[Federal Register Volume 75, Number 70 (Tuesday, April 13, 2010)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Pages 18959-19165]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2010-1904]



[[Page 18959]]

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Part II





Department of the Interior





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Fish and Wildlife Service



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50 CFR Part 17



Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of 
Endangered Status for 48 Species on Kauai and Designation of Critical 
Habitat; Final Rule

Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 70 / Tuesday, April 13, 2010 / Rules 
and Regulations

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DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

Fish and Wildlife Service

50 CFR Part 17

[FWS-R1-ES-2008-0046]
[MO 92210-0-0008]
RIN 1018-AV48


Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of 
Endangered Status for 48 Species on Kauai and Designation of Critical 
Habitat

AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior.

ACTION: Final rule.

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SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), determine 
endangered status for 48 species on the island of Kauai in the Hawaiian 
Islands under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We 
also designate 26,582 acres (ac) (10,757 hectares (ha)) of critical 
habitat for 47 of these species. The critical habitat is located in 
Kauai County, Hawaii. Critical habitat designation was determined to be 
not prudent for one species, Pritchardia hardyi (a palm), which is 
threatened by over collection and vandalism.

DATES: This rule becomes effective on May 13, 2010.

ADDRESSES: This final rule and economic impact analysis are available 
on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov. Comments and materials 
received, as well as supporting documentation used in preparing this 
final are available for public inspection, by appointment, during 
normal business hours, at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Pacific 
Islands Fish and Wildlife Office, 300 Ala Moana Boulevard, Box 50088, 
Honolulu, HI 96850; telephone 808-792-9400; facsimile 808-792-9581.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Loyal Mehrhoff, Field Supervisor, 
Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (see ADDRESSES section). If 
you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), call the 
Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 800-877-8339.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This document consists of: (1) a final rule 
to list 48 species as endangered; and (2) a final critical habitat 
designation for 47 species.

Previous Federal Action

    Thirty-one of the Kauai species in this final rule were previously 
candidate species. Candidate species are those taxa for which the 
Service has sufficient information on their biological status and 
threats to list as endangered or threatened under the Endangered 
Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), but for 
which the development of a listing regulation has been precluded to 
date by other higher priority listing activities.
    The candidates addressed in this final listing rule include the 
plants Astelia waialealae (painiu), Canavalia napaliensis (awikiwiki), 
Chamaesyce eleanoriae (akoko), Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis 
(akoko), Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi (akoko), Charpentiera densiflora 
(papala), Cyanea eleeleensis (haha), Cyanea kuhihewa (also haha), 
Cyrtandra oenobarba (hiiwale), Dubautia imbricata subspecies (ssp). 
imbricata (naenae), Dubautia plantaginea ssp. magnifolia (also naenae), 
Dubautia waialealae (naenae), Geranium kauaiense (nohoanu), Keysseria 
erici (no common name (ncn)), Keysseria helenae (ncn), Labordia helleri 
(kamakahala), Labordia pumila (also kamakahala), Lysimachia daphnoides 
(lehua makanoe), Melicope degeneri (alani), Melicope paniculata (also 
alani), Melicope puberula (alani), Myrsine mezii (kolea), Pittosporum 
napaliense (hoawa), Platydesma rostrata (pilo kea lau li i), 
Pritchardia hardyi (loulu), Psychotria grandiflora (kopiko), Psychotria 
hobdyi (kopiko), Schiedea attenuata (ncn), and Stenogyne kealiae (ncn); 
the bird, akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi); and the picture-wing fly, 
Drosophila attigua (now D. sharpi, see explanation under ``Description 
of the 48 Species'' below).
    The candidate status of all of these species was most recently 
assessed and reaffirmed in the December 10, 2008, Notice of Review of 
Native Species that are Candidates or Proposed for Listing as 
Threatened or Endangered (CNOR) (73 FR 75176, December 10, 2008).
    On May 4, 2004, the Center for Biological Diversity petitioned the 
Secretary of the Interior to list 225 species of plants and animals, 
including the 31 candidate species listed above, as endangered or 
threatened under the provisions of the Act. Since then, we have 
published our annual findings on the May 4, 2004, petition (including 
our findings on the 31 candidate species listed above) in the CNORs 
dated May 11, 2005 (70 FR 24870), September 12, 2006 (71 FR 53756), 
December 6, 2007 (72 FR 69033), and December 10, 2008 (73 FR 75176).
    On October 11, 2007, we received a petition from Dr. Eric 
VanderWerf and the American Bird Conservancy to list the akikiki and 
the akekee (Loxops caeruleirostris) as endangered or threatened 
species. According to the petitioners, the akikiki and akekee warrant 
listing under the Act because they have small populations; occur in 
small geographic ranges; are undergoing rapid population and range 
declines; and face numerous imminent and significant threats including, 
but not limited to, habitat loss and degradation by alien plants and 
nonnative ungulates, diseases spread by alien mosquitoes, predation by 
alien mammals, and catastrophic events such as hurricanes (VanderWerf 
and American Bird Conservancy 2007). The petitioners also cite the 
inadequacy of regulatory mechanisms as a threat, noting that as members 
of the subfamily Drepanidinae (Hawaiian honeycreepers), the akikiki and 
akekee are not protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (16 U.S.C. 
703-712; see 71 FR 50205, August 24, 2006). The akikiki was already a 
candidate species (59 FR 58982, November 15, 1994). The proposed rule 
(73 FR 62592, October 21, 2008) and this final designation constitute 
our response to the October 11, 2007, petition.
    In addition to the 31 candidate species and the akekee, we are 
listing and designating critical habitat for the following 16 species 
of plants endemic to Kauai: Cyanea kolekoleensis, Cyanea dolichopoda, 
Cyrtandra paliku, Diellia mannii, Doryopteris angelica, Dryopteris 
crinalis var. podosorus, Dubautia kalalauensis, Dubautia kenwoodii, 
Lysimachia iniki, Lysimachia pendens, Lysimachia scopulensis, 
Lysimachia venosa, Myrsine knudsenii, Phyllostegia renovans, 
Tetraplasandra bisattenuata, and Tetraplasandra flynnii. These 16 Kauai 
plant species have been identified by the multiagency (Federal, State, 
and private) Plant Extinction Prevention (PEP) program as being among 
the rarest of the rare Hawaiian plant species, and in need of immediate 
conservation. The goal of this program is to prevent the extinction of 
native plant species with fewer than 50 individuals remaining in the 
wild on the islands of Kauai, Oahu, Maui, Molokai, Lanai, and Hawaii by 
establishing a network of multi-island plant propagation sites and 
storage facilities, and conducting emergency monitoring and genetic 
sampling of all PEP species (Hawaii Division of Forestry and Wildlife 
(DOFAW) 2007; Service 2007). The Service has provided significant 
funding to this program since 2002, through section 6 (Cooperation with 
the States) of the Act. We believe these 16 plant species warrant 
listing under the Act for the reasons discussed below (``Description of 
the 48 Species'' and ``Summary of Factors Affecting the

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Species''). Since these species occur within the same 6 ecosystems and 
share common threats with the other 32 species, we have included them 
here in an effort to provide them with Federal protection in an 
expeditious manner.
    On October 21, 2008, we published a proposed rule to list these 48 
species as endangered throughout their ranges, and to designate 
critical habitat for 47 of these species (73 FR 62592). The comment 
period for that proposal opened on October 21, 2008, and closed on 
December 22, 2008.

Background

An Ecosystem-based Approach

    On the island of Kauai, as on most of the Hawaiian Islands, native 
species that occur in the same habitat types (ecosystems) depend on 
many of the same biological features and on the successful functioning 
of that ecosystem to survive. We have therefore organized the species 
addressed in this final rule by common ecosystem. Although the listing 
determination for each species is analyzed separately, we have 
organized the specific analysis for each species within the context of 
the broader ecosystem in which it occurs to avoid redundancy. In 
addition, native species that share ecosystems often face a suite of 
common threat factors that require similar management actions to reduce 
or eliminate those threats. Effective management of these threat 
factors often requires implementation of conservation actions at the 
ecosystem scale to enhance or restore critical ecological processes and 
provide for long-term viability of those species in their native 
environment. Thus, by taking this approach, we hope to not only 
organize this final rule effectively, but also to more effectively 
focus conservation management efforts on the common threats that occur 
across these ecosystems, restore ecosystem function for the recovery of 
each species, and provide conservation benefits for associated native 
species, thereby potentially precluding the need to list other species 
under the Act that occur in these shared ecosystems.
    We are listing each of the 48 species endemic to the island of 
Kauai addressed in this rule as an endangered species. These 48 species 
(45 plants, 2 birds, and 1 picture-wing fly) are found in 6 ecosystem 
types: lowland mesic, lowland wet, montane mesic, montane wet, dry 
cliff, and wet cliff (Table 1). Although most of these species are 
restricted to a single ecosystem, some are found in multiple 
ecosystems. For each species, we identified and evaluated those factors 
that threaten the species and that may be common to all of the species 
at the ecosystem level. For example, the degradation of habitat by 
feral ungulates is considered a threat to each species within each 
ecosystem. As a result, this threat factor is considered to be a 
multiple ecosystem-level threat, as each individual species within each 
ecosystem faces a threat that is essentially identical in terms of the 
nature of the impact, its severity, its imminence, and its scope. We 
further identified and evaluated any threat factors that may be unique 
to certain species, and do not apply to all species under consideration 
within the same ecosystem. For example, the threat of avian malaria is 
unique to the two birds in this final rule, but is not applicable to 
any of the other species in this final rule. We have identified such 
threat factors, which apply only to certain species within the 
ecosystems addressed here as species-specific threats.

TABLE 1.--THE 48 KAUAI SPECIES AND THE ECOSYSTEMS UPON WHICH THEY DEPEND
------------------------------------------------------------------------
              Ecosystem                             Species
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lowland Mesic                          Plants: Canavalia napaliensis,
                                        Chamaesyce eleanoriae,
                                        Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi,
                                        Charpentiera densiflora,
                                        Doryopteris angelica, Dubautia
                                        kenwoodii, Labordia helleri,
                                        Pittosporum napaliense,
                                        Platydesma rostrata, Psychotria
                                        hobdyi, Tetraplasandra
                                        bisattenuata
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lowland Wet                            Plants: Chamaesyce remyi var.
                                        kauaiensis, Chamaesyce remyi
                                        var. remyi, Charpentiera
                                        densiflora, Cyanea eleeleensis,
                                        Cyanea kolekoleensis, Cyanea
                                        kuhihewa, Cyrtandra oenobarba,
                                        Dubautia imbricata ssp.
                                        imbricata, Labordia helleri,
                                        Melicope paniculata, Melicope
                                        puberula, Phyllostegia renovans,
                                        Platydesma rostrata, Pritchardia
                                        hardyi, Stenogyne kealiae,
                                        Tetraplasandra bisattenuata,
                                        Tetraplasandra flynii
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Montane Mesic                          Plants: Chamaesyce remyi var.
                                        remyi, Diellia mannii, Labordia
                                        helleri, Myrsine knudsenii,
                                        Myrsine mezii, Platydesma
                                        rostrata, Psychotria
                                        grandiflora, Stenogyne kealiae,
                                        Tetraplasandra flynnii Animals:
                                        Akekee, Akikiki, Drosophila
                                        sharpi
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Montane Wet                            Plants: Astelia waialealae,
                                        Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi,
                                        Dryopteris crinalis var.
                                        podosorus, Dubautia
                                        kalalauensis, Dubautia
                                        waialealae, Geranium kauaiense,
                                        Keysseria erici, Keysseria
                                        helenae, Labordia helleri,
                                        Labordia pumila, Lysimachia
                                        daphnoides, Melicope degeneri,
                                        Melicope puberula, Myrsine
                                        mezii, Phyllostegia renovans,
                                        Platydesma rostrata, Psychotria
                                        grandiflora, Tetraplasandra
                                        flynnii Animals: Akekee,
                                        Akikiki, Drosophila sharpi
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dry Cliff                              Plants: Chamaesyce eleanoriae,
                                        Lysimachia scopulensis, Schiedea
                                        attenuata, Stenogyne kealiae
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Wet Cliff                              Plants: Chamaesyce remyi var.
                                        kauaiensis, Chamaesyce remyi
                                        var. remyi, Cyanea dolichopoda,
                                        Cyrtandra oenobarba, Cyrtandra
                                        paliku, Dubautia plantaginea
                                        ssp. magnifolia, Lysimachia
                                        iniki, Lysimachia pendens,
                                        Lysimachia venosa, Platydesma
                                        rostrata, Pritchardia hardyi
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Under the Act, we are required to designate critical habitat to the 
maximum extent prudent and determinable concurrently with the 
publication of a final determination that a species is endangered or 
threatened. In this rule, we are designating critical habitat for 47 of 
the 48 Kauai species. We have determined that the designation of 
critical habitat is not prudent for one species of native palm tree due 
to the increased threat of collection that may result from such 
designation. The designation of critical habitat for the other 47 Kauai 
species is organized by common ecosystem. Although critical habitat is 
identified for each species individually, we have found that the 
conservation of each depends, at least in part, on the successful 
functioning of the commonly shared ecosystem. Each critical habitat 
unit identified in this final rule therefore contains the physical and

[[Page 18962]]

biological features essential to the conservation of each species and 
those areas that are essential for the conservation of each associated 
species.
    Where the unit is not occupied by a particular species, we believe 
it is essential for the conservation of that species because it 
provides the physical and biological features necessary for the 
expansion of populations in the wild. All of the areas designated 
constitute critical habitat for multiple species, based upon the 
species' shared habitat requirements. The identification of critical 
habitat also takes into account any species-specific physical and 
biological features necessary for the conservation of that species as 
appropriate. For example, the presence of specific host plants for 
larval development is essential for the conservation of the picture-
wing fly Drosophila sharpi, but is not a requirement shared by all 
species within the same ecosystem.
    This approach represents a departure from our previous approaches 
to designating critical habitat for endangered and threatened species 
in Hawaii, which focused on discrete areas occupied by the species at 
the time of listing. Because Hawaii has 330 species listed under the 
Act, the previous approach to critical habitat designations resulted in 
an overlapping patchwork of critical habitat areas that could be 
confusing to the public to interpret. More importantly, we have learned 
that many native Hawaiian plants and animals currently occupy areas of 
marginal habitat because the threats are reduced in those areas, but 
these species can thrive when reintroduced into historical habitats 
when threats are being effectively managed. For this reason, we believe 
it is important to designate unoccupied habitat in those cases where it 
is essential to the recovery of the species and a designation limited 
to its present range would be inadequate to ensure the conservation of 
the species (50 CFR 424.12 (e)).
    We believe the approach adopted in this final rule will make 
critical habitat in Hawaii a more useful conservation tool for land 
managers. Focusing on the management and restoration of habitat at the 
ecosystem scale and on ecosystem processes that these species require 
will result in more effective conservation than a designation based 
solely on the locations of the last few known individuals. In addition, 
we believe this approach will aid recovery given the uncertainties of 
climate change and other processes that may impact highly localized 
habitat conditions and features essential to the conservation of the 
species in the future. Critical habitat areas for multiple species may 
also better provide for the recovery of these species by guiding our 
conservation efforts as well as those of our partners, and by providing 
better information to the public and other entities about important 
conservation areas.
The Island of Kauai
    The island of Kauai is the northernmost and oldest of the eight 
major Hawaiian Islands (Foote et al. 1972, p. 3). It was formed about 6 
million years ago by a single shield volcano and is 553 square miles 
(sq mi) (1,430 sq kilometers (km)) in area. The island is characterized 
by deeply incised canyons and steep ridges (Department of Geography 
1998, p. 151). The large caldera, once the largest in the Hawaiian 
Islands, now extends about 10 mi (16 km) in diameter and comprises the 
elevated tableland of the Alakai Swamp (Department of Geography 1998, 
p. 151). To the west of the Alakai Swamp is the deeply incised Waimea 
Canyon, extending 10 mi (16 km) in length and up to 1 mi (1.6 km) in 
width. Later volcanic activity on the southeastern flank of the volcano 
formed the smaller Haupu caldera. Subsequent erosion and collapse of 
its flank formed Haupu Ridge (Macdonald et al. 1983, p. 457).
    The amount of rainfall on the Hawaiian Islands depends greatly on 
topography, and the orographic (mountain-caused) effect is revealed by 
the wide range in the pattern of annual rainfall, from 10 inches (in) 
to 450 in (25 centimeters (cm) to 1,145 cm) (Giambelluca and Schroeder 
1998, p. 59). Variations in the landscape can create microclimates, 
with large changes in rainfall and wind patterns over very short 
distances (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 43). Mount Waialeale, Kauai's second 
highest point at 5,148 feet (ft) (1,569 meters (m)) in elevation 
(Walker 1999, p. 21) is one of the wettest spots on earth, with annual 
rainfall measured at more than 450 in (1,145 cm) (Department of 
Geography 1998, p. 151). One of the island's most famous features is 
the Na Pali Coast, where stream and wave action have cut deep valleys 
and eroded the land to form precipitous cliffs as high as 3,000 ft (914 
m) (Joesting 1984, p. 14).
    The current soil classification system for the Hawaiian Islands 
distinguishes soil types based on their measurable physical and 
chemical properties, and environmental factors that influenced their 
formation. These characteristics include fertility, climate zone, 
degree of weathering, composition and arrangement of horizons (soil 
layers), and the soil's developmental history. Eleven of the 12 
described soil orders have been reported in Hawaii (Gavenda et al. 
1998, p. 96). Hawaii's basaltic rocks decompose to clay and various 
oxides and hydroxides when exposed to the weather in high rainfall 
areas. Silica and other elements are leached out, leaving the iron 
oxides, which are conspicuously red in color and very evident in the 
eroded cliffs of Waimea Canyon. These red soils support plant life, and 
have low fertility and nutrient content (Walker 1999, p. 32). The soils 
in drier areas lack significant organic material and are characterized 
by deposits, called caliche, of soluble salts near the soil surface. 
Caliche may form concretions (solid mass or coalescence) around plant 
roots and stems (Walker 1999, p. 32).
    Because of its age and relative isolation, levels of floristic 
diversity and endemism are higher on Kauai than on any other island in 
the Hawaiian archipelago. However, the vegetation of Kauai has 
undergone extreme alterations because of past and present land use. 
Land with rich soils was altered by the early Hawaiians and, more 
recently, converted to agricultural use (Gagne and Cuddihy 1999, p. 45) 
or pasture. Intentional and inadvertent introduction of alien plant and 
animal species has also contributed to the reduction in range of the 
native vegetation on the island of Kauai. (Throughout this rule, the 
terms ``alien,'' ``feral,'' ``nonnative,'' and ``introduced'' all refer 
to species that are not native to the Hawaiian Islands.) Most of the 
taxa included in this rule persist on steep slopes, precipitous cliffs, 
valley headwalls, and other regions where unsuitable topography has 
prevented urbanization and agricultural development, or where 
inaccessibility has limited encroachment by nonnative plant and animal 
species.
Kauai Ecosystems
    The six Kauai ecosystems that support the species addressed in this 
final rule are described in the following sections..
Lowland Mesic
    The lowland mesic ecosystem includes a variety of grasslands, 
shrublands, and forests, generally below 3,000 ft (914 m) elevation, 
that receive between 50 and 75 in (127 and 191 cm) of annual rainfall, 
or in otherwise mesic substrate conditions (The Nature Conservancy 
(TNC) 2006b). In the Hawaiian Islands, this ecosystem is found on 
Hawaii, Maui, Molokai, Lanai, Oahu, and Kauai, on both windward and 
leeward sides of the islands. On Kauai, this ecosystem is typically 
found

[[Page 18963]]

on the western slopes of the island (Gagne and Cuddihy 1999, p. 75; TNC 
2006b). Biological diversity is high in this system (TNC 2006b), and 11 
of the 48 species included in this final rule are reported from this 
ecosystem (Hawaii Biodiversity and Mapping Program (HBMP) 2007; The 
Nature Conservancy of Hawaii (TNCH) 2007).
Lowland Wet
    The lowland wet ecological system is generally found below 3,000 ft 
(914 m) elevation on the windward sides of the main Hawaiian Islands, 
except Kahoolawe and Niihau (Gagne and Cuddihy 1999, p. 85; TNC 2006c). 
These areas include a variety of wet grasslands, shrublands, and 
forests that receive greater than 75 in (191 cm) of annual 
precipitation, or are found in otherwise wet substrate conditions (TNC 
2006c). On Kauai, this system is best developed in wet valleys and 
slopes adjacent to the summit plateau of Waialealae and Alakai (TNC 
2006c). According to TNC, biological diversity is high in this system 
(TNC 2006c), and 17 of the 48 species included in this final rule are 
reported from this ecosystem (HBMP 2007; TNCH 2007).
Montane Mesic
    A variety of natural communities (e.g., grasslands, shrublands, and 
forests) are found in the montane mesic ecological system. This system 
is found between 3,000 and 6,600 ft (914 and 2,012 m) elevation in 
areas receiving 50 to 75 in (127 to 191 cm) of precipitation yearly 
(TNC 2006e). The montane mesic system is found on the islands of 
Hawaii, Maui, Molokai, and Kauai. On Kauai, this system is best 
developed on the west-facing slopes. The upper elevation for the 
montane mesic system on Kauai is constrained by the maximum elevation 
on the island (5,243 ft (1,598 m)). Biological diversity is ranked as 
moderate in the montane mesic system, according to TNC (TNC 2006e), and 
12 of the 48 species included in this final rule are reported from this 
ecosystem (HBMP 2007; TNCH 2007).
Montane Wet
    The montane wet ecological system is composed of natural 
communities (grasslands, shrublands, forests, bogs) found at elevations 
between 3,000 and 6,600 ft (914 and 2,012 m) and in areas where annual 
precipitation is greater than 75 in (191 cm) (TNC 2006f). The upper 
elevation for the montane wet system on Kauai is constrained by the 
maximum elevation on the island (5,243 ft (1,598 m)). This system is 
found on all of the main Hawaiian Islands except Niihau and Kahoolawe 
(TNC 2006f). On Kauai it is best developed in the summit plateau of 
Waialeale and Alakai. In this system, biological diversity is moderate 
to high (TNC 2006f), and 21 of the 48 species included in this final 
rule are reported from this ecosystem (HBMP 2007; TNCH 2007).
Dry Cliff
    The dry cliff ecological system is composed of vegetation 
communities occupying steep slopes (greater than 65 degrees) in areas 
that receive less than 75 in (191 cm) of rainfall annually, or in 
otherwise dry substrate conditions (TNC 2006a). This system is found on 
all of the main Hawaiian Islands except Niihau, and on the island of 
Kauai is best developed in the leeward canyons. A variety of grasslands 
and shrublands occur within this system (TNC 2006a). Biological 
diversity is low to moderate in this system (TNC 2006a), and 4 of the 
48 species included in this final rule are reported from this ecosystem 
(HBMP 2007; TNCH 2007).
Wet Cliff
    The wet cliff ecological system is generally composed of grasslands 
and shrublands on near-vertical slopes (greater than 65 degrees) in 
areas that receive more than 75 in (191 cm) of annual precipitation, or 
that are in otherwise wet substrate conditions (TNC 2006d). This system 
is found on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Molokai, Lanai, Oahu, and 
Kauai. On Kauai, this system is typically found on the windward cliffs 
adjacent to Waialeale (TNC 2006d). Biological diversity is low to 
moderate in this system (TNC 2006d), and 11 of the 48 species included 
in this final rule are reported from this ecosystem (HBMP 2007; TNCH 
2007).

Description of the 48 Species

    Here we provide a brief description of each of the 48 species, 
presented in alphabetical order by genus; plants are presented first, 
followed by animals.

Plants

    Astelia waialealae (painiu), an herb in the Asteliaceae family, 
occurs in bogs and on bog hummocks (low mounds or ridges of vegetation) 
dominated by Metrosideros polymorpha (ohia) in the montane wet 
ecosystem at elevations between 4,000 and 5,000 ft (1,220 and 1,525 m) 
(Wagner et al. 1999, p. 1461; TNCH 2007). Astelia waialealae was known 
historically from five locations in the Alakai Swamp region of Kauai 
(Wagner et al. 1999, p. 1461; HBMP 2007). Between October and December 
1994, botanists from the National Tropical Botanical Garden (NTBG) and 
the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) undertook a systematic 
survey of bogs on the island of Kauai, revisiting all of the 
historically known locations of A. waialealae, as well as 16 additional 
bogs. At that time, A. waialealae was confirmed to exist in three bogs. 
One bog, known as Sincock Bog 1, contained 3 Astelia clumps with 3 
individuals in one, 5 in another, and possibly 10 in the third, for a 
total of 18 individuals.
    Sincock Bog 2 contained two clumps, with one individual in each, 
and Waikoali Bog, or Circle Bog, contained two clumps with one 
individual in each (Perlman and Wood 1995, pp. 9--11). In 1996 and 
1997, both Sincock Bog 1 and Sincock Bog 2 were fenced, followed by 
Circle bog in 1998. Regular monitoring of these bogs commenced, and 
with protection from the fences, there was an increase in numbers of 
clumps and individuals of A. waialealae found in all three bogs. By 
2001, the numbers of clumps (and individuals) reached their peaks of 5 
clumps (9 individuals) for Circle bog, 6 clumps (36 individuals) for 
Sincock Bog 1, and 2 clumps (7 individuals) for Sincock Bog 2. By 2003, 
numbers of individuals began dropping dramatically, with visible signs 
of poor health for those remaining (USFWS Kauai monitoring database 
2008). Some individuals were removed at that point for preservation in 
local propagation facilities. Currently, there are 16 individuals, 
possibly representing 6 genetically distinct plants (Service 2005a; 
Wood 2006, pp. 8-9; USFWS Kauai monitoring database 2008; Wood 2008).
    Canavalia napaliensis (awikiwiki), a climbing plant in the pea 
family (Fabaceae), occurs in open sites, on talus slopes, and on gulch 
bottoms in mesic forest in the lowland mesic ecosystem, at elevations 
between 20 and 1,900 ft (6 and 579 m) (Wagner and Herbst 1999, p. 654; 
TNCH 2007). Canavalia napaliensis was historically known from 12 
locations along the northwestern coast of the island of Kauai, 
extending westward from Haena to Makaha ridge (HBMP 2007). Currently, 
this species is restricted to a small section of the Na Pali coast from 
Haena to Kalalau Valley (S. Perlman, pers. comm. 2000; HBMP 2007), in 5 
populations totaling approximately 106 to 206 individuals (HBMP 2007). 
The populations are located in Hoolulu Valley (50 to 100 individuals); 
Waiahuaka Valley (1 individual); Pohakuao (5 individuals); Kalalau 
Valley (50 to 100 individuals); and Limahuli Valley (1 individual) 
(Wagner and Herbst 1999, p. 654; HBMP 2007).
    Chamaesyce eleanoriae (akoko), a small shrub in the spurge family

[[Page 18964]]

(Euphorbiaceae), is restricted to steep, north-facing, narrow ridge 
crests, outcrops, and steep rocky slopes and upper portions of basalt 
cliffs in the dry cliff and lowland mesic ecosystems (Lorence and 
Wagner 1996, p. 68; K. Wood, NTBG 2007a; TNCH 2007). Documented 
habitats include Metrosideros-Diospyros (ohia-lama) mesic forest, 
Metrosideros cliff shrubland, Metrosideros mesic shrubland, and 
Eragrostis variabilis (kawelu) coastal dry cliffs, at elevations 
between 885 and 3,499 ft (270 and 1,036 m) (HBMP 2007). Chamaesyce 
eleanoriae was historically known from 10 populations totaling fewer 
than 500 individuals (K. Wood 2007a; Lorence and Wagner 1996, pp. 68-
70). Currently, three populations are known: one at the Kalalau Valley 
rim between 2,950 and 3,200 ft (900 and 975 m), below and between the 
two Kalalau lookouts; one at Alealau above Kalalau at 3,100 ft (945 m) 
elevation; and one at Pohakuao, an isolated hanging valley northeast of 
Kalalau, at elevations from 886 to 2,592 ft (270 to 790 m). As of the 
last monitoring visit in 2001, these 3 populations combined totaled 
fewer than 50 individuals (NTBG 2007).
    Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis (akoko), a shrub in the spurge 
family (Euphorbiaceae), is found in the lowland wet and wet cliff 
ecosystems in Metrosideros polymorpha wet forest at elevations between 
1,900 and 2,297 ft (579 and 700 m) (Koutnik 1999, pp. 613-614; HBMP 
2007; TNCH 2007). Little is known about the historical range of this 
species; however, two collections made on private lands at Kaholuamanao 
and near Hanapepe Falls in 1916 and 1926, respectively, indicate that 
its range likely extended south and west from its currently known 
locations on the island of Kauai (HBMP 2007). Currently, C. remyi var. 
kauaiensis is found in Lumahai Valley, Wainiha, Wailua River, the 
``Blue Hole'' at the head of Wailua River in the Lihue-Koloa forest 
reserve, and at Iliiliula (K. Wood, pers. comm. 2005a; HBMP 2007). 
Based on surveys conducted from 2000 through 2004, the number of 
individuals at Lumahai Valley dropped from 50 to only ``occasional.'' 
The number of individuals at Wailua River dropped from 500 to 200; the 
number of individuals at the Wainiha population increased from 200 to 
as many as 700; about 200 are found at ``Blue Hole''; and a population 
of 20 individuals was found in Iliiliula (K. Wood, pers. comm. 2005a; 
HBMP 2007). The total number of individuals is at least 920 and 
possibly over 1,000 in the 5 populations.
    Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi (akoko) is a vine-like shrub in the 
spurge family (Euphorbiaceae) found in the lowland mesic, lowland wet, 
wet cliff, montane mesic, and montane wet ecosystems in mesic to wet 
Metrosideros polymorpha-Dicranopteris linearis (ohia-uluhe) forest, at 
elevations between 1,200 and 4,100 ft (366 and 1,250 m) (Wood 1998; 
Koutnik 1999, pp. 613-614; HBMP 2007; TNCH 2007). This species is 
historically known from widely distributed populations on the island of 
Kauai (HBMP 2007). Currently C. remyi var. remyi is found in 10 
populations totaling a little more than 350 individuals at Pohakupili, 
Makaleha, Malamamaiki, Limahuli, Lumahai, Limahuli-Hanakapiai, Kalalau-
Honopu, Koaie canyon, Wahiawa drainage, and Puu Kolo (Wood 1998; K. 
Wood, pers. comm. 2005a; HBMP 2007).
    Charpentiera densiflora (papala) is a tree in the amaranth family 
(Amaranthaceae) which occurs primarily in the lowland mesic ecosystem, 
with one record from the lowland wet ecosystem (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 
190; HBMP 2007; TNCH 2007). This species is found in moist, closed 
areas, and grows along drainages and in gulches in valleys, primarily 
in Diospyros-Metrosideros (lama-ohia) mixed mesic forest, at elevations 
between 400 and 2,200 ft (122 and 671 m) (HBMP 2007). Historically, C. 
densiflora was found along the Kalalau trail in the Hoolulu Valley, 
with limited distribution in three valleys (including Hanakapiai and 
Hanakoa) along the Na Pali Coast of Kauai (Sohmer 1972, p. 294). 
Currently, 7 populations are known, totaling approximately 400 
individuals, in Hanakapiai, Kalalau, Limahuli, Hoolulu, and Waiahuakua 
valleys, and in Pohakuao, a hanging valley between Kalalau and Hanakoa 
(HBMP 2007).
    Cyanea dolichopoda (haha) is a shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae). It is found in Metrosideros polymorpha lowland wet 
shrubland on a cliff face at approximately 2,300 ft (700 m) elevation 
within the wet cliff ecosystem (Lammers and Lorence 1993, p. 432; TNCH 
2007). The species was first discovered in 1990 in the ``Blue Hole'' 
area below Mt. Waialeale, and the plant was last seen in 1992 (Lammers 
and Lorence 1993, pp. 431-432). However, additional individuals are 
very likely to be found in the extremely steep habitat with additional 
surveys (S. Perlman 2007).
    Cyanea eleeleensis (haha) is a shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae) and is reported from the lowland wet ecosystem (Lammers 
1992, p. 129; TNCH 2007). It was found growing in a shaded gulch in wet 
forest, surrounded by steep, precipitous cliffs of Pali Eleele, at an 
elevation of 699 ft (213 m) (HBMP 2007; Lammers 1992, p. 129). This 
species was discovered in Wainiha Valley on the island of Kauai in 
1977, in one population noted as ``fewer than 10'' individuals (Lammers 
1992, p. 129; K. Wood, pers. comm. 2000; HBMP 2007). Collections for 
genetic storage and ex situ (off site) propagation were not made at the 
time of the 1977 discovery. Since its discovery in 1977, subsequent 
surveys for this species have not been conducted in the original (type) 
location. Although individuals of this species were not observed in 
surveys conducted in August 2001 and June 2002 in areas adjacent to the 
original location, much of the suitable habitat (Metrosideros lowland 
wet forest) for this species on Kauai has not been surveyed. If surveys 
are conducted, additional individuals are likely to be found (S. 
Perlman and K. Wood, pers. comm. 2007).
    Cyanea kolekoleensis (haha), a shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), occurs in wet Metrosideros polymorpha forest in the 
lowland wet ecosystem at elevations of 2,125 to 2,500 ft (650 to 765 m) 
(Lammers 1992, p. 130; HBMP 2007; TNCH 2007). First discovered in 1987 
in the Wahiawa drainage, the last known C. kolekoleensis was observed 
in 1992. Seeds were in storage and propagation for this species was 
attempted, but none survived (M. Clark, NTBG 2007; Lyon Arboretum 
2007). However, there are many areas within the ecosystem type in the 
Wahiawa drainage that have not been surveyed for this species, from Mt. 
Kahili to Kapalaoa and the Hanapepe Valley rim, and species experts are 
confident that additional individuals will be found (S. Perlman 2007).
    Cyanea kuhihewa (haha), a shrub in the bellflower family 
(Campanulaceae), is reported from Metrosideros polymorpha-Dicranopteris 
linearis wet forest at an elevation of 1,680 ft (512 m) in the lowland 
wet ecosystem (Lammers 1996, pp. 238-240; HBMP 2007; TNCH 2007). In a 
1994 survey for C. kuhihewa, seven individuals were observed, most of 
which were damaged by a nonnative insect, the two-spotted leafhopper 
(Sophonia rufofacia) (NTBG Provenance Report 1994). In 2001, only one 
individual plant remained, which was observed dead in 2003 (Wood et al. 
2002, p. 3; S. Perlman, pers. comm. 2003a). Prior to that time, seeds 
and tissue were collected for genetic storage and propagation; however, 
this species is no longer in storage or propagation (Wood et al. 2002, 
p. 3; Bender 2006, p. 1; N. Sugii, Lyon Arboretum, pers.

[[Page 18965]]

comm. 2006; V. Pence, Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden, pers. comm. 
2007; D. Burney, NTBG, pers. comm. 2009). Much of the suitable habitat 
(Metrosideros lowland wet forest) for this species on Kauai has not 
been surveyed.
    Cyrtandra oenobarba (haiwale) is a subshrub (a low-growing woody 
shrub or perennial with a woody base) in the African violet family 
(Gesneriaceae) that occurs in the lowland wet and wet cliff ecosystems 
(Wagner et al. 1999, pp. 770-771; TNCH 2007). Cyrtandra oenobarba is 
found on wet slopes, mossy areas, or in rock crevices near waterfalls 
in Metrosideros polymorpha-Dicranopteris linearis wet cliffs, forest, 
and shrubland, at elevations between 1,320 and 2,800 ft (402 and 853 m) 
(Wood 1998, p. 3; HBMP 2007). Historically, wide-ranging collections 
were made of C. oenobarba on the island of Kauai, from the eastern side 
at Kekoiki ridge, the northern coast at Haena, the south-central area 
at Olokele and Hanapepe, and from the south at Haupu (NTBG Provenance 
Report 1993; HBMP 2007). Currently, populations of C. oenobarba in the 
Halelea Forest Reserve include east Mamalahoa (10 individuals), north 
Namolokama (15 to 200 individuals), and Hanalei Valley (scattered) on 
State land, and upper Lumahai Valley (50 individuals) and Wainiha (100 
individuals) on private land (HBMP 2007). Populations of C. oenobarba 
in the Lihue-Koloa Forest Reserve include Wailua River (40 to 50 
individuals) on State land, and Iliiliula drainage (occasional) and 
Wahiawa drainage (50 individuals) on private land (HBMP 2007). The 8 
populations total 270 to as many as 450 individuals (NTBG Provenance 
Report 1993; HBMP 2007; Wood 1998, p. 3).
    Cyrtandra paliku (haiwale) is a subshrub in the African violet 
family (Gesneriaceae) that occurs on seeping basalt rock faces of 
north-facing cliffs dominated by Metrosideros polymorpha and 
Dicranopteris linearis in the wet cliff ecosystem, at elevations 
between 2,200 and 2,800 ft (670 to 850 m). Cyrtandra paliku was first 
discovered in 1993 on the cliffs below Kekoiki, in the Makaleha 
Mountains of Kauai, where approximately 70 individuals were found 
(Wagner et al. 2001, pp. 150-151; HBMP 2007; TNCH 2007). The species 
maintained a population of approximately 70 individuals from 1993 
through 1999; however, there are currently only 10 known individuals 
(S. Perlman 2006).
    Diellia mannii is a fern in the asplenium family (Aspleniaceae). It 
is found on a northwest-facing slope just above a gulch bottom in what 
was likely Acacia koa (koa)-Metrosideros polymorpha dominated montane 
mesic forest in the past, but which is now a forest dominated by the 
nonnative Corynocarpus laevigatus (karakanut) in the montane mesic 
ecosystem, at an elevation of 3,450 ft (1,050 m) (Aguraiuja and Wood 
2003, p. 155; HBMP 2007; TNCH 2007). Diellia mannii was historically 
known from one location in the Halemanu area of what is now Kokee State 
Park, in the northwestern region of Kauai. The species was thought to 
be extinct since the early 1900s, until 2002 when a single individual 
was rediscovered (Aguraiuja and Wood 2003, pp. 154-155; Palmer 2003, p. 
120). Currently, the species is known only from this one individual in 
the southeastern branch of Nawaimaka Stream in the Halemanu Mountains 
of Kokee State Park (HBMP 2007).
    Doryopteris angelica is a fern in the pteris family (Pteridaceae) 
found in Acacia koa-Metrosideros polymorpha lowland mesic forest in the 
lowland mesic ecosystem at elevations between roughly 1,900 and 3,000 
ft (579 and 914 m) (HBMP 2007; TNCH 2007). Three populations of fewer 
than 20 individuals were discovered in 1994, and currently the species 
is known from approximately 29 to 54 individuals in 5 populations at 
Awaawapuhi (2 to 3 individuals), Mahanaloa (3 to 6 individuals), Makaha 
(10 to 20 individuals), Kuia (10 to 20 individuals), and Paaiki (4 to 5 
individuals) (NTBG 1998; Wagner [W.H.] et al. 1999b, p. 147; Wood 1999, 
2000, 2007a; S. Perlman 2006; HBMP 2007).
    Dryopteris crinalis var. podosorus, a fern in the dryopteris family 
(Dryopteridaceae), is known from steep to vertical riparian basalt 
walls within dark seeping drainages in Metrosideros polymorpha montane 
wet forest within the montane wet ecosystem, from 4,000 to 5,100 ft 
(1,200 to 1,550 m) in elevation (TNCH 2007; Wood 2007a). Historically, 
this variety was known from the Kokee area, Kawaikoi, and Waialeale 
(Palmer 2003, p. 139). Currently, 3 populations totaling 32 to 47 
individuals are known. The Mohihi population is made up of 10 to 20 
individuals, from 15 to 20 individuals comprise the south Kilohana 
population, and the Waialeale population is known from 7 individuals 
(Wood 2007a).
    Dubautia imbricata ssp. imbricata (naenae), a shrub in the 
sunflower family (Asteraceae), currently occurs in the lowland wet 
ecosystem, although there are historical records from the montane wet 
ecosystem as well (Carr 1999, p. 298; TNCH 2007). Occurrence records 
show that D. imbricata ssp. imbricata has typically been found in wet 
Metrosideros polymorpha forest and Metrosideros, Oreobolus (sedge), 
Rhynchospora (kuolohia) bogs at elevations between approximately 2,165 
and 3,640 ft (660 and 1,110 m) (HBMP 2007). Historically and currently, 
D. imbricata ssp. imbricata is known only from the Wahiawa Mountains of 
Kauai (St. John and Carr 1981, pp. 198, 201; Carr 1999, p. 298; HBMP 
2007). There are approximately 200 individuals at Wahaiawa drainage, 
approximately 1,000 individuals on both sides of the ridge between 
Hanapepe and Iole, and an estimate of several hundred individuals at 
Iliiliula (K. Wood, pers. comm. 2005a; HBMP 2007). These 3 populations 
total approximately 1,400 individuals (K. Wood, pers. comm. 2005a; HBMP 
2007).
    Dubautia kalalauensis (naenae), a shrub or tree in the sunflower 
family (Asteraceae), is found in the montane wet ecosystem in 
Metrosideros polymorpha wet forest at elevations between 4,000 and 
4,050 ft (1,205 and 1,235 m) (Baldwin and Carr 2005, p. 261; TNCH 
2007). Historically, this species, as a part of the species Dubautia 
laxa, was known from several locations below the rim of Kalalau Valley 
in Kokee State Park in the northwestern region of Kauai. Currently, D. 
kalalauensis is found in only one location along the rim of Kalalau 
Valley near Puu o Kila Lookout and totals 26 individuals (Baldwin and 
Carr 2005, p. 261).
    Dubautia kenwoodii (naenae), a shrub in the sunflower family 
(Asteraceae), is found in diverse lowland mesic forest in the lowland 
mesic ecosystem at an elevation of 2,625 ft (800 m) (HBMP 2007; TNCH 
2007; Wood 2007b). First described in 1998 as a new species, D. 
kenwoodii is known from one individual found below the western rim of 
Kalalau Valley, in the northwestern region of Kauai (Carr 1998). This 
individual was not observed after Hurricane Iniki, and may possibly be 
extirpated; however, more individuals may be found in future surveys 
(D. Burney, NTBG, pers. comm. 2009).
    Dubautia plantaginea ssp. magnifolia (naenae) is a shrub or small 
tree in the sunflower family (Asteraceae) found in the wet cliff 
ecosystem (Carr 1999, p. 304; HBMP 2007; TNCH 2007). Typical habitat 
for this species includes wet cliff and wet forest and shrubland at 
elevations between 1,542 and 2,395 ft (470 and 730 m) (HBMP 2007). 
Historically, D. plantaginea ssp. magnifolia was known from two 
populations less than 2 mi (3.2 km)

[[Page 18966]]

apart in bog habitat in the Alakai Wilderness Preserve and the Na Pali-
Kona Forest Reserve on Kauai (HBMP 2007). In 1992, the year that 
Hurricane Iniki struck Kauai, the only known population at ``Blue 
Hole'' at the headwaters of the Wailua River of ``a couple hundred'' 
individuals was greatly reduced. Currently, there are approximately 100 
individuals (S. Perlman, pers. comm. 2003b).
    Dubautia waialealae (naenae) is a dome or tussock-shaped shrub in 
the sunflower family (Asteraceae) that occurs in bogs in the montane 
wet ecosystem at elevations between 3,980 and 5,249 ft (1,213 and 1,600 
m) (Carr 1999, p. 308; HBMP 2007; TNCH 2007). The type collection was 
made on the summit of Waialeale in 1909 (Rock 1910, p. 304), but little 
is known of other historical locations of D. waialealae on Kauai. 
Currently, there is one large population centered on the rain-gauge 
summit of Waialeale, with many subpopulations radiating about 0.6 mi (1 
km) to the north and south. These subpopulations were observed in 
groups of 7 to 400 individuals (Wood 2006, pp. 25-29), with a total 
population of 3,000 individuals (Wood 2006, p. 9). In 1994, a single 
individual of D. waialealae was reported at North Bog, 8.5 mi (14 km) 
away from the population at Waialeale; however, in 2006, it was 
reported that this individual had died (K. Wood 1994a; M. Bruegmann, 
pers. comm. 2006b; HBMP 2007).
    Geranium kauaiense (nohoanu) is a decumbent (reclining) subshrub in 
the geranium family (Geraniaceae) (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 733). It 
occurs in the montane wet ecosystem in Metrosideros-Rhynchospora bogs 
and bog margins at elevations between 4,000 and 4,080 ft (1,219 and 
1,463 m) (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 733; HBMP 2007; TNCH 2007). 
Historically, G. kauaiense was known from montane bogs on the island of 
Kauai, ranging from North Bog to as far south as the summit of 
Waialeale (HBMP 2007). Currently, there are 3 subpopulations within a 
very small range (within 0.5 mi, 0.8 km) in the Halehaha Bogs of the 
Alakai Wilderness Preserve totaling approximately 140 individuals, and 
3 individuals at the Waialeale Summit Bog (K. Wood 1994b; S. Perlman, 
pers. comm. 1999b; Wood 2006, p. 10; HBMP 2007; Wood 2008).
    Keysseria erici is a herb in the sunflower family (Asteraceae) that 
occurs in Metrosideros mixed bogs in the montane wet ecosystem, at 
elevations between 4,000 and 5,120 ft (1,219 and 1,561 m) (Mill 1999, 
pp. 329-330; HBMP 2007; TNCH 2007). Little is known of the historical 
occurrences of K. erici. The type was collected by Forbes (1918, p. 
306) from the ``Alakai swamp, Waimea drainage basin'' on Kauai. 
Currently, this species is found in three to four populations totaling 
several thousand individuals (HBMP 2007). The populations occur at 
Namolokama, Hanakapiai-Wainiha ridge, In-between Bog, and at the 
Kilohana bogs (including Rain Gauge Bog, T Bog, and Platanthera Bog) 
(HBMP 2007).
    Keysseria helenae is an herb in the sunflower family (Asteraceae) 
and is found in Metrosideros polymorpha or mixed sedge and grass bogs 
at elevations between 3,900 and 5,120 ft (1,189 and 1,561 m) in the 
montane wet ecosystem (Mill 1999, p. 330; HBMP 2007; TNCH 2007). Little 
is known of the historical occurrences of K. helenae. The type was 
collected from the ``swamp near Kaholuamano'' by Forbes (1918, p. 306). 
Currently, this species is found at Kauluwehi Bog in the Alakai 
Wilderness Preserve, at Waialeale, and on Kahili-Kawaikini Ridge, 
totaling approximately 300 individuals (K. Wood, pers. comm. 2003b; 
HBMP 2007).
    Labordia helleri (kamakahala) is a shrub, sometimes climbing, in 
the logania family (Loganiaceae) (Wagner et al. 1999, pp. 856-857). It 
occurs in Metrosideros-Acacia-Dicranopteris mesic to wet forest, at 
elevations between 1,200 and 3,900 ft (366 and 1,189 m), in the lowland 
mesic, lowland wet, montane mesic, and montane wet ecosystems (HBMP 
2007; TNCH 2007). Historically, L. helleri was wide-ranging on Kauai. 
Collections were made as far south as the Haupu Mountains, through 
central Kauai to the northwestern coast (HBMP 2007). Currently, there 
are 10 populations totaling 350 to 550 individuals. The largest 
population extends from the Na Pali Kona Forest Reserve into Kuia 
Natural Area Reserve (NAR), and contains 300 to 500 individuals at 
Honopu, Awaawapuhi, Kuia drainage, and Kalalau-Milolii ridge. Other 
much smaller populations occur at upper Mahanaloa (10 individuals), 
Limahuli (recorded as ``occasional'' in HBMP database), Waioli (1 
individual), Kaunuohua ridge (1 individual), Kohua ridge (1 
individual), Koaie stream (10 individuals), Kawaiiki (3 individuals), 
southeast Puu Kolo (recorded as ``localized'' in HBMP database), and 
Puu Kolo-Kahuamoa (1 individual) (HBMP 2007).
    Labordia pumila (kamakahala), a shrub in the logania family 
(Loganiaceae), occurs in the montane wet ecosystem at elevations 
between 3,478 and 5,100 ft (1,060 to 1,555 m) in Metrosideros 
polymorpha mixed sedge and grass bogs (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 860; HBMP 
2007; TNCH 2007). Little is known of the historical locations of L. 
pumila on Kauai. The type specimen was collected by Wawra (1869, 1870) 
at the summit of Waialeale. Currently, L. pumila is found in three 
populations on the Alakai plateau. The largest population along the 
Wainiha rim totals 500 individuals (HBMP 2007). There are also about 
300 to 400 individuals at the summit of Waialeale, and occasional 
individuals at Namolakama (Wood 2006, p. 10). The total number of known 
individuals from all 3 populations is 800 to 900; however, one estimate 
suggests that the overall population in the summit areas may be as high 
as 5,000 to 6,000 individuals (Wood 2006, p. 10).
    Lysimachia daphnoides (lehua makanoe), a member of the myrsine 
family (Myrsinaceae), is found in Metrosideros polymorpha mixed bogs on 
hummocks, at elevations between 3,960 and 4,440 ft (1,207 and 1,353 m) 
in the montane wet ecosystem (Marr and Bohm 1997, p. 265; Wagner et al. 
1999, p. 1,080; HBMP 2007; TNCH 2007). Historically, L. daphnoides was 
known from the more southerly mountains of Kauai, including the Wahiawa 
drainage and ridges, in what is now the Lihue-Koloa Forest Reserve 
(HBMP 2007). Currently, this species is found in the Alakai Wilderness 
Preserve and the Na Pali Kona Forest Reserve, in 3 populations totaling 
200 to 300 individuals (HBMP 2007; Service 2005a). The population along 
the Alakai swamp trail (including Charlie's Bog, Kilohana, south 
Kilohana, and northwest Kilohana) totals 190 to 280 individuals; the 
second population includes Sincock Bog 1 and Kauluwehi (21 
individuals); and the third population occurs at Waiakoali-Mohihi and 
Mohihi drainage (7 individuals) (HBMP 2007).
    Lysimachia iniki is a woody shrub in the myrsine family 
(Myrsinaceae) that occurs on wet, mossy, or rocky cliffs in the wet 
cliff ecosystem at 2,400 ft (720 m) (Marr and Bohm 1997, pp. 270-271; 
TNCH 2007). This species was first described in 1997 from material 
collected in the ``Blue Hole'' at the headwaters of the Wailua River on 
Kauai. At the time it was discovered it was known from 26 individuals, 
and currently at least 40 individuals are known (Marr and Bohm 1997, 
pp. 270-271; S. Perlman 2006, 2007).
    Lysimachia pendens is a many-branched shrub in the myrsine family 
(Myrsinaceae) and is reported from wet, mossy, or rocky cliffs in the 
wet cliff ecosystem at 2,400 ft (720 m) (Marr and Bohm 1997, p. 275; 
TNCH 2007). This

[[Page 18967]]

species was discovered in the ``Blue Hole'' area of Kauai in 1987 from 
several small populations totaling approximately 100 individuals (Marr 
and Bohm 1997, p. 275; DOFAW 2005 [Comprehensive Conservation Wildlife 
Strategy]). Many plants were destroyed by two major landslides that 
apparently occurred between 1997 and 2003, based on information taken 
from field survey reports. Currently, the species is known from only 
eight individuals (S. Perlman 2003, 2006, and 2007).
    Lysimachia scopulensis, a shrub in the myrsine family 
(Myrsinaceae), is found on cliffs in lowland diverse mesic forest 
pockets at elevations between 2,950 and 3,200 ft (900 and 975 m) within 
the dry cliff ecosystem (Wood 2007d; TNCH 2007). First discovered in 
1991 in Kalalau Valley, this species is currently known from two 
populations. The Kalalau population is comprised of approximately 15 
individuals and the Puu Kii population is comprised of 10 to 15 
individuals, for a total of 25 to 30 individuals (Marr and Bohm 1997, 
pp. 283-284; Wood 2007d).
    Lysimachia venosa, a shrub in the myrsine family (Myrsinaceae), 
occurs in Metrosideros polymorpha dominated wet forest areas in the wet 
cliff ecosystem, at elevations between 3,000 and 5,700 ft (915 and 
1,740 m) (Marr and Bohm 1997, p. 284; Wood 2006, p. 11; TNCH 2007). 
Lysimachia venosa was known historically from two collections in the 
early 1900s from the Waialeale summit region of Kauai (Marr and Bohm 
1997, p. 284; Wagner et al. 1999, p. 1,085; HBMP 2007). In 1991, a 
broken branch of this species was collected from the headwaters of the 
Wailua River that had fallen from the cliffs above, possibly from the 
summit area of Waialeale (Wood 2006, p. 11; Marr and Bohm 1997, p. 
284). While no plants were found during surveys of the summit area in 
2006, there is still additional habitat to be surveyed, and species 
experts believe L. venosa still exists (S. Perlman 2007; Wood 2006, p. 
11).
    Melicope degeneri (alani) is a small shrub or tree in the rue 
family (Rutaceae) that occurs in the montane wet ecosystem in 
Metrosideros-Cheirodendron-Dicranopteris wet forest between the 
elevations of 3,000 and 3,800 ft (914 and 1,158 m) (Stone et al. 1999, 
p. 1186; HBMP 2007; TNCH 2007). Melicope degeneri was thought to be 
extinct until it was rediscovered in Pohakuao, just beyond the 
northwest corner of the Hono o Na Pali NAR, in 1993 (Wood 2000, p. 6), 
and subsequently observed in upper Hanakoa in 1995 and along Koaie 
Stream in 1999 (NTBG Accession Data 1999). The Pohakuao individual has 
not been relocated since its discovery (Wood 2000, p. 5). Ten trees 
were originally documented during the discovery of the Hanakoa 
population in 1995 (Wood 2000, p. 4; Wood 2007 pp. 4-6). Since 1995, 2 
of the trees have died and 3 additional individuals were located, for a 
current total of 11 individuals at Hanakoa (S. Perlman 2007c; N. 
Tangalin 2007a). One small mature individual of M. degeneri was found 
growing in Koaie Canyon's upper drainage in 1999, and was last observed 
there in September of 2006 (K. Wood, pers. comm. 2007b). A new 
population of 9 individuals was found in Wainiha Valley, bringing the 
total known number of M. degeneri to 22, or possibly 23, known 
individuals (Wood 2008).
    Melicope paniculata (alani) is a tree in the rue family (Rutaceae) 
(Stone et al. 1999, p. 1,199). It occurs in the lowland wet ecosystem 
in forests dominated by Metrosideros polymorpha, at elevations between 
1,200 and 2,680 ft (365 and 815 m) (Stone et al. 1999, p. 1199; HBMP 
2007; TNCH 2007). This species was historically reported from central 
Kauai (HBMP 2007; Stone et al. 1999, p. 1199). Currently, M. paniculata 
is known from 6 sites, with 5 individuals in upper Limahuli Valley, 3 
individuals along the north fork of the Wailua River, 1 to 5 
individuals along Koaie Stream, and 3 individuals on the ridge between 
Hulua and Kapalaoa. The population in Lumahai Valley is estimated to be 
approximately 100 to 200 individuals; however Bender (2006, p. 7) 
estimated that there may be a total of 500 individuals (Wood 1998, p. 
4; Stone et al. 1999, p. 1199; Wagner and Herbst 2003, p. 45; HBMP 
2007).
    Melicope puberula (alani) is a shrub or small tree in the rue 
family (Rutaceae) that occurs in the lowland wet and montane wet 
ecosystems in wet forest and bogs at elevations ranging between 2,080 
and 4,100 ft (634 and 1,250 m) (Stone et al. 1999, p. 1202; HBMP 2007; 
TNCH 2007). Historically, M. puberula was known from the Alakai Swamp 
on the island of Kauai (St. John 1944b, p. 266). Currently, this 
species is known from the south rim of Kalalau east to the Alakai-
Kilohana plateau area, and north into Hono o Na Pali NAR (HBMP 2007). 
The Hawaii Biodiversity and Mapping Program delineated these three 
areas as one population (referred to as the Kalalau-Wainiha population) 
(HBMP 2007). In 1993, a single individual was observed near Hinalele 
Falls in the southern portion of the Wainiha Mountain Range (HBMP 
2007). The largest population occurs in the Alakai-Kilohana Plateau 
area with approximately 600 individuals. About 100 individuals are 
found within the Kalalau area, and approximately 200 individuals occur 
within the Hono o Na Pali NAR, for a total of approximately 900 
individuals (HBMP 2007).
    Myrsine knudsenii (kolea) is a small tree in the myrsine family 
(Myrsinaceae). Historically, the species may have been found in lowland 
mesic and lowland wet ecosystems, but currently it is only known from 
Acacia koa-Metrosideros polymorpha-Dicranopteris linearis mesic forest 
at elevations between 3,200 and 3,900 ft (975 and 1,200 m) in the 
montane mesic ecosystem (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 941; Wood et al. 2002, 
p. 15; HBMP 2007; TNCH 2007). Historically, M. knudsenii was found in 
Hanapepe Valley in south-central Kauai; Kawaiula Trail in western 
Kauai; and Awaawapuhi, Kumuwela, Honopu, and Nualolo in the Kokee 
region of the island of Kauai (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 941). Currently, 
the species is known from 3 populations totaling approximately 30 
individuals at Honopu, Awaawapuhi, and Nualolo (S. Perlman 2007; Wood 
et al. 2001, p. 10; Wood et al. 2002, p. 15; HBMP 2007; Wood 4907 
(BISH)).
    Myrsine mezii (kolea), a small tree in the myrsine family 
(Myrsinaceae), is found in Acacia-Metrosideros forest in the montane 
mesic and montane wet ecosystems at elevations between 3,380 and 3,480 
ft (1,030 and 1,060 m) (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 943; HBMP 2007; NTBG 
Accession Data 9888, 2002; TNCH 2007). Myrsine mezii is known from only 
two locations totaling five individuals, in the Koaie Canyon area of 
western Kauai (N. Tangalin 2007b). Four trees comprise one population 
at Nawaimaka, and the second known occurrence at Kawaiiki is composed 
of a single tree in poor condition (N. Tangalin 2007b). The population 
size has not changed in the last 10 years, and historical locations and 
numbers are unknown.
    Phyllostegia renovans, a subshrub in the mint family (Lamiaceae), 
occurs at elevations from 2,700 to 3,700 ft (225 to 1,125 m) in 
Metrosideros polymorpha wet forest in the lowland wet and montane wet 
ecosystems (HBMP 2007; TNCH 2007). First discovered in 1989 in the 
headwaters of the Wainiha River, this species is currently known from 6 
populations: approximately 30 surviving individuals reintroduced into 
Limahuli Valley after the last wild individual from that area died, 23 
individuals at Wainiha, 10 individuals at Kalalau Valley, 1 individual 
in Lumahai Valley, 1 individual at Kapalaoa, and 1 individual at the 
headwaters of Kamooloa Stream (K. Wood 1994, p. 4; Wagner 1999, p. 275;

[[Page 18968]]

HBMP 2007, D. Burney, NTBG, pers. comm. 2009).
    Pittosporum napaliense (hoawa) is a small tree in the pittosporum 
family (Pittosporaceae) typically found in Pandanus and lowland mesic 
forest in the lowland mesic ecosystem, at elevations between 400 and 
2,100 ft (122 and 640 m) (Wagner et al. 1999, pp. 1045-1047; HBMP 2007; 
TNCH 2007). Historically, P. napaliense was known from northwestern 
Kauai (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 1047; HBMP 2007). Currently, this species 
is known from 3 populations; two of which are located within the Hono o 
Na Pali NAR in Waiahuakua (50 individuals) and Hoolulu valleys (100 
individuals), with the third population (10 to 50 individuals) located 
in upper Kalalau Valley in the Na Pali Coast State Park (HBMP 2007).
    Platydesma rostrata (pilo kea lau lii) is a shrub in the rue family 
(Rutaceae). It occurs in the lowland mesic, lowland wet, wet cliff, 
montane mesic, and montane wet ecosystems, in forest dominated by 
Acacia koa and Metrosideros polymorpha, at elevations between 2,500 and 
4,000 ft (760 and 1,220 m) (Stone et al. 1999, p. 1210; HBMP 2007; TNCH 
2007). Platydesma rostrata was historically known from Makaha and 
Milolii ridge in the Na Pali Kona Forest Reserve, and Kaunuohua ridge 
and Nualolo trail in Kokee State Park, on the island of Kauai (HBMP 
2007). Currently, this species is found in the Na Pali Kona Forest 
Reserve on the Awaawapuhi and Honopu trails; in Halelea Forest Reserve 
at Lumahai; in Hono o Na Pali NAR at Pihea; in Kunia NAR on the Nualolo 
Trail; in Mahanaloa and Kuia valleys; and in the Lihue-Koloa Forest 
Reserve at Pohakupele, Hulua, Kapalaoa, and Iliiliula Valley (HBMP 
2007). These small populations total approximately 100 individuals 
(HBMP 2007).
    Pritchardia hardyi (loulu) is a tree in the palm family (Arecaceae) 
that occurs in the lowland wet and wet cliff ecosystems (Read and Hodel 
1999, p. 1370; TNCH 2007). It is found in Metrosideros-Dicranopteris 
wet forest and shrubland and on windswept windward ridges and headwater 
drainages, at elevations between 1,800 and 3,400 ft (548 and 1036 m) 
(Read and Hodel 1999, p. 1370; HBMP 2007). Historically, P. hardyi was 
known from a single population totaling about 200 individuals in an 
area on the southeast (windward) side of Kauai (HBMP 2007). An 
additional population totaling about 100 individuals was found north of 
that area (NTBG Provenance Report 040094), bringing the total number of 
known individuals of P. hardyi to approximately 300.
    Psychotria grandiflora (kopiko) is a small tree or shrub in the 
coffee family (Rubiaceae) that occurs in the montane mesic and montane 
wet ecosystems (K. Wood 2007a; TNCH 2007). It is found in Acacia-
Metrosideros mesic to wet forest between the elevations of 3,400 and 
4,100 ft (1,128 and 1,250 m) (HBMP 2007). Historically, this species 
was known from collections at Waimea, Kokee, and Kalalau, all from the 
northwestern area of Kauai (Fosberg 1964, p. 258). Currently, 10 small 
populations of P. grandiflora are found only within Kokee State Park, 
and are estimated to total between 16 and 30 individuals (Arnold 2007, 
pp. 1-3; HBMP 2007; S. Perlman 2007d; N. Tangalin 2007c).
    Psychotria hobdyi (kopiko) is a tree in the coffee family 
(Rubiaceae) that occurs in lowland Acacia koa-Metrosideros polymorpha 
mesic forest in the lowland mesic ecosystem at elevations between 1,700 
and 2,700 ft (520 and 825 m) (Wagner et al. 1999, pp. 1166-1168; HBMP 
2007; TNCH 2007). The first collection of P. hobdyi was made in 
Mahanaloa Valley on Kauai in 1970 (St. John 1975, p. 59). Currently, 
this species is known from 10 populations totaling approximately 120 
individuals in the following locations: 1 population of 2 individuals 
in Kawaiula Valley; 1 population of approximately 5 individuals at the 
junction of Mahanaloa Valley and Kuia Valley; 3 populations totaling 
approximately 47 individuals in Mahanaloa Valley; 2 populations of 17 
to 22 individuals in Paaiki Valley; 2 populations of approximately 39 
individuals in Poopooiki Valley; and 1 population in upper Kalalau 
Valley of approximately 10 individuals (HBMP 2007).
    Schiedea attenuata, a shrub in the pink family (Caryophyllaceae), 
occurs on cliffs at elevations between 2,297 and 2,625 ft (700 and 900 
m) in the dry cliff ecosystem (Wagner et al. 1994, pp. 187-190; TNCH 
2007). Schiedea attenuata was discovered in 1991 by K. Wood during a 
rappel on the cliffs in an area of precipitous slopes above the Kalalau 
Valley on Kauai. Approximately 20 individuals were last observed there 
in 1994 (M. Bruegmann 1994b; Wagner et al. 1994, p. 187; Wagner et al. 
2005, pp. 45-47).
    Stenogyne kealiae is a trailing or scandent vine in the mint family 
(Lamiaceae) (Wagner and Weller 1991, p.51). It occurs in the dry cliff, 
lowland wet, and montane mesic ecosystems, in Metrosideros polymorpha 
forest, M. polymorpha-Acacia koa forest, and M. polymorpha-
Dicranopteris linearis shrubland, at elevations between 3,550 and 4,100 
ft (1,082 and 1,250 m) (Wagner and Weller 1991, p. 51; TNCH 2007). One 
population (Wainiha), however, is reported between 2,231 and 2,707 ft 
(680 and 825 m) elevation (HBMP 2007). Historically, this species 
occurred at Pohakupili near Kealia in the Kealia Forest Reserve on the 
island of Kauai. Currently, this species occurs at Honopu, Kalalau, 
Malamalamaiki, Pohakupili, and Wainiha. The 5 populations of S. kealiae 
total approximately 100 to 200 individuals (HBMP 2007).
    Tetraplasandra bisattenuata (ohe ohe) is a tree in the ginseng 
family (Araliaceae), which occurs in lowland mesic to wet forest and 
shrubland in the lowland mesic and lowland wet ecosystems at elevations 
between 1,800 and 2,000 ft (550 and 610 m) (TNCH 2007; Wood 2007f, pp. 
1-5). This species is known only from the Haupu and Kahili regions of 
Kauai. Currently, 35 individuals are found at Mt. Haupu and 2 
individuals are at Mt. Kahili (Wood 2007f, p. 1).
    Tetraplasandra flynnii (ohe ohe) is a tree in the ginseng family 
(Araliaceae) found in Metrosideros polymorpha (ohia) montane mesic to 
wet forest in the lowland wet, montane mesic, and montane wet 
ecosystems, at elevations between 2,600 and 4,000 ft (793 and 1,225 m) 
(Lowry and Wood 2000, p. 42; HBMP 2007; TNCH 2007). Three individuals 
of T. flynii were first discovered in 1988 near Kahuamaa Flat in Kokee 
State Park, and two more individuals were found in the late 1990s at 
Kapalaoa-Kamooloa (Lowry and Wood 2000, pp. 40 and 43; HBMP 2007; D. 
Burney, pers. comm. 2009).

