[Federal Register Volume 78, Number 14 (Tuesday, January 22, 2013)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Pages 4324-4331]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2013-00788]



Occupational Safety and Health Administration

29 CFR Part 1910

Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories 
(Non-Mandatory Appendix); Technical Amendment

AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor.

ACTION: Technical amendment.


SUMMARY: This document updates a non-mandatory appendix in OSHA's 
Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories Standard. 
The non-mandatory appendix is being updated to include the contents of 
the latest National Academy of Sciences publication entitled, ``Prudent 
Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical 
Hazards,'' 2011 edition. All revisions being made are minor and non-

DATES: The effective date of this technical amendment to the standard 
is January 22, 2013.

    Press inquiries: Frank Meilinger, Director, Office of 
Communications, OSHA, U.S. Department of Labor, Room N-3647, 200 
Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20210; telephone: (202) 693-
    General and technical information: Andrew Levinson, OSHA 
Directorate of Standards and Guidance, Office of Biological Hazards, 
Room N-3718, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., 
Washington, DC 20210; telephone: (202) 693-1950.



    When the OSHA Laboratory Standard was published in 1990, the non-
mandatory Appendix A was based on the 1981 edition of ``Prudent 
Practices for Handling Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories'' and the 
1983 edition of ``Prudent Practices for Disposal of Chemicals from 
Laboratories,'' both published by National Academy Press. Since then, 
there have been many changes in the culture of safety in laboratories. 
The National Academies of Science (NAS) recognized these changes and 
has revised and updated its earlier ``Prudent Practices,'' reflected in 
the 2011 edition of ``Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and 
Management of Chemical Hazards'' (National Academies Press). The 2011 
edition of ``Prudent Practices'' is being used by OSHA as the basis for 
non-mandatory Appendix A because of its wide distribution and 
acceptance and because of its preparation by recognized authorities in 
the laboratory community. OSHA has reviewed the 2011 edition and 
collaborated with the NAS to revise non-mandatory Appendix A. This new 
revision addresses current laboratory practices, security, and 
emergency response, as well as promoting safe handling of highly toxic 
and explosive chemicals and their waste products.

Inapplicability of Public Notice and Delayed Effective Date 

    Section 553 of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA), 5 U.S.C. 
553(b)(3)(B), provides that, when an Agency for good cause finds that 
notice and public procedure are impracticable, unnecessary or contrary 
to the public interest, the Agency may issue a final rule without 
providing notice and an opportunity for public comment. OSHA has 
determined that there is good cause, pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 553(b)(3)(B), 
Section 6(b) of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 
U.S.C. 655(b)), and 29 CFR 1911.5, for making this technical amendment 
final without prior proposal and opportunity for comment because the 
amendment does not modify or revoke existing rights or obligations, and 
does not establish new rights or obligations. Its revisions are non-
mandatory and disseminated for informational purposes only. For the 
same reasons, the Agency finds good cause under 5 U.S.C. 553(d)(3) to 
make the amendments effective upon publication.

List of Subjects in 29 CFR Part 1910

    Occupational safety and health, Laboratories.

[[Page 4325]]

Authority and Signature

    David Michaels, Ph.D., MPH, Assistant Secretary of Labor for 
Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 
Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20210, authorized the 
preparation of this document.

David Michaels,
Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health.

    Accordingly, OSHA is amending 29 CFR part 1910 by making the 
following technical amendment:


Subpart Z--[Amended]

1. The authority citation for Part 1910 Subpart Z continues to read as 

    Authority: Sections 4, 6, and 8 of the Occupational Safety and 
Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657); Secretary of Labor's 
Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), 9-83 (48 FR 
35736), 1-90 (55 FR 9033), 6-96 (62 FR 111), 3-2000 (65 FR 50017), 
or 5-2007 (72 FR 31159), 4-2010 (75 FR 55355) or 1-2012 (77 FR 
3912), as applicable; and 29 CFR part 1911.
    All of subpart Z issued under section 6(b) of the Occupational 
Safety and Health Act of 1970, except those substances that have 
exposure limits listed in Tables Z-1, Z-2, and Z-3 of 29 CFR 
1910.1000. The latter were issued under section 6(a) (29 U.S.C. 
    Section 1910.1000, Tables Z-1, Z-2 and Z-3 also issued under 5 
U.S.C. 553, but not under 29 CFR part 1911 except for the arsenic 
(organic compounds), benzene, cotton dust, and chromium (VI) 
    Section 1910.1001 also issued under section 107 of the Contract 
Work Hours and Safety Standards Act (40 U.S.C. 3704) and 5 U.S.C. 
    Section 1910.1002 also issued under 5 U.S.C. 553, but not under 
29 U.S.C. 655 or 29 CFR part 1911.
    Sections 1910.1018, 1910.1029, and 1910.1200 also issued under 
29 U.S.C. 653.
    Section 1910.1030 also issued under Pub. L. 106-430, 114 Stat. 
    Section 1910.1201 also issued under 49 U.S.C. 1801-1819 and 5 
U.S.C. 533.

2. Amend Sec.  1910.1450 by revising Appendix A to read as follows:

Sec.  1910.1450  Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in 

* * * * *


    To assist employers in developing an appropriate laboratory 
Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP), the following non-mandatory 
recommendations were based on the National Research Council's (NRC) 
2011 edition of ``Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and 
Management of Chemical Hazards.'' This reference, henceforth 
referred to as ``Prudent Practices,'' is available from the National 
Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street NW., Washington DC 20001 
(www.nap.edu). ``Prudent Practices'' is cited because of its wide 
distribution and acceptance and because of its preparation by 
recognized authorities in the laboratory community through the 
sponsorship of the NRC. However, these recommendations do not modify 
any requirements of the OSHA Laboratory standard. This appendix 
presents pertinent recommendations from ``Prudent Practices,'' 
organized into a form convenient for quick reference during 
operation of a laboratory and during development and application of 
a CHP. For a detailed explanation and justification for each 
recommendation, consult ``Prudent Practices.''
    ``Prudent Practices'' deals with both general laboratory safety 
and many types of chemical hazards, while the Laboratory standard is 
concerned primarily with chemical health hazards as a result of 
chemical exposures. The recommendations from ``Prudent Practices'' 
have been paraphrased, combined, or otherwise reorganized in order 
to adapt them for this purpose. However, their sense has not been 
    Section F contains information from the U.S. Chemical Safety 
Board's (CSB) Fiscal Year 2011 Annual Performance and Accountability 
report and Section F contains recommendations extracted from the 
CSB's 2011 case study, ``Texas Tech University Laboratory 
Explosion,'' available from: http://www.csb.gov/.

