .............  ............             1,100  ................         0.01         0.01
76. Hexachlorocyclopentadiene.....        77474  ............          0.20          0.006             1,300  ................          0.4          0.4
77. Hexachloroethane..............        67721          0.04  .............  ............               600  ................         0.02         0.02
78. Indeno(1,2,3-cd) Pyrene.......       193395          0.73  .............  ............  ................             3,900      0.00016      0.00016
79. Isophorone....................        78591       0.00095  .............  ............               2.4  ................           30          200
80. Methyl Bromide................        74839  ............          0.20           0.02               1.4  ................          100        1,000
81. Methylene Chloride............        75092         0.002  .............  ............               1.6  ................           10          100
82. Methylmercury.................     22967926  ............       2.7E-05         0.0001  ................  ................  ...........    \e\ 0.033
                                                                                                                                                 (mg/kg)
83. Nickel........................      7440020  ............          0.20           0.02  ................                47           30           39
84. Nitrobenzene..................        98953  ............          0.20          0.002               3.1  ................           10           60
85. N-Nitrosodimethylamine........        62759            51  .............  ............  ................             0.026      0.00065         0.34
86. N-Nitrosodi-n-Propylamine.....       621647             7  .............  ............  ................              1.13       0.0044        0.058
87. N-Nitrosodiphenylamine........        86306        0.0049  .............  ............  ................               136         0.62         0.69
88. Pentachlorophenol (PCP).......        87865           0.4  .............  ............               520  ................        0.002        0.002
89. Phenol........................       108952  ............          0.20            0.6               1.9  ................        4,000       30,000
90. Polychlorinated Biphenyls       ...........             2  .............  ............  ................            31,200  \f\ 7.3E-06  \f\ 7.3E-06
 (PCBs)...........................
91. Pyrene........................       129000  ............          0.20           0.03  ................               860            3            3
92. Selenium......................      7782492  ............          0.20          0.005  ................               4.8           25           95
93. Tetrachloroethylene...........       127184        0.0021  .............  ............                76  ................          2.4          2.9
94. Thallium......................      7440280  ............          0.20       0.000068  ................               116        0.048        0.054
95. Toluene.......................       108883  ............          0.20         0.0097                17  ................           29           52
96. Toxaphene.....................      8001352           1.1  .............  ............             6,300  ................      6.6E-05      6.6E-05
97. Trichloroethylene.............        79016          0.05  .............  ............                13  ................          0.3          0.7
98. Vinyl Chloride................        75014           1.5  .............  ............               1.7  ................        0.020         0.18
99. Zinc..........................      7440666  ............          0.20            0.3  ................                47          450          580
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\a\ This criterion refers to the inorganic form of arsenic only.
\b\ This criterion is expressed as fibers per liter (fibers/L). The criterion for asbestos is the Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) developed under
  the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) (56 FR 3526, January 30, 1991).
\c\ EPA's national 304(a) recommended criteria for benzene use a CSF range of 0.015 to 0.055 per mg/kg-day. EPA proposes to use the higher end of the
  CSF range (0.055 per mg/kg-day) to derive the proposed benzene criteria for Washington.
\d\ The criterion for copper is the Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) developed under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) (40 CFR 141.80, June 7,
  1991).
\e\ This criterion is expressed as the fish tissue concentration of methylmercury (mg methylmercury/kg fish). See Water Quality Criterion for the
  Protection of Human Health: Methylmercury (EPA-823-R-01-001, January 3, 2001) for how this value is calculated using the criterion equation in EPA's
  2000 Human Health Methodology rearranged to solve for a protective concentration in fish tissue rather than in water.
\f\ This criterion applies to total PCBs (e.g., the sum of all congener or isomer or homolog or Aroclor analyses).
* Bis(2-Chloro-1-Methylethyl) Ether was previously listed as Bis(2-Chloroisopropyl) Ether.

    (c) Applicability. (1) The criteria in paragraph (b) of this 
section apply to waters with Washington's designated uses cited in 
paragraph (d) of this section and apply concurrently with any water 
quality criteria adopted by the state, except where pollutant- or 
waterbody-specific state human health criteria regulations determined 
by EPA to meet the requirements of Clean Water Act section 303(c) and 
40 CFR part 131 apply, in which case Washington's pollutant- or 
waterbody-specific criteria will apply and not the criteria in 
paragraph (b) of this section.
    (2) The criteria established in this section are subject to 
Washington's general rules of applicability in the same way and to the 
same extent as are other federally promulgated and state-adopted 
numeric criteria when applied to the same use classifications in 
paragraph (d) of this section.
    (i) For all waters with mixing zone regulations or implementation 
procedures, the criteria apply at the appropriate locations within or 
at the boundary of the mixing zones; otherwise the criteria apply 
throughout the waterbody including at the end of any discharge pipe, 
conveyance or other discharge point.

[[Page 55077]]

    (ii) The state must not use a low flow value below which numeric 
non-carcinogen and carcinogen human health criteria can be exceeded 
that is less stringent than the harmonic mean flow for waters suitable 
for the establishment of low flow return frequencies (i.e., streams and 
rivers). Harmonic mean flow is a long-term mean flow value calculated 
by dividing the number of daily flows analyzed by the sum of the 
reciprocals of those daily flows.
    (iii) If the state does not have such a low flow value for numeric 
criteria, then none will apply and the criteria in paragraph (b) of 
this section herein apply at all flows.
    (d) Applicable use designations. (1) All waters in Washington 
assigned to the following use classifications are subject to the 
criteria identified in paragraph (d)(2) of this section:
    (i) Fresh waters--
    (A) Miscellaneous uses: Harvesting (Fish harvesting);
    (B) Recreational uses;
    (C) Water supply uses: Domestic water (Domestic water supply);
    (ii) Marine waters--
    (A) Miscellaneous uses: Harvesting (Salmonid and other fish 
harvesting, and crustacean and other shellfish (crabs, shrimp, 
scallops, etc.) harvesting);
    (B) Recreational uses;
    (C) Shellfish harvesting: Shellfish harvest (Shellfish (clam, 
oyster, and mussel) harvesting)
    Note to paragraph (d)(1): The source of these uses is Washington 
Administrative Code 173-201A-600 for Fresh waters and 173-201A-610 for 
Marine waters.
    (2) For Washington waters that include the use classification of 
Domestic Water, the criteria in column C1 of Table 1 in paragraph (b) 
of this section apply. For Washington waters that include any of the 
following use classifications but do not include the use classification 
of Domestic Water, the criteria in column C2 of Table 1 in paragraph 
(b) of this section apply: Harvesting (fresh and marine waters), 
Recreational Uses (fresh and marine waters), and Shellfish Harvesting.
[FR Doc. 2015-22592 Filed 9-11-15; 8:45 am]
 BILLING CODE 6560-50-P