Animals

Akikiki

    The Kauai creeper or akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi), is a small 
Hawaiian honeycreeper found only on the island of Kauai, currently in 
the montane mesic and montane wet ecosystems (TNCH 2007; E. VanderWerf, 
pers. comm. 2009). The Hawaiian honeycreepers are in the subfamily 
Drepanidinae of the finch family, Fringillidae (AOU 1998, p. 676). The 
akikiki is most common in forests dominated by Metrosideros polymorpha 
with a diverse subcanopy (Scott et al. 1986, p. 139). Based on surveys 
conducted from 1968 through 1973, its distribution was thought to 
encompass 21,750 ac (88 sq km) at elevations between 1,968 and 5,248 ft 
(600 and 1,600 m), but a survey in 2000 indicated its distribution had 
decreased to 8,896 ac (36 sq km) (Scott et al. 1986, p. 141;

[[Page 18969]]

Tweed et al. 2005, pp. 3-4). The akikiki generally forages on trunks, 
branches, and twigs of live and dead trees, and occasionally forages in 
subcanopy shrubs. It feeds primarily on insects, insect larvae, and 
spiders gleaned and extracted from bark, lichens, and moss (Foster et 
al. 2000, p. 4). Nests are made of moss, small pieces of bark, bits of 
lichen, and fine plant fibers (Eddinger 1972, p. 673; Foster et al. 
2000, p. 7; VanderWerf and Roberts, 2008, pp. 195-199). The akikiki was 
considered common from high to low elevation in native forests in the 
late 1800s (Perkins 1903, p. 54), and was described as locally abundant 
on and near the Alakai Plateau in the early 1960s (Richardson and 
Bowles 1964, p. 29). From 1968 to 1973, the species was estimated to 
number 6,832  966 birds (Sincock et al. 1983, p. 53). In 
1981, data from the Hawaii Forest Bird Survey indicated there were 
approximately 1,650  450 akikiki in a 9.7 sq mi (25 sq km) 
area of the southeastern Alakai, in the vicinity of Sincock's Bog 
(Scott et al. 1986, p. 141). The current population of the akikiki is 
estimated to be 1,312  530 birds, based on surveys 
conducted in April and May 2007 (DOFAW and U.S. Geological Survey 
(USGS), unpubl. data, 2007). The abundance of the akikiki has thus 
declined by approximately 80 percent in the last 40 years, and its 
distribution has been reduced to less than half of its former extent.

Akekee

    The Kauai akepa or akekee (Loxops caeruleirostris), is a small 
forest bird found only on the island of Kauai. Like the akikiki, the 
akekee is also a Hawaiian honeycreeper in the subfamily Drepanidinae of 
the Fringillidae family (AOU 1998, p. 677). The akekee occurs in the 
montane mesic and montane wet ecosystems in forests dominated by 
Metrosideros polymorpha, Acacia koa, Cheirodendron trigynum, and C. 
platyphyllum (Lepson and Pratt 1997, p. 4; TNCH 2007). The akekee uses 
its bill to open flower and leaf buds while foraging for arthropod prey 
(insects, insect larvae, spiders), and is a specialist on the ohia tree 
(M. polymorpha) (Lepson and Pratt 1997, p. 4). Nests are made of moss 
and lichen, with the nest lining made of fine grasses and soft bark 
strips (Eddinger 1972, p. 97; Berger 1981, p. 140; Lepson and Freed 
1997, pp. 11-12). Until recently, the population of akekee appeared to 
be relatively stable, even while other endemic Kauai birds demonstrated 
sharp declines (Lepson and Pratt 1997, p. 14). The akekee was described 
as ``quite plentiful'' (Bryan and Seale 1901, p. 136) and common ``over 
a large part of the high plateau'' in the late 1800s (Perkins 1903, p. 
417), and probably occurred throughout upper elevation forested regions 
of the island (Perkins 1903, p. 417). Richardson and Bowles (1964, p. 
30) reported that it was fairly common in higher elevation forests. 
Conant et al. (1998, p. 16) reported that the akekee was common in the 
area around Sincock's Bog in 1975 and observed it daily. The first 
quantitative information on population size and distribution was based 
on extensive surveys conducted from 1968 to 1973, which yielded an 
island-wide population estimate of 5,066  840 birds, with 
most individuals found in the Alakai Plateau area, west to Kokee, and 
on Makaleha Mountain and in Wainiha Valley (Sincock et al. 1983, p. 
53). This was followed by population estimates of 7,839  
704 birds in 2000, and 5,669  1,003 birds in 2005 (Hawaii 
Division of Forest and Wildlife and USGS, unpubl. data 2007). The most 
recent surveys, conducted in April and May 2007, show the current 
population of akekee to be 3,536  1,030 birds (Hawaii 
Division of Forest and Wildlife and USGS, unpubl. data 2007), 
indicating that the population has dropped to less than half its former 
size within the last 7 years. The geographic range occupied by the 
akekee was approximately 34 sq mi (88 sq km) in 1970 (Scott et al. 
1986, p. 155), which was reported not to have changed in 2000 (Foster 
et al. 2004, p. 721). However the 2007 surveys failed to find the 
species in many areas where it had previously been observed, indicating 
that there has likely been a range contraction, although the extent of 
that contraction is not yet known.

Drosophila sharpi

    In our October 21, 2008, proposed rule, we proposed to list 
Drosophila attigua as endangered in accordance with the taxonomic 
treatment of Hardy and Kaneshiro (1969, p. 41). Following publication 
of our proposal, one of our peer reviewers, Karl Magnacca, Trinity 
College, Dublin Ireland, informed us of a recent taxonomic revision in 
which D. attigua was found to be identical to, and was synonymized 
with, D. sharpi, a species described and published by Grimshaw in 1901 
(Grimshaw 1901, p. 65; Magnacca and O'Grady 2008, p. 55). For this 
reason, the synonymy of D. attigua with D. sharpi is currently accepted 
by the scientific community and by the Service, and is used throughout 
this rule.
    Drosophila sharpi, a large species of Hawaiian picture-wing fly, 
occurs in wet forest in the montane mesic and montane wet ecosystems at 
elevations generally between 3,000 and 3,936 ft (914 and 1,200 m), 
although the species was historically found as low as 2,460 ft (750 m). 
Like most picture-wing flies, the adult flies are believed to be 
generalist microbivores (microbe eaters) and feed upon a variety of 
decomposing plant material. The host plants for D. sharpi are unknown, 
but Montgomery (1975, p. 99) has determined that its sibling species, 
D. primaeva, lays its eggs within the decomposing bark of native 
Cheirodendron sp. (olapa) and Tetraplasandra sp. trees (both in the 
family Araliaceae), where the hatching larvae complete development 
before dropping to the soil to pupate (Kaneshiro and Kaneshiro 1995, p. 
14). For this reason, the host plants for D. sharpi are believed to be 
species of native Cheirodendron and Tetraplasandra.
    Drosophila sharpi was first collected by Perkins in 1895 at 
``Koholuamano,'' a location that is unknown today but is believed to be 
on the Alakai plateau (Grimshaw 1901, p. 65). Drosophila sharpi was 
historically known from two populations on the island of Kauai: one 
population south of the Alakai massif at Mt. Kahili where 19 males and 
13 females were observed (Hardy and Kaneshiro 1969, p. 41; Kaneshiro 
and Kaneshiro 1995, p. 13; HBMP 2007), and a second population on the 
western end of the Alakai Swamp in the Na Pali Kona Forest Reserve at 
Pihea (K. Kaneshiro, pers. comm. 2007). We have no information 
regarding any observations of this species at Mt. Kahili since 1969. 
The species was also collected at two other locations: at Mohihi Stream 
located within the Alakai Wilderness Preserve in 1963, and at the Kokee 
Stream within Kokee State Park in 1991 (Kaneshiro and Kaneshiro 1995, 
p. 14). Observations of D. sharpi at the Pihea site have been somewhat 
sporadic, as the species has been observed there only three times, once 
each in 1986, 1987, and most recently in 1991, despite numerous surveys 
(HBMP 2007; K. Kaneshiro, pers. comm. 2007; K. Magnacca, Trinity 
College, pers. comm. 2007).

Summary of Comments and Recommendations

    On October 21, 2008, we published a proposed rule to list these 48 
Kauai species as endangered throughout their ranges, and to designate 
critical habitat for 47 of these species (73 FR 62592). The comment 
period for that proposal opened on October 21, 2008, and closed on 
December 22, 2008. During the comment period, we received 21 comment 
letters. We did not receive any

[[Page 18970]]

requests for public hearings. Nine comments were from peer reviewers, 
four were from State of Hawaii agencies, two were from Federal 
agencies, and six were from nongovernmental organizations or 
individuals. Due to the nature of the proposed rule, we received 
combined comments from the public on both the listing action and the 
critical habitat; we have therefore addressed these issues in a single 
comment section.
    Eight of the comment letters supported the listing and designation 
of critical habitat for the Kauai species. Of the other 13 comments, 12 
provided information or declined to oppose or support the listings and 
critical habitat designation, and 1 opposed the listing of the picture-
wing fly. One commenter requested that we exclude 2,795 ac (1,131 ha) 
(representing portions of 6 different critical habitat units) based on 
the benefits of ongoing conservation activities on private land. We 
reviewed all comments received for substantive issues and new 
information regarding the proposed listing and critical habitat 
designation for the Kauai species. We have fully considered all 
substantive comments in this final rule.
Peer Review
    In accordance with our policy published on July 1, 1994 (59 FR 
34270), we solicited expert opinions from 24 knowledgeable individuals 
with scientific expertise on the 48 Kauai species and their habitats, 
including familiarity with the species, the geographic region in which 
the species occurs, and conservation biology principles. We received 
responses from nine peer reviewers; eight comments generally supported 
our methodology and conclusions; five comments supported the listing 
and designation of critical habitat for the Kauai species; three 
comments provided new information on one or more of the 48 species; and 
one comment did not support the listing and designation of critical 
habitat for the picture-wing fly. We summarize the peer reviewers' 
comments below, and we took them into consideration in developing this 
final rule.
    We have categorized the peer review comments and our responses by: 
(1) Those that are general in nature; (2) those related to threats and 
the proposed listing of the species, and (3) those related to the 
proposed designation of critical habitat.

General Peer Reviewer Comments

    (1) Comment: One peer reviewer suggested that we publish 
diacritical marks for the Hawaiian language in the published rule.
    Our response: In this final rule we omitted diacritical marks 
because we cannot ensure that they will be printed properly. We 
recognize the importance of using the marks to accurately portray the 
pronunciation and meaning of Hawaiian words and regret not being able 
to use them. In a previous proposed rule (66 FR 30372, June 6, 2001) we 
attempted to use Hawaiian language diacritical marks, but there were 
numerous conversion errors and the marks were not printed correctly. In 
our published correction to that proposal (66 FR 46428, September 5, 
2001) we stated that we would either ensure that the marks are used 
correctly or eliminate their use altogether. Current printing 
constraints have forced us to choose the latter option.
    (2) Comment: One peer reviewer commented that the Federal Register 
was a bit obscure for the general public and that the U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service should publish notices of upcoming Federal Register 
documents in the local newspapers.
    Our response: The publication of our rules and notices related to 
listing and critical habitat in the Federal Register is required by 
section 4(b)(5)(A)(i) of the Act and the Administrative Procedure Act 
(5 U.S.C. Subchapter II); however section 4(b)(5)(D) of the Act 
requires that we publish a summary of the proposed regulation in a 
newspaper of general circulation in each area of the United States in 
which the species is believed to occur. Our practice is to publish this 
newspaper notice within 20 days of publication of the proposed rule. 
This allows for publication of the newspaper notice before the 45-day 
time limit for requesting public hearings has expired and provides 
ample time for readers to provide comment. In accordance with this 
practice, we published notices of this proposed regulation in the 
following local newspapers: Honolulu Advertiser (Oahu) (October 27, 
2008), Garden Island (Kauai) (October 31, 2008), and Star Bulletin 
(Oahu) (November 5, 2008).
    (3) Comment: One peer reviewer was uncertain whether ``tribal 
lands'' as referred to in the ``Government-to-Government Relationship 
with Tribes'' section of the proposed rule were the same as native 
Hawaiian lands.
    Our response: The President's Memorandum of April 29, 1994, 
Government-to-Government Relations with Native American Tribal 
Governments, and the Department of Interior's Manual at 512 DM 2, set 
forth our responsibility to communicate meaningfully with federally 
recognized Native American tribes on a government-to-government basis 
and identify potential effects on trust resources of federally 
recognized tribes. Federally recognized tribe means an Indian or Alaska 
Native tribe or community that is acknowledged as an Indian tribe under 
the Federally Recognized Indian Tribe List Act of 1994, 25 U.S.C. 479a. 
In the list published annually by the Secretary, there are no federally 
recognized tribes in the State of Hawaii (73 FR 18553, April 4, 2008). 
Therefore, while we value information on the effects of this rule on 
the interests of Native Hawaiians, Native Hawaiian lands are not tribal 
lands for purposes of the requirements of the President's Memorandum or 
the Department Manual.

Peer Review Comments on Threats and Listing the Kauai Species

    (4) Comment: One peer reviewer stated that if Factor A (the present 
or threatened destruction, modification, or curtailment of habitat or 
range) is identified as a primary threat attributable to pigs, goats, 
or deer in Table 2, which summarizes the primary threats identified for 
each of the 48 Kauai species, predation by ungulates under Factor C 
(disease or predation) should also be identified as a primary threat 
attributable to those animals.
    Our response: We have persuasive evidence that feral ungulates 
substantially modify or destroy habitat; however, we can only 
occasionally infer that they consume parts of or entire plants or 
animals based on indications of their presence. A study conducted in 
the 1980s on the feeding habits of feral pigs on Maui found that their 
rooting was related to foraging for earthworms. In that study, rooting 
depths averaged 8 in (20 cm), greatly disrupting the leaf litter and 
topsoil layers, which contributed to erosion and changes in ground 
topography (Diong 1982, pp. 150, 164-165). While foraging for 
earthworms, feral pigs may uproot and dislodge plants, contributing to 
habitat degradation of understory vegetation (Factor A), but they may 
not feed directly on plants that are disturbed by their activity. Where 
we have direct confirmation or evidence of predation by feral ungulates 
on a particular species, it has been identified as a threat under 
Factor C in Table 2.

Peer Reviewer Comments-Akekee and Akikiki

     (5) Comment: One reviewer commented that the use of puaiohi 
(Myadestes palmeri) as a surrogate

[[Page 18971]]

species is somewhat inappropriate, and that the Maui creeper 
(Paroreomyza montana), the Hawaii akepa (Loxops coccineus coccineus), 
or both would represent better surrogate species.
    Our response: We believe the puaiohi, an endangered bird that 
inhabits the same areas on Kauai as the akikiki and akekee, is an 
appropriate surrogate species for akikiki and akekee when considering 
threats of predation by rats and owls (see below). The puaiohi nests 
primarily on cliff faces and utilizes habitat along stream margins more 
so than the akikiki and akekee. However, the puaiohi is exposed to 
predation pressures from introduced mammalian and avian predators in a 
manner similar to that expected for akikiki and akekee, since they 
occur in the same habitat areas on Kauai. Although we do not have 
direct evidence of rat predation on the akekee or akikiki from nest 
studies, we believe it is reasonable to assume that birds nesting in 
the same area as the puaiohi would likely be exposed to similar impacts 
from rat predation.
    (6) Comment: One commenter noted that both bird species would 
benefit from ungulate removal throughout their habitat, which would 
reduce threats presented by the spread of invasive plants and avian 
disease transmitted by mosquitoes.
    Our response: Feral ungulates (pigs, goats, black-tailed deer) on 
Kauai present a significant threat to the six ecosystems addressed in 
our proposed rule and their associated native species, including the 
akikiki and akekee. The presence of nonnative feral ungulates is 
considered to be a primary factor in the alteration and degradation of 
native vegetation and habitats throughout the Hawaiian Islands. Each of 
our recovery plans for species that occur in ecosystems similar to the 
six identified in this final rule recommend ungulate control, fencing, 
or both as a priority tasks necessary to conserve native Hawaiian plant 
and animal species.
    (7) Comment: One reviewer commented that although rats and cats are 
important predators for some Hawaiian bird species, there is no data to 
suggest that either are major threats to the akikiki or akekee.
    Our response: Rats and cats have been identified as significant 
predator threats to other Hawaiian forest bird species (also see our 
response to comment 28). Although we do not have direct evidence of rat 
and cat predation on the akikiki and akekee, we believe these predators 
are a potential threat to both birds on Kauai for the reasons stated in 
our October 2008 proposal. We have modified our discussion of rat and 
cat predation threats on the akikiki and akekee in this final rule. The 
biology of the akikiki has been little studied and predation on adults 
and nests has not been documented, but several introduced mammals known 
to be major predators on Hawaiian forest birds are present in the 
Alakai swamp on Kauai, where akikiki occur (Tweed et al. 2006, p. 759). 
Black rats (Rattus rattus), Polynesian rats (R. exulans), Norway rats 
(R. norvegicus), feral cats (Felis catus), the native short-eared owl 
(pueo, Asio flammeus sandwichensis), and the introduced barn owl (Tyto 
alba), are known to prey on forest passerines (Snetsinger et al. 1994, 
p. 47). Long-term protection of many Hawaiian birds, including the 
akikiki and akekee, likely will require large-scale management actions 
to control nonnative predators, including rats and feral cats.
     (8) Comment: One peer reviewer commented that the nonnative 
yellow-jacket wasp (Vespula pensylvanica) is a threat to the akikiki 
and akekee, as it presents significant competition for arthropod food 
(e.g., insects, insect larvae, and spiders).
    Our response: The nonnative yellow-jacket wasp may impact the 
akikiki and akekee through competition for the same native insect food 
resources, although we have no direct evidence in this regard. Both the 
akikiki and akekee feed primarily on insects, insect larvae, and 
spiders (Lepson and Pratt 1997, p. 4; Foster et al. 2000, p. 4). Each 
yellow-jacket wasp colony in Hawaii can produce over a half-million 
foragers that consume tens of millions of arthropods, including native 
insects, larvae, and spiders (Gambino and Loope 1992, p. 19). 
Controlling or eliminating negative effects associated with resource 
competition with yellow-jacket wasps is identified as a recovery action 
in our Revised Recovery Plan for Hawaiian Forest Birds (USFWS 2006, p. 
4-4, 4-85). The akikiki is one of the bird species included in this 
recovery plan, although it was only a candidate for listing at the time 
the plan was written. Although the akekee is not specifically covered 
by the plan, the recovery actions identified in the Revised Recovery 
Plan for Hawaiian Forest Birds should benefit all native forest bird 
species in the Hawaiian Islands since all of these birds face similar 
threats, regardless of whether they were listed at the time the 
recovery plan was published. The control of yellow-jacket wasps is one 
of those broad recovery actions that will benefit native forest bird 
species beyond those specifically addressed in the recovery plan.
    (9) Comment: One peer reviewer commented that stream margins, 
rather than pig wallows, may support higher levels of Culex mosquitoes, 
which are a disease vector for avian pox and malaria.
    Our response: In Hawaii, the mechanisms of avian disease 
transmission include movements of mosquitoes infected with avian 
disease from lower to higher elevations, as well as mosquitoes breeding 
in pig wallows and along stream margins at higher elevations. 
Mosquitoes that breed in forest bird habitats may become infected by 
biting infected birds, continuing the disease transmission cycle. The 
relative contribution of mosquitoes breeding in pig wallows versus 
along stream margins with regard to mosquito vector prevalence on Kauai 
is unknown. Investigating this uncertainty and developing effective 
management actions will be identified as a priority task during the 
recovery planning process.
Peer Reviewer Comments-Drosophila sharpi (D. attigua in the proposal)
     (10) Comment: One peer reviewer commented that the proposed rule 
does not present independent data or assumptions with which to evaluate 
risks to Drosophila sharpi, nor credible scientific evidence that the 
species is or is not endangered.
    Our response: We disagree. Since 1963, a multidisciplinary team of 
biologists has been researching Drosophila as part of the University of 
Hawaii-affiliated Hawaiian Drosophila Project. Over 500 scientific 
papers have been published as a result of this program, and over 500 
species of Drosophila have been taxonomically described. The 
information we relied on to prepare this rule included peer reviewed 
publications, unpublished literature, and other communications from 
research and field studies covering a period of over 40 years of 
Hawaiian Drosophila research. This final rule is also based on new 
information that was obtained in response to the publication of the 
proposed rule. Systematic surveys for the picture-wing fly species and 
host plants would assist with understanding population trends and 
status. However, as required by section 4(b)(1)(A) of the Act, we have 
relied on the best scientific and commercial data available on habitat 
threats and trends in distribution for the species in making our 
determination in this final rule.
    (11) Comment: One peer reviewer stated that surrogate species for 
Drosophila sharpi were not made explicit.
    Our response: We have clarified in this final rule that our 
conclusions regarding adult feeding habits, egg laying and larval host 
plant preferences,

[[Page 18972]]

and direct threats are drawn from similar, related species including 
the 12 Hawaiian picture-wing flies listed in 2006 as endangered or 
threatened (71 FR 26835, May 9, 2006).
     (12) Comment: One peer reviewer commented that biocontrol agents 
are inappropriately implied to be threats to Drosophila sharpi, that 
there is even evidence to the contrary, and that the listing of D. 
sharpi would delay permitting for new biocontrol agents.
    Our response: In the Application of the Adverse Modification 
Standard section of the proposed rule, we stated that importing 
nonnative species for research, agriculture, and aquaculture, and 
releasing biological control agents, may adversely affect critical 
habitat. Under Factor C (Disease or Predation), we also stated that 
parasites have been purposefully imported and released in Hawaii since 
1865 for biological control of pests. Between 1890 and 2004, 387 
nonnative species were introduced, sometimes with the specific intent 
of reducing populations of native Hawaiian insects (Funasaki et al. 
1988, pp. 109-110, 143; Lai 1988, pp. 180, 186; Staples and Cowie 2001, 
pp. 41, 54-57). Nonnative arthropods present a serious threat to 
Hawaii's native Drosophila, both through direct predation or parasitism 
as well as competition for food and space (Howarth and Medeiros 1989, 
pp. 82-83; Howarth and Ramsay 1991, pp. 80-83; Kaneshiro and Kaneshiro 
1995, pp. 41-45; Staples and Cowie 2001, pp. 41, 54-57). We are aware 
that compliance with regulations that apply to the introduction of 
biological control agents may seem complicated to some because of 
combined Federal and State jurisdiction. However, absent a high level 
of assurance that only safe and effective biological control agents are 
introduced, nontarget impacts and host switching could occur 
(Simberloff and Stiling 1996, pp. 185, 190). We acknowledge the 
importance of biocontrol as a way to control some nonnative species in 
Hawaii, particularly nonnative invasive plants that threaten rare 
native plants through competition for space, light, water, and 
nutrients, and by degrading and destroying native habitat. We are 
committed to working closely with the State and other Federal agencies 
to ensure that potential biocontrol measures are implemented in a 
manner consistent with the conservation needs of these species.

Peer Review Comments on Critical Habitat Designation

     (13) Comment: One peer reviewer commented that Table CDLVI (Table 
of Protected Species within Each Critical Habitat Unit for Kauai) was 
confusing, and that the table caption should explain the differences 
between the columns.
    Our response: We agree. We have clarified the table's column 
headings as requested.
    (14) Comment: One peer reviewer commented that the designation of 
critical habitat does not preclude management of ungulates for hunting 
in those areas.
    Our response: We agree. Critical habitat designation does not 
create a wilderness area, preserve, or wildlife refuge. It does not 
require nor preclude activities associated with conservation management 
such as ungulate control and fencing. Game bird and mammal hunting is a 
recreational and cultural activity in Hawaii that is regulated by the 
Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources on State and private 
lands (Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources 2002). Critical 
habitat does not give the Federal government authority to control or 
otherwise manage feral animals on non-Federal land. These land 
management options continue to be landowner decisions, and absent 
Federal involvement, are not affected by the designation of critical 
habitat. However, the designation of critical habitat does impose a 
responsibility on Federal agencies to consult with us under section 7 
of the Act on actions they carry out, fund, or authorize that might 
destroy or adversely modify critical habitat. This requirement applies 
to funding provided by the Service to the State through the Federal Aid 
in Wildlife Restoration Program (Pittman-Robertson Program). It is 
well-known that game mammals affect listed plant and animal species in 
Hawaii. We believe it is important to develop and implement management 
programs that provide for the recovery of listed species and 
acknowledge the importance of continued ungulate hunting in game 
management areas. We welcome opportunities to work closely with the 
State and other partners to ensure that game management programs are 
implemented in a manner consistent with both of these needs.
    (15) Comment: One peer reviewer commented that Lowland Wet section 
6 may be within the montane, rather than the lowland, ecosystem.
    Our response: We followed TNC's Ecoregional Assessment of the 
Hawaiian High Islands (2006) and ecosystem maps (TNCH 2007) to define 
ecosystem boundaries in this rule. Following that approach, the 
proposed Lowland Wet section 6 falls within the lowland wet ecosystem. 
This ecosystem type occurs below 3,000 ft (1,000 m); contains wet 
grassland, shrubland, and forest; receives greater than 75 in (191 cm) 
annual precipitation; and has wet substrate conditions.

Peer Reviewer Comments-Plants

    (16) Comment: One peer reviewer commented that Hanakoa Valley 
should be included in Lowland Mesic section 3, since Charpentiera 
densiflora occurs along the Kalalau trail in that area.
    Our response: Although individual Charpentiera densiflora plants 
may occur in the Hanakoa Valley, the reviewer did not present 
scientific data that we could evaluate to determine whether this area 
includes the physical and biological features essential to the 
conservation of the species. Based on our field observations, trail 
areas are typically disturbed by recreational activity and dominated by 
nonnative plants.
    (17) Comment: One reviewer stated that species' previous range is 
not sufficiently understood, and that historical and paleoecological 
information indicates that many rare plant species on Kauai had much 
larger ranges, often in a wide array of habitats. This reviewer 
acknowledged that the areas proposed as critical habitat were good 
choices, and recommended that the Service focus funding and protection 
efforts on the proposed areas rather than proposing additional areas as 
critical habitat.
    Our response: More research is needed to better understand the 
species' historical range. In our proposed rule, we presented the 
criteria used to identify critical habitat boundaries (73 FR 62622, 
October 21, 2008), which were based on the best scientific and 
commercial data available, including current and historical species' 
location information. Surveying historical habitat and adjacent, 
potentially suitable habitat will be a high priority during the 
recovery implementation process for these species. We acknowledge that 
critical habitat designated at a particular point in time may not 
include all of the areas that may later be determined to be necessary 
for the recovery of the species, as new information becomes available. 
For this reason, a critical habitat designation does not signal that 
habitat outside the designated area is unimportant or may not promote 
the recovery of the species.

Peer Reviewer Comments-Akekee and Akikiki

    (18) Comment: New survey data for the akikiki and akekee is 
currently being analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey-

[[Page 18973]]

Biological Resources Discipline (USGS-BRD).
    Our response: We are aware that recent survey data has been 
analyzed by the USGS-BRD and is undergoing agency review for 
publication (Camp et al. in press). Information from Camp et al. (in 
press) that was provided during the public comment period indicated 
that montane mesic habitat proposed as critical habitat for the akekee, 
several plants, and Drosophila sharpi is also occupied by the akikiki 
and contains the physical and biological features essential to its 
conservation that may require special management considerations or 
protection. Based on this new information, we have added 2,976 ac 
(1,204 ha) of additional montane mesic habitat as critical habitat for 
the akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi Unit 1-Montane Mesic, Unit 2-Montane 
Mesic, and Unit 3-Montane Mesic). Since this area was already being 
proposed as critical habitat for other species in the montane mesic 
ecosystem, adding the akikiki does not change the configuration or 
amount of critical habitat designated in these units.
    (19) Comment: Appropriate habitat for the akikiki and akekee 
(outside of previously surveyed areas) should be surveyed for 
occurrences.
    Our response: There is a broader distribution for akekee than 
akikiki, and there have been some detections of individual akekee 
beyond the boundaries of the critical habitat proposed in October 2008 
(Camp et al. in press, p. 136). However, Camp et al. did not present 
scientific data with which we could evaluate whether these additional 
areas include the physical and biological features essential to the 
conservation of the species and are in need of special management. In 
our Revised Recovery Plan for Hawaiian Forest Birds (USFWS 2006, pp. 4-
7, 4-118), we state that surveys of potentially suitable habitat for 
the akikiki and akekee are a priority recovery action for these forest 
birds. In accordance with section 4(b)(2) of the Act, we may also 
revise designated critical habitat based on new information, if 
appropriate.
    (20) Comment: The proposed critical habitat may not be sufficient 
for the long-term survival of the species, especially given the impact 
of global climate change.
    Our response: The impact of climate change on the distribution of 
the akikiki and akekee is a potential concern, but the specific effects 
of climate change are difficult to predict with confidence. Benning et 
al. (2002, pp. 14248-14249) analyzed the possible contraction of 
habitat for Hawaii's forest birds, using Hawaii, Maui, and Kauai as 
models. Based on their study, they predict that over the next 100 
years, the high elevation forest areas that currently serve as a refuge 
for the birds from mosquito-borne malaria may decrease in size by as 
much as 85 percent. The authors predict that preventing avian malaria 
will become the main conservation focus for Hawaiian forest birds, 
including the akikiki and akekee. Atkinson et al. (2009, pp. 58-59) 
states that without question, the one factor that prevented widespread 
and rapid extinction of virtually all of Hawaii's endemic and highly 
susceptible honeycreepers after the introduction of avian malaria and 
pox was the presence of significant altitudinal gradients on Kauai, 
Maui, and Hawaii, where susceptible native birds could maintain high 
populations in relatively disease-free refugia. They also concluded 
that following a projected 2 degree Celsius ([deg]C) temperature rise 
resulting from global warming, the Alakai Wilderness Preserve on Kauai 
would experience an 85 percent loss of forested habitat where 
transmission is currently highly seasonal to conditions where 
transmission could occur throughout the year. As new information 
becomes available, we may revise the critical habitat designation to 
address climate change if we determine that additional areas are 
essential to the conservation of the akikiki and akekee.
    (21) Comment: The units should be expanded so as to be contiguous.
    Our response: At this time, we believe that the areas designated as 
critical habitat in this final rule are sufficient to provide for the 
conservation of the akikiki and akekee. We did not include all 
historical habitat or all areas adjacent to occupied habitat. The peer 
reviewer did not present scientific data, which would be needed to 
evaluate whether these additional areas are occupied and contain the 
physical and biological features essential to the conservation of the 
species or whether the areas need special management considerations or 
protection, or if unoccupied, are essential to the conservation of the 
species. We could not conclude from the available data whether or not 
the previously occupied areas currently support, or even could support 
in the future, the physical and biological features essential for the 
conservation of the species.
    (22) Comment: Additional studies are needed regarding breeding, 
survival, and habitat needs of the akikiki and akekee.
    Our response: We agree. These studies are identified as priority 
recovery actions for forest birds in the Revised Recovery Plan for 
Hawaiian Forest Birds (USFWS 2006, pp. 4-96, 4-118), although for the 
purposes of designating critical habitat we have to rely on the best 
scientific data available in accordance with section 4(b)(2) of the 
Act.
     (23) Comment: Two commenters suggested that critical habitat 
include all areas where the akikiki and akekee are known to occur, 
which would extend into areas delineated for the recovery of these 
species, and that critical habitat for the akikiki should include the 
montane mesic ecosystem as well as the montane wet ecosystem, although 
the literature indicates that the akikiki presently is more restricted 
in distribution than the akekee.
    Our response: See our responses to comments 18 and 19 above.
     (24) Comment: One peer reviewer was concerned that the area of 
designated critical habitat might not be large enough to provide an 
adequate mosquito buffer to the habitat areas currently occupied by the 
akikiki and akekee should disease be determined to be the primary 
factor in population decline. One peer reviewer stated that it may be 
useful to expand critical habitat for akekee to minimize the number of 
smaller isolated habitat patches, thus providing larger tracts of 
contiguous native forest that are optimal for species persistence and 
less likely to provide corridors for intrusion of avian disease-
carrying mosquitoes and invasion by nonnative plants. The commenter 
suggested we expand critical habitat Unit 2 so that it abuts Units 1 
and 5, expand Unit 5 so that it abuts Unit 4, and expand Unit 3 so that 
it abuts Unit 4.
    Our response: Larger tracts of contiguous forest habitat may slow 
upslope movements of disease-carrying mosquitoes into areas occupied by 
akikiki and akekee by reducing the nonforest-forest boundary along 
which mosquitoes travel or are transported by prevailing winds. 
Contiguous forest conditions potentially reduce the availability of a 
transmission vector for avian disease (Reiter and LaPointe 2007, pp. 
865-867). On Kauai, the mechanisms for avian disease transmission 
appear to differ in some respects from transmission on other high 
Hawaiian Islands. Avian disease transmission vectors on Kauai likely 
include windblown movements of mosquitoes from lower into higher 
elevations, as well as mosquitoes that breed in pig wallows and along 
stream margins (Baker 1975, pp. 75-76; LaPointe 2008, pp. 605-607). 
Since the avian disease mechanisms are not completely understood on 
Kauai, the benefits that would result from

[[Page 18974]]

expanding critical habitat to establish larger buffer areas to reduce 
avian disease transmission are uncertain. Investigating this 
uncertainty will be a priority during the recovery implementation 
process (USFWS 2006, pp. 4-62, 4-68-82).
Peer Reviewer Comments-Drosophila sharpi (D. attigua in the proposal)
     (25) Comment: One peer reviewer commented that Lowland Wet section 
6, south of the Alakai massif, should be designated as critical habitat 
for the Hawaiian picture wing fly, since the type specimens for 
Drosophila sharpi were collected at Mt. Kahili.
    Our response: Information from our files indicates that 
historically Drosophila sharpi was known from two areas on Kauai, and 
was first collected at Kahili, east of the Alakai massif. Although new 
information provided by one peer reviewer indicates the 1968 type 
collections were made at Mt. Kahili, south of the Alakai massif, we 
have no information with which we can evaluate whether these additional 
areas contain the physical and biological features essential to the 
conservation of D. sharpi that require special management 
considerations or protection. Although these areas may contain species 
of Cheirodendron and Tetraplasandra, the purported larval host plants, 
we were unable to conclude from the available data whether the 
previously occupied areas south of the Alakai massif support or could 
support the physical and biological features essential for the 
conservation of D. sharpi. Surveying historical habitat sites and 
adjacent potentially suitable habitat for extant populations of D. 
sharpi and its host plants will be a high priority during the recovery 
planning process. We may consider revising the critical habitat 
designation at that time if new information becomes available 
indicating that these areas are essential to the recovery of this 
species.
    (26) Comment: One peer reviewer stated that if the Hawaiian 
picture-wing fly, Drosophila sharpi, uses Cheirodendron spp. (olapa) as 
a food source, the abundance and distribution of this plant should be 
noted, and that Cheirodendron spp. has not been specifically identified 
as a host plant for D. sharpi.
    Our response: In the proposed rule we stated that the adult flies 
are generalist microbivores (microbe eaters) and feed upon a variety of 
decomposing plant material. Although the larval host plants for D. 
sharpi are not specifically known, they are most likely to be 
Cheirodendron and Tetraplasandra species, based on host plant 
preferences for Drosophila primaeva, a sibling species to D. sharpi 
(Montgomery 1975, p. 99; Kaneshiro and Kaneshiro 1995, p. 14). 
Cheirodendron spp., and to a lesser extent Tetraplasandra ssp., are 
known to be widespread components of the native Metrosideros (ohia) 
forest, especially the lowland wet, montane mesic, and montane wet 
communities (Anderson et al. 1992, pp. 308-309; Gagne and Cuddihy, 
1999, pp. 88, 90, 91, 98, 102-107), where D. sharpi occurs. Our 
analysis of criteria used to identify critical habitat boundaries 
included island-wide GIS coverage (e.g., Gap Analysis Program (GAP) 
vegetation data (2005)), which reflects the spatial distribution of 
native plants such as Cheirodendron and Tetraplasandra. We are unaware 
of any scientific or commercial data on the abundance and distribution 
of these plant species on Kauai, but agree that further research is 
needed to determine the specific larval host species of Drosophila 
sharpi.

Public Comments-Akekee and Akikiki

     (27) Comment: Two commenters suggested that a distinction be made 
between the threat of predation on the akikiki and akekee by the native 
owl, pueo, and the introduced barn owl.
    Our response: While the threat of predation on Hawaiian forest 
birds by the pueo and the introduced barn owl has been documented by 
several authors (Snetsinger et al. 1994, p. 47; Snetsinger et al. 2005, 
pp. 79-80; Mounce 2008, pp. 19-21), there are no direct observations or 
studies specifically related to the akikiki or the akekee. Snetsinger 
et al. (1994, p. 4) reported a higher incidence of bird remains in pueo 
pellets than in barn owl pellets, but suggested that this may be 
attributed to prey availability rather than prey preference. On Kauai, 
Snetsinger et al. (2005, pp. 79-80) concluded that 10 percent of 
puaiohi nest failures may be due to predation by pueo, based on pueo 
presence near predated nests. On Maui, Mounce (2008, p. 19) reported 
two observations of depredation by pueo on two Maui forest birds, the 
Maui parrotbill (Pseudonestor xanthophrys) and apapane (Himatione 
sanguinea). The author suggested that in Hanawi Natural Area Reserve, 
pueo may shift habitat during honeycreeper breeding seasons in response 
to this more abundant and easily captured food, and therefore, may be 
more of a threat to native birds than previously thought. Such a shift 
is speculative at this point.
    The pueo is a native predator of forest birds in Hawaii, whereas 
the native Hawaiian forest birds have not coevolved with the introduced 
barn owl. However, as stated above, we have no direct evidence of 
predation specific to akikiki or akekee by either the pueo or the barn 
owl, so it is not possible to compare the potential levels of predation 
between these two predators.
     (28) Comment: Two commenters stated that predation by feral cats 
is a threat to the akikiki and akekee, including areas outside of the 
Alakai Preserve, and that emphasis should be placed on developing 
effective methods to control predation, with funding and support for 
active management.
    Our response: We do not have direct evidence of feral cat predation 
on the akikiki and akekee, but believe they are a potential threat for 
the reasons stated in our October 2008 proposal. The long-term 
protection of many Hawaiian birds, including the akikiki and akekee, 
will likely require large-scale control of nonnative predators, 
including feral cats. This management need is identified as a high 
priority in the Revised Recovery Plan for Hawaiian Forest Birds (USFWS 
2006, pp. 2-161, 4-3, 4-52). See also our response to comment 7 for 
additional discussion of this issue.
     (29) Comment: One commenter stated that the best scientific 
evidence indicates that the akikiki and the akekee each should be 
included in both the montane wet and montane mesic ecosystems; that 
critical habitat should be designated for each of them in both 
ecosystems; and the boundaries of some units do not make biological 
sense for the two bird species and do not appear to agree with 
descriptions of where the primary constituent elements occur. The 
commenter also stated that the recovery area identified for the akikiki 
in the Revised Recovery Plan for Hawaiian Forest Birds is considerably 
larger than the area proposed as critical habitat, and questioned why 
critical habitat was not designated in other areas where the akikiki or 
akekee may occur.
    Our response: We agree that the habitat requirements of the akikiki 
and akekee are very similar, and critical habitat for the two bird 
species should be the same; in this final rule, we have designated 
critical habitat for the akikiki and akekee in both the montane wet and 
montane mesic ecosystems (See also our responses to comments 18, 19 and 
21, above).
    Under section 3(5)(A) of the Act, critical habitat can be 
designated in areas that were occupied at the time of listing and 
contain the physical and biological features essential to the species' 
conservation, and which may require special management considerations; 
or in areas that were unoccupied at the time of listing but have been 
determined to be essential to

[[Page 18975]]

the conservation of the species. To delineate critical habitat for the 
akikiki and akekee, we focused on the physical and biological features 
essential to the conservation of those species, which we consider to be 
the primary constituent elements laid out in the appropriate quantity 
and spatial arrangement for the conservation of the species. We relied 
on information and data obtained from several sources, including peer 
reviewers and other qualified individuals familiar with these species 
and ecosystems, to derive the final critical habitat designation for 
the akikiki and akekee. We also considered the recovery area 
recommended for the akikiki in the Revised Recovery Plan for Hawaiian 
Forest Birds (USFWS 2006). The akikiki was a candidate species at the 
time of the plan's publication; the akekee was not addressed in the 
plan.
    The Revised Recovery Plan for Hawaiian Forest Birds states that the 
primary strategy for the recovery of the akikiki is the protection and 
management of remaining forest on Kauai, especially high elevation 
montane wet forest above 3,000 to 3,500 ft (900 to 1,060 m) in the 
Alakai Wilderness Preserve and surrounding State and private lands 
(USFWS 2006, p. 3-16). Although much of the designated critical habitat 
overlaps with the recovery area recommended in the Revised Recovery 
Plan for Hawaiian Forest Birds, we did not find that all of the 
recommended recovery area met our definition of critical habitat in 
terms of providing the physical and biological features essential for 
the conservation of the species in the appropriate quantity and spatial 
arrangement. For example, some of the recovery area identified for the 
akikiki in the recovery plan has a number of residential cabins and 
other forms of development, resulting in a fair amount of human 
activity. We determined that while the birds may use this area on 
occasion, it is unlikely to be utilized by the species to the extent 
that the features there may be considered essential to the conservation 
of the species. An additional area, Laau Ridge, was not included 
because this area is too small and isolated to support viable 
populations of the birds, as acknowledged in the recovery plan (USFWS 
2006, p. 3-16), although another small isolated area, Namolokama Ridge, 
was designated as critical habitat since it supports several of the 
plant species.. Some of the recommended recovery area was below the 
elevation limit that defines the montane wet and montane mesic 
ecosystems, and hence would harbor mosquito populations that threaten 
the two bird species with avian malaria; we are not designating such 
areas as critical habitat for the akikiki and akekee.
    Section 3(5)(C) of the Act specifies ``Except in those 
circumstances determined by the Secretary, critical habitat shall not 
include the entire geographical area which can be occupied by the 
threatened or endangered species.'' The critical habitat designation 
includes remaining forest areas above the 3,000 ft (914 m) elevation, 
focusing on the Alakai Wilderness Preserve, as recommended in the 
Revised Recovery Plan for Hawaiian Forest Birds. Although there is 
limited information available regarding the habitat needs of the 
akikiki, as acknowledged in the recovery plan (USFWS 2006, p. 3-16), 
after considering the best available scientific information we have 
designated critical habitat for the akikiki and the akekee based on 
providing these species with the physical and biological features 
essential to their conservation, in the appropriate quantity and 
spatial arrangement needed for their conservation. However, the Act 
provides for the revision of this critical habitat designation, if new 
information should become available indicating that such revision may 
be appropriate.

Public Comments-Listing and Climate Change

     (30) Comment: One commenter suggested that any predictions about 
climate change and its impacts on these species would not meet the 
listing standard under section 4 of the Act, nor the definition of an 
endangered species under section 3 of the Act.
    Our response: Section 4 of the Act requires that we determine 
whether any species is an endangered or threatened species based on any 
of the following factors: (A) The present or threatened destruction, 
modification, or curtailment of its habitat or range; (B) 
overutilization for commercial, recreational, scientific, or 
educational purposes; (C) disease or predation; (D) the inadequacy of 
existing regulatory mechanisms; or (E) other natural or manmade factors 
affecting its continued existence. Climate change may lead to changes 
in the intensity of threats under any of these factors for a species. 
As with any threat, we evaluate each climate-induced factor for 
specific effects and determine the magnitude and immediacy of the 
threat to a species before proposing to list it under the Act. In this 
final rule, we acknowledge that climate change may be a significant 
threat to native species on Kauai, that we are not capable of 
determining the specific effects of probable climate change on these 48 
species at this time, and conclude that at present we are unable to 
determine the magnitude of this threat with confidence. Although 
climate change may potentially present a threat in the future, we are 
not listing any of these 48 species as endangered based on the threat 
of climate change alone.

Federal Agency Comments

    (31) Comment: The U.S. Navy, on behalf of the National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration, requested that we exclude the portions of 
Kokee Sites D and E that overlap with the proposed critical habitat. 
They characterized the areas as fenced and developed, and commented 
that these areas would be unlikely to support any of the 47 species for 
which critical habitat is proposed.
    Our response: We have modified units Lowland Mesic Section 1 and 
Montane Mesic Section 1 (Kokee Sites D and E) to exclude areas lacking 
the physical and biological features (primary constituent elements) 
essential to the conservation of the species, in response to the above 
comment. Manmade features and structures within the boundaries of the 
areas mapped as critical habitat, such as buildings, roads, existing 
fences, telecommunications equipment towers and associated structures 
and equipment, communication facilities and regularly maintained 
associated rights-of-way, radars, telemetry antennas, paved areas, and 
other landscaped areas, existing on the effective date of this final 
rule do not contain one or more of the primary constituent elements 
described for any of the 47 proposed species. Accordingly, the text of 
the rule clarifies that these types of areas are not included in the 
critical habitat designation, even if they appear to occur within the 
boundary of a mapped critical habitat unit.

Comments from the State of Hawaii

     (32) The State of Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources-
Land and Engineering Division and State Water Commission's Stream 
Protection and Management Branch reviewed the proposed rule. Neither 
agency expressed support or concerns with regard to the proposed 
listing or designation of critical habitat for the species included in 
this rule.

Other Public Comments

     (33) Comment: One commenter stated that because we are designating 
critical habitat in unoccupied areas, the rule would establish a 
prohibition against the adverse modification of critical habitat under 
section 9 of the Act where one would otherwise not exist.

[[Page 18976]]

    Our response: Except as provided in sections 6(g)(2) and 10 of the 
Act, with respect to any endangered species of fish or wildlife listed 
under section 4 of the Act, it is unlawful for any person subject to 
the jurisdiction of the United States to:
    (A) Import or export any such species from the United States;
    (B) Take any such species within the United States or the 
territorial sea of the United States;
    (C) Take any such species upon the high seas;
    (D) Possess, sell, deliver, carry, transport, or ship, by any means 
whatsoever, any such species taken in violation of (B) and (C) above;
    (E) Deliver, receive, carry, transport, or ship in interstate or 
foreign commerce, by any means whatsoever and in the course of a 
commercial activity, any such species;
    (F) Sell or offer for sale in interstate or foreign commerce any 
such species; or
     (G) Violate any regulation pertaining to such species or to any 
threatened species of fish or wildlife listed under authority provided 
under the Act.
    The Act does not establish a section 9 prohibition against the 
adverse modification of critical habitat.
    (34) Comment: One landowner opposed the designation of critical 
habitat on private lands within Wainiha Valley. They believe the 
designation will negatively impact the rights of private landowners, 
and serve as a disincentive for landowners to participate in voluntary 
conservation efforts. They stated that the designation of additional 
critical habitat is unnecessary in light of the ongoing conservation 
management activities benefiting endangered species in the valley. They 
also stated that critical habitat designation would result in little if 
any additional benefit to the species, and that any limited regulatory, 
educational, or recovery benefits that might arise from the designation 
would be outweighed by the benefits of encouraging voluntary 
conservation efforts by other private landowners.
    Our response: We agree that developing and maintaining public and 
private partnerships for species conservation is important. The 
conservation agreement between this landowner and The Nature 
Conservancy has established the third largest private nature preserve 
of over 7,000 ac (2,833 ha) in Wainiha Valley. Based on the nature of 
the agreement and the ongoing conservation actions being implemented, 
we are excluding some of the subject property within Montane Wet 
Section 1 from the final critical habitat designation under section 
4(b)(2) of the Act. The private landowner is proactively managing this 
area in a way that provides conservation benefits for 18 of the 44 
plant species, the akikiki and akekee, Drosophila sharpi, and several 
other listed species. The excluded area is not already designated as 
critical habitat for other species, and we believe that there is a 
higher likelihood that beneficial conservation activities will continue 
by not including this area in the critical habitat designation. The 
rationale for concluding that the benefits of exclusion outweigh the 
benefits of including this area as critical habitat is discussed in 
detail in the ``Exclusions Under Section 4(b)(2) of the Act'' section 
below. However, we considered but did not exclude other proposed lands 
owned by this private landowner that are already designated as critical 
habitat for other species, since we could not conclude that the 
benefits of excluding these areas would outweigh the benefits of 
designating them as critical habitat. Designating critical habitat in 
areas that are already designated as critical habitat for other species 
will likely not impose any appreciable difference in regulatory 
requirements under section 7 of the Act for ongoing or future 
management activities that may be undertaken on these areas. The 
essential physical and biological features (primary constituent 
elements) defined in previous critical habitat designations, and 
special management considerations or protection needed for those 
species, are similar to those for the species addressed in this final 
rule.
     (35) Comment: One commenter suggested that the impact of listing 
and critical habitat designation would primarily impact sportsmen who 
hunt game in those units.
    Our response: A critical habitat designation does not create a 
wilderness area, preserve, or wildlife refuge, nor does it 
automatically close an area to human access or use. Its federal 
regulatory effect applies only to activities where there is some 
Federal involvement. Land uses such as logging, grazing, and recreation 
that may require Federal permits would require compliance with the 
Act's section 7(a)(2) requirement that Federal action in issuing the 
permit not destroy or adversely modify critical habitat. Critical 
habitat designations do not constitute land management plans, and the 
designation of critical habitat does not require a private or State 
landowner to fence the designated areas or remove game mammals. It is 
well understood that feral ungulates are responsible for the decline of 
native vegetation in Hawaii (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, pp. 40, 63-67) and 
that they present a primary threat to the native species in each of the 
ecosystems described in this final rule, including the 48 species 
addressed in this final rule. The Service recognizes that the 
populations of many game mammal species directly or indirectly affect 
the distribution and abundance of many listed endangered plant and 
animal species to varying degrees. We are also aware that game mammal 
hunting is a highly valued activity to a portion of the present-day 
Hawaiian culture, and that hunting is an important tool to manage wild 
game populations. We support hunting as a recreational activity and 
hunting programs within the State of Hawaii. We will continue to work 
in partnership with the State in this regard, as Federal law requires 
that hunting programs that receive federal funding be designed and 
implemented in a manner compatible with endangered species 
conservation.
    (36) Comment: Two commenters stated that it appears that critical 
habitat was designated with a priority given to plants rather than the 
akikiki and akekee, and one commenter stated that Laau ridge between 
the Alakai Wilderness Preserve and Namolokama should be included as 
critical habitat for both birds.
    Our response: As explained in the Criteria Used to Identify 
Critical Habitat Boundaries section of the proposed rule, we proposed 
critical habitat on lands occupied by the species that contain the 
physical and biological features essential to the conservation of each 
species that may require special management considerations or 
protection. We also proposed critical habitat on lands that were not 
occupied by the species, but were determined to be essential to their 
conservation. Based on the best scientific data available, we believe 
this final rule adequately reflects the areas essential for the 
conservation of the 47 species for which we are designating critical 
habitat, including the akikiki and akekee. Although Laau ridge may 
potentially be important to the recovery of the akikiki and akekee, the 
reviewer did not present scientific data with which we could evaluate 
whether this area is essential to their conservation. We have no 
information indicating that Laau ridge is occupied by either akikiki or 
akekee. The last confirmed observation of the akikiki on Laau ridge 
that we are aware of was in 1969 (Service 1983, pp. 53, 66).
    (37) Comment: Two commenters stated that the Hawaiian honeycreepers 
should be included in the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) (16 U.S.C. 
703-712) to gain protections under that

[[Page 18977]]

statute. One commenter suggested that the MBTA specifically and 
arbitrarily excludes Hawaiian honeycreepers, and that the inadequacy of 
existing regulatory mechanisms (Factor D) presents a threat to the 
akikiki and akekee because they are not protected under the MBTA. The 
commenter states that these species should be protected under the MBTA 
since they are members of the avian family Fringillidae, which is 
covered by the statute.
    Our response: A species qualifies for protection under the MBTA if 
it meets one or more criteria, including whether it belongs to a family 
or group of species named in the Canadian convention of 1961, as 
amended in 1996; the Mexican convention of 1936, as amended in 1972; 
the annex to the Japanese convention of 1972, as amended; or the 
Russian convention of 1976. The proposed rule (71 FR 50194, August 24, 
2006) to revise the List of Migratory Birds that receive protections 
under the MBTA states that the MBTA does not apply to native species 
that belong to families or groups represented in the United States that 
are not expressly mentioned in the Canadian, Mexican, or Russian 
treaties. Although the Hawaiian honeycreepers, including akikiki and 
akekee are in the family Fringillidae, and fringillids are covered by 
the MBTA, the proposed rule to revise the List of Migratory Birds 
specifically names the subfamily Drepanidinae (the Hawaiian 
honeycreepers) as one of those groups that do not receive protections 
under the MBTA (71 FR 50205). However, regulatory actions under the 
MBTA are beyond the scope of this final rule.

Summary of Changes from Proposed Rule

    We fully considered comments from the public and peer reviewers on 
the proposed rule to develop this final listing and critical habitat 
designation for the 48 species from Kauai. This final rule incorporates 
the following substantive changes to our proposed listing and 
designation, based on the comments that we received.
     (1) At the time we proposed Drosophila attigua as endangered, we 
followed the taxonomic treatment of Hardy and Kaneshiro (1969, p. 41). 
Subsequently, a peer reviewer informed us of a recent taxonomic 
revision in which D. attigua was determined to be identical to, and 
synonymized with, D. sharpi, a species described by Grimshaw in 1901 
(Grimshaw 1901, p. 65; Magnacca and O'Grady 2008, p. 55). Since the 
synonymy of D. attigua with D. sharpi is currently accepted by the 
scientific community, we are listing this picture-wing fly species as 
endangered in the final rule under the name D. sharpi rather than D. 
attigua. We are also designating critical habitat for D. sharpi in this 
final rule. This name change does not affect the boundaries of the 
proposed designation of critical habitat.
     (2) We designated an additional 2,936 ac (1,204 ha) of montane 
mesic habitat as critical habitat for the akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi 
Units 1-3 Montane Mesic) based on information received during the 
public comment period indicating that these areas are occupied by this 
species and contain the physical and biological features essential to 
its conservation that may require special management considerations or 
protection (see our response to comment 18 above). The addition of this 
area does not increase the total amount of critical habitat we are 
designating in this final rule, since these areas were already proposed 
as critical habitat for the akekee, Drosophila sharpi, and several 
plant species.
     (3) We designated an additional 5,013 ac (2,029 ha) of lowland wet 
habitat as critical habitat for the plant Tetraplasandra flynii (Kauai 
10-Tetraplasandra flynii-b, Kauai 11-Tetraplasandra flynii-d, Kauai 21-
Tetraplasandra flynii-g). These areas were not proposed as critical 
habitat for T. flynii in our proposed rule, but information we received 
during the public comment period indicates these areas are occupied by 
the species and contain the physical and biological features essential 
to its conservation that may require special management considerations 
or protection. The addition of this area does not increase the total 
amount of critical habitat we are designating in this final rule, since 
the areas were already proposed as critical habitat for several other 
plant species.
     (4) We excluded 1,052 ac (426 ha) owned by Alexander and Baldwin, 
Inc., from this final critical habitat designation. We proposed this 
area as critical habitat for 18 plants, akekee, akikiki, and Drosophila 
attigua within several units (as described in the proposed rule: Kauai 
18-Montane Wet for 18 plants; Drosophila attigua-Unit 5-Montane Wet; 
Oreomystis bairdi-Unit 1-Montane Wet; and Loxops caeruleirostris-Unit 
4-Montane Wet). The ``Exclusions Under Section 4(b)(2) of the Act'' 
section of this final rule presents a detailed explanation of our 
analysis of this area.
    This exclusion additionally resulted in a change to some of the 
critical habitat unit numbers. As Kauai 18-Montane Wet as described in 
the proposed rule was excluded, that left the critical habitat unit 
numbered Kauai 18 ``vacant'' in the final rule, with the end result 
that the unit Kauai 19-Wet Cliff from the proposed rule is now Kauai 
18-Wet Cliff in this final rule. The effects of this change are also 
seen in various maps and tables throughout this final rule, as all new 
critical habitat units have been renumbered from the proposed rule, 
starting with Unit 18, through Unit 25.
    (5) In accordance with Terrell et al. (2005, p. 818), we changed 
the scientific name for Hedyotis to Kadua. This change is reflected in 
Table 3-Ecosystem-level Primary Constituent Elements (PCEs) for Each 
Species and in the Regulation Promulgation section of this rule.
    (6) We revised certain unit boundaries for plants (Kauai 11-Lowland 
Mesic and Kauai 11-Montane Mesic in Sec. 17.99(a)(1)); akekee (Loxops 
caeruleirostris-Unit 1-Montane Mesic in Sec. 17.95(b)); and the 
picture-wing fly (Drosophila sharpi-Unit 1-Montane Mesic in 
Sec. 17.95(i)) based on comments received from the U.S. Navy (see our 
response to comment 31 above).
    (7) We corrected the upper elevation limit of the ecosystem-level 
PCEs for the Montane Mesic and Montane Wet Ecosystems (See Table 3). 
The upper limit is now 5,243 ft (1,598 m) instead of 6,600 ft (2,000 
m), as 5,243 ft (1,598 m) represents the maximum elevation on Kauai.
    (8) We corrected the species-specific PCE for Lysmiachia daphnoides 
in Table 4 and elsewhere in the final rule; this PCE now clarifies that 
the species utilizes not bogs, but more specifically hummocks in bogs.
    (9) We have corrected the species-specific PCE for Drosophila 
sharpi to reflect the fact that this picture-wing fly uses both 
Cheirodendron sp. and Tetraplasandra sp. as larval host plants; the 
genus Tetraplasandra was not included as a species-specific PCE in the 
proposed rule.
    (10) We made some corrections to Table CDLIX (Table Of Protected 
Species Within Each Critical Habitat Unit For Kauai) in the Regulation 
Promulgation section of this rule to accurately reflect which units are 
occupied or unoccupied by the species.

Summary of Factors Affecting the Species

    Section 4 of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1533) and our implementing 
regulations (50 CFR part 424) set forth the procedures for adding 
species to the Federal Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and 
Plants. A species may be

[[Page 18978]]

determined to be an endangered or threatened species due to one or more 
of the five factors described in section 4(a)(1) of the Act: (A) The 
present or threatened destruction, modification, or curtailment of its 
habitat or range; (B) overutilization for commercial, recreational, 
scientific, or educational purposes; (C) disease or predation; (D) the 
inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms; and (E) other natural or 
manmade factors affecting its continued existence. Listing actions may 
be warranted based on any of the above threat factors, singly or in 
combination. The threats to each of the individual 48 species are 
summarized in Table 2, and discussed in detail below. Factor D is not 
included in the table because we have no information on primary threats 
to the species that would fall under this category.

[[Page 18979]]



                                                                                                TABLE 2.--SUMMARY OF PRIMARY THREATS IDENTIFIED FOR EACH OF THE 48 KAUAI SPECIES
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                  Factor A                                                                       Factor B                          Factor C                          Factor E
                                                --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
           Species                 Ecosystem                                                                                                                                                                                                      Predation by   Other  species-
                                                 Nonnative plants        Pigs              Goats             Deer              Fire          Hurricanes     Landslides or    Climate Change      Illegal        Predation by     Predation by      nonnative         specific
                                                                                                                                                               Flooding                         collection       ungulates           rats        invertebrates       threats
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Astelia waialealae             MW (hummocks in   X                 X                 X                                                    X                                 X                                 X                                                  LN, NR
                                bogs)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Canavalia napaliensis          LM                X                                   X                                   X                X                                 X                                 X                X                X                ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chamaesyce eleanoriae          LM, DC            X                                   X                                                    X                L                X                                 X                X                                 LN
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chamaesyce remyi var.          LW, WC            X                 X                                                                      X                L                X                                 X                                                  ...............
 kauaiensis
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi    LM, LW,MM, MW,    X                 X                 X                 X                                  X                L                X                                 X                X                X                ...............
                                WC
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Charpentiera densiflora        LM, LW            X                                   X                                   X                X                L, F             X                                 X                X                X                ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cyanea dolichopoda             WC                X                                                                                        X                L                X                                                                   X                NW
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cyanea eleeleensis             LW                X                 X                                                                      X                L                X                                 X                X                X                NW
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cyanea kolekoleensis           LW                X                 X                                                                      X                F                X                                 X                X                X                NW
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cyanea kuhihewa                LW                X                 X                                                                      X                L                X                                 X                X                X                NW
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cyrtandra oenobarba            LW, WC            X                 X                 X                                                    X                L, F             X                                 X                X                X                ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cyrtandra paliku               WC                X                                                                                        X                L                X                                                                                    LN
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Diellia mannii                 MM                X                 X                                   X                 X                X                L                X                                 X                                                  LN
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Doryopteris angelica           LM                X                 X                 X                 X                                  X                                 X                                 X                X                                 LN
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dryopteris crinalis var.       MW                X                 X                                                                      X                                 X                                                                                    LN
 podosorus
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dubautia imbricata ssp.        LW                X                 X                                                                      X                                 X                                 X                                                  ...............
 imbricata
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dubautia kalalauensis          MW                X                                   X                                                    X                                 X                                 X                                                  LN
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dubautia kenwoodii             LM                X                 X                 X                                                    X                FR               X                                 X                                                  NW
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dubautia plantaginea ssp.      WC                X                 X                                                                      X                L                X                                 X                                                  ...............
 magnifolia
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 18980]]

 
Dubautia waialealae            MW (bogs only)    X                 X                 X                                                    X                                 X                                 X                                                  ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Geranium kauaiense             MW (bogs only)    X                 X                                                                      X                                 X                                 X                                                  ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Keysseria erici                MW (bogs only)    X                 X                                                                      X                                 X                                 X                                                  ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Keysseria helenae              MW (bogs only)    X                 X                                                                      X                                 X                                 X                                                  ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Labordia helleri               LM, LW,MM, MW     X                 X                 X                 X                                  X                                 X                                 X                X                                 ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Labordia pumila                MW (bogs only)    X                 X                                                                      X                                 X                                 X                                                  ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lysimachia daphnoides          MW (hummocks in   X                 X                                                                      X                                 X                                 X                                                  ...............
                                bogs)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lysimachia iniki               WC                X                                                                                        X                L                X                                                                                    LN
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lysimachia pendens             WC                X                 X                                                                      X                L                X                                 X                                                  LN
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lysimachia scopulensis         DC                X                 X                 X                                                    X                L                X                                 X                                                  LN
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lysimachia venosa              WC                X                                                                                        X                L                X                                                                                    NW
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Melicope degeneri              MW                X                 X                 X                                                    X                                 X                                 X                                 X                LN, NR
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Melicope paniculata            LW                X                 X                 X                                                    X                L                X                                 X                                 X                ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Melicope puberula              LW, MW            X                 X                 X                                                    X                                 X                                 X                                 X                ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Myrsine knudsenii              MM                X                 X                 X                 X                                  X                                 X                                 X                X                                 LN
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Myrsine mezii                  MM, MW            X                 X                 X                                                    X                L                X                                 X                                                  LN
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Phyllostegia renovans          LW, MW            X                 X                 X                                                    X                L                X                                 X                X                                 LN
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pittosporum napaliense         LM                X                                   X                                                    X                                 X                                 X                X                                 ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 18981]]

 
Platydesma rostrata            LM, LW, MMMW, WC  X                 X                 X                 X                                  X                L                X                                 X                X                X                ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pritchardia hardyi             LW, WC            X                 X                 X                                                    X                                 X                X                X                X                                 ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Psychotria grandiflora         MM, MW            X                 X                 X                 X                                  X                                 X                                 X                X                                 LN, NR
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Psychotria hobdyi              LM                X                 X                 X                 X                 X                X                                 X                                 X                X                X                ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Schiedea attenuata             DC                X                                   X                                   X                X                L                X                                 X                                                  LN
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Stenogyne kealiae              LW, MM, DC        X                 X                 X                 X                 X                X                L                X                                 X                X                                 ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tetraplasandra bisattenuata    LM, LW            X                 X                                                                      X                                 X                                 X                X                                 LN
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tetraplasandra flynnii         LW, MM, MW        X                 X                 X                                                    X                                 X                                 X                                                  LN
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                                     Animals
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Akekee                         MM, MW            X                 X                 X                                                    X                                 X                                                  X                                 AD, pPCO
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Akikiki                        MM, MW            X                 X                 X                                                    X                                 X                                                  X                                 AD, pPCO
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Picture-wing fly, Drosophila   MM, MW            X                 X                 X                 X                 X                X                                 X                                                  X                X                CTF
 sharpi
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
LM = Lowland Mesic
LW = Lowland Wet
MM = Montane Mesic
MW = Montane Wet
DC = Dry Cliff
WC = Wet Cliff
L = Landslides
F = Flooding
LN = Limited numbers <= 50 wild individuals
NR = No reproduction
FR = Falling rocks
NW = Not extant in wild
AD = Avian diseases
pPCO = Potential predation by feral cats, nonnative owls
CTF = Competition with nonnative tipulid flies
Factor A - Habitat Modification
Factor B - Overutilization
Factor C - Disease or Predation
Factor E - Other


[[Page 18982]]

A. The Present or Threatened Destruction, Modification, or Curtailment 
of Its Habitat or Range

    The Hawaiian Islands are located over 2,000 mi (3,200 km) from the 
nearest continent. This isolation has allowed the few plants and 
animals that arrived in the Hawaiian Islands to evolve into many varied 
and highly endemic species (species that occur nowhere else in the 
world). The only native terrestrial mammal on the Hawaiian Islands is a 
flying mammal, the Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasirus cinereus semotus). The 
native plants and animals of the Hawaiian Islands have therefore 
evolved in the absence of any mammalian predators, browsers, or 
grazers; many of the native species have lost defenses against threats 
such as mammalian predation and competition with aggressive, weedy 
plant species that are typical of mainland environments (Loope 1992, p. 
11; Wagner et al. 1999, pp. 3-6, 45). For example, Carlquist (in 
Carlquist and Cole 1974, p. 29) states that ``Hawaiian plants are 
notably nonpoisonous, free from armament, and free from many 
characteristics thought to be deterrents to herbivores (oils, resins, 
stinging hairs, coarse texture).'' In addition, species restricted to 
highly specialized locations or food sources (e.g., some Hawaiian 
forest birds and picture-wing flies) are particularly vulnerable to 
changes (from nonnative species, hurricanes, fire, and climate change) 
in their habitat (Carlquist and Cole 1974, pp. 28-29; Loope 1992, pp. 
3-6; Stone 1992, pp. 88-95).