Culture of Safety

    With the promulgation of the Occupational Safety and Health 
Administration (OSHA) Laboratory standard (29 CFR 1910.1450), a 
culture of safety consciousness, accountability, organization, and 
education has developed in industrial, governmental, and academic 
laboratories. Safety and training programs have been implemented to 
promote the safe handling of chemicals from ordering to disposal, 
and to train laboratory personnel in safe practices. Laboratory 
personnel must realize that the welfare and safety of each 
individual depends on clearly defined attitudes of teamwork and 
personal responsibility. Learning to participate in this culture of 
habitual risk assessment, experiment planning, and consideration of 
worst-case possibilities--for oneself and one's fellow workers--is 
as much part of a scientific education as learning the theoretical 
background of experiments or the step-by-step protocols for doing 
them in a professional manner. A crucial component of chemical 
education for all personnel is to nurture basic attitudes and habits 
of prudent behavior so that safety is a valued and inseparable part 
of all laboratory activities throughout their career.
    Over the years, special techniques have been developed for 
handling chemicals safely. Local, state, and federal regulations 
hold institutions that sponsor chemical laboratories accountable for 
providing safe working environments. Beyond regulation, employers 
and scientists also hold themselves personally responsible for their 
own safety, the safety of their colleagues and the safety of the 
general public. A sound safety organization that is respected by all 
requires the participation and support of laboratory administrators, 
workers, and students. A successful health and safety program 
requires a daily commitment from everyone in the organization. To be 
most effective, safety and health must be balanced with, and 
incorporated into, laboratory processes. A strong safety and health 
culture is the result of positive workplace attitudes--from the 
chief executive officer to the newest hire; involvement and buy-in 
of all members of the workforce; mutual, meaningful, and measurable 
safety and health improvement goals; and policies and procedures 
that serve as reference tools, rather than obscure rules.
    In order to perform their work in a prudent manner, laboratory 
personnel must consider the health, physical, and environmental 
hazards of the chemicals they plan to use in an experiment. However, 
the ability to accurately identify and assess laboratory hazards 
must be taught and encouraged through training and ongoing 
organizational support. This training must be at the core of every 
good health and safety program. For management to lead, personnel to 
assess worksite hazards, and hazards to be eliminated or controlled, 
everyone involved must be trained.

A. General Principles

1. Minimize All Chemical Exposures and Risks

    Because few laboratory chemicals are without hazards, general 
precautions for handling all laboratory chemicals should be adopted. 
In addition to these general guidelines, specific guidelines for 
chemicals that are used frequently or are particularly hazardous 
should be adopted.
    Laboratory personnel should conduct their work under conditions 
that minimize the risks from both known and unknown hazardous 
substances. Before beginning any laboratory work, the hazards and 
risks associated with an experiment or activity should be determined 
and the necessary safety precautions implemented. Every laboratory 
should develop facility-specific policies and procedures for the 
highest-risk materials and procedures used in their laboratory. To 
identify these, consideration should be given to past accidents, 
process conditions, chemicals used in large volumes, and 
particularly hazardous chemicals.
    Perform Risk Assessments for Hazardous Chemicals and Procedures 
Prior to Laboratory Work:
    (a) Identify chemicals to be used, amounts required, and 
circumstances of use in the experiment. Consider any special 
employee or laboratory conditions that could create or increase a 
hazard. Consult sources of safety and health information and 
experienced scientists to ensure that those conducting the risk 
assessment have sufficient expertise.
    (b) Evaluate the hazards posed by the chemicals and the 
experimental conditions.

[[Page 4326]]

The evaluation should cover toxic, physical, reactive, flammable, 
explosive, radiation, and biological hazards, as well as any other 
potential hazards posed by the chemicals.
    (c) For a variety of physical and chemical reasons, reaction 
scale-ups pose special risks, which merit additional prior review 
and precautions.
    (d) Select appropriate controls to minimize risk, including use 
of engineering controls, administrative controls, and personal 
protective equipment (PPE) to protect workers from hazards. The 
controls must ensure that OSHA's Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) 
are not exceeded. Prepare for contingencies and be aware of the 
institutional procedures in the event of emergencies and accidents.
    One sample approach to risk assessment is to answer these five 
    (a) What are the hazards?
    (b) What is the worst thing that could happen?
    (c) What can be done to prevent this from happening?
    (d) What can be done to protect from these hazards?
    (e) What should be done if something goes wrong?

