[Federal Register Volume 75, Number 223 (Friday, November 19, 2010)]
[Proposed Rules]
[Pages 70871-70881]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2010-29192]


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DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Federal Aviation Administration

14 CFR Parts 61 and 183

[Docket No. FAA-2010-1127; Notice No. 2010-16]
RIN 2120-AJ42


Photo Requirements for Pilot Certificates

AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT.

ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM).

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SUMMARY: This action would require a person to carry a pilot 
certificate with photo to exercise the privileges of the pilot 
certificate. This proposal responds to section 4022 of the Intelligence 
Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act (IRTPA). The FAA previously 
required all pilots to obtain a plastic certificate (excepting 
temporary certificates and student pilot certificates). This proposal 
furthers the fulfillment of IRTPA by requiring a photo of the pilot to 
be on all pilot certificates. The FAA also proposes to require student 
pilots to obtain a plastic certificate with photo. Student pilot 
certificates would also have the same duration as other pilot 
certificates. Additionally, because of the new photo requirements, this 
proposal modifies the application process and the fee structure for 
pilot certificates.

DATES: Send your comments on or before February 17, 2011.

ADDRESSES: You may send comments identified by Docket Number FAA-2010-
1127 using any of the following methods:
     Federal eRulemaking Portal: Go to http://www.regulations.gov and follow the online instructions for sending your 
comments electronically.
     Mail: Send comments to Docket Operations, M-30; U.S. 
Department of Transportation, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Room W12-
140, West Building Ground Floor, Washington, DC 20590-0001.
     Hand Delivery or Courier: Take comments to Docket 
Operations in Room W12-140 of the West Building Ground Floor at 1200 
New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., 
Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays.
     Fax: Fax comments to Docket Operations at 202-493-2251.
    For more information on the rulemaking process, see the 
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section of this document.
    Privacy: The FAA will post all comments received, without change, 
to http://www.regulations.gov, including any personal information you 
provide. Using the search function of our docket Web site, anyone can 
find and read the electronic form of all comments received into any of 
our dockets, including the name of the individual sending the comment 
(or signing the comment for an association, business, labor union, 
etc.). You may review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the 
Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you 
may visit http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov.
    Docket: To read background documents or comments received, go to 
http://www.regulations.gov at any time and follow the online 
instructions for accessing the docket, or go to the Docket Operations 
in Room W12-140 of the West Building Ground Floor at 1200 New Jersey 
Avenue, SE., Washington, DC, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through 
Friday, except Federal holidays.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For technical questions concerning 
this proposed rule contact Lance Nuckolls, Certification and General 
Aviation Operations Branch, AFS-810, Flight Standards Service, Federal 
Aviation Administration, 800 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 
20591; telephone (202) 267-8212; facsimile (202) 267-5094, e-mail 
lance.nuckolls@faa.gov. For legal questions concerning this proposed 
rule contact Robert Hawks, Air Traffic and Airman/Airport Certification 
Law Branch, AGC-240, Office of the Chief Counsel, Federal Aviation 
Administration, 800 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20591; 
telephone (202) 267-7143; facsimile (202) 267-7971, e-mail 
rob.hawks@faa.gov.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Later in this preamble under the Additional 
Information section is a discussion of how you can comment on this 
proposal and how the FAA will handle your comments. Included in this 
discussion is related information about the docket, privacy, the 
handling of proprietary or confidential business information, and 
accessing related rulemaking documents.

Authority for This Rulemaking

    The FAA's authority to issue rules on aviation safety is found in 
Title 49 of the United States Code. Subtitle I, Section 106 describes 
the authority of the FAA Administrator. Subtitle VII, Aviation 
Programs, describes in more detail the scope of the agency's authority.
    Under Subtitle VII, Part A, Subpart iii, Section 44703(b)(1)(C), 
the FAA may define the terms of an airman certificate the FAA 
Administrator finds necessary to ensure safety in air commerce. 
Additionally, Subtitle VII, Part A, Subpart iii, Section 44703(g)(1) 
permits modifications to the airman certification system to make the 
system more efficient in serving the needs of those enforcing laws 
related to combating acts of terrorism by ensuring verifiable 
identification of individuals applying for airman certificates. In 
Section 4022 of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 
2004 (IRTPA),\1\ Congress required the FAA to promulgate regulations 
for the issuance of improved pilot licenses.
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    \1\ Public Law 108-458, 118 Stat. 3638 (Dec. 17, 2004).
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    This rulemaking is within the scope of that authority because it 
prescribes the inclusion of a photo of the pilot on the pilot 
certificate in accordance with the IRTPA mandate. This rulemaking aids 
in preventing terrorism and in ensuring safety in air commerce by 
issuing certificates that conform to the IRTPA requirements.

Background

    On March 12, 1990, the FAA published the Drug Enforcement 
Assistance notice of proposed rulemaking (55 FR 9270). That NPRM 
proposed changes to requirements for registration of aircraft, 
certification of pilots, and certification violations. The FAA intended 
this proposal to correct deficiencies in the FAA's aircraft 
registration and pilot certification systems identified in the Federal 
Aviation Administration Drug Enforcement Assistance Act of 1988 (``the 
DEA Act'').\2\ After the close of the comment period, the FAA 
determined that technological improvements could accomplish most 
requirements of the DEA Act. The FAA withdrew the NPRM on December 5, 
2005 (70 FR 72403).
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    \2\ Public Law 100-690, 102 Stat. 4181 (Nov. 18, 1988).
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    As part of the technological improvements, the FAA discontinued 
issuing paper certificates and began issuing plastic airman 
certificates in 2003. The plastic certificates are of high quality 
plastic card stock and have micro printing that contains certain

[[Page 70872]]

words and phrases, a hologram, and an UV-sensitive layer to resist 
tampering, altering, and counterfeiting.
    On January 5, 2007, the FAA published the Drug Enforcement 
Assistance notice of proposed rulemaking (``the 2007 DEA NPRM'') (72 FR 
489). That NPRM proposed changes to the airman certification and 
aircraft registration requirements to comply with the mandates of the 
DEA Act that could not be completed without rulemaking. Among other 
requirements, the NPRM proposed requiring holders of pilot certificates 
and other airmen certificates to hold a plastic certificate to exercise 
the privileges of that certificate.
    While the FAA was developing the 2007 DEA NPRM, IRTPA became law 
and added to the FAA's obligations regarding pilot certificates. 
Section 4022 of IRTPA requires the FAA to issue improved pilot 
certificates that (1) are resistant to tampering, alteration, or 
counterfeiting; (2) include a photograph of the individual to whom the 
certificate is issued; and (3) are capable of accommodating a digital 
photograph, a biometric identifier, or any other unique identifier the 
FAA Administrator considers necessary.
    On February 28, 2008, the FAA published the Drug Enforcement 
Assistance final rule (``the DEA final rule'') (73 FR 10662). In that 
rule, the FAA required all pilots, except student pilots, to obtain a 
plastic certificate by March 31, 2010. After that date, pilots without 
plastic certificates may not exercise the privileges of their 
certificates. The FAA continued the use of paper temporary pilot 
certificates and student pilot certificates. The DEA final rule also 
satisfies the IRTPA requirement to issue pilot certificates that are 
resistant to tampering, alteration, and counterfeiting.