Habitat destruction and modification by introduced ungulates

    Introduced mammals have greatly impacted the native vegetation, as 
well as the native fauna, of the Hawaiian Islands. The first 
introductions of nonnative mammals began with pigs, dogs, and rats that 
arrived with the Polynesians around 400 A.D. (Kirch 1982, pp. 3-4). 
Nonnative species impacts to native species and ecosystems of Hawaii 
accelerated following the arrival of Captain James Cook in 1778. The 
Cook expedition and subsequent explorers intentionally introduced a 
European race of pigs or boars and other livestock, such as goats, to 
serve as food sources for seagoing explorers (USGS 1998, p. 752). The 
mild climate of the islands, combined with the lack of competitors or 
predators led to the successful establishment of large populations of 
these introduced mammals to the detriment of native Hawaiian species 
and ecosystems. Over the 200 years following the introduction of these 
animals, the numbers of introduced ungulates has increased, and the 
adverse impacts on native vegetation have become increasingly apparent 
(Mueller-Dombois et al. 1981, p. 310).
    Beyond the direct effects of trampling and consuming native plants, 
feral ungulates (hoofed mammals) contribute significantly to increased 
erosion on the islands, and their behavior (i.e., rooting, moving 
across large expanses) facilitates the spread and establishment of 
competing, invasive, nonnative plant species. The presence of 
introduced nonnative mammals is one of the primary factors underlying 
the alteration and degradation of native vegetation and habitats on the 
island of Kauai. Each of the six ecosystems and the associated native 
species therein are threatened by the destruction or degradation of 
habitat due to nonnative ungulates, including pigs (Sus scrofa), goats 
(Capra hircus), and black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus).
    Pigs have been described as the most pervasive and disruptive 
nonnative influence on the unique native forests of the Hawaiian 
Islands, and are widely recognized as one of the greatest current 
threats to forest ecosystems in Hawaii (Aplet et al. 1991, p. 56; 
Anderson and Stone 1993, p. 195; Loope 1999, p. 56). European pigs 
introduced to Hawaii by Captain James Cook in 1778 hybridized with 
domesticated Polynesian pigs, became feral, and invaded forested areas, 
especially wet and mesic forests and dry areas at high elevations. 
These animals are currently present on Kauai, Niihau, Oahu, Molokai, 
Maui, and Hawaii. These introduced pigs are extremely destructive and 
have both direct and indirect impacts on native plant communities. 
While rooting in the earth in search of invertebrates and plant 
material, pigs directly impact native plants by disturbing and 
destroying vegetative cover, and trampling plants and seedlings. They 
may also reduce or eliminate plant regeneration by damaging or eating 
seeds and seedlings (further discussion of predation by nonnative 
ungulates is under Factor C, below). Pigs are a major vector for the 
establishment and spread of competing invasive nonnative plant species, 
by dispersing plant seeds on their hooves and coats as well as through 
the spread of manure and fertilizing the disturbed soil through their 
feces. Pigs feed preferentially on the fruits of many nonnative plants, 
such as Passiflora tarminiana (banana poka) and Psidium cattleianum 
(strawberry guava), spreading the seeds of these invasive species 
through their feces as they travel in search of food.
    In addition, rooting pigs contribute to erosion by clearing 
vegetation and creating large areas of disturbed soil, especially on 
slopes (Aplet et al. 1991, p. 56; Smith 1985, pp. 190, 192, 196, 200, 
204, 230-231; Stone 1985, pp. 254-255, 262-264; Medeiros et al. 1986, 
pp. 27-28; Scott et al. 1986, pp. 360-361; Tomich 1986, pp. 120-126; 
Cuddihy and Stone 1990, pp. 64-65; Loope et al. 1991, pp. 1-21; Wagner 
et al. 1999, p. 52). The compacted volcanic soils, wallows, and downed, 
hollowed-out tree ferns created by feral pig activity hold water and 
create breeding sites for mosquitoes, which transmit avian disease 
(Scott et al. 1986, pp. 365-368; Atkinson et al. 1995, p. S68). 
Mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria present a significant threat to 
native Hawaiian forest birds, including the akikiki and akekee (see 
Factor C).
    Goats native to the Middle East and India were also successfully 
introduced to the Hawaiian Islands in the late 1700s. Feral goats now 
occupy a wide variety of habitats on Kauai, where they consume native 
vegetation, trample roots and seedlings, accelerate erosion, and 
promote the invasion of alien plants (Stone 1985, p. 48; van Riper and 
van Riper 1982, pp. 34-35). Goats are able to access and forage in 
extremely rugged terrain, including nearly vertical cliffs of the Na 
Pali Coast, and have a high reproductive capacity (Clarke and Cuddihy 
1980, pp. C-19, C-20; Culliney 1988, p. 336; Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 
64); because of these factors, goats are believed to have completely 
eliminated some plant species from islands (Atkinson and Atkinson 2000, 
p. 21). Goats can be highly destructive to natural vegetation, and they 
contribute to erosion by eating young trees and young shoots of plants 
before they can become established. They also create trails that can 
damage native vegetative cover, destabilize substrate, and create 
gullies that convey water and exacerbate erosion, as well as dislodge 
stones from ledges that can damage vegetation below (Cuddihy and Stone 
1990, p. 64). The erosion caused by goats on the steep slopes of Kauai 
contributes to the potential for landslides and also increases the 
potential for flooding. Large feral herds of goats can cause damage at 
multiple scales; their climbing ability allows access to the more 
remote areas of Kauai, and their browsing causes habitat degradation 
that can lead to erosion and landslides.
    Black-tailed deer (also known as mule deer) were first introduced 
to Kauai in 1961 for the purposes of sport hunting. These deer are 
currently limited to the western side of Kauai, where they feed on a 
variety of native and alien plants (van Riper and van Riper 1982, pp. 
42-46). In addition to directly impacting

[[Page 18983]]

native plants through browsing, deer likely impact native plants 
indirectly by serving as a primary vector for the spread of introduced 
plants. Deer feed on many alien plant species, and likely distribute 
these plants seeds through their feces as they travel. Black-tailed 
deer have been identified as a vector of habitat alteration in the 
Kauai ecosystems (NTBG report 2007a; HBMP 2007), and impact the Kauai 
plants through predation as well (Factor C).
    Each of the six Kauai ecosystems identified in this final rule 
(lowland mesic, lowland wet, montane mesic, montane wet, dry cliff, and 
wet cliff) and the native species dependent on these habitat types are 
directly and indirectly adversely impacted by feral ungulates, 
resulting in the destruction and degradation of habitat for the native 
Kauai species. These effects include the destruction of vegetative 
cover; trampling of plants and seedlings; consumption of native 
vegetation; soil disturbance; dispersal of alien plant seeds on hooves, 
coats, and through the spread of seeds in feces; and the creation of 
open disturbed areas conducive to further invasion by nonnative pest 
plant species. Each of these impacts lead to the subsequent conversion 
of a plant community dominated by native species to one dominated by 
nonnative species (see Habitat destruction and modification by 
nonnative plants below). In addition, because these mammals inhabit 
terrain that is often steep and remote (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 59), 
foraging and trampling contributes to severe erosion of watersheds. As 
early as 1900, there was increasing concern expressed about the 
integrity of island watersheds leading to establishment of a 
professional forestry program emphasizing soil and water conservation 
(Nelson 1989, p. 3).

Habitat destruction and modification by nonnative plants

General Ecosystem Impacts

    The native vegetation on all of the main Hawaiian Islands has 
undergone extreme alteration because of past and present land 
management practices, including ranching, the deliberate introduction 
of nonnative plants and animals, and agricultural development (Cuddihy 
and Stone 1990, pp. 27, 58). All of the species being addressed in this 
final rule are threatened by almost 50 taxa of introduced plants that 
alter their habitat. The original native flora of Hawaii (species that 
were present before humans arrived) consisted of about 1,000 taxa, 89 
percent of which were endemic (species that occur only on the Hawaiian 
Islands). Over 800 plant taxa have been introduced from elsewhere, and 
nearly 100 of these have become pests (e.g., injurious plants) in 
Hawaii (Smith 1985, p. 180; Gagne and Cuddihy 1999, p. 45; Cuddihy and 
Stone 1990, p. 73). Some of these plants were brought to Hawaii by 
various groups of people, including the Polynesians, for food or 
cultural reasons. Plantation owners (and the territorial government of 
Hawaii), alarmed at the reduction of water resources for their crops 
caused by the destruction of native forest cover by grazing feral and 
domestic animals, introduced nonnative trees for reforestation. 
Ranchers intentionally introduced pasture grasses and other nonnative 
plants for agriculture, and sometimes inadvertently introduced weed 
seeds as well. Other plants were brought to Hawaii for their potential 
horticultural value (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 73; Scott et al. 1986, 
pp. 361-363).
    Nonnative plants adversely impact native Hawaiian habitat, 
including the 6 Kauai ecosystems and the 48 species identified in this 
final rule, by modifying the availability of light, altering soil-water 
regimes, modifying nutrient cycling, altering fire characteristics of 
native plant communities (e.g., successive fires that burn farther and 
farther into native habitat, destroy native plants, and remove habitat 
for native species by altering microclimatic conditions to favor alien 
species), and ultimately converting native dominated plant communities 
to nonnative plant communities (Cuddihy and Stone, 1990, p. 74; 
D'Antonio and Vitousek 1992, p. 73; Smith 1985, pp. 180-181; Vitousek 
et al. 1997, p. 6). This directly and indirectly affects the plant and 
animal species in this rule by modifying or destroying their habitat 
and reducing food sources. Below we have organized by ecosystem a list 
of nonnative plants followed by a discussion of the specific negative 
effects of those nonnative plants on these species.

Lowland Mesic Ecosystem

    The nonnative plant threats to the species inhabiting the lowland 
mesic ecosystem include the understory and subcanopy species Blechnum 
appendiculatum (no common name, hereafter ``NCN''), Erigeron 
karvinskianus (daisy fleabane), Hedychium gardnerianum (kahili ginger), 
Kalanchoe pinnata (air plant), Lantana camara (lantana), Melastoma 
septemnervium (Indian rhododendron), Rubus argutus (prickly Florida 
blackberry), Rubus rosifolius (thimbleberry), and the canopy species 
Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava), P. guajava (common guava), 
Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (downy or rose myrtle), and Schinus 
terebinthifolius (Christmasberry) (Carr 1998, p. 10; NTBG Accession 
Database 1999; NTBG Provenance Report 1991; Wood 1998, p. 1; Wood 1999, 
p. 1; Wood 2005, p. 1; Wood 2007a, p. 1; Wood 2007f, p. 1; HBMP 2007). 
In addition, there are several nonnative grasses such as Melinus 
minutiflora (molasses grass), Oplismenus hirtellus (basketgrass), 
Paspalum conjugatum (Hilo grass), P. urvillei (Vasey grass), and 
Setaria parviflora (yellow foxtail) that present a significant threat 
to the species dependent on this ecosystem (HBMP 2007).

Lowland Wet Ecosystem

    The nonnative plant threats to the species inhabiting the lowland 
wet ecosystem include the understory and subcanopy species Axonopus 
fissifolius (narrow-leaved carpetgrass), Christella parasitica (NCN), 
Clidemia hirta (Koster's curse), Coffea arabica (Arabian coffee), 
Cyperus meyenianus (NCN), Erigeron karvinskianus, Juncus planifolius 
(bog rush), Lantana camara, Melastoma septemnervium, Oplismenus 
hirtellus, Pterolepis glomerata (NCN), Rubus rosifolius, Sacciolepis 
indica (glenwood grass), Setaria parviflora, and Sphaeropteris cooperi 
(Australian tree fern), and the canopy species Psidium cattleianum, P. 
guajava, and Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Hawaii State Comprehensive Wildlife 
Strategy (HSCWS) 2005; NTBG 2006; Wood 1998, p. 2; Wood 2007f, p. 3; 
HBMP 2007).

Montane Mesic Ecosystem

    The nonnative plant threats to the species inhabiting the montane 
mesic ecosystem include the understory and subcanopy species Axonopus 
fissifolius, Blechnum appendiculatum, Christella parasitica, Cyperus 
meyenianus, Ehrharta stipioides (meadow ricegrass), Erigeron 
karvinskianus, Hedychium gardnerianum, Holcus lanatus (common velvet 
grass), Kalanchoe pinnata, Lantana camara, Lonicera japonica (Japanese 
honeysuckle), Melastoma septemnervium, Paspalum urvillei, Passiflora 
tarminiana (banana poka), Rubus argutus, and R. rosifolius, and the 
canopy species Corynocarpus laevigatus (karakanut), Eucalyptus robusta 
(swamp mahogany), Psidium cattleianum, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa, and 
Ricinus communis (castor bean) (HBMP 2007).

Montane Wet Ecosystem

    The nonnative plant threats to the species inhabiting the montane 
wet

[[Page 18984]]

ecosystem include the understory and subcanopy species Andropogon 
glomeratus (bushy bluestem), Andropogon virginicus (broomsedge), 
Axonopus fissifolius, Clidemia hirta, Cyperus meyenianus, Erechtites 
valerianifolia (fireweed), Erigeron karvinskianus, Hedychium 
gardnerianum, Juncus planifolius, Kalanchoe pinnata, Lantana camara, 
Paspalum urvillei, Passiflora tarminiana, Rubus argutus, R. rosifolius, 
Sacciolepis indica, Setaria parviflora, and Xyris complanata (yellow-
eyed grass), and the canopy species Morella faya (firetree) and Psidium 
cattleianum (HBMP 2007).

Dry Cliff Ecosystem

    The nonnative plant threats to the species inhabiting the dry cliff 
ecosystem include the understory and subcanopy species Andropogon 
glomeratus, Erigeron karvinskianus, Kalanchoe pinnata, Lantana camara, 
Lonicera japonica, Passiflora tarminiana, Rubus argutus, and Verbena 
litoralis (vervain) (Wood 2007d; HBMP 2007).

Wet Cliff Ecosystem

    The nonnative plant threats to the species inhabiting the wet cliff 
ecosystem include the understory and subcanopy species Ageratum 
conyzoides (maile honohono), Andropogon glomeratus, Blechnum 
appendiculatum, Clidemia hirta, Cyperus meyenianus, Erigeron 
karvinskianus, Juncus planifolius, Kalanchoe pinnata, Lonicera 
japonica, Paspalum conjugatum, Passiflora edulis (passion fruit, 
lilikoi), P. tarminiana, Pluchea carolinensis (sourbush), Rubus 
argutus, R. rosifolius, Setaria parviflora, Sphaeropteris cooperi, and 
Youngia japonica (oriental hawksbeard), and the canopy species Buddleja 
asiatica (dog tail) and Psidium cattleianum (Perlman 2007; HBMP 2007).

Nonnative Species-Specific Impacts

    Nonnative plants represent a significant and immediate threat to 
each of the 48 species being addressed in this final rule throughout 
their ranges by destroying and modifying habitat. They can adversely 
impact microhabitat by modifying the availability of light, altering 
soil-water regimes, and modifying nutrient cycling processes. They can 
also alter fire characteristics of native plant habitat, leading to 
incursions of fire-tolerant nonnative plant species into native 
habitat. Nonnative plants outcompete native plants by growing faster; 
in addition, some release chemicals that inhibit the growth of other 
plants. By outcompeting native species, nonnative plants convert 
native-dominated plant communities to nonnative plant communities 
(Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 74; Vitousek 1992, pp. 33-35). The 
following list provides a brief description of the nonnative plants 
that present a threat to the species that occur in the ecosystems being 
addressed in this final rule.
 Ageratum conyzoides is a perennial herb that produces 
thousands of seeds spread by wind and water, with over half germinating 
shortly after being shed, displacing native understory vegetation 
(Pacific Island Ecosystem at Risk (PIER) 2007).
 Andropogon glomeratus, a grass species, displaces native 
vegetation by invading disturbed areas, with culms (stems of grasses or 
similar plants) to 5 ft (1.5 m) tall, and reproduces readily by seed 
(Ohio Department of Natural Resources 2006; PIER 2008a).
 Andropogon virginicus is a grass with seeds that are easily 
distributed by wind, clothing, vehicles, and feral animals (Smith 1989, 
p. 63). Some research suggests that this species may also release 
allelopathic substances (chemicals that inhibit growth in other plants) 
that dramatically decrease the reestablishment of native plants (Rice 
1972, p 752). This species is included in the Hawaii State noxious weed 
list (HAR Title 4, Subtitle 6, Chapter 68).
 Axonopus fissifolius is a pasture grass that forms dense mats 
with tall foliage. This species does well in soils with low nitrogen 
levels, and can outcompete other grasses in wet forests and bogs. The 
species is not subject to any major diseases or insect pests, and 
recovers quickly from fire. The seeds are readily spread by water, 
vehicles, and grazing animals (O'Connor 1999, pp. 1500-1502; Cook et 
al. 2005, p. 4).
 Blechnum appendiculatum is a fern with fronds to 23 in (60 cm) 
long which forms large colonies, outcompeting many native fern species 
(Palmer 2003, p. 81).
 Buddleja asiatica is a shrub or small tree that can tolerate a 
wide range of habitats, forms dense thickets, and is rapidly spreading 
into wet forest and even lava and cinder substrate areas in Hawaii 
where it displaces native vegetation (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 415; 
Pacific Island Ecosystem at Risk (PIER) 2008b).
 Christella parasitica (a fern) is known to hybridize with 
other Christella species, and may hybridize with endemic Hawaiian 
Christella species (Palmer 2003, p. 90).
 Clidemia hirta is a noxious shrub in the Melastomataceae 
family that forms a dense understory, shades out native plants and 
prevents their regeneration, and is considered a significant nonnative 
plant threat (Wagner et al. 1985, p. 41; Smith 1989, p. 64). All plants 
in the Melastomataceae family are designated as noxious weeds in the 
State of Hawaii (HAR Title 4, Subtitle 6, Chapter 68).
 Coffea arabica is shade tolerant and can form dense stands in 
the forest understory. Its seeds are dispersed by birds and rats and 
can germinate under the forest canopy displacing native vegetation 
(PIER 2008c).
 Corynocarpus laevigatus is a tree up to 49 ft (15 m) tall. 
Corynocarpus laevigatus seeds were broadcast by aircraft over the 
interior of Kauai in 1929 in an attempt to restore the watershed, and 
it is now naturalized there (Wagner et al. 1985, p. 39; Forster and 
Forster 1999, p. 566). It forms dense shade which excludes other 
species, and the seeds are distributed by frugivorous (fruit-eating) 
birds and pigs (PIER 2008d).
 Cyperus meyenianus can grow as tall as 2 ft (0.6 m) in height 
and outcompetes native plants (Koyama 1999, p. 1421).
 Ehrharta stipioides is a grass that creates a thick mat in 
which other species cannot regenerate; its seeds are easily dispersed 
by awns (slender, terminal, bristle-like process found at the 
spikelette in many grasses) that attach to fur or clothing (U.S. Army 
2006, p. 2-1-20).
 Erechtites valerianifolia, a tall (up to 8 ft (2.5 m)), 
widely-distributed annual herb, produces thousands of wind-dispersed 
seeds, outcompeting native plants (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 314).
 Erigeron karvinskianus reproduces and spreads rapidly to form 
dense mats, and can spread by stem layering and regrowth of broken 
roots. This species crowds out and displaces ground level plants (Weeds 
of Blue Mountains Bushland 2006).
 Eucalyptus robusta was planted by State foresters in the early 
1900s on all the main Hawaiian Islands except Niihau and Kahoolawe in 
an attempt to protect watersheds. These trees are quick-growing, can 
reach 99 ft (30 m) in height, reproduce from seed, and replace native 
forest species (Cuddihy and

[[Page 18985]]

Stone 1990, p 52; Wagner et al. 1999, p. 957; PIER 2008e).
 Hedychium gardnerianum forms vast, dense colonies, displacing 
other plant species, and reproduces by rhizomes where already 
established. The conspicuous, fleshy, red seeds are dispersed by fruit-
eating birds as well as humans (Smith 1985, p. 191). Aircraft-based 
analysis has found that this species reduces the amount of nitrogen in 
the native Metrosideros forest canopy in Hawaii, a finding subsequently 
corroborated by ground-based sampling (Asner and Vitousek 2005). This 
species may also block stream edges, altering water flow and the native 
vegetation community (Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) 2007).
 Holcus lanatus is an aggressively growing and possibly 
allelopathic (having a chemical inhibitory effect on other organisms) 
grass that quickly becomes dominant over other plants (Pitcher and 
Russo 1980, p. 3).
 Juncus planifolius forms dense mats and has the potential of 
displacing native plants by preventing establishment of their seedlings 
(Medeiros et al. 1991, p. 28).
 Kalanchoe pinnata can form dense stands that prevent 
reproduction of native species. It can also reproduce by vegetative 
means at indents along the leaf margins (Motooka et al. 2003a).
 Lantana camara was brought to Hawaii as an ornamental plant, 
and is an aggressive, thicket-forming shrub which is now found on all 
of the main islands (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 1320).
 Lonicera japonica is a sprawling vine that can grow over and 
smother shrubs and small trees, and cover the forest floor, preventing 
growth of native species (PIER 2008f).
 Melastoma septemnervium is an invasive shrub that displaces 
and outcompetes native vegetation because of its invasive 
characteristics such as high germination rate, rapid growth, early 
maturity, ability of fragments to root, possible asexual reproduction, 
and efficient seed dispersal, especially by birds (Smith 1985, p. 194; 
University of Florida Herbarium 2006). This species is on the Hawaii 
State noxious weed list (HAR Title 4, Subtitle 6, Chapter 68).
 Melinus minutiflora forms dense mats that can fuel more 
intense fires that destroy native plants (O'Connor 1999, p. 1562; 
Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 89).
 Morella faya is an evergreen shrub or small tree up to 26 ft 
(8 m) tall. It forms monotypic stands, has the ability to fix nitrogen, 
and alters the successional ecosystems in areas it invades, displacing 
native vegetation through competition. It is also a prolific fruit 
producer (average of 400,000 fruit per individual shrub or tree per 
year), and the fruit are spread by frugivorous birds and feral pigs 
(Vitousek 1990, pp. 8-9; Wagner et al. 1999, p. 931; PIER 2008g). This 
species is on the Hawaii State noxious weed list (HAR Title 4, Subtitle 
6, Chapter 68).
 Oplismenus hirtellus forms a dense groundcover, is sometimes 
climbing, and roots at the nodes, enabling its rapid spread. It also 
has sticky seeds that attach to visiting animals and birds that then 
carry them to new areas where they are deposited and spread accordingly 
(O'Connor 1999, p. 1565; Johnson 2005).
 Paspalum conjugatum is found in wet habitats, and forms a 
dense ground cover. Its small hairy seeds are easily transported on 
humans and animals or are carried by the wind through native forests, 
where it establishes and displaces native vegetation (Cuddihy and Stone 
1990, p. 83; Tomich 1986, p. 125; PIER 2006; University of Hawaii 
2008h).
 Paspalum urvillei forms dense stands which displace native 
vegetation (Motooka et al. 2003b, p. 1).
 Passiflora edulis is a vigorous, climbing vine cultivated for 
its fruit in Hawaii (Escobar 1999, p. 1010). It can grow up to 20 ft (6 
m) per year once established, smothering trees and shrubs. Each fruit 
has hundreds of seeds which are eaten and distributed by pigs (PIER 
2008i).
 Passiflora tarminiana, a vine native to South America, is 
widely cultivated for its fruit (Escobar 1999, p. 1012). First 
introduced to Hawaii in the early 1900s, it is now a significant pest 
in mesic forest, where it overgrows and smothers the forest canopy. Its 
seeds are readily dispersed by humans, birds, and feral pigs (La Rosa 
1992, pp. 272, 290).
 Pluchea carolinensis is a fast-growing shrub that forms 
thickets in dry habitats and can tolerate saline conditions. The wind-
dispersed seeds facilitate plant dispersal which displaces native 
vegetation (Francis 2006).
 Psidium cattleianum forms dense stands in which few other 
plants can grow, displacing native vegetation through competition. The 
fruit is eaten by pigs and birds that disperse the seeds throughout the 
forest (Smith 1985, p. 200; Wagner et al. 1985, p. 24).
 Psidium guajava forms dense stands in disturbed forest. The 
seeds are spread by feral pigs and alien birds, and it can also 
regenerate from underground parts by suckering (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 
972).
 Pterolepis glomerata is a member of the Melastomataceae 
family. The basis for its classification as invasive is the species' 
germination rate, rapid growth, early maturity, ability of fragments to 
root, possible asexual reproduction, and seed dispersal by birds 
(University of Florida Herbarium 2006). Because of these attributes, it 
displaces native vegetation through competition.
 Rhodomyrtus tomentosa forms dense thickets and produces large 
amounts of seeds that are dispersed by frugivorous birds and mammals 
(Smith 1985, p. 201). It also alters natural fire regimes and sprouts 
prolifically after fires (University of Florida 2006). This species is 
on the Hawaii State noxious weed list (HAR Title 4, Subtitle 6, Chapter 
68).
 Ricinus communis is a fast growing tree that can form thickets 
that shade out other species (PIER 2007).
 Rubus argutus reproduces both vegetatively and by seed, 
readily sprouts from underground runners, and is quickly spread by 
frugivorous birds (Tunison 1991, p. 2; Wagner et al. 1999, p. 1107; 
U.S. Army 2006, pp. 2-1-21, 2-1-22). This species, which displaces 
native vegetation through competition, is on the Hawaii State noxious 
weed list (HAR Title 4, Subtitle 6, Chapter 68).
 Rubus rosifolius forms dense thickets and outcompetes native 
plant species. It easily reproduces from roots left in the ground, and 
seeds are spread by feral animals and birds (PIER 2008j; GISD 2008b).
 Sacciolepis indica is an annual grass that invades disturbed 
and open areas in wet habitats. The seeds are dispersed by their 
ability to attach to animal fur (University of Hawaii 1998).
 Schinus terebinthifolius forms dense thickets and grows in all 
terrain, and the red berries are attractive to

[[Page 18986]]

birds (Smith 1989, p. 63). Schinus seedlings grow very slowly and can 
survive in dense shade, exhibiting vigorous growth when the canopy is 
opened after a disturbance (Brazilian Pepper Task Force 1997). Because 
of these attributes, it is able to displace native vegetation through 
competition.
 Setaria parviflora can grow in a wide variety of habitats. Its 
culms (hollow or pithy stalks or stems) can be up to 4 ft (1.2 m) tall, 
and this species can form significant colonies shading and crowding out 
native plant species (O'Connor 1999, p. 1592; University of Florida 
2007).
 Sphaeropteris cooperi is a tree fern native to Australia that 
was brought to Hawaii for use in landscaping (Medeiros et al. 1992, p. 
43). It can achieve high densities in native Hawaiian forest and grows 
up to 1 ft (0.3 m) in height per year. It reaches maximum known heights 
of 39 ft (12 m) (Jones and Clemesha 1976, p. 56), and can displace 
native species. Understory disturbance by pigs facilitates its 
establishment (Medeiros et al. 1992, p. 30), and it has been known to 
spread over 7 mi (12 km) through windblown dispersal of spores from 
plant nurseries (Medeiros et al. 1992, p 29).
 Verbena litoralis is a perennial herb up to 6.5 ft (2 m) tall, 
and is naturalized in a wide range of habitats in Hawaii (Wagner et al. 
1999, p. 1325). It displaces native vegetation through competition.
 Xyris complanata is a clumping herb cultivated for use in 
floral arrangements. It is naturalized in Hawaii in wet muddy areas and 
on lava and can outcompete native vegetation (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 
1615).
 Youngia japonica is an annual herb 3 ft (0.9 m) tall that is 
native to southeastern Asia and is now a pantropical (distributed 
throughout the tropics) weed (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 377). In Hawaii it 
occurs in moist, disturbed sites, and can invade nearly intact native 
wet forest (Wagner et al. 1999, p. 377), outcompeting native 
vegetation.

Habitat destruction and modification by fire

    Fire is a relatively new, human-related threat to native species 
and natural vegetation in Hawaii. The historical fire regime in Hawaii 
was characterized by infrequent, low severity fires (Cuddihy and Stone 
1990, p. 91; Smith and Tunison 1992, pp. 395-397). Few natural ignition 
sources existed, natural fuel beds were often discontinuous, and 
rainfall in many areas on most islands was, and is, moderate to high. 
Fires inadvertently or intentionally ignited by the original 
Polynesians in Hawaii probably contributed to the initial decline of 
native vegetation in the drier plains and foothills. These early 
settlers practiced slash-and-burn agriculture that created open lowland 
areas suitable for the later colonization of nonnative, fire-adapted 
grasses (Kirch 1982, pp. 5-6, 8; Cuddihy and Stone 1990, pp. 30-31). 
Beginning in the late 18th century, Europeans and Americans introduced 
plants and animals that further degraded native Hawaiian ecosystems. 
Pasturage and ranching, in particular, created highly fire-prone areas 
of nonnative grasses and shrubs (D'Antonio and Vitousek 1992, p. 67). 
Although fires are infrequent in mountainous regions today, extensive 
fires have occurred in lowland mesic areas, and up to half of the areas 
dominated by alien species have been damaged by fire.
    Fires of all intensities, seasons, and sources are destructive to 
native Hawaiian ecosystems (Brown and Smith 2000, p. 172), and a single 
grass-fueled fire can kill most native trees and shrubs in the burned 
area (D'Antonio and Vitousek 1992, p. 74). Few native Hawaiian plants 
and animals are adapted to withstand fire, and none are known to depend 
on fire for their existence or regeneration. Although Vogl (1969) (in 
Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 91) proposed that naturally occurring fires, 
primarily from lightning strikes, have been important in the 
development of the original Hawaiian flora, and that many Hawaiian 
plants might be fire adapted, Mueller-Dombois (1981) (in Cuddihy and 
Stone 1990, p. 91) point out that most natural vegetation types of 
Hawaii would not carry fire before the introduction of alien grasses, 
and Smith and Tunison (in Stone et al. 1992, p. 396) state that native 
plant fuels typically have low flammability. Cuddihy and Stone (1990, 
p. 91) state that fire probably influenced the evolution of the montane 
ecosystems of Maui and Hawaii, which contain grasslands of the native 
Deschampsia nubigena (hairgrass) and stands of native shrub species and 
Acacia koa.
    Alien-dominated grasslands and shrublands constitute the greatest 
fire threat to native lowland vegetation, including the lowland mesic 
ecosystem described in this final rule. Grasses (particularly those 
that produce mats of dry material or retain a mass of standing dead 
leaves) that invade native forests and shrublands provide fuels that 
allow fire to burn areas that would not otherwise easily burn (Fujioka 
and Fujii 1980, in Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 93). Native woody plants 
may recover from fire to some degree, but fire tips the competitive 
balance toward alien species (National Park Service 1989, in Cuddihy 
and Stone 1990, p. 93). Many nonnative invasive plants, especially fire 
tolerant grasses, outcompete native plants and inhibit their 
regeneration (D'Antonio and Vitousek 1992, pp. 70, 73-74; Tunison et 
al. 2002, p. 122).
    Fire represents a threat to many of the species found in the 
lowland mesic, montane mesic, and dry cliff ecosystems addressed in 
this final rule. Fire can destroy dormant seeds as well as plants, even 
in steep or inaccessible areas. Successive fires that burn farther and 
farther into native habitat destroy native plants and remove habitat 
for native species by altering microclimate conditions favorable to 
alien plants. Alien plant species most likely to be spread as a 
consequence of fire are those that produce a high fuel load, are 
adapted to survive and regenerate after fire, and establish rapidly in 
newly burned areas. For example, a documented increase in the frequency 
and size of fires at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park since 1968 
coincided with an increasing cover of alien grasses (Smith and Tunison 
1992, p. 398).

Habitat destruction and modification by hurricanes

    Hurricanes adversely impact native Hawaiian habitat, including all 
six6 Kauai ecosystems and their associated species identified in this 
final rule. They do this by destroying native vegetation, opening the 
canopy and thus modifying the availability of light, and creating 
disturbed areas conducive to invasion by nonnative pest species (Asner 
and Goldstein 1997, p. 148; Harrington et al. 1997, pp. 539-540). 
Because many Hawaiian plant and animal species, including the 48 
species in this final rule, persist in low numbers and in restricted 
ranges, natural disasters such as hurricanes can be particularly 
devastating (Hawaii Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Plan 2005, p. 
4-3).
    In November 1982, Hurricane Iwa struck the Hawaiian Islands with 
wind gusts exceeding 100 miles per hour (mph) (161 kilometers per hour 
(kph)), causing extensive damage, especially on the islands of Niihau, 
Kauai, and Oahu (Businger 1998, pp. 2, 6). Many forest trees were 
destroyed, which opened the canopy and facilitated invasion of native 
habitat by nonnative plants. Competition with nonnative plants is a

[[Page 18987]]

threat to each of the 6 ecosystems and the 48 species addressed in this 
final rule, as described above. In September 1992, Hurricane Iniki, a 
Category 4 hurricane with maximum wind speeds recorded at 140 mph (225 
kph), passed directly over the island of Kauai, causing significant 
damage to Kauai's native plant populations (Businger 1998, pp. 2, 6; S. 
Perlman 1992, pp. 1-9). Several species of Kauai's endemic forest birds 
suffered significant declines in population, and some have not been 
observed since the hurricanes. In addition, populations of several of 
Hawaii's rare plants, including three3 of the species in this final 
rule, Lysimachia iniki, L. pendens, and L. venosa, were adversely 
impacted by hurricanes Iwa and Iniki through wind damage, canopy 
disruption, and landslides (S. Perlman 1992, p. 1). Damage by future 
hurricanes could further decrease the remaining native-plant dominated 
habitat areas that support rare plants and wildlife in Kauai ecosystems 
(S. Perlman 1992, pp. 1-9).

Habitat destruction and modification due to landslides and flooding

    Landslides and flooding destabilize substrates, damage and destroy 
individual plants, and alter hydrological patterns, which result in 
changes to native plant and animal communities. Due to the steep 
topography of much of the island of Kauai, erosion and disturbance 
caused by introduced ungulates exacerbate the potential for landslides 
or flooding, which in turn threaten native plants. For those species 
that occur in small numbers in highly restricted geographic areas, such 
events have the potential to eradicate all individuals of a population, 
or even all populations of a species, resulting in extinction.
    Landslides and flooding likely adversely impact many of the species 
addressed in this final rule, including: Chamaesyce eleanoriae, C. 
remyi var. kauaiensis, C. remyi var. remyi, Charpentiera densiflora, 
Cyanea dolichopoda, C. eleeleensis, C. kolekoleensis, C. kuhihewa, 
Cyrtandra oenobarba, C. paliku, Diellia mannii, Dubautia kenwoodii, D. 
plantaginea ssp. magnifolia, Lysimachia iniki, L. pendens, L. 
scopulensis, L. venosa, Melicope paniculata, Myrsine mezii, 
Phyllostegia renovans, Platydesma rostrata, Schiedea attenuata, and 
Stenogyne kealiae. Monitoring data from the HBMP suggests that these 
species are threatened by landslides or falling rocks, since they are 
found in landscape settings susceptible to these events (e.g., steep 
slopes and cliffs). Since S. attenuata is known from only a single 
population of 20 individuals on a steep cliff, one landslide could lead 
to the extinction of the species by direct destruction of the 
individual plants, mechanical damage to individual plants which could 
lead to their death, destabilization of the cliff habitat leading to 
additional landslides, and alteration of hydrological patterns (e.g., 
affecting the availability of soil moisture). Field survey data 
presented in the HBMP suggest that Charpentiera densiflora and 
Cyaneaoenobarba are threatened by both landslides and flooding, and 
Cyanea kolekoleensis is threatened by flooding.

Habitat destruction and modification by climate change

    The exact nature of the impacts of global climate change and 
increasing temperatures on native Hawaiian ecosystems, including the 6 
Kauai ecosystems and each of the associated 48 species identified in 
this final rule, are unknown, but are likely to include the loss of 
native species that comprise the communities in which the 48 Kauai 
species occur (Benning et al. 2002, pp. 14246 and 14248; Pounds et al. 
1999, pp. 611-612; Still et al. 1999, p. 610). Future changes in 
precipitation are uncertain because they depend in part on how El 
Ni[ntilde]o (a disruption of the ocean atmospheric system in the 
Tropical Pacific having important global consequences for weather and 
climate) might change, and reliable projections of changes in El 
Ni[ntilde]o have yet to be made (Benning et al. 2002, pp. 14248-14249).
    According to some climate change projections, temperature increases 
could present an additional threat specific to the akekee and akikiki 
by causing an increase in the elevation at which regular transmission 
of avian malaria occurs, potentially reducing the remaining suitable 
habitat for these species by 85 percent (Benning et al. 2002). 
Experimental evidence has shown that the malaria parasite does not 
develop in birds in an environment below 55 degrees Fahrenheit ([deg]F) 
(13 [deg]C)), and field studies have found that maximum malaria 
transmission occurs where mean ambient summer temperature is 63 [deg]F 
(17 [deg]C) (Benning et al. 2002, p. 14,246). Between 55 and 63 [deg]F 
(13 and 17 [deg]C), malaria transmission is sporadic and usually 
associated with warmer periods, such as El Ni[ntilde]o events (Benning 
et al. 2002, p. 14246). There are no forested areas on Kauai where mean 
ambient temperature is below 55 [deg]F (13 [deg]C), which indicates 
that all areas are subject to malaria at least periodically. Benning et 
al. (2002) used GIS simulation to show that an increase in temperature 
of 3.6 [deg]F (2 [deg]C), which is within the range predicted by some 
climate models (e.g. Still et al. 1999 and references therein, p. 608; 
IPCC 2001, pp. 67-69), would raise the 63 [deg]F (17 [deg]C) isotherm 
in the Alakai Swamp region on Kauai by 984 ft (300 m), resulting in an 
85 percent decrease in the land area where malaria transmission 
currently is only periodic. If climate change were to reduce the 
remaining suitable habitat for the akekee and akikiki by 85 percent as 
predicted, it would likely contribute to the extinction of the species 
over time.
    The 48 Kauai species in this final rule may be among the species 
most vulnerable to extinction due to anticipated global climate change, 
although the specific impacts of such climate change on these species 
cannot currently be known. Impacts to the species in this final rule 
would be expected to include habitat loss and alteration or changes in 
disturbance regimes, in addition to direct physiological stress. The 
probability of species going extinct as a result of these factors 
increases when ranges are restricted, habitat decreases, and population 
numbers decline (IPCC 2007, p. 8). Such is the case for each of the 48 
Kauai species, which are characterized by limited climactic ranges and 
restricted habitat requirements, small population size, and low number 
of individuals. The threat of climate change for the akikiki and akekee 
would be further exacerbated by the extensive loss of suitable habitat 
due to the expansion of the transmission zone for malaria.

Summary of Habitat Destruction and Modification

    The threats to each of the 48 Kauai species addressed in this final 
rule are occurring throughout the entire range of each of the species. 
These threats include introduced ungulates, nonnative plants, fire, 
natural disasters, and climate change.
    The effects from ungulates are immediate because ungulates 
currently occur in all of the ecosystems on which these species depend. 
The threat presented by introduced ungulates is significant for the 
following reasons:
    (1) They trample and graze areas, directly impacting the plant 
species addressed in this final rule;
    (2) They increase soil disturbance, leading to mechanical damage to 
individuals of these plants and host plants of Drosophila sharpi;
    (3) They trample and graze on native plants used for nesting and 
foraging by the akekee and akikiki, and for larvae development and 
foraging by D. sharpi;

[[Page 18988]]

    (4) They create open, disturbed areas that are conducive to weedy 
plant invasion and establishment of alien plants from dispersed fruits 
and seeds. Over time, this results in the conversion of a community 
dominated by native vegetation to one dominated by nonnative vegetation 
(leading to all of the negative impacts associated with nonnative 
plants, detailed below);
    (5) They increase watershed erosion and sedimentation; and
     (6) They create breeding sites for mosquitoes, the primary vector 
for the transmission of avian diseases, which threaten the akikiki and 
akekee.
    These significant threats are ongoing and are expected to continue 
or increase in magnitude and intensity into the foreseeable future 
without control or eradication.
    Nonnative plants represent a significant and immediate threat to 
all 48 species being addressed in this final rule through habitat 
destruction and modification for the following reasons:
    (1) They adversely impact microhabitat by modifying the 
availability of light;
    (2) They alter soil-water regimes;
    (3) They modify nutrient cycling processes;
    (4) They alter fire characteristics of native plant habitat, 
leading to incursions of fire-tolerant nonnative plant species into 
native habitat; and
     (5) They outcompete, and possibly directly inhibit the growth of, 
native plant species.
    All of these threats can convert native dominated plant communities 
to nonnative plant communities (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 74; Vitousek 
1992, pp. 33-35). This conversion has negative impacts on and threatens 
the 45 plant species addressed here, as well as the akikiki, akekee, 
and Drosophila sharpi, which depend upon native plant species for 
essential life history needs. The significant threat presented by 
nonnative plants is ongoing and is expected to continue or increase in 
magnitude and intensity into the foreseeable future without the 
implementation of effective native ecosystem restoration actions.
    The threat from fire to the species in this final rule that depend 
on lowland mesic, montane mesic, and dry cliff ecosystems (see Table 2) 
is significant because fire damages and destroys native vegetation, 
including dormant seeds, seedlings, and juvenile and adult plants. Many 
nonnative invasive plants, particularly fire-tolerant grasses, 
outcompete native plants and inhibit their regeneration (D'Antonio and 
Vitousek 1992, pp. 70, 73-74; Tunison et al. 2001, p. 122). Successive 
fires that burn farther and farther into native habitat destroy native 
plants and remove habitat for native species by altering microclimatic 
conditions and creating conditions favorable to alien plants. The 
threat from fire is unpredictable but omnipresent in these ecosystems 
that have been invaded by nonnative, fire-prone grasses.
    Natural disasters such as hurricanes represent a significant threat 
to native habitat and the 48 species addressed in this final rule 
because they open the forest canopy, modify available light, and create 
disturbed areas that are conducive to invasion by nonnative pest plants 
(Asner and Goldstein 1997, p. 148; Harrington et al. 1997, pp. 346-
347). These impacts can be particularly devastating to the 48 species 
addressed in this final rule because due to other threats they now 
persist in low numbers or occur in restricted ranges, and are therefore 
less resilient to such disturbances. Furthermore, a particularly 
destructive hurricane holds the potential of driving a highly localized 
endemic species to extinction in a single event. In 1982 and 1992, the 
island of Kauai received the brunt of hurricane-force winds and rain 
associated with hurricanes Iwa and Iniki. Field biologists noted 
significant declines in native Hawaiian plant and wildlife populations 
following these events, and believe that future hurricane damage could 
further exacerbate these declines (S. Perlman 1992, p. 1). Hurricanes 
present an immediate and ever-present threat, because they can occur at 
any time, although their occurrence is not predictable.
    Landslides and flooding adversely impact many of the species in 
this final rule (see Table 2) by destabilizing substrates, damaging and 
destroying individual plants, and altering hydrological patterns, which 
result in habitat destruction or modification and changes to native 
plant and animal communities. These threats are significant and, as 
with hurricanes, have the potential to occur at any time, although 
their occurrence is not predictable.
    The projected effects of global climate change and increasing 
temperatures on the 48 species addressed in this final rule relate to 
changes in microclimatic conditions, which may lead to the loss of 
native species due to direct physiological stress, the loss or 
alteration of habitat, or changes in disturbance regimes (e.g., storms 
and hurricanes). The probability of species going extinct increases 
when ranges are restricted, habitat decreases, and population numbers 
decline, as is the case with small populations of single-island endemic 
species. Each of the 48 Kauai species are particularly vulnerable to 
extinction because of these kinds of environmental changes. In 
addition, climate change may present a significant threat specific to 
the akekee and akikiki by causing an increase in the elevation at which 
regular transmission of avian malaria occurs, thereby reducing 
available habitat. However, because the specific effects of probable 
climate change on these species are unknown at this time, we are not 
able to determine the magnitude of this threat with confidence. Each of 
the Factor A threats are ongoing and are expected to continue or 
increase in magnitude and intensity into the foreseeable future. These 
threats are acting in concert with other threats to the species, 
magnifying the cumulative detrimental effects on the status of each of 
the 48 Kauai species identified in this rule.

B. Overutilization for Commercial, Recreational, Scientific, or 
Educational Purposes

    The palm tree Pritchardia hardyi is found only on the island of 
Kauai. Rare palm trees are highly desirable to collectors, and there is 
an active internet sales and online auction market for their seeds and 
seedlings, including P. hardyi (GardenGuides.com 2007; 
Rarepalmseeds.com 2007; South Coast Palms 2007; Kapoho Palms 2007; J.D. 
Anderson Nursery 2007; Jungle Music Palms and Cycads 2007; Tropical 
Gardens of Maui 2007). Seeds of P. hardyi have been illegally removed 
from an outplanting site in the past (R. Nishek, NTBG, pers. comm. 
2007), and we have evidence of vandalism and illegal collection of 
other species of endangered Pritchardia palms on Kauai (Johnson 1996, 
pp. 16-17; A. Kyono, DOFAW, pers. comm. 2000; R. Nishek, pers. comm. 
2007). Because this species is found in only two populations with 
limited numbers of individuals, and is vulnerable to vandalism and 
illegal collection, we consider overutilization to be an immediate and 
significant threat to P. hardyi throughout its entire range. We do not 
consider overutilization to present a threat to any of the other 47 
Kauai species.

C. Disease or Predation

Avian Diseases

    Avian diseases transmitted by the introduced southern house 
mosquito (Culex quinquefasciatus), including avian pox (Poxvirus avium) 
and malaria (Plasmodium relictum), play a major role in limiting the 
distribution of many Hawaiian forest bird species and present

[[Page 18989]]

a significant and immediate threat to the akekee and akikiki throughout 
their ranges (Benning et al. 2002, p. 14246). Like many other native 
Hawaiian forest birds, the akikiki and akekee are no longer found at 
lower elevations, and are now restricted to the higher elevation 
montane mesic and montane wet ecosystems where mosquitoes and the 
diseases they carry are less prevalent (Scott et al. 1986, pp. 367-
368). In the warmer fall months, C. quinquefasciatus breeds at higher 
densities in upper elevation forests, coinciding with a prevalence of 
malaria in avian populations at higher elevations (van Riper et al. 
1986, pp. 332-333, 338).
    Native Hawaiian birds became exposed to mosquito-borne avian 
diseases when mosquitoes were introduced to the islands in 1827 with 
imported caged birds and domestic fowl (Yorinks and Atkinson 2000, p. 
731 and references therein). Native Hawaiian forest birds are more 
susceptible to malaria than are nonnative bird species (van Riper et 
al. 1986, pp. 327-328), and native birds infected with malaria also 
show altered behaviors that increase their vulnerability to predation 
(Yorinks and Atkinson 2000, pp. 731-738). Avian malaria appears to be 
highly pathogenic for the Hawaiian honeycreepers (birds in the 
subfamily Drepanidinae), including the akikiki and akekee (Yorinks and 
Atkinson, p. 737); in a study of iiwi (Vestiaria coccinea), another 
Hawaiian honeycreeper, Atkinson et al. (1995, p. S65) described 
``extraordinarily high mortality'' of birds infected with malaria. This 
susceptibility, in combination with the observation that other Hawaiian 
honeycreepers have become restricted to high elevation forests, led 
Atkinson et al. (1995, p. S68) to predict that a shift in the current 
mosquito distribution to higher elevations could be disastrous for 
those species with already reduced populations. As discussed below 
(``Other Natural or Manmade Factors Affecting Their Continued 
Existence''), climate change may present such a threat to the akikiki 
and akekee, by potentially causing an increase in the elevation at 
which regular transmission of avian malaria occurs (Benning et al. 
2002, pp. 14246-14247). Atkinson et al. (2009, pp. 58-59) state that in 
the Alakai Wilderness Preserve, a projected 2 [deg]C temperature rise 
from global warming would reduce the forested habitat where 
transmission is currently highly seasonal to conditions where 
transmission could occur throughout the year by 85 percent.
    Disease is not known to be a threat to the 45 plants or Hawaiian 
picture-wing fly addressed in this final rule.

Predation

    Hawaii's plants and animals evolved in nearly complete isolation. 
Successful colonization of these remote volcanic islands was 
infrequent, and many organisms never established populations. As an 
example, Hawaii lacks any native ants or conifers, has very few bird 
families, and has only a single native land mammal (Loope 1998, p. 
748). Defenses against mammalian herbivory, such as thorns, prickles, 
and production of toxins, were not needed, and evolutionary pressure 
for plants to produce or maintain them was lacking. Therefore, Hawaiian 
plants lost or never developed these defenses (Carlquist 1980, p. 173). 
Likewise, birds endemic to Hawaii lost their resistance to diseases 
common to their continental origins, and strategies to avoid mammalian 
predators. Native Hawaiian birds were not able to withstand the 
stressors of habitat change and predation caused when browsers, 
grazers, rooters, and predators were introduced (e.g., goats, cattle, 
pigs, rats, cats, and deer) (Scott et al. 1986, pp. 352-361, 364-365). 
The native flora and fauna of the islands are thus particularly 
vulnerable to the impacts of introduced alien species.

Introduced Ungulates

    In addition to the habitat impacts discussed above (see ``Habitat 
destruction and modification by introduced ungulates''), the 45 plant 
species in this final rule are likely impacted by ungulates due to 
trampling and eating individual plants. This information is also 
presented in Table 2.

Feral pigs

    We have direct evidence of ungulate damage to some of these 
species, but for many, ungulate damage is presumed based on several 
studies conducted in Hawaii and elsewhere. In a study conducted by 
Diong (1982, p. 160) on Maui, feral pigs were observed browsing on 
young shoots, leaves, and fronds of a wide variety of plants, of which 
over 75 percent were endemic species (Diong 1982, p. 160). A stomach 
content analysis in this study showed that 60 percent of the pigs' food 
source consisted of the endemic Cibotium (tree fern). Pigs were 
observed to fell plants and remove the bark of the native plant species 
Clermontia, Cibotium, Coprosma, Psychotria, Scaevola, and Kadua 
(Hedyotis), resulting in larger trees being killed over a few months of 
repeated feeding (Diong 1982, p. 144). A study in Texas conducted by 
Beach (1997, pp. 3-4) revealed that feral pigs spread disease and 
parasites, and that their rooting and wallowing behavior led to 
spoilage of watering holes and loss of soil through leaching and 
erosion. Rooting activities also decreased the survivability of some 
plant species through disruption at root level of mature plants and 
seedlings (Beach 1997, pp. 3-4).

Feral goats

    Feral goats thrive on a variety of food plants, and are 
instrumental in the decline of native vegetation in many areas (Cuddihy 
and Stone 1990, p. 64). Feral goats trample roots and seedlings, cause 
erosion, and promote the invasion of alien plants. They are able to 
forage in extremely rugged terrain and have a high reproductive 
capacity (Clarke and Cuddihy 1980, p. C-20; van Riper and van Riper 
1982, pp. 34-35; Tomich 1986, pp. 153-156; Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 
64). A study of goat predation on a native Acacia koa forest on the 
island of Hawaii has shown that grazing pressure by goats can cause the 
eventual extinction of koa because it is unable to reproduce (Spatz and 
Mueller-Dombois 1973, p. 874). If goats are maintained at constantly 
high numbers, mature trees will eventually die, including the root 
systems that support suckers and vegetative reproduction. An exclosure 
analysis demonstrated that restricting goat access using fencing 
resulted in a rapid recovery in height growth and numbers of vegetative 
resprouts of koa (Spatz and Mueller-Dombois 1973, p. 873). Another 
study at Puuwaawaa on the island of Hawaii demonstrated that prior to 
management actions in 1985, regeneration of endemic shrubs and trees in 
the goat-grazed area was almost totally lacking, contributing to the 
invasion of the forest understory by exotic grasses and weeds. After 
the removal of grazing animals in 1985, koa and Metrosideros spp. 
(ohia) seedlings were observed germinating by the thousands (Department 
of Land and Natural Resources 2002, p. 52). Goats have been observed 
uprooting, eating, and trampling native plants in the Kauai ecosystems 
(e.g., K. Wood 1994; S. Perlman 2007). Based on a comparison of fenced 
and unfenced areas, it is clear that goats can devastate native 
ecosystems. They can also outcompete black-tailed deer. It is estimated 
that there can be up to 2 goats per hectare in areas in Hawaii (C. 
Kessler, pers. comm. 2008).

Black-tailed deer

    Black-tailed deer consume native vegetation, trample roots and 
seedlings, accelerate erosion, and promote the invasion of nonnative 
plants (van Riper and van Riper 1982, pp. 42-43; Stone

[[Page 18990]]

1985, pp. 261-262; Tomich 1986, pp. 132-134; Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 
67). About 350 animals are known to occur in and near Waimea Canyon, 
with some invasion into Alakai Swamp in drier periods (Cuddihy and 
Stone 1990, p. 67). According to current State records, they feed 
largely on the introduced species strawberry guava, thimbleberry, 
passion flower, and blackberry, as well as the native species Alyxia 
oliviformis (maile), Dodonaea viscosa (aalii), Dianella sandwicensis 
(ukiuki), Coprosma sp. (pilo), and Acacia koa (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, 
p. 67). Black-tailed deer affect the species and ecosystems addressed 
in this final rule by damaging native plants through browsing or 
trampling, resulting in plant mortality and the loss of reproductive 
vigor. By spreading seeds of nonnative species on their coats or in 
their digestive tracts, they also increase competition for resources 
with native species.

Rats

    There are three species of introduced rats in the Hawaiian Islands. 
The Polynesian rat (Rattus exulans) and the black rat (Rattus rattus) 
are primarily found in the wild, in dry to wet habitats, while the 
Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is typically found in manmade habitats 
such as urban areas or agricultural fields (Tomich 1986, p. 41). The 
Polynesian rat probably arrived on the Hawaiian Islands as an 
inadvertent introduction by early Polynesian colonizers from the 
central Pacific (Tomich 1986, p. 42). More recently, the black rat and 
the Norway rat most likely arrived on the Hawaiian Islands as stowaways 
on ships sometime in the 19th century (Atkinson and Atkinson 2000, p. 
25).
    Rats occur in all 6 of the Kauai ecosystems, and rat predation 
threatens at least 19 of the 45 plant species addressed in this final 
rule (see Table 2). Although introduced rats are best known for their 
impacts on island birds, rat predation on seeds and young plants can 
seriously affect regeneration. They are also known to have caused 
declines or even the total elimination of island plant species 
(Campbell and Atkinson 1999, as cited in Atkinson and Atkinson 2000, p. 
24). Rats impact the native plants by eating fleshy fruits, seeds, 
flowers, stems, leaves, roots, and other plant parts (Atkinson and 
Atkinson 2000, p. 23). On the Hawaiian Islands, rats may consume as 
much as 90 percent of the seeds produced by some trees, or in some 
cases prevent the regeneration of forest species completely (Cuddihy 
and Stone 1990, pp. 68-69). Plants with large, fleshy fruits are 
particularly susceptible to rat predation including several of the 
plant genera in this listing, for example the fruits of Pritchardia 
spp., and plants in the bellflower (e.g., Cyanea spp.) and African 
violet (e.g., Cyrtandra spp.) families (Cuddihy and Stone 1990, pp. 67-
69). Research on rats in forests in New Zealand has demonstrated that, 
over time, rats may alter the species composition of forest plants 
(Cuddihy and Stone 1990, pp. 68-69).
    Rat predation may also threaten the native host plants of 
Drosophila sharpi, and the akekee and akikiki in the montane mesic and 
montane wet ecosystems. Rats are reported in the ecosystems where these 
birds occur and are potential predators on roosting or incubating 
adults, nests, and young (VanderWerf and Smith 2002, p. 73; Scott et 
al. 1986, pp. 363-364; USFWS 2007 Candidate Status Assessments). 
Predation by rats was the greatest cause of nest failure for the 
puaiohi, or small Kauai thrush (Myadestes palmeri), an endangered bird 
that inhabits the same areas as the akekee and akikiki (Tweed et al. 
2006, p. 753). Puaiohi nest almost exclusively in pseudo-cavities on 
cliff faces (Snetsinger et al. 2005, p. 77), unlike akikiki and akekee 
that build cup nests in trees (Birds of North America Online, 2008a,b). 
Captive-raised puaiohi constructed cup nests in trees during a 1999 
captive release in the Kawaikoi, and two females and their associated 
young were killed by rats at these nests (Tweed et al. 2003, USGS/BRD, 
unpublished data). From these data and information on rat predation for 
cliff nests (Snetsinger et al. 2005, p. 79), it is apparent that 
puaiohi cliff nests and cup nests in trees are both vulnerable to rat 
predation. Although we do not have direct evidence of rat predation on 
the akekee or akikiki from nest studies, it is reasonable to assume 
that birds nesting in the same area as the puaiohi would be exposed to 
similar impacts from rat predation.

Cats and Owls

    Feral cats are present in the Alakai Swamp, which is within the 
montane wet ecosystem (Tweed et al. 2006, p. 753). Cats are believed to 
prey on roosting or incubating akekee and akikiki adults, nests, and 
young (VanderWerf and Smith 2002, p. 73; Scott et al. 1986, pp. 363-
364). Though cats are most common at lower elevations, they have been 
observed in high-elevation rain forests on Hawaii and Maui (Scott et 
al. 1986, p. 363). On Hawaii Island, native forest birds have been 
found to be a regular component in the diets of feral cats in the 
montane wet forest (Smucker et al. 2000, p. 233). Examination of the 
stomach contents of 118 feral cats at Hakalau forest found native and 
introduced birds to be the most common prey item (Banko et al. 2004, p. 
162). In addition, two species of owls, the native pueo and the 
introduced barn owl, are also known to prey on forest birds. Between 
1996 and 1998, 10 percent of nest failures of the endangered puaiohi on 
Kauai were attributed to owls (Snetsinger et al. 1994, p. 47; 
Snetsinger et al. 2005, pp. 72, 79). Since the puaiohi occurs in the 
same area and forest type as the akikiki and akekee and is of generally 
similar size, it is not unreasonable to assume there may be similar 
impacts to these bird species.

Invertebrates

    Predation by nonnative invertebrate pests adversely impacts 14 of 
the plant and animal species (see Table 2) in this final rule through 
mechanical damage to plants, destruction of plant parts, parasitism, 
and mortality. Those introduced invertebrate pests with the greatest 
effect on these native species include at least 12 different species of 
slugs (Joe 2006, pp. 6, 12), the black twig borer (Xylosandrus 
compactus) (Davis 1970, pp. 38-39),, the two-spotted leafhopper 
(Sophonia rufofascia) (Hawaii Department of Agriculture, p. 1; Fukada 
1996, pp. 1-12), and the western yellow-jacket wasp (Vespula 
pensylvanica) (Gambino and Loope 1992, p. 1).
    Predation by nonnative slugs is most likely a threat to individuals 
of the four species of Cyanea in this final rule: Cyanea dolichopoda, 
C. eleeleensis, C. kolekoleensis, and C. kuhihewa (Joe 2006, p. 10). On 
Oahu, slugs have been reported to destroy C. grimesiana ssp. obatae and 
C. superba ssp. superba in the wild, and have been observed eating 
leaves and fruit of cultivated individuals of Cyanea (L. Mehrhoff, 
pers. comm. 1995; U.S. Army Garrison 2005, pp. 3-34, 3-51). Little is 
known about the predation of certain rare plants by slugs; however, 
information in the U.S. Army's 2005 Status Report for the Makua 
Implementation Plan indicates that slugs can be a threat to all species 
of Cyanea (U.S. Army Garrison 2005, p. 3-51). Research investigating 
slug herbivory and control methods shows that slug impacts on Cyanea 
seedlings results in up to 70 to 80 percent seedling mortality (U.S. 
Army Garrison 2005, p. 3-51). Although we do not have direct evidence 
of slug predation on the four species of Cyanea addressed in this rule, 
slugs are found in the ecosystems on Kauai in which these plants occur. 
It is therefore reasonable to assume these plant species

[[Page 18991]]

would be exposed to similar impacts from slug predation.
    The black twig borer (Xylosandrus compactus) is known to infest a 
wide variety of common plant taxa, including native species of Melicope 
(Davis 1970, p. 39; Extension Entomology and UH-CTAHR Integrated Pest 
Management Program 2006a, p. 1). This insect pest burrows into 
branches, introduces a pathogenic fungus as food for its larvae, and 
lays its eggs (Davis 1970, p. 39). Twigs, branches, and even entire 
plants can be killed from an infestation (Extension Entomology and UH-
CTAHR Integrated Pest Management Program 2006a, p. 2). On the Hawaiian 
Islands, the black twig borer has many hosts, disperses easily, and is 
probably present at most elevations up to 2,500 ft (762 m) (Howarth 
1985, pp. 152-153). Damage caused by the black twig borer has been 
observed by field biologists on Canavalia napaliensis, Charpentiera 
densiflora, Melicope degeneri, M. paniculata, and M. puberula (HBMP 
2006).
    The two-spotted leafhopper is a threat as the effects of its 
predation have been observed on four plant species included in this 
final rule: Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi (K. Wood, pers. comm. 2000), 
Cyanea kuhihewa (Wood 2004), Platydesma rostrata (HBMP 2007), and 
Psychotria hobdyi (HBMP 2006). This nonnative insect damages the leaves 
it feeds on, typically causing chlorosis (yellowing due to disrupted 
chlorophyll production) to browning and death of foliage (Hawaii 
Department of Agriculture 2006, p. 1). The damage to plants can result 
in the death of affected leaves or the whole plant, owing to the 
combined action of its feeding and oviposition behavior (Alyokhin et 
al. 2004, p. 13). In addition to the mechanical damage caused by the 
feeding process, the insect may introduce plant pathogens that lead to 
eventual plant death (Extension Entomology and UH-CTAHR Integrated Pest 
Management Program 2006b, p. 2). The two-spotted leafhopper is a highly 
polyphagous (generalist) insect, and of its recorded host plant 
species, 68 percent are fruit, vegetable, and ornamental crops, and 22 
percent are endemic plants;, over half of which are rare and endangered 
(Alyokhin et al. 2004, p. 13). Its range is limited to below 4,000 ft 
(1,219 m) in elevation, unless there is a favorable microclimate. There 
has been a dramatic reduction in the two-spotted leafhopper populations 
in the past few years, possibly due to egg parasitism (M. Fukada, pers. 
comm. 2007).
    Nonnative predatory and parasitic insects are considered 
significant factors contributing to the reduction in range and 
abundance of Drosophila species in Hawaii (Science Panel 2005, p. 25). 
In addition to the accidental establishment of nonnative species, 
nonnative predators and parasites have been purposefully imported and 
released in Hawaii since 1865 for biological control of pests. Between 
1890 and 2004, 387 nonnative species were introduced, sometimes with 
the specific intent of reducing populations of native Hawaiian insects 
(Funasaki et al. 1988, pp. 109-110, 143; Lai 1988, pp. 180, 186; 
Staples and Cowie 2001, pp. 41, 54-57). Nonnative arthropods present a 
serious threat to Hawaii's native Drosophila, both through direct 
predation or parasitism as well as competition for food and space; 
therefore, these nonnative arthropods may be a threat to Drosophila 
sharpi (Howarth and Medeiros 1989, pp. 82-83; Howarth and Ramsay 1991, 
pp. 80-83; Kaneshiro and Kaneshiro 1995, pp. 41-45; Staples and Cowie 
2001, pp. 41, 54-57).
    Due to their large colony sizes and systematic foraging habits, 
species of social Hymenoptera (ants and some wasps) and parasitic wasps 
present a predation threat to the Hawaiian picture-wing flies, 
including Drosophila sharpi (Gambino et al. 1987, p. 170; Foote and 
Carson 1995, p. 370; Kaneshiro and Kaneshiro 1995, p. 12). Hawaiian 
arthropods, including D. sharpi, evolved without the predation 
influence of social wasps (Kaneshiro and Kaneshiro 1995, pp. 41-45), 
and therefore have no defenses against such predation. In 1977, an 
aggressive race of the western yellow-jacket wasp became established in 
the State of Hawaii, and is now abundant between 1,969 and 5,000 ft 
(600 and 1,524 m) in elevation (Gambino et al. 1990, p. 1,087; Foote 
and Carson 1995, p. 370) on all the main islands (Tenorio and Nishida 
1995, p. 174).
    Drosophila sharpi is present within the elevation range occupied by 
the yellow-jacket wasps, which are voracious predators in most 
ecosystems in which they are found. Compared with typical North 
American populations, yellow-jacket wasps in Hawaii display a high 
incidence of colonies that overwinter and persist into at least a 
second year. The result is that numbers of workers at such colonies are 
much greater than at annual colonies (Gambino et al. 1987, p. 169). 
Yellow-jacket wasp colonies in Hawaii can each produce over a half-
million foragers that consume tens of millions of arthropods (Gambino 
and Loope 1992, p. 19). Picture-wing flies may be particularly 
vulnerable to predation by wasps due to the flies' lekking (gathering 
in groups for breeding) behavior, conspicuous courtship displays that 
can last for several minutes, and relatively large size (K. Kaneshiro, 
University of Hawaii at Manoa, pers. comm. 2006). Yellow-jacket wasps 
are widespread within at least a portion of the range encompassing the 
D. sharpi population sites in the montane mesic and montane wet 
ecosystems on Kauai (Science Panel 2005, p. 12).
    The rarity or disappearance of numerous picture-wing fly species, 
including Drosophila sharpi, from historical observation sites over the 
past 25 years may be due to a variety of factors. While there is no 
documentation that conclusively ties this decrease in observations to 
the establishment of yellow-jacket wasps within their habitats, the 
concurrent arrival of wasps and decline of picture-wing fly 
observations in some areas suggest that the wasps may have played a 
significant role in the decline of some picture-wing fly populations, 
including that of D. sharpi (Foote and Carson 1995, p. 370; Kaneshiro 
and Kaneshiro 1995, pp. 41-45; Science Panel 2005, p. 25).