2. Avoid Underestimation of Risk

    Even for substances of no known significant hazard, exposure 
should be minimized; when working with substances that present 
special hazards, special precautions should be taken. Reference 
should be made to the safety data sheet (SDS) that is provided for 
each chemical. Unless otherwise known, one should assume that any 
mixture will be more toxic than its most toxic component and that 
all substances of unknown toxicity are toxic.
    Determine the physical and health hazards associated with 
chemicals before working with them. This determination may involve 
consulting literature references, laboratory chemical safety 
summaries (LCSSs), SDSs, or other reference materials. Consider how 
the chemicals will be processed and determine whether the changing 
states or forms will change the nature of the hazard. Review your 
plan, operating limits, chemical evaluations and detailed risk 
assessment with other chemists, especially those with experience 
with similar materials and protocols.
    Before working with chemicals, know your facility's policies and 
procedures for how to handle an accidental spill or fire. Emergency 
telephone numbers should be posted in a prominent area. Know the 
location of all safety equipment and the nearest fire alarm and 

3. Adhere to the Hierarchy of Controls

    The hierarchy of controls prioritizes intervention strategies 
based on the premise that the best way to control a hazard is to 
systematically remove it from the workplace, rather than relying on 
employees to reduce their exposure. The types of measures that may 
be used to protect employees (listed from most effective to least 
effective) are: engineering controls, administrative controls, work 
practices, and PPE. Engineering controls, such as chemical hoods, 
physically separate the employee from the hazard. Administrative 
controls, such as employee scheduling, are established by management 
to help minimize the employees' exposure time to hazardous 
chemicals. Work practice controls are tasks that are performed in a 
designated way to minimize or eliminate hazards. Personal protective 
equipment and apparel are additional protection provided under 
special circumstances and when exposure is unavoidable.
    Face and eye protection is necessary to prevent ingestion and 
skin absorption of hazardous chemicals. At a minimum, safety 
glasses, with side shields, should be used for all laboratory work. 
Chemical splash goggles are more appropriate than regular safety 
glasses to protect against hazards such as projectiles, as well as 
when working with glassware under reduced or elevated pressures 
(e.g., sealed tube reactions), when handling potentially explosive 
compounds (particularly during distillations), and when using 
glassware in high-temperature operations. Do not allow laboratory 
chemicals to come in contact with skin. Select gloves carefully to 
ensure that they are impervious to the chemicals being used and are 
of correct thickness to allow reasonable dexterity while also 
ensuring adequate barrier protection.
    Lab coats and gloves should be worn when working with hazardous 
materials in a laboratory. Wear closed-toe shoes and long pants or 
other clothing that covers the legs when in a laboratory where 
hazardous chemicals are used. Additional protective clothing should 
be used when there is significant potential for skin-contact 
exposure to chemicals. The protective characteristics of this 
clothing must be matched to the hazard. Never wear gloves or 
laboratory coats outside the laboratory or into areas where food is 
stored and consumed.

4. Provide Laboratory Ventilation

    The best way to prevent exposure to airborne substances is to 
prevent their escape into the working atmosphere by the use of hoods 
and other ventilation devices. To determine the best choice for 
laboratory ventilation using engineering controls for personal 
protection, employers are referred to Table 9.3 of the 2011 edition 
of ``Prudent Practices.'' Laboratory chemical hoods are the most 
important components used to protect laboratory personnel from 
exposure to hazardous chemicals.
    (a) Toxic or corrosive chemicals that require vented storage 
should be stored in vented cabinets instead of in a chemical hood.
    (b) Chemical waste should not be disposed of by evaporation in a 
chemical hood.
    (c) Keep chemical hood areas clean and free of debris at all 
    (d) Solid objects and materials, such as paper, should be 
prevented from entering the exhaust ducts as they can reduce the air 
    (e) Chemical hoods should be maintained, monitored and routinely 
tested for proper performance.
    A laboratory ventilation system should include the following 
characteristics and practices:
    (a) Heating and cooling should be adequate for the comfort of 
workers and operation of equipment. Before modification of any 
building HVAC, the impact on laboratory or hood ventilation should 
be considered, as well as how laboratory ventilation changes may 
affect the building HVAC.
    (b) A negative pressure differential should exist between the 
amount of air exhausted from the laboratory and the amount supplied 
to the laboratory to prevent uncontrolled chemical vapors from 
leaving the laboratory.
    (c) Local exhaust ventilation devices should be appropriate to 
the materials and operations in the laboratory.
    (d) The air in chemical laboratories should be continuously 
replaced so that concentrations of odoriferous or toxic substances 
do not increase during the workday.
    (e) Laboratory air should not be recirculated but exhausted 
directly outdoors.
    (f) Air pressure should be negative with respect to the rest of 
the building. Local capture equipment and systems should be designed 
only by an experienced engineer or industrial hygienist.
    (g) Ventilation systems should be inspected and maintained on a 
regular basis. There should be no areas where air remains static or 
areas that have unusually high airflow velocities.
    Before work begins, laboratory workers should be provided with 
proper training that includes how to use the ventilation equipment, 
how to ensure that it is functioning properly, the consequences of 
improper use, what to do in the event of a system failure or power 
outage, special considerations, and the importance of signage and 

5. Institute a Chemical Hygiene Program

    A comprehensive chemical hygiene program is required. It should 
be designed to minimize exposures, injuries, illnesses and 
incidents. There should be a regular, continuing effort that 
includes program oversight, safe facilities, chemical hygiene 
planning, training, emergency preparedness and chemical security. 
The chemical hygiene program must be reviewed annually and updated 
as necessary whenever new processes, chemicals, or equipment is 
implemented. Its recommendations should be followed in all 

6. Observe the PELs and TLVs

    OSHA's Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) must not be exceeded. 
The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' 
Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) should also not be exceeded.

B. Responsibilities

    Persons responsible for chemical hygiene include, but are not 
limited to, the following:

1. Chemical Hygiene Officer

    (a) Establishes, maintains, and revises the chemical hygiene 
plan (CHP).
    (b) Creates and revises safety rules and regulations.
    (c) Monitors procurement, use, storage, and disposal of 
    (d) Conducts regular inspections of the laboratories, 
preparations rooms, and chemical storage rooms, and submits detailed 
laboratory inspection reports to administration.
    (e) Maintains inspection, personnel training, and inventory 

[[Page 4327]]

    (f) Assists laboratory supervisors in developing and maintaining 
adequate facilities.
    (g) Seeks ways to improve the chemical hygiene program.