Other Airman Certificate-Related Rulemaking Activity

    Currently, the Department of Homeland Security's Transportation 
Security Administration (TSA) is engaged in ongoing efforts to improve 
identification, credentialing, and security vetting of persons involved 
in transportation (49 U.S.C. 44903). Under existing FAA programs, the 
TSA uses information from the Airman Registry to crosscheck 
certification records against a variety of terrorism-related databases. 
Currently, the TSA is considering a rulemaking to improve security 
vetting of airman certificate holders and applicants for airman 
certificates. In the interest of reducing burdens on the certificate 
holder and government, the FAA will continue to consult and collaborate 
with TSA and other Federal agencies to reduce potential redundancies or 
duplication in Federal certification, vetting, and credentialing 
processes. If the TSA issues a final rule regarding airman security 
vetting, the FAA may issue conforming requirements in any final rule 
resulting from this proposal, subsequent to a supplemental notice of 
proposed rulemaking, or as part of a new rulemaking project, depending 
on the scope and timing of the TSA's actions.

Discussion of the Proposal

    The FAA proposes to further fulfill the requirements of section 
4022 of the IRTPA by requiring a photo of the pilot on all plastic 
pilot certificates. This proposal also requires student pilots to have 
a plastic certificate with photo in order to exercise student pilot 
privileges. The FAA would continue to allow the use of a paper 
temporary pilot certificate when upgrading a pilot certificate (such as 
going from a student to a sport, recreational, or private pilot 
certificate) or adding a rating (such as an instrument rating). 
However, the temporary paper certificate evidencing the added authority 
must be accompanied by the underlying pilot certificate with photo.
    The FAA proposes a 5-year phased implementation schedule. This 
schedule includes a ``trigger-based'' approach to issue pilot 
certificates with photos to people interacting with the FAA during the 
implementation period. The schedule also includes a ``non-trigger-
based'' approach that requires pilots to obtain a pilot certificate 
with photo during a 3-, 4-, or 5-year period depending on the type of 
certificate. This proposal would not revoke or otherwise cancel a 
previously issued paper or plastic certificate. It simply would require 
the pilot to have a pilot certificate with photo to exercise pilot 
privileges.
    The FAA proposes to add a new Sec.  61.6 to prescribe the 
requirements related to a pilot certificate with photo. This proposal 
also amends the application process in Sec.  61.85 to require 
submission of a photo with an application for a pilot certificate. The 
FAA also proposes to modify the fee structure related to an application 
for a pilot certificate with photo to recover some costs associated 
with issuing a pilot certificate with photo. The FAA also proposes to 
amend Sec.  61.3 to remove the requirement to carry a separate 
government-issued photo identification for persons carrying a pilot 
certificate with photo. The FAA has determined two photo 
identifications are unnecessary and do not serve a safety or security 
interest. However, persons with special purpose pilot authorizations, 
foreign pilot licenses, or limited-term facsimile pilot certificates 
still must carry government-issued photo identification. Finally, the 
FAA proposes minor editorial changes, including some changes to section 
numbering, to improve ease of use.
    The following sections discuss in greater detail the proposals 
related to the fees for issuing or replacing a pilot certificate with 
photo, the implementation approach, applying for a pilot certificate 
with photo, photo requirements, duration of pilot privileges for pilot 
certificates with photos, student pilot certificates, and other issues.

Fees for Issuing or Replacing a Pilot Certificate With Photo

    Currently, the FAA charges a $2 fee to replace a lost or destroyed 
airman certificate. There is no charge for issuing, upgrading, or 
adding ratings to an airman certificate. 14 CFR 61.29(a). Although the 
FAA has statutory authority to charge a fee for issuing a pilot 
certificate, the FAA previously has not exercised that authority. 49 
U.S.C. 45302. That authority permits the FAA to charge a maximum fee of 
$22.00 ($12.00 adjusted according to the Consumer Price Index of All 
Urban Consumers published by the Secretary of Labor). 49 U.S.C. 
45302(b)-(c).
    Congress required the FAA to change from issuing paper pilot 
certificates to issuing plastic certificates with photos and other 
security measures.\3\ The cost of issuing these new certificates is 
substantial. To recover some of these costs, the FAA proposes to 
exercise its statutory authority to collect a fee when issuing a pilot 
certificate with a photo and other security features.
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    \3\ IRTPA Sec.  4022(b).
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    Specifically, the FAA proposes to charge a $22 fee to process an 
application for: (1) Exchanging an existing certificate without a photo 
for a certificate with photo; (2) issuing a new pilot certificate or 
student pilot certificate; and (3) replacing a pilot certificate with 
photo whenever a replacement certificate is requested by a pilot or 
required by regulation. Examples of events which would require a 
replacement certificate include renewing expired photos, achieving new 
ratings or certificate levels, changing name or citizenship 
information, and replacing lost or destroyed certificates. As shown in 
the regulatory evaluation, the $22 fee does not recover fully the cost 
of issuing pilot certificates, but the FAA may not exceed its statutory 
authority to recover costs. Accordingly,

[[Page 70873]]

the FAA proposes to include this fee schedule for a pilot certificate 
with photo in the new Sec.  61.6.
    The FAA also proposes to adjust this fee periodically to correspond 
with changes in the Consumer Price Index, as permitted by 49 U.S.C. 
45302(c). Any fee adjustment would not occur more than once a year and 
would not exceed the FAA's cost for issuing a certificate. Any 
calculation of issuance cost would be performed in the same manner as 
that performed for this proposed rule.
    The Federal Aviation Administration Reauthorization bill (H.R. 
915), if enacted as passed by the House of Representatives on May 21, 
2009, would provide authority to increase fees for airman certificates. 
This legislation would allow the FAA to recover the costs related to 
airman certification, and the legislation sets the fee for issuing an 
airman certificate at $50 and for issuing a replacement airman 
certificate at $25. Once the outcome of the reauthorization legislation 
is known, the FAA would decide whether additional rulemaking is 
necessary.
    Since this proposal would require in-person identity verification, 
the FAA anticipates allowing designees to accept and verify 
applications for pilot certificates with photos to lessen the 
inconvenience to certificate holders and new applicants. The FAA 
anticipates that designees would charge a fee, in addition to the fee 
charged by the FAA, to accept and verify the applications. The FAA 
cannot set or limit fees charged by designees. This fee likely would be 
independent of any fee charged by a designee for testing services 
provided to the applicant.

Implementation Approach

    The FAA would begin issuing a pilot certificate with photo to an 
applicant for a new pilot certificate once the rule becomes effective. 
For the FAA to comply with IRPTA, it must reissue all existing pilot 
certificates with a pilot certificate with photo. To minimize the 
burden of reissuance on certificate holders, the FAA proposes a 
concurrent ``trigger-based'' and ``non-trigger-based'' implementation 
approach.
    Many pilots already would interact with the FAA during the 
implementation period of this proposed rule because of a ``triggering 
event.'' They would be required to apply for a pilot certificate with 
photo as a result of that interaction. One triggering event would be 
applying for a new pilot certificate or rating, including a student 
pilot certificate. A pilot obtaining a new flight instructor 
certificate or renewing a flight instructor certificate would also be 
required to apply for a pilot certificate with photo for the underlying 
pilot certificate. The FAA does not propose requiring all persons 
requesting replacement pilot certificates during the implementation 
period to apply for a pilot certificate with photo. However, 
replacement activity requiring an in-person interaction with the FAA 
(for example, change of name, citizenship, date of birth, or gender) 
would be a triggering event. The FAA proposes to require pilots 
interacting with the FAA during one of these triggering events to 
provide a photo with the application. These pilots would not be subject 
to the proposed phase-in requirements because they would already comply 
with the proposed rule.
    Because not all pilots will have a triggering event during the 
implementation period, the FAA proposes a phased approach for requiring 
an application for a pilot certificate with photo. A pilot with an 
airline transport pilot (ATP) certificate would have 3 years after the 
final rule becomes effective to obtain a pilot certificate with photo. 
A person with a commercial pilot certificate would have 4 years after 
the effective date of the final rule. Finally, a private, recreational, 
or sport pilot certificate holder would have 5 years after the 
effective date of the final rule. Pilots who do not obtain a 
certificate with photo during the appropriate period would not be able 
to exercise pilot privileges after the cut-off date.
    The FAA chose different cut-off dates based on certificate level to 
provide the most time for private, sport, and recreational pilots. 
Those pilots are the least likely to have regular contact with the FAA. 
ATP and commercial pilot certificate holders usually have more regular 
contact with the FAA than other types of pilots.
    The FAA believes that these periods are reasonable to allow for the 
timely replacement of pilot certificates. The phased implementation 
approach balances the FAA's ability to receive and process applications 
for replacement certificates and to maintain the FAA's existing range 
of services. The FAA assumes that applications would be evenly spread 
throughout the implementation period. If all pilots wait until close to 
the end of the period to apply for the certificate, there undoubtedly 
would be delays in processing and receipt of the new certificate. A 
pilot may apply for a certificate with photo after the specific 
implementation period ends, but he or she would not be able to exercise 
pilot privileges until he or she has a pilot certificate with photo. 
The FAA proposes to add this implementation schedule to Sec.  61.19.