Summary of Predation

    We consider predation and parasitism by nonnative animal species 
(pigs, goats, deer, rats, and invertebrates) to present an immediate 
and significant threat to 44 of the 48 species in this final rule 
throughout their ranges for the following reasons:
    (1) Browsing and trampling by pigs, goats, and deer has been 
documented for 40 of the plant species included in this final rule 
(Astelia waialealae, Canavalia napaliensis, Chamaesyce eleanoriae, 
Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis, Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi, 
Charpentiera densiflora, Cyanea eleeleensis, Cyanea kolekokeensis, 
Cyanea kuhihewa, Cyrtandra oenobarba, Diellia mannii, Doryopteris 
angelica, Dubautia imbricata ssp. imbricata, Dubautia kalalauensis, 
Dubautia kenwoodii, Dubautia plantaginea ssp. magnifolia, Dubautia 
waialealae, Geranium kauaiense, Keysseria erici, Keysseria helenae, 
Labordia helleri, Labordia pumila, Lysimachia daphnoides, Lysmachia 
pendens, Lysmachia scopulensis, Melicope degeneri, Melicope paniculata, 
Melicope puberula, Myrsine knudsenii, Myrsine mezii, Phyllostegia 
renovans, Pittosporum napaliense, Platydesma rostrata, Pritchardia 
hardyi, Psychotria grandiflora, Psychotria hobdyi, Schiedea attenuata, 
Stenogyne kealiae, Tetraplasandra bisattenuata, and Tetraplasandra 
flynii); other studies

[[Page 18992]]

have documented the negative impacts of ungulate browsing and trampling 
on other native plant species from the Hawaiian islands (Spatz and 
Mueller-Dombois 1973, p. 874; Diong 1982, p. 160; Cuddihy and Stone 
1990, p. 67);
    (2) Mechanical damage caused by nonnative invertebrates and rats 
has been documented for 23 of the plant species in this final rule 
(Canavalia napaliensis, Chamaesyce eleanoriae, Chamaesyce remyi var. 
remyi, Charpentiera densiflora, Cyanea dolichopoda, Cyanea eleeleensis, 
Cyanea kolekokeensis, Cyanea kuhihewa, Cyrtandra oenobarba, Doryopteris 
angelica, Labordia helleri, Melicope degeneri, Melicope paniculata, 
Melicope puberula, Myrsine knudsenii, Phyllostegia renovans, 
Pittosporum napaliense, Platydesma rostrata, Pritchardia hardyi, 
Psychotria grandiflora, Psychotria hobdyi, Stenogyne kealiae, and 
Tetraplasandra bisattenuata);
    (3) Nonnative invertebrates such as yellow-jacket wasps prey upon, 
parasitize, and kill Drosophila sharpi, and rat predation likely 
impacts the larval host plants of D. sharpi; and
     (4) Rats, owls, and cats are likely predators on roosting or 
incubating adults, nests, and young of the akekee and akikiki (See 
Table 2).
    These significant threats are ongoing, acting in concert with other 
threats to the species, and are expected to continue or increase in 
magnitude and intensity into the foreseeable future without effective 
management actions to control or eradicate them.

D. The Inadequacy of Existing Regulatory Mechanisms

    Currently, there are no Federal, State, or local laws, treaties, or 
regulations that specifically conserve or protect the 48 species from 
the threats described in this final rule. The Migratory Bird Treaty Act 
(MBTA) (16 U.S.C. 703-712) is the domestic law that implements the 
United States' commitment to four international conventions (with 
Canada, Japan, Mexico, and Russia) for the protection of shared 
migratory bird resources. Each of the conventions protects selected 
species of birds. The MBTA does not provide protection for any Hawaiian 
honeycreepers (Drepanidinae), including the two species being addressed 
in this final rule (akikiki and akekee), because they belong to a group 
not expressly mentioned by the Canadian, Mexican, or Russian treaties 
(71 FR 50205; August 24, 2006). The regulatory mechanisms of the MBTA 
are directed at the taking, possession, transportation, sale, purchase, 
barter, exportation, and importation of migratory birds. Since none of 
the activities regulated under the MBTA pose a threat to either the 
akikiki or akekee, we do not consider the lack of regulatory protection 
under the MBTA to pose a threat to either of these two bird species.

E. Other Natural or Manmade Factors Affecting Their Continued Existence

Competition with Nonnative Invertebrates

    Competition by nonnative crane-flies (family Tipulidae) is a threat 
to Drosophila sharpi in the montane mesic and montane wet ecosystems on 
Kauai. The Hawaiian Islands now support several established species of 
nonnative crane-flies, and the larvae of some species feed within the 
decomposing bark of Cheirodendron spp. (Science Panel 2005, p. 18; K. 
Magnacca, pers. comm. 2005; S. Montgomery, pers. comm. 2005a). These 
tipulid larvae feed within the same portion of the decomposing host 
plant area normally occupied by D. sharpi larvae during their 
development. The effect of this competition is a reduction in available 
host plant material for D. sharpi larvae (Science Panel 2005, p. 18). 
There have been no statistical studies conducted on tipulid larvae 
competition in Hawaii, but it is thought the issue is severe based on 
many observations of very high numbers of tipulid flies present within 
the host plants of several species of Hawaiian Drosophila (S. 
Montgomery, pers. comm. 2008). In laboratory studies, Grimaldi and 
Jaenike (1984) demonstrated that competition between Drosophila larvae 
and other fly larvae can exhaust food resources, which affects both the 
probability of larval survival and the body size of adults, resulting 
in reduced adult fitness, fecundity, and lifespan.
    The nonnative yellow-jacket wasp may impact the akikiki and akekee 
through competition for the same native insect food resources. Both the 
akikiki and akekee feed primarily on insects, insect larvae, and 
spiders (Lepson and Pratt 1997, p. 4; Foster et al. 2000, p. 4). Wasp 
colonies in Hawaii do not ``overwinter'' (that is, they do not become 
dormant but remain active throughout the year), so there is a greater 
potential for the wasp colonies to become quite large (Gambino et al. 
1987, p. 169). Yellow-jacket wasp colonies in Hawaii can each produce 
over a half-million foragers that consume tens of millions of 
arthropods (Gambino and Loope 1992, p. 19). While there is no available 
data that documents the foraging habits of yellow-jacket wasps in the 
same habitat as the akikiki and akekee or that yellow-jacket wasps 
significantly threaten other species of Hawaiian birds through 
competition for the same prey, it has been suggested that this 
nonnative wasp may be a potential threat to the akikiki and akekee (D. 
LaPointe, pers. comm. 2009).

Small Number of Populations and Individuals

    Species that are endemic to single islands are inherently more 
vulnerable to extinction than widespread species because of the 
increased risk of genetic bottlenecks, random demographic fluctuations, 
climate change, and localized catastrophes such as hurricanes and 
disease outbreaks (Mangel and Tier 1994, p. 607; Pimm et al. 1998, p. 
757). These problems are further magnified when populations are few and 
restricted to a very small geographic area, and when the number of 
individuals is very small. Populations with these characteristics face 
an increased likelihood of stochastic extinction due to changes in 
demography, the environment, genetics, or other factors (Gilpin and 
Soule 1986, pp. 24-34).
    Small, isolated populations often exhibit reduced levels of genetic 
variability, which diminishes the species' capacity to adapt and 
respond to environmental changes, thereby lessening the probability of 
long-term persistence (e.g., Barrett and Kohn 1991, p. 4; Newman and 
Pilson 1997, p. 361). The problems associated with small population 
size and vulnerability to random demographic fluctuations or natural 
catastrophes are further magnified by synergistic interactions with 
other threats, such as those discussed above (Factors A-C).
    Very small plant populations may experience reduced reproductive 
vigor due to ineffective pollination or inbreeding depression. This is 
particularly true for dioecious species, such as Melicope degeneri and 
Myrsine mezii in this final rule, in which staminate (male) and 
pistillate (female) flowers occur on separate individuals. Isolated 
individuals have difficulty achieving natural pollen exchange, which 
decreases the production of viable seed. Populations are also impacted 
by demographic stochasticity, through which populations are skewed 
toward either male or female individuals by chance.
    The following 24 plant species in this final rule are threatened by 
the effects of small population size (fewer than 50 wild individuals): 
Astelia waialealae, Chamaesyce eleanoriae, Cyanea dolichopoda, C. 
eleeleensis, C.

[[Page 18993]]

kolekoleensis, C. kuhihewa, Cyrtandra paliku, Diellia mannii, 
Doryopteris angelica, Dryopteris crinalis var. podosorus, Dubautia 
kalalauensis, D. kenwoodii, Lysimachia iniki, L. pendens, L. 
scopulensis, L. venosa, Melicope degeneri, Myrsine knudsenii, M. mezii, 
Phyllostegia renovans, Psychotria grandiflora, Schiedea attenuata, 
Tetraplasandra bisattenuata, and T. flynnii. We consider these species 
threatened by small population size because:
 No viable seeds or reproduction have been observed in Astelia 
waialealae, Melicope degeneri, and Psychotria grandiflora.
 Only five individuals of Myrsine mezii are known, and this 
number has not changed over 10 years (N. Tangalin 2007b).
 Cyrtandra paliku, Dubautia kalalauensis, Lysimachia iniki, 
Schiedea attenuata, and Tetraplasandra flynnii are known only from a 
single population with fewer than 50 individuals (Wagner et al. 1994, 
p. 187; K. Wood, pers. comm. 1995; Marr and Bohm 1997, pp. 270-271; S. 
Perlman, pers. comm. 2003b; Baldwin and Carr 2005, p. 261; S. Perlman 
2006 and 2007).
 Diellia mannii is known from only one individual in the wild 
(Carr 1998, p. 8; HBMP 2007),
 Research on Pittosporum species suggests that small 
populations are susceptible to loss of genetic variation through 
inbreeding and drift (C. Gemmill, Center of Biodiversity and Ecology 
Research, pers. comm. 2009),
 Six species, Cyanea dolichopoda, C. eleeleensis, C. 
kolekoleensis, C. kuhihewa, Dubautia kenwoodii, and Lysimachia venosa, 
have not been confirmed to persist in the wild. None of these species 
are in storage or propagation, but individuals familiar with these 
species believe they may possibly remain extant and that much of their 
suitable habitat (lowland mesic, lowland wet, and wet cliff) on Kauai 
remains to be surveyed (Wood 2006, p. 11; S. Perlman 2007; S. Perlman 
and K. Wood, pers. comm. 2007; D. Burney, NTBG, pers. comm. 2009).

Summary of Other Natural or Manmade Factors Affecting Their Continued 
Existence

    The threat to Drosophila sharpi from nonnative tipulid flies is 
immediate and significant because the larvae of nonnative tipulid flies 
feed on the same host plants occupied by the larvae of D. sharpi, and 
the effect of this competition is a reduction in available host plant 
material for D. sharpi larvae. This threat occurs throughout the range 
of D. sharpi. Laboratory studies have shown that competition between 
Drosophila larvae and other fly larvae can exhaust food resources, 
which affects both the probability of larval survival and the body size 
of adults, resulting in reduced adult fitness, fecundity, and lifespan.
    The threat to at least 24 plant species in this final rule from 
limited numbers of populations and few (less than 50) individuals is 
significant and immediate for the following reasons:
    (1) These species may experience reduced reproductive vigor due to 
ineffective pollination or inbreeding depression;
    (2) They may experience reduced levels of genetic variability 
leading to diminished capacity to adapt and respond to environmental 
changes, thereby lessening the probability of long-term persistence; 
and
     (3) A single catastrophic event may result in extinction of the 
species. This threat applies to the entire range of each species.
    The nonnative yellow-jacket wasp is believed to be a potential 
threat to the akekee and akikiki through competition for the same 
native insect food resources, however we have no evidence indicating 
that competition with the nonnative yellow-jacket wasp poses a 
significant or immediate threat to the akikiki or akekee at this time.

Conclusion and Determination

    We have carefully assessed the best scientific and commercial 
information available regarding threats to each of the 48 Kauai 
species. We find that all of these species face immediate and 
significant threats throughout their ranges from the present 
destruction and modification of their habitats, primarily from feral 
ungulates and nonnative plants, and from the threatened destruction and 
modification of their habitats from hurricanes (compounded because of 
their small population sizes and limited distribution), landslides, and 
flooding. In addition, we are concerned about the effects of projected 
climate change, particularly rising temperatures and the increased 
likelihood of malarial transmission. However, we acknowledge that there 
is limited information on the specific nature of potential impacts from 
climate change to the species included in this final rule (Factor A).
    There is also immediate and significant threat of disease or 
predation, including avian diseases such as malaria that impact the 
akikiki and akekee; widespread impacts of predation and herbivory on 44 
of the species by nonnative pigs, goats, deer, rats, and invertebrates 
(Factor C); the threat of extinction due to factors associated with 
small numbers of populations and individuals; and competition from 
introduced tipulid flies for Drosophila sharpi (Factor E) (see Table 
2). In addition, the palm Pritchardia hardyi is threatened by 
overcollection (Factor B). Cats and owls are likely predators on 
roosting or incubating adults, nests, and young of the akekee and 
akikiki (Factor C). These threats are exacerbated by the species' 
inherent vulnerability to extinction from stochastic events at any time 
because of their endemism, small numbers of individuals and 
populations, and restricted habitats.
    The Act defines an endangered species as any species that is ``in 
danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its 
range.'' We find that each of these endemic species is presently in 
danger of extinction throughout its entire range, based on the 
immediacy, severity, and scope of the threats described above. Based on 
our analysis, we have no reason to believe that population trends for 
any of the species addressed in this final rule will improve, nor will 
the effects of current threats acting on the species be ameliorated in 
the foreseeable future. Therefore, on the basis of the best available 
scientific and commercial information, we are listing the following 48 
species as endangered under the Act: the plants Astelia waialealae, 
Canavalia napaliensis, Chamaesyce eleanoriae, Chamaesyce remyi var. 
kauaiensis, Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi, Charpentiera densiflora, 
Cyanea dolichopoda, Cyanea eleeleensis, Cyanea kolekoleensis, Cyanea 
kuhihewa, Cyrtandra oenobarba, Cyrtandra paliku, Diellia mannii, 
Doryopteris angelica, Dryopteris crinalis var. podosorus, Dubautia 
imbricata ssp. imbricata, Dubautia kalalauensis, Dubautia kenwoodii, 
Dubautia plantaginea ssp. magnifolia, Dubautia waialealae, Geranium 
kauaiense, Keysseria erici, Keysseria helenae, Labordia helleri, 
Labordia pumila, Lysimachia daphnoides, Lysimachia iniki, Lysimachia 
pendens, Lysimachia scopulens, Lysimachia venosa, Melicope degeneri, 
Melicope paniculata, Melicope puberula, Myrsine knudsenii, Myrsine 
mezii, Phyllostegia renovans, Pittosporum napaliense, Platydesma 
rostrata, Pritchardia hardyi, Psychotria grandiflora, Psychotria 
hobdyi, Schiedea attenuata, Stenogyne kealiae, Tetraplasandra 
bisattenuata, and Tetraplasandra flynii; the birds, akekee

[[Page 18994]]

(Loxops caeruleirostris) and akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi); and the 
insect Drosophila sharpi.
    Under the Act and our implementing regulations, a species may 
warrant listing if it is threatened or endangered throughout all or a 
significant portion of its range. Each of the 48 endemic Kauai species 
in this listing rule is highly restricted in its range, and the threats 
occur throughout its range. Therefore, we assessed the status of each 
species throughout its entire range. In each case, the threats to the 
survival of these species occur throughout the species' range and are 
not restricted to any particular portion of that range. Accordingly, 
our assessment and determination applies to each species throughout its 
entire range.

Available Conservation Measures

    Conservation measures provided to species listed as endangered or 
threatened under the Act include recognition, recovery actions, 
requirements for Federal protection, and prohibitions against certain 
activities. Recognition through listing results in public awareness and 
conservation by Federal, State, and local agencies, private 
organizations, and individuals. The Act encourages cooperation with the 
States and requires that recovery actions be carried out for all listed 
species. The protection measures required of Federal agencies and the 
prohibitions against certain activities involving listed animals and 
plants are discussed, in part, below.
    Section 7(a) of the Act, as amended, requires Federal agencies to 
evaluate their actions with respect to any species that is proposed or 
listed as endangered or threatened with respect to its critical 
habitat, if any is designated. Regulations implementing this 
interagency cooperation provision of the Act are codified at 50 CFR 
part 402. Section 7(a)(1) of the Act mandates that all Federal agencies 
shall utilize their authorities in furtherance of the purposes of the 
Act by carrying out programs for the conservation of endangered and 
threatened species listed in accordance with section 4 of the Act. 
Section 7(a)(2) of the Act requires Federal agencies to ensure that 
activities they authorize, fund, or carry out are not likely to 
jeopardize the continued existence of a listed species or result in 
destruction or adverse modification of critical habitat. If a Federal 
action may affect the continued existence of a listed species or its 
critical habitat, the responsible Federal agency must enter into 
consultation with the Service.
    For the 48 species in this rule, Federal agency actions that may 
require consultation as described in the preceding paragraph include, 
but are not limited to, actions within the jurisdiction of the Natural 
Resources Conservation Service, Fish and Wildlife Service, and branches 
of the Department of Defense (DOD).
    The Act and its implementing regulations set forth a series of 
general prohibitions and exceptions that apply to all endangered 
wildlife and plants. The prohibitions, codified at 50 CFR 17.21 and 
17.61, apply. These prohibitions, in part, make it illegal for any 
person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States to import or 
export, take, possess, transport in interstate or foreign commerce in 
the course of a commercial activity, sell or offer for sale in 
interstate or foreign commerce, or remove and reduce to possession 
listed wildlife species from areas under Federal jurisdiction. In 
addition, for plants listed as endangered, the Act prohibits the 
malicious damage or destruction on areas under Federal jurisdiction and 
the removal, cutting, digging up, or damaging or destroying of such 
plants in knowing violation of any State law or regulation, including 
State criminal trespass law. Certain exceptions to the prohibitions 
apply to agents of the Service and State conservation agencies. Federal 
listing of the species included in this rule will automatically invoke 
State listing under Hawaii's Endangered Species law and supplement the 
protection available under other State laws.
    We may issue permits to carry out otherwise prohibited activities 
involving threatened or endangered wildlife and plant species under 
certain circumstances. Regulations governing permits are codified at 50 
CFR 17.22 and 17.62 for endangered wildlife and plants, respectively. 
Such permits are available for scientific purposes and to enhance the 
propagation and survival of the species and for incidental take in 
connection with otherwise lawful activities. Requests for copies of the 
regulations regarding listed species and inquiries about prohibitions 
and permits may be addressed to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 
Ecological Services, Eastside Federal Complex, 911 N.E. 11\th\ Avenue, 
Portland, OR 97232-4181 (telephone 503-231-6158; facsimile 503-231-
6243).

Critical Habitat

    Critical habitat is defined in section 3 of the Act as:
    (1) The specific areas within the geographical area occupied by a 
species, at the time it is listed in accordance with the Act, on which 
are found those physical or biological features
    (a) Essential to the conservation of the species and
    (b) Which may require special management considerations or 
protection; and
     (2) Specific areas outside the geographical area occupied by a 
species at the time it is listed, upon a determination that such areas 
are essential for the conservation of the species.
    Conservation, as defined under section 3 of the Act, means the use 
of all methods and procedures that are necessary to bring any 
endangered or threatened species to the point at which the measures 
provided under the Act are no longer necessary.
    Critical habitat receives protection under section 7 of the Act 
through the prohibition against Federal agencies carrying out, funding, 
or authorizing the destruction or adverse modification of critical 
habitat. Section 7(a)(2) of the Act requires consultation on Federal 
actions that may affect critical habitat. The designation of critical 
habitat does not affect land ownership or establish a refuge, 
wilderness, reserve, preserve, or other conservation area. Such 
designation does not allow the government or public to access private 
lands. Such designation does not require implementation of restoration, 
recovery, or enhancement measures by the private landowner. Where a 
landowner seeks or requests Federal agency funding or authorization 
that may affect a listed species or critical habitat, the consultation 
requirements of section 7(a)(2) of the Act would apply, but even in the 
event of a destruction or adverse modification finding, the Federal 
action agency's and the applicant's obligation is not to restore or 
recover the species, but to implement reasonable and prudent 
alternatives to avoid destruction or adverse modification of critical 
habitat.
    To be included in a critical habitat designation, habitat within 
the geographic area occupied by the species at the time it was listed 
must contain the physical and biological features that are essential to 
the conservation of the species, and will be included only if those 
features may require special management considerations or protection. 
Critical habitat designations identify, to the extent known using the 
best scientific data available, habitat areas that provide essential 
life cycle needs of the species (i.e., areas on which are found those 
physical and biological features essential to the conservation of the 
species). Under the Act and our implementing regulations, we can

[[Page 18995]]

designate critical habitat in areas outside the geographical area 
occupied by the species at the time it is listed only when we determine 
that those areas are essential for the conservation of the species and 
that designation limited to those areas occupied at the time of listing 
would be inadequate to ensure the conservation of the species.
    Section 4 of the Act requires that we designate critical habitat on 
the basis of the best scientific and commercial data available. 
Further, our Policy on Information Standards Under the Endangered 
Species Act, published in the Federal Register on July 1, 1994 (59 FR 
34271), (Section 515 of the Treasury and General Government 
Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 2001 (Pub. L. 106-554; H.R. 5658)), 
and our associated Information Quality Guidelines provide criteria, 
establish procedures, and provide guidance to ensure that our decisions 
are based on the best scientific data available. They require our 
biologists, to the extent consistent with the Act and with the use of 
the best scientific data available, to use primary and original sources 
of information as the basis for recommendations to designate critical 
habitat.
    When we are determining those areas that should be designated as 
critical habitat, our primary source of information is generally the 
information developed during the listing process for the species. 
Additional information sources may include the recovery plan for the 
species, articles in peer-reviewed journals, conservation plans 
developed by States and counties, scientific status surveys and 
studies, biological assessments, or other unpublished materials and 
expert opinion or personal knowledge.
    Habitat is often dynamic, and species may move from one area to 
another over time. Furthermore, we recognize that critical habitat 
designated at a particular point in time may not include all of the 
habitat areas that we may later determine to be necessary for the 
recovery of the species. For these reasons, a critical habitat 
designation does not signal that habitat outside the designation is 
unimportant or may not be required for recovery.
    Areas that are important to the conservation of the species, but 
are outside the critical habitat designation, will continue to be 
subject to conservation actions implemented by the Service and other 
Federal agencies under section 7(a)(1) of the Act. They may also be 
subject to the regulatory protections afforded by the section 7(a)(2) 
jeopardy standard, as determined on the basis of the best available 
information at the time of the agency action. Federally funded or 
permitted projects affecting listed species outside their designated 
critical habitat areas may still result in jeopardy findings in some 
cases. Similarly, critical habitat designations made on the basis of 
the best available information at the time of designation will not 
control the direction and substance of future recovery plans, habitat 
conservation plans, or other species conservation planning efforts if 
any new information available to these planning efforts calls for a 
different outcome.
    Section 4(a)(3) of the Act, as amended, and our implementing 
regulations (50 CFR 424.12) require that, to the maximum extent prudent 
and determinable, the Secretary designate critical habitat at the time 
a species is determined to be endangered or threatened. Service 
regulations (50 CFR 424.12(a)(1)) state that designation of critical 
habitat is not prudent when one or both of the following situations 
exist: (1) The species is threatened by taking or other human activity, 
and identification of critical habitat can be expected to increase the 
degree of threat to the species, or (2) such designation of critical 
habitat would not be beneficial to the species.
    In considering the designation of critical habitat for each of the 
48 Kauai species, we have determined that there is one species, the 
palm Pritchardia hardyi, for which the designation of critical habitat 
is not prudent. Rare palm trees are highly desirable to collectors, and 
there is an active market for the seeds and seedlings of rare palms, 
including those of P. hardyi, through internet sales and online 
auctions (GardenGuides.com 2007; Rarepalmseeds.com 2007; South Coast 
Palms 2007; Kapoho Palms 2007; J.D. Anderson Nursery 2007; Jungle Music 
Palms and Cycads 2007; Tropical Gardens of Maui 2007). Seeds and entire 
plants of P. hardyi have been illegally removed from an outplanting 
site in the past (A. Kyono, pers. comm. 2000; R. Nishek, pers. comm. 
2007), and we have evidence of vandalism and illegal collection of 
other species of endangered Pritchardia palms on Kauai (Johnson 1996, 
pp. 16-17; R. Nishek, pers. comm. 2007). The designation of critical 
habitat for P. hardyi would require us to identify the geographic areas 
where the species occurs, thereby increasing the species' vulnerability 
to further unauthorized and illegal collection. Since collecting and 
vandalism is identified as a threat specific to P. hardyi in our 
threats analysis, and the designation of critical habitat for this 
species would exacerbate this ongoing threat, we have determined that 
the designation of critical habitat for P. hardyi is not prudent in 
accordance with the Act and its implementing regulations.
    With the exception of Pritchardia hardyi, we find that the 
designation of critical habitat for each of the other 47 species 
addressed in this rule will be beneficial by serving to focus 
conservation efforts on the restoration and maintenance of ecosystem 
functions that are essential for attaining the species' recovery and 
long-term viability. The designation of critical habitat also serves to 
inform management and conservation decisions by identifying any 
additional physical and biological features of the ecosystem that may 
be essential for the conservation of certain species (e.g., the 
availability of sufficient arthropod prey for the akikiki and akekee, 
or hummocks in bog systems for Astelia waialeale). We have therefore 
determined that designation of critical habitat is prudent for the 
following 47 Kauai species: (1) Plants--Astelia waialealae, Canavalia 
napaliensis, Chamaesyce eleanoriae, Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis, 
Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi, Charpentiera densiflora, Cyanea 
dolichopoda, Cyanea eleeleensis, Cyanea kolekoleensis, Cyanea kuhihewa, 
Cyrtandra oenobarba, Cyrtandra paliku, Diellia mannii, Doryopteris 
angelica, Dryopteris crinalis var. podosorus, Dubautia imbricata ssp. 
imbricata, Dubautia kalalauensis, Dubautia kenwoodii, Dubautia 
plantaginea ssp. magnifolia, Dubautia waialealae, Geranium kauaiense, 
Keysseria erici, Keysseria helenae, Labordia helleri, Labordia pumila, 
Lysimachia daphnoides, Lysimachia iniki, Lysimachia pendens, Lysimachia 
scopulensis, Lysimachia venosa, Melicope degeneri, Melicope paniculata, 
Melicope puberula, Myrsine knudsenii, Myrsine mezii, Phyllostegia 
renovans, Pittosporum napaliense, Platydesma rostrata, Psychotria 
grandiflora, Psychotria hobdyi, Schiedea attenuata, Stenogyne kealiae, 
Tetraplasandra bisattenuata, and Tetraplasandra flynii; (2) Animals--
akekee, akikiki, and Drosophila sharpi.

Methods

    As required by section 4(b) of the Act, we used the best scientific 
data available to designate critical habitat. We began our analysis by 
evaluating the following data sources:
 The known locations of the 47 species, including site-specific 
species information from the HBMP database (HBMP 2007) and our own rare 
plant database;

[[Page 18996]]

 Species information from the plant database housed at NTBG;
 The Nature Conservancy's Ecoregional Assessment of the 
Hawaiian High Islands (2006), and ecosystem maps (2007);
 Color mosaic 1:19,000 scale digital aerial photographs for the 
Hawaiian Islands (April to May 2005);
 Island-wide Geographic Information System (GIS) coverage, 
e.g., Gap Analysis Program (GAP) vegetation data 2005;
 1:24,000 scale digital raster graphics of USGS topographic 
quadrangles;
 Geospatial data sets associated with parcel data from Kauai 
County (2005);
 Designated critical habitat for listed species on the island 
of Kauai (68 FR 9116, February 27, 2003);
 Recent biological surveys and reports; and
 Discussions with qualified individuals familiar with these 
species and ecosystems (HBMP 2007; TNCH 2007; NTBG 2007).
    Based upon the best scientific data available, we determined that 
the 47 species addressed in this final rule occupy or require for their 
conservation one or more of the six ecosystems described in this rule: 
lowland mesic (TNC 2006b), lowland wet (TNC 2006c), montane mesic (TNC 
2006e), montane wet (TNC 2006f), dry cliff (TNC 2006a), and wet cliff 
(TNC 2006d).

Physical and Biological Features

    In accordance with section 3(5)(A)(i) and 4(b)(1)(A) of the Act and 
the regulations at 50 CFR 424.12, in determining which occupied areas 
to designate as critical habitat, we consider those physical and 
biological features essential to the conservation of the species that 
may require special management considerations or protection. We 
consider the physical and biological features to be the primary 
constituent elements (PCEs) laid out in the appropriate quantity and 
spatial arrangement for the conservation of the species. These include, 
but are not limited to:
    (1) Space for individual and population growth and for normal 
behavior;
    (2) Food, water, air, light, minerals, or other nutritional or 
physiological requirements;
    (3) Cover or shelter;
    (4) Sites for breeding, reproduction, rearing (or development) of 
offspring, germination, or seed dispersal; and
     (5) Habitats that are protected from disturbance or are 
representative of the historical, geographical, and ecological 
distributions of a species.
    We derive the specific PCEs for each of the 47 species based on 
their biological needs as described below and the physical and 
biological features that support the successful functioning of the 
ecosystem upon which they depend. As each species is dependent upon a 
functioning ecosystem to provide its fundamental life requirements, 
such as a certain soil type, minimum level of rainfall, or conditions 
conducive to supporting the presence of a certain species of plant for 
foraging or larval development, we considered the physical and 
biological features of the ecosystems described in this rule to be PCEs 
for each species.
    The PCEs collectively provide the suite of environmental conditions 
within each ecosystem essential to meeting the requirements of each 
species, including the appropriate microclimatic conditions for 
germination and growth of the plants (e.g., light availability, soil 
nutrients, hydrologic regime, temperature); habitat for shelter, 
foraging, nesting, and raising young in the case of the akikiki and 
akekee; larval host plants in the case of the picture-wing fly; and in 
all cases, space within the appropriate habitats for population growth 
and expansion, as well as to maintain the historical geographical and 
ecological distribution of each species. In many cases, due to our 
limited knowledge of the specific life-history requirements for these 
species that are little-studied and occur in remote or inaccessible 
areas, the generalized description of the essential physical and 
biological features that provide for the successful function of the 
ecosystem is the best--and in many cases the only--scientific 
information available.
    Table 3 identifies the PCEs of a functioning ecosystem for each of 
the ecosystem types identified in this final rule; these are termed 
``ecosystem-level PCEs.''
    Each species identified in this rule requires the ecosystem-level 
PCEs for each ecosystem in which it occurs, as identified in Table 4. 
The ecosystem-level PCEs are defined by elevation, annual levels of 
precipitation, substrate type and slope, as well as the characteristic 
native plant genera that are found in the canopy, subcanopy, and 
understory levels of the vegetative community, where applicable. Where 
further information is available that identifies specific life-history 
requirements for some species, PCEs relating to these requirements are 
described separately as ``species-specific PCEs,'' which are also 
identified in Table 4. In summary, the PCEs for each species are 
derived from the PCEs necessary for the functioning of its associated 
ecosystem(s), in combination with any additional species-specific 
requirements shown in Table 4. The ecosystem-level PCEs identified in 
Table 4 for each species are presented in detail in Table 3; Table 3 
and Table 4 read together fully describe all of the PCEs for each 
species.

                    TABLE 3--ECOSYSTEM-LEVEL PRIMARY CONSTITUENT ELEMENTS (PCEs) FOR EACH SPECIES (READ IN ASSOCIATION WITH TABLE 4)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                              Primary Constituent Elements
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                               One or More of these Associated  Native Plants (by Genus)
            Ecosystem                  Elevation            Annual             Substrate     -----------------------------------------------------------
                                                         Precipitation                              Canopy             Subcanopy          Understory
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lowland Mesic\1\                  < 3,000 ft          50-75 in            shallow soils,      Acacia, Diospyros,  Dodonaea,           Carex,
                                  (< 914 m).........  (127-190 cm)......  little to no         Metrosideros,       Freycinetia,        Dicranopteris,
                                                                           herbaceous layer.   Myrsine,            Leptecophyllya,     Diplazium,
                                                                                               Pouteria,           Melanthera,         Elaphoglossum,
                                                                                               Santalum            Osteomeles,         Peperomia
                                                                                                                   Pleomele, Psydrax
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 18997]]

 
Lowland Wet\2\                    < 3,000 ft          > 75 in             clays, ashbeds,     Antidesma,          Cibotium,           Alyxia, Cyrtandra,
                                  (< 914 m).........  (> 190 cm)........   deep well-drained   Metrosideros,       Claoxylon, Kadua,   Dicranopteris,
                                                                           soils, lowland      Myrsine, Pisonia,   Melicope            Diplazium,
                                                                           bogs                Psychotria                              Machaerina,
                                                                                                                                       Microlepia,
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Montane Mesic\3\                  3,000-5,243 ft      50-75 in            weathered aa lava,  Acacia,             Cheirodendron,      Bidens,
                                  (914-1,598 m).....  (127-190 cm)......   rocky mucks, thin   Metrosideros,       Coprosma, Kadua,    Dryopteris,
                                                                           silty loams, deep   Psychotria,         Ilex, Myoporum,     Leptecophylla,
                                                                           volcanic ash        Tetraplasandra,     Myrsine             Poa, Scaevola,
                                                                           soils               Zanthoxylum                             Sophora
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Montane Wet\4\                    3,000-5,243 ft      > 75 in             well-developed      Acacia,             Broussaisia,        Ferns, Carex,
                                  (914-1,598 m).....  (> 190 cm)........   soils, montane      Charpentiera,       Cibotium, Eurya,    Coprosma,
                                                                           bogs                Cheirodendron,      Ilex, Myrsine       Leptecophylla,
                                                                                               Metrosideros                            Oreobolus,
                                                                                                                                       Rhynchospora,
                                                                                                                                       Vaccinium
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dry Cliff\5\                      unrestricted        < 75 in             > 65[deg] slope,    none                Antidesma,          Bidens,
                                                      (< 190 cm)........   rocky talus                             Chamaesyce,         Eragrostis,
                                                                                                                   Diospyros,          Melanthera,
                                                                                                                   Dodonaea            Schiedea
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Wet Cliff\6\                      unrestricted        > 75 in             > 65[deg] slope,    none                Broussaisia,        Ferns, Bryophytes,
                                                      (> 190 cm)........  shallow soils,                           Cheirodendron,      Coprosma,
                                                                           weathered lava.                         Leptecophylla,      Dubautia, Kadua,
                                                                                                                   Metrosideros        Peperomia
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\The PCEs for species in the lowland mesic ecosystem apply to the following critical habitat units: Kauai-Lowland Mesic Units 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.
\2\The PCEs for species in the lowland wet ecosystem apply to the following critical habitat units: Kauai-Lowland Wet Units 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6.
\3\The PCEs for species in the montane mesic ecosystem apply to the following critical habitat units: Kauai-Montane Mesic Units 1, 2, and 3.
\4\The PCEs for species in the montane wet ecosystem apply to the following critical habitat units: Kauai-Montane Wet Units 1, 2, and 3.
\5\The PCEs for species in the dry cliff ecosystem apply to the following critical habitat units: Kauai-Dry Cliff Units 1 and 2.
\6\The PCEs for species in the wet cliff ecosystem apply to the following critical habitat units: Kauai-Wet Cliff Units 1, 2, and 3.


TABLE 4 - PRIMARY CONSTITUENT ELEMENTS FOR THE KAUAI SPECIES ARE A COMBINATION OF THE ECOSYSTEM-LEVEL PCEs (SEE TABLE 3) FOR THE APPLICABLE ECOSYSTEM(S)
                                                 AS WELL AS SPECIES-SPECIFIC PCEs, IF ANY ARE IDENTIFIED
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                         Ecosystem-level PCEs
           Species            ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------     Species-
                                 Lowland Mesic      Lowland Wet      Montane Mesic      Montane Wet       Dry Cliff        Wet Cliff      specific PCEs
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Plants                                                                                                                                   ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Astelia waialealae                                                                   X                                                   hummocks in
                                                                                                                                          bogs
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Canavalia napaliensis          X                                                                                                         ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chamaesyce eleanoriae          X                                                                       X                                 ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chamaesyce remyi var.                            X                                                                      X                ...............
 kauaiensis
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi    X                 X                 X                 X                                  X                ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Charpentiera densiflora        X                 X                                                                                       ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 18998]]

 
Cyanea dolichopoda                                                                                                      X                ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cyanea eleeleensis                               X                                                                                       ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cyanea kolekoleensis                             X                                                                                       ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cyanea kuhihewa                                  X                                                                                       ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cyrtandra oenobarba                              X                                                                      X                ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cyrtandra paliku                                                                                                        X                ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Diellia mannii                                                     X                                                                     ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Doryopteris angelica           X                                                                                                         ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dryopteris crinalis var.                                                             X                                                   ...............
 podosorus
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dubautia imbricata ssp.                          X                                                                                       ...............
 imbricata
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dubautia kalalauensis                                                                X                                                   ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dubautia kenwoodii             X                                                                                                         ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dubautia plantaginea ssp.                                                                                               X                ...............
 magnifolia
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dubautia waialealae                                                                  X                                                   bogs
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Geranium kauaiense                                                                   X                                                   bogs
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Keysseria erici                                                                      X                                                   bogs
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Keysseria helenae                                                                    X                                                   bogs
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Labordia helleri               X                 X                 X                 X                                                   ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Labordia pumila                                                                      X                                                   bogs
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lysimachia daphnoides                                                                X                                                   hummocks in
                                                                                                                                          bogs
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lysimachia iniki                                                                                                        X                ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lysimachia pendens                                                                                                      X                ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lysimachia scopulensis                                                                                 X                                 ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lysimachia venosa                                                                                                       X                ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Melicope degeneri                                                                    X                                                   ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Melicope paniculata                              X                                                                                       ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Melicope puberula                                X                                   X                                                   ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Myrsine knudsenii                                                  X                                                                     ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Myrsine mezii                                                      X                 X                                                   ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Phyllostegia renovans                            X                                   X                                                   ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pittosporum napaliense         X                                                                                                         ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Platydesma rostrata            X                 X                 X                 X                                  X                ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Psychotria grandiflora                                             X                 X                                                   ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 18999]]

 
Psychotria hobdyi              X                                                                                                         ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Schiedea attenuata                                                                                     X                                 ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Stenogyne kealiae                                X                 X                                   X                                 ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tetraplasandra bisattenuata    X                 X                                                                                       ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tetraplasandra flynnii                           X                 X                 X                                                   ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Animals                                                                                                                                  ...............
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Akekee                                                             X                 X                                                   arthropod prey
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Akikiki                                                            X                 X                                                   arthropod prey
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Drosophila sharpi                                                  X                 X                                                   larval host
                                                                                                                                          plants
                                                                                                                                          Cheirodendron
                                                                                                                                          sp.,
                                                                                                                                          Tetraplasandra
                                                                                                                                          sp.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Many of the species addressed in this final rule occur in more than 
one ecosystem. The PCEs for these species are described separately for 
each ecosystem in which they occur, because each species requires a 
different suite of environmental conditions depending upon the 
ecosystem in which it occurs. For example, Stenogyne kealiae requires a 
different level of annual precipitation, occurs on different soil types 
and slopes, and is associated with different native plant species in 
the dry cliff ecosystem, compared to those physical and biological 
features in the lowland wet and montane mesic ecosystems where it also 
occurs. All of the primary constituent elements described for each 
ecosystem in which a species occurs are essential in maintaining the 
species' geographical and ecological distribution across the different 
ecosystem types in which it occurs. The PCEs are also essential in 
retaining genetic representation that allows this species to 
successfully adapt to different environmental conditions in various 
native ecosystems. Although these species are adaptable enough to occur 
in multiple native ecosystems, their declining abundance in light of 
ongoing threats is evidence that they are not broad habitat generalists 
and are unable to persist in highly altered habitats. Based on the best 
available information, functioning native ecosystems are necessary to 
provide the fundamental biological requirements for all of these 
species.
    Some examples may help to clarify our approach to describing the 
PCEs for each individual species. To determine the PCEs for the plant 
Cyanea dolichopoda, one would review Table 4 and observe that the PCEs 
for C. dolichopoda are provided by the ecosystem-level PCEs for the wet 
cliff ecosystem. Referring back to Table 3 indicates that the PCEs for 
the wet cliff ecosystem include no restrictions on elevation; annual 
precipitation greater than 75 inches (190.5 cm); shallow soils or 
weathered lava at greater than 65 degree slope; no canopy vegetation; 
subcanopy that includes native plants in the genera Broussaisia, 
Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, and Metrosideros; and an understory of 
native plants including ferns, bryophytes, and representatives of the 
genera Coprosma, Dubautia, Kadua, and Peperomia.
    As there are no species-specific PCEs identified for C. 
dolichopoda, and this plant is found only in the wet cliff ecosystem, 
the ecosystem-level PCEs for the wet cliff ecosystem describe the PCEs 
for C. dolichopoda in their entirety.
    As another example, Table 4 indicates that the PCEs for the 
picture-wing fly Drosophila sharpi include the ecosystem-level PCEs for 
the montane mesic and montane wet ecosystems, and also that this 
species has an additional species-specific PCE, the presence of larval 
host plants in the genera Cheirodendron and Tetraplasandra. The PCEs 
for D. sharpi are thus composed of the PCEs for each of the two 
ecosystems it occupies, as described in Table 3 for the montane mesic 
and montane wet ecosystems, as well as the larval host plants 
Cheirodendron and Tetraplasandra. Table 4 is read in a similar fashion 
in conjunction with Table 3 to describe the PCEs for each of the 47 
species for which we are designating critical habitat in this final 
rule.

Criteria Used to Identify Critical Habitat

    We considered several factors in determining the specific 
boundaries for critical habitat for these 47 species. We are 
designating critical habitat on lands that contain the physical and 
biological features essential to conserving multiple species, based on 
their shared dependence on the functioning ecosystems they have in 
common. Because each of the six ecosystems addressed in this rule does 
not form a single contiguous area, the ecosystems are divided into 22 
geographic subunits that we refer to as ``sections.'' Compliance with 
Federal Register publication requirements required that we subdivide 
the ecosystem areas presented here into smaller subunits so they could 
be correlated with the existing critical habitat units previously 
published in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). This was necessary 
because much of the critical habitat for the plant species in this 
final rule overlies critical habitat already designated for other 
plants on the island of Kauai. The reference to ecosystem

[[Page 19000]]

``sections'' in this rule is primarily intended to emphasize 
conservation focused on the contiguous ecosystem areas of interest in 
this final rule. However, especially for purposes of section 7 
consultation, it must be recognized that multiple critical habitat 
units actually make up these sections. Further details on this approach 
are presented under the ``Critical Habitat Designation,'' section 
below.
    The critical habitat we are designating in this final rule includes 
areas currently occupied by a species in a particular ecosystem, as 
well as areas that may be currently unoccupied by that species within 
that ecosystem. Because of the extremely remote and inaccessible nature 
of the area, surveys are relatively infrequent and may be limited in 
scope. Therefore, it is difficult to determine the presence or absence 
of individual representatives of a rare species with certainty. 
Occupied areas provide the physical and biological features essential 
to the conservation of the species that occur there by providing for 
the successful functioning of the ecosystem on which they depend. 
Because of the small population sizes, few numbers of individuals, and 
reduced geographic range of each of the 47 species for which we are 
designating critical habitat in this rule, we have determined that 
limiting critical habitat designation to occupied areas would be 
inadequate to provide for their conservation.
    Areas not known to be occupied (i.e., unoccupied areas) are 
essential for the conservation and recovery of the species because they 
provide the physical and biological features necessary for the 
expansion and/or reestablishment of wild populations within the 
historic range. We are designating unoccupied habitat with no known 
occupied habitat for six of the plant species in this final rule: 
Cyanea dolichopoda, C. eleeleensis, C. kolekoleensis, C. kuhihewa, 
Dubautia kenwoodii, and Lysimachia venosa. Although these species have 
not recently been documented at their last observed locations, the 
designation of unoccupied critical habitat is essential for their 
recovery for the reasons stated above. Critical habitat boundaries were 
delineated in a manner that will promote the recovery and conservation 
of these species by protecting the functioning ecosystems on which they 
depend.
    With the exception of the six plant species described above, all of 
the critical habitat units in these ecosystems contain some areas that 
are occupied by a species and some areas that are currently unoccupied, 
but have been determined to be essential for the conservation of that 
species. As discussed above, because of the small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes, each of the 47 species requires 
suitable habitat and space for the expansion of existing populations 
for recovery. For example, although Platydesma rostrata is found in 
multiple critical habitat units in 5 ecosystem types, only 
approximately 100 individuals comprise this entire distribution. 
Therefore, the unoccupied areas within each unit are essential to 
provide for the expansion of this species to viable population numbers 
and to maintain its historical geographical and ecological 
distribution.
    We used current and historical species location information to 
develop preliminary critical habitat boundaries (polygons) in each of 
the 6 ecosystems that individually and collectively provide for the 
conservation of the 47 species addressed in this rule. We superimposed 
the polygons over digital topographic maps of the island of Kauai and 
and further evaluated the results. We removed land areas that were 
identified as highly degraded from the designated critical habitat 
units, and we used natural or manmade features (e.g., ridge lines, 
valleys, streams, coastlines, roads, obvious land features) to 
delineate the critical habitat boundaries.
    The critical habitat areas described below constitute our best 
assessment of the physical and biological features essential for the 
recovery and conservation of the 47 species and the habitat that are 
essential for population reestablishment or expansion. The approximate 
size of each of the 22 critical habitat ecosystem sections and the 
status of their land ownership is identified in Table 5. The species 
that currently occupy each of the 22 sections are identified by 
ecosystem type in Table 6, which also identifies the sections that have 
been designated as unoccupied habitat for the 6 species that have not 
been observed in the wild at their last documented locations.

              Table 5.--Critical Habitat for 47 Kauai Species (totals may not sum due to rounding)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                Land ownership (acres)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                          Corresponding critical
                                       Size of      Size of                               habitat units and maps
       Critical habitat area          section in   section in     State       Private     in the Code of Federal
                                        acres       hectares                                Regulations (CFR)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                              Kauai--Lowland Mesic
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--Section 1                                2,007          812        2,007            0  Plants: 50 CFR 17.99,
                                                                                          Unit 11, Map 66a
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--Section 2                                  379          154          379            0  Plants: 50 CFR 17.99,
                                                                                          Unit 11, Map 66a
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--Section 3                                  124           50          124            0  Plants: 50 CFR 17.99,
                                                                                          Unit 11, Map 66a
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--Section 4                                   81           33           81            0  Plants: 50 CFR 17.99,
                                                                                          Unit 11, Map 66a
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--Section 5                                   37           15            0           37  Plants: 50 CFR 17.99,
                                                                                          Unit 7, Map 23a
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
TOTAL Lowland Mesic                        2,628        1,064        2,590           37  .......................
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                               Kauai--Lowland Wet
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--Section 1                                1,164          471          117        1,047  Plants: 50 CFR 17.99,
                                                                                          Unit 11, Map 70a; Unit
                                                                                          20, Map 217c.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--Section 2                                  172           70          172            0  Plants: 50 CFR 17.99,
                                                                                          Unit 11, Map 70a
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 19001]]

 
--Section 3                                  756          306            0          756  Plants: 50 CFR 17.99,
                                                                                          Unit 11, Map 70a
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--Section 4                                  591          239           10          581  Plants: 50 CFR 17.99,
                                                                                          Unit 11, Map 70a
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--Section 5                                1,541          624          442        1,099  Plants: 50 CFR 17.99,
                                                                                          Unit 10, Map 36a
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--Section 6                                  789          319          134          655  Plants: 50 CFR 17.99,
                                                                                          Unit 10, Map 36a
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
TOTAL Lowland Wet                          5,013        2,029          875        4,138  .......................
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                              Kauai--Montane Mesic
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--Section 1                                2,421          980        2,421            0  Plants: 50 CFR 17.99,
                                                                                          Unit 11, Map 70c.
                                                                                          Akekee and Akikiki: 50
                                                                                          17.95(b), Unit 1 -
                                                                                          Montane Mesic. Picture-
                                                                                          wing fly: 50 CFR
                                                                                          17.95(i), Unit 1 -
                                                                                          Montane Mesic.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--Section 2                                  376          152          376            0  Plants: 50 CFR 17.99,
                                                                                          Unit 11, Map 70c; Unit
                                                                                          21, map 217d. Akekee
                                                                                          and Akikiki: 50 CFR
                                                                                          17.95(b), Unit 2 -
                                                                                          Montane Mesic.
                                                                                         Picture-wing fly: 50
                                                                                          CFR 17.95(i), Unit 2 -
                                                                                          Montane Mesic.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--Section 3                                  138           56          138            0  Plants: 50 CFR 17.99,
                                                                                          Unit 22, Map 217e.
                                                                                          Akekee and Akikiki: 50
                                                                                          CFR 17.95(b), Unit 3 -
                                                                                          Montane Mesic.
                                                                                         Picture-wing fly: 50
                                                                                          CFR 17.95(i), Unit 3 -
                                                                                          Montane Mesic.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
TOTAL Montane Mesic                        2,935        1,188        2,935            0  .......................
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                               Kauai--Montane Wet
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--Section 1                               13,055        5,283       12,628          427  Plants: 50 CFR 17.99,
                                                                                          Unit 10, Map 35a; Unit
                                                                                          11, Map 74a; Unit 23,
                                                                                          Map 217f; Unit 24, Map
                                                                                          217g, Unit 25, Map
                                                                                          217h. Akekee and
                                                                                          Akikiki: 50 CFR
                                                                                          17.95(b), Unit 4 -
                                                                                          Montane Wet. Picture-
                                                                                          wing fly: 50 CFR
                                                                                          17.95(i), Unit 4 -
                                                                                          Montane Wet.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--Section 2                                  790          320          790            0  Plants: 50 CFR 17.99,
                                                                                          Unit 11, Map 64a.
                                                                                          Akekee and Akikiki: 50
                                                                                          CFR 17.95(b), Unit 5 -
                                                                                          Montane Wet.
                                                                                         Picture-wing fly: 50
                                                                                          CFR 17.95(i), Unit 5 -
                                                                                          Montane Wet.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--Section 3                                  413          167          156          257  Plants: 50 CFR 17.99,
                                                                                          Unit 11, Map 64a.
                                                                                          Akekee and Akikiki: 50
                                                                                          CFR 17.95(b), Unit 6 -
                                                                                          Montane Wet.
                                                                                         Picture-wing fly: 50
                                                                                          CFR 17.95(i), Unit 6 -
                                                                                          Montane Wet.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
TOTAL Montane Wet                         14,258        5,770       13,574          684  .......................
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                Kauai--Dry Cliff
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--Section 1                                  404          163          404            0  Plants: 50 CFR 17.99,
                                                                                          Unit 11, Map 67a.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--Section 2                                  309          125          309            0  Plants: 50 CFR 17.99,
                                                                                          Unit 11, map 67a.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
TOTAL Dry Cliff                              713          288          713            0  .......................
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                Kauai--Wet Cliff
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--Section 1                                  190           77          190            0  Plants: 50 CFR 17.99,
                                                                                          Unit 11, Map 70b.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--Section 2                                  784          317          778            7  Plants: 50 CFR 17.99,
                                                                                          Unit 10, Map 36b; Unit
                                                                                          18, Map 217a.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--Section 3                                   61           24            8           53  Plants: 50 CFR 17.99,
                                                                                          Unit 4, Map 5a; Unit
                                                                                          19, Map 217b.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
TOTAL Wet Cliff                            1,035          418          976           60  .......................
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
TOTAL ALL SECTIONS                        26,582       10,757       21,666        4,918  .......................
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


[[Page 19002]]


                                      Table 6.- SPECIES FOR WHICH CRITICAL HABITAT IS DESIGNATED IN EACH ECOSYSTEM
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                  Critical Habitat Units
             Species             -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                     Lowland Mesic        Lowland Wet        Montane Mesic        Montane Wet          Dry Cliff           Wet Cliff
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Plants                                                                                                                                ..................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Astelia waialealae                                                                            X                                       ..................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Canavalia napaliensis             X                                                                                                   ..................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chamaesyce eleanoriae             X                                                                               X                   ..................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis                      X                                                                               X
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi       X                   X                   X                   X                                       X
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Charpentiera densiflora           X                   X                                                                               ..................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cyanea dolichopoda*                                                                                                                   X
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cyanea eleeleensis*                                   X                                                                               ..................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cyanea kolekoleensis*                                 X                                                                               ..................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cyanea kuhihewa*                                      X                                                                               ..................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cyrtandra oenobarba                                   X                                                                               X
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cyrtandra paliku                                                                                                                      X
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Diellia mannii                                                            X                                                           ..................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Doryopteris angelica              X                                                                                                   ..................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dryopteris crinalis var.                                                                      X                                       ..................
 podosorus
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dubautia imbricata ssp.                               X                                                                               ..................
 imbricata
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dubautia kalalauensis                                                                         X                                       ..................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dubautia kenwoodii*               X                                                                                                   ..................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dubautia plantaginea ssp.                                                                                                             X
 magnifolia
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dubautia waialealae                                                                           X                                       ..................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Geranium kauaiense                                                                            X                                       ..................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Keysseria erici                                                                               X                                       ..................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Keysseria helenae                                                                             X                                       ..................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Labordia helleri                  X                   X                   X                   X                                       ..................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Labordia pumila                                                                               X                                       ..................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lysimachia daphnoides                                                                         X                                       ..................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lysimachia iniki                                                                                                                      X
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lysimachia pendens                                                                                                                    X
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lysimachia scopulensis                                                                                            X                   ..................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lysimachia venosa*                                                                                                                    X
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Melicope degeneri                                                                             X                                       ..................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Melicope paniculata                                   X                                                                               ..................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Melicope puberula                                     X                                       X                                       ..................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Melicope knudsenii                                                        X                                                           ..................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Myrsine mezii                                                             X                   X                                       ..................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 19003]]

 
Phyllostegia renovans                                 X                                       X                                       ..................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pittosporum napaliense            X                                                                                                   ..................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Platydesma rostrata               X                   X                   X                   X                                       X
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Psychotria grandiflora                                                    X                   X                                       ..................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Psychotria hobdyi                 X                                                                                                   ..................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Schiedea attenuata                                                                                                X                   ..................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Stenogyne kealiae                                     X                   X                                       X                   ..................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tetraplasandra bisattenuata       X                   X                                                                               ..................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tetraplasandra flynnii                                X                   X                   X                                       ..................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Animals                                                                                                                               ..................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi)                                               X                   X                                       ..................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Akekee (Loxops caeruleirostris)                                           X                   X                                       ..................
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Picture-wing fly (Drosophila                                              X                   X                                       ..................
 sharpi)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Species with an asterisk are those that, to the best of our knowledge, may no longer occur naturally in the wild, therefore there is no known occupied
  critical habitat for these species. The critical habitat units for these species have been determined to be essential to the conservation of the
  species because the area provides for the reestablishment of populations within the species' historical range.

    When determining critical habitat boundaries within this final 
rule, we made every effort to avoid including developed areas such as 
lands covered by buildings, pavement, and other structures because such 
lands lack the physical and biological features essential for the 
conservation of the 47 species. The scale of the maps we prepared under 
the parameters for publication within the Code of Federal Regulations 
may not reflect the exclusion of such developed areas. Any such lands 
inadvertently left inside critical habitat boundaries shown on the maps 
of this final rule have been excluded by text in the rule and are not 
designated as critical habitat. Therefore, a Federal action involving 
these lands would not trigger section 7 consultation with respect to 
critical habitat unless the specific action would affect the PCEs in 
the adjacent critical habitat.

Special Management Considerations or Protections

    When designating critical habitat, we assess whether the specific 
areas within the geographical area occupied by the species at the time 
of listing contains the physical or biological features essential to 
the conservation of the species that may require special management 
considerations or protection. It is recognized that activities in and 
adjacent to areas designated as critical habitat may affect one or more 
of the PCEs found in these areas. Special management is needed 
throughout each of the designated critical habitat units. The following 
discussion of special management needs is applicable to each of the 47 
Kauai species for which we are designating critical habitat.
    These 47 Kauai species include 41 species that are currently found 
in the wild, and 6 species that are not currently extant in the wild. 
For each of the 41 Kauai species found in the wild, we have determined 
that the features essential to their conservation are primarily 
dependent on maintaining the successful functioning of the ecosystem(s) 
in which they occur (Tables 3 and 4). In some cases, additional 
species-specific primary constituent elements have also been identified 
(Table 4). Special management considerations or protections are 
necessary throughout the critical habitat areas designated here to 
avoid further degradation or destruction of the habitat that provides 
those features essential to their conservation. The primary threats to 
the physical and biological features essential to the conservation of 
all of these species include habitat destruction and modification by 
feral ungulates, predation by nonnative species, competition with 
nonnative species, hurricanes, landslides, flooding, and climate 
change. The reduction of these threats will require the implementation 
of special management actions within each of the critical habitat areas 
identified in this final rule.
    All designated critical habitat in this rule requires active 
management to address the ongoing degradation and loss of native 
habitat caused by feral ungulates (pigs, goats, and black-tailed deer). 
Feral ungulates also impact the habitat through predation and 
trampling. The State of Hawaii provides game mammal (feral pigs and 
goats, and black-tailed deer) hunting opportunities on one or more 
State-designated public hunting areas on the islands of Kauai, Oahu, 
Maui, Molokai, Lanai, and Hawaii (Hawaii Administrative Rules 13-123; 
DLNR 2009a). Management of game animals by the State ranges from 
providing maximal sustained public hunting opportunities and benefits 
(e.g., ``sustained yield'') in some areas to game animal removal by 
State staff, or their designees, in other areas (DLNR 2009b). Public 
hunting areas are not fenced, and game mammals have unrestricted access 
to most areas across the landscape, regardless of the underlying land 
use designation. While fences are sometimes built to provide protection 
from game

[[Page 19004]]

mammals to the natural resources within the fenced area, the current 
number and locations of fences are not sufficient to prevent habitat 
destruction and degradation. Without special management, the features 
that are essential for the conservation of these species will continue 
to be degraded and destroyed.
    All designated critical habitat in this rule requires active 
management to address the ongoing degradation and loss of native 
habitat caused by nonnative plants. Special management is also required 
to prevent the introduction of new alien plant species into native 
habitats. Particular attention is required in nonnative plant control 
efforts to avoid creating additional disturbances that may facilitate 
the further introduction and establishment of invasive plant seeds. 
Precautions are also required to avoid the inadvertent trampling of 
listed plant species in the course of management activities. The active 
control of nonnative plant species will help to address the threat 
presented by fire to three critical habitat areas in particular 
(Kauai--Lowland Mesic--Section 1, Kauai--Montane Mesic--Section 2, and 
Kauai--Dry Cliff--Section 1; see Table 5 for corresponding CFR unit 
numbers). This threat is primarily due to the presence of nonnative 
species, such as the grasses Andropogon sp. and Setaria sp., which 
increase the fuel load and quickly regenerate after a fire. These 
species can outcompete native plants that are not adapted to fire, 
creating a grass-fire cycle that alters ecosystem functions (D'Antonio 
and Vitousek 1992, pp. 64-66; Brooks et al. 2004, p. 680).
    In addition, five sections (Kauai--Dry Cliff--Section 1, Kauai--Dry 
Cliff--Section 2, Kauai--Wet Cliff--Section 1, Kauai--Wet Cliff--
Section 2, and Kauai--Wet Cliff--Section 3; see Table 5 for 
corresponding CFR unit numbers) may require special management to 
reduce the threat of landslides and flooding, which threaten to further 
degrade the habitat conditions and have the potential to eliminate some 
species in their entirety (e.g., Schiedea attenuata).
    In summary, we find that each of the areas we are designating as 
critical habitat contains features essential to the conservation of the 
species that may require special management considerations or 
protection to ensure the conservation of the 47 Kauai species. These 
special management considerations and protections are required to 
preserve and maintain the essential features provided to these species 
by the ecosystems upon which they depend. A more detailed discussion of 
each of these threats is presented above, under the Summary of Factors 
Affecting the Species section.

Critical Habitat Designation

    We are designating critical habitat in 6 ecosystem types for 47 
species; including 12 critical habitat units for the plants, 6 critical 
habitat units for the birds, and 6 critical habitat units for the 
picture-wing fly (see Table 5, above, for details). In total, 
approximately 26,582 ac (10,757 ha) of lands under State and private 
ownership fall within the boundaries of this critical habitat 
designation; 25,988 ac (10,517 ha), or 98 percent is within areas 
already designated as critical habitat for other listed species. The 
critical habitat units described below constitute our best assessment 
of those areas that meet the definition of critical habitat for the 47 
species of plants and animals.
    Because 98 percent of the designated critical habitat for the 
plants overlies critical habitat already designated for other plant 
species on the island of Kauai, we have incorporated the maps of the 
ecosystem areas identified in this final rule into the existing 
critical habitat unit numbering system established for plants on the 
island of Kauai in the Code of Federal Regulations (50 CFR 
17.99(a)(1)).
    This required further subdividing some of the ecosystem areas we 
identified as ``sections'' into units that correspond to both existing 
and new critical habitat unit numbers and map numbers as published in 
the CFR. The maps and area descriptions that follow represent the 6 
essential ecosystem areas we have identified as being essential for the 
conservation of each of the 47 species, which have been subdivided into 
22 sections. For the 44 plant species, the critical habitat unit 
numbers that collectively represent these ecosystem areas and the 
corresponding map numbers that will be published at 50 CFR 17.99(a)(1) 
are presented to provide a crosswalk with the CFR (see text below and 
figures 1A through 6C). Critical habitat for each of the three3 animal 
species is published in a separate section of the CFR (50 CFR 17.95(b) 
for the akekee and akikiki; 50 CFR 17.95(i) for the picture-wing fly), 
and thus have separate critical habitat unit numbers and map numbers. 
These numbers are also provided in each of the critical habitat 
descriptions below for reference in the CFR.
    We present a brief description of each critical habitat unit and 
the reasons why it meets the definition of critical habitat below.