2. Department Chairperson or Director

    (a) Assumes responsibility for personnel engaged in the 
laboratory use of hazardous chemicals.
    (b) Provides the chemical hygiene officer (CHO) with the support 
necessary to implement and maintain the CHP.
    (c) After receipt of laboratory inspection report from the CHO, 
meets with laboratory supervisors to discuss cited violations and to 
ensure timely actions to protect trained laboratory personnel and 
facilities and to ensure that the department remains in compliance 
with all applicable federal, state, university, local and 
departmental codes and regulations.
    (d) Provides budgetary arrangements to ensure the health and 
safety of the departmental personnel, visitors, and students.
    3. Departmental Safety Committee reviews accident reports and 
makes appropriate recommendations to the department chairperson 
regarding proposed changes in the laboratory procedures.
    4. Laboratory Supervisor or Principal Investigator has overall 
responsibility for chemical hygiene in the laboratory, including 
responsibility to:
    (a) Ensure that laboratory personnel comply with the 
departmental CHP and do not operate equipment or handle hazardous 
chemicals without proper training and authorization.
    (b) Always wear personal protective equipment (PPE) that is 
compatible to the degree of hazard of the chemical.
    (c) Follow all pertinent safety rules when working in the 
laboratory to set an example.
    (d) Review laboratory procedures for potential safety problems 
before assigning to other laboratory personnel.
    (e) Ensure that visitors follow the laboratory rules and assumes 
responsibility for laboratory visitors.
    (f) Ensure that PPE is available and properly used by each 
laboratory employee and visitor.
    (g) Maintain and implement safe laboratory practices.
    (h) Provide regular, formal chemical hygiene and housekeeping 
inspections, including routine inspections of emergency equipment;
    (i) Monitor the facilities and the chemical fume hoods to ensure 
that they are maintained and function properly. Contact the 
appropriate person, as designated by the department chairperson, to 
report problems with the facilities or the chemical fume hoods.

5. Laboratory Personnel

    (a) Read, understand, and follow all safety rules and 
regulations that apply to the work area;
    (b) Plan and conduct each operation in accordance with the 
institutional chemical hygiene procedures;
    (c) Promote good housekeeping practices in the laboratory or 
work area.
    (d) Notify the supervisor of any hazardous conditions or unsafe 
work practices in the work area.
    (e) Use PPE as appropriate for each procedure that involves 
hazardous chemicals.

C. The Laboratory Facility

General Laboratory Design Considerations

    Wet chemical spaces and those with a higher degree of hazard 
should be separated from other spaces by a wall or protective 
barrier wherever possible. If the areas cannot be separated, then 
workers in lower hazard spaces may require additional protection 
from the hazards in connected spaces.

1. Laboratory Layout and Furnishing

    (a) Work surfaces should be chemically resistant, smooth, and 
easy to clean.
    (b) Hand washing sinks for hazardous materials may require 
elbow, foot, or electronic controls for safe operation.
    (c) Wet laboratory areas should have chemically resistant, 
impermeable, slip-resistant flooring.
    (d) Walls should be finished with a material that is easy to 
clean and maintain.
    (e) Doors should have view panels to prevent accidents and 
should open in the direction of egress.
    (f) Operable windows should not be present in laboratories, 
particularly if there are chemical hoods or other local ventilation 
systems present.

2. Safety Equipment and Utilities

    (a) An adequate number and placement of safety showers, eyewash 
units, and fire extinguishers should be provided for the laboratory.
    (b) Use of water sprinkler systems is resisted by some 
laboratories because of the presence of electrical equipment or 
water-reactive materials, but it is still generally safer to have 
sprinkler systems installed. A fire large enough to trigger the 
sprinkler system would have the potential to cause far more 
destruction than the local water damage.

D. Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP)

    The OSHA Laboratory standard defines a CHP as ``a written 
program developed and implemented by the employer which sets forth 
procedures, equipment, personal protective equipment and work 
practices that are capable of protecting employees from the health 
hazards presented by hazardous chemicals used in that particular 
workplace.'' (29 CFR 1910.1450(b)). The Laboratory Standard requires 
a CHP: ``Where hazardous chemicals as defined by this standard are 
used in the workplace, the employer shall develop and carry out the 
provisions of a written Chemical Hygiene Plan.'' (29 CFR 
1910.1450(e)(1)). The CHP is the foundation of the laboratory safety 
program and must be reviewed and updated, as needed, and at least on 
an annual basis to reflect changes in policies and personnel. A CHP 
should be facility specific and can assist in promoting a culture of 
safety to protect workers from exposure to hazardous materials.
    1. The Laboratory's CHP must be readily available to workers and 
capable of protecting workers from health hazards and minimizing 
exposure. Include the following topics in the CHP:
    (a) Individual chemical hygiene responsibilities;
    (b) Standard operating procedures;
    (c) Personal protective equipment, engineering controls and 
    (d) Laboratory equipment;
    (e) Safety equipment;
    (f) Chemical management;
    (g) Housekeeping;
    (h) Emergency procedures for accidents and spills;
    (i) Chemical waste;
    (j) Training;
    (k) Safety rules and regulations;
    (l) Laboratory design and ventilation;
    (m) Exposure monitoring;
    (n) Compressed gas safety;
    (o) Medical consultation and examination.
    It should be noted that the nature of laboratory work may 
necessitate addressing biological safety, radiation safety and 
security issues.

2. Chemical Procurement, Distribution, and Storage

    Prudent chemical management includes the following processes:
    Chemical Procurement:
    (a) Information on proper handling, storage, and disposal should 
be known to those who will be involved before a substance is 
    (b) Only containers with adequate identifying labels should be 
    (c) Ideally, a central location should be used for receiving all 
chemical shipments.
    (d) Shipments with breakage or leakage should be refused or 
opened in a chemical hood.
    (e) Only the minimum amount of the chemical needed to perform 
the planned work should be ordered.
    (f) Purchases of high risk chemicals should be reviewed and 
approved by the CHO.
    (g) Proper protective equipment and handling and storage 
procedures should be in place before receiving a shipment.
    Chemical Storage:
    (a) Chemicals should be separated and stored according to hazard 
category and compatibility.
    (b) SDS and label information should be followed for storage 
    (c) Maintain existing labels on incoming containers of chemicals 
and other materials.
    (d) Labels on containers used for storing hazardous chemicals 
must include the chemical identification and appropriate hazard 
    (e) The contents of all other chemical containers and transfer 
vessels, including, but not limited to, beakers, flasks, reaction 
vessels, and process equipment, should be properly identified.
    (f) Chemical shipments should be dated upon receipt and stock 
    (g) Peroxide formers should be dated upon receipt, again dated 
upon opening, and stored away from heat and light with tight-
fitting, nonmetal lids.
    (h) Open shelves used for chemical storage should be secured to 
the wall and contain \3/4\-inch lips. Secondary containment devices 
should be used as necessary.