Applying for a Pilot Certificate With Photo

    The FAA would require a pilot to submit an application for a new or 
replacement pilot certificate with photos in person in certain cases. 
For these in-person applications, a pilot must appear at a FSDO or 
other FAA designee (such as a Knowledge Testing Center or designated 
pilot examiner (DPE)). All certificate holders applying for a pilot 
certificate for the first time would submit that application in person 
for purposes of identity verification. After a person holds a pilot 
certificate with photo, there would be certain situations for which an 
in-person application is required. If the photo would expire within 90 
days of the application, a pilot would submit the application in 
person. A pilot changing vital information on the certificate, such as 
name, date of birth, citizenship, or gender, would still be required to 
apply in person so the FAA could verify the applicant's identity. 
Finally, a pilot who upgrades his or her certificate or adds a rating 
would still apply for a new certificate in person.
    A pilot who wants to add or update the photo on the certificate may 
do so using one of two methods. The first method would be to submit a 
paper photo with a paper 8710-1 Airman Certificate and/or Rating 
Application form. The second method would be to use the Web-based 
Integrated Airman Certificate and/or Rating Application (IACRA) form. 
However, regardless of the method used, a pilot must appear in-person 
to either a FSDO or any authorized FAA-designee to have his or her 
photo and identification validated whenever a photo is required as part 
of the application. Currently, the FAA operates 96 FSDOs in the U.S. 
and has approximately 2,700 designees worldwide that can process 
applications for pilot certificates with photo. A pilot residing 
outside of the U.S. must use an FAA-designee who is authorized to 
service his or her area. Alternately, the pilot may come to the U.S. 
and use any FAA-designee or FSDO.
    In some cases, the FAA would allow a pilot to submit an application 
for a pilot certificate with photo by mail. These instances would not 
require an in-person application because the pilot has established his 
or her identity with the FAA, and the changes to the certificate do not 
affect the pilot's identity. For example, a pilot could submit an 
application to replace a lost or destroyed certificate with photo 
without an in-person interaction.

[[Page 70874]]

Additionally, a pilot could notify the FAA of a change of address by 
mail or via the FAA website. Although not required by regulation, the 
pilot could request a replacement certificate when making the change of 
address. When requesting a replacement pilot certificate with photo in 
these situations, the pilot must have a photo on file that does not 
expire within 90 days of the application.

Photo Requirements

    The FAA proposes a new Sec.  61.6 to prescribe the photo 
requirements for pilot certificates. The FAA would require an applicant 
to submit a 2 x 2-inch photo with the application. The photo must be 
unretouched and in color. The photo must be of only the applicant and 
must have been taken within the last six months. It also must show a 
full front view of the applicant's face in such a way that the area 
from the bottom of the applicant's chin to the top of the applicant's 
head (including hair) covers more than 50 percent but not more than 75 
percent of the total area of the photo. The photo must show the 
applicant in front of a plain light-colored background and in normal 
street attire. If an applicant chose to wear a pilot uniform, the FAA 
would consider that applicant to be wearing normal street attire, 
provided the photo did not show the applicant wearing a hat, head 
covering, or dark glasses as prescribed in Sec.  61.6. These 
requirements are consistent with Department of State guidelines for 
passport photos. Therefore, an applicant for a pilot certificate with 
photo should be able to obtain the required photo from any passport 
photo vendor.
    At this time, the FAA is prepared to accept only a hard copy of a 
photo, similar to the Department of State's passport model. In the 
future, however, the FAA anticipates accepting a digital photo. The FAA 
would revise its guidance material as technology advances and 
additional methods are available for photo submission.
    Currently the FAA is considering three methods of acquiring a 
digital photo. One way would be for an applicant to upload a digital 
photo into FAA's Integrated Airman Certificate and/or Rating 
Application (IACRA) sub-system. IACRA is an Internet-based database 
program providing a fully-electronic method of applying for an airman 
certificate or rating. IACRA can accommodate submission of digital 
images.
    The second method to acquire a digital photo would be for an 
applicant to go to a Knowledge Testing Center, which is a logical venue 
for verifying identity and taking digital photos. Currently there are 
two major testing companies that are authorized to perform knowledge 
testing for the FAA via Knowledge Testing Centers. These testing 
centers are located to serve a wide geographic range (approximately 960 
nationwide centers and 9 international locations). Usually, people do 
not have to travel more than 100 miles to get to a testing center.
    The third method to acquire a digital photo would be for an 
applicant to go to a DPE or a FSDO that has the capability to take 
digital photos. Currently, FSDOs have this capability, but DPEs do not. 
However, the FAA anticipates they would have this capability in the 
future.

Duration of Pilot Privileges for a Pilot Certificate With Photo

    Because the accuracy of a photo degrades over time, the FAA 
proposes to include a photo expiration date on the pilot certificate 
with photo. As under current regulations, the actual pilot certificate 
would not expire but would remain valid unless surrendered, suspended, 
or revoked. However, the pilot may not exercise the privilege of the 
certificate after the photo expiration date. Therefore, the pilot must 
renew the photo in order to continue to exercise the pilot privileges 
of the certificate past the photo expiration date.
    The FAA considered different photo durations, specifically an 8-
year duration (similar to that required by the Real ID Act) and a 10-
year duration (similar to that used for passports). The Real ID Act of 
2005 \4\ imposes certain security, authentication, and issuance 
procedure standards for state driver's licenses and identification 
cards for them to be accepted by the federal government for official 
purposes. The FAA acknowledges that the Real ID Act does not require 
the FAA to set any specific duration with respect to a pilot 
certificate with photo. The Department of State traditionally has 
issued passports that are valid for 10 years. This practice was 
established well before the Real ID Act became law and was established 
in response to different concerns than those to which the Real ID Act 
responds. The FAA proposes an 8-year duration. This duration is 
consistent with the Real ID Act, which is Congress's latest expression 
on the appropriate period of validity for government identification. 
The FAA proposes to amend Sec.  61.19 to prescribe a photo expiration 
date of 8 years after the month in which the FAA issues the pilot 
certificate. The FAA also proposes to place the photo expiration date 
on the pilot certificate with photo to remind certificate holders of 
when a new photo must be submitted.
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    \4\ Public Law 109-13, 119 Stat. 231 (May 11, 2005).
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    Under this proposal, it would be the pilot's responsibility to 
apply for a replacement certificate and provide a new, current photo 
before the photo expiration date. It is important to note that the 
issuance of a pilot certificate with photo could take up to 6 to 8 
weeks. Therefore, a pilot should plan to submit an application, with a 
new photo, well before the photo expiration date on the current pilot 
certificate. If the photo expiration date passes before the pilot 
receives a replacement pilot certificate with photo, the FAA would not 
issue temporary privileges, and the pilot could not exercise pilot 
privileges.
    For applications received in the 180 days before the photo 
expiration date, the FAA would issue a certificate with a photo 
expiration date that is 8 years from the previous certificate's photo 
expiration date. If a pilot requests changes to a certificate, such as 
changing the certificate level or adding a rating, the FAA would issue 
a new certificate with the current photo on file. That certificate 
would have the same photo expiration date as the certificate that it is 
replacing. However, if a pilot wishes to submit a new photo, the FAA 
would issue a certificate with a photo expiration date of 8 years from 
the month of issue. If the photo would expire within the next 90 days, 
the pilot must submit a new photo with the application for a 
certificate.