Kauai--Lowland Mesic--Section 1

    Lowland Mesic-Section 1 consists of 2,006 ac (812 ha) in the 
lowland mesic ecosystem, including mesic forest extending from 
Awaawapuhi Trail south to Makaha Ridge, in the Na Pali Kona Forest 
Reserve and the Kuia NAR (Figure 1-A).
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[[Page 19006]]

    The entire section is State-owned and within previously designated 
critical habitat; it falls within Critical Habitat Unit 11 of 50 CFR 
17.99(a)(1), Map 66a. This section is occupied by the plants 
Doryopteris angelica, Labordia helleri, Platydesma rostrata and 
Psychotria hobdyi, and includes mesic forest, the moisture regime, and 
canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified as 
PCEs in the lowland mesic ecosystem (Table 3). This section also 
contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of 
these four species by providing the physical and biological features 
necessary for the expansion of the existing wild populations. Although 
Lowland Mesic-Section 1 is not known to be occupied by the species 
Canavalia napaliensis, Chamaesyce eleanoriae, Chamaesyce remyi var. 
remyi, Charpentiera densiflora, Dubautia kenwoodii, Pittosporum 
napaliense, and Tetraplasandra bisattenuata, we have determined this 
area to be essential for the conservation and recovery of these lowland 
mesic species because it provides the physical and biological features 
necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within their 
historic range. Due to the small numbers of individuals or low 
population sizes of each of these species, each requires suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve recovery.

Kauai--Lowland Mesic--Section 2

    Lowland Mesic-Section 2 consists of 379 ac (154 ha) in the lowland 
mesic ecosystem, including mesic forest extending from Keanapuka to 
Kahuamaa Flat along the rim and cliffs of the Kalalau Valley, in the Na 
Pali Coast State Park (Figure 1-A, above). The entire section is State-
owned and within previously designated critical habitat; it falls 
within Critical Habitat Unit 11 of 50 CFR 17.99(a)(1), Map 66a. This 
section is occupied by the plants Canavalia napaliensis, Chamaesyce 
eleanoriae, C. remyi var. remyi, Charpentiera densiflora, Pittosporum 
napaliense, and Psychotria hobdyi, and includes mesic forest, the 
moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant 
species identified as PCEs in the lowland mesic ecosystem (Table 3).
    This section also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to 
the conservation of these six species by providing the physical and 
biological features necessary for the expansion of the existing wild 
populations. Although Lowland Mesic-Section 2 is not known to be 
occupied by the species Doryopteris angelica, Dubautia kenwoodii, 
Labordia helleri, Platydesma rostrata, and Tetraplasandra bisattenuata, 
we have determined this area to be essential for the conservation and 
recovery of these lowland mesic species because it provides the 
physical and biological features necessary for the reestablishment of 
wild populations within their historical range. Due to the small 
numbers of individuals or low population sizes of each of these 
species, each requires suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction to achieve recovery.

Kauai--Lowland Mesic--Section 3

    Lowland Mesic-Section 3 consists of 124 ac (50 ha) in the lowland 
mesic ecosystem, including mesic forest extending from Manono Ridge, 
Pohakuao Valley, to Kanakuu, within the Na Pali Coast State Park 
(Figure 1-A, above). The entire section is State-owned and within 
previously designated critical habitat; it falls within Critical 
Habitat Unit 11 of 50 CFR 17.99(a)(1), Map 66a. This section is 
occupied by the plants Canavalia napaliensis, Chamaesyce eleanoriae, 
and Charpentiera densiflora, and includes mesic forest, the moisture 
regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant species 
identified as PCEs in the lowland mesic ecosystem (Table 3). This 
section also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of these three species by providing the physical and 
biological features necessary for the expansion of the existing wild 
populations. Although Lowland Mesic-Section 3 is not known to be 
occupied by the species Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi, Doryopteris 
angelica, Dubautia kenwoodii, Labordia helleri, Pittosporum napaliense, 
Platydesma rostrata, Psychotria hobdyi, and Tetraplasandra 
bisattenuata, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these lowland mesic species because it 
provides the physical and biological features necessary for the 
reestablishment of wild populations within their historic range. Due to 
the small numbers of individuals or low population sizes of each of 
these species, each requires suitable habitat and space for expansion 
or reintroduction to achieve recovery.

Kauai--Lowland Mesic--Section 4

    Lowland Mesic-Section 4 consists of 81 ac (33 ha) in the lowland 
mesic ecosystem, including mesic forest at the head of the Hanakapiai 
Valley, in the Na Pali Coast State Park (Figure 1-A, above). The entire 
section is State-owned and within previously designated critical 
habitat; it falls within Critical Habitat Unit 11 of 50 CFR 
17.99(a)(1), Map 66a. This section is occupied by the plant 
Charpentiera densiflora and includes mesic forest, the moisture regime, 
and canopy, subcanopy, and understory native plant species identified 
as PCEs in the lowland mesic ecosystem (Table 3). This section also 
contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of 
this species by providing the physical and biological features 
necessary for the expansion of the existing wild population. Although 
Lowland Mesic-Section 4 is not known to be occupied by the species 
Canavalia napaliensis, Chamaesyce eleanoriae, Chamaesyce remyi var. 
remyi, Doryopteris angelica, Dubautia kenwoodii, Labordia helleri, 
Pittosporum napaliense, Platydesma rostrata, Psychotria hobdyi, and 
Tetraplasandra bisattenuata, we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these lowland mesic 
species because it provides the physical and biological features 
necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within their 
historic range. Due to the small numbers of individuals or low 
population sizes of each of these species, each requires suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve recovery.

Kauai--Lowland Mesic--Section 5

    Lowland Mesic-Section 5 consists of 37 ac (15 ha) in the lowland 
mesic ecosystem, including mesic forest on the slopes of Mt. Haupu, on 
privately owned land (Figure 1-B).
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[[Page 19007]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR13AP10.001


[[Page 19008]]


     The entire section is within previously designated critical 
habitat, and falls within Critical Habitat Unit 7 of 50 CFR 
17.99(a)(1), Map 23a. This section is occupied by the plants Chamaesyce 
remyi var. remyi and Tetraplasandra bisattenuata, and includes mesic 
forest and shrubland, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and understory 
native plant species identified as PCEs in the lowland mesic ecosystem 
(Table 3). This section also contains unoccupied habitat that is 
essential to the conservation of these two species by providing the 
physical and biological features necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although Lowland Mesic-Section 5 is not 
known to be occupied by the species Canavalia napaliensis, Chamaesyce 
eleanoriae, Charpentiera densiflora, Doryopteris angelica, Dubautia 
kenwoodii, Labordia helleri, Pittosporum napaliense, Platydesma 
rostrata, and Psychotria hobdyi, we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these lowland mesic 
species because it provides the physical and biological features 
necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within their 
historic range. Due to the small numbers of individuals or low 
population sizes of each of these species, each requires suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve recovery.

Kauai--Lowland Wet--Section 1

    Lowland Wet-Section 1 consists of 1,164 ac (471 ha) in the lowland 
wet ecosystem (117 ac (47.4 ha) on State land; 1,047 ac (424 ha) on 
private land), including wet forest extending from Kulanalilia into 
Limahuli Valley to Honoonapali, in the Halelea Forest Reserve (Figure 
2-A).

[[Page 19009]]

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[[Page 19010]]

    The section includes 1,099 ac (445 ha) of State and privately owned 
land within previously designated critical habitat and 65 ac (26 ha) of 
newly designated critical habitat on private land. The area that falls 
within designated critical habitat lies within Critical Habitat Unit 11 
of 50 CFR 17.99(a)(1), Map 70a, and newly designated Critical Habitat 
Unit 20, Map 217c. This section is occupied by the plants Chamaesyce 
remyi var. remyi, Charpentiera densiflora, Labordia helleri, and 
Phyllostegia renovans. This section also contains unoccupied habitat 
that is essential to the conservation of these four species by 
providing the physical and biological features necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. This section includes the 
lowland wet forest, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and 
understory plant species identified as PCEs in the lowland wet 
ecosystem (Table 3). Although Lowland Wet-Section 1 is not known to be 
occupied by the species Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis, Cyanea 
eleeleensis, C. kolekoleensis, C. kuhihewa, Cyrtandra oenobarba, 
Dubautia imbricata ssp. imbricata, Melicope paniculata, M. puberula, 
Platydesma rostrata, Stenogyne kealiae, Tetraplasandra bisattenuata, 
and T. flynnii, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these lowland wet species because it 
provides the physical and biological features necessary for the 
reestablishment of wild populations within their historic range. Due to 
the small numbers of individuals or low population sizes of each of 
these species, each requires suitable habitat and space for expansion 
or reintroduction to achieve recovery.

Kauai--Lowland Wet--Section 2

    Lowland Wet-Section 2 consists of 172 ac (70 ha) in the lowland wet 
ecosystem, including wet forest extending from Alealau to Pohakea, 
within the Hono o Na Pali NAR and the Na Pali Coast State Park (Figure 
2-A, above). The entire section is State-owned and within previously 
designated critical habitat; it falls within Critical Habitat Unit 11 
of 50 CFR 17.99(a)(1), Map 70a, and is occupied by the plant Melicope 
puberula. This section also contains unoccupied habitat that is 
essential to the conservation of this species by providing the physical 
and biological features necessary for the expansion of the existing 
wild population. This section includes the lowland wet forest, the 
moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory plant species 
identified as PCEs in the lowland wet ecosystem (Table 3). Although 
Lowland Wet-Section 2 is not known to be occupied by the species 
Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis, C. remyi var. remyi, Charpentiera 
densiflora, Cyanea eleeleensis, C. kolekoleensis, C. kuhihewa, 
Cyrtandra oenobarba, Dubautia imbricata ssp. imbricata, Labordia 
helleri, Melicope paniculata, Phyllostegia renovans, Platydesma 
rostrata, Stenogyne kealiae, Tetraplasandra bisattenuata, and T. 
flynii, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these lowland wet species because it 
provides the physical and biological features necessary for the 
reestablishment of wild populations within their historic range. Due to 
the small numbers of individuals or low population sizes of each of 
these species, each requires suitable habitat and space for expansion 
or reintroduction to achieve recovery.

Kauai--Lowland Wet--Section 3

    Lowland Wet-Section 3 consists of 756 ac (306 ha) in the lowland 
wet ecosystem, including wet forest in upper Wainiha Valley, on 
privately owned land in the Halelea Forest Reserve (Figure 2-B).
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[[Page 19012]]

    The entire section is within previously designated critical 
habitat, falling within Critical Habitat Unit 11 of 50 CFR 17.99(a)(1), 
Map 70a, and is occupied by the plants Chamaesyce remyi var. 
kauaiensis, Cyrtandra oenobarba, Melicope puberula, Phyllostegia 
renovans, and Stenogyne kealiae. This section also contains unoccupied 
habitat that is essential to the conservation of these five species by 
providing the physical and biological features necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. This section includes the 
lowland wet forest, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and 
understory plant species identified as PCEs in the lowland wet 
ecosystem (Table 3). Although Lowland Wet-Section 3 is not known to be 
occupied by the species Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi, Charpentiera 
densiflora, Cyanea eleeleensis, C. kolekoleensis, C. kuhihewa, Dubautia 
imbricata ssp. imbricata, Labordia helleri, Melicope paniculata, 
Platydesma rostrata, Tetraplasandra bisattenuata, and T. flynii, we 
have determined this area to be essential for the conservation and 
recovery of these lowland wet species because it provides the physical 
and biological features necessary for the reestablishment of wild 
populations within their historic range. Due to the small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes of each of these species, each 
requires suitable habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to 
achieve recovery.

Kauai--Lowland Wet--Section 4

    Lowland Wet-Section 4 consists of 591 ac (239 ha) in the lowland 
wet ecosystem, including wet forest at the head of Lumahai Valley, on 
State (10 ac, 4.1 ha) and privately owned (581 ac, 235 ha) land in the 
Halelea Forest Reserve (Figure 2-B, above). The entire section is 
within previously designated critical habitat, falling within Critical 
Habitat Unit 11 of 50 CFR 17.99(a)(1), Map 70a, and is occupied by the 
plants Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi, Cyrtandra oenobarba, Melicope 
paniculata, Phyllostegia renovans, and Platydesma rostrata. This 
section also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of these five species by providing the physical and 
biological features necessary for the expansion of the existing wild 
populations. This section includes the lowland wet forest, the moisture 
regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory plant species identified 
as PCEs in the lowland wet ecosystem (Table 3). Although Lowland Wet-
Section 4 is not known to be occupied by the species Chamaesyce remyi 
var. kauaiensis, Charpentiera densiflora, Cyanea eleeleensis, C. 
kolekoleensis, C. kuhihewa, Dubautia imbricata ssp. imbricata, Labordia 
helleri, Melicope puberula, Stenogyne kealiae, Tetraplasandra 
bisattenuata, and T. flynii, we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these lowland wet 
species because it provides the physical and biological features 
necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within their 
historic range. Due to the small numbers of individuals or low 
population numbers of each of these species, each requires suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve recovery.

Kauai--Lowland Wet--Section 5

    Lowland Wet-Section 5 consists of 1,541 ac (624 ha) in the lowland 
wet ecosystem, including wet forest extending from the headwaters of 
the Wailua River at ``Blue Hole'' south to Iole, on State (442 ac, 179 
ha) and privately owned (1,099 ac, 445 ha) land in the Lihue-Koloa 
Forest Reserve (Figure 2-C).
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    The entire section is within previously designated critical 
habitat, falling within Critical Habitat Unit 10 of 50 CFR 17.99(a)(1), 
Map 36a, and is occupied by the plants Cyrtandra oenobarba, Dubautia 
imbricata ssp. imbricata, Melicope paniculata, Phyllostegia renovans, 
and Platydesma rostrata. This section also contains unoccupied habitat 
that is essential to the conservation of these five5 species by 
providing the physical and biological features necessary for the 
expansion of the existing wild populations. This section includes the 
lowland wet forest, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy and 
understory plant species identified as PCEs in the lowland wet 
ecosystem (Table 3). Although Lowland Wet-Section 5 is not known to be 
occupied by the species Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis, C. remyi var. 
remyi, Charpentiera densiflora, Cyanea eleeleensis, C. kolekoleensis, 
C. kuhihewa, Labordia helleri, Melicope puberula, Stenogyne kealiae, 
Tetraplasandra bisattenuata, and T. flynii, we have determined this 
area to be essential for the conservation and recovery of these lowland 
wet species because it provides the physical and biological features 
necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within their 
historic range. Due to the small numbers of individuals or low 
population sizes of each of these species, each requires suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve recovery.

Kauai--Lowland Wet--Section 6

    Lowland Wet-Section 6 consists of 789 ac (319 ha) in the lowland 
wet ecosystem, including wet forest extending from Kapalaoa to Kanaele 
Bog and Lauahihaihai in the Wahiawa Mountains, on State (134 ac, 54 ha) 
and privately owned (655 ac, 265 ha) land in the Lihue-Koloa Forest 
Reserve (Figure 2-D).

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    The entire section is within previously designated critical 
habitat, falling within Critical Habitat Unit 10 of 50 CFR 17.99(a)(1), 
Map 36a, and is occupied by the plants Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi, 
Cyrtandra oenobarba, Dubautia imbricata ssp. imbricata, Platydesma 
rostrata, and Tetraplasandra bisattenuata. This section also contains 
unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of these five 
species by providing the physical and biological features necessary for 
the expansion of the existing wild populations. This section includes 
the lowland wet forest, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and 
understory plant species identified as PCEs in the lowland wet 
ecosystem (Table 3). Although Lowland Wet-Section 6 is not known to be 
occupied by the species Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis, Charpentiera 
densiflora, Cyanea eleeleensis, C. kolekoleensis, C. kuhihewa, Labordia 
helleri, Melicope paniculata, M. puberula, Phyllostegia renovans, 
Stenogyne kealiae, and Tetraplasandra flynii, we have determined this 
area to be essential for the conservation and recovery of these lowland 
wet species because it provides the physical and biological features 
necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within their 
historic range. Due to the small numbers of individuals or low 
population sizes of each of these species, each requires suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve recovery.

Kauai--Montane Mesic--Section 1

    Montane Mesic-Section 1 consists of 2,423 ac (980 ha) in the 
montane mesic ecosystem, including the area above Honopu Valley to 
Mahanaloa Valley, on State owned land in Kokee State Park, the Na Pali-
Kona Forest Reserve, and Kuia NAR (Figure 3-A).

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    The entire section is within previously designated critical habitat 
for the plant species, falling within Critical Habitat Unit 11 of 50 
CFR 17.99(a)(1), Map 70c, and is occupied by the plants Chamaesyce 
remyi var. remyi, Labordia helleri, Myrsine knudsenii, Platydesma 
rostrata, Psychotria grandiflora, Stenogyne kealiae, and Tetraplasandra 
flynii. This section is also occupied by the akekee and the picture-
wing fly; maps of critical habitat for these species can be found at 50 
CFR 17.95(b) for the akekee and akikiki (Unit 1-Montane Mesic), and at 
50 CFR 17.95(i) for the picture-wing fly (Unit 1-Montane Mesic). This 
section also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to the 
conservation of these nine species by providing the physical and 
biological features necessary for the expansion of the existing wild 
populations. This section includes the montane mesic forest, the 
moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory plant species 
identified as PCEs in the montane mesic ecosystem (Table 3), as well as 
species-specific PCEs for the akekee and akikiki (arthropod prey) and 
picture-wing fly (the larval-stage host plants, Cheirodendron sp. and 
Tetraplasandra sp.). Although Montane Mesic-Section 1 is not known to 
be occupied by the species Diellia mannii, Myrsine mezii, and the 
akikiki, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these montane mesic species because it 
provides the physical and biological features necessary for the 
reestablishment of wild populations within their historic range. Due to 
the small numbers of individuals or low population sizes of each of 
these species, each requires suitable habitat and space for expansion 
or reintroduction to achieve recovery.

Kauai--Montane Mesic--Section 2

    Montane Mesic-Section 2 consists of 376 ac (152 ha) in the montane 
mesic ecosystem and includes a portion of the area surrounding a 
tributary of Nawaimaka Stream east to Kumuwela Ridge (Figure 3-A, 
above). The entire section is State-owned within Kokee State Park, and 
includes 8 ac (3 ha) of newly designated critical habitat. This section 
is occupied by Diellia mannii and the picture-wing fly Drosophila 
sharpi, and includes the montane mesic forest, the moisture regime, and 
canopy, subcanopy, and understory plant species identified as PCEs in 
the montane mesic ecosystem (Table 3), as well as the larval-stage host 
plants (Cheirodendron sp. and Tetraplasandra sp.) associated with the 
picture-wing fly. This section also contains unoccupied habitat that is 
essential to the conservation of these two species by providing the 
physical and biological features necessary for the expansion of the 
existing wild populations. Although Montane Mesic-Section 2 is not 
known to be occupied by the plants Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi, 
Labordia helleri, Myrsine knudsenii, Myrsine mezii, Platydesma 
rostrata, Psychotria grandiflora, Stenogyne kealiae, and Tetraplasandra 
flynnii, or by the birds the akekee and akikiki, we have determined 
this area to be essential for the conservation and recovery of these 
montane mesic species because it provides the physical and biological 
features necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within 
their historical range, as well as species-specific PCEs for the akekee 
and akikiki (arthropod prey). Due to the small numbers of individuals 
or low population sizes of each of these species, each requires 
suitable habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve 
recovery.
    For the plants, that portion of the section that overlies 
previously designated critical habitat falls within Critical Habitat 
Unit 11 of 50 CFR 17.99(a)(1), Map 70c. The previously undesignated 
land comprises Critical Habitat Unit 21 of 50 CFR 17.99(a)(1), Map 
217d. Maps of critical habitat for the akekee and akikiki can be found 
at 50 CFR 17.95(b) (Unit 2-Montane Mesic), and for the picture-wing fly 
at 50 CFR 17.95(i) (Unit 2-Montane Mesic).

Kauai--Montane Mesic--Section 3

    Montane Mesic-Section 3 consists of 139 ac (56 ha) in the montane 
mesic ecosystem, including the upper portion of the Nawaimaka Valley up 
to Kapukapaia Ridge, on State-owned land in the Na Pali-Kona Forest 
Reserve (Figure 3-B).
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     This section is not in previously designated critical habitat and 
includes the only montane mesic forest occupied by the plant Myrsine 
mezii, and the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and understory 
plant species identified as PCEs in the montane mesic ecosystem (Table 
3). This section also contains unoccupied habitat that is essential to 
the conservation of this species by providing the physical and 
biological features necessary for the expansion of the existing wild 
population. Although Montane Mesic-Section 3 is not known to be 
occupied by the plants Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi, Labordia helleri, 
Myrsine knudsenii, Myrsine mezii, Platydesma rostrata, Psychotria 
grandiflora, Stenogyne kealiae, and Tetraplasandra flynnii; by the 
birds the akekee and akikiki; or by the picture-wing fly Drosophila 
sharpi, we have determined this area to be essential for the 
conservation and recovery of these montane mesic species because it 
provides the physical and biological features necessary for the 
reestablishment of wild populations within their historic range. It 
also provides for the species-specific PCEs for the akekee and akikiki 
(arthropod prey) and the larval-stage host plants (Cheirodendron sp. 
and Tetraplasandra sp.) associated with D. sharpi. Due to the small 
numbers of individuals or low population sizes of each of these 
species, each requires suitable habitat and space for expansion or 
reintroduction to achieve recovery.
    For the plants, this section comprises Critical Habitat Unit 22 of 
50 CFR 17.99(a)(1), Map 217e. Maps of critical habitat for the akekee 
and akikiki can be found at 50 CFR 17.95(b) (Unit 3-Montane Mesic), and 
for the picture-wing fly at 50 CFR 17.95(i) (Unit 3-Montane Mesic).

Kauai--Montane Wet--Section 1

    Montane Wet-Section 1 consists of 13,055 ac (5,257 ha) in the 
montane wet ecosystem, extending across the Alakai Plateau from Hanakoa 
to Mount Waialeale, on State (12,628 ac, 5,110 ha) and privately owned 
(427 ac, 173 ha) land in the Na Pali Coast State Park, the Alakai 
Wilderness Preserve, the Na Pali-Kona and Halelea forest reserves, and 
Hono o Na Pali NAR (Figure 4).

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    It is occupied by the plants Astelia waialealae, Chamaesyce remyi 
var. remyi, Dryopteris crinalis var. podosorus, Dubautia waialealae, 
Geranium kauaiense, Keysseria erici, K. helenae, Labordia helleri, L. 
pumila, Lysimachia daphnoides, Melicope degeneri, M. puberula, Myrsine 
mezii, Phyllostegia renovans, and Platydesma rostrata; by the akekee 
and akikiki; and by the picture-wing fly. This section also contains 
unoccupied habitat that is essential to the conservation of these 18 
species by providing the physical and biological features necessary for 
the expansion of the existing wild populations. This section includes 
the montane wet forest, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy, and 
understory plant species identified as PCEs in the montane wet 
ecosystem (Table 3), and the species-specific PCEs including (1) bogs 
(identified as PCEs for Dubautia waialealae, Geranium kauaiense, 
Keysseria erici, Keysseria helenae, Labordia pumila) (2) bog hummocks 
(identified as PCEs for Astelia waialealae and Lysimachia daphnoides); 
(3) arthropod prey (identified as PCEs for the akekee and the akikiki); 
and (4) larval-stage host plants, Cheirodendron and Tetraplasandra sp., 
(identified as a PCE for the picture-wing fly). Although Montane Wet-
Section 1 is not known to be occupied by the plants Dubautia 
kalalauensis, Psychotria grandiflora, and Tetraplasandra flynnii, we 
have determined this area to be essential for the conservation and 
recovery of these montane wet species because it provides the physical 
and biological features necessary for the reestablishment of wild 
populations within their historical range. Due to the small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes of each of these species, each 
requires suitable habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to 
achieve recovery.
    For the plants, those portions of the section that overlie 
previously designated critical habitat fall within two existing 
Critical Habitat Units of 50 CFR 17.99(a)(1): Unit 10, Map 35a; and 
Unit 11, Map 64a. The previously undesignated land comprises Unit 23, 
Map 217f; and Unit 24, Map 217g. Maps of critical habitat for the 
akekee and akikiki can be found at 50 CFR 17.95(b) (Unit 4-Montane 
Wet), and for the picture-wing fly Drosophila sharpi at 50 CFR 17.95(i) 
(Unit 4-Montane Wet).

Kauai--Montane Wet--Section 2

    Montane Wet-Section 2 consists of 790 ac (320 ha) in the montane 
wet ecosystem, extending from Kahuamaa Flat south to the edge of Waimea 
Canyon, on State-owned land in Kokee State Park (Figure 4, above). The 
entire section is within previously designated critical habitat, and is 
occupied by the plants Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi, Dubautia 
kalalauensis, Labordia helleri, Melicope puberula, Platydesma rostrata, 
Psychotria grandiflora, and Tetraplasandra flynii, and by the akekee. 
This section includes montane wet forest, potentially some small-scale 
boggy areas, the moisture regime, and canopy, subcanopy and understory 
plant species identified as PCEs in the montane wet ecosystem (Table 
3), and arthropod prey (identified as a species-specific PCE for the 
akekee). Although Montane Wet-Section 2 is not known to be occupied by 
the plants Astelia waialeale, Dryopteris crinalis var. podosorus, 
Dubautia waialeale, Geranium kauaiense, Keysseria erici, Keysseria 
helenae, Labordia pumila, Lysimachia daphnoides, Melicope degeneri, 
Myrsine mezii, and Phyllostegia renovans; by the akikiki; or by the 
picture-wing fly, Drosophila sharpi, we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these montane wet 
species because it provides the physical and biological features 
necessary for the reestablishment of wild populations within their 
historical range. This area also supports the arthropod prey identified 
as a PCE for the akikiki, and the larval-stage host plants 
(Cheirodendron and Tetraplasandra spp.) identified as a PCE for the 
picture-wing fly. Due to the small numbers of individuals or low 
population sizes of each of these species, each requires suitable 
habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve recovery.
    For the plants, critical habitat falls within previously designated 
Critical Habitat Unit 11 of 50 CFR 17.99(a)(1), Map 64a. Maps of 
critical habitat for the akekee and akikiki can be found at 50 CFR 
17.95(b) (Unit 5-Montane Wet), and for the picture-wing fly Drosophila 
sharpi at 50 CFR 17.95(i) (Unit 5-Montane Wet).

Kauai--Montane Wet--Section 3

    Montane Wet-Section 3 consists of 413 ac (167 ha) in the montane 
wet ecosystem, encompasses the summit of Namolokama, on State (156 ac, 
63 ha) and privately owned (257 ac, 104 ha) land in the Halelea Forest 
Reserve (Figure 4, above). It is entirely within previously designated 
critical habitat, and is occupied by the plants Keysseria erici and 
Labordia pumila. This section includes the montane wet forest, the 
moisture regime, and the canopy, subcanopy, and understory plant 
species identified as PCEs in the montane wet ecosystem (Table 3), and 
bogs (identified as a species-specific PCE for K. erici). Although 
Montane Wet-Section 3 is not known to be occupied by the plants Astelia 
waialeale, Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi, Dryopteris crinalis var. 
podosorus, Dubautia kalalauensis, D. waialeale, Geranium kauaiense, 
Keysseria helenae, Labordia helleri, Lysimachia daphnoides, Melicope 
degeneri, M. puberula, Myrsine mezii, Phyllostegia renovans, Platydesma 
rostrata, Psychotria grandiflora, and Tetraplasandra flynnii; by the 
akekee and akikiki; or by the picture-wing fly, Drosophila sharpi, we 
have determined this area to be essential for the conservation and 
recovery of these montane wet species because it provides the physical 
and biological features necessary for the reestablishment of wild 
populations within their historic range. It also supports the arthropod 
prey identified as a PCE for the akekee and akikiki, and the larval-
stage host plants (Cheirodendron and Tetraplasandra spp.) identified as 
a PCE for the picture-wing fly. Due to the small numbers of individuals 
or low population sizes of each of these species, each requires 
suitable habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve 
recovery.
    For the plants, critical habitat falls within Critical Habitat Unit 
11 of 50 CFR 17.99(a)(1), Map 64a. Maps of critical habitat for the 
akekee and akikiki can be found at 50 CFR 17.95(b) (Unit 6-Montane 
Wet), and for the picture-wing fly Drosophila sharpi at 50 CFR 17.95(i) 
(Unit 6-Montane Wet).

Kauai--Dry Cliff--Section 1

    Dry Cliff-Section 1 consists of 404 ac (163 ha) in the dry cliff 
ecosystem, along cliffs from Kalanu to Pihea peak, within the Na Pali 
Coast State Park (Figure 5).
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    The entire section is within previously designated critical habitat 
and is State-owned; it falls within Critical Habitat Unit 11 of 50 CFR 
17.99(a)(1), Map 67a. This section is occupied by the plants Chamaesyce 
eleanoriae, Lysimachia scopulensis, Schiedea attenuata, and Stenogyne 
kealiae. This section includes the dry cliffs, the moisture regime, and 
subcanopy and understory plant species identified as PCEs in the dry 
cliff ecosystem (Table 3).

Kauai--Dry Cliff--Section 2

    Dry Cliff-Section 2 consists of 309 ac (125 ha) in the dry cliff 
ecosystem, including cliffs and ridges extending from Kanakou to 
Keanapuka and along Manono Ridge, surrounding the hanging valley 
Pohakuao, in the Na Pali Coast State Park (Figure 5, above). The entire 
section is State-owned and within previously designated critical 
habitat; it falls within Critical Habitat Unit 11 of 50 CFR 
17.99(a)(1), Map 67a. This section is occupied by the plant Chamaesyce 
eleanoriae and includes the dry cliffs, the moisture regime, and 
subcanopy and understory plant species identified as PCEs in the dry 
cliff ecosystem (Table 3). Although Dry Cliff - Section 3 is not known 
to be occupied by the plants Lysimachia scopulensis, Schiedea 
attenuata, and Stenogyne kealiae, we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these dry cliff species 
because it provides the physical and biological features necessary for 
the reestablishment of wild populations within their historic range of 
the species. Due to the small numbers of individuals or low population 
sizes of each of these species, each requires suitable habitat and 
space for expansion or reintroduction to achieve recovery.

Kauai--Wet Cliff--Section 1

    Wet Cliff-Section 1 consists of 190 ac (77 ha) in the wet cliff 
ecosystem, including cliffs along the rim of Kalalau Valley from 
Alealeau to Pihea, on State-owned land in the Na Pali Coast State Park 
and the Hono o Na Pali NAR (Figure 6-A).

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    The entire section is within previously designated critical 
habitat, falling within Critical Habitat Unit 11 of 50 CFR 17.99(a)(1), 
Map 70b, and is occupied by the plant Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi. This 
section includes the wet cliffs, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and 
understory plant species identified as PCEs in the wet cliff ecosystem 
(Table 3). Although Wet Cliff-Section 1 is not known to be occupied by 
the plants Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis, Cyanea dolichopoda, 
Cyrtandra oenobarbara, C. paliku, Dubautia plantaginea ssp. magnifolia, 
Lysimachia iniki, L. pendens, L. venosa, and Platydesma rostrata, we 
have determined this area to be essential for the conservation and 
recovery of these wet cliff species because it provides the physical 
and biological features necessary for the reestablishment of wild 
populations within their historical range. Due to the small numbers of 
individuals or low population sizes of each of these species, each 
requires suitable habitat and space for expansion or reintroduction to 
achieve recovery.

Kauai--Wet Cliff--Section 2

    Wet Cliff-Section 2 consists of 784 ac (317 ha) in the wet cliff 
ecosystem, and includes the cliffs at the headwaters of the Wailua 
River or ``Blue Hole,'' on State (778 ac, 315 ha) and privately owned 
(6 ac, 3 ha) land in the Lihue-Koloa Forest Reserve (Figure 6-B).

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    There are 489 ac (198 ha) within previously designated critical 
habitat and 296 ac (120 ha) of newly designated critical habitat on 
State-owned land. The portion of the section that is in previously 
designated critical habitat falls within Critical Habitat Unit 10 of 50 
CFR 17.99(a)(1), Map 36b. The newly designated portion of the section 
comprises Critical Habitat Unit 18 of 50 CFR 17.99(a)(1), Map 217a. 
This section is occupied by the plants Chamaesyce remyi var. 
kauaiensis, Cyrtandra oenobarba, Dubautia plantaginea ssp. magnifolia, 
Lysimachia iniki, L. pendens, and Platydesma rostrata. The section 
includes the wet cliffs, the moisture regime, and subcanopy and 
understory plant species identified as PCEs in the wet cliff ecosystem 
(Table 3). Although Wet Cliff-Section 2 is not known to be occupied by 
the plants Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi, Cyanea dolichopoda, Cyrtandra 
paliku, and Lysimachia venosa, we have determined this area to be 
essential for the conservation and recovery of these wet cliff species 
because it provides the physical and biological features necessary for 
the reestablishment of wild populations within their historic range. 
Due to the small numbers of individuals or low population sizes of each 
of these species, each requires suitable habitat and space for 
expansion or reintroduction to achieve recovery.

Kauai--Wet Cliff--Section 3

    Wet Cliff -Section 3 consists of 61 ac (24 ha) in the wet cliff 
ecosystem, including cliffs below Kekoiki, on State (8 ac, 3 ha) and 
privately owned (53 ac, 22 ha) land in the Halelea, Moloaa and Kealia 
forest reserves (Figure 6-C).

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    There are 23 ac (9 ha) of newly designated critical habitat on 
privately owned land within this section. That portion of the section 
that falls within previously designated critical habitat is within 
Critical Habitat Unit 4 of 50 CFR 17.99(a)(1), Map 5a. The newly 
designated portion of the section comprises Critical Habitat Unit 19 of 
50 CFR 17.99(a)(1), Map 217b. This section is occupied by the plant 
Cyrtandra paliku, and includes the wet cliffs, the moisture regime, and 
subcanopy and understory plant species identified as PCEs in the wet 
cliff ecosystem (Table 3). Although Wet Cliff-Section 3 is not known to 
be occupied by the plants Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis, C. remyi 
var. remyi, Cyanea dolichopoda, Cyrtandra oenobarbara, Dubautia 
plantaginea ssp. magnifolia, Lysimachia iniki, L. pendens, L. venosa, 
and Platydesma rostrata, we have determined this area to be essential 
for the conservation and recovery of these wet cliff species because it 
provides the physical and biological features necessary for the 
reestablishment of wild populations within their historic range. Due to 
the small numbers of individuals or low population sizes of each of 
these species, each requires suitable habitat and space for expansion 
or reintroduction to achieve recovery.

Effects of Critical Habitat Designation

Section 7 Consultation

    Section 7(a)(2) of the Act requires Federal agencies, including the 
Service, to ensure that actions they fund, authorize, or carry out are 
not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of listed species or 
destroy or adversely modify critical habitat. Decisions by the Fifth 
and Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals have invalidated our definition of 
``destruction or adverse modification'' (50 CFR 402.02) (see Gifford 
Pinchot Task Force v. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 378 F. 3d 1059 
(9\th\ Cir. 2004) and Sierra Club v. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, et 
al., 245 F.3d 434, 442F (5\th\ Cir. 2001)), and we do not rely on this 
regulatory definition when analyzing whether an action is likely to 
destroy or adversely modify critical habitat. Under the statutory 
provisions of the Act, we determine destruction or adverse modification 
on the basis of whether, with implementation of the proposed Federal 
action, the affected critical habitat would remain functional (or 
retain those physical and biological features that relate to the 
ability of the area to support the species) to serve its intended 
conservation role for the species.
    If a species is listed or critical habitat is designated, section 
7(a)(2) of the Act requires Federal agencies to ensure that activities 
they authorize, fund, or carry out are not likely to jeopardize the 
continued existence of the species or to destroy or adversely modify 
its critical habitat. If a Federal action may affect a listed species 
or its critical habitat, the responsible Federal agency (action agency) 
must enter into consultation with us. As a result of this consultation, 
we issue either:
    (1) A concurrence letter for Federal actions that may affect, but 
are not likely to adversely affect, listed species or critical habitat; 
or
     (2) A biological opinion for Federal actions that may affect, and 
are likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat.
    When we issue a biological opinion concluding that a project is 
likely to jeopardize the continued existence of a listed species or 
destroy or adversely modify critical habitat, we also provide 
reasonable and prudent alternatives to the project, if any are 
identifiable. We define ``reasonable and prudent alternatives'' at 50 
CFR 402.02 as alternative actions identified during consultation that:
    (1) Can be implemented in a manner consistent with the intended 
purposes of the action,
    (2) Can be implemented consistent with the scope of the Federal 
agency's legal authority and jurisdiction,
    (3) Are economically and technologically feasible, and
     (4) Would, in the Director's opinion, avoid jeopardizing the 
continued existence of the listed species or destroying or adversely 
modifying critical habitat.
    Reasonable and prudent alternatives can vary from slight project 
modifications to extensive redesign or relocation of the project. Costs 
associated with implementing a reasonable and prudent alternative are 
similarly variable.
    Regulations at 50 CFR 402.16 require Federal agencies to reinitiate 
consultation on previously reviewed actions in instances where we have 
listed a new species or subsequently designated critical habitat that 
may be affected and the Federal agency has retained discretionary 
involvement or control over the action (or the agency's discretionary 
involvement or control is authorized by law). Consequently, Federal 
agencies may sometimes need to request reinitiation of consultation 
with us on actions for which formal consultation has been completed, if 
those actions with discretionary involvement or control may affect 
subsequently listed species or designated critical habitat.
    Federal activities that may affect the species included in this 
final rule or their designated critical habitat require section 7(a)(2) 
consultation under the Act. Activities on State, local government, or 
private lands requiring a Federal permit (such as a permit from the 
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers under section 404 of the Clean Water Act 
(33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.) or a permit from us under section 10 of the 
Act) or involving some other Federal action (such as funding from the 
Federal Highway Administration, Federal Aviation Administration, or the 
Federal Emergency Management Agency) are subject to the section 7 
consultation process. Federal actions not affecting listed species or 
critical habitat, and actions on State, local government, or private 
lands that are not federally funded, authorized, or permitted, do not 
require section 7 consultations.

Application of the ``Adverse Modification'' Standard

    The key factor related to the adverse modification determination is 
whether, with implementation of the proposed Federal action, the 
affected critical habitat would continue to serve its intended 
conservation role for the species, or retain those PCEs that relate to 
the ability of the area to support the species. The role of critical 
habitat is to support the life history needs of the 47 species 
identified in this final rule and provide for their conservation.
    Section 4(b)(8) of the Act requires us to briefly evaluate and 
describe, in any proposed or final regulation that designates critical 
habitat, activities involving a Federal action that may destroy or 
adversely modify such habitat, or that may be affected by such 
designation. Activities that, when carried out, funded, or authorized 
by a Federal agency, may destroy or adversely modify critical habitat 
for the 47 species, and therefore should result in consultation 
include, but are not limited to:
     (1) Activities that may affect the primary constituent elements 
for the species, such as: grazing; maintaining or increasing feral 
ungulate levels; clearing or cutting native live trees and shrubs 
(e.g., woodcutting, bulldozing, construction, road building, mining, 
herbicide application); and taking actions that present a risk of fire.
     (2)Activities that may alter watershed characteristics in ways 
that would affect groundwater recharge or alter natural, wetland, or 
vegetative communities, such as: New water diversions or impoundments, 
groundwater pumping,

[[Page 19031]]

and manipulation of vegetation through activities such as the ones 
mentioned above.
     (3)Recreational activities that may affect vegetation.
     (4)Mining sand or other minerals.
     (5)Introducing or encouraging the spread of nonnative plant 
species.
     (6)Importing nonnative species for research, agriculture, and 
aquaculture, and releasing biological control agents.
    Please see ``Special Management Considerations or Protections'' 
section for a more detailed discussion on the impacts of these actions 
to the listed species.

Exemptions and Exclusions

Application of Section 4(a)(3) of the Act

    The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2004 (Pub. 
L. 108-136) amended the Act to limit areas eligible for designation as 
critical habitat. Specifically, section 4(a)(3)(B)(i) of the Act (16 
U.S.C. 1533(a)(3)(B)(i)) now provides: ``The Secretary shall not 
designate as critical habitat any lands or other geographical areas 
owned or controlled by the Department of Defense, or designated for its 
use, that are subject to an integrated natural resources management 
plan prepared under section 101 of the Sikes Act (16 U.S.C. 670a), if 
the Secretary determines in writing that such plan provides a benefit 
to the species for which critical habitat is proposed for 
designation.''
    There are no Department of Defense lands within the critical 
habitat designation. Therefore, no lands have been exempted from this 
critical habitat designation under section 4(a)(3) of the Act.

Application of Section 4(b)(2) of the Act

Background

    Section 4(b)(2) of the Act states that the Secretary must designate 
and revise critical habitat on the basis of the best available 
scientific data after taking into consideration the economic impact, 
national security impact, and any other relevant impact of specifying 
any particular area as critical habitat. The Secretary may exclude an 
area from critical habitat if he determines that the benefits of such 
exclusion outweigh the benefits of specifying such area as part of the 
critical habitat. In considering whether to exclude a particular area 
from the designation, we must identify the benefits of including the 
area in the designation, identify the benefits of excluding the area 
from the designation, and determine whether the benefits of exclusion 
outweigh the benefits of inclusion. If, based on this analysis, we make 
a determination that the benefits of exclusion would outweigh the 
benefits of inclusion of an area, we can exclude the area only if such 
exclusion would not result in the extinction of the species.
    Under section 4(b)(2) of the Act, we must consider all relevant 
impacts. In addition to economic impacts, we consider a number of 
factors in a section 4(b)(2) analysis. For example, we consider whether 
there are lands owned by the Department of Defense (DOD) where a 
national security impact might exist. We also consider whether 
landowners have developed any conservation plans for the area, or 
whether there are existing or potential conservation partnerships that 
would be encouraged by designation of, or exclusion from, critical 
habitat. We also consider any social or other impacts that might occur 
because of the designation.
    In developing this final rule, we have determined that the lands 
within the designation of critical habitat for the 47 species are not 
managed by the Department of Defense, and there are currently no 
habitat conservation plans (HCPs) for these species. As such, we do not 
anticipate any impacts to national security or HCPs from this final 
critical habitat designation.
    In the following sections, we address a number of general issues 
that are relevant to the exclusion considered in this final critical 
habitat rule.

Benefits of Designating Critical Habitat

    The process of designating critical habitat as described in the Act 
requires that the Service identify those areas within the geographical 
area occupied by the species at the time of listing on which are found 
the physical or biological features essential to the conservation of 
the species that may require special management considerations or 
protection, and those areas outside the geographical area occupied by 
the species at the time of listing that are essential for the 
conservation of the species. In identifying those areas, the Service 
must consider the recovery needs of the species, such that, on the 
basis of the best scientific and commercial data available at the time 
of designation, the features and areas identified, if managed or 
protected, could aid in providing for the survival and recovery of the 
species.
    The identification of areas that contain the features essential to 
the conservation of the species, or are otherwise essential for the 
conservation of the species if outside the geographical area occupied 
by the species at the time of listing, is a benefit resulting from the 
designation. The critical habitat designation process includes peer 
review and public comment on the identified physical and biological 
features and areas, and provides a mechanism to educate landowners, 
State and local governments, and the public regarding the potential 
conservation value of an area. This helps focus and promote 
conservation efforts by other parties by clearly delineating areas of 
high conservation value for the species, and is valuable to land owners 
and managers in developing conservation management plans by describing 
the PCEs and special management actions or protections that are needed 
for identified areas. Including lands in critical habitat also informs 
State agencies and local governments about areas that could be 
conserved under State laws or local ordinances.
    The consultation provisions under section 7(a)(2) of the Act 
constitute the regulatory benefits of critical habitat. As discussed 
above, Federal agencies must consult with the Service on actions that 
may affect critical habitat and must avoid destroying or adversely 
modifying critical habitat. Federal agencies must also consult with us 
on actions that may affect a listed species and refrain from 
undertaking actions that are likely to jeopardize the continued 
existence of such species. The analysis of effects to critical habitat 
is a separate and different analysis from that of the effects to the 
species. Therefore, the difference in outcomes of these two analyses 
represents the regulatory benefit of critical habitat. For some 
species, and in some locations, the outcome of these analyses will be 
similar because effects on habitat will often result in effects on the 
species. However, the regulatory standard is different, as the jeopardy 
analysis looks at the action's impact on survival and recovery of the 
species, while the adverse modification analysis looks at the action's 
effects to the designated habitat's contribution to the species' 
conservation. This will, in many instances, lead to different results 
and different regulatory requirements. Thus, critical habitat 
designations may provide greater benefits to the recovery of a species 
than would listing alone.
    There are two limitations to the regulatory effect of critical 
habitat. First, a section 7(a)(2) consultation is required only where 
there is a Federal nexus (an action authorized, funded, or carried out 
by any Federal agency)--if there is no Federal nexus, the critical 
habitat designation of private lands itself does not restrict any 
actions that destroy or adversely modify critical habitat. Second, the 
designation only limits destruction or adverse modification. By its 
nature, the prohibition on adverse

[[Page 19032]]

modification is designed to ensure that the conservation role and 
function of those areas identified as critical habitat are not 
appreciably reduced as a result of a Federal action. Critical habitat 
designation alone, however, does not require property owners to 
undertake specific steps toward recovery of the species.
    Once an agency determines that consultation under section 7(a)(2) 
of the Act is necessary, the process may conclude informally when the 
Service concurs in writing that the proposed Federal action is not 
likely to adversely affect the species or critical habitat. However, if 
we determine through informal consultation that adverse impacts are 
likely to occur, then formal consultation is initiated. Formal 
consultation concludes with a biological opinion issued by the Service 
on whether the proposed Federal action is likely to jeopardize the 
continued existence of listed species or result in destruction or 
adverse modification of critical habitat.
    For critical habitat, a biological opinion that concludes in a 
determination of no destruction or adverse modification may recommend 
additional conservation measures to minimize adverse effects to primary 
constituent elements, but such measures would be discretionary on the 
part of the Federal agency. A biological opinion that concludes in a 
determination of no destruction or adverse modification would not 
suggest the implementation of any reasonable and prudent alternative, 
as we suggest reasonable and prudent alternatives to the proposed 
Federal action only when our biological opinion results in a jeopardy 
finding or an adverse modification conclusion.
    As stated above, the designation of critical habitat does not 
require that any management or recovery actions take place on the lands 
included in the designation. Even in cases where consultation has been 
initiated under section 7(a)(2) of the Act, the end result of 
consultation is to avoid jeopardy to the species or adverse 
modification of its critical habitat, but not necessarily to manage 
critical habitat or institute recovery actions on critical habitat. On 
the other hand, voluntary conservation efforts implemented through 
management plans can remove or reduce known threats to a species or its 
habitat by implementing recovery actions. We believe that in many 
instances the regulatory benefit of critical habitat is minimal when 
compared to the conservation benefit that can be achieved through 
implementing HCPs under section 10 of the Act, or other voluntary 
conservation efforts or management plans. The conservation achieved 
through implementing HCPs or other habitat management plans can be 
greater than what we achieve through multiple site-by-site, project-by-
project, section 7(a)(2) consultations involving consideration of 
critical habitat. Management plans commit resources to implement long-
term management and protection to particular habitat for at least one 
and possibly other listed or sensitive species. Section 7(a)(2) 
consultations commit Federal agencies to preventing adverse 
modification of critical habitat caused by the particular project; 
consultation does not require Federal agencies to provide for 
conservation or long-term benefits to areas not affected by the 
proposed project. Thus, implementation of any HCP or management plan 
that incorporates enhancement or recovery as the management standard 
may often provide as much or more benefit than a consultation for 
critical habitat designation.

Conservation Partnerships on Non-Federal Lands

    Section 4(b)(2) of the Act allows the Secretary to exclude areas 
from critical habitat for other relevant impacts if he determines that 
the benefits of such exclusion outweigh the benefits of specifying such 
area as part of the critical habitat, unless he determines, based on 
the best scientific data available, that the failure to designate such 
area as critical habitat will result in the extinction of the species. 
As discussed below, we believe that in some cases designation can 
negatively affect the working relationships and conservation 
partnerships formed with private landowners, and may serve as a 
disincentive for the formation of future partnerships that would have 
the potential to provide conservation benefits. The Service recognizes 
that most federally listed species in the United States will not 
recover without the cooperation of non-Federal landowners. More than 60 
percent of the United States is privately owned (US Department of 
Agriculture 2002), and at least 80 percent of endangered or threatened 
species occur either partially or solely on private lands (Crouse et 
al. 2002, p. 720). Eight-eight percent of the State of Hawaii is made 
up of non-Federal lands. Stein et al. (1995, p. 400) found that only 
about 12 percent of listed species in the United States were found 
almost exclusively on Federal lands (90 to100 percent of their known 
occurrences restricted to Federal lands) and that 50 percent of listed 
species are not known to occur on Federal lands at all.
    Given the distribution of listed species with respect to land 
ownership, conservation of listed species in many parts of the United 
States is dependent upon working partnerships with a wide variety of 
entities and the voluntary cooperation of many non-Federal landowners 
(Wilcove and Chen 1998, p. 1407; Crouse et al. 2002, p. 720; James 
2002, p. 271). Building partnerships and promoting voluntary 
cooperation of landowners is essential to understanding the status of 
species on non-Federal lands and is necessary to implement recovery 
actions such as reintroducing listed species, habitat restoration, and 
habitat protection.
    Many non-Federal landowners derive satisfaction in contributing to 
endangered species recovery. However, private landowners are often wary 
of the possible consequences of encouraging endangered species 
conservation on their property, and of regulatory action by the Federal 
government under the Endangered Species Act (Act). Social research has 
demonstrated that for many private landowners, government regulation 
under the Act is perceived as a loss of individual freedoms, regardless 
of whether that regulation may in fact result in any actual impact to 
the landowner (Brook et al. 2003, pp. 1644-1648; Conley et al. 2007, p. 
141). The magnitude of this negative outcome is greatly amplified in 
situations where active management measures (such as reintroduction, 
fire management, and the control of invasive species) are necessary for 
species conservation (Bean 2002, pp. 3-4). Furthermore, in a recent 
study of private landowners who have experience with regulation under 
the Act, only 2 percent of respondents believed the Federal government 
rewards private landowners for good management of their lands and 
resources (Conley et al. 2007, p. 141, 144).
    As described above, the Service recognizes that in many cases, 
building partnerships and promoting the voluntary cooperation of 
private landowners will be essential to the successful conservation and 
recovery of threatened and endangered species. Since government actions 
such as the designation of critical habitat on private lands may be 
perceived as an infringement of private property rights, and may reduce 
the likelihood that landowners will support and carry out conservation 
actions for the benefit of listed species, we believe that the 
judicious exclusion of specific areas of non-federally owned lands from 
critical habitat designations can contribute to

[[Page 19033]]

species recovery and provide a greater level of species conservation 
than critical habitat designation alone. Although we believe that the 
potentially positive contribution of private landowners with a 
demonstrated record of conservation management should be an important 
consideration when designating critical habitat, we wish to emphasize 
that we will continue to be discriminating in our evaluation of 
potential exclusions, and private lands will only be excluded should we 
determine that the benefits of exclusion outweigh the benefits of 
inclusion following a rigorous examination of the record on a case-by-
case basis.
    The purpose of designating critical habitat is to contribute to the 
conservation of threatened and endangered species and the ecosystems 
upon which they depend. The outcome of the designation, triggering 
regulatory requirements for actions funded, authorized, or carried out 
by Federal agencies under section 7(a)(2) of the Act, can sometimes be 
counterproductive to its intended purpose on non-Federal lands when it 
causes private landowners to avoid taking conservation actions they 
might otherwise do. Thus the benefits of excluding areas that are 
covered by partnerships or voluntary conservation commitments can often 
be high.
    A related benefit of our willingness to exclude, in appropriate 
situations, lands under active conservation management from a critical 
habitat designation is that it creates an incentive for the 
establishment of new partnerships in future conservation efforts with 
States, counties, local jurisdictions, conservation organizations, and 
private landowners. In our experience and as advised by various 
researchers on the subject, we can greatly strengthen the effective 
implementation of the Act through such partnerships to achieve 
conservation on non-Federal lands (Bean and Wilcove 1992, pp. 1-2; Bean 
2002, pp. 419-420; Crouse et al. 2002, p. 270; James 2002, p. 271; 
Brook et al. 2003, pp. 8-9; Conley et al. 2007, p. 145). Together with 
our partners, we can implement conservation actions that we would be 
unable to accomplish otherwise. By excluding these lands, we not only 
preserve our current partnerships, but further encourage additional 
conservation actions in the future.
    Even if lands are excluded from a critical habitat designation, if 
listed species are present and may be affected by actions with Federal 
involvement (including actions funded, permitted, or otherwise carried 
out by the Federal government), those actions will still require 
consultation under section 7 to review the effects of those actions 
under a jeopardy standard. This assessment includes effects from 
habitat modification regardless of whether it is designated critical 
habitat.

Economic Analysis

    Ninety-eight percent (25,988 out of 26,582 ac (10,517 out of 10,757 
ha)) of the critical habitat designated in this final rule occurs 
within critical habitat units that were designated for 83 Kauai plants 
(68 FR 9116, February 27, 2003), and for which a contracted economic 
analysis was completed. Designated ecosystem sections Lowland Mesic 1, 
2, 3, 4, 5; Lowland Wet 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6; Montane Mesic 1, 2; Montane 
Wet 1, 2, 3; Dry Cliff 1, 2; and Wet Cliff 1, 2, 3 overlap in whole or 
in part with critical habitat units designated in the 2003 final rule. 
Montane Mesic - Section 3 is the only critical habitat unit being 
designated in this final rule that does not overlap previously 
designated critical habitat (see Table 5 for cross-reference of 
ecosystem section numbers with critical habitat unit numbers in the 
CFR). We evaluated the potential economic impacts of the proposed 
designation, finalized here, in an internal economic impact analysis 
(``Economic Impact Analysis, Proposed Listing and Critical Habitat 
Designation for 48 Species on the Island of Kauai, Hawaii,'' USFWS 
2008). Due to the extensive overlap of the proposed designation with 
recently designated critical habitat, we used the economic analysis 
developed for the 2003 Kauai plants rule to inform our economic impact 
analysis and this final designation of critical habitat for 47 species 
on Kauai.
    In addition, the final rule designating critical habitat for the 
Newcomb's snail (Erinna newcombi) (67 FR 54026, August 20, 2002), 
designated 609 ac (246 ha) under State ownership that partially overlap 
with three of the critical habitat areas designated in this final rule 
(Dry Cliff - Section 2, Lowland Mesic - Section 2, and Lowland Mesic - 
Section 4; see Table 5 for cross-reference with critical habitat unit 
numbers in the CFR). In our economic impact analysis of the proposed 
designation for 47 Kauai species, we estimate a total of $3,570 in 
projected costs resulting from critical habitat designation could be 
attributable to this overlapping area, based on the contracted economic 
analysis that was prepared for the Newcomb's snail proposed rule (USFWS 
2008, p. 12). The economic analysis developed for the Newcomb's snail 
final rule was also used to inform this final designation of critical 
habitat for 47 species on Kauai. Specific information on the previous 
economic analyses follows.
    On March 29, 2002, we published a notice in the Federal Register 
(67 FR 15159), announcing the availability of a draft economic analysis 
for the proposed designation of 16.3 mi (26.3 km) of main stream 
channel in nine critical habitat units for Newcomb's snail (Erinna 
newcombi) on Kauai. The draft economic analysis covered the 10-year 
timeframe from 2002-2012, and identified the total section 7 
consultation costs and incremental costs attributable to critical 
habitat (DEA ES-7). On August 20, 2002, the final rule (67 FR 54026) 
designated eight stream segments and associated tributaries, springs 
and seeps, and adjacent riparian areas on the island of Kauai, which 
included 12.3 mi (19.7 km) of stream channel and 4,479 ac (1,813 ha) as 
critical habitat for Newcomb's snail. It was determined that the 
designation could result in potential economic effects of $28,500 over 
the 10-year period, with $19,500 of this cost attributable to critical 
habitat. No critical habitat units in the proposed rule were excluded 
or modified in the final rule as a result of economic impacts. Of the 
$19,500 in potential costs identified in the Newcomb's snail final 
critical habitat designation, in our current economic impact analysis 
we estimate that $3,570 could be attributable to the area overlapping 
this final rule(USFWS 2008, p. 12). The three Newcomb's snail critical 
habitat areas identified above also overlap with areas that were 
designated as critical habitat in the 2003 final rule for 83 Kauai 
plants (see below).
    On May 28, 2002, we published a notice in the Federal Register 
announcing the availability of the draft economic analysis (DEA) for 
the proposed designation of 99,206 ac (40,147 ha) of critical habitat 
on Kauai for 83 Kauai plants (67 FR 36851). The draft economic analysis 
covered the 10-year timeframe from 2002-2012, and characterized both 
the total section 7 consultation cost, and the costs attributable to 
critical habitat (DEA VI-1). On February 27, 2003, the final rule (2003 
rule) designated 52,549 ac (21,266 ha) as critical habitat on Kauai and 
357 ac (145 ha) on Niihau, in 217 critical habitat units (68 FR 9116). 
The final economic analysis addendum was adjusted to delete costs 
related to units that were excluded or modified for biological reasons 
and to respond to public comments. No critical habitat units in the 
final rule were excluded or modified in the final rule as a result of 
economic impacts.

[[Page 19034]]

    The final economic analysis for the 2003 rule estimated that the 
listing of the 83 plants and the designation of critical habitat could 
result in potential direct economic effects ranging from approximately 
$170,000 to $520,000. Of that, we estimate that $37,388 to $293,030 
could be attributable to critical habitat in the units that overlap 
with the areas designated in this final rule. These projected costs 
were associated with section 7 consultations related to: (1) game 
management and project modifications; (2) National Tropical Botanical 
Garden lands; (3) communications facilities and project modifications; 
(4) water systems; and (5) FEMA disaster response activities (USFWS 
2008, p. 8). However, the best available information indicates that 
none of these projected costs have been realized; to the best of our 
knowledge, to date there have been no incremental costs incurred as the 
result of the 2003 critical habitat designation.
    The PCEs described in the 2003 Kauai plants rule and those for the 
47 species for which critical habitat is designated here are similar. 
Because of this similarity, our economic impact analysis (USFWS 2008) 
did not identify any additional economic costs for the 25,988 ac 
(10,517 ha) of designated critical habitat that overlap with the 2003 
rule beyond those identified in the previous economic analyses. Any 
management actions that may be necessary to avoid adverse modification 
of the existing critical habitat and PCEs in the 25,988 overlapping ac 
(10,517 ha) would likely be adequate to avoid adverse modification of 
critical habitat designated for the additional species in this final 
rule. Furthermore, both of the prior economic analyses used an adverse 
modification standard that considered both the conservation and 
recovery of the species as the goal of critical habitat. We are unaware 
of any new potential impacts in these overlap areas that were not 
considered in the previous economic analyses, and we received no 
comments regarding the economic impact analysis presented in the 
October 21, 2008, proposed rule (73 FR 62592).
    In this final rule, we are designating approximately 594 ac (240 
ha) in six ecosystem areas that do not completely overlap with areas 
already designated as critical habitat in the 83 Kauai species and 
Newcomb's snail final rules described above. The remaining areas 
overlap with previously designated critical habitat. Of the non-overlap 
areas, Montane Mesic - Section 2 includes 7.8 ac (3.16 ha) classified 
as State Parks and Recreation lands; Montane Mesic - Section 3 includes 
138.5 ac (55.8 ha) classified as State Forest Reserve lands; Montane 
Wet - Section 1 includes 64 ac (26 ha) classified as State Forest 
Reserve lands; Wet Cliff - Section 2 includes 296 ac (119.8 ha) 
classified as State Forest Reserve lands; Lowland Wet - Section 1 
includes 65 ac (26.3) in the Limahuli Garden and Preserve, which is 
owned by NTBG; and Wet Cliff - Section 3 includes 23 ac (9.3 ha) of 
privately owned land (see Table 5 for cross-reference with critical 
habitat unit numbers in the CFR). There is no history of section 7 
consultation in these areas, nor are we aware of any planned activities 
in any of these areas that would require section 7 consultation in the 
future. To the extent there may be consultations in the future (e.g., 
Federal grants to assist the NTBG in managing its lands or maintenance 
of an existing power transmission line on the private land in Wet Cliff 
- Section 3), any additional costs are expected to be minimal.
    In summary, the areas we are designating as critical habitat are 
remote, lack development potential, and overlap with existing critical 
habitat units by approximately 98 percent. The economic analyses for 
the 83 Kauai plants and the Newcomb's snail final critical habitat 
rules took into account the potential economic costs of critical 
habitat designation over a 10-year timeframe (2002-2012). In the 
economic impact analysis for this designation, we have determined that 
over that timeframe, $38,862 to $294,604 in costs could be attributable 
to critical habitat designation in the units that overlap with the 
critical habitat areas designated in this rule. It is important to 
note, however, that although these possible costs were projected in the 
earlier economic analyses, since these designations in 2002 and 2003 we 
have had no section 7 consultations for any of those overlapping lands. 
The management actions that may be necessary to avoid adverse 
modification in existing critical habitat units would likely also be 
adequate to avoid adverse modification of critical habitat we are 
designating for the 47 Kauai species in this rule because of the 
similar PCEs, and in both cases the consideration of possible adverse 
modification similarly holds to the standard of species recovery. The 
remaining 2 percent (594 ac, 240 ha) of land we are designating as 
critical habitat in this rule that does not overlap with existing 
critical habitat is managed as State Parks and Recreation Land, State 
Forest Reserve, or is owned by private individuals. We have no section 
7 consultation history in these areas and are unaware of any planned 
activities that would require consultation.
    We do not anticipate more than minimal (if any) economic or other 
impacts that would be additive to those already identified above. To 
ensure that our final critical habitat determination was based on the 
best available data, we requested updated information on potential 
effects of this additional designation in overlap areas, as well as 
information on potential impacts from critical habitat designation on 
lands not currently designated (e.g., the non-overlap areas), during 
the comment period. We received no comments regarding our economic 
impact analysis as presented in the October 21, 2008 proposed rule (73 
FR 62592).
    The information provided in the previous sections applies to the 
following discussions of benefits of inclusion or exclusion of critical 
habitat.