[[Page 4328]]

    (i) Consult the SDS and keep incompatibles separate during 
transport, storage, use, and disposal.
    (j) Oxidizers, reducing agents, and fuels should be stored 
separately to prevent contact in the event of an accident.
    (k) Chemicals should not be stored in the chemical hood, on the 
floor, in areas of egress, on the benchtop, or in areas near heat or 
in direct sunlight.
    (l) Laboratory-grade, flammable-rated refrigerators and freezers 
should be used to store sealed chemical containers of flammable 
liquids that require cool storage. Do not store food or beverages in 
the laboratory refrigerator.
    (m) Highly hazardous chemicals should be stored in a well-
ventilated and secure area designated for that purpose.
    (n) Flammable chemicals should be stored in a spark-free 
environment and in approved flammable-liquid containers and storage 
cabinets. Grounding and bonding should be used to prevent static 
charge buildups when dispensing solvents.
    (o) Chemical storage and handling rooms should be controlled-
access areas. They should have proper ventilation, appropriate 
signage, diked floors, and fire suppression systems.
    Chemical Handling:
    (a) As described above, a risk assessment should be conducted 
prior to beginning work with any hazardous chemical for the first 
    (b) All SDS and label information should be read before using a 
chemical for the first time.
    (c) Trained laboratory workers should ensure that proper 
engineering controls (ventilation) and PPE are in place.
    Chemical Inventory:
    (a) Prudent management of chemicals in any laboratory is greatly 
facilitated by keeping an accurate inventory of the chemicals 
    (b) Unneeded items should be discarded or returned to the 
    Transporting Chemicals:
    (a) Secondary containment devices should be used when 
transporting chemicals.
    (b) When transporting chemicals outside of the laboratory or 
between stockrooms and laboratories, the transport container should 
be break-resistant.
    (c) High-traffic areas should be avoided.
    Transferring Chemicals:
    (a) Use adequate ventilation (such as a fume hood) when 
transferring even a small amount of a particularly hazardous 
substance (PHS).
    (b) While drum storage is not appropriate for laboratories, 
chemical stockrooms may purchase drum quantities of solvents used in 
high volumes. Ground and bond the drum and receiving vessel when 
transferring flammable liquids from a drum to prevent static charge 
    (c) If chemicals from commercial sources are repackaged into 
transfer vessels, the new containers should be labeled with all 
essential information on the original container.
    Shipping Chemicals: Outgoing chemical shipments must meet all 
applicable Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations and should 
be authorized and handled by the institutional shipper.

3. Waste Management

    A waste management plan should be in place before work begins on 
any laboratory activity. The plan should utilize the following 
hierarchy of practices:
    (a) Reduce waste sources. The best approach to minimize waste 
generation is by reducing the scale of operations, reducing its 
formation during operations, and, if possible, substituting less 
hazardous chemicals for a particular operation.
    (b) Reuse surplus materials. Only the amount of material 
necessary for an experiment should be purchased, and, if possible, 
materials should be reused.
    (c) Recycle waste. If waste cannot be prevented or minimized, 
the organization should consider recycling chemicals that can be 
safely recovered or used as fuel.
    (d) Dispose of waste properly. Sink disposal may not be 
appropriate. Proper waste disposal methods include incineration, 
treatment, and land disposal. The organization's environmental 
health and safety (EHS) office should be consulted in determining 
which methods are appropriate for different types of waste.
    Collection and Storage of Waste:
    (a) Chemical waste should be accumulated at or near the point of 
generation, under the control of laboratory workers.
    (b) Each waste type should be stored in a compatible container 
pending transfer or disposal. Waste containers should be clearly 
labeled and kept sealed when not in use.
    (c) Incompatible waste types should be kept separate to ensure 
that heat generation, gas evolution, or another reaction does not 
    (d) Waste containers should be segregated by how they will be 
managed. Waste containers should be stored in a designated location 
that does not interfere with normal laboratory operations. 
Ventilated storage and secondary containment may be appropriate for 
certain waste types.
    (e) Waste containers should be clearly labeled and kept sealed 
when not in use. Labels should include the accumulation start date 
and hazard warnings as appropriate.
    (f) Non-explosive electrical systems, grounding and bonding 
between floors and containers, and non-sparking conductive floors 
and containers should be used in the central waste accumulation area 
to minimize fire and explosion hazards. Fire suppression systems, 
specialized ventilation systems, and dikes should be installed in 
the central waste accumulation area. Waste management workers should 
be trained in proper waste handling procedures as well as 
contingency planning and emergency response. Trained laboratory 
workers most familiar with the waste should be actively involved in 
waste management decisions to ensure that the waste is managed 
safely and efficiently. Engineering controls should be implemented 
as necessary, and personal protective equipment should be worn by 
workers involved in waste management.