Student Pilot Certificates

    The FAA includes student pilot certificates in this proposal to 
meet the IRTPA requirements that apply to all pilot certificates. The 
Drug Enforcement Assistance final rule, which required plastic pilot 
certificates, did not include student pilot certificates. Therefore, 
the FAA proposes to require all student pilot certificates to be made 
of plastic and include a photo of the certificate holder. As a result, 
only the FAA's Airman Certification Branch (AFS-760) would issue 
student pilot certificates.
    The FAA proposes to discontinue use of an Aviation Medical Examiner 
(AME) for the application and issuance of a student pilot certificate. 
Currently, AMEs may issue both a medical certificate and a student 
pilot certificate (often referred to as a combination certificate). 
Except in the case of glider, balloon, and light sport aircraft, a 
student pilot's first contact with the FAA usually is through an AME 
because of the medical certificate requirement. It

[[Page 70875]]

is convenient for a student pilot to apply for a student pilot 
certificate at the same time as for a medical certificate. However, 
under this proposal, student pilots must obtain a student pilot 
certificate with photo. Because an AME's principal function is to 
perform the medical evaluation, the FAA has determined that it is 
inappropriate to burden the AME with information-gathering and photo-
verification duties. Accordingly, under this proposal, a person wishing 
to obtain a student pilot certificate would still obtain a medical 
certificate from an AME; however, that person may not apply for a 
student pilot certificate with an AME. A student pilot would obtain a 
student pilot certificate with photo that is issued by the FAA Airman 
Certification Branch (AFS-760) prior to conducting solo flights. The 
FAA proposes to amend Sec.  61.85 to prescribe the application process 
for student pilot certificates and Sec.  183.21 to relieve AMEs from 
issuing student pilot certificates.
    Also, under this proposal, Designated Pilot Examiners (DPEs) no 
longer would issue student pilot certificates. However, DPEs would be 
authorized to accept an application for a student pilot certificate. In 
addition, designated knowledge testing centers, designated airmen 
certification representatives, local Flight Standards District Offices 
(FSDOs), and International Field Offices would be authorized to accept 
an application for a student pilot certificate.
    Because the student pilot certificate would be issued by the FAA's 
Airmen Certification Branch instead of by Aviation Safety Inspectors or 
FAA designees, student pilots, instructors, and pilot schools should 
plan accordingly for the additional time it would take to receive a 
plastic student pilot certificate with photo. At this time, the FAA 
estimates that it could take up to 6 to 8 weeks for the FAA to issue a 
student pilot certificate. As under the current regulations, students 
still can receive instruction, but they may not engage in solo flight 
before receiving a student pilot certificate.
    Currently, a student pilot certificate expires either 24 or 60 
calendar months after issuance depending on the age of the student 
pilot or on the rating sought. Because of the proposed change in 
procedure to obtain a student pilot certificate, the FAA proposes to 
issue student pilot certificates that do not expire. Like other pilot 
certificates, a student pilot certificate would remain valid unless 
surrendered, suspended, or revoked. However, the student pilot 
certificates would have a photo expiration date of 8 years after the 
month of issuance. This duration is consistent with the duration of 
other pilot certificates because the FAA has concluded there is no 
purpose to treating student pilot certificates differently from other 
pilot certificates. A student pilot would not be able to exercise the 
privileges of the certificate after the photo expiration date unless he 
or she submitted a new photo.
    A student pilot certificate issued prior to the effective date of 
this rule would continue to be valid until the expiration date shown on 
the face of that certificate. If a person wishes to obtain a 
replacement student pilot certificate, he or she may apply for a 
student pilot certificate with photo. Because student pilot 
certificates currently expire after either 24 or 60 months, all student 
pilots would be using a student pilot certificate with photo before the 
end of the 5-year implementation period established by this proposal 
for obtaining a pilot certificate with photo.
    The FAA also proposes to make conforming changes regarding the 
placement of solo flight endorsements on student pilot certificates. 
Because it is not possible to make the currently-required solo flight 
endorsements on a plastic student pilot certificate, the FAA proposes 
to amend Sec. Sec.  61.87, 61.93, and 61.133 to require that those 
endorsements be made in only the student pilot's logbook. The FAA also 
proposes to amend Sec. Sec.  61.189 and 61.195 to require flight 
instructors to place those endorsements in only the student pilot's 
logbook. The FAA proposes to amend Sec.  61.13(a)(2)(i)(A) so that it 
would apply to an application for a student pilot certificate because 
student pilot certificates would be issued only by the FAA Airman 
Certification Branch (AFS-760).

Other Issues

    Currently Sec.  61.29(e) allows a person to obtain a facsimile 
airman certificate \5\ if the original certificate is lost or 
destroyed. The FAA Airman Certification Branch issues facsimile 
certificates so that an airman may continue to exercise privileges 
until a replacement pilot certificate is issued. This facsimile is 
valid for 60 days. Although this facsimile does not meet the IRTPA 
requirements, the FAA proposes to leave the facsimile provision 
unchanged. The replacement of a pilot certificate with photo would take 
up to 6 to 8 weeks during which time a pilot effectively would be 
grounded. The FAA has concluded that grounding a pilot for an extended 
time period is unnecessary. The FAA would treat the facsimile pilot 
certificate as a special purpose pilot authorization that may be used 
in conjunction with a government-issued photo identification under 
Sec.  61.3. This treatment would allow a pilot whose identity has been 
certified by the FAA to continue to exercise pilot privileges while 
allowing security agencies to verify the pilot's identity against a 
government-issued identification.
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    \5\ Currently, the Airman Certification Branch issues a paper 
temporary certificate, a faxed temporary authority, or an e-mail 
temporary authority.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

Comments Invited

    The FAA is specifically interested in receiving comments on the 
following questions:
    (1) While this proposal does not outline specific identity 
verification standards and processes, the FAA may include such 
standards and processes in a final rule. The FAA seeks comment on 
standards that should be used for identity verification to issue pilot 
photo certificates, either in person or remotely. Should the FAA 
require applicants to produce fraud-resistant documents to verify 
identity? If so, which documents or other identity verification 
procedures should the FAA implement to ensure a high level of 
confidence in the verification process?
    (2) Should the FAA consider an alternative implementation approach 
to the ``trigger'' and ``non-trigger'' approach set forth in the 
proposal? Should the FAA set one deadline, regardless of certificate 
level, for pilots to have a pilot certificate with photo to exercise 
the privileges of that certificate rather than implement the phased 
``non-trigger'' approach set forth in this proposal? What is the basis 
and supporting data for a single deadline? If the FAA were to implement 
a single deadline, what time period for conversion to a pilot 
certificate with photo adequately balances the FAA's need to comply 
with the statutory mandate and the burden on certificate holders? Would 
lengthening the implementation period significantly reduce burden on a 
pilot? What is the basis and supporting data for a longer time period?
    (3) Currently, the FAA envisions using Knowledge Testing Centers, 
DPEs, and FSDOs to accept pilot certificate applications and validate 
applicant identity. Are there alternative, potentially less burdensome, 
methods for pilots within the U.S. and outside of the U.S. the FAA 
should consider? In addition, what should the FAA consider when 
designating service providers with identity verification authority?
    (4) Is the proposed 8-year duration for the photo, based on the 
photo duration