Areas Considered for Exclusion Under Section 4(b)(2) of the Act: 
Alexander and Baldwin, Inc.'s Lands in the Upper Wainiha Valley

    In making exclusions, we evaluate the benefits of designating non-
Federal lands while considering the conservation benefits to the 
relevant species in this final rule and the physical and biological 
features essential to their conservation resulting from the existing 
management plan and underlying partnerships. As discussed in the 
section Conservation Partnerships on Non-Federal Lands above, 
conservation partnerships resulting in implementation of management 
actions that focus on enhancement or recovery as the management 
standard may provide as much or more benefit than consultation for 
adverse modification of critical habitat (the primary benefit of a 
designation). However, we must evaluate each potential exclusion on a 
case-by-case basis to determine whether the benefits of exclusion may 
outweigh the benefits of inclusion with regard to the conservation and 
recovery of the listed species in question.
    In considering the benefits of including lands in a designation 
that are covered by a current management plan, we evaluate a number of 
factors to help us determine if the plan provides greater conservation 
benefits compared to those that would likely result from consultation 
on a critical habitat designation. Under section 4(b)(2) of the Act, we 
evaluate the effectiveness of management plans that address the 
enhancement or recovery of listed species when we weigh and balance the 
benefits of inclusion or exclusion of a particular area from critical 
habitat

[[Page 19035]]

designation. We consider the following guidelines in evaluating the 
management and protection provided by such plans:
     (1) Whether the plan is complete and provides management and 
protection of the features essential to the conservation of the species 
for which critical habitat is being designated;
    (2) Whether there is a reasonable expectation that the conservation 
management strategies and actions will be implemented for the 
foreseeable future, based on past practices, written guidance, or 
regulations; and
     (3) Whether the plan provides conservation strategies and measures 
consistent with currently accepted principles of conservation biology 
and that there are provisions for adaptive management.
    We balance the benefits of inclusion against the benefits of 
exclusion by considering the benefits of preserving partnerships and 
encouraging development of additional conservation plans in the future.
    A portion of Montane Wet Section 1 (Kauai Plants Critical Habitat 
Unit 18-Montane Wet; Loxops caeruleirostris Unit 4 - Montane Wet; 
Oreomystis bairdi Unit 1 - Montane Wet; Drosophila attigua Unit 4 - 
Montane Wet, as described in the proposed rule) on private land owned 
by Alexander and Baldwin, Inc. (A & B) is occupied habitat for Astelia 
waialealae, Keysseria erici, K. helenae, and Labordia pumila, and 
unoccupied habitat for akikiki, akekee, Drosophila sharpi, and 14 plant 
species (Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi, Dryopteris crinalis var. 
podosorus, Dubautia kalalauensis, Dubautia waialealae, Geranium 
kauaiense, Labordia helleri, Lysimachia daphnoides, Melicope degeneri, 
Melicope puberula, Myrsine mezii, Phyllostegia renovans, Platydesma 
rostrata, Psychotria grandiflora, and Tetraplasandra flynii). This 
triangular-shaped area of 1,052 ac (426 ha), bordering the Wainiha 
Preserve, is located at the head of Wainiha Valley, abutting the Alakai 
plateau to the west, and the precipitous cliffs between Wainiha Valley 
and Lumahai Valley to the east. This area is not designated critical 
habitat for other species and is characterized as boggy with dwarfed 
native trees, shrubs, and herbs. Access to this steeply remote area is 
primarily by helicopter, rarely by foot, as there are no marked trails. 
The closest road is a four-wheel-drive-vehicle-only dirt road leading 
to a picnic area approximately 7.5 mi (11 km) northwest of the Mt. 
Waialeale summit. In 2007, A & B entered into a 10-year conservation 
agreement with The Nature Conservancy to create the State's third 
largest private nature preserve at Wainiha Valley (Wainiha Preserve) on 
Kauai. The 7,050 ac (2,853 ha) preserve includes one of Kauai's largest 
river systems, mountain cliffs, and portions of the Alakai wilderness 
and Mt. Waialeale summit region. The Nature Conservancy is coordinating 
all management actions within the Wainiha Preserve, most of which is in 
steep, remote areas that are accessible only by helicopter. In support 
of the Wainiha Preserve and the upper Wainiha Valley, which includes 
1,052 ac of A & B lands included in the proposed critical habitat 
designation, TNC is implementing the East Alakai Protective Fencing 
Project Management Plan (TNC 2008), with support of the Service's 
Partners for Fish and Wildlife program, and is undertaking the 
following management actions to protect and preserve approximately 
2,000 ac (809 ha) of Kauai's watershed and the species it supports 
(including 18 of the 44 plant species with critical habitat designated 
in this final rule, the akikiki, the akekee, Drosophila sharpi, and 
numerous other listed species) located within a portion of the eastern 
Alakai plateau between Wainiha Valley and Mt. Waialeale: (1) 
Construction of approximately 4.48 mi (7.2 km) of strategically placed 
fencing (using natural barriers and steep cliffs) to enclose 
approximately 595 ac (241 ha) of the Alakai Wilderness Preserve and 
approximately 1,405 ac (569 ha) of MacBryde Sugar Co. land (subsidiary 
of A & B) to exclude feral pigs (TNC 2008, p. 3); (2) remote sensing of 
Wainiha Valley to produce distribution maps of the highly invasive 
nonnative Australian tree fern (Sphaeropteris cooperi) and other weed 
species (A. Ballinger, 2008, p. 2) and (3) on-the-ground control of 
Australian tree fern and other nonnative highly invasive weeds in 
Wainiha Valley (A. Ballinger, 2008, p. 2; M. Clark, USFWS, 2009a). 
Construction of the fence is expected to begin in late summer 2009 and 
will be completed within 12 months (TNC 2008, p. 33). After the fence 
is constructed, management activities will include monitoring for feral 
pig sign and disturbance, removal of feral pigs and goats from the 
Alakai plateau and upper Wainiha Valley, monitoring for and removal of 
invasive weeds along the fence line, and monitoring and maintenance of 
the fence itself (TNC 2008, pp. 28, 34). In addition to the fencing 
project, A & B's program to remove invasive nonnative plant species, 
particularly the Australian tree fern, has also been supported by 
funding from the Service through private stewardship grants. These 
threat management actions are the highest priority actions identified 
in the management plan for this area and will create a stable ecosystem 
environment for future restoration activities (e.g., reintroduction of 
individuals of rare native species) (M. Clark, 2009b, p. 5). These 
management actions will further reduce the primary threats identified 
for the 21 Kauai species identified in this rule that occur on these 
lands, thus resulting in a significant conservation benefit to these 
species.
    The Nature Conservancy also launched The Forest Recovery Project in 
2007. This is a series of concentrated actions to evaluate methods for 
effective progress in native ecosystem preservation by focusing efforts 
on reducing and controlling nonnative plants and animals (TNC in Hawaii 
- Forest Recovery Project 2007b). Initially, research was conducted to 
evaluate the effectiveness of conservation fencing in preventing feral 
ungulate impacts to native forest ecosystems and watershed on Kauai, 
Maui, and Molokai, and to study animal behavior and movement patterns. 
The results of this work are not yet available. Other management 
activities, scheduled to begin in 2009, include trapping of feral pigs, 
and control of priority nonnative plants (Kauai Watershed Alliance 
(KWA) 2009).
    McBryde Sugar Co., Ltd., A & B's subsidiary, is one of 10 official 
members of the Kauai Watershed Alliance (KWA). Established in 2003, the 
KWA is a voluntary partnership of most of the major public and private 
landowners in the forest reserve boundary, and is committed to the long 
term protection of Kauai's upper watershed areas (KWA 2009). The Nature 
Conservancy and the Service, although not official members, work 
closely with the members of the KWA to achieve their conservation 
goals. The KWA is pursuing three management programs (for ungulates, 
weeds, and watershed monitoring) with the aim of protecting Kauai's 
watershed from invasive nonnative animals, plants, and other threats 
(Kauai Watershed Management Plan (Plan) 2005, pp. 11, 17, 22-24). The 
Plan identifies the upper valley of Wainiha, portions of which we 
proposed as critical habitat, as a highest priority area for management 
actions (KWA 2005, p. 6).
    The primary goal of the ungulate management program is to maintain 
or improve the structure and composition of the watershed's forest by 
intensively reducing ungulates in the highest priority management areas 
and managing ungulates in the other priority

[[Page 19036]]

areas. Feral pigs are identified as the greatest threat to wet forested 
areas, including portions of the upper Wainiha Valley, and are the 
highest ungulate management priority in the ungulate management program 
(KWA 2005, p. 12). The Plan identifies the four essential components of 
a successful ungulate management program: barrier construction using 
strategic fences, ungulate population reduction, barrier maintenance 
and inspection, and monitoring for the presence of ungulates. The 
construction of the east Alakai protective fence (see above), an 
essential component of KWA's ungulate management program, will benefit 
18 of the 44 plant species with critical habitat designated in this 
rule, the akikiki and akekee, Drosophila sharpi, and numerous other 
listed species. Once the fence is completed management actions to 
control feral ungulates in the fenced area will include monitoring for 
and removal of feral ungulates, and fence monitoring and maintenance 
(TNC 2008, p. 34).
    The primary goal of the weed management program is to maintain or 
improve the structure and composition of the watershed's forest by 
containing, eradicating, and excluding priority habitat-modifying 
weeds. The weed management priorities identified in the Plan are 
Australian tree fern, kahili ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum), 
strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum), miconia (Miconia calvescens), 
and Koster's curse (Clidemia hirta). For upper Wainiha Valley, the weed 
management program goal is weed exclusion (by conducting surveys in 3-
year intervals to detect and eradicate incipient patches of priority 
weeds) and prevention (KWA 2005, p. 19). In 2008, TNC, in collaboration 
with Dr. James Leary at the University of Hawaii, began field testing 
aerial treatments of Australian tree fern, and conducting on-the-ground 
weed surveys in Wainiha Valley (A. Ballinger, 2008, p. 2). The aerial 
treatments consisted of a custom fabricated aerial sprayball attached 
to an herbicide reservoir on the underside of a helicopter that could 
be directed to the growing tips of individual Australian tree ferns 
without any measurable overspray onto surrounding, nontarget 
vegetation. The results of the initial field tests were very successful 
and aerial control of Australian tree fern in Wainiha Valley is 
currently underway. As of May 15, 2009, TNC had treated 1,431 
Australian tree ferns, on over more than 4,000 ac (1,619 ha) in Wainiha 
Valley, including the area proposed as critical habitat in the upper 
valley (M. Clark, 2009a). The Nature Conservancy estimates that the 
aerial control treatments have treated over one-third of all known 
Australian tree ferns in the upper valley of Wainiha, including the 
area proposed as critical habitat (M. Clark, 2009a). Over the past 
year, TNC has continued to survey for and control nonnative kahili 
ginger, strawberry guava, and common guava (Psidium guajava) in the 
Waianiha priority management area (M. Clark, 2009a).
    The primary goal of the watershed monitoring program is to measure 
the efficacy of the management actions outlined in the Plan and 
determine if these actions are improving the hydrological and 
ecological integrity of the watershed. This program includes monitoring 
for threat abatement, vegetation, and stream turbidity (KWA 2005, p. 
22). Threat abatement monitoring includes annual monitoring for 
presence or absence of feral pigs along transects located in the 
priority management areas of the KWA watershed. Weed monitoring is also 
a component of this program. Initially, aerial baseline surveys will be 
conducted to measure the effectiveness of weed management actions in 
the KWA watershed. Aerial surveys along selected transects will be 
conducted at 5 to 10 year intervals, starting in the central Alakai 
plateau in 2010 (KWA 2005, p. 23). In addition, field personnel will 
conduct ground-based weed monitoring in priority management areas of 
the KWA watershed, including the 1,052 ac (426 ha) of A & B land at the 
head of Wainiha Valley. Changes in vegetation cover indicate trends in 
ecosystem integrity over long periods of time. Vegetation monitoring 
will be conducted in permanent plots throughout KWA's priority 
management areas every 5 to 10 years, as well as using high-resolution 
aerial imagery to detect changes in canopy cover over long time periods 
(KWA 2005, p. 23). According to the Plan, improvements in vegetation 
cover and declines in ground disturbance by ungulates will result in 
reduced or low stream turbidity indicating the success of the feral 
ungulate and weed management programs and lead to improved infiltration 
and aquifer recharge (KWA 2005, p. 24). While there is currently no 
watershed-scale system to assess stream turbidity on Kauai, the 
University of Hawaii has received funding from the National Science 
Foundation to develop and deploy environmental sensors, including 
stream turbidity sensors, on Kauai (KWA 2005, p. 24). Currently the 
development of the environmental monitoring techniques is limited to 
the north shore of Kauai but there is a potential to expand the network 
of sensors to the Alakai plateau and other KWA priority management 
areas, including the head of Wainiha Valley (KWA 2005, p. 24).

Benefits of Inclusion

    The benefits of including lands in critical habitat can be 
regulatory or educational, which can aid in promoting the recovery of 
species. The principal regulatory benefit of designating critical 
habitat in this area would be that Federal actions affecting the 
critical habitat of akikiki, akekee, Astelia waialealae, Chamaesyce 
remyi var. remyi, Drosophila sharpi, Dryopteris crinalis var. 
podosorus, Dubautia kalalauensis, Dubautia waialealae, Geranium 
kauaiense, Keysseria erici, K. helenae, Labordia helleri, Labordia 
pumila, Lysimachia daphnoides, Melicope degeneri, Melicope puberula, 
Myrsine mezii, Phyllostegia renovans, Platydesma rostrata, Psychotria 
grandiflora, and Tetraplasandra flynii would require consultation under 
section 7 of the Act. Consultation would ensure that a proposed Federal 
action does not result in the destruction or adverse modification of 
critical habitat. The most likely Federal nexus would be associated 
with Service funding for management activities to control invasive 
species (e.g., construction of fences to exclude ungulate access; 
removal of ungulates; activities to control weeds, rats, and wasps). 
Potential outcomes of section 7 consultations would be conservation 
recommendations to avoid degradation and destruction of stands of 
native canopy and understory plants, destruction of native arthropods, 
and destruction of larval host plants (i.e., Cheirodendron and 
Tetraplasandra spp.) of Drosophila sharpi when, for example, 
constructing a new fence or applying herbicides. However, these 
conservation recommendations would still be included within the KWA 
Plan's ungulate and weed management programs and the East Alakai 
Protective Fencing Project Management Plan even in the absence of 
critical habitat designation. Accordingly, since the recommendations 
resulting from any section 7 consultation with respect to critical 
habitat would most likely be redundant with the conservation actions 
already in place under current management, we believe that few 
additional regulatory benefits would be derived from including A & B's 
land in the upper Wainiha Valley within the area designated as critical 
habitat for akikiki, akekee, Astelia waialealae,

[[Page 19037]]

Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi, Drosophila sharpi, Dryopteris crinalis 
var. podosorus, Dubautia kalalauensis, Dubautia waialealae, Geranium 
kauaiense, Keysseria erici, K. helenae, Labordia helleri, Labordia 
pumila, Lysimachia daphnoides, Melicope degeneri, Melicope puberula, 
Mysine mezii, Phyllostegia renovans, Platydesma rostrata, Psychotria 
grandiflora, and Tetraplasandra flynii beyond those conservation 
benefits already being achieved through the implementation of the KWA 
Plan (2005) and the East Alakai Protective Fencing Project Management 
Plan (2008).
    In addition, we conclude that few regulatory benefits would be 
gained from a designation of critical habitat on these lands because 
the consultations conducted under both the jeopardy and adverse 
modification standards for these 21 species would not be likely to 
result in materially different outcomes in this particular instance. 
The area is occupied by Astelia waialealae, Keysseria erici, K. 
helenae, and Labordia pumila, and unoccupied by 17 species (akekee, 
akikiki, Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi, Drosophila sharpi, Dryopteris 
crinalis var. podosorus, Dubautia kalalauensis, Dubautia waialealae, 
Geranium kauaiense, Labordia helleri, Lysimachia daphnoides, Melicope 
degeneri, Melicope puberula, Myrsine mezii, Phyllostegia renovans, 
Platydesma rostrata, Psychotria grandiflora, and Tetraplasandra 
flynii). The most likely Federal nexuses would be management activities 
funded in part through (1) the Service's Partners for Fish and Wildlife 
program, and the Recovery programs, and (2) the Natural Resources 
Conservation Service's (NRCS) Environmental Quality Incentives Program, 
water resources program and easement programs. These programs have 
historically contributed funds toward the construction of fences to 
exclude feral ungulates and control weeds on KWA lands on Kauai. 
Service funds may also be provided for new surveys and control of 
invasive, nonnative weeds, and rats on KWA lands. While we acknowledge 
that the legal standards for jeopardy and adverse modification differ, 
with the latter focused on effects to recovery, the outcome of 
consultation is likely to be the same because the actions likely to be 
subject to consultation would have habitat conservation as their 
primary objective.
    There have been no section 7 consultations with Federal agencies to 
date for any previously listed species or designated critical habitat 
on A & B lands, nor any section 7 conference actions involving any of 
the species addressed in this final rule on their lands. We do not 
anticipate any consultations beyond those that would be initiated for 
conservation-related actions (e.g., funding for fence construction, 
control of nonnative plant and animal species) with us and other 
Federal agencies such as NRCS, and conclude that the section 7 
consultation process for critical habitat would be unlikely to result 
in any additional protections for the 21 species for the reasons 
discussed above. The probability of any actions associated with 
activities such as development is very low, due to the extremely remote 
and rugged nature of this area, which is accessible only by foot or 
helicopter. Furthermore, we note that the low probability of any future 
section 7 consultations remains constant beyond the potential 
expiration date of the current management agreement with TNC in the 
Wainiha Valley. Consequently, we conclude there is little if any 
regulatory benefit of designating critical habitat on the 1,052 ac (426 
ha) of A & B lands in upper Wainiha Valley within Montane Wet Section 1 
(Kauai Plants Critical Habitat Unit 18-Montane Wet; Loxops 
caeruleirostris Unit 4 - Montane Wet; Oreomystis bairdi Unit 1 - 
Montane Wet; Drosophila attigua Unit 4 - Montane Wet, as described in 
the proposed rule).
     As discussed above, a benefit of critical habitat is its potential 
to serve as a mechanism to educate landowners, State and local 
governments, and the public regarding the potential conservation value 
of an area, which may aid the conservation of the species by clearly 
delineating areas of high conservation value and by describing the PCEs 
and special management actions or protections needed for identified 
areas. Here we have attempted to contribute to the educational intent 
of critical habitat by publishing a map of the excluded area (Figure 
7), thereby informing the public, State and local governments, and 
other landowners of the conservation value of the excluded area. In 
addition, a map identifying the excluded area will be maintained on the 
website of the Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (http://www.fws.gov/pacificislands/) to alert the public, State and local 
governments, and other landowners of the conservation value of this 
area. The PCEs for the species occupying this area and the special 
management required are similarly described in this final rule. In 
addition, the specific landowners, Alexander and Baldwin, Inc., are 
aware of the importance of this 1,052-ac area (426 ha), and are 
implementing conservation actions to benefit native species through the 
KWA Plan and the East Alakai Protective Fencing Project Management Plan 
(KWA 2005, pp. 1-29; TNC 2008, pp. 1-38; M. Clark, 2009b, pp. 5, 8). 
Because of this proactive approach, and due to the extremely remote 
location of these lands, we believe that any additional educational 
benefits for the public at large resulting from the designation of 
critical habitat on these lands would be minimal. Although the 
designation of critical habitat may provide benefits to the recovery of 
a species, in this case A & B is already committed to implementing 
conservation actions on their lands under the existing KWA Plan (2005) 
and the East Alakai Protective Fencing Project Management Plan (TNC 
2008), both of which are supported by the Service. Accordingly, any 
additional benefits to the recovery of the 21 species beyond those 
already being accrued would be limited. In addition, the educational 
benefit of informing the public, State and local governments, and other 
parties as to the high conservation value of this area has largely been 
achieved through the publication of this final rule and the map of the 
excluded area.
BILLING CODE 4310-55-S

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[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR13AP10.013

BILLING CODE 4310-55-C

[[Page 19039]]

Benefits of Exclusion

    Existing A & B conservation agreements with Federal and State 
agencies, their voluntary partnership in the KWA, their ongoing work 
with the Service's Partners for Fish and Wildlife program, and their 
conservation agreement with TNC establishing and managing the Wainiha 
Preserve demonstrate their commitment to prudent stewardship of their 
land and water resources to ensure the protection of large areas of 
forested watersheds for water recharge and other benefits of intact 
forested ecosystems. A & B's continued voluntary participation in the 
KWA and implementation of the KWA Plan, implementation of the East 
Alakai Protective Fencing Project Management Plan, and voluntary 
conservation agreement with TNC for management of the Wainiha Preserve 
will specifically benefit akekee, akikiki, Astelia waialealae, 
Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi, Drosophila sharpi, Dryopteris crinalis 
var. podosorus, Dubautia kalalauensis, Dubautia waialealae, Geranium 
kauaiense, Keysseria erici, K. helenae, Labordia helleri, Labordia 
pumila, Lysimachia daphnoides, Melicope degeneri, Melicope puberula, 
Mysine mezii, Phyllostegia renovans, Platydesma rostrata, Psychotria 
grandiflora, and Tetraplasandra flynii through actions that manage and 
reduce the primary threats to these species (feral ungulates and 
invasive plant species) and restore native species habitat and 
ecosystem function. The KWA Plan provides a significant conservation 
benefit to these 21 species, and we have a reasonable expectation that 
the strategies and measures will be effective. In response to the 
proposed designation of critical habitat for the 47 Kauai species, A & 
B informed us that the conservation management activities supported by 
the agreement to establish Wainiha Preserve will substantially and 
directly benefit endangered species and their habitat in the valley (A 
& B 2008, p. 1); A & B further stated that they believe the designation 
of critical habitat is unnecessary and will result in little if any 
additional benefit to the species (A & B 2008, p. 2). In addition, A & 
B stated that designation of critical habitat in areas where the 
objective of designation is already being met by voluntary landowner 
efforts may discourage other landowners from pursuing similar 
conservation agreements, since the Service is imposing a layer of 
federal regulation that is unnecessary to achieve the intended 
conservation goals, thereby resulting in an overall negative impact on 
species conservation (A & B 2008, p. 2). A & B went on to state that 
excluding such areas from designation can serve as an acknowledgement 
of positive contributions to conservation and provide a strong 
incentive to other landowners to undertake voluntary conservation 
efforts on their lands.
    In 2002, the Service excluded from designation of critical habitat 
for the Newcomb's snail a 566-acre parcel of land owned by A & B in the 
Wainiha River Valley. This exclusion was based upon the Service's 
determination that designation of critical habitat would have a 
negative effect on the voluntary landowner conservation activities in 
the Valley, both ongoing and in development, including a possible 
future introduction of the species as an experimental population on A & 
B lands (67 FR 54048-54049). Specifically, A & B had informed the 
Service they were in the process of negotiating a voluntary 
conservation easement with TNC to provide more active management of the 
valley for watershed protection and that those negotiations, which 
would benefit the Newcomb's snail by protecting its habitat, could be 
negatively affected if critical habitat were designated on their land. 
The Service concluded in its 4(b)(2) analysis that the benefits of 
exclusion of the A & B parcel outweighed the benefits of inclusion in 
the critical habitat designation. The Service's conclusion was based 
on, among other things, A & B's current conservation activities and 
those in development, the need for A & B's cooperation and good will 
for future conservation efforts for the Newcomb's snail, and the 
likelihood that A & B would curtail voluntary conservation efforts if 
critical habitat was designated on their lands.
    Subsequent events have validated the Service's determination to 
exclude A & B's parcel from the Newcomb's snail designation. No 
regulatory benefits appear to have been foregone, as there have been no 
projects with a federal nexus that would have triggered consultation 
under the adverse-modification standard had critical habitat been 
designated. Moreover, A & B granted TNC the conservation easement, and 
has continued to work proactively with the Service and its conservation 
partners. Native species, including 21 species covered by this final 
rule, are benefiting substantially from A & B's voluntary participation 
in the KWA and support of the KWA's management actions; A & B's 
establishment of the Wainiha Preserve and support of the management 
actions in Wainiha Valley, including the A & B lands at the head of 
Wainiha Valley proposed as critical habitat; and voluntary support and 
implementation of the East Alakai Protective Fencing Project Management 
Plan. The Service has actively supported all of these conservation 
efforts. All of these management actions are intended to reduce 
ungulate browsing and habitat conversion, reduce competition with 
nonnative weeds, and preserve overall ecosystem integrity; these 
actions will thus address primary threats to the species, and are 
consistent with the ecosystem-based approach to conservation envisioned 
in this final rule.
    A & B has demonstrated a strong history of voluntary conservation 
efforts that directly benefit threatened and endangered species, both 
on Kauai and other Hawaiian islands. Past conservation actions by A & B 
and its subsidiaries have ranged from allowing access on their lands 
for surveys and site visits to the provision of staff and funding for 
active collaborative conservation partnerships. In addition to the 
examples specific to the Wainiha Valley described above, A& B has 
allowed access to survey and monitor endangered cave species in the 
Koloa area of Kauai, including surveys for the blind cave spider and 
amphipod; worked in partnership with TNC to fence Kanaele Bog in Kauai 
on their lands and protect the native bog community of plants and 
invertebrates from habitat degradation and fragmentation; has donated 
land and supported or participated in numerous conservation activities 
at or around Kealia Pond National Wildlife Refuge on Maui, which itself 
was established in 1992 as a perpetual conservation easement from A & 
B; and has actively participated in the East Maui Watershed 
Partnership, a collaborative multi-party organization leading the 
conservation of land and water resources in the east Maui mountains. 
Some other A & B conservation efforts include: protecting coastal 
habitat by assisting Kealia Pond NWR with installation of recycled 
fence to prevent off-road vehicles from accessing Ma'alaea flats; 
donating coastal land to accommodate the Kealia Coastal Boardwalk 
parking area and cooperation with construction of the boardwalk; 
allowing FWS to install a fence to benefit endangered turtles on their 
lands along North Kihei Road; working with the refuge, Maui County, and 
Kihei Canoe Club to clean up their coastal strip along North Kihei 
Road; and working with the refuge and local community to install 
boulders and concrete posts to prevent erosion and access to dunes 
along North Kihei Road. A & B's subsidiary HC&S assisted with

[[Page 19040]]

the installation of a 2000 ft water distribution line for Kealia Pond. 
In addition, an HC&S representative has been a member of the Mokulele 
Highway Beautification Committee and involved with the Maui West Nile 
Virus Team. A & B continues to work cooperatively with the Service and 
other Federal and State agencies as well as nongovernmental 
organizations on various conservation agreements, thus ongoing 
conservation partnerships with A & B have a proven conservation benefit 
for threatened and endangered species and other resources. Based on A & 
B's demonstrated commitment to conservation, under current conditions 
the Service has a high degree of confidence that the conservation 
management actions currently benefiting the 21 Kauai species on A & B 
lands in the Upper Wainiha Valley will continue to be implemented.
    We believe that exclusion of approximately 1,052 ac (426 ha) within 
A & B's portion of Section 1 (Kauai Plants Critical Habitat Unit 18-
Montane Wet; Loxops caeruleirostris Unit 4 - Montane Wet; Oreomystis 
bairdi Unit 1 - Montane Wet; Drosophila attigua Unit 4 - Montane Wet, 
as described in the proposed rule) will acknowledge A & B's 
conservation commitment and facilitate their continued cooperation and 
partnership with the Service. This area has been actively managed by 
the KWA since 2005 and the Wainiha Preserve was established in 2007 
under a 10-year conservation agreement with TNC. Based on A & B's 
strong history of conservation in the islands, we expect the 
conservation management strategies and actions will continue to be 
implemented for the benefit of 21 species covered in this final rule. 
There is a risk that designating critical habitat on these A & B lands 
in the Wainiha Valley could undermine A & B's conservation partnership 
with the KWA and TNC, remove A & B's incentive to accept the additional 
time and expense of management planning, strain the positive working 
relationship we share, and hinder future cooperative conservation 
projects with A & B and other potential partners. Because the Federal 
government owns relatively little land in the State of Hawaii, and 
because large tracts of land suitable for the conservation of 
threatened and endangered species are often owned by private 
landowners, the successful recovery of listed species in Hawaii is 
particularly dependent upon effective working partnerships and the 
voluntary cooperation of non-Federal landowners. Preserving the 
successful conservation partnership we currently hold with A & B is 
likely to provide substantial conservation benefits to the 48 Kauai 
species, and will additionally support continued cooperative 
conservation efforts for the benefit of numerous listed and native 
species and ecosystems in other areas of the Hawaiian Islands as well.
    We are unaware of any incremental economic impacts of designating 
critical habitat in Section 1 (Kauai Plants Critical Habitat Unit 18-
Montane Wet; Loxops caeruleirostris Unit 4-Montane Wet; Oreomystis 
bairdi Unit 1-Montane Wet; Drosophila attigua Unit 4-Montane Wet, as 
described in the proposed rule) (USFWS 2008, pp. 18, 21). Our economic 
impact analysis concluded there would be no incremental costs of 
designation in the Wainiha Valley, since section 7 consultation costs 
for any conservation projects funded by the Service and others on A & B 
lands in this area would have occurred anyway because of the presence 
of listed plants in the potentially affected area (USFWS 2008, pp. 18, 
21). In their comments on the proposed designation, A & B informed us 
that critical habitat designation on private lands can have unintended 
negative consequences for landowners, particularly with regard to 
private property rights and land values, and can serve as a 
disincentive for landowners to participate in voluntary conservation 
efforts (S. O'Keefe, A & B 2008, p. 1). This claim, that private 
landowners may often perceive regulatory actions by the Federal 
government in such a way as to have a negative impact on conservation, 
is supported by the best available science on this topic (e.g., Main et 
al. 1999, pp. 1264-1265; Bean 2002, pp. 2-3; Brook et al. 2003, pp. 
1639-1648; Conley et al. 2007, pp. 141,144). With specific regard to 
land values, however, A & B provided no information demonstrating that 
the designation of critical habitat on Kauai has had negative impacts 
on land values, and we are unaware that land values have declined there 
or elsewhere in the State solely due to a critical habitat designation. 
Therefore, we have examined the economic impacts of critical habitat 
designation on 1,052 ac (426 ha) of A & B lands and conclude that there 
is likely no economic benefit to excluding these lands from critical 
habitat because of economic impacts. However, as described above, in an 
area where the preservation of partnerships is so important to 
accomplishing conservation (Crouse et al. 2002, p. 720), the 
potentially negative perception of critical habitat designation on 
private lands may serve as a real disincentive to continued cooperation 
with A & B or to the formation of new working partnerships with other 
private landowners in the islands, thus resulting in a net loss of 
conservation benefit.
    We believe that excluding 1,052 ac (426 ha) of A & B lands at the 
head of Wainiha Valley from critical habitat on the basis of other 
considerations (e.g., other relevant impacts) will help maintain and 
improve our partnership relationship with this landowner by 
acknowledging their positive contribution to conservation on Kauai, and 
will result in the greatest net conservation benefit to the 21 Kauai 
species considered on these lands in this final rule. In addition, we 
believe this recognition may provide other landowners with a positive 
incentive to undertake voluntary conservation activities on their 
lands, particularly where there is no regulatory requirement to 
implement such actions.

Benefits of Exclusion Outweigh the Benefits of Inclusion

    Based on the above considerations and consistent with the direction 
provided in section 4(b)(2) of the Act, the Service has determined that 
the benefits of excluding Wainiha Valley as critical habitat for the 21 
Kauai species that occupy this unit outweigh the benefits of including 
it as critical habitat. This conclusion is based on the following 
factors:
    1. We believe the proactive management of habitat for akekee, 
akikiki, Astelia waialealae, Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi, Drosophila 
sharpi, Dryopteris crinalis var. podosorus, Dubautia kalalauensis, 
Dubautia waialealae, Geranium kauaiense, Keysseria erici, K. helenae, 
Labordia helleri, Labordia pumila, Lysimachia daphnoides, Melicope 
degeneri, Melicope puberula, Mysine mezii, Phyllostegia renovans, 
Platydesma rostrata, Psychotria grandiflora, and Tetraplasandra flynii 
provided under KWA's Plan (2005), the East Alakai Protective Fencing 
Project Management Plan, and the 10-year conservation agreement with 
TNC for management of the Wainiha Preserve will achieve important 
conservation goals supported by the Service and provide significant 
benefits to these species. The voluntary conservation efforts taking 
place on A & B lands in the Wainiha Valley serve to manage and reduce 
the primary threats (feral ungulates and invasive plant species) to 
these 21 species and restore native species habitat and ecosystem 
function; these actions are vitally important for achieving recovery of 
these listed species. In the past, A & B

[[Page 19041]]

has cooperated with the Service, the State, and other organizations to 
implement voluntary conservation activities on their lands that have 
resulted in tangible conservation benefits. Based on their demonstrated 
past commitment to conservation, we believe it is reasonable to expect 
these positive conservation management actions to continue in the 
Wainiha Valley.
    2. Excluding this area from critical habitat will help maintain and 
improve our partnership relationship with this landowner. A & B has 
commented that the designation of critical habitat in Wainiha Valley as 
originally proposed (73 FR 62592; October 21, 2008) will likely have a 
negative impact on ongoing and future voluntary conservation efforts by 
A & B, and that other private landowners may be dissuaded from entering 
into such voluntary agreements as well. We believe that designating 
critical habitat on these lands over the objections of the landowner, 
our proven conservation partner A & B, could create a disincentive for 
other landowners who might otherwise considering partnering with the 
Service to achieve conservation goals, but who desire to avoid possible 
Federal regulation under the Act. Given the importance of such 
cooperative partnerships in achieving the conservation and recovery of 
listed species in Hawaii, and considering the voluntary actions of A & 
B are currently contributing to the management and reduction of the 
primary threats to the listed species, namely feral ungulates and 
invasive nonnative plants, the designation of critical habitat in 
Wainiha Valley may result in a net loss of conservation benefit.
    3. Given the current beneficial management of A & B lands in the 
Wainiha Valley and the likelihood that this beneficial conservation 
management will continue, the benefits of including the 1,052 ac (426 
ha) of A & B lands as critical habitat would likely be minor. This 
determination is based on the fact that: (a) There have been no section 
7 conference actions in the area for these 21 species since we 
published the October 21, 2008 proposed rule (73 FR 62592); (b) we 
anticipate few if any future section 7 consultations in this remote, 
largely inaccessible area, apart from those beneficial actions related 
to federal conservation funding; (c) any future Federal actions 
affecting listed species in this area would be subject to section 7 
consultation since the area is occupied by 4 of the 21 species; (d) 
future Federal actions in this area are expected to be beneficial to 
the species; (e) we believe that we have largely achieved the 
educational intent of critical habitat through the publication of this 
final rule and mapping of the excluded area to identify its 
conservation value; and (f) given the extremely remote location of the 
area, the educational value of critical habitat in terms of informing 
the public or other entities of the conservation worth of this area is 
likely minimal.
    In conclusion, we find that the designation of critical habitat on 
A & B lands in the upper Wainiha Valley would most likely have a net 
negative conservation effect on the listed species as well as on other 
conservation activities. The overall benefits of a critical habitat 
designation for the listed species would be small, and we believe there 
is a greater probability of positive conservation activities continuing 
in the Wainiha Valley without designated critical habitat than there 
would be with critical habitat. The landowner has stated that they are 
more likely to continue and increase their ongoing voluntary 
conservation efforts absent a critical habitat designation. They have 
furthermore indicated that other private landowners are unlikely to 
enter into similar cooperative agreements if critical habitat is 
designated, a supposition supported by the literature. Furthermore, we 
agree that designating critical habitat in this area, over the 
publicly-stated objections of a partner with a strong track record of 
consistently providing positive contributions to conservation, may well 
serve as a deterrent to other landowners who might otherwise consider 
entering into voluntary management agreements. We believe the continued 
implementation of the KWA's ongoing management programs and the East 
Alakai Protective Fencing Project Management Plan, programs actively 
supported by the Service due to their significant conservation benefits 
for numerous listed species as well as the ecosystem as a whole, will 
provide comparable or greater net conservation benefits than those that 
would result from critical habitat designation. The exclusion of these 
lands would accrue significant conservation benefits resulting from A & 
B's voluntary participation in the KWA; the conservation agreement with 
TNC for Wainiha Preserve; implementation of the East Alakai Protective 
Fencing Project Management Plan; A & B's ongoing and continued actions 
to monitor and control invasive species, protect and restore plant 
habitat, monitor native species, and monitor watershed integrity; and 
the maintenance of a strong working partnership between A & B and the 
Service in the Wainiha Valley and in other important conservation areas 
in the islands. In addition, we believe there is a significant 
conservation benefit to be gained for the 21 Kauai species that are the 
subject of this exclusion as well as other listed species throughout 
the islands by acknowledging partners who have made significant 
contributions to conservation, thus serving as a model and incentive 
for other private landowners to develop similar conservation 
partnerships. We, therefore, are excluding 1,052 ac (426 ha) of A & B 
lands in the upper Wainiha Valley that are within Section 1 (Kauai 
Plants Critical Habitat Unit 18 - Montane Wet; Loxops caeruleirostris 
Unit 4 - Montane Wet; Oreomystis bairdi Unit 1 - Montane Wet; 
Drosophila attigua Unit 4 - Montane Wet, as described in the proposed 
rule) from the critical habitat designation under section 4(b)(2) of 
the Act. We will reevaluate our determination to exclude 1,052 ac (426 
ha) of A & B lands in the upper Wainiha Valley if, in the future, A & B 
withdraws from voluntary participation in any of the beneficial 
conservation actions described above, or if the ownership of this area 
should change.

Exclusion Will Not Result in Extinction of the Species

    We have determined that the exclusion of A & B's portion of Section 
1 (Kauai Critical Habitat Unit 18 - Montane Wet; Loxops caeruleirostris 
Unit 4 - Montane Wet; Oreomystis bairdi Unit 1 - Montane Wet; 
Drosophila attigua Unit 4 - Montane Wet, as described in the proposed 
rule) from the final designation of critical habitat will not result in 
the extinction of akekee, akikiki, Astelia waialealae, Chamaesyce remyi 
var. remyi, Drosophila sharpi, Dryopteris crinalis var. podosorus, 
Dubautia kalalauensis, Dubautia waialealae, Geranium kauaiense, 
Keysseria erici, K. helenae, Labordia helleri, Labordia pumila, 
Lysimachia daphnoides, Melicope degeneri, Melicope puberula, Mysine 
mezii, Phyllostegia renovans, Platydesma rostrata, Psychotria 
grandiflora, and Tetraplasandra flynii. A & B's voluntary participation 
in the KWA and support of the KWA's management actions, A & B's 
establishment of the Wainiha Preserve and support of the management 
actions in Wainiha Valley, including the A & B lands in the upper 
Wainiha Valley proposed as critical habitat, and voluntary support and 
implementation of the East Alakai Protective Fencing

[[Page 19042]]

Project Management Plan provide tangible conservation benefits that 
reduce the likelihood of extinction for these 21 species and increase 
these species' recovery potential. We are unaware of any threats on 
these lands associated with Federal actions that would require section 
7 consultations. In addition, since this area is occupied by 4 of the 
21 species, consultations under section 7 of the Act would be required, 
and any Federal actions that may affect the species would be evaluated 
under the jeopardy standard of section 7 of the Act. This evaluation 
provides assurances that the species would not become extinct as a 
result of exclusion of these lands from designation as critical 
habitat. Based on all of these considerations, we therefore conclude 
that excluding this area will not result in the extinction of any of 
the 21 species.
    With regard to other protections, section 195D-4 of Hawaii Revised 
Statutes (endangered species and threatened species) stipulates that 
species determined to be endangered or threatened under the Federal Act 
shall be deemed endangered or threatened under the State law. Under the 
State law, it is unlawful, with some exceptions, to ``take'' such 
species, or to possess, sell, carry or transport them. The statutory 
protections for this species under State law provide additional 
assurances that exclusion of this area from critical habitat will not 
result in extinction of one or more of the 21 species in this final 
rule that currently occupy, or potentially could occupy, these lands.

Required Determinations

Regulatory Planning and Review (Executive Order 12866)

    The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has determined that this 
rule is not significant under Executive Order 12866 (E.O. 12866). OMB 
bases its determination upon the following four criteria:
     (a) Whether the rule will have an annual effect of $100 million or 
more on the economy or adversely affect an economic sector, 
productivity, jobs, the environment, or other units of the government.
     (b) Whether the rule will create inconsistencies with other 
Federal agencies' actions.
     (c) Whether the rule will materially affect entitlements, grants, 
user fees, loan programs, or the rights and obligations of their 
recipients.
     (d) Whether the rule raises novel legal or policy issues.

Regulatory Flexibility Act

    Under the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA; 5 U.S.C. 601 et seq., as 
amended by the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act 
(SBREFA) of 1996), whenever an agency must publish a notice of 
rulemaking for any proposed or final rule, it must prepare and make 
available for public comment a regulatory flexibility analysis that 
describes the effects of the rule on small entities (small businesses, 
small organizations, and small government jurisdictions). However, no 
regulatory flexibility analysis is required if the head of the agency 
certifies the rule will not have a significant economic impact on a 
substantial number of small entities. SBREFA amended RFA to require 
Federal agencies to provide a statement of the factual basis for 
certifying that the rule will not have a significant economic impact on 
a substantial number of small entities.
    Small entities include small organizations, such as independent 
nonprofit organizations; small governmental jurisdictions, including 
school boards and city and town governments that serve fewer than 
50,000 residents; as well as small businesses. Small businesses include 
manufacturing and mining concerns with fewer than 500 employees, 
wholesale trade entities with fewer than 100 employees, retail and 
service businesses with less than $5 million in annual sales, general 
and heavy construction businesses with less than $27.5 million in 
annual business, special trade contractors doing less than $11.5 
million in annual business, and agricultural businesses with annual 
sales less than $750,000. To determine if potential economic impacts to 
these small entities are significant, we consider the types of 
activities that might trigger regulatory impacts under this rule, as 
well as the types of project modifications that may result. In general, 
the term ``significant economic impact'' is meant to apply to a typical 
small business firm's business operations.
    To determine if a designation of critical habitat could 
significantly affect a substantial number of small entities, we 
consider the number of small entities affected within particular types 
of economic activities (e.g., housing development, grazing, oil and gas 
production, timber harvesting). We apply the ``substantial number'' 
test individually to each industry to determine if certification is 
appropriate. However, the SBREFA does not explicitly define 
``substantial number'' or ``significant economic impact.'' 
Consequently, to assess whether a ``substantial number'' of small 
entities is affected by this designation, this analysis considers the 
relative number of small entities likely to be impacted in an area. In 
some circumstances, especially with critical habitat designations of 
limited extent, we may aggregate across all industries and consider 
whether the total number of small entities affected is substantial. In 
estimating the number of small entities potentially affected, we also 
consider whether their activities have any Federal involvement.
    Designation of critical habitat only affects activities carried 
out, funded, or permitted by Federal agencies. Some kinds of activities 
are unlikely to have any Federal involvement and so will not be 
affected by critical habitat designation. If there is a Federal nexus, 
Federal agencies will be required to consult with us under section 7 of 
the Act on activities they fund, permit, or carry out that may affect 
critical habitat. If we conclude, in a biological opinion, that a 
proposed action is likely to destroy or adversely modify critical 
habitat, we can offer ``reasonable and prudent alternatives.'' 
Reasonable and prudent alternatives are alternative actions that can be 
implemented in a manner consistent with the scope of the Federal 
agency's legal authority and jurisdiction, that are economically and 
technologically feasible, and that would avoid destroying or adversely 
modifying critical habitat. A Federal agency and an applicant may elect 
to implement a reasonable and prudent alternative associated with a 
biological opinion that has found adverse modification of critical 
habitat. An agency or applicant could alternatively choose to seek an 
exemption from the requirements of the Act or proceed without 
implementing the reasonable and prudent alternative. However, unless an 
exemption were obtained, the Federal agency or applicant would be at 
risk of violating section 7(a)(2) of the Act if it chose to proceed 
without implementing the reasonable and prudent alternatives. We may 
also identify discretionary conservation recommendations designed to 
minimize or avoid the adverse effects of a proposed action on critical 
habitat, help implement recovery plans, or to develop information that 
could contribute to the recovery of the species.
    Within this critical habitat designation, the types of actions or 
authorized activities that we have identified as potential concerns and 
that are subject to consultation under section 7 if there is a Federal 
nexus include:

[[Page 19043]]

 Activities that might affect the primary constituent elements 
for the species including, but not limited to, the following: grazing; 
maintaining or increasing feral ungulate levels; clearing or cutting 
native live trees and shrubs (e.g., woodcutting, bulldozing, 
construction, road building, mining, herbicide application); and taking 
actions that pose a risk of fire.
 Activities that may alter watershed characteristics in ways 
that would reduce groundwater recharge or alter natural, wetland, or 
vegetative communities. Such activities include new water diversion or 
impoundment, groundwater pumping, and manipulation of vegetation 
through activities such as the ones mentioned above.
 Recreational activities that may degrade vegetation.
 Mining sand or other minerals.
 Introducing or encouraging the spread of nonnative plant 
species.
 Importing nonnative species for research, agriculture, and 
aquaculture, and releasing biological control agents.
    None of the critical habitat units contain significant residential, 
commercial, industrial, or golf-course projects; crop farming; or 
intensive livestock operations. Few projects are planned for locations 
in the designated critical habitat. This situation reflects the fact 
that (1) most of the land is unsuitable for development, farming, or 
other economic activities due to the rugged mountain terrain, lack of 
access, and remote locations; and (2) existing land-use controls 
severely limit development and most other economic activities in the 
mountainous interior of Kauai. Although some existing and continuing 
activities involve the operation and maintenance of existing manmade 
features and structures in certain areas, these areas do not contain 
the primary constituent elements for the species, and would not be 
impacted by the designation. Any existing and planned projects, land 
uses, and activities that could affect the designated critical habitat 
but have no Federal involvement would not require section 7 
consultation with the Service, so they are not restricted by the 
requirements of the Act. Finally, for the anticipated projects and 
activities that will have Federal involvement, many are conservation 
efforts that will not negatively impact the species or their habitat, 
so they will be subject to a minimal level of informal section 7 
consultation. We anticipate that a developer or other project proponent 
could modify a project or take measures to protect the 47 Kauai 
species. The kinds of actions that may be included if future reasonable 
and prudent alternatives become necessary include conservation set-
asides, management of competing nonnative species, restoration of 
degraded habitat, and regular monitoring. These measures are not likely 
to result in a significant economic impact to project proponents.
    In addition, Federal agencies may also need to reinitiate a 
previous consultation if discretionary involvement or control over the 
Federal action has been retained or is authorized by law and the 
activities may affect critical habitat. However, between 2002 and 2007, 
there were no formal consultations and 55 informal consultations on 
Kauai, in addition to consultations on Federal grants to State wildlife 
programs (which would not affect small entities). The majority of the 
consultations were related to project effects on seabird flyways, 
nesting by endangered water birds, or roosting by the endangered 
Hawaiian hoary bat (opeapea). Several consultations were conducted with 
the U.S. Department of Agriculture (Natural Resources Conservation 
Service (NRCS)) for proposed funding for habitat restoration projects 
under the Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program (WHIP), and one was 
conducted with the Navy for weed removal at the Pacific Missile Range 
Facility (PMRF). Five of the 55 informal consultations concerned 
designated critical habitat, and we concurred with each agency's 
determination that the project, as proposed, was not likely to 
adversely affect critical habitat. In this final rule, we are 
designating critical habitat on a total of 26,582 ac (10,757 ha) of 
land. Ninety-eight percent (25,988 ac (10,517 ha)) of this designated 
critical habitat designation is already critical habitat for one or 
more species, and two percent (594 ac (240 ha)) of the designation is 
on lands newly designated as critical habitat. However, none of the 
Federal actions that were subject to previous section 7 consultation 
are on the lands we are designating as critical habitat in this final 
rule. Therefore, there is no requirement to reinitiate consultation for 
any ongoing Federal projects.
    In the 2001 economic analysis of the designation of critical 
habitat for 83 species of plants from the islands of Kauai and Niihau, 
we evaluated the potential economic effects on small business entities 
resulting from the protection of these plant species and their habitat 
related to the designation of critical habitat and determined that it 
would not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of 
small entities. The RFA/SBREFA defines ``small governmental 
jurisdiction'' as the government of a city, county, town, school 
district, or special district with a population of less than 50,000. By 
this definition, Kauai County is not a small governmental jurisdiction 
because its population was 58,463 in 2000. Certain State agencies may 
be affected by the critical habitat designation--, such as the 
Department of Land and Natural Resources and the State Department of 
Transportation, may be affected by the critical habitat designation.. 
However, for the purposes of the RFA, State governments are considered 
independent sovereigns, not small governments. Because of Federal 
involvement, TNC and NTBG could be affected by the critical habitat 
designation and would possibly be considered to be small organizations. 
The SBREFA defines ``small organization'' as any not-for-profit 
enterprise which is independently owned and operated and is not 
dominant in its field. We determined that TNC and NTBG are both large 
organizations that are dominant in Kauai County in their respective 
fields. The significant overlap between the critical habitat 
designation for the 83 species and this critical habitat designation is 
further evidence that this designation will not have a significant 
economic impact on a substantial number of small entities.
    In summary, we have considered whether this designation would 
result in a significant economic effect on a substantial number of 
small entities. For the above reasons and based on currently available 
information, we certify that the designation of critical habitat for 
the 47 species will not have a significant effect on a substantial 
number of small entities. Federal involvement, and thus section 7 
consultations, would be limited to a subset of the area designated. The 
most likely Federal involvement could include funding provided by NRCS 
and the Service for habitat restoration projects. A regulatory 
flexibility analysis is not required.

Unfunded Mandates Reform Act

    In accordance with the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (2 U.S.C. 1501 
et seq.), we make the following findings:
     (a) This designation of critical habitat will not produce a 
Federal mandate. In general, a Federal mandate is a provision in 
legislation, statute, or regulation that would imposes an enforceable 
duty upon State, local, or tribal governments, or the private sector, 
and includes both ``Federal intergovernmental mandates'' and

[[Page 19044]]

``Federal private sector mandates.'' These terms are defined in 2 
U.S.C. 658(5)-(7). ``Federal intergovernmental mandate'' includes a 
regulation that ``would impose an enforceable duty upon State, local, 
or tribal governments'' with two exceptions. It excludes ``a condition 
of Federal assistance.'' It also excludes ``a duty arising from 
participation in a voluntary Federal program,'' unless the regulation 
``relates to a then-existing Federal program under which $500,000,000 
or more is provided annually to State, local, and tribal governments 
under entitlement authority,'' if the provision would ``increase the 
stringency of conditions of assistance'' or ``place caps upon, or 
otherwise decrease, the Federal Government's responsibility to provide 
funding,'' and the State, local, or tribal governments ``lack 
authority'' to adjust accordingly. At the time of enactment, these 
entitlement programs were: Medicaid; AFDC work programs; Child 
Nutrition; Food Stamps; Social Services Block Grants; Vocational 
Rehabilitation State Grants; Foster Care, Adoption Assistance, and 
Independent Living; Family Support Welfare Services; and Child Support 
Enforcement. ``Federal private sector mandate'' includes a regulation 
that ``would impose an enforceable duty upon the private sector, except 
(i) a condition of Federal assistance or (ii) a duty arising from 
participation in a voluntary Federal program.''
    The designation of critical habitat does not impose a legally 
binding duty on non-Federal Government entities or private parties. 
Under the Act, the only regulatory effect is that Federal agencies must 
ensure that their actions do not destroy or adversely modify critical 
habitat under section 7. While non-Federal entities that receive 
Federal funding, assistance, or permits, or that otherwise require 
approval or authorization from a Federal agency for an action, may be 
indirectly impacted by the designation of critical habitat, the legally 
binding duty to avoid destruction or adverse modification of critical 
habitat rests squarely on the Federal agency. Furthermore, to the 
extent that non-Federal entities are indirectly impacted because they 
receive Federal assistance or participate in a voluntary Federal aid 
program, the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act would not apply, nor would 
critical habitat shift the costs of the large entitlement programs 
listed above onto State governments.
    We do not believe that this rule will significantly or uniquely 
affect small governments. The lands we are designating as critical 
habitat are owned by the State of Hawaii and private citizens. None of 
these entities fit the definition of ``small governmental 
jurisdiction.'' Therefore, a Small Government Agency Plan is not 
required.

Takings

    In accordance with E.O. 12630 (Government Actions and Interference 
with Constitutionally Protected Private Property Rights), we have 
analyzed the potential takings implications of designation of critical 
habitat for each of the 47 species in a takings implications 
assessment. The takings implications assessment concludes that this 
designation of critical habitat for each of these species does not pose 
significant takings implications for lands within or affected by the 
designation.

Federalism

    In accordance with E.O. 13132 (Federalism), this final rule does 
not have significant Federalism effects. A Federalism assessment is not 
required. In keeping with Department of the Interior and Department of 
Commerce policy, we requested information from, and coordinated 
development of, this final critical habitat designation with 
appropriate State resource agencies in Hawaii. The designation of 
critical habitat for each of these species (excluding Pritchardia 
hardyi for which no critical habitat has been designated) imposes no 
additional restrictions to those currently in place and, therefore, has 
little incremental impact on State and local governments and their 
activities. The designation may have some benefit to these governments 
because the areas that contain the features essential to the 
conservation of the species are more clearly defined, and the primary 
constituent elements of the habitat necessary to the conservation of 
the species are specifically identified. This information does not 
alter where and what federally sponsored activities may occur. However, 
it may assist local governments in long-range planning (rather than 
having them wait for case-by-case section 7 consultations to occur).

Civil Justice Reform

    In accordance with E.O. 12988 (Civil Justice Reform), the Office of 
the Solicitor has determined that the rule does not unduly burden the 
judicial system and that it meets the requirements of sections 3(a) and 
3(b)(2) of the Order. We are designating critical habitat in accordance 
with the provisions of the Act. This final rule uses standard property 
descriptions and identifies the physical and biological features 
essential to the conservation of the species within the designated 
areas to assist the public in understanding the habitat needs of each 
of the 47 species for which critical habitat is designated in this 
final rule.

Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.)

    This rule does not contain any new collections of information that 
require approval by OMB under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 
U.S.C. 3501 et seq.). This rule will not impose recordkeeping or 
reporting requirements on State or local governments, individuals, 
businesses, or organizations. An agency may not conduct or sponsor, and 
a person is not required to respond to, a collection of information 
unless it displays a currently valid OMB control number.

National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)

    It is our position that, outside the jurisdiction of the United 
States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit, we do not need to 
prepare environmental analyses as defined by NEPA (42 U.S.C. 4321 et 
seq.) in connection with designating critical habitat under the Act. We 
published a notice outlining our reasons for this determination in the 
Federal Register on October 25, 1983 (48 FR 49244). This assertion was 
upheld by the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit 
(Douglas County v. Babbitt, 48 F.3d 1495 (9th Cir. 1995), cert. denied 
516 U.S. 1042 (1996)).

Government-to-Government Relationship with Tribes

    In accordance with the President's memorandum of April 29, 1994, 
Government-to-Government Relations with Native American Tribal 
Governments (59 FR 22951), E.O. 13175, and the Department of Interior's 
manual at 512 DM 2, we readily acknowledge our responsibility to 
communicate meaningfully with recognized Federal tribes on a 
government-to-government basis. In accordance with Secretarial Order 
3206 of June 5, 1997 (American Indian Tribal Rights, Federal-Tribal 
Trust Responsibilities, and the Endangered Species Act), we readily 
acknowledge our responsibilities to work directly with tribes in 
developing programs for healthy ecosystems, to acknowledge that tribal 
lands are not subject to the same controls as Federal public lands, to 
remain sensitive to Indian culture, and to make information available 
to tribes. We have determined that there are no recognized Federal 
tribes in the State of Hawaii, and there are no tribal lands essential 
for the

[[Page 19045]]

conservation of the 47 Kauai species for which we are designating 
critical habitat. Therefore, this final designation of critical habitat 
does not involve any tribal lands.

Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use

    On May 18, 2001, the President issued an Executive Order (E.O. 
13211; Actions Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy 
Supply, Distribution, or Use) on regulations that significantly affect 
energy supply, distribution, and use. E.O. 13211 requires agencies to 
prepare Statements of Energy Effects when undertaking certain actions. 
This final rule to designate critical habitat for 47 of the 48 species 
is not a significant regulatory action under E.O. 12866. We do not 
expect it to significantly affect energy supplies, distribution, or use 
because these areas are not presently used for energy production, and 
we are unaware of any future plans in this regard. Therefore, this 
action is not a significant energy action, and no Statement of Energy 
Effects is required.

References Cited

    A complete list of references cited in this rule is available upon 
request from the Field Supervisor, Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife 
Office (see ADDRESSES).

Authors

    The authors of this document are the staff members of the Pacific 
Islands Fish and Wildlife Office, Fish and Wildlife Service (see FOR 
FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT).

List of Subjects in 50 CFR Part 17

    Endangered and threatened species, Exports, Imports, Reporting and 
recordkeeping requirements, Transportation.

Regulation Promulgation

0
Accordingly, we amend part 17, subchapter B of chapter I, title 50 of 
the Code of Federal Regulations, as set forth below:

PART 17--[AMENDED]

0
1. The authority citation for part 17 continues to read as follows:

    Authority: 16 U.S.C. 1361-1407; 16 U.S.C. 1531-1544; 16 U.S.C. 
4201-4245; Pub. L. 99-625, 100 Stat. 3500; unless otherwise noted.

0
2. Amend Sec.  17.11(h), the List of Endangered and Threatened 
Wildlife, as follows:
0
a. By adding entries for ``Akekee (honeycreeper)'' and ``Akikiki 
(honeycreeper)'' in alphabetical order under BIRDS; and
0
b. By adding an entry for ``Fly, Hawaiian picture-wing'' (Drosophila 
sharpi) in alphabetical order under INSECTS, to read as set forth 
below.


Sec.  17.11  Endangered and threatened wildlife.

* * * * *
    (h) * * *

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                     Species                                           Vertebrate
-------------------------------------------------                   population where                                        Critical
                                                   Historic range     endangered or        Status        When listed        habitat       Special rules
         Common name            Scientific name                        threatened
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                          BIRDS
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Akekee(honeycreeper)           Loxopscaeruleiros  U.S.A. (HI)       Entire            E                765              17.95(b)         NA
                                tris
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Akikiki (honeycreeper)         Oreomystis bairdi  U.S.A. (HI)       Entire            E                 765             17.95(b)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                         INSECTS
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Fly, Hawaiian picture-wing     Drosophila sharpi  U.S.A. (HI)       NA                E                765              17.95(i)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

0
3. Amend Sec.  17.12(h), the List of Endangered and Threatened Plants, 
as follows:
0
a. By adding entries for Astelia waialealae, Canavalia napaliensis, 
Chamaesyce eleanoriae, Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis, Chamaesyce 
remyi var. remyi, Charpentiera densiflora, Cyanea dolichopoda, Cyanea 
eleeleensis, Cyanea kolekoleensis, Cyanea kuhihewa, Cyrtandra 
oenobarba, Cyrtandra paliku, Dubautia imbricata ssp. imbricata, 
Dubautia kalalauensis, Dubautia kenwoodii, Dubautia plantaginea ssp. 
magnifolia, Dubautia waialealae, Geranium kauaiense, Keysseria erici, 
Keysseria helenae, Labordia helleri, Labordia pumila, Lysimachia 
daphnoides, Lysimachia iniki, Lysimachia pendens, Lysimachia 
scopulensis, Lysimachia venosa, Melicope degeneri, Melicope paniculata, 
Melicope puberula, Myrsine knudsenii, Myrsine mezii, Phyllostegia 
renovans, Pittosporum napaliense, Platydesma rostrata, Pritchardia 
hardyi, Psychotria grandiflora, Psychotria hobdyi, Schiedea attenuata, 
Stenogyne kealiae, Tetraplasandra bisattenuata, and Tetraplasandra 
flynnii in alphabetical order under FLOWERING PLANTS; and
0
b. By adding entries for Diellia mannii, Doryopteris angelica, and 
Dryopteris crinalis var. podosorus in alphabetical order under FERNS 
AND ALLIES, to read as set forth below.


Sec.  17.12  Endangered and threatened plants.

* * * * *
     (h) * * *

[[Page 19046]]



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    Species
------------------------------------------------  Historic range         Family            Status        When listed        Critical      Special rules
       Scientific name            Common name                                                                               habitat
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                    FLOWERING PLANTS
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Astelia waialealae             Painiu            U.S.A. (HI)       Asteliaceae        E                 765             17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Canavalia napaliensis          Awikiwiki         U.S.A. (HI)       Fabaceae           E                765              17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chamaesyce eleanoriae          Akoko             U.S.A. (HI)       Euphorbiaceae      E                765              17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chamaesyce remyi var.          Akoko             U.S.A. (HI)       Euphorbiaceae      E                765              17.99(a)         NA
 kauaiensis
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi    Akoko             U.S.A. (HI)       Euphorbiaceae      E                765              17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Charpentiera densiflora        Papala            U.S.A. (HI)       Amaranathaceae     E                765              17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cyanea dolichopoda             Haha              U.S.A. (HI)       Campanulaceae      E                765              17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cyanea eleeleensis             Haha              U.S.A. (HI)       Campanulaceae      E                765              17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cyanea kolekoleensis           Haha              U.S.A. (HI)       Campanulaceae      E                765              17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cyanea kuhihewa                Haha              U.S.A. (HI)       Campanulaceae      E                765              17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cyrtandra oenobarba            Haiwale           U.S.A. (HI)       Gesneriaceae       E                765              17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cyrtandra paliku               Haiwale           U.S.A. (HI)       Gesneriaceae       E                765              17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dubautia imbricata ssp.        Naenae            U.S.A. (HI)       Asteraceae         E                765              17.99(a)         NA
 imbricata
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dubautia kalalauensis          Naenae            U.S.A. (HI)       Asteraceae         E                765              17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dubautia kenwoodii             Naenae            U.S.A. (HI)       Asteraceae         E                765              17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dubautia plantaginea ssp.      Naenae            U.S.A. (HI)       Asteraceae         E                765              17.99(a)         NA
 magnifolia
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 19047]]

 
Dubautia waialealae            Naenae            U.S.A. (HI)       Asteraceae         E                765              17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Geranium kauaiense             Nohoanu           U.S.A. (HI)       Geraniaceae        E                765              17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Keysseria erici                No common name    U.S.A. (HI)       Asteraceae         E                765              17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Keysseria helenae              No common name    U.S.A. (HI)       Asteraceae         E                765              17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Labordia helleri               Kamakahala        U.S.A. (HI)       Loganiaceae        E                765              17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Labordia pumila                Kamakahala        U.S.A. (HI)       Loganiaceae        E                765              17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lysimachia daphnoides          Lehua makanoe     U.S.A. (HI)       Myrsinaceae        E                765              17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lysimachia iniki               No common name    U.S.A. (HI)       Myrsinaceae        E                765              17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lysimachia pendens             No common name    U.S.A. (HI)       Myrsinaceae        E                765              17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lysimachia scopulensis         No common name    U.S.A. (HI)       Myrsinaceae        E                765              17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lysimachia venosa              No common name    U.S.A. (HI)       Myrsinaceae        E                765              17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Melicope degeneri              Alani             U.S.A. (HI)       Rutaceae           E                765              17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Melicope paniculata            Alani             U.S.A. (HI)       Rutaceae           E                765              17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Melicope puberula              Alani             U.S.A. (HI)       Rutaceae           E                765              17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Myrsine knudsenii              Kolea             U.S.A. (HI)       Myrsinaceae        E                765              17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Myrsine mezii                  Kolea             U.S.A. (HI)       Myrsinaceae        E                765              17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Phyllostegia renovans          No common name    U.S.A. (HI)       Lamiaceae          E                765              17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 19048]]

 
Pittosporum napaliense         Hoawa             U.S.A. (HI)       Pittosporaceae     E                765              17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Platydesma rostrata            Pilo kea lau lii  U.S.A. (HI)       Rutaceae           E                765              17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pritchardia hardyi             Loulu             U.S.A. (HI)       Arecaceae          E                765              NA               NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Psychotria grandiflora         Kopiko            U.S.A. (HI)       Rubiaceae          E                765              17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Psychotria hobdyi              Kopiko            U.S.A. (HI)       Rubiaceae          E                765              17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Schiedea attenuata             No common name    U.S.A. (HI)       Caryophyllaceae    E                765              17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Stenogyne kealiae              No common name    U.S.A. (HI)       Lamiaceae          E                765              17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tetraplasandra bisattenuata    No common name    U.S.A. (HI)       Araliaceae         E                765              17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tetraplasandra flynnii         No common name    U.S.A. (HI)       Araliaceae         E                765              17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                    FERNS AND ALLIES
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Diellia mannii                 No common name    U.S.A. (HI)       Aspleniaceae       E                765              17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Doryopteris angelica           No common name    U.S.A. (HI)       Pteridaceae        E                765              17.99(a)         NA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dryopteris crinalis var.       Palapalai         U.S.A. (HI)       Dryopteridaceae    E                765              17.99(a)         NA
 podosorus                      aumakua
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                      * * * * * * *
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

0
4. Amend Sec.  17.95 as follows:
0
a. In paragraph (b), by adding critical habitat for ``Akekee (Loxops 
caeruleirostris)'' and ``Akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi)'' in the same 
alphabetical order as these species occur in the table at Sec.  
17.11(h); and
0
b. In paragraph (i), by adding critical habitat for ``Hawaiian picture-
wing fly (Drosophila sharpi)'' in the same alphabetical order as this 
species occurs in the table at Sec.  17.11(h), to read as set forth 
below.


Sec.  17.95  Critical habitat--fish and wildlife.

* * * * *
    (b) Birds.
Akekee (Loxops caeruleirostris)
    (1) Critical habitat units are depicted for Kauai County, Hawaii, 
on the maps below.
    (2) Primary constituent elements.
    (i) In units 1, 2, and 3, the primary constituent elements of 
critical habitat for Akekee (Loxops caeruleirostris) are:
    (A) Elevation: 3,000 to 5,243 ft (914 to 1,598 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 inches (127 to 190 centimeters).
    (C) Substrate: Weathered aa lava flows, rocky mucks, thin silty 
loams, deep volcanic ash soils.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Metrosideros, Psychotria, Tetraplasandra, 
Zanthoxylum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cheirodendron, Coprosma, Kadua, Ilex, Myoporum, 
Myrsine.