4. Inspection Program

    Maintenance and regular inspection of laboratory equipment are 
essential parts of the laboratory safety program. Management should 
participate in the design of a laboratory inspection program to 
ensure that the facility is safe and healthy, workers are adequately 
trained, and proper procedures are being followed.
    Types of inspections: The program should include an appropriate 
combination of routine inspections, self-audits, program audits, 
peer inspections, EHS inspections, and inspections by external 
    Elements of an inspection:
    (a) Inspectors should bring a checklist to ensure that all 
issues are covered and a camera to document issues that require 
    (b) Conversations with workers should occur during the 
inspection, as they can provide valuable information and allow 
inspectors an opportunity to show workers how to fix problems.
    (c) Issues resolved during the inspection should be noted.
    (d) An inspection report containing all findings and 
recommendations should be prepared for management and other 
appropriate workers.
    (e) Management should follow-up on the inspection to ensure that 
all corrections are implemented.

5. Medical Consultation and Examination

    The employer must provide all employees who work with hazardous 
chemicals an opportunity to receive medical attention, including any 
follow-up examinations that the examining physician determines to be 
necessary, whenever an employee develops signs or symptoms 
associated with a hazardous chemical to which the employee may have 
been exposed in the laboratory. If an employee encounters a spill, 
leak, explosion or other occurrence resulting in the likelihood of a 
hazardous exposure, the affected employee must be provided an 
opportunity for a medical consultation by a licensed physician. All 
medical examinations and consultations must be performed by or under 
the direct supervision of a licensed physician and must be provided 
without cost to the employee, without loss of pay and at a 
reasonable time and place. The identity of the hazardous chemical, a 
description of the incident, and any signs and symptoms that the 
employee may experience must be relayed to the physician.

6. Records

    All accident, fatality, illness, injury, and medical records and 
exposure monitoring records must be retained by the institution in 
accordance with the requirements of state and federal regulations 
(see 29 CFR part 1904 and Sec.  1910.1450(j)). Any exposure 
monitoring results must be provided to affected laboratory staff 
within 15 working days after receipt of the results (29 CFR 

7. Signs

    Prominent signs of the following types should be posted:
    (a) Emergency telephone numbers of emergency personnel/
facilities, supervisors, and laboratory workers;
    (b) Location signs for safety showers, eyewash stations, other 
safety and first aid equipment, and exits; and

[[Page 4329]]

    (c) Warnings at areas or equipment where special or unusual 
hazards exist.

8. Spills and Accidents

    Before beginning an experiment, know your facility's policies 
and procedures for how to handle an accidental release of a 
hazardous substance, a spill or a fire. Emergency response planning 
and training are especially important when working with highly toxic 
compounds. Emergency telephone numbers should be posted in a 
prominent area. Know the location of all safety equipment and the 
nearest fire alarm and telephone. Know who to notify in the event of 
an emergency. Be prepared to provide basic emergency treatment. Keep 
your co-workers informed of your activities so they can respond 
appropriately. Safety equipment, including spill control kits, 
safety shields, fire safety equipment, PPE, safety showers and 
eyewash units, and emergency equipment should be available in well-
marked highly visible locations in all chemical laboratories. The 
laboratory supervisor or CHO is responsible for ensuring that all 
personnel are aware of the locations of fire extinguishers and are 
trained in their use. After an extinguisher has been used, 
designated personnel must promptly recharge or replace it (29 CFR 
1910.157(c)(4)). The laboratory supervisor or CHO is also 
responsible for ensuring proper training and providing supplementary 
equipment as needed.
    Special care must be used when handling solutions of chemicals 
in syringes with needles. Do not recap needles, especially when they 
have been in contact with chemicals. Remove the needle and discard 
it immediately after use in the appropriate sharps containers. 
Blunt-tip needles are available from a number of commercial sources 
and should be used unless a sharp needle is required to puncture 
rubber septa or for subcutaneous injection.
    For unattended operations, laboratory lights should be left on, 
and signs should be posted to identify the nature of the experiment 
and the hazardous substances in use. Arrangements should be made, if 
possible, for other workers to periodically inspect the operation. 
Information should be clearly posted indicating who to contact in 
the event of an emergency. Depending on the nature of the hazard, 
special rules, precautions, and alert systems may be necessary.

9. Training and Information

    Personnel training at all levels within the organization, is 
essential. Responsibility and accountability throughout the 
organization are key elements in a strong safety and health program. 
The employer is required to provide employees with information and 
training to ensure that they are apprised of the hazards of 
chemicals present in their work area (29 CFR 1910.1450(f)). This 
information must be provided at the time of an employee's initial 
assignment to a work area where hazardous chemicals are present and 
prior to assignments involving new exposure situations. The 
frequency of refresher information and training should be determined 
by the employer. At a minimum, laboratory personnel should be 
trained on their facility's specific CHP, methods and observations 
that may be used to detect the presence or release of a hazardous 
chemical (such as monitoring conducted by the employer, continuous 
monitoring devices, visual appearance or odor of hazardous chemicals 
when being released), the physical and health hazards of chemicals 
in the work area and means to protect themselves from these hazards. 
Trained laboratory personnel must know shut-off procedures in case 
of an emergency. All SDSs must be made available to the employees.

E. General Procedures for Working With Chemicals

    The risk of laboratory injuries can be reduced through adequate 
training, improved engineering, good housekeeping, safe work 
practice and personal behavior.

1. General Rules for Laboratory Work With Chemicals

    (a) Assigned work schedules should be followed unless a 
deviation is authorized by the laboratory supervisor.
    (b) Unauthorized experiments should not be performed.
    (c) Plan safety procedures before beginning any operation.
    (d) Follow standard operating procedures at all times.
    (e) Always read the SDS and label before using a chemical.
    (f) Wear appropriate PPE at all times.
    (g) To protect your skin from splashes, spills and drips, always 
wear long pants and closed-toe shoes.
    (h) Use appropriate ventilation when working with hazardous 
    (i) Pipetting should never be done by mouth.
    (j) Hands should be washed with soap and water immediately after 
working with any laboratory chemicals, even if gloves have been 
    (k) Eating, drinking, smoking, gum chewing, applying cosmetics, 
and taking medicine in laboratories where hazardous chemicals are 
used or stored should be strictly prohibited.
    (l) Food, beverages, cups, and other drinking and eating 
utensils should not be stored in areas where hazardous chemicals are 
handled or stored.
    (m) Laboratory refrigerators, ice chests, cold rooms, and ovens 
should not be used for food storage or preparation.
    (n) Contact the laboratory supervisor, Principal Investigator, 
CHO or EHS office with all safety questions or concerns.
    (o) Know the location and proper use of safety equipment.
    (p) Maintain situational awareness.
    (q) Make others aware of special hazards associated with your 
    (r) Notify supervisors of chemical sensitivities or allergies.
    (s) Report all injuries, accidents, incidents, and near misses.
    (t) Unauthorized persons should not be allowed in the 
    (u) Report unsafe conditions to the laboratory supervisor or 
    (v) Properly dispose of chemical wastes.