[[Page 70876]]

for state driver's licenses under the Real ID Act, a reasonable period 
of time that balances the security needs expressed in IRTPA and the 
burden on certificate holders? Are there other standards or guidance 
for photo accuracy the FAA should consider? What is the basis and 
supporting data for a shorter or longer duration?
    (5) Is there any reason why student pilot certificates should not 
be treated like other pilot certificates for the purposes of meeting 
the IRTPA requirements? What is the basis and supporting data for your 
response?
    (6) With respect to the photo that is placed on the pilot 
certificate, should the FAA accept only hard copy photos, only 
digitally-captured photos, or either hard copy or digitally-captured 
photos? What is the basis and supporting data for your response?
    (7) If the FAA accepts digitally-captured photos, what are the 
advantages and disadvantages of the following methods of acquiring the 
photo: (a) An applicant uploading a self-captured photo to the IACRA 
sub-system; (b) a FSDO capturing the photo when the application is 
submitted; (c) a Knowledge Testing Center capturing the photo when an 
application is submitted; and (d) a DPE capturing the photo when an 
application is submitted? What is the basis and supporting data for 
your response?

Paperwork Reduction Act

    This proposal contains the following revisions to existing 
information collection requirements. As required by the Paperwork 
Reduction Act of 1995, the FAA has submitted the information 
requirements associated with this proposal to the Office of Management 
and Budget for its review. See 44 U.S.C. 3507(d).
    Title: Photo Requirements for Pilot Certificates
    Summary: This action would require a person to carry a pilot 
certificate with photo to exercise the privileges of the pilot 
certificate. This proposal responds to section 4022 of the Intelligence 
Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act (IRTPA). The FAA previously 
required all pilots to obtain a plastic certificate (excepting 
temporary certificates and student pilot certificates), and after March 
31, 2010, all pilots must carry a plastic certificate. This proposal 
furthers the fulfillment of IRTPA by requiring a photo of the pilot to 
be on all pilot certificates. The FAA also proposes to require student 
pilots to obtain a plastic certificate with photo and treats student 
pilot certificates equally with other pilot certificates for durational 
purposes. Additionally, because of the photo requirement on pilot 
certificates, this proposal modifies the process for obtaining a pilot 
certificate and the fee structure for processing an application for a 
pilot certificate with photo. This revision affects the existing 
information collection requirements of FAA Form 8710-1 ``Airman 
Certificate and/or Rating Application'' (OMB Approval Number 2120-
0021).
    Use of: This proposed rule is in direct response to section 4022 of 
the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act (IRTPA). This 
request for clearance reflects requirements necessary under Title 14 
CFR part 61 to require a person to carry a pilot certificate with photo 
to exercise the privileges of the pilot certificate. The FAA will use 
the information it collects and reviews to ensure compliance and 
adherence to regulations and, where necessary, to take enforcement 
action on violators of the regulations.
    Respondents (including number of): The FAA estimates there are 
740,442 pilots who would be required to provide information in 
accordance with the proposed rule. The respondents to this proposed 
information requirement are pilots regulated under part 61.
    Frequency: The FAA estimates certificate holders will have a one-
time information collection, and will then collect or report 
information occasionally thereafter.
    Annual Burden Estimate: This proposal would result in a 20-year 
recordkeeping and reporting burden as follows:
    Summary of time and costs (20-year):
    The following table sums up the costs and time:

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                      Total cost          Annual cost         Total time          Annual time
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pilot-related costs:
    Trigger--Initial                      $4,221,982            $211,099           82,923.34            4,146.17
     Registration...............
    Non-Trigger--Initial                 191,555,276           9,577,764        3,521,734.67          176,086.73
     Registration...............
    Non-Trigger--Renewal........         149,053,511           7,452,676        2,740,341.74          137,017.09
    Additional/Replacement......           9,654,806             482,740          363,509.25           18,175.46
Portals:
    KTC.........................          10,100,840             505,042          655,048.00           32,752.40
    DPE.........................          17,545,925             877,296          233,945.67           11,697.28
FAA Contractor..................           5,328,284             266,414                 N/A                 N/A
                                 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total.......................         387,460,624          19,373,031        7,597,502.66          379,875.13
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The agency is soliciting comments to--
    (1) Evaluate whether the proposed information requirement is 
necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the agency, 
including whether the information will have practical utility;
    (2) Evaluate the accuracy of the agency's estimate of the burden;
    (3) Enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to 
be collected; and
    (4) Minimize the burden of collecting information on those who are 
to respond, including by using appropriate automated, electronic, 
mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms 
of information technology.
    Individuals and organizations may send comments on the information 
collection requirement by January 18, 2011 and should direct them to 
the address listed in the Addresses section at the beginning of this 
preamble. Comments also should be submitted to the Office of 
Information and Regulatory Affairs, OMB, New Executive Building, Room 
10202, 725 17th Street, NW., Washington, DC 20053, Attention: Desk 
Officer for FAA.
    According to the 1995 amendments to the Paperwork Reduction Act (5 
CFR Sec.  1320.8(b)(2)(vi)), an agency may not collect or sponsor the 
collection of information, nor may it impose an information collection 
requirement unless it displays a currently valid OMB control number. 
The OMB control number for this information collection will be 
published in the Federal Register, after the Office of Management and 
Budget approves it.

[[Page 70877]]

International Compatibility

    In keeping with U.S. obligations under the Convention on 
International Civil Aviation, it is FAA policy to comply with 
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Standards and 
Recommended Practices to the maximum extent practicable. The FAA has 
determined that this rulemaking is consistent with ICAO Standards and 
Recommended Practices.

Regulatory Evaluation, Regulatory Flexibility Determination, 
International Trade Impact Assessment, and Unfunded Mandates Assessment

    Changes to Federal regulations must undergo several economic 
analyses. First, Executive Order 12866 directs that each Federal agency 
shall propose or adopt a regulation only upon a reasoned determination 
that the benefits of the intended regulation justify its costs. Second, 
the Regulatory Flexibility Act of 1980 (Pub. L. 96-354) requires 
agencies to analyze the economic impact of regulatory changes on small 
entities. Third, the Trade Agreements Act (Pub. L. 96-39) prohibits 
agencies from setting standards that create unnecessary obstacles to 
the foreign commerce of the United States. In developing U.S. 
standards, this Trade Act requires agencies to consider international 
standards and, where appropriate, that they be the basis of U.S. 
standards. Fourth, the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 
104-4) requires agencies to prepare a written assessment of the costs, 
benefits, and other effects of proposed or final rules that include a 
Federal mandate likely to result in the expenditure by State, local, or 
tribal governments, in the aggregate, or by the private sector, of $100 
million or more annually (adjusted for inflation with base year of 
1995). This portion of the preamble summarizes the FAA's analysis of 
the economic impacts of this final rule. The FAA suggests readers 
seeking greater detail read the full regulatory evaluation, a copy of 
which is in the docket for this rulemaking.
    In conducting these analyses, FAA has determined that this rule: 
(1) Has benefits that justify its costs, (2) is not an ``economically 
significant regulatory action'' but is a ``significant regulatory 
action'' for other reasons as defined in section 3(f) of Executive 
Order 12866, (3) is ``significant'' as defined in DOT's Regulatory 
Policies and Procedures; (4) would not have a significant economic 
impact on a substantial number of small entities; (5) would not create 
unnecessary obstacles to the foreign commerce of the United States; and 
(6) would not impose an unfunded mandate on state, local, or tribal 
governments, or on the private sector by exceeding the threshold 
identified above. These analyses are summarized below.