[[Page 19049]]

    (F) Understory: Bidens, Dryopteris, Leptecophylla, Poa, Scaevola, 
Sophora.
    (G) Arthropod prey.
    (ii) In units 4, 5, and 6, the primary constituent elements of 
critical habitat for Akekee (Loxops caeruleirostris) are:
    (A) Elevation: 3,000 to 5,243 ft (914 to 1,598 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 centimeters).
    (C) Substrate: Well-developed soils, montane bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Charpentiera, Cheirodendron, Metrosideros.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cibotium, Eurya, Ilex, Myrsine.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Coprosma, Leptecophylla, Oreobolus, 
Rhynchospora, Vaccinium.
    (G) Arthropod prey.
    (3) Manmade features and structures, such as buildings, roads, 
railroads, airports, runways, other paved areas, lawns, and other urban 
landscaped areas, existing on the effective date of this rule do not 
contain one or more of the primary constituent elements.
    (4) Critical habitat maps. Maps were created in GIS, with 
coordinates in UTM Zone 4, units in meters using North American datum 
of 1983 (NAD 83).
    (5) Index map of critical habitat units for Akekee (Loxops 
caeruleirostris) follows:
BILLING CODE 4310-55-S

[[Page 19050]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR13AP10.014

BILLING CODE 4310-55-C

[[Page 19051]]

    (6) Unit 1-Montane Mesic, Kauai County, Hawaii.
    (i) Unit 1-Montane Mesic consists of 2,422.6 ac (980.4 ha) and 
includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, NAD 83 coordinates 
(E, N): 430107, 2447429; 430242, 2447664; 430073, 2447126; 430793, 
2448310; 430124, 2446907; 430393, 2447748; 430690, 2447765; 430671, 
2447997; 430764, 2448188; 430886, 2448507; 430903, 2448664; 430985, 
2448705; 431560, 2448675; 431414, 2448890; 430291, 2446570; 431058, 
2446300; 431200, 2449070; 431362, 2449169; 431171, 2448699; 430854, 
2445930; 432530, 2450196; 431391, 2449273; 431323, 2447013; 431211, 
2446394; 431101, 2446447; 431112, 2446394; 431069, 2446331; 431007, 
2446203; 430944, 2446145; 430902, 2445976; 430191, 2446386; 430826, 
2445805; 430857, 2445727; 430824, 2445631; 430442, 2445640; 430323, 
2445779; 430204, 2445809; 430191, 2445898; 429898, 2446100; 429871, 
2446234; 430939, 2446061; 432796, 2450365; 432504, 2449961; 432579, 
2450036; 432552, 2450080; 432551, 2450083; 432001, 2447726; 432534, 
2450174; 431629, 2448739; 432565, 2450262; 432531, 2450116; 432740, 
2450249; 432441, 2449848; 432808, 2450383; 432882, 2450351; 432904, 
2450341; 432827, 2447751; 432932, 2447668; 433014, 2447717; 433109, 
2447775; 433094, 2447922; 432560, 2450267; 431875, 2449780; 431322, 
2449418; 431403, 2449436; 431727, 2449372; 431769, 2449447; 431705, 
2449569; 431720, 2449620; 431805, 2449591; 431919, 2449578; 432498, 
2449952; 431904, 2449665; 432486, 2449909; 432046, 2449781; 432052, 
2449783; 432113, 2449740; 432217, 2449712; 432251, 2449685; 432259, 
2449679; 432344, 2449744; 432419, 2449806; 431322, 2449372; 431905, 
2449660; 434486, 2447126; 434073, 2448685; 434228, 2448620; 434292, 
2448479; 434318, 2448298; 434279, 2447951; 434163, 2447783; 434086, 
2447693; 434073, 2447500; 434623, 2446526; 434357, 2447229; 433545, 
2449136; 434627, 2447088; 434686, 2447020; 434682, 2447017; 434657, 
2446977; 434652, 2446933; 434612, 2446807; 434641, 2446663; 434631, 
2446528; 434202, 2447345; 433399, 2449709; 431205, 2448983; 432073, 
2447674; 433046, 2450280; 433196, 2450196; 433287, 2450063; 433353, 
2449880; 433467, 2449787; 433429, 2449741; 433880, 2448827; 433407, 
2449708; 433725, 2448994; 433401, 2449697; 433339, 2449600; 433313, 
2449484; 433339, 2449381; 433368, 2449293; 433368, 2449292; 433369, 
2449255; 433389, 2449256; 434254, 2447886; 433408, 2449708; 433527, 
2447856; 434086, 2446095; 433862, 2446165; 433606, 2446193; 433449, 
2446235; 433397, 2446440; 433257, 2446958; 433577, 2447086; 433706, 
2447138; 434090, 2446098; 433562, 2447841; 432639, 2447624; 432918, 
2447407; 432672, 2447598; 434620, 2446512; 432609, 2447647; 434318, 
2448182; 432195, 2447587; 432136, 2447629; 432133, 2447631; 432081, 
2447668; 433746, 2447766; 434500, 2446448; 432320, 2447497; 434103, 
2446297; 434618, 2446459; 434582, 2446443; 434558, 2446439; 434514, 
2446449; 434471, 2446422; 434457, 2446416; 434447, 2446420; 434392, 
2446421; 434423, 2446441; 434416, 2446441; 434625, 2446467; 434201, 
2446573; 434403, 2446435; 434628, 2446479; 434400, 2446429; 434434, 
2446428; 434386, 2446429; 434533, 2446441.
    (ii)Map of Unit 1-Montane Mesic for Akekee (Loxops caeruleirostris) 
follows:
BILLING CODE 4310-55-S

[[Page 19052]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR13AP10.015


[[Page 19053]]


    (7) Unit 2-Montane Mesic, Kauai County, Hawaii.
    (i) Montane Mesic - Unit 2 consists of 375.6 ac (152.0 ha) and 
includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, NAD 83 coordinates 
(E, N): 431975, 2446280; 432559, 2446255; 432659, 2446240; 432948, 
2446150; 433067, 2445928; 432758, 2445304; 432001, 2445941; 431873, 
2444849; 432912, 2445580; 432674, 2444970; 431626, 2445435; 431730, 
2445114; 431950, 2444792; 432135, 2444807; 432377, 2444722; 432548, 
2444752; 431645, 2445326; 431736, 2445617.
    (ii) Map of Unit 2-Montane Mesic for Akekee (Loxops 
caeruleirostris) follows:

[[Page 19054]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR13AP10.016


[[Page 19055]]


    (8) Unit 3-Montane Mesic, Kauai County, Hawaii.
    (i) Unit 3-Montane Mesic consists of 138.5 ac (56.0 ha) and 
includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, NAD 83 coordinates 
(E, N): 438012, 2440389; 438014, 2440437; 438023, 2440484; 438111, 
2440652; 438112, 2440588; 437817, 2440071; 438028, 2440577; 437922, 
2440355; 437336, 2440335; 437912, 2440201; 437827, 2440132; 437785, 
2440013; 437687, 2439960; 437636, 2439819; 437870, 2440140; 437545, 
2439761; 438149, 2440714; 437529, 2439721; 437987, 2441027; 437450, 
2440047; 437335, 2440180; 437335, 2440329; 438159, 2440914; 438249, 
2440857; 438253, 2440854; 438243, 2440830; 438287, 2440738; 437602, 
2440771; 438227, 2440730; 437586, 2439743.
    (ii) Map of Unit 3-Montane Mesic for Akekee (Loxops 
caeruleirostris) follows:

[[Page 19056]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR13AP10.017

BILLING CODE 4310-55-C

[[Page 19057]]

    (9) Unit 4-Montane Wet, Kauai County, Hawaii.
    (i) Montane Wet-Unit 1 consists of 13,055.0 ac (5,283.2 ha) and 
includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, NAD 83 coordinates 
(E,N): 448638, 2440764; 448601, 2440679; 448606, 2440704; 448612, 
2440722; 448615, 2440731; 448619, 2440740; 448630, 2440759; 448650, 
2440769; 448600, 2440668; 448622, 2440749; 448599, 2440647; 448601, 
2440652; 448678, 2440741; 448777, 2440842; 448663, 2440773; 449006, 
2441012; 448764, 2440857; 449068, 2441051; 449121, 2441114; 449121, 
2441114; 448887, 2440934; 448811, 2440896; 448954, 2441097; 448943, 
2441063; 448943, 2441053; 448943, 2441044; 448941, 2441024; 448940, 
2441006; 448918, 2440982; 448877, 2440939; 448861, 2440927; 448735, 
2440829; 448837, 2440912; 448678, 2440780; 448802, 2440889; 448788, 
2440878; 449115, 2442038; 448745, 2440841; 449111, 2441196; 448727, 
2440820; 448720, 2440813; 448711, 2440806; 448691, 2440790; 448841, 
2440914; 447374, 2443275; 449244, 2441819; 447623, 2443445; 447616, 
2443588; 447603, 2443646; 447556, 2443686; 447325, 2443651; 447295, 
2443639; 447247, 2443586; 448634, 2443800; 447287, 2443339; 448657, 
2443629; 447481, 2443262; 447636, 2443160; 447645, 2443143; 447645, 
2443146; 447894, 2443371; 447865, 2443358; 447712, 2443351; 447631, 
2443389; 448948, 2441084; 447249, 2443451; 448917, 2442504; 449106, 
2441435; 449173, 2441529; 449201, 2441638; 449249, 2441697; 449275, 
2441773; 449148, 2441893; 449090, 2442135; 449064, 2442221; 448614, 
2443950; 448983, 2442384; 449078, 2441297; 448880, 2442563; 448861, 
2442593; 448805, 2442677; 448765, 2442787; 448696, 2442955; 448653, 
2443075; 448651, 2443187; 448674, 2443301; 448669, 2443477; 449024, 
2442290; 444824, 2443350; 444161, 2444181; 445808, 2442898; 445681, 
2442977; 445559, 2443010; 445437, 2443077; 446100, 2442628; 445045, 
2443240; 446256, 2442602; 444659, 2443447; 444532, 2443516; 444456, 
2443572; 444423, 2443638; 444334, 2443811; 446499, 2441271; 445254, 
2443156; 446686, 2441764; 441856, 2446328; 446673, 2441408; 446651, 
2441424; 446641, 2441436; 446587, 2441501; 445966, 2442725; 446640, 
2441627; 444075, 2444349; 446694, 2442007; 446591, 2442195; 446650, 
2442430; 446675, 2442432; 446482, 2442513; 446373, 2442574; 446587, 
2441543; 443497, 2444548; 444237, 2444013; 443579, 2444514; 443571, 
2444521; 443557, 2444532; 443553, 2444537; 443610, 2444483; 443516, 
2444546; 443617, 2444477; 443483, 2444551; 443478, 2444555; 443464, 
2444570; 443459, 2444579; 443452, 2444591; 443447, 2444608; 443534, 
2444543; 443722, 2444464; 444016, 2444444; 443984, 2444419; 443985, 
2444416; 443769, 2444440; 443760, 2444446; 443598, 2444493; 443732, 
2444458; 446375, 2441172; 443703, 2444469; 443685, 2444463; 443677, 
2444459; 443666, 2444456; 443647, 2444460; 443628, 2444469; 443740, 
2444454; 441656, 2441573; 442568, 2441274; 440114, 2440528; 440464, 
2440832; 440528, 2440844; 440586, 2440905; 440110, 2440524; 441650, 
2441573; 440014, 2440441; 441659, 2441579; 441727, 2441586; 441774, 
2441575; 441900, 2441576; 441968, 2441515; 446610, 2441349; 441637, 
2441552; 439096, 2441847; 438866, 2442347; 438934, 2442351; 438960, 
2442270; 438967, 2442246; 438976, 2442220; 440113, 2440527; 439088, 
2441871; 442723, 2441295; 439491, 2440617; 439551, 2440431; 439556, 
2440414; 439832, 2440430; 439931, 2440426; 440002, 2440430; 439037, 
2442031; 445551, 2441162; 442287, 2441225; 445235, 2441328; 445344, 
2441376; 445380, 2441414; 445392, 2441392; 444560, 2441032; 445510, 
2441194; 444480, 2440997; 445886, 2441308; 446122, 2441415; 446214, 
2441291; 448944, 2441075; 446300, 2441227; 446357, 2441185; 445395, 
2441389; 443889, 2441172; 442843, 2441314; 442924, 2441340; 442982, 
2441350; 442977, 2441356; 443016, 2441342; 445124, 2441205; 443707, 
2441132; 443440, 2444655; 444062, 2441230; 444083, 2441215; 444109, 
2441224; 444113, 2441221; 444124, 2441223; 444455, 2440990; 443023, 
2441344; 442711, 2445664; 442430, 2445827; 442668, 2445560; 442666, 
2445576; 442668, 2445590; 442674, 2445604; 442672, 2445510; 442713, 
2445661; 442668, 2445494; 442501, 2445803; 442492, 2445803; 442467, 
2445799; 442448, 2445805; 442444, 2445807; 443444, 2444627; 442710, 
2445647; 442709, 2445399; 442804, 2445357; 442798, 2445359; 442785, 
2445364; 442765, 2445370; 442747, 2445377; 442673, 2445515; 442727, 
2445386; 442430, 2445830; 442694, 2445414; 442689, 2445419; 442682, 
2445433; 442675, 2445453; 442671, 2445471; 442667, 2445490; 442743, 
2445378; 441897, 2446273; 442435, 2445813; 442019, 2446165; 442005, 
2446171; 441982, 2446194; 441963, 2446219; 442059, 2446159; 441929, 
2446268; 442071, 2446146; 441879, 2446263; 441852, 2446219; 441838, 
2446221; 441834, 2446230; 441848, 2446265; 441855, 2446295; 441943, 
2446256; 442202, 2445986; 442428, 2445851; 442381, 2445882; 442372, 
2445885; 442317, 2445917; 442301, 2445924; 442039, 2446165; 442261, 
2445949; 442858, 2445342; 442175, 2445995; 442100, 2446007; 442082, 
2446029; 442072, 2446052; 442067, 2446082; 442073, 2446121; 442273, 
2445945; 443240, 2444927; 442821, 2445353; 443294, 2444870; 443290, 
2444876; 443281, 2444890; 443271, 2444898; 443307, 2444833; 443252, 
2444914; 443309, 2444829; 443234, 2444932; 443215, 2444938; 443196, 
2444944; 443193, 2444946; 443177, 2444962; 443175, 2444965; 443260, 
2444907; 443352, 2444721; 438757, 2442331; 443435, 2444664; 443423, 
2444686; 443403, 2444695; 443385, 2444699; 443301, 2444851; 443366, 
2444706; 443156, 2445003; 443346, 2444728; 443341, 2444740; 443333, 
2444758; 443327, 2444778; 443320, 2444796; 443313, 2444815; 443373, 
2444702; 442952, 2445303; 443029, 2445263; 443009, 2445266; 443006, 
2445268; 442990, 2445276; 442981, 2445284; 443163, 2444984; 442956, 
2445301; 443068, 2445227; 442934, 2445314; 442915, 2445323; 442898, 
2445330; 442877, 2445336; 442862, 2445341; 443443, 2444647; 442972, 
2445292; 443122, 2445132; 442842, 2445347; 443153, 2445020; 443153, 
2445040; 443152, 2445059; 443150, 2445078; 443144, 2445096; 443047, 
2445260; 443135, 2445115; 443065, 2445247; 443103, 2445152; 443083, 
2445171; 443066, 2445190; 443066, 2445209; 443067, 2445215; 443158, 
2444995; 443140, 2445105; 440025, 2445056; 439668, 2444981; 440214, 
2445151; 440216, 2445150; 440347, 2445106; 440289, 2445097; 440078, 
2445204; 440124, 2445056; 439994, 2445245; 439910, 2445087; 439796, 
2445123; 439719, 2445133; 439696, 2445110; 439681, 2445072; 439364, 
2444192; 440216, 2445076; 439480, 2445095; 438927, 2444790; 438982, 
2444746; 439037, 2444786; 439157, 2444829; 439238, 2444846; 440165, 
2445166; 439434, 2444999; 439643, 2444902; 439484, 2445120; 439501, 
2445220; 439598, 2445317; 439699, 2445360; 439794, 2445352; 439883, 
2445309; 439360, 2444907; 439945, 2444540; 439673, 2445011; 439890, 
2444912; 439948, 2444922; 439994, 2444883; 440052, 2444784; 439859, 
2444782; 439996, 2444642; 439859, 2444723; 439876, 2444423; 439825, 
2444344; 439759, 2444342; 439685, 2444334; 439583, 2444266; 438838, 
2442340; 440032, 2444731; 439254, 2444472; 439571, 2444823; 439485, 
2444800;

[[Page 19058]]

439386, 2444762; 439258, 2444658; 439172, 2444564; 439864, 2444845; 
439156, 2444527; 438580, 2444854; 439413, 2444371; 439522, 2444418; 
439617, 2444459; 439747, 2444522; 439800, 2444594; 439843, 2444655; 
439145, 2444538; 435698, 2452376; 438807, 2444845; 436003, 2452334; 
435955, 2452326; 435902, 2452378; 435838, 2452443; 436579, 2452559; 
435719, 2452378; 436804, 2452559; 435477, 2452358; 435478, 2452345; 
435479, 2452304; 435517, 2452192; 435519, 2452190; 435540, 2452168; 
435810, 2452427; 438006, 2453313; 438476, 2452702; 438465, 2452788; 
438430, 2452817; 438386, 2452854; 438269, 2452930; 436189, 2452365; 
438110, 2453148; 435895, 2451700; 437935, 2453510; 437933, 2453512; 
437797, 2453318; 437592, 2453026; 437202, 2452948; 437201, 2452932; 
438116, 2453088; 438263, 2444805; 436811, 2449026; 437237, 2447714; 
437230, 2447713; 437248, 2447657; 437232, 2447645; 435631, 2452072; 
438179, 2444732; 436566, 2449559; 438343, 2444896; 438406, 2444952; 
438475, 2444955; 438523, 2444886; 438536, 2444858; 439298, 2444154; 
438168, 2444734; 436235, 2450550; 438677, 2444833; 435961, 2451591; 
436027, 2451466; 436103, 2451262; 436162, 2451016; 436212, 2450766; 
436739, 2449180; 436234, 2450558; 436706, 2449252; 436250, 2450410; 
436234, 2450237; 436386, 2449952; 436472, 2449769; 436566, 2449560; 
435779, 2451881; 436230, 2450590; 438030, 2442243; 438130, 2442234; 
437996, 2442188; 437998, 2442202; 437998, 2442205; 437999, 2442211; 
437973, 2442147; 438012, 2442229; 437954, 2442136; 438049, 2442246; 
438065, 2442246; 438088, 2442240; 438095, 2442238; 438098, 2442237; 
439456, 2444205; 438000, 2442216; 437826, 2442106; 437754, 2441991; 
437758, 2441998; 437766, 2442017; 437777, 2442052; 437791, 2442074; 
437984, 2442167; 437806, 2442092; 438157, 2442234; 437839, 2442110; 
437873, 2442121; 437887, 2442121; 437912, 2442123; 437926, 2442125; 
437939, 2442128; 437799, 2442084; 438656, 2442321; 438114, 2442232; 
438535, 2442314; 438536, 2442314; 438561, 2442316; 438577, 2442315; 
438517, 2442310; 438626, 2442315; 438496, 2442310; 438668, 2442322; 
438679, 2442324; 438694, 2442327; 438704, 2442326; 438721, 2442329; 
446348, 2441177; 438609, 2442314; 438392, 2442294; 438219, 2442244; 
438238, 2442248; 438254, 2442248; 438305, 2442256; 438355, 2442265; 
438523, 2442310; 438376, 2442278; 437745, 2441950; 438418, 2442311; 
438433, 2442319; 438436, 2442321; 438453, 2442321; 438453, 2442321; 
438460, 2442320; 438373, 2442277; 437363, 2443282; 437751, 2441981; 
437981, 2443476; 437808, 2443397; 437928, 2443310; 437950, 2443233; 
438143, 2443587; 437364, 2443298; 438183, 2443628; 437277, 2443228; 
437144, 2443208; 437065, 2443211; 437060, 2443212; 436974, 2443182; 
436997, 2443061; 437657, 2443231; 438835, 2443883; 439282, 2444110; 
439268, 2444068; 439181, 2444032; 439094, 2444009; 439048, 2443913; 
438208, 2443477; 438964, 2443837; 437226, 2442709; 438723, 2443923; 
438608, 2443916; 438453, 2443825; 438438, 2443814; 438318, 2443723; 
438201, 2443629; 439043, 2443859; 437697, 2441878; 437601, 2441867; 
437602, 2441867; 437617, 2441866; 437635, 2441866; 437647, 2441866; 
437052, 2442940; 437689, 2441877; 437522, 2441879; 437705, 2441878; 
437711, 2441887; 437717, 2441899; 437736, 2441928; 437740, 2441938; 
438821, 2442339; 437674, 2441875; 437294, 2442356; 437747, 2441961; 
437088, 2442647; 437103, 2442643; 437156, 2442615; 437159, 2442579; 
437120, 2442503; 437566, 2441876; 437174, 2442422; 437532, 2441880; 
437425, 2442191; 437307, 2442101; 437476, 2442051; 437493, 2441868; 
437495, 2441869; 437182, 2442830; 437105, 2442445; 448431, 2442766; 
448447, 2442675; 448469, 2442871; 448462, 2442858; 448442, 2442821; 
448437, 2442805; 448481, 2442894; 448432, 2442775; 448486, 2442910; 
448428, 2442750; 448428, 2442738; 448432, 2442727; 448437, 2442711; 
448443, 2442699; 448671, 2442369; 448435, 2442791; 448579, 2443112; 
448582, 2443190; 448582, 2443172; 448582, 2443162; 448583, 2443151; 
448585, 2443140; 448477, 2442887; 448585, 2443122; 448447, 2442663; 
448562, 2443086; 448545, 2443051; 448529, 2443019; 448507, 2442976; 
448498, 2442952; 448490, 2442930; 448586, 2443129; 448642, 2442440; 
448447, 2442688; 448602, 2442477; 448615, 2442472; 448623, 2442466; 
448634, 2442459; 448566, 2442503; 448640, 2442451; 448550, 2442513; 
448642, 2442430; 448642, 2442419; 448643, 2442410; 448648, 2442399; 
448657, 2442387; 447996, 2444312; 448637, 2442455; 448464, 2442531; 
448443, 2442636; 448443, 2442627; 448440, 2442604; 448438, 2442565; 
448441, 2442549; 448587, 2442486; 448455, 2442534; 448589, 2443224; 
448474, 2442530; 448488, 2442531; 448505, 2442534; 448515, 2442533; 
448530, 2442527; 448536, 2442523; 448449, 2442536; 448502, 2443743; 
448586, 2443203; 448512, 2443792; 448512, 2443783; 448513, 2443779; 
448513, 2443769; 448473, 2443878; 448504, 2443752; 448470, 2443888; 
448504, 2443735; 448507, 2443727; 448522, 2443706; 448538, 2443682; 
448546, 2443665; 448552, 2443643; 448509, 2443760; 447932, 2443750; 
447925, 2444320; 447843, 2444325; 447864, 2444277; 447942, 2444178; 
448003, 2444015; 448500, 2443823; 447967, 2443867; 448549, 2443613; 
447904, 2443646; 447921, 2443582; 447949, 2443460; 447939, 2443412; 
448458, 2443882; 448470, 2443889; 448008, 2443903; 448590, 2443306; 
448578, 2443441; 448572, 2443417; 448576, 2443405; 448584, 2443388; 
448590, 2443369; 448552, 2443630; 448593, 2443325; 448591, 2443484; 
448591, 2443291; 448592, 2443277; 448592, 2443261; 448592, 2443254; 
448591, 2443241; 448673, 2442365; 448595, 2443352; 448553, 2443539; 
448587, 2443214; 448544, 2443601; 448533, 2443587; 448527, 2443576; 
448523, 2443570; 448518, 2443559; 448585, 2443461; 448528, 2443546; 
448588, 2443466; 448560, 2443535; 448569, 2443527; 448577, 2443516; 
448582, 2443508; 448589, 2443493; 448551, 2443621; 448518, 2443552; 
449003, 2441449; 448936, 2441403; 449064, 2441492; 449060, 2441481; 
449053, 2441472; 449049, 2441471; 449066, 2441511; 449032, 2441461; 
449061, 2441528; 448971, 2441443; 448964, 2441441; 448952, 2441427; 
448948, 2441420; 448945, 2441411; 448665, 2442379; 449040, 2441466; 
449012, 2441616; 448972, 2441689; 446228, 2441279; 448995, 2441668; 
449000, 2441660; 449004, 2441650; 449065, 2441502; 449009, 2441625; 
448930, 2441400; 449017, 2441611; 449030, 2441595; 449037, 2441588; 
449043, 2441578; 449046, 2441569; 449050, 2441561; 449006, 2441639; 
448967, 2441159; 448940, 2441404; 448926, 2441212; 448930, 2441194; 
448933, 2441184; 448941, 2441177; 448940, 2441238; 448961, 2441163; 
448944, 2441250; 448972, 2441150; 448973, 2441143; 448972, 2441136; 
448971, 2441119; 448969, 2441116; 448964, 2441109; 448949, 2441170; 
448928, 2441313; 448922, 2441392; 448918, 2441381; 448916, 2441369; 
448917, 2441357; 448919, 2441341; 448934, 2441230; 448925, 2441322; 
448933, 2441715; 448935, 2441302; 448944, 2441291; 448948, 2441281; 
448948, 2441273; 448948, 2441264; 448946, 2441259; 448920, 2441333; 
448677, 2442140; 441868, 2446401; 448673, 2442209; 448671, 2442202; 
448674, 2442187; 448680, 2442169; 448684, 2442226; 448682, 2442148;

[[Page 19059]]

448692, 2442233; 448675, 2442123; 448677, 2442115; 448683, 2442101; 
448694, 2442089; 448710, 2442077; 448718, 2442069; 448684, 2442157; 
448722, 2442303; 448677, 2442356; 448682, 2442350; 448697, 2442342; 
448711, 2442341; 448721, 2442331; 448678, 2442221; 448723, 2442309; 
448736, 2442055; 448718, 2442295; 448712, 2442283; 448707, 2442267; 
448706, 2442257; 448705, 2442250; 448699, 2442238; 448724, 2442320; 
448915, 2441796; 448850, 2441844; 448877, 2441825; 448884, 2441820; 
448890, 2441818; 448892, 2441817; 448723, 2442061; 448910, 2441807; 
448820, 2441871; 448913, 2441774; 448914, 2441760; 448913, 2441753; 
448915, 2441738; 448925, 2441722; 448957, 2441700; 448900, 2441814; 
448787, 2441967; 448939, 2441710; 448746, 2442051; 448755, 2442041; 
448764, 2442029; 448768, 2442019; 448773, 2442013; 448840, 2441852; 
448781, 2441990; 448831, 2441859; 448789, 2441938; 448803, 2441914; 
448813, 2441900; 448814, 2441894; 448817, 2441884; 448728, 2442058; 
448777, 2442002; 440375, 2448361; 440198, 2448467; 440421, 2448239; 
440415, 2448290; 440416, 2448314; 440411, 2448336; 440401, 2448191; 
440391, 2448353; 440384, 2448138; 440350, 2448395; 440331, 2448411; 
440307, 2448418; 440254, 2448428; 440237, 2448434; 439526, 2448944; 
440402, 2448352; 440409, 2447991; 440377, 2447819; 440378, 2447845; 
440384, 2447871; 440395, 2447896; 440436, 2447941; 440413, 2448216; 
440426, 2447974; 440190, 2448485; 440343, 2448005; 440329, 2448016; 
440325, 2448033; 440331, 2448061; 440341, 2448084; 440374, 2448123; 
440435, 2447959; 439678, 2448950; 440218, 2448446; 439853, 2448941; 
439830, 2448945; 439788, 2448929; 439761, 2448926; 439900, 2448928; 
439697, 2448941; 439922, 2448928; 439656, 2448949; 439633, 2448940; 
439611, 2448928; 439578, 2448906; 439553, 2448909; 439539, 2448922; 
439733, 2448930; 440089, 2448747; 440179, 2448496; 440157, 2448511; 
440136, 2448537; 440120, 2448633; 440125, 2448690; 439875, 2448932; 
440112, 2448732; 440451, 2447620; 440073, 2448762; 440036, 2448815; 
440000, 2448878; 439982, 2448899; 439961, 2448915; 439941, 2448924; 
440121, 2448718; 441363, 2447030; 440383, 2447794; 441405, 2446869; 
441402, 2446899; 441403, 2446972; 441399, 2446995; 441455, 2446804; 
441373, 2447026; 441476, 2446797; 441317, 2447043; 441283, 2447083; 
441268, 2447104; 441240, 2447171; 441231, 2447186; 441219, 2447195; 
441398, 2446997; 441674, 2446682; 448141, 2444294; 448986, 2441677; 
441864, 2446424; 441847, 2446451; 441836, 2446475; 441434, 2446820; 
441829, 2446505; 441148, 2447188; 441648, 2446705; 441620, 2446723; 
441584, 2446741; 441549, 2446752; 441532, 2446763; 441521, 2446777; 
441829, 2446501; 440674, 2447485; 440710, 2447368; 440699, 2447389; 
440693, 2447407; 440695, 2447430; 440703, 2447452; 441201, 2447195; 
440693, 2447475; 440800, 2447339; 440599, 2447501; 440579, 2447511; 
440540, 2447539; 440487, 2447571; 440468, 2447593; 440124, 2448663; 
440703, 2447461; 440941, 2447230; 440413, 2447711; 441133, 2447183; 
441113, 2447170; 441095, 2447154; 441083, 2447147; 441058, 2447153; 
440722, 2447354; 440969, 2447210; 440740, 2447346; 440888, 2447250; 
440873, 2447265; 440865, 2447286; 440858, 2447311; 440842, 2447328; 
441172, 2447190; 441039, 2447168; 438599, 2451708; 438434, 2451069; 
438440, 2451600; 438425, 2451652; 438429, 2451670; 438442, 2451682; 
438419, 2451509; 438529, 2451692; 438410, 2451464; 438657, 2451738; 
439516, 2448971; 438675, 2451766; 440125, 2448578; 438680, 2451858; 
438715, 2451908; 438484, 2451690; 438467, 2451228; 438455, 2451089; 
438463, 2451098; 438475, 2451113; 438484, 2451141; 438486, 2451163; 
438435, 2451571; 438472, 2451209; 438888, 2452163; 438472, 2451261; 
438481, 2451287; 438485, 2451346; 438478, 2451359; 438454, 2451380; 
438422, 2451414; 438481, 2451188; 448609, 2443974; 438669, 2452384; 
438605, 2452379; 438540, 2452374; 438510, 2452340; 438449, 2452330; 
438761, 2452013; 438490, 2452605; 438816, 2452396; 448591, 2444072; 
448566, 2444172; 448548, 2444233; 448510, 2444279; 448464, 2444284; 
448299, 2444289; 438431, 2452414; 439138, 2452428; 438670, 2451754; 
438936, 2452213; 438977, 2452232; 438979, 2452233; 439031, 2452285; 
439037, 2452297; 438716, 2452393; 439083, 2452342; 438779, 2452391; 
439171, 2452514; 439201, 2452565; 439114, 2452513; 438954, 2452430; 
438851, 2452395; 438833, 2452090; 439061, 2452327; 439044, 2449631; 
438944, 2449813; 439167, 2449414; 439146, 2449435; 439114, 2449463; 
439102, 2449480; 439220, 2449318; 439065, 2449586; 439230, 2449287; 
439037, 2449642; 439025, 2449671; 439016, 2449687; 438999, 2449702; 
438974, 2449738; 438965, 2449767; 439076, 2449548; 439382, 2449107; 
439508, 2448984; 439451, 2449000; 439437, 2449023; 438680, 2451783; 
439433, 2449078; 439200, 2449362; 439399, 2449097; 439421, 2449088; 
439361, 2449126; 439330, 2449145; 439307, 2449169; 439277, 2449220; 
439260, 2449242; 439244, 2449261; 438425, 2451047; 438554, 2450559; 
438737, 2450311; 438736, 2450325; 438731, 2450342; 438715, 2450373; 
438690, 2450392; 438621, 2450415; 438732, 2450286; 438578, 2450438; 
438501, 2450796; 438488, 2450686; 438472, 2450910; 438435, 2450985; 
438427, 2450964; 438919, 2449853; 439437, 2449066; 438581, 2450423; 
438816, 2450028; 438717, 2450241; 438894, 2449879; 438884, 2449918; 
438904, 2449863; 438831, 2450010; 438850, 2449982; 438791, 2450036; 
438765, 2450051; 438744, 2450081; 438730, 2450109; 438717, 2450158; 
438716, 2450162; 438713, 2450206.
    (ii) Map of Unit 4-Montane Wet for Akekee (Loxops caeruleirostris) 
follows:
BILLING CODE 4310-55-S

[[Page 19060]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR13AP10.018


[[Page 19061]]


    (10) Unit 5-Montane Wet, Kauai County, Hawaii.
    (i) Unit 5-Montane Wet consists of 789.9 ac (319.7 ha) and includes 
land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, NAD83 coordinates (E, N): 
433436, 2449707; 433445, 2449707; 433444, 2449707; 433443, 2449707; 
433458, 2449707; 433436, 2449707; 433426, 2449707; 433408, 2449708; 
433429, 2449741; 433493, 2449765; 433633, 2449724; 433742, 2449724; 
433467, 2449787; 433460, 2449707; 433468, 2449706; 433484, 2449694; 
433414, 2449628; 433461, 2449623; 433457, 2449622; 433339, 2449600; 
433440, 2449604; 433437, 2449592; 433426, 2449556; 433419, 2449599; 
433831, 2449767; 434991, 2449344; 433401, 2449697; 433480, 2449629; 
434938, 2449321; 433313, 2449484; 433455, 2449620; 434842, 2449253; 
434839, 2449258; 434834, 2449277; 434833, 2449278; 434833, 2449278; 
434833, 2449280; 434833, 2449281; 434872, 2449294; 434881, 2449297; 
434884, 2449298; 435010, 2449343; 434899, 2449305; 433903, 2449882; 
435011, 2449352; 435010, 2449343; 435005, 2449310; 434948, 2449300; 
434908, 2449290; 434908, 2449290; 434890, 2449251; 434872, 2449246; 
434848, 2449239; 434844, 2449248; 434034, 2449950; 434026, 2449951; 
433969, 2449958; 434898, 2449304; 435183, 2449401; 434713, 2447038; 
434738, 2447045; 434738, 2447030; 434795, 2447069; 434994, 2447085; 
435093, 2447245; 435290, 2447449; 435295, 2447440; 435360, 2447538; 
435282, 2448685; 435266, 2448909; 435236, 2449351; 434686, 2447020; 
435232, 2449399; 435272, 2448835; 435080, 2449407; 434920, 2449394; 
434752, 2449405; 434498, 2449522; 434338, 2449660; 434208, 2449767; 
434141, 2449863; 434137, 2449869; 434124, 2449948; 434074, 2449972; 
433461, 2449623; 433339, 2449381; 435234, 2449384; 433589, 2449323; 
433725, 2448994; 433545, 2449136; 433389, 2449256; 433567, 2449260; 
433588, 2449244; 433880, 2448827; 433612, 2449262; 433525, 2449415; 
433567, 2449398; 433546, 2449412; 434627, 2447088; 433448, 2449426; 
435236, 2449347; 433368, 2449293; 433599, 2449252; 434202, 2447345; 
433367, 2449352; 434073, 2448685; 434357, 2447229; 434073, 2447500; 
434086, 2447693; 434163, 2447783; 434254, 2447886; 434318, 2448182; 
434318, 2448298; 434292, 2448479; 434279, 2447951; 434486, 2447126; 
434228, 2448620.
    (ii) Map of Unit 5-Montane Wet for Akekee (Loxops caeruleirostris) 
follows:

[[Page 19062]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR13AP10.019


[[Page 19063]]


    (11) Unit 6-Montane Wet, Kauai County, Hawaii.
    (i) Unit 6-Montane Wet consists of 413.5 ac (167.3 ha) and includes 
land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, NAD83 coordinates (E, N): 
448516, 2447525; 447976, 2448470; 448042, 2448338; 448133, 2448200; 
448235, 2448042; 448834, 2447273; 448288, 2447915; 448412, 2447653; 
448669, 2447406; 447943, 2448562; 448763, 2447342; 448059, 2449434; 
448321, 2447795; 447961, 2448628; 448037, 2448780; 448088, 2448897; 
448122, 2449037; 448119, 2449134; 448056, 2449368; 448099, 2449454; 
448242, 2449457; 448328, 2449449; 448440, 2449296; 448382, 2449406; 
448887, 2447191; 448091, 2449266; 448610, 2449255; 448931, 2447092; 
448511, 2449199; 448623, 2449141; 448641, 2449184; 448593, 2449298; 
448613, 2449357; 448702, 2449395; 448812, 2449420; 448906, 2449440; 
448959, 2449443; 448964, 2449425; 448952, 2449316; 448954, 2449143; 
448881, 2447609; 448987, 2448959; 448980, 2446980; 448979, 2446983; 
448577, 2449143; 448980, 2446982; 448981, 2446981; 449105, 2447827; 
449087, 2447916; 449044, 2448132; 449032, 2448326; 449045, 2448506; 
449040, 2448659; 449012, 2448822.
    (ii) Map of Unit 6-Montane Wet for Akekee (Loxops caeruleirostris) 
follows:

[[Page 19064]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR13AP10.020


[[Page 19065]]


Akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi)
    (1) Critical habitat units are depicted for Kauai County, Hawaii, 
on the map below.
    (2) Primary constituent elements.
    (i) In units 1, 2, and 3, the primary constituent elements of 
critical habitat for Akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi) are:
    (A) Elevation: 3,000 to 5,243 ft (914 to 1,598 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 inches (127 to 190 centimeters).
    (C) Substrate: Weathered aa lava flows, rocky mucks, thin silty 
loams, deep volcanic ash soils.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Metrosideros, Psychotria, Tetraplasandra, 
Zanthoxylum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cheirodendron, Coprosma, Kadua, Ilex, Myoporum, 
Myrsine.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Dryopteris, Leptecophylla, Poa, Scaevola, 
Sophora.
    (G) Arthropod prey.
    (ii) In units 4, 5, and 6, the primary constituent elements of 
critical habitat for Akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi) are:
    (A) Elevation: 3,000 to 5,243 ft (914 to 1,598 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 centimeters).
    (C) Substrate: Well-developed soils, montane bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Charpentiera, Cheirodendron, Metrosideros.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cibotium, Eurya, Ilex, Myrsine.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Coprosma, Leptecophylla, Oreobolus, 
Rhynchospora, Vaccinium.
    (G) Arthropod prey.
    (3) Manmade features and structures, such as buildings, roads, 
railroads, airports, runways, other paved areas, lawns, and other urban 
landscaped areas, existing on the effective date of this rule do not 
contain one or more of the primary constituent elements.
    (4) Critical habitat maps. Maps were created in GIS, with 
coordinates in UTM Zone 4, units in meters using North American datum 
of 1983 (NAD 83).
    (5) Index map of critical habitat units for Akikiki (Oreomystis 
bairdi) follows:

[[Page 19066]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR13AP10.021

BILLING CODE 4310-55-C

[[Page 19067]]

    (6) Unit 1-Montane Mesic, Kauai County, Hawaii.
    (i) Unit 1-Montane Mesic consists of 2,422.6 ac (980.4 ha) and 
includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, NAD 83 coordinates 
(E,N): 430107, 2447429; 430242, 2447664; 430073, 2447126; 430793, 
2448310; 430124, 2446907; 430393, 2447748; 430690, 2447765; 430671, 
2447997; 430764, 2448188; 430886, 2448507; 430903, 2448664; 430985, 
2448705; 431560, 2448675; 431414, 2448890; 430291, 2446570; 431058, 
2446300; 431200, 2449070; 431362, 2449169; 431171, 2448699; 430854, 
2445930; 432530, 2450196; 431391, 2449273; 431323, 2447013; 431211, 
2446394; 431101, 2446447; 431112, 2446394; 431069, 2446331; 431007, 
2446203; 430944, 2446145; 430902, 2445976; 430191, 2446386; 430826, 
2445805; 430857, 2445727; 430824, 2445631; 430442, 2445640; 430323, 
2445779; 430204, 2445809; 430191, 2445898; 429898, 2446100; 429871, 
2446234; 430939, 2446061; 432796, 2450365; 432504, 2449961; 432579, 
2450036; 432552, 2450080; 432551, 2450083; 432001, 2447726; 432534, 
2450174; 431629, 2448739; 432565, 2450262; 432531, 2450116; 432740, 
2450249; 432441, 2449848; 432808, 2450383; 432882, 2450351; 432904, 
2450341; 432827, 2447751; 432932, 2447668; 433014, 2447717; 433109, 
2447775; 433094, 2447922; 432560, 2450267; 431875, 2449780; 431322, 
2449418; 431403, 2449436; 431727, 2449372; 431769, 2449447; 431705, 
2449569; 431720, 2449620; 431805, 2449591; 431919, 2449578; 432498, 
2449952; 431904, 2449665; 432486, 2449909; 432046, 2449781; 432052, 
2449783; 432113, 2449740; 432217, 2449712; 432251, 2449685; 432259, 
2449679; 432344, 2449744; 432419, 2449806; 431322, 2449372; 431905, 
2449660; 434486, 2447126; 434073, 2448685; 434228, 2448620; 434292, 
2448479; 434318, 2448298; 434279, 2447951; 434163, 2447783; 434086, 
2447693; 434073, 2447500; 434623, 2446526; 434357, 2447229; 433545, 
2449136; 434627, 2447088; 434686, 2447020; 434682, 2447017; 434657, 
2446977; 434652, 2446933; 434612, 2446807; 434641, 2446663; 434631, 
2446528; 434202, 2447345; 433399, 2449709; 431205, 2448983; 432073, 
2447674; 433046, 2450280; 433196, 2450196; 433287, 2450063; 433353, 
2449880; 433467, 2449787; 433429, 2449741; 433880, 2448827; 433407, 
2449708; 433725, 2448994; 433401, 2449697; 433339, 2449600; 433313, 
2449484; 433339, 2449381; 433368, 2449293; 433368, 2449292; 433369, 
2449255; 433389, 2449256; 434254, 2447886; 433408, 2449708; 433527, 
2447856; 434086, 2446095; 433862, 2446165; 433606, 2446193; 433449, 
2446235; 433397, 2446440; 433257, 2446958; 433577, 2447086; 433706, 
2447138; 434090, 2446098; 433562, 2447841; 432639, 2447624; 432918, 
2447407; 432672, 2447598; 434620, 2446512; 432609, 2447647; 434318, 
2448182; 432195, 2447587; 432136, 2447629; 432133, 2447631; 432081, 
2447668; 433746, 2447766; 434500, 2446448; 432320, 2447497; 434103, 
2446297; 434618, 2446459; 434582, 2446443; 434558, 2446439; 434514, 
2446449; 434471, 2446422; 434457, 2446416; 434447, 2446420; 434392, 
2446421; 434423, 2446441; 434416, 2446441; 434625, 2446467; 434201, 
2446573; 434403, 2446435; 434628, 2446479; 434400, 2446429; 434434, 
2446428; 434386, 2446429; 434533, 2446441.
    (ii) Map of Unit 1-Montane Mesic for Akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi) 
follows:
BILLING CODE 4310-55-S

[[Page 19068]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR13AP10.022


[[Page 19069]]


    (7) Unit 2-Montane Mesic, Kauai County, Hawaii.
    (i) Unit 2-Montane Mesic consists of 375.6 ac (152.0 ha) and 
includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, NAD 83 coordinates 
(E, N): 431975, 2446280; 432559, 2446255; 432659, 2446240; 432948, 
2446150; 433067, 2445928; 432758, 2445304; 432001, 2445941; 431873, 
2444849; 432912, 2445580; 432674, 2444970; 431626, 2445435; 431730, 
2445114; 431950, 2444792; 432135, 2444807; 432377, 2444722; 432548, 
2444752; 431645, 2445326; 431736, 2445617.
    (ii) Map of Unit 2-Montane Mesic for Akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi) 
follows:

[[Page 19070]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR13AP10.023


[[Page 19071]]


    (8) Unit 3-Montane Mesic, Kauai County, Hawaii.
    (i) Unit 3-Montane Mesic consists of 138.5 ac (56.0 ha) and 
includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, NAD 83 coordinates 
(E, N): 438012, 2440389; 438014, 2440437; 438023, 2440484; 438111, 
2440652; 438112, 2440588; 437817, 2440071; 438028, 2440577; 437922, 
2440355; 437336, 2440335; 437912, 2440201; 437827, 2440132; 437785, 
2440013; 437687, 2439960; 437636, 2439819; 437870, 2440140; 437545, 
2439761; 438149, 2440714; 437529, 2439721; 437987, 2441027; 437450, 
2440047; 437335, 2440180; 437335, 2440329; 438159, 2440914; 438249, 
2440857; 438253, 2440854; 438243, 2440830; 438287, 2440738; 437602, 
2440771; 438227, 2440730; 437586, 2439743.
    (ii) Map of Unit 3-Montane Mesic for Akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi) 
follows:

[[Page 19072]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR13AP10.024

BILLING CODE 4310-55-C

[[Page 19073]]

    (9) Unit 4-Montane Wet, Kauai County, Hawaii.
    (i) Unit 4-Montane Wet consists of 13,055.0 ac (5,283.2 ha) and 
includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, NAD 83 coordinates 
(E, N): 448638, 2440764; 448601, 2440679; 448606, 2440704; 448612, 
2440722; 448615, 2440731; 448619, 2440740; 448630, 2440759; 448650, 
2440769; 448600, 2440668; 448622, 2440749; 448599, 2440647; 448601, 
2440652; 448678, 2440741; 448777, 2440842; 448663, 2440773; 449006, 
2441012; 448764, 2440857; 449068, 2441051; 449121, 2441114; 449121, 
2441114; 448887, 2440934; 448811, 2440896; 448954, 2441097; 448943, 
2441063; 448943, 2441053; 448943, 2441044; 448941, 2441024; 448940, 
2441006; 448918, 2440982; 448877, 2440939; 448861, 2440927; 448735, 
2440829; 448837, 2440912; 448678, 2440780; 448802, 2440889; 448788, 
2440878; 449115, 2442038; 448745, 2440841; 449111, 2441196; 448727, 
2440820; 448720, 2440813; 448711, 2440806; 448691, 2440790; 448841, 
2440914; 447374, 2443275; 449244, 2441819; 447623, 2443445; 447616, 
2443588; 447603, 2443646; 447556, 2443686; 447325, 2443651; 447295, 
2443639; 447247, 2443586; 448634, 2443800; 447287, 2443339; 448657, 
2443629; 447481, 2443262; 447636, 2443160; 447645, 2443143; 447645, 
2443146; 447894, 2443371; 447865, 2443358; 447712, 2443351; 447631, 
2443389; 448948, 2441084; 447249, 2443451; 448917, 2442504; 449106, 
2441435; 449173, 2441529; 449201, 2441638; 449249, 2441697; 449275, 
2441773; 449148, 2441893; 449090, 2442135; 449064, 2442221; 448614, 
2443950; 448983, 2442384; 449078, 2441297; 448880, 2442563; 448861, 
2442593; 448805, 2442677; 448765, 2442787; 448696, 2442955; 448653, 
2443075; 448651, 2443187; 448674, 2443301; 448669, 2443477; 449024, 
2442290; 444824, 2443350; 444161, 2444181; 445808, 2442898; 445681, 
2442977; 445559, 2443010; 445437, 2443077; 446100, 2442628; 445045, 
2443240; 446256, 2442602; 444659, 2443447; 444532, 2443516; 444456, 
2443572; 444423, 2443638; 444334, 2443811; 446499, 2441271; 445254, 
2443156; 446686, 2441764; 441856, 2446328; 446673, 2441408; 446651, 
2441424; 446641, 2441436; 446587, 2441501; 445966, 2442725; 446640, 
2441627; 444075, 2444349; 446694, 2442007; 446591, 2442195; 446650, 
2442430; 446675, 2442432; 446482, 2442513; 446373, 2442574; 446587, 
2441543; 443497, 2444548; 444237, 2444013; 443579, 2444514; 443571, 
2444521; 443557, 2444532; 443553, 2444537; 443610, 2444483; 443516, 
2444546; 443617, 2444477; 443483, 2444551; 443478, 2444555; 443464, 
2444570; 443459, 2444579; 443452, 2444591; 443447, 2444608; 443534, 
2444543; 443722, 2444464; 444016, 2444444; 443984, 2444419; 443985, 
2444416; 443769, 2444440; 443760, 2444446; 443598, 2444493; 443732, 
2444458; 446375, 2441172; 443703, 2444469; 443685, 2444463; 443677, 
2444459; 443666, 2444456; 443647, 2444460; 443628, 2444469; 443740, 
2444454; 441656, 2441573; 442568, 2441274; 440114, 2440528; 440464, 
2440832; 440528, 2440844; 440586, 2440905; 440110, 2440524; 441650, 
2441573; 440014, 2440441; 441659, 2441579; 441727, 2441586; 441774, 
2441575; 441900, 2441576; 441968, 2441515; 446610, 2441349; 441637, 
2441552; 439096, 2441847; 438866, 2442347; 438934, 2442351; 438960, 
2442270; 438967, 2442246; 438976, 2442220; 440113, 2440527; 439088, 
2441871; 442723, 2441295; 439491, 2440617; 439551, 2440431; 439556, 
2440414; 439832, 2440430; 439931, 2440426; 440002, 2440430; 439037, 
2442031; 445551, 2441162; 442287, 2441225; 445235, 2441328; 445344, 
2441376; 445380, 2441414; 445392, 2441392; 444560, 2441032; 445510, 
2441194; 444480, 2440997; 445886, 2441308; 446122, 2441415; 446214, 
2441291; 448944, 2441075; 446300, 2441227; 446357, 2441185; 445395, 
2441389; 443889, 2441172; 442843, 2441314; 442924, 2441340; 442982, 
2441350; 442977, 2441356; 443016, 2441342; 445124, 2441205; 443707, 
2441132; 443440, 2444655; 444062, 2441230; 444083, 2441215; 444109, 
2441224; 444113, 2441221; 444124, 2441223; 444455, 2440990; 443023, 
2441344; 442711, 2445664; 442430, 2445827; 442668, 2445560; 442666, 
2445576; 442668, 2445590; 442674, 2445604; 442672, 2445510; 442713, 
2445661; 442668, 2445494; 442501, 2445803; 442492, 2445803; 442467, 
2445799; 442448, 2445805; 442444, 2445807; 443444, 2444627; 442710, 
2445647; 442709, 2445399; 442804, 2445357; 442798, 2445359; 442785, 
2445364; 442765, 2445370; 442747, 2445377; 442673, 2445515; 442727, 
2445386; 442430, 2445830; 442694, 2445414; 442689, 2445419; 442682, 
2445433; 442675, 2445453; 442671, 2445471; 442667, 2445490; 442743, 
2445378; 441897, 2446273; 442435, 2445813; 442019, 2446165; 442005, 
2446171; 441982, 2446194; 441963, 2446219; 442059, 2446159; 441929, 
2446268; 442071, 2446146; 441879, 2446263; 441852, 2446219; 441838, 
2446221; 441834, 2446230; 441848, 2446265; 441855, 2446295; 441943, 
2446256; 442202, 2445986; 442428, 2445851; 442381, 2445882; 442372, 
2445885; 442317, 2445917; 442301, 2445924; 442039, 2446165; 442261, 
2445949; 442858, 2445342; 442175, 2445995; 442100, 2446007; 442082, 
2446029; 442072, 2446052; 442067, 2446082; 442073, 2446121; 442273, 
2445945; 443240, 2444927; 442821, 2445353; 443294, 2444870; 443290, 
2444876; 443281, 2444890; 443271, 2444898; 443307, 2444833; 443252, 
2444914; 443309, 2444829; 443234, 2444932; 443215, 2444938; 443196, 
2444944; 443193, 2444946; 443177, 2444962; 443175, 2444965; 443260, 
2444907; 443352, 2444721; 438757, 2442331; 443435, 2444664; 443423, 
2444686; 443403, 2444695; 443385, 2444699; 443301, 2444851; 443366, 
2444706; 443156, 2445003; 443346, 2444728; 443341, 2444740; 443333, 
2444758; 443327, 2444778; 443320, 2444796; 443313, 2444815; 443373, 
2444702; 442952, 2445303; 443029, 2445263; 443009, 2445266; 443006, 
2445268; 442990, 2445276; 442981, 2445284; 443163, 2444984; 442956, 
2445301; 443068, 2445227; 442934, 2445314; 442915, 2445323; 442898, 
2445330; 442877, 2445336; 442862, 2445341; 443443, 2444647; 442972, 
2445292; 443122, 2445132; 442842, 2445347; 443153, 2445020; 443153, 
2445040; 443152, 2445059; 443150, 2445078; 443144, 2445096; 443047, 
2445260; 443135, 2445115; 443065, 2445247; 443103, 2445152; 443083, 
2445171; 443066, 2445190; 443066, 2445209; 443067, 2445215; 443158, 
2444995; 443140, 2445105; 440025, 2445056; 439668, 2444981; 440214, 
2445151; 440216, 2445150; 440347, 2445106; 440289, 2445097; 440078, 
2445204; 440124, 2445056; 439994, 2445245; 439910, 2445087; 439796, 
2445123; 439719, 2445133; 439696, 2445110; 439681, 2445072; 439364, 
2444192; 440216, 2445076; 439480, 2445095; 438927, 2444790; 438982, 
2444746; 439037, 2444786; 439157, 2444829; 439238, 2444846; 440165, 
2445166; 439434, 2444999; 439643, 2444902; 439484, 2445120; 439501, 
2445220; 439598, 2445317; 439699, 2445360; 439794, 2445352; 439883, 
2445309; 439360, 2444907; 439945, 2444540; 439673, 2445011; 439890, 
2444912; 439948, 2444922; 439994, 2444883; 440052, 2444784; 439859, 
2444782; 439996, 2444642; 439859, 2444723; 439876, 2444423; 439825, 
2444344; 439759, 2444342; 439685, 2444334; 439583, 2444266; 438838, 
2442340; 440032, 2444731; 439254, 2444472; 439571, 2444823; 439485, 
2444800;

[[Page 19074]]

439386, 2444762; 439258, 2444658; 439172, 2444564; 439864, 2444845; 
439156, 2444527; 438580, 2444854; 439413, 2444371; 439522, 2444418; 
439617, 2444459; 439747, 2444522; 439800, 2444594; 439843, 2444655; 
439145, 2444538; 435698, 2452376; 438807, 2444845; 436003, 2452334; 
435955, 2452326; 435902, 2452378; 435838, 2452443; 436579, 2452559; 
435719, 2452378; 436804, 2452559; 435477, 2452358; 435478, 2452345; 
435479, 2452304; 435517, 2452192; 435519, 2452190; 435540, 2452168; 
435810, 2452427; 438006, 2453313; 438476, 2452702; 438465, 2452788; 
438430, 2452817; 438386, 2452854; 438269, 2452930; 436189, 2452365; 
438110, 2453148; 435895, 2451700; 437935, 2453510; 437933, 2453512; 
437797, 2453318; 437592, 2453026; 437202, 2452948; 437201, 2452932; 
438116, 2453088; 438263, 2444805; 436811, 2449026; 437237, 2447714; 
437230, 2447713; 437248, 2447657; 437232, 2447645; 435631, 2452072; 
438179, 2444732; 436566, 2449559; 438343, 2444896; 438406, 2444952; 
438475, 2444955; 438523, 2444886; 438536, 2444858; 439298, 2444154; 
438168, 2444734; 436235, 2450550; 438677, 2444833; 435961, 2451591; 
436027, 2451466; 436103, 2451262; 436162, 2451016; 436212, 2450766; 
436739, 2449180; 436234, 2450558; 436706, 2449252; 436250, 2450410; 
436234, 2450237; 436386, 2449952; 436472, 2449769; 436566, 2449560; 
435779, 2451881; 436230, 2450590; 438030, 2442243; 438130, 2442234; 
437996, 2442188; 437998, 2442202; 437998, 2442205; 437999, 2442211; 
437973, 2442147; 438012, 2442229; 437954, 2442136; 438049, 2442246; 
438065, 2442246; 438088, 2442240; 438095, 2442238; 438098, 2442237; 
439456, 2444205; 438000, 2442216; 437826, 2442106; 437754, 2441991; 
437758, 2441998; 437766, 2442017; 437777, 2442052; 437791, 2442074; 
437984, 2442167; 437806, 2442092; 438157, 2442234; 437839, 2442110; 
437873, 2442121; 437887, 2442121; 437912, 2442123; 437926, 2442125; 
437939, 2442128; 437799, 2442084; 438656, 2442321; 438114, 2442232; 
438535, 2442314; 438536, 2442314; 438561, 2442316; 438577, 2442315; 
438517, 2442310; 438626, 2442315; 438496, 2442310; 438668, 2442322; 
438679, 2442324; 438694, 2442327; 438704, 2442326; 438721, 2442329; 
446348, 2441177; 438609, 2442314; 438392, 2442294; 438219, 2442244; 
438238, 2442248; 438254, 2442248; 438305, 2442256; 438355, 2442265; 
438523, 2442310; 438376, 2442278; 437745, 2441950; 438418, 2442311; 
438433, 2442319; 438436, 2442321; 438453, 2442321; 438453, 2442321; 
438460, 2442320; 438373, 2442277; 437363, 2443282; 437751, 2441981; 
437981, 2443476; 437808, 2443397; 437928, 2443310; 437950, 2443233; 
438143, 2443587; 437364, 2443298; 438183, 2443628; 437277, 2443228; 
437144, 2443208; 437065, 2443211; 437060, 2443212; 436974, 2443182; 
436997, 2443061; 437657, 2443231; 438835, 2443883; 439282, 2444110; 
439268, 2444068; 439181, 2444032; 439094, 2444009; 439048, 2443913; 
438208, 2443477; 438964, 2443837; 437226, 2442709; 438723, 2443923; 
438608, 2443916; 438453, 2443825; 438438, 2443814; 438318, 2443723; 
438201, 2443629; 439043, 2443859; 437697, 2441878; 437601, 2441867; 
437602, 2441867; 437617, 2441866; 437635, 2441866; 437647, 2441866; 
437052, 2442940; 437689, 2441877; 437522, 2441879; 437705, 2441878; 
437711, 2441887; 437717, 2441899; 437736, 2441928; 437740, 2441938; 
438821, 2442339; 437674, 2441875; 437294, 2442356; 437747, 2441961; 
437088, 2442647; 437103, 2442643; 437156, 2442615; 437159, 2442579; 
437120, 2442503; 437566, 2441876; 437174, 2442422; 437532, 2441880; 
437425, 2442191; 437307, 2442101; 437476, 2442051; 437493, 2441868; 
437495, 2441869; 437182, 2442830; 437105, 2442445; 448431, 2442766; 
448447, 2442675; 448469, 2442871; 448462, 2442858; 448442, 2442821; 
448437, 2442805; 448481, 2442894; 448432, 2442775; 448486, 2442910; 
448428, 2442750; 448428, 2442738; 448432, 2442727; 448437, 2442711; 
448443, 2442699; 448671, 2442369; 448435, 2442791; 448579, 2443112; 
448582, 2443190; 448582, 2443172; 448582, 2443162; 448583, 2443151; 
448585, 2443140; 448477, 2442887; 448585, 2443122; 448447, 2442663; 
448562, 2443086; 448545, 2443051; 448529, 2443019; 448507, 2442976; 
448498, 2442952; 448490, 2442930; 448586, 2443129; 448642, 2442440; 
448447, 2442688; 448602, 2442477; 448615, 2442472; 448623, 2442466; 
448634, 2442459; 448566, 2442503; 448640, 2442451; 448550, 2442513; 
448642, 2442430; 448642, 2442419; 448643, 2442410; 448648, 2442399; 
448657, 2442387; 447996, 2444312; 448637, 2442455; 448464, 2442531; 
448443, 2442636; 448443, 2442627; 448440, 2442604; 448438, 2442565; 
448441, 2442549; 448587, 2442486; 448455, 2442534; 448589, 2443224; 
448474, 2442530; 448488, 2442531; 448505, 2442534; 448515, 2442533; 
448530, 2442527; 448536, 2442523; 448449, 2442536; 448502, 2443743; 
448586, 2443203; 448512, 2443792; 448512, 2443783; 448513, 2443779; 
448513, 2443769; 448473, 2443878; 448504, 2443752; 448470, 2443888; 
448504, 2443735; 448507, 2443727; 448522, 2443706; 448538, 2443682; 
448546, 2443665; 448552, 2443643; 448509, 2443760; 447932, 2443750; 
447925, 2444320; 447843, 2444325; 447864, 2444277; 447942, 2444178; 
448003, 2444015; 448500, 2443823; 447967, 2443867; 448549, 2443613; 
447904, 2443646; 447921, 2443582; 447949, 2443460; 447939, 2443412; 
448458, 2443882; 448470, 2443889; 448008, 2443903; 448590, 2443306; 
448578, 2443441; 448572, 2443417; 448576, 2443405; 448584, 2443388; 
448590, 2443369; 448552, 2443630; 448593, 2443325; 448591, 2443484; 
448591, 2443291; 448592, 2443277; 448592, 2443261; 448592, 2443254; 
448591, 2443241; 448673, 2442365; 448595, 2443352; 448553, 2443539; 
448587, 2443214; 448544, 2443601; 448533, 2443587; 448527, 2443576; 
448523, 2443570; 448518, 2443559; 448585, 2443461; 448528, 2443546; 
448588, 2443466; 448560, 2443535; 448569, 2443527; 448577, 2443516; 
448582, 2443508; 448589, 2443493; 448551, 2443621; 448518, 2443552; 
449003, 2441449; 448936, 2441403; 449064, 2441492; 449060, 2441481; 
449053, 2441472; 449049, 2441471; 449066, 2441511; 449032, 2441461; 
449061, 2441528; 448971, 2441443; 448964, 2441441; 448952, 2441427; 
448948, 2441420; 448945, 2441411; 448665, 2442379; 449040, 2441466; 
449012, 2441616; 448972, 2441689; 446228, 2441279; 448995, 2441668; 
449000, 2441660; 449004, 2441650; 449065, 2441502; 449009, 2441625; 
448930, 2441400; 449017, 2441611; 449030, 2441595; 449037, 2441588; 
449043, 2441578; 449046, 2441569; 449050, 2441561; 449006, 2441639; 
448967, 2441159; 448940, 2441404; 448926, 2441212; 448930, 2441194; 
448933, 2441184; 448941, 2441177; 448940, 2441238; 448961, 2441163; 
448944, 2441250; 448972, 2441150; 448973, 2441143; 448972, 2441136; 
448971, 2441119; 448969, 2441116; 448964, 2441109; 448949, 2441170; 
448928, 2441313; 448922, 2441392; 448918, 2441381; 448916, 2441369; 
448917, 2441357; 448919, 2441341; 448934, 2441230; 448925, 2441322; 
448933, 2441715; 448935, 2441302; 448944, 2441291; 448948, 2441281; 
448948, 2441273; 448948, 2441264; 448946, 2441259; 448920, 2441333; 
448677, 2442140; 441868, 2446401; 448673, 2442209; 448671, 2442202; 
448674, 2442187; 448680, 2442169; 448684, 2442226; 448682, 2442148;

[[Page 19075]]