Working Alone in the Laboratory

    Working alone in a laboratory is dangerous and should be 
strictly avoided. There have been many tragic accidents that 
illustrate this danger. Accidents are unexpected by definition, 
which is why coworkers should always be present. Workers should 
coordinate schedules to avoid working alone.


    Housekeeping can help reduce or eliminate a number of laboratory 
hazards. Proper housekeeping includes appropriate labeling and 
storage of chemicals, safe and regular cleaning of the facility, and 
proper arrangement of laboratory equipment.

2. Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials

    Nanoparticles and nanomaterials have different reactivities and 
interactions with biological systems than bulk materials, and 
understanding and exploiting these differences is an active area of 
research. However, these differences also mean that the risks and 
hazards associated with exposure to engineered nanomaterials are not 
well known. Because this is an area of ongoing research, consult 
trusted sources for the most up to date information available. Note 
that the higher reactivity of many nanoscale materials suggests that 
they should be treated as potential sources of ignition, 
accelerants, and fuel that could result in fire or explosion. Easily 
dispersed dry nanomaterials may pose the greatest health hazard 
because of the risk of inhalation. Operations involving these 
nanomaterials deserve more attention and more stringent controls 
than those where the nanomaterials are embedded in solid or 
suspended in liquid matrixes.
    Consideration should be given to all possible routes of exposure 
to nanomaterials including inhalation, ingestion, injection, and 
dermal contact (including eye and mucous membranes). Avoid handling 
nanomaterials in the open air in a free-particle state. Whenever 
possible, handle and store dispersible nanomaterials, whether 
suspended in liquids or in a dry particle form, in closed (tightly-
sealed) containers. Unless cutting or grinding occurs, nanomaterials 
that are not in a free form (encapsulated in a solid or a 
nanocomposite) typically will not require engineering controls. If a 
synthesis is being performed to create nanomaterials, it is not 
enough to only consider the final material in the risk assessment, 
but consider the hazardous properties of the precursor materials as 
    To minimize laboratory personnel exposure, conduct any work that 
could generate engineered nanoparticles in an enclosure that 
operates at a negative pressure differential compared to the 
laboratory personnel breathing zone. Limited data exist regarding 
the efficacy of PPE and ventilation systems against exposure to 
nanoparticles. However, until further information is available, it 
is prudent to follow standard chemical hygiene practices. Conduct a 
hazard evaluation to determine PPE appropriate for the level of 
hazard according to the requirements set forth in OSHA's Personal 
Protective Equipment standard (29 CFR 1910.132).

[[Page 4330]]

3. Highly Toxic and Explosive/Reactive Chemicals/Materials

    The use of highly toxic and explosive/reactive chemicals and 
materials has been an area of growing concern. The frequency of 
academic laboratory incidents in the U.S. is an area of significant 
concern for the Chemical Safety Board (CSB). The CSB issued a case 
study on an explosion at Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas, 
which severely injured a graduate student handling a high-energy 
metal compound. Since 2001, the CSB has gathered preliminary 
information on 120 different university laboratory incidents that 
resulted in 87 evacuations, 96 injuries, and three deaths.
    It is recommended that each facility keep a detailed inventory 
of highly toxic chemicals and explosive/reactive materials. There 
should be a record of the date of receipt, amount, location, and 
responsible individual for all acquisitions, syntheses, and disposal 
of these chemicals. A physical inventory should be performed 
annually to verify active inventory records. There should be a 
procedure in place to report security breaches, inventory 
discrepancies, losses, diversions, or suspected thefts.
    Procedures for disposal of highly toxic materials should be 
established before any experiments begin, possibly even before the 
chemicals are ordered. The procedures should address methods for 
decontamination of any laboratory equipment that comes into contact 
with highly toxic chemicals. All waste should be accumulated in 
clearly labeled impervious containers that are stored in unbreakable 
secondary containment.
    Highly reactive and explosive materials that may be used in the 
laboratory require appropriate procedures and training. An explosion 
can occur when a material undergoes a rapid reaction that results in 
a violent release of energy. Such reactions can happen spontaneously 
and can produce pressures, gases, and fumes that are hazardous. Some 
reagents pose a risk on contact with the atmosphere. It is prudent 
laboratory practice to use a safer alternative whenever possible.
    If at all possible, substitutes for highly acute, chronic, 
explosive, or reactive chemicals should be considered prior to 
beginning work and used whenever possible.