Summary

    In this analysis, the FAA estimated future costs for a 20-year 
period, from 2010 through 2029. All costs in this analysis are in 2008 
dollars.
    There are currently about 740,000 pilots and 93,000 CFIs that would 
be covered by this proposal. Given future projected growth in all pilot 
categories and given the requirement to renew every 8 years, the FAA 
anticipates that the FAA would process 4.40 million photo IDs from 2010 
to 2029.
    Costs to pilots would sum to $445.8 million ($235.8 million, 
present value) over the above 20-year period. This includes the costs 
of the pilots providing hard copy photos and a Form 8710-1 to a portal 
designee, either a Knowledge Testing Center, Designated Pilot Examiner, 
or Flight Service District Office. These portals would incur costs of 
$33.2 million ($17.6 million, present value) to process this 
information and pass it on to the Airman Registry at the FAA. The FAA 
would incur costs of $239.8 million ($126.7 million, present, value) to 
process the certificates. Total costs, over 20 years, sum to $718.7 
million ($380.1 million, present value).
    This proposal responds to IRTPA by requiring digital photos on all 
pilot certificates. Congress has mandated that the FAA improve pilot 
licenses by including a photo on the license. The proposal requiring 
owners to personally appear before authorized persons and to produce 
proof of identity including photo identification would be a significant 
help in the prevention of fraudulent and fictitious registration.

Initial Regulatory Flexibility Determination

    The Regulatory Flexibility Act of 1980 (RFA) establishes ``as a 
principle of regulatory issuance that agencies shall endeavor, 
consistent with the objective of the rule and of applicable statutes, 
to fit regulatory and informational requirements to the scale of the 
business, organizations, and governmental jurisdictions subject to 
regulation.'' To achieve that principle, the RFA requires agencies to 
solicit and consider flexible regulatory proposals and to explain the 
rationale for their actions. The RFA covers a wide-range of small 
entities, including small businesses, not-for-profit organizations and 
small governmental jurisdictions.
    Agencies must perform a review to determine whether a proposed or 
final rule will have a significant economic impact on a substantial 
number of small entities. If the determination is that it will, the 
agency must prepare a regulatory flexibility analysis as described in 
the RFA.
    However, if an agency determines that a proposed or final rule is 
not expected to have a significant economic impact on a substantial 
number of small entities, section 605(b) of the 1980 act provides that 
the head of the agency may so certify and a regulatory flexibility 
analysis is not required. The certification must include a statement 
providing the factual basis for this determination, and the reasoning 
should be clear.
    A number of commercial pilots are employed as crop dusters, as 
passenger and freight charter operators, in aerial photography and 
mapmaking businesses, in sightseeing businesses, and/or in flight 
schools, many of which are small businesses. The FAA does not have data 
as to how many such pilots are employed in each of these businesses. 
While in a rural setting, the entire process may take half a day, the 
pilot would have large latitude in choosing which day to get the 
certificate. These types of small businesses are often seasonal, 
meaning that in almost all cases, the pilot would not have to miss a 
day of work in order to get a pilot certificate with photo.
    The cost impact to any one pilot and to any business would not be 
large. The average cost to a pilot in a ``non-trigger'' event is higher 
than that of a ``trigger'' event as the time and mileage needs to be 
taken into account as well as the portal costs. The average cost for a 
``non-trigger'' event is about $175. These commercial pilots would have 
a phase-in period of 4 years and then would have to renew every 8 
years. Thus, over a 20-year period, such a pilot would have to get 3 
pilot certificates, for a cost of about $375; the average annual cost 
is $19, which is not a significant impact.
    Therefore, the FAA certifies that this proposed rule would not have 
a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small 
entities. The FAA solicits comments regarding this determination.

International Trade Impact Statement

    The Trade Agreements Act of 1979 (Pub. L. 96-39), as amended by the 
Uruguay Round Agreements Act (Pub. L. 103-465), prohibits Federal 
agencies from establishing standards or engaging in related activities 
that create unnecessary obstacles to the foreign commerce of the United 
States.

[[Page 70878]]

Pursuant to these Acts, the establishment of standards is not 
considered an unnecessary obstacle to the foreign commerce of the 
United States, so long as the standard has a legitimate domestic 
objective, such the protection of safety, and does not operate in a 
manner that excludes imports that meet this objective. The statute also 
requires consideration of international standards and, where 
appropriate, that they be the basis for U.S. standards. The FAA has 
assessed the potential effect of this proposed rule and determined that 
it would have only a domestic impact and therefore would not create 
unnecessary obstacles to the foreign commerce of the United States.

Unfunded Mandates Determination

    Title II of the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (the Act) 
requires each Federal agency to prepare a written statement assessing 
the effects of any Federal mandate in a proposed or final agency rule 
that may result in an expenditure of $100 million or more (adjusted 
annually for inflation) in any one year by State, local, and tribal 
governments, in the aggregate, or by the private sector; such a mandate 
is deemed to be a ``significant regulatory action.'' The FAA currently 
uses an inflation-adjusted value of $136.1 million in lieu of $100 
million.
    This proposed rule does not contain such a mandate. The 
requirements of Title II do not apply.

Executive Order 13132, Federalism

    The FAA has analyzed this proposed rule under the principles and 
criteria of Executive Order 13132, Federalism. The FAA has determined 
that this action would not have a substantial direct effect on the 
States, on the relationship between the national Government and the 
States, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the 
various levels of government, and, therefore, would not have federalism 
implications.

Environmental Analysis

    FAA Order 1050.1E identifies FAA actions that are categorically 
excluded from preparation of an environmental assessment or 
environmental impact statement under the National Environmental Policy 
Act in the absence of extraordinary circumstances. The FAA has 
determined this proposed rulemaking action qualifies for the 
categorical exclusion identified in paragraph 312f and involves no 
extraordinary circumstances.

Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or 
Use

    The FAA has analyzed this NPRM under Executive Order 13211, Actions 
Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, 
Distribution, or Use (May 18, 2001). The FAA has determined that it is 
not a ``significant energy action'' under the executive order because 
it is not likely to have a significant adverse effect on the supply, 
distribution, or use of energy.

Additional Information

Comments Invited

    The FAA invites interested persons to participate in this 
rulemaking by submitting written comments, data, or views on any issue 
raised in this rulemaking. The FAA also invites comments relating to 
the economic, environmental, energy, or federalism impacts that might 
result from adopting the proposals in this document. The most helpful 
comments reference a specific portion of the proposal, explain the 
reason for any recommended change, and include supporting data. To 
ensure the docket does not contain duplicate comments, please send only 
one copy of written comments, or if you are filing comments 
electronically, please submit your comments only one time.
    All comments received will be filed in the docket, as well as a 
report summarizing each substantive public contact with FAA personnel 
concerning this proposed rulemaking. Before acting on this proposal, 
the FAA will consider all comments it receives on or before the closing 
date for comments. The FAA will consider comments filed after the 
comment period has closed if it is possible to do so without incurring 
expense or delay. The FAA may change this proposal in light of the 
comments received.

Availability of Rulemaking Documents

    You can get an electronic copy of rulemaking documents using the 
Internet by--
    1. Searching the Federal eRulemaking Portal (http://www.regulations.gov);
    2. Visiting the FAA's Regulations and Policies Web page at http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/; or
    3. Accessing the Government Printing Office's Web page at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html.
    You can also get a copy by sending a request to the Federal 
Aviation Administration, Office of Rulemaking, ARM-1, 800 Independence 
Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20591, or by calling (202) 267-9680. Make 
sure to identify the docket number, notice number, or amendment number 
of this rulemaking.
    You may access all documents the FAA considered in developing this 
proposed rule, including economic analyses and technical reports, from 
the internet through the Federal eRulemaking Portal referenced in 
paragraph (1).

List of Subjects in 14 CFR Parts 61 and 183

    Aircraft, Airmen, Aviation safety, Reporting and recordkeeping 
requirements, Security measures.

The Proposed Amendment

    In consideration of the foregoing, the Federal Aviation 
Administration proposes to amend Chapter I of Title 14, Code of Federal 
Regulations, as follows:

PART 61--CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND 
INSTRUCTORS

    1. The authority citation for part 61 continues to read as follows:

    Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(G), 40113, 44701-44703, 44707, 44709-
44711, 45102-45103, 45301-45302.

    2. Amend Sec.  61.3 by revising paragraphs (a), (d)(2)(iv), and 
paragraph (l) introductory text to read as follows:


Sec.  61.3  Requirement for certificates, ratings, and authorizations.

    (a) Pilot certificate. (1) A person may not serve as a required 
pilot flight crewmember of a civil aircraft of the United States, 
unless that person:
    (i) Has a pilot certificate issued under this part and in 
accordance with Sec.  61.19;
    (ii) Has a special purpose pilot authorization issued under Sec.  
61.77;
    (iii) Has a temporary certificate issued under Sec.  61.17;
    (iv) Has a facsimile certificate issued under Sec.  61.29; or
    (v) When operating an aircraft within a foreign country, has a 
pilot license issued by that country.
    (2) The pilot certificate or special authorization must be in the 
person's physical possession or readily accessible in the aircraft when 
exercising the privileges of that pilot certificate or authorization.
    (3) If the pilot certificate or authorization is not a pilot 
certificate with photo, a person may not serve as a required pilot 
flight crewmember of a civil aircraft of the United States, unless that 
person has a photo identification in that person's physical possession 
or readily accessible in the aircraft when exercising the privileges of 
that pilot certificate or authorization. The photo identification must 
be a:

[[Page 70879]]

    (i) Driver's license issued by a State, the District of Columbia, 
or a territory or possession of the United States;
    (ii) Government identification card issued by the Federal 
government, a State, the District of Columbia, or a territory or 
possession of the United States;
    (iii) U.S. Armed Forces' identification card;
    (iv) Official passport;
    (v) Credential that authorizes unescorted access to a security 
identification display area at an airport regulated under 49 CFR part 
1542; or
    (vi) Other form of identification that the Administrator finds 
acceptable.
* * * * *
    (d) * * *
    (2) * * *
    (iv) Endorse a logbook for solo operating privileges.
* * * * *
    (l) Inspection of certificate. Each person who holds an airman 
certificate, medical certificate, authorization, or license required by 
this part must present it and, unless the pilot certificate contains a 
photo, a photo identification as described in paragraph (a)(2) of this 
section for inspection upon a request from:
* * * * *
    3. Add a new Sec.  61.6 to read as follows:


Sec.  61.6  Pilot certificate with photo and photo requirements.

    (a) Trigger-based implementation. Except as provided in Sec.  
61.19(h)(2), after [effective date of final rule], all persons must 
apply for a pilot certificate with photo and provide a photo that 
conforms to the requirements prescribed in paragraph (b) of this 
section when:
    (1) Obtaining a new pilot certificate or rating (including student 
pilot certificate);
    (2) Obtaining a new flight instructor certificate;
    (3) Renewing a flight instructor certificate; or
    (4) Obtaining a replacement pilot certificate resulting from a 
change of name, citizenship, date of birth, or gender.
    (b) Photo Requirements. (1) A photo provided with an application 
for a new or replacement pilot certificate with photo must--
    (i) Be unretouched and in color;
    (ii) Be a recent likeness of only the applicant (taken within the 
last six months) and show a full front view of the applicant's face in 
such a way that the area from the bottom of the applicant's chin to the 
top of the applicant's head (including hair) covers more than 50 
percent but not more than 75 percent of the total area of the photo; 
and
    (iii) Show the applicant in front of a plain light-colored 
background and in normal street attire, without a hat, head covering, 
or dark glasses unless a signed statement is submitted by the applicant 
verifying the item is worn daily for religious purposes or a signed 
doctor's statement is submitted verifying the item is used daily for 
medical purposes.
    (2) A photo provided with an application for a pilot certificate or 
rating must measure 2 x 2 inches in size.
    (c) Application for new or replacement pilot certificate with 
photo. (1) A photo of the applicant that conforms to the requirements 
prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section must accompany each 
application for a new or replacement pilot certificate with photo 
unless the applicant previously submitted a photo and that photo has 
not expired or will not expire within 90 days of the application.
    (2) An applicant for a pilot certificate with photo must make an 
application accompanied by a photo at a place designated by the 
Administrator.
    (3) An applicant for a replacement pilot certificate with photo who 
has a current photo on file may make an application that is not 
accompanied by a photo at a place designated by the Administrator or by 
mail to the Department of Transportation, FAA, Airman Certification 
Branch, P.O. Box 25082, Oklahoma City, OK 73125.
    (4) Payment to the FAA of the fee specified in paragraph (d) of 
this section by check, money order, or other payment method approved by 
the Administrator must accompany each application for a new or 
replacement pilot certificate with photo.
    (d) Fee for issuance of pilot certificate with photo. The fee for 
processing an application for a new or replacement pilot certificate 
with photo is $22. The FAA periodically may increase this fee to 
correspond with changes in the Consumer Price Index.
    4. Amend Sec.  61.13 by revising paragraphs (a)(1) and (a)(2)(i)(A) 
to read as follows:


Sec.  61.13  Issuance of airman certificates, ratings, and 
authorizations.

    (a) Application. (1) An applicant for an airman certificate, 
rating, or authorization under this part must make that application on 
a form acceptable to the Administrator and at a place designated by the 
Administrator. In addition, an applicant for a pilot certificate with 
photo must make that application as prescribed in Sec.  61.6.
    (2) * * *
    (i) * * *
    (A) Application for student pilot certificate that is received 
outside the United States; or
* * * * *
    5. Amend Sec.  61.19 by revising paragraphs (a), (b), and (c), and 
(g) to read as follows:


Sec.  61.19  Duration of pilot and instructor certificates and 
privileges.

    (a) General. (1) Except for a student pilot certificate or flight 
instructor certificate issued with an expiration date, a pilot 
certificate is valid unless it is surrendered, suspended, or revoked.
    (2) A pilot certificate with photo is issued with a photo 
expiration date after which the holder of the certificate may not 
exercise the privileges of that certificate.
    (b) Paper student pilot certificate. A student pilot certificate 
issued under this part prior to [effective date of final rule] expires:
    (1) For student pilots who have not reached their 40th birthday, 60 
calendar months after the month of the date of examination shown on the 
medical certificate.
    (2) For student pilots who have reached their 40th birthday, 24 
calendar months after the month of the date of examination shown on the 
medical certificate.
    (3) For student pilots seeking a glider rating, balloon rating, or 
a sport pilot certificate, 60 calendar months after the month of the 
date issued, regardless of the person's age.
    (c) Pilot certificates. (1) A pilot certificate (other than a 
student pilot certificate) issued under this part prior to [effective 
date of final rule] is issued without a specific expiration date.
    (2) A pilot certificate, including a student pilot certificate, 
issued under this part after [effective date of final rule] contains a 
photo expiration date that is 96 months from the month in which a photo 
is submitted for inclusion on the certificate.
    (3) The holder of a pilot certificate issued on the basis of a 
foreign pilot license may exercise the privileges of that certificate 
only while that person's foreign pilot license is effective.
* * * * *
    (g) Duration of pilot certificates. (1) Except for a temporary 
certificate issued under Sec.  61.17 or a student pilot certificate 
issued under paragraph (b) of this section, the holder of a paper pilot 
certificate issued under this part may not exercise the privileges of 
that certificate after March 31, 2010.
    (2) Except for a temporary certificate issued under Sec.  61.17 or 
a facsimile certificate issued under Sec.  61.29, no person may 
exercise the privileges of a