4. Compressed Gas

    Compressed gases expose laboratory personnel to both chemical 
and physical hazards. It is essential that these are monitored for 
leaks and have the proper labeling. By monitoring compressed gas 
inventories and disposing of or returning gases for which there is 
no immediate need, the laboratory can substantially reduce these 
risks. Leaking gas cylinders can cause serious hazards that may 
require an immediate evacuation of the area and activation of the 
emergency response system. Only appropriately trained hazmat 
responders may respond to stop a leaking gas cylinder under this 

F. Safety Recommendations--Physical Hazards

    Physical hazards in the laboratory include combustible liquids, 
compressed gases, reactives, explosives and flammable chemicals, as 
well as high pressure/energy procedures, sharp objects and moving 
equipment. Injuries can result from bodily contact with rotating or 
moving objects, including mechanical equipment, parts, and devices. 
Personnel should not wear loose-fitting clothing, jewelry, or 
unrestrained long hair around machinery with moving parts.
    The Chemical Safety Board has identified the following key 
lessons for laboratories that address both physical and other 
    (1) Ensure that research-specific hazards are evaluated and then 
controlled by developing specific written protocols and training.
    (2) Expand existing laboratory safety plans to ensure that all 
safety hazards, including physical hazards of chemicals, are 
    (3) Ensure that the organization's EHS office reports directly 
to an identified individual/office with organizational authority to 
implement safety improvements.
    (4) Develop a verification program that ensures that the safety 
provisions of the CHP are communicated, followed, and enforced at 
all levels within the organization.
    (5) Document and communicate all laboratory near-misses and 
previous incidents to track safety, provide opportunities for 
education and improvement to drive safety changes at the university.
    (6) Manage the hazards unique to laboratory chemical research in 
the academic environment. Utilize available practice guidance that 
identifies and describes methodologies to assess and control 
    (7) Written safety protocols and training are necessary to 
manage laboratory risk.

G. Emergency Planning

    In addition to laboratory safety issues, laboratory personnel 
should be familiar with established facility policies and procedures 
regarding emergency situations. Topics may include, but are not 
limited to:
    (1) Evacuation procedures--when it is appropriate and alternate 
    (2) Emergency shutdown procedures--equipment shutdown and 
materials that should be stored safely;
    (3) Communications during an emergency--what to expect, how to 
report, where to call or look for information;
    (4) How and when to use a fire extinguisher;
    (5) Security issues--preventing tailgating and unauthorized 
    (6) Protocol for absences due to travel restrictions or illness;
    (7) Safe practices for power outage;
    (8) Shelter in place--when it is appropriate;
    (9) Handling suspicious mail or phone calls;
    (10) Laboratory-specific protocols relating to emergency 
planning and response;
    (11) Handling violent behavior in the workplace; and
    (12) First-aid and CPR training, including automated external 
defibrillator training if available.
    It is prudent that laboratory personnel are also trained in how 
to respond to short-term, long-term and large-scale emergencies. 
Laboratory security can play a role in reducing the likelihood of 
some emergencies and assisting in preparation and response for 
others. Every institution, department, and individual laboratory 
should consider having an emergency preparedness plan. The level of 
detail of the plan will vary depending on the function of the group 
and institutional planning efforts already in place.
    Emergency planning is a dynamic process. As personnel, 
operations, and events change, plans will need to be updated and 
modified. To determine the type and level of emergency planning 
needed, laboratory personnel need to perform a vulnerability 
assessment. Periodic drills to assist in training and evaluation of 
the emergency plan are recommended as part of the training program.

H. Emergency Procedures

    (1) Fire alarm policy. Most organizations use fire alarms 
whenever a building needs to be evacuated--for any reason. When a 
fire alarm sounds in the facility, evacuate immediately after 
extinguishing all equipment flames. Check on and assist others who 
may require help evacuating.
    (2) Emergency safety equipment. The following safety elements 
should be met:
    a. A written emergency action plan has been provided to workers;
    b. Fire extinguishers, eyewash units, and safety showers are 
available and tested on a regular basis; and
    c. Fire blankets, first-aid equipment, fire alarms, and 
telephones are available and accessible.
    (3) Chemical spills. Workers should contact the CHO or EHS 
office for instructions before cleaning up a chemical spill. All SDS 
and label instructions should be followed, and appropriate PPE 
should be worn during spill cleanup.
    (4) Accident procedures. In the event of an accident, 
immediately notify appropriate personnel and local emergency 
responders. Provide an SDS of any chemical involved to the attending 
physician. Complete an accident report and submit it to the 
appropriate office or individual within 24 hours.
    (5) Employee safety training program. New workers should attend 
safety training before they begin any activities. Additional 
training should be provided when they advance in their duties or are 
required to perform a task for the first time. Training documents 
should be recorded and maintained. Training should include hands-on 
instruction of how to use safety equipment appropriately.
    (6) Conduct drills. Practice building evacuations, including the 
use of alternate routes. Practice shelter-in-place, including plans 
for extended stays. Walk the fastest route from your work area to 
the nearest fire alarm, emergency eye wash and emergency shower. 
Learn how each is activated. In the excitement of an actual 
emergency, people rely on what they learned from drills, practice 
and training.
    (7) Contingency plans. All laboratories should have long-term 
contingency plans in place (e.g., for pandemics). Scheduling, 
workload, utilities and alternate work sites may need to be 

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I. Laboratory Security

    Laboratory security has evolved in the past decade, reducing the 
likelihood of some emergencies and assisting in preparation and 
response for others. Most security measures are based on the 
laboratory's vulnerability. Risks to laboratory security include, 
but are not limited to:
    (1) Theft or diversion of chemicals, biologicals, and 
radioactive or proprietary materials, mission-critical or high-value 
    (2) Threats from activist groups;
    (3) Intentional release of, or exposure to, hazardous materials;
    (4) Sabotage or vandalism of chemicals or high-value equipment;
    (5) Loss or release of sensitive information; and
    (6) Rogue work or unauthorized laboratory experimentation. 
Security systems in the laboratory are used to detect and respond to 
a security breach, or a potential security breach, as well as to 
delay criminal activity by imposing multiple layered barriers of 
increasing stringency. A good laboratory security system will 
increase overall safety for laboratory personnel and the public, 
improve emergency preparedness by assisting with preplanning, and 
lower the organization's liability by incorporating more rigorous 
planning, staffing, training, and command systems and implementing 
emergency communications protocols, drills, background checks, card 
access systems, video surveillance, and other measures. The security 
plan should clearly delineate response to security issues, including 
the coordination of institution and laboratory personnel with both 
internal and external responders.
* * * * *
[FR Doc. 2013-00788 Filed 1-18-13; 8:45 am]