[[Page 70880]]

particular certificate as pilot in command or in any other capacity as 
a required pilot flight crewmember of a civil aircraft of U.S. registry 
unless that person has a photo on his or her pilot certificate after:
    (i) [Date 3 years after publication of final rule] for a pilot 
holding an airline transport pilot certificate;
    (ii) [Date 4 years after publication of final rule] for a pilot 
holding a commercial pilot certificate; or
    (iii) [Date 5 years after publication of final rule] for a pilot 
holding a private, recreational or sport pilot certificate.
    6. Amend Sec.  61.25 by adding paragraph (c) to read as follows:


Sec.  61.25  Change of name.

* * * * *
    (c) For applications for a pilot certificate with photo, an 
applicant must make that application as prescribed in Sec.  61.6.
    7. Amend Sec.  61.29 by revising the section heading, revising 
paragraphs (a), (b), (c), (d) introductory text, and (e) introductory 
text to read as follows:


Sec.  61.29  Replacement of a pilot certificate with photo and 
replacement of lost or destroyed airman or medical certificate or 
knowledge test report.

    (a)(1) Pilot certificate with photo. A request for the replacement 
of a pilot certificate with photo issued under this part must be made 
as prescribed in Sec.  61.6.
    (2) Other airman certificate. A request for the replacement of a 
lost or destroyed airman certificate issued under this part must be 
made by letter to the Department of Transportation, FAA, Airman 
Certification Branch, P.O. Box 25082, Oklahoma City, OK 73125, and must 
be accompanied by a check or money order for the appropriate fee 
payable to the FAA.
    (b) Medical certificate. A request for the replacement of a lost or 
destroyed medical certificate must be made by letter to the Department 
of Transportation, FAA, Aerospace Medical Certification Division, P.O. 
Box 26200, Oklahoma City, OK 73125, and must be accompanied by a check 
or money order for the appropriate fee payable to the FAA.
    (c) Knowledge test report. A request for the replacement of a lost 
or destroyed knowledge test report must be made by letter to the 
Department of Transportation, FAA, Airman Certification Branch, P.O. 
Box 25082, Oklahoma City, OK 73125, and must be accompanied by a check 
or money order for the appropriate fee payable to the FAA.
    (d) Request for replacement. The letter requesting replacement of a 
pilot certificate with photo or a lost or destroyed airman certificate, 
medical certificate, or knowledge test report must state:
* * * * *
    (e) Facsimile airman certificate, medical certificate, or knowledge 
test report. A person who has lost an airman certificate, medical 
certificate, or knowledge test report may obtain a facsimile from the 
FAA Aeromedical Certification Branch or the Airman Certification 
Branch, as appropriate, confirming that it was issued and the:
* * * * *
    8. Revise Sec.  61.85 to read as follows:


Sec.  61.85  Application.

    An applicant for a student pilot certificate:
    (a) Must make that application in a form acceptable to the 
Administrator;
    (b) Must provide a photo of the applicant that conforms to the 
photo requirements set forth in Sec.  61.6 with the application;
    (c) Must submit the application to a designee authorized by the 
Administrator or to a Flight Standards District Office; and
    (d) Must submit payment for the application fee as directed in 
Sec.  61.6.
    9. Amend Sec.  61.87 by revising paragraph (n), by adding the word 
``and'' after the semicolon in paragraph (p)(3), removing paragraph 
(p)(4), and redesignating paragraph (p)(5) as paragraph (p)(4) to read 
as follows:


Sec.  61.87  Solo requirements for student pilots.

* * * * *
    (n) Limitations on student pilots operating an aircraft in solo 
flight. A student pilot may not operate an aircraft in solo flight 
unless that student pilot has received an endorsement in the student's 
logbook for the specific make and model aircraft to be flown by an 
authorized instructor who gave the training within the 90 days 
preceding the date of the flight.
* * * * *
    10. Amend Sec.  61.93 by revising paragraphs (c)(1) and (c)(2) and 
adding paragraph (c)(3) to read as follows:


Sec.  61.93  Solo cross-country flight requirements.

* * * * *
    (c) * * *
    (1) A student pilot must have a solo cross-country endorsement from 
the authorized instructor who conducted the training that is placed in 
that person's logbook for the specific category of aircraft to be 
flown.
    (2) A student pilot must have a solo cross-country endorsement from 
an authorized instructor that is placed in that person's logbook for 
the specific make and model of aircraft to be flown.
    (3) For each cross-country flight, the authorized instructor who 
reviews the cross-country planning must make an endorsement in the 
person's logbook after reviewing that person's cross-country planning, 
as specified in paragraph (d) of this section. The endorsement must--
    (i) Specify the make and model of aircraft to be flown;
    (ii) State that the student's preflight planning and preparation is 
correct and that the student is prepared to make the flight safely 
under the known conditions; and
    (iii) State that any limitations required by the student's 
authorized instructor are met.
* * * * *
    11. Amend Sec.  61.133 by revising paragraphs (a)(2)(i)(C) and 
(a)(2)(ii)(C) to read as follows:


Sec.  61.133  Commercial pilot privileges and limitations.

    (a) * * *
    (2) * * *
    (i) * * *
    (C) Endorse a pilot's logbook for solo operating privileges in an 
airship;
* * * * *
    (ii) * * *
    (C) Endorse a pilot's logbook for solo operating privileges in a 
balloon; and
* * * * *
    12. Amend Sec.  61.189 by revising paragraph (b)(1) to read as 
follows:


Sec.  61.189  Flight instructor records.

* * * * *
    (b) * * *
    (1) The name of each person whose logbook that instructor has 
endorsed for solo flight privileges, and the date of the endorsement; 
and
* * * * *
    13. Amend Sec.  61.195 by revising paragraphs (d)(1) introductory 
text and (d)(2) to read as follows:


Sec.  61.195  Flight instructor limitations and qualifications.

* * * * *
    (d) * * *
    (1) Student pilot's logbook for solo flight privileges, unless that 
flight instructor has--
* * * * *
    (2) Student pilot's logbook for a solo cross-country flight, unless 
that flight instructor has determined the student's flight preparation, 
planning, equipment, and proposed procedures are adequate for the 
proposed flight under the existing conditions and within any

[[Page 70881]]

limitations listed in the logbook that the instructor considers 
necessary for the safety of the flight;
* * * * *

PART 183--REPRESENTATIVES OF THE ADMINISTRATOR

    14. The authority citation for part 183 continues to read as 
follows:

    Authority: 31 U.S.C. 9701; 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40113, 44702, 
45303.

    15. Amend Sec.  183.21 by revising paragraph (c) and removing and 
reserving paragraph (d) to read as follows:


Sec.  183.21  Aviation Medical Examiners.

* * * * *
    (c) Issue or deny medical certificates in accordance with part 67 
of this chapter, subject to reconsideration by the Federal Air Surgeon 
or his or her authorized representatives within the FAA; and
* * * * *

    Issued in Washington, DC, on November 10, 2010.
John M. Allen,
Director, Flight Standards Service.
[FR Doc. 2010-29192 Filed 11-18-10; 8:45 am]
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