448692, 2442233; 448675, 2442123; 448677, 2442115; 448683, 2442101; 
448694, 2442089; 448710, 2442077; 448718, 2442069; 448684, 2442157; 
448722, 2442303; 448677, 2442356; 448682, 2442350; 448697, 2442342; 
448711, 2442341; 448721, 2442331; 448678, 2442221; 448723, 2442309; 
448736, 2442055; 448718, 2442295; 448712, 2442283; 448707, 2442267; 
448706, 2442257; 448705, 2442250; 448699, 2442238; 448724, 2442320; 
448915, 2441796; 448850, 2441844; 448877, 2441825; 448884, 2441820; 
448890, 2441818; 448892, 2441817; 448723, 2442061; 448910, 2441807; 
448820, 2441871; 448913, 2441774; 448914, 2441760; 448913, 2441753; 
448915, 2441738; 448925, 2441722; 448957, 2441700; 448900, 2441814; 
448787, 2441967; 448939, 2441710; 448746, 2442051; 448755, 2442041; 
448764, 2442029; 448768, 2442019; 448773, 2442013; 448840, 2441852; 
448781, 2441990; 448831, 2441859; 448789, 2441938; 448803, 2441914; 
448813, 2441900; 448814, 2441894; 448817, 2441884; 448728, 2442058; 
448777, 2442002; 440375, 2448361; 440198, 2448467; 440421, 2448239; 
440415, 2448290; 440416, 2448314; 440411, 2448336; 440401, 2448191; 
440391, 2448353; 440384, 2448138; 440350, 2448395; 440331, 2448411; 
440307, 2448418; 440254, 2448428; 440237, 2448434; 439526, 2448944; 
440402, 2448352; 440409, 2447991; 440377, 2447819; 440378, 2447845; 
440384, 2447871; 440395, 2447896; 440436, 2447941; 440413, 2448216; 
440426, 2447974; 440190, 2448485; 440343, 2448005; 440329, 2448016; 
440325, 2448033; 440331, 2448061; 440341, 2448084; 440374, 2448123; 
440435, 2447959; 439678, 2448950; 440218, 2448446; 439853, 2448941; 
439830, 2448945; 439788, 2448929; 439761, 2448926; 439900, 2448928; 
439697, 2448941; 439922, 2448928; 439656, 2448949; 439633, 2448940; 
439611, 2448928; 439578, 2448906; 439553, 2448909; 439539, 2448922; 
439733, 2448930; 440089, 2448747; 440179, 2448496; 440157, 2448511; 
440136, 2448537; 440120, 2448633; 440125, 2448690; 439875, 2448932; 
440112, 2448732; 440451, 2447620; 440073, 2448762; 440036, 2448815; 
440000, 2448878; 439982, 2448899; 439961, 2448915; 439941, 2448924; 
440121, 2448718; 441363, 2447030; 440383, 2447794; 441405, 2446869; 
441402, 2446899; 441403, 2446972; 441399, 2446995; 441455, 2446804; 
441373, 2447026; 441476, 2446797; 441317, 2447043; 441283, 2447083; 
441268, 2447104; 441240, 2447171; 441231, 2447186; 441219, 2447195; 
441398, 2446997; 441674, 2446682; 448141, 2444294; 448986, 2441677; 
441864, 2446424; 441847, 2446451; 441836, 2446475; 441434, 2446820; 
441829, 2446505; 441148, 2447188; 441648, 2446705; 441620, 2446723; 
441584, 2446741; 441549, 2446752; 441532, 2446763; 441521, 2446777; 
441829, 2446501; 440674, 2447485; 440710, 2447368; 440699, 2447389; 
440693, 2447407; 440695, 2447430; 440703, 2447452; 441201, 2447195; 
440693, 2447475; 440800, 2447339; 440599, 2447501; 440579, 2447511; 
440540, 2447539; 440487, 2447571; 440468, 2447593; 440124, 2448663; 
440703, 2447461; 440941, 2447230; 440413, 2447711; 441133, 2447183; 
441113, 2447170; 441095, 2447154; 441083, 2447147; 441058, 2447153; 
440722, 2447354; 440969, 2447210; 440740, 2447346; 440888, 2447250; 
440873, 2447265; 440865, 2447286; 440858, 2447311; 440842, 2447328; 
441172, 2447190; 441039, 2447168; 438599, 2451708; 438434, 2451069; 
438440, 2451600; 438425, 2451652; 438429, 2451670; 438442, 2451682; 
438419, 2451509; 438529, 2451692; 438410, 2451464; 438657, 2451738; 
439516, 2448971; 438675, 2451766; 440125, 2448578; 438680, 2451858; 
438715, 2451908; 438484, 2451690; 438467, 2451228; 438455, 2451089; 
438463, 2451098; 438475, 2451113; 438484, 2451141; 438486, 2451163; 
438435, 2451571; 438472, 2451209; 438888, 2452163; 438472, 2451261; 
438481, 2451287; 438485, 2451346; 438478, 2451359; 438454, 2451380; 
438422, 2451414; 438481, 2451188; 448609, 2443974; 438669, 2452384; 
438605, 2452379; 438540, 2452374; 438510, 2452340; 438449, 2452330; 
438761, 2452013; 438490, 2452605; 438816, 2452396; 448591, 2444072; 
448566, 2444172; 448548, 2444233; 448510, 2444279; 448464, 2444284; 
448299, 2444289; 438431, 2452414; 439138, 2452428; 438670, 2451754; 
438936, 2452213; 438977, 2452232; 438979, 2452233; 439031, 2452285; 
439037, 2452297; 438716, 2452393; 439083, 2452342; 438779, 2452391; 
439171, 2452514; 439201, 2452565; 439114, 2452513; 438954, 2452430; 
438851, 2452395; 438833, 2452090; 439061, 2452327; 439044, 2449631; 
438944, 2449813; 439167, 2449414; 439146, 2449435; 439114, 2449463; 
439102, 2449480; 439220, 2449318; 439065, 2449586; 439230, 2449287; 
439037, 2449642; 439025, 2449671; 439016, 2449687; 438999, 2449702; 
438974, 2449738; 438965, 2449767; 439076, 2449548; 439382, 2449107; 
439508, 2448984; 439451, 2449000; 439437, 2449023; 438680, 2451783; 
439433, 2449078; 439200, 2449362; 439399, 2449097; 439421, 2449088; 
439361, 2449126; 439330, 2449145; 439307, 2449169; 439277, 2449220; 
439260, 2449242; 439244, 2449261; 438425, 2451047; 438554, 2450559; 
438737, 2450311; 438736, 2450325; 438731, 2450342; 438715, 2450373; 
438690, 2450392; 438621, 2450415; 438732, 2450286; 438578, 2450438; 
438501, 2450796; 438488, 2450686; 438472, 2450910; 438435, 2450985; 
438427, 2450964; 438919, 2449853; 439437, 2449066; 438581, 2450423; 
438816, 2450028; 438717, 2450241; 438894, 2449879; 438884, 2449918; 
438904, 2449863; 438831, 2450010; 438850, 2449982; 438791, 2450036; 
438765, 2450051; 438744, 2450081; 438730, 2450109; 438717, 2450158; 
438716, 2450162; 438713, 2450206.
    (ii) Map of Unit 4-Montane Wet for Akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi) 
follows:
BILLING CODE 4310-55-S

[[Page 19076]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR13AP10.025


[[Page 19077]]


    (10) Unit 5-Montane Wet, Kauai County, Hawaii.
    (i) Unit 5-Montane Wet consists of 789.9 ac (319.7 ha) and includes 
land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, NAD 83 coordinates (E, N): 
433436, 2449707; 433445, 2449707; 433444, 2449707; 433443, 2449707; 
433458, 2449707; 433436, 2449707; 433426, 2449707; 433408, 2449708; 
433429, 2449741; 433493, 2449765; 433633, 2449724; 433742, 2449724; 
433467, 2449787; 433460, 2449707; 433468, 2449706; 433484, 2449694; 
433414, 2449628; 433461, 2449623; 433457, 2449622; 433339, 2449600; 
433440, 2449604; 433437, 2449592; 433426, 2449556; 433419, 2449599; 
433831, 2449767; 434991, 2449344; 433401, 2449697; 433480, 2449629; 
434938, 2449321; 433313, 2449484; 433455, 2449620; 434842, 2449253; 
434839, 2449258; 434834, 2449277; 434833, 2449278; 434833, 2449278; 
434833, 2449280; 434833, 2449281; 434872, 2449294; 434881, 2449297; 
434884, 2449298; 435010, 2449343; 434899, 2449305; 433903, 2449882; 
435011, 2449352; 435010, 2449343; 435005, 2449310; 434948, 2449300; 
434908, 2449290; 434908, 2449290; 434890, 2449251; 434872, 2449246; 
434848, 2449239; 434844, 2449248; 434034, 2449950; 434026, 2449951; 
433969, 2449958; 434898, 2449304; 435183, 2449401; 434713, 2447038; 
434738, 2447045; 434738, 2447030; 434795, 2447069; 434994, 2447085; 
435093, 2447245; 435290, 2447449; 435295, 2447440; 435360, 2447538; 
435282, 2448685; 435266, 2448909; 435236, 2449351; 434686, 2447020; 
435232, 2449399; 435272, 2448835; 435080, 2449407; 434920, 2449394; 
434752, 2449405; 434498, 2449522; 434338, 2449660; 434208, 2449767; 
434141, 2449863; 434137, 2449869; 434124, 2449948; 434074, 2449972; 
433461, 2449623; 433339, 2449381; 435234, 2449384; 433589, 2449323; 
433725, 2448994; 433545, 2449136; 433389, 2449256; 433567, 2449260; 
433588, 2449244; 433880, 2448827; 433612, 2449262; 433525, 2449415; 
433567, 2449398; 433546, 2449412; 434627, 2447088; 433448, 2449426; 
435236, 2449347; 433368, 2449293; 433599, 2449252; 434202, 2447345; 
433367, 2449352; 434073, 2448685; 434357, 2447229; 434073, 2447500; 
434086, 2447693; 434163, 2447783; 434254, 2447886; 434318, 2448182; 
434318, 2448298; 434292, 2448479; 434279, 2447951; 434486, 2447126; 
434228, 2448620.
    (ii) Map of Unit 5-Montane Wet for Akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi) 
follows:

[[Page 19078]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR13AP10.026


[[Page 19079]]


    (11) Unit 6-Montane Wet, Kauai County, Hawaii.
    (i) Unit 6-Montane Wet consists of 413.5 ac (167.3 ha) and includes 
land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, NAD 83 coordinates (E, N): 
448516, 2447525; 447976, 2448470; 448042, 2448338; 448133, 2448200; 
448235, 2448042; 448834, 2447273; 448288, 2447915; 448412, 2447653; 
448669, 2447406; 447943, 2448562; 448763, 2447342; 448059, 2449434; 
448321, 2447795; 447961, 2448628; 448037, 2448780; 448088, 2448897; 
448122, 2449037; 448119, 2449134; 448056, 2449368; 448099, 2449454; 
448242, 2449457; 448328, 2449449; 448440, 2449296; 448382, 2449406; 
448887, 2447191; 448091, 2449266; 448610, 2449255; 448931, 2447092; 
448511, 2449199; 448623, 2449141; 448641, 2449184; 448593, 2449298; 
448613, 2449357; 448702, 2449395; 448812, 2449420; 448906, 2449440; 
448959, 2449443; 448964, 2449425; 448952, 2449316; 448954, 2449143; 
448881, 2447609; 448987, 2448959; 448980, 2446980; 448979, 2446983; 
448577, 2449143; 448980, 2446982; 448981, 2446981; 449105, 2447827; 
449087, 2447916; 449044, 2448132; 449032, 2448326; 449045, 2448506; 
449040, 2448659; 449012, 2448822.
    (ii) Map of Unit 6-Montane Wet for Akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi) 
follows:

[[Page 19080]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR13AP10.027


[[Page 19081]]


* * * * *
    (i) Insects.
* * * * *
Hawaiian picture-wing fly (Drosophila sharpi)
    (1) Critical habitat units are depicted for Kauai County, Hawaii, 
on the maps below.
    (2) Primary constituent elements.
    (i) In units 1, 2, and 3, the primary constituent elements of 
critical habitat for Hawaiian picture-wing fly (Drosophila sharpi) are:
    (A) Elevation: 3,000 to 5,243 ft (914 to 1,598 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 inches (127 to 190 centimeters).
    (C) Substrate: Weathered aa lava flows, rocky mucks, thin silty 
loams, deep volcanic ash soils.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Metrosideros, Psychotria, Tetraplasandra, 
Zanthoxylum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cheirodendron, Coprosma, Kadua, Ilex, Myoporum, 
Myrsine.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Dryopteris, Leptecophylla, Poa, Scaevola, 
Sophora.
    (G) Larval host plants (Cheirodendron sp., Tetraplasandra sp.).
    (ii) In units 4, 5, and 6, the primary constituent elements of 
critical habitat for Hawaiian picture-wing fly (Drosophila sharpi) are:
    (A) Elevation: 3,000 to 5,243 ft (914 to 1,598 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 centimeters).
    (C) Substrate: Well-developed soils, montane bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Charpentiera, Cheirodendron, Metrosideros.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cibotium, Eurya, Ilex, Myrsine.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Coprosma, Leptecophylla, Oreobolus, 
Rhynchospora, Vaccinium.
    (G) Larval host plants (Cheirodendron sp., Tetraplasandra sp.).
    (3) Manmade features and structures, such as buildings, roads, 
railroads, airports, runways, other paved areas, lawns, and other urban 
landscaped areas, existing on the effective date of this rule do not 
contain one or more of the primary constituent elements.
    (4) Critical habitat maps. Maps were created in GIS, with 
coordinates in UTM Zone 4 with units in meters using North American 
datum of 1983 (NAD 83).
    (5) Index map of critical habitat units for Hawaiian picture-wing 
fly (Drosophila sharpi) follows:

[[Page 19082]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR13AP10.028

BILLING CODE 4310-55-C

[[Page 19083]]

    (6) Unit 1-Montane Mesic, Kauai County, Hawaii.
    (i) Unit 1-Montane Mesic consists of 2,422.6 ac (980.4 ha) and 
includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, NAD83 coordinates 
(E, N): 430107, 2447429; 430242, 2447664; 430073, 2447126; 430793, 
2448310; 430124, 2446907; 430393, 2447748; 430690, 2447765; 430671, 
2447997; 430764, 2448188; 430886, 2448507; 430903, 2448664; 430985, 
2448705; 431560, 2448675; 431414, 2448890; 430291, 2446570; 431058, 
2446300; 431200, 2449070; 431362, 2449169; 431171, 2448699; 430854, 
2445930; 432530, 2450196; 431391, 2449273; 431323, 2447013; 431211, 
2446394; 431101, 2446447; 431112, 2446394; 431069, 2446331; 431007, 
2446203; 430944, 2446145; 430902, 2445976; 430191, 2446386; 430826, 
2445805; 430857, 2445727; 430824, 2445631; 430442, 2445640; 430323, 
2445779; 430204, 2445809; 430191, 2445898; 429898, 2446100; 429871, 
2446234; 430939, 2446061; 432796, 2450365; 432504, 2449961; 432579, 
2450036; 432552, 2450080; 432551, 2450083; 432001, 2447726; 432534, 
2450174; 431629, 2448739; 432565, 2450262; 432531, 2450116; 432740, 
2450249; 432441, 2449848; 432808, 2450383; 432882, 2450351; 432904, 
2450341; 432827, 2447751; 432932, 2447668; 433014, 2447717; 433109, 
2447775; 433094, 2447922; 432560, 2450267; 431875, 2449780; 431322, 
2449418; 431403, 2449436; 431727, 2449372; 431769, 2449447; 431705, 
2449569; 431720, 2449620; 431805, 2449591; 431919, 2449578; 432498, 
2449952; 431904, 2449665; 432486, 2449909; 432046, 2449781; 432052, 
2449783; 432113, 2449740; 432217, 2449712; 432251, 2449685; 432259, 
2449679; 432344, 2449744; 432419, 2449806; 431322, 2449372; 431905, 
2449660; 434486, 2447126; 434073, 2448685; 434228, 2448620; 434292, 
2448479; 434318, 2448298; 434279, 2447951; 434163, 2447783; 434086, 
2447693; 434073, 2447500; 434623, 2446526; 434357, 2447229; 433545, 
2449136; 434627, 2447088; 434686, 2447020; 434682, 2447017; 434657, 
2446977; 434652, 2446933; 434612, 2446807; 434641, 2446663; 434631, 
2446528; 434202, 2447345; 433399, 2449709; 431205, 2448983; 432073, 
2447674; 433046, 2450280; 433196, 2450196; 433287, 2450063; 433353, 
2449880; 433467, 2449787; 433429, 2449741; 433880, 2448827; 433407, 
2449708; 433725, 2448994; 433401, 2449697; 433339, 2449600; 433313, 
2449484; 433339, 2449381; 433368, 2449293; 433368, 2449292; 433369, 
2449255; 433389, 2449256; 434254, 2447886; 433408, 2449708; 433527, 
2447856; 434086, 2446095; 433862, 2446165; 433606, 2446193; 433449, 
2446235; 433397, 2446440; 433257, 2446958; 433577, 2447086; 433706, 
2447138; 434090, 2446098; 433562, 2447841; 432639, 2447624; 432918, 
2447407; 432672, 2447598; 434620, 2446512; 432609, 2447647; 434318, 
2448182; 432195, 2447587; 432136, 2447629; 432133, 2447631; 432081, 
2447668; 433746, 2447766; 434500, 2446448; 432320, 2447497; 434103, 
2446297; 434618, 2446459; 434582, 2446443; 434558, 2446439; 434514, 
2446449; 434471, 2446422; 434457, 2446416; 434447, 2446420; 434392, 
2446421; 434423, 2446441; 434416, 2446441; 434625, 2446467; 434201, 
2446573; 434403, 2446435; 434628, 2446479; 434400, 2446429; 434434, 
2446428; 434386, 2446429; 434533, 2446441.
    (ii) Map of Unit 1-Montane Mesic for Hawaiian picture-wing fly 
(Drosophila sharpi) follows:
BILLING CODE 4310-55-S

[[Page 19084]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR13AP10.029


[[Page 19085]]


    (7) Unit 2-Montane Mesic, Kauai County, Hawaii.
    (i) Unit 2-Montane Mesic consists of 375.6 ac (152.0 ha) and 
includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, NAD83 coordinates 
(E, N): 431975, 2446280; 432559, 2446255; 432659, 2446240; 432948, 
2446150; 433067, 2445928; 432758, 2445304; 432001, 2445941; 431873, 
2444849; 432912, 2445580; 432674, 2444970; 431626, 2445435; 431730, 
2445114; 431950, 2444792; 432135, 2444807; 432377, 2444722; 432548, 
2444752; 431645, 2445326; 431736, 2445617.
    (ii) Map of Unit 2-Montane Mesic for Hawaiian picture-wing fly 
(Drosophila sharpi) follows:

[[Page 19086]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR13AP10.030


[[Page 19087]]


    (8) Unit 3-Montane Mesic, Kauai County, Hawaii.
    (i) Unit 3-Montane Mesic consists of 138.5 ac (56.0 ha) and 
includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, NAD83 coordinates 
(E, N): 438012, 2440389; 438014, 2440437; 438023, 2440484; 438111, 
2440652; 438112, 2440588; 437817, 2440071; 438028, 2440577; 437922, 
2440355; 437336, 2440335; 437912, 2440201; 437827, 2440132; 437785, 
2440013; 437687, 2439960; 437636, 2439819; 437870, 2440140; 437545, 
2439761; 438149, 2440714; 437529, 2439721; 437987, 2441027; 437450, 
2440047; 437335, 2440180; 437335, 2440329; 438159, 2440914; 438249, 
2440857; 438253, 2440854; 438243, 2440830; 438287, 2440738; 437602, 
2440771; 438227, 2440730; 437586, 2439743.
    (ii) Map of Unit 3-Montane Mesic for Hawaiian picture-wing fly 
(Drosophila sharpi) follows:

[[Page 19088]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR13AP10.031

BILLING CODE 4310-031-C

[[Page 19089]]

    (9) Unit 4-Montane Wet, Kauai County, Hawaii.
    (i) Unit 4-Montane Wet consists of 13,055.0 ac (5,283.2 ha) and 
includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, NAD83 coordinates 
(E, N): 448638, 2440764; 448601, 2440679; 448606, 2440704; 448612, 
2440722; 448615, 2440731; 448619, 2440740; 448630, 2440759; 448650, 
2440769; 448600, 2440668; 448622, 2440749; 448599, 2440647; 448601, 
2440652; 448678, 2440741; 448777, 2440842; 448663, 2440773; 449006, 
2441012; 448764, 2440857; 449068, 2441051; 449121, 2441114; 449121, 
2441114; 448887, 2440934; 448811, 2440896; 448954, 2441097; 448943, 
2441063; 448943, 2441053; 448943, 2441044; 448941, 2441024; 448940, 
2441006; 448918, 2440982; 448877, 2440939; 448861, 2440927; 448735, 
2440829; 448837, 2440912; 448678, 2440780; 448802, 2440889; 448788, 
2440878; 449115, 2442038; 448745, 2440841; 449111, 2441196; 448727, 
2440820; 448720, 2440813; 448711, 2440806; 448691, 2440790; 448841, 
2440914; 447374, 2443275; 449244, 2441819; 447623, 2443445; 447616, 
2443588; 447603, 2443646; 447556, 2443686; 447325, 2443651; 447295, 
2443639; 447247, 2443586; 448634, 2443800; 447287, 2443339; 448657, 
2443629; 447481, 2443262; 447636, 2443160; 447645, 2443143; 447645, 
2443146; 447894, 2443371; 447865, 2443358; 447712, 2443351; 447631, 
2443389; 448948, 2441084; 447249, 2443451; 448917, 2442504; 449106, 
2441435; 449173, 2441529; 449201, 2441638; 449249, 2441697; 449275, 
2441773; 449148, 2441893; 449090, 2442135; 449064, 2442221; 448614, 
2443950; 448983, 2442384; 449078, 2441297; 448880, 2442563; 448861, 
2442593; 448805, 2442677; 448765, 2442787; 448696, 2442955; 448653, 
2443075; 448651, 2443187; 448674, 2443301; 448669, 2443477; 449024, 
2442290; 444824, 2443350; 444161, 2444181; 445808, 2442898; 445681, 
2442977; 445559, 2443010; 445437, 2443077; 446100, 2442628; 445045, 
2443240; 446256, 2442602; 444659, 2443447; 444532, 2443516; 444456, 
2443572; 444423, 2443638; 444334, 2443811; 446499, 2441271; 445254, 
2443156; 446686, 2441764; 441856, 2446328; 446673, 2441408; 446651, 
2441424; 446641, 2441436; 446587, 2441501; 445966, 2442725; 446640, 
2441627; 444075, 2444349; 446694, 2442007; 446591, 2442195; 446650, 
2442430; 446675, 2442432; 446482, 2442513; 446373, 2442574; 446587, 
2441543; 443497, 2444548; 444237, 2444013; 443579, 2444514; 443571, 
2444521; 443557, 2444532; 443553, 2444537; 443610, 2444483; 443516, 
2444546; 443617, 2444477; 443483, 2444551; 443478, 2444555; 443464, 
2444570; 443459, 2444579; 443452, 2444591; 443447, 2444608; 443534, 
2444543; 443722, 2444464; 444016, 2444444; 443984, 2444419; 443985, 
2444416; 443769, 2444440; 443760, 2444446; 443598, 2444493; 443732, 
2444458; 446375, 2441172; 443703, 2444469; 443685, 2444463; 443677, 
2444459; 443666, 2444456; 443647, 2444460; 443628, 2444469; 443740, 
2444454; 441656, 2441573; 442568, 2441274; 440114, 2440528; 440464, 
2440832; 440528, 2440844; 440586, 2440905; 440110, 2440524; 441650, 
2441573; 440014, 2440441; 441659, 2441579; 441727, 2441586; 441774, 
2441575; 441900, 2441576; 441968, 2441515; 446610, 2441349; 441637, 
2441552; 439096, 2441847; 438866, 2442347; 438934, 2442351; 438960, 
2442270; 438967, 2442246; 438976, 2442220; 440113, 2440527; 439088, 
2441871; 442723, 2441295; 439491, 2440617; 439551, 2440431; 439556, 
2440414; 439832, 2440430; 439931, 2440426; 440002, 2440430; 439037, 
2442031; 445551, 2441162; 442287, 2441225; 445235, 2441328; 445344, 
2441376; 445380, 2441414; 445392, 2441392; 444560, 2441032; 445510, 
2441194; 444480, 2440997; 445886, 2441308; 446122, 2441415; 446214, 
2441291; 448944, 2441075; 446300, 2441227; 446357, 2441185; 445395, 
2441389; 443889, 2441172; 442843, 2441314; 442924, 2441340; 442982, 
2441350; 442977, 2441356; 443016, 2441342; 445124, 2441205; 443707, 
2441132; 443440, 2444655; 444062, 2441230; 444083, 2441215; 444109, 
2441224; 444113, 2441221; 444124, 2441223; 444455, 2440990; 443023, 
2441344; 442711, 2445664; 442430, 2445827; 442668, 2445560; 442666, 
2445576; 442668, 2445590; 442674, 2445604; 442672, 2445510; 442713, 
2445661; 442668, 2445494; 442501, 2445803; 442492, 2445803; 442467, 
2445799; 442448, 2445805; 442444, 2445807; 443444, 2444627; 442710, 
2445647; 442709, 2445399; 442804, 2445357; 442798, 2445359; 442785, 
2445364; 442765, 2445370; 442747, 2445377; 442673, 2445515; 442727, 
2445386; 442430, 2445830; 442694, 2445414; 442689, 2445419; 442682, 
2445433; 442675, 2445453; 442671, 2445471; 442667, 2445490; 442743, 
2445378; 441897, 2446273; 442435, 2445813; 442019, 2446165; 442005, 
2446171; 441982, 2446194; 441963, 2446219; 442059, 2446159; 441929, 
2446268; 442071, 2446146; 441879, 2446263; 441852, 2446219; 441838, 
2446221; 441834, 2446230; 441848, 2446265; 441855, 2446295; 441943, 
2446256; 442202, 2445986; 442428, 2445851; 442381, 2445882; 442372, 
2445885; 442317, 2445917; 442301, 2445924; 442039, 2446165; 442261, 
2445949; 442858, 2445342; 442175, 2445995; 442100, 2446007; 442082, 
2446029; 442072, 2446052; 442067, 2446082; 442073, 2446121; 442273, 
2445945; 443240, 2444927; 442821, 2445353; 443294, 2444870; 443290, 
2444876; 443281, 2444890; 443271, 2444898; 443307, 2444833; 443252, 
2444914; 443309, 2444829; 443234, 2444932; 443215, 2444938; 443196, 
2444944; 443193, 2444946; 443177, 2444962; 443175, 2444965; 443260, 
2444907; 443352, 2444721; 438757, 2442331; 443435, 2444664; 443423, 
2444686; 443403, 2444695; 443385, 2444699; 443301, 2444851; 443366, 
2444706; 443156, 2445003; 443346, 2444728; 443341, 2444740; 443333, 
2444758; 443327, 2444778; 443320, 2444796; 443313, 2444815; 443373, 
2444702; 442952, 2445303; 443029, 2445263; 443009, 2445266; 443006, 
2445268; 442990, 2445276; 442981, 2445284; 443163, 2444984; 442956, 
2445301; 443068, 2445227; 442934, 2445314; 442915, 2445323; 442898, 
2445330; 442877, 2445336; 442862, 2445341; 443443, 2444647; 442972, 
2445292; 443122, 2445132; 442842, 2445347; 443153, 2445020; 443153, 
2445040; 443152, 2445059; 443150, 2445078; 443144, 2445096; 443047, 
2445260; 443135, 2445115; 443065, 2445247; 443103, 2445152; 443083, 
2445171; 443066, 2445190; 443066, 2445209; 443067, 2445215; 443158, 
2444995; 443140, 2445105; 440025, 2445056; 439668, 2444981; 440214, 
2445151; 440216, 2445150; 440347, 2445106; 440289, 2445097; 440078, 
2445204; 440124, 2445056; 439994, 2445245; 439910, 2445087; 439796, 
2445123; 439719, 2445133; 439696, 2445110; 439681, 2445072; 439364, 
2444192; 440216, 2445076; 439480, 2445095; 438927, 2444790; 438982, 
2444746; 439037, 2444786; 439157, 2444829; 439238, 2444846; 440165, 
2445166; 439434, 2444999; 439643, 2444902; 439484, 2445120; 439501, 
2445220; 439598, 2445317; 439699, 2445360; 439794, 2445352; 439883, 
2445309; 439360, 2444907; 439945, 2444540; 439673, 2445011; 439890, 
2444912; 439948, 2444922; 439994, 2444883; 440052, 2444784; 439859, 
2444782; 439996, 2444642; 439859, 2444723; 439876, 2444423; 439825, 
2444344; 439759, 2444342; 439685, 2444334; 439583, 2444266; 438838, 
2442340; 440032, 2444731; 439254, 2444472; 439571, 2444823; 439485, 
2444800;

[[Page 19090]]

439386, 2444762; 439258, 2444658; 439172, 2444564; 439864, 2444845; 
439156, 2444527; 438580, 2444854; 439413, 2444371; 439522, 2444418; 
439617, 2444459; 439747, 2444522; 439800, 2444594; 439843, 2444655; 
439145, 2444538; 435698, 2452376; 438807, 2444845; 436003, 2452334; 
435955, 2452326; 435902, 2452378; 435838, 2452443; 436579, 2452559; 
435719, 2452378; 436804, 2452559; 435477, 2452358; 435478, 2452345; 
435479, 2452304; 435517, 2452192; 435519, 2452190; 435540, 2452168; 
435810, 2452427; 438006, 2453313; 438476, 2452702; 438465, 2452788; 
438430, 2452817; 438386, 2452854; 438269, 2452930; 436189, 2452365; 
438110, 2453148; 435895, 2451700; 437935, 2453510; 437933, 2453512; 
437797, 2453318; 437592, 2453026; 437202, 2452948; 437201, 2452932; 
438116, 2453088; 438263, 2444805; 436811, 2449026; 437237, 2447714; 
437230, 2447713; 437248, 2447657; 437232, 2447645; 435631, 2452072; 
438179, 2444732; 436566, 2449559; 438343, 2444896; 438406, 2444952; 
438475, 2444955; 438523, 2444886; 438536, 2444858; 439298, 2444154; 
438168, 2444734; 436235, 2450550; 438677, 2444833; 435961, 2451591; 
436027, 2451466; 436103, 2451262; 436162, 2451016; 436212, 2450766; 
436739, 2449180; 436234, 2450558; 436706, 2449252; 436250, 2450410; 
436234, 2450237; 436386, 2449952; 436472, 2449769; 436566, 2449560; 
435779, 2451881; 436230, 2450590; 438030, 2442243; 438130, 2442234; 
437996, 2442188; 437998, 2442202; 437998, 2442205; 437999, 2442211; 
437973, 2442147; 438012, 2442229; 437954, 2442136; 438049, 2442246; 
438065, 2442246; 438088, 2442240; 438095, 2442238; 438098, 2442237; 
439456, 2444205; 438000, 2442216; 437826, 2442106; 437754, 2441991; 
437758, 2441998; 437766, 2442017; 437777, 2442052; 437791, 2442074; 
437984, 2442167; 437806, 2442092; 438157, 2442234; 437839, 2442110; 
437873, 2442121; 437887, 2442121; 437912, 2442123; 437926, 2442125; 
437939, 2442128; 437799, 2442084; 438656, 2442321; 438114, 2442232; 
438535, 2442314; 438536, 2442314; 438561, 2442316; 438577, 2442315; 
438517, 2442310; 438626, 2442315; 438496, 2442310; 438668, 2442322; 
438679, 2442324; 438694, 2442327; 438704, 2442326; 438721, 2442329; 
446348, 2441177; 438609, 2442314; 438392, 2442294; 438219, 2442244; 
438238, 2442248; 438254, 2442248; 438305, 2442256; 438355, 2442265; 
438523, 2442310; 438376, 2442278; 437745, 2441950; 438418, 2442311; 
438433, 2442319; 438436, 2442321; 438453, 2442321; 438453, 2442321; 
438460, 2442320; 438373, 2442277; 437363, 2443282; 437751, 2441981; 
437981, 2443476; 437808, 2443397; 437928, 2443310; 437950, 2443233; 
438143, 2443587; 437364, 2443298; 438183, 2443628; 437277, 2443228; 
437144, 2443208; 437065, 2443211; 437060, 2443212; 436974, 2443182; 
436997, 2443061; 437657, 2443231; 438835, 2443883; 439282, 2444110; 
439268, 2444068; 439181, 2444032; 439094, 2444009; 439048, 2443913; 
438208, 2443477; 438964, 2443837; 437226, 2442709; 438723, 2443923; 
438608, 2443916; 438453, 2443825; 438438, 2443814; 438318, 2443723; 
438201, 2443629; 439043, 2443859; 437697, 2441878; 437601, 2441867; 
437602, 2441867; 437617, 2441866; 437635, 2441866; 437647, 2441866; 
437052, 2442940; 437689, 2441877; 437522, 2441879; 437705, 2441878; 
437711, 2441887; 437717, 2441899; 437736, 2441928; 437740, 2441938; 
438821, 2442339; 437674, 2441875; 437294, 2442356; 437747, 2441961; 
437088, 2442647; 437103, 2442643; 437156, 2442615; 437159, 2442579; 
437120, 2442503; 437566, 2441876; 437174, 2442422; 437532, 2441880; 
437425, 2442191; 437307, 2442101; 437476, 2442051; 437493, 2441868; 
437495, 2441869; 437182, 2442830; 437105, 2442445; 448431, 2442766; 
448447, 2442675; 448469, 2442871; 448462, 2442858; 448442, 2442821; 
448437, 2442805; 448481, 2442894; 448432, 2442775; 448486, 2442910; 
448428, 2442750; 448428, 2442738; 448432, 2442727; 448437, 2442711; 
448443, 2442699; 448671, 2442369; 448435, 2442791; 448579, 2443112; 
448582, 2443190; 448582, 2443172; 448582, 2443162; 448583, 2443151; 
448585, 2443140; 448477, 2442887; 448585, 2443122; 448447, 2442663; 
448562, 2443086; 448545, 2443051; 448529, 2443019; 448507, 2442976; 
448498, 2442952; 448490, 2442930; 448586, 2443129; 448642, 2442440; 
448447, 2442688; 448602, 2442477; 448615, 2442472; 448623, 2442466; 
448634, 2442459; 448566, 2442503; 448640, 2442451; 448550, 2442513; 
448642, 2442430; 448642, 2442419; 448643, 2442410; 448648, 2442399; 
448657, 2442387; 447996, 2444312; 448637, 2442455; 448464, 2442531; 
448443, 2442636; 448443, 2442627; 448440, 2442604; 448438, 2442565; 
448441, 2442549; 448587, 2442486; 448455, 2442534; 448589, 2443224; 
448474, 2442530; 448488, 2442531; 448505, 2442534; 448515, 2442533; 
448530, 2442527; 448536, 2442523; 448449, 2442536; 448502, 2443743; 
448586, 2443203; 448512, 2443792; 448512, 2443783; 448513, 2443779; 
448513, 2443769; 448473, 2443878; 448504, 2443752; 448470, 2443888; 
448504, 2443735; 448507, 2443727; 448522, 2443706; 448538, 2443682; 
448546, 2443665; 448552, 2443643; 448509, 2443760; 447932, 2443750; 
447925, 2444320; 447843, 2444325; 447864, 2444277; 447942, 2444178; 
448003, 2444015; 448500, 2443823; 447967, 2443867; 448549, 2443613; 
447904, 2443646; 447921, 2443582; 447949, 2443460; 447939, 2443412; 
448458, 2443882; 448470, 2443889; 448008, 2443903; 448590, 2443306; 
448578, 2443441; 448572, 2443417; 448576, 2443405; 448584, 2443388; 
448590, 2443369; 448552, 2443630; 448593, 2443325; 448591, 2443484; 
448591, 2443291; 448592, 2443277; 448592, 2443261; 448592, 2443254; 
448591, 2443241; 448673, 2442365; 448595, 2443352; 448553, 2443539; 
448587, 2443214; 448544, 2443601; 448533, 2443587; 448527, 2443576; 
448523, 2443570; 448518, 2443559; 448585, 2443461; 448528, 2443546; 
448588, 2443466; 448560, 2443535; 448569, 2443527; 448577, 2443516; 
448582, 2443508; 448589, 2443493; 448551, 2443621; 448518, 2443552; 
449003, 2441449; 448936, 2441403; 449064, 2441492; 449060, 2441481; 
449053, 2441472; 449049, 2441471; 449066, 2441511; 449032, 2441461; 
449061, 2441528; 448971, 2441443; 448964, 2441441; 448952, 2441427; 
448948, 2441420; 448945, 2441411; 448665, 2442379; 449040, 2441466; 
449012, 2441616; 448972, 2441689; 446228, 2441279; 448995, 2441668; 
449000, 2441660; 449004, 2441650; 449065, 2441502; 449009, 2441625; 
448930, 2441400; 449017, 2441611; 449030, 2441595; 449037, 2441588; 
449043, 2441578; 449046, 2441569; 449050, 2441561; 449006, 2441639; 
448967, 2441159; 448940, 2441404; 448926, 2441212; 448930, 2441194; 
448933, 2441184; 448941, 2441177; 448940, 2441238; 448961, 2441163; 
448944, 2441250; 448972, 2441150; 448973, 2441143; 448972, 2441136; 
448971, 2441119; 448969, 2441116; 448964, 2441109; 448949, 2441170; 
448928, 2441313; 448922, 2441392; 448918, 2441381; 448916, 2441369; 
448917, 2441357; 448919, 2441341; 448934, 2441230; 448925, 2441322; 
448933, 2441715; 448935, 2441302; 448944, 2441291; 448948, 2441281; 
448948, 2441273; 448948, 2441264; 448946, 2441259; 448920, 2441333; 
448677, 2442140; 441868, 2446401; 448673, 2442209; 448671, 2442202; 
448674, 2442187; 448680, 2442169; 448684, 2442226; 448682, 2442148;

[[Page 19091]]

448692, 2442233; 448675, 2442123; 448677, 2442115; 448683, 2442101; 
448694, 2442089; 448710, 2442077; 448718, 2442069; 448684, 2442157; 
448722, 2442303; 448677, 2442356; 448682, 2442350; 448697, 2442342; 
448711, 2442341; 448721, 2442331; 448678, 2442221; 448723, 2442309; 
448736, 2442055; 448718, 2442295; 448712, 2442283; 448707, 2442267; 
448706, 2442257; 448705, 2442250; 448699, 2442238; 448724, 2442320; 
448915, 2441796; 448850, 2441844; 448877, 2441825; 448884, 2441820; 
448890, 2441818; 448892, 2441817; 448723, 2442061; 448910, 2441807; 
448820, 2441871; 448913, 2441774; 448914, 2441760; 448913, 2441753; 
448915, 2441738; 448925, 2441722; 448957, 2441700; 448900, 2441814; 
448787, 2441967; 448939, 2441710; 448746, 2442051; 448755, 2442041; 
448764, 2442029; 448768, 2442019; 448773, 2442013; 448840, 2441852; 
448781, 2441990; 448831, 2441859; 448789, 2441938; 448803, 2441914; 
448813, 2441900; 448814, 2441894; 448817, 2441884; 448728, 2442058; 
448777, 2442002; 440375, 2448361; 440198, 2448467; 440421, 2448239; 
440415, 2448290; 440416, 2448314; 440411, 2448336; 440401, 2448191; 
440391, 2448353; 440384, 2448138; 440350, 2448395; 440331, 2448411; 
440307, 2448418; 440254, 2448428; 440237, 2448434; 439526, 2448944; 
440402, 2448352; 440409, 2447991; 440377, 2447819; 440378, 2447845; 
440384, 2447871; 440395, 2447896; 440436, 2447941; 440413, 2448216; 
440426, 2447974; 440190, 2448485; 440343, 2448005; 440329, 2448016; 
440325, 2448033; 440331, 2448061; 440341, 2448084; 440374, 2448123; 
440435, 2447959; 439678, 2448950; 440218, 2448446; 439853, 2448941; 
439830, 2448945; 439788, 2448929; 439761, 2448926; 439900, 2448928; 
439697, 2448941; 439922, 2448928; 439656, 2448949; 439633, 2448940; 
439611, 2448928; 439578, 2448906; 439553, 2448909; 439539, 2448922; 
439733, 2448930; 440089, 2448747; 440179, 2448496; 440157, 2448511; 
440136, 2448537; 440120, 2448633; 440125, 2448690; 439875, 2448932; 
440112, 2448732; 440451, 2447620; 440073, 2448762; 440036, 2448815; 
440000, 2448878; 439982, 2448899; 439961, 2448915; 439941, 2448924; 
440121, 2448718; 441363, 2447030; 440383, 2447794; 441405, 2446869; 
441402, 2446899; 441403, 2446972; 441399, 2446995; 441455, 2446804; 
441373, 2447026; 441476, 2446797; 441317, 2447043; 441283, 2447083; 
441268, 2447104; 441240, 2447171; 441231, 2447186; 441219, 2447195; 
441398, 2446997; 441674, 2446682; 448141, 2444294; 448986, 2441677; 
441864, 2446424; 441847, 2446451; 441836, 2446475; 441434, 2446820; 
441829, 2446505; 441148, 2447188; 441648, 2446705; 441620, 2446723; 
441584, 2446741; 441549, 2446752; 441532, 2446763; 441521, 2446777; 
441829, 2446501; 440674, 2447485; 440710, 2447368; 440699, 2447389; 
440693, 2447407; 440695, 2447430; 440703, 2447452; 441201, 2447195; 
440693, 2447475; 440800, 2447339; 440599, 2447501; 440579, 2447511; 
440540, 2447539; 440487, 2447571; 440468, 2447593; 440124, 2448663; 
440703, 2447461; 440941, 2447230; 440413, 2447711; 441133, 2447183; 
441113, 2447170; 441095, 2447154; 441083, 2447147; 441058, 2447153; 
440722, 2447354; 440969, 2447210; 440740, 2447346; 440888, 2447250; 
440873, 2447265; 440865, 2447286; 440858, 2447311; 440842, 2447328; 
441172, 2447190; 441039, 2447168; 438599, 2451708; 438434, 2451069; 
438440, 2451600; 438425, 2451652; 438429, 2451670; 438442, 2451682; 
438419, 2451509; 438529, 2451692; 438410, 2451464; 438657, 2451738; 
439516, 2448971; 438675, 2451766; 440125, 2448578; 438680, 2451858; 
438715, 2451908; 438484, 2451690; 438467, 2451228; 438455, 2451089; 
438463, 2451098; 438475, 2451113; 438484, 2451141; 438486, 2451163; 
438435, 2451571; 438472, 2451209; 438888, 2452163; 438472, 2451261; 
438481, 2451287; 438485, 2451346; 438478, 2451359; 438454, 2451380; 
438422, 2451414; 438481, 2451188; 448609, 2443974; 438669, 2452384; 
438605, 2452379; 438540, 2452374; 438510, 2452340; 438449, 2452330; 
438761, 2452013; 438490, 2452605; 438816, 2452396; 448591, 2444072; 
448566, 2444172; 448548, 2444233; 448510, 2444279; 448464, 2444284; 
448299, 2444289; 438431, 2452414; 439138, 2452428; 438670, 2451754; 
438936, 2452213; 438977, 2452232; 438979, 2452233; 439031, 2452285; 
439037, 2452297; 438716, 2452393; 439083, 2452342; 438779, 2452391; 
439171, 2452514; 439201, 2452565; 439114, 2452513; 438954, 2452430; 
438851, 2452395; 438833, 2452090; 439061, 2452327; 439044, 2449631; 
438944, 2449813; 439167, 2449414; 439146, 2449435; 439114, 2449463; 
439102, 2449480; 439220, 2449318; 439065, 2449586; 439230, 2449287; 
439037, 2449642; 439025, 2449671; 439016, 2449687; 438999, 2449702; 
438974, 2449738; 438965, 2449767; 439076, 2449548; 439382, 2449107; 
439508, 2448984; 439451, 2449000; 439437, 2449023; 438680, 2451783; 
439433, 2449078; 439200, 2449362; 439399, 2449097; 439421, 2449088; 
439361, 2449126; 439330, 2449145; 439307, 2449169; 439277, 2449220; 
439260, 2449242; 439244, 2449261; 438425, 2451047; 438554, 2450559; 
438737, 2450311; 438736, 2450325; 438731, 2450342; 438715, 2450373; 
438690, 2450392; 438621, 2450415; 438732, 2450286; 438578, 2450438; 
438501, 2450796; 438488, 2450686; 438472, 2450910; 438435, 2450985; 
438427, 2450964; 438919, 2449853; 439437, 2449066; 438581, 2450423; 
438816, 2450028; 438717, 2450241; 438894, 2449879; 438884, 2449918; 
438904, 2449863; 438831, 2450010; 438850, 2449982; 438791, 2450036; 
438765, 2450051; 438744, 2450081; 438730, 2450109; 438717, 2450158; 
438716, 2450162; 438713, 2450206.
    (ii) Map of Unit 4-Montane Wet for Hawaiian picture-wing fly 
(Drosophila sharpi) follows:
BILLING CODE 4310-55-S

[[Page 19092]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR13AP10.032


[[Page 19093]]


    (10) Unit 5-Montane Wet, Kauai County, Hawaii.
    (i) Unit 5-Montane Wet consists of 789.9 ac (319.7 ha) and includes 
land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, NAD83 coordinates (E, N): 
433436, 2449707; 433445, 2449707; 433444, 2449707; 433443, 2449707; 
433458, 2449707; 433436, 2449707; 433426, 2449707; 433408, 2449708; 
433429, 2449741; 433493, 2449765; 433633, 2449724; 433742, 2449724; 
433467, 2449787; 433460, 2449707; 433468, 2449706; 433484, 2449694; 
433414, 2449628; 433461, 2449623; 433457, 2449622; 433339, 2449600; 
433440, 2449604; 433437, 2449592; 433426, 2449556; 433419, 2449599; 
433831, 2449767; 434991, 2449344; 433401, 2449697; 433480, 2449629; 
434938, 2449321; 433313, 2449484; 433455, 2449620; 434842, 2449253; 
434839, 2449258; 434834, 2449277; 434833, 2449278; 434833, 2449278; 
434833, 2449280; 434833, 2449281; 434872, 2449294; 434881, 2449297; 
434884, 2449298; 435010, 2449343; 434899, 2449305; 433903, 2449882; 
435011, 2449352; 435010, 2449343; 435005, 2449310; 434948, 2449300; 
434908, 2449290; 434908, 2449290; 434890, 2449251; 434872, 2449246; 
434848, 2449239; 434844, 2449248; 434034, 2449950; 434026, 2449951; 
433969, 2449958; 434898, 2449304; 435183, 2449401; 434713, 2447038; 
434738, 2447045; 434738, 2447030; 434795, 2447069; 434994, 2447085; 
435093, 2447245; 435290, 2447449; 435295, 2447440; 435360, 2447538; 
435282, 2448685; 435266, 2448909; 435236, 2449351; 434686, 2447020; 
435232, 2449399; 435272, 2448835; 435080, 2449407; 434920, 2449394; 
434752, 2449405; 434498, 2449522; 434338, 2449660; 434208, 2449767; 
434141, 2449863; 434137, 2449869; 434124, 2449948; 434074, 2449972; 
433461, 2449623; 433339, 2449381; 435234, 2449384; 433589, 2449323; 
433725, 2448994; 433545, 2449136; 433389, 2449256; 433567, 2449260; 
433588, 2449244; 433880, 2448827; 433612, 2449262; 433525, 2449415; 
433567, 2449398; 433546, 2449412; 434627, 2447088; 433448, 2449426; 
435236, 2449347; 433368, 2449293; 433599, 2449252; 434202, 2447345; 
433367, 2449352; 434073, 2448685; 434357, 2447229; 434073, 2447500; 
434086, 2447693; 434163, 2447783; 434254, 2447886; 434318, 2448182; 
434318, 2448298; 434292, 2448479; 434279, 2447951; 434486, 2447126; 
434228, 2448620.
    (ii) Map of Unit 5-Montane Wet for Hawaiian picture-wing fly 
(Drosophila sharpi) follows:

[[Page 19094]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR13AP10.033


[[Page 19095]]


    (11) Unit 6-Montane Wet, Kauai County, Hawaii.
    (i) Unit 6-Montane Wet consists of 413.5 ac (167.3 ha) and includes 
land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, NAD83 coordinates (E, N): 
448516, 2447525; 447976, 2448470; 448042, 2448338; 448133, 2448200; 
448235, 2448042; 448834, 2447273; 448288, 2447915; 448412, 2447653; 
448669, 2447406; 447943, 2448562; 448763, 2447342; 448059, 2449434; 
448321, 2447795; 447961, 2448628; 448037, 2448780; 448088, 2448897; 
448122, 2449037; 448119, 2449134; 448056, 2449368; 448099, 2449454; 
448242, 2449457; 448328, 2449449; 448440, 2449296; 448382, 2449406; 
448887, 2447191; 448091, 2449266; 448610, 2449255; 448931, 2447092; 
448511, 2449199; 448623, 2449141; 448641, 2449184; 448593, 2449298; 
448613, 2449357; 448702, 2449395; 448812, 2449420; 448906, 2449440; 
448959, 2449443; 448964, 2449425; 448952, 2449316; 448954, 2449143; 
448881, 2447609; 448987, 2448959; 448980, 2446980; 448979, 2446983; 
448577, 2449143; 448980, 2446982; 448981, 2446981; 449105, 2447827; 
449087, 2447916; 449044, 2448132; 449032, 2448326; 449045, 2448506; 
449040, 2448659; 449012, 2448822.
    (ii) Map of Unit 6-Montane Wet for Hawaiian picture-wing fly 
(Drosophila sharpi) follows:

[[Page 19096]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR13AP10.034

BILLING CODE 4310-55-C

[[Page 19097]]

* * * * *
0
5. Amend Sec.  17.99 as follows:
0
a. By revising the introductory text of paragraph (a)(1) to read as set 
forth below;
0
b. By revising paragraph (a)(1)(i) as set forth below;
0
c. By redesignating paragraphs (a)(1)(vi) through (a)(1)(ccxviii) as 
paragraphs (a)(1)(viii) through (a)(1)(ccxx);
0
d. By adding new paragraphs (a)(1)(vi) and (a)(1)(vii) to read as set 
forth below;
0
e. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(ix) through 
(a)(1)(ccxx) as paragraphs (a)(1)(x) through (a)(1)(ccxxi);
0
f. By adding new paragraph (a)(1)(ix) to read as set forth below;
0
g. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(xvi) through 
(a)(1)(ccxxi) as paragraphs (a)(1)(xix) through (a)(1)(ccxxiv);
0
h. By adding new paragraphs (a)(1)(xvi), (a)(1)(xvii), and 
(a)(1)(xviii) to read as set forth below;
0
i. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(xxv) through 
(a)(1)(ccxxiv) as paragraphs (a)(1)(xxviii) through (a)(1)(ccxxvii);
0
j. By adding new paragraphs (a)(1)(xxv), (a)(1)(xxvi), and 
(a)(1)(xxvii) to read as set forth below;
0
k. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(xxix) through 
(a)(1)(ccxxvii) as paragraphs (a)(1)(xxx) through (a)(1)(ccxxviii);
0
l. By adding a new paragraph (a)(1)(xxix) to read as set forth below;
0
m. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(xxxiv) through 
(a)(1)(ccxxviii) as paragraphs (a)(1)(xxxviii) through (a)(1)(ccxxxii);
0
n. By adding new paragraphs (a)(1)(xxxiv), (a)(1)(xxxv), (a)(1)(xxxvi), 
and (a)(1)(xxxvii) to read as set forth below;
0
o. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(xxxix) through 
(a)(1)(ccxxxii) as paragraphs (a)(1)(xli) through (a)(1)(ccxxxiv);
0
p. By adding new paragraphs (a)(1)(xxxix) and (a)(1)(xl) to read as set 
forth below;
0
q. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(xlii) through 
(a)(1)(ccxxxiv) as paragraphs (a)(1)(xliii) through (a)(1)(ccxxxv);
0
r. By adding a new paragraph (a)(1)(xlii) to read as set forth below;
0
s. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(xlviii) through 
(a)(1)(ccxxxv) as paragraphs (a)(1)(li) through (a)(1)(ccxxxviii);
0
t. By adding new paragraphs (a)(1)(xlviii), (a)(1)(xlix), and (a)(1)(l) 
to read as set forth below;
0
u. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(liii) through 
(a)(1)(ccxxxviii) as paragraphs (a)(1)(liv) through (a)(1)(ccxxxix);
0
v. By adding a new paragraph (a)(1)(liii) to read as set forth below;
0
w. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(lvii) through 
(a)(1)(ccxxxix) as paragraphs (a)(1)(lviii) through (a)(1)(ccxl);
0
x. By adding a new paragraph (a)(1)(lvii) to read as set forth below;
0
y. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(lix) through 
(a)(1)(ccxl) as paragraphs (a)(1)(lxv) through (a)(1)(ccxlvi);
0
z. By adding new paragraphs (a)(1)(lix), (a)(1)(lx), (a)(1)(lxi), 
(a)(1)(lxii), (a)(1)(lxiii), and (a)(1)(lxiv) to read as set forth 
below;
0
aa. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(lxvi) through 
(a)(1)(ccxlvi) as paragraphs (a)(1)(lxx) through (a)(1)(ccl);
0
bb.By adding new paragraphs (a)(1)(lxvi), (a)(1)(lxvii), 
(a)(1)(lxviii), and (a)(1)(lxix) to read as set forth below;
0
cc. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(lxxiii) through 
(a)(1)(ccl) as paragraphs (a)(1)(lxxix) through (a)(1)(cclvi);
0
dd. By adding new paragraphs (a)(1)(lxxiii), (a)(lxxiv), (a)(1)(lxxv), 
(a)(1)(lxxvi), (a)(1)(lxxvii), and (a)(1)(lxxviii) to read as set forth 
below;
0
ee. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(lxxx) through 
(a)(1)(cclvi) as paragraphs (a)(1)(lxxxii) through (a)(1)(cclviii);
0
ff. By adding new paragraphs (a)(1)(lxxx) and (a)(1)(lxxxi) to read as 
set forth below;
0
gg. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(lxxxiii) 
through (a)(1)(cclviii) as paragraphs (a)(1)(lxxxiv) through 
(a)(1)(cclix);
0
hh. By adding a new paragraph (a)(1)(lxxxiii) to read as set forth 
below;
0
ii. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(lxxxvi) through 
(a)(1)(cclix) as paragraphs (a)(1)(xc) through (a)(1)(cclxiii);
0
jj. By adding new paragraphs (a)(1)(lxxxvi), (a)(1)(lxxxvii), 
(a)(1)(lxxxviii), and (a)(1)(lxxxix) to read as set forth below;
0
kk. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(xci) through 
(a)(1)(cclxiii) as paragraphs (a)(1)(xcii) through (a)(1)(cclxiv);
0
ll. By adding a new paragraph (a)(1)(xci) to read as set forth below;
0
mm. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(xciii) through 
(a)(1)(cclxiv) as paragraphs (a)(1)(xciv) through (a)(1)(cclxv);
0
nn. By adding a new paragraph (a)(1)(xciii) to read as set forth below;
0
oo. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(xcv) through 
(a)(1)(cclxv) as paragraphs (a)(1)(cii) through (a)(1)(cclxxii);
0
pp. By adding new paragraphs (a)(1)(xcv), (a)(1)(xcvi), (a)(1)(xcvii), 
(a)(1)(xcviii), (a)(1)(xcix), (a)(1)(c), and (a)(1)(ci) to read as set 
forth below;
0
qq. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(ciii) through 
(a)(1)(cclxxii) as paragraphs (a)(1)(civ) through (a)(1)(cclxxiii);
0
rr. By adding a new paragraph (a)(1)(ciii) to read as set forth below;
0
ss. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(cv) through 
(a)(1)(cclxxiii) as paragraphs (a)(1)(cvii) through (a)(1)(cclxxv);
0
tt. By adding new paragraphs (a)(1)(cv) and (a)(1)(cvi) to read as set 
forth below;
0
uu. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(cviii) through 
(a)(1)(cclxxv) as paragraphs (a)(1)(cxii) through (a)(1)(cclxxix);
0
vv. By adding new paragraphs (a)(1)(cviii), (a)(1)(cix), (a)(1)(cx), 
and (a)(1)(cxi) to read as set forth below;
0
ww. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(cxiii) through 
(a)(1)(cclxxix) as paragraphs (a)(1)(cxvii) through (a)(1)(cclxxxiii);
0
xx. By adding new paragraphs (a)(1)(cxiii), (a)(1)(cxiv), (a)(1)(cxv), 
and (a)(1)(cxvi) to read as set forth below;
0
yy. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(cxxx) through 
(a)(1)(cclxxxiii) as paragraphs (a)(1)(cxxxi) through (a)(1)(cclxxxiv);
0
zz. By adding a new paragraph (a)(1)(cxxx) to read as set forth below;
0
aaa. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(cxxxiii) 
through (a)(1)(cclxxxiv) as paragraphs (a)(1)(cxxxiv) through 
(a)(1)(cclxxxv);
0
bbb. By adding a new paragraph (a)(1)(cxxxiii) to read as set forth 
below;
0
ccc. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(cxxxv) through 
(a)(1)(cclxxxv) as paragraphs (a)(1)(cxxxvii) through 
(a)(1)(cclxxxvii);
0
ddd. By adding new paragraphs (a)(1)(cxxxv) and (a)(1)(cxxxvi) to read 
as set forth below;
0
eee. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(cxl) through 
(a)(1)(cclxxxvii) as paragraphs (a)(1)(cxlix) through (a)(1)(ccxcvi);
0
fff. By adding new paragraphs (a)(1)(cxl), (a)(1)(cxli), (a)(1)(cxlii), 
(a)(1)(cxliii), (a)(1)(cxliv), (a)(1)(cxlv), (a)(1)(cxlvi), 
(a)(1)(cxlvii), and (a)(1)(cxlviii) to read as set forth below;
0
ggg. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(cl) through 
(a)(1)(ccxcvi) as paragraphs (a)(1)(cliv) through (a)(1)(ccc);
0
hhh. By adding new paragraphs (a)(1)(cl), (a)(1)(cli), (a)(1)(clii), 
and (a)(1)(cliii) to read as set forth below;
0
iii. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(clxiii) 
through

[[Page 19098]]

(a)(1)(ccc) as paragraphs (a)(1)(clxvi) through (a)(1)(ccciii);
0
jjj. By adding new paragraphs (a)(1)(clxiii), (a)(1)(clxiv), and 
(a)(1)(clxv) to read as set forth below;
0
kkk. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(clxxii) 
through (a)(1)(ccciii) as paragraphs (a)(1)(clxxiii) through 
(a)(1)(ccciv);
0
lll. By adding a new paragraph (a)(1)(clxxii) to read as set forth 
below;
0
mmm. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(clxxvi) 
through (a)(1)(ccciv) as paragraphs (a)(1)(clxxxi) through 
(a)(1)(cccix);
0
nnn. By adding new paragraphs (a)(1)(clxxvi), (a)(1)(clxxvii), 
(a)(1)(clxxviii), (a)(1)(clxxix), and (a)(1)(clxxx) to read as set 
forth below;
0
ooo. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(clxxxiv) 
through (a)(1)(cccix) as paragraphs (a)(1)(clxxxvi) through 
(a)(1)(cccxi);
0
ppp. By adding new paragraphs (a)(1)(clxxxiv) and (a)(1)(clxxxv) to 
read as set forth below;
0
qqq. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(cxcix) through 
(a)(1)(cccxi) as paragraphs (a)(1)(cc) through (a)(1)(cccxii);
0
rrr. By adding a new paragraph (a)(1)(cxcix) to read as set forth 
below;
0
sss. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(ccxvi) through 
(a)(1)(cccxii) as paragraphs (a)(1)(ccxviii) through (a)(1)(cccxiv);
0
ttt. By adding new paragraphs (a)(1)(ccxvi) and (a)(1)(ccxvii) to read 
as set forth below;
0
uuu. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(ccxxii) 
through (a)(1)(cccxiv) as paragraphs (a)(1)(ccxxvi) through 
(a)(1)(cccxviii);
0
vvv. By adding new paragraphs (a)(1)(ccxxii), (a)(1)(ccxxiii), 
(a)(1)(ccxxiv), and (a)(1)(ccxxv) to read as set forth below;
0
www. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(ccxxix) 
through (a)(1)(cccxviii) as paragraphs (a)(1)(ccxxx) through 
(a)(1)(cccxix);
0
xxx. By adding a new paragraph (a)(1)(ccxxix) to read as set forth 
below;
0
yyy. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(ccxxxv) 
through (a)(1)(cccxix) as paragraphs (a)(1)(ccxl) through 
(a)(1)(cccxxiv);
0
zzz. By adding new paragraphs (a)(1)(ccxxxv), (a)(1)(ccxxxvi), 
(a)(1)(ccxxxvii), (a)(1)(ccxxxviii), and (a)(1)(ccxxxix) to read as set 
forth below;
0
aaaa. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(ccxli) 
through (a)(1)(cccxxiv) as paragraphs (a)(1)(ccxlii) through 
(a)(1)(cccxxv);
0
bbbb. By adding a new paragraph (a)(1)(ccxli) to read as set forth 
below;
0
cccc. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(ccxlviii) 
through (a)(1)(cccxxv) as paragraphs (a)(1)(ccli) through 
(a)(1)(cccxxviii);
0
dddd. By adding new paragraphs (a)(1)(ccxlviii), (a)(1)(ccxlix), and 
(a)(1)(ccl) to read as set forth below;
0
eeee. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(ccliii) 
through (a)(1)(cccxxviii) as paragraphs (a)(1)(ccliv) through 
(a)(1)(cccxxix);
0
ffff. By adding a new paragraph (a)(1)(ccliii) to read as set forth 
below;
0
gggg. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(cclviii) 
through (a)(1)(cccxxix) as paragraphs (a)(1)(cclx) through 
(a)(1)(cccxxxi);
0
hhhh. By adding new paragraphs (a)(1)(cclviii) and (a)(1)(cclix) to 
read as set forth below;
0
iiii. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(cclxvi) 
through (a)(1)(cccxxxi) as paragraphs (a)(1)(cclxviii) through 
(a)(1)(cccxxxiii);
0
jjjj. By adding new paragraphs (a)(1)(cclxvi) and (a)(1)(cclxvii) to 
read as set forth below;
0
kkkk. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(cclxxii) 
through (a)(1)(cccxxxiii) as paragraphs (a)(1)(cclxxiii) through 
(a)(1)(cccxxxiv);
0
llll. By adding a new paragraph (a)(1)(cclxxii) to read as set forth 
below;
0
mmmm. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(cclxxvii) 
through (a)(1)(cccxxxiv) as paragraphs (a)(1)(cclxxxii) through 
(a)(1)(cccxxxix);
0
nnnn. By adding new paragraphs (a)(1)(cclxxvii), (a)(1)(cclxxviii), 
(a)(1)(cclxxix), (a)(1)(cclxxx), and (a)(1)(cclxxxi) to read as set 
forth below;
0
oooo. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(ccxc) through 
(a)(1)(cccxxxix) as paragraphs (a)(1)(ccxciii) through (a)(1)(cccxlii);
0
pppp. By adding new paragraphs (a)(1)(ccxc), (a)(1)(ccxci), and 
(a)(1)(ccxcii) to read as set forth below;
0
qqqq. By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(cccix) 
through (a)(1)(cccxlii) as paragraphs (a)(1)(cccx) through 
(a)(1)(cccxliii);
0
rrrr By adding a new paragraph (a)(1)(cccix) to read as set forth 
below;
0
ssss By redesignating newly designated paragraphs (a)(1)(cccxxix) 
through (a)(1)(cccxliii) as paragraphs (a)(1)(cccxxxvii) through 
(a)(1)(cccli);
0
tttt By adding new paragraphs (a)(1)(cccxxix), (a)(1)(cccxxx), 
(a)(1)(cccxxxi), (a)(1)(cccxxxii), (a)(1)(cccxxxiii), (a)(1)(cccxxxiv), 
(a)(1)(cccxxxv), and (a)(1)(cccxxxvi) to read as set forth below;
0
uuuu. By redesignating newly designated paragraph (a)(1)(cccli) as 
paragraph (a)(1)(cdlix);
0
vvvv. By adding new paragraphs (a)(1)(cccli), (a)(1)(ccclii), 
(a)(1)(cccliii), (a)(1)(cccliv), (a)(1)(ccclv), (a)(1)(ccclvi), 
(a)(1)(ccclvii), (a)(1)(ccclviii), (a)(1)(ccclix), (a)(1)(ccclx), 
(a)(1)(ccclxi), (a)(1)(ccclxii), (a)(1)(ccclxiii), (a)(1)(ccclxiv), 
(a)(1)(ccclxv), (a)(1)(ccclxvi), (a)(1)(ccclxvii), (a)(1)(ccclxviii), 
(a)(1)(ccclxix), (a)(1)(ccclxx), (a)(1)(ccclxxi), (a)(1)(ccclxxii), 
(a)(1)(ccclxxiii), (a)(1)(ccclxxiv), (a)(1)(ccclxxv), (a)(1)(ccclxxvi), 
(a)(1)(ccclxxvii), (a)(1)(ccclxxviii), (a)(1)(ccclxxix), 
(a)(1)(ccclxxx), (a)(1)(ccclxxxi), (a)(1)(ccclxxxii), 
(a)(1)(ccclxxxiii), (a)(1)(ccclxxxiv), (a)(1)(ccclxxxv), 
(a)(1)(ccclxxxvi), (a)(1)(ccclxxxvii), (a)(1)(ccclxxxviii), 
(a)(1)(ccclxxxix), (a)(1)(cccxc), (a)(1)(cccxci), (a)(1)(cccxcii), 
(a)(1)(cccxciii), (a)(1)(cccxciv), (a)(1)(cccxcv), (a)(1)(cccxcvi), 
(a)(1)(cccxcvii), (a)(1)(cccxcviii), (a)(1)(cccxcix), (a)(1)(cd), 
(a)(1)(cdi), (a)(1)(cdii), (a)(1)(cdiii), (a)(1)(cdiv), (a)(1)(cdv), 
(a)(1)(cdvi), (a)(1)(cdvii), (a)(1)(cdviii), (a)(1)(cdix), (a)(1)(cdx), 
(a)(1)(cdxi), (a)(1)(cdxii), (a)(1)(cdxiii), (a)(1)(cdxiv), 
(a)(1)(cdxv), (a)(1)(cdxvi), (a)(1)(cdxvii), (a)(1)(cdxviii), 
(a)(1)(cdxix), (a)(1)(cdxx), (a)(1)(cdxxi), (a)(1)(cdxxii), 
(a)(1)(cdxxiii), (a)(1)(cdxxiv), (a)(1)(cdxxv), (a)(1)(cdxxvi), 
(a)(1)(cdxxvii), (a)(1)(cdxxviii), (a)(1)(cdxxix), (a)(1)(cdxxx), 
(a)(1)(cdxxxi), (a)(1)(cdxxxii), (a)(1)(cdxxxiii), (a)(1)(cdxxxiv), 
(a)(1)(cdxxxv), (a)(1)(cdxxxvi), (a)(1)(cdxxxvii), (a)(1)(cdxxxviii), 
(a)(1)(cdxxxix), (a)(1)(cdxl), (a)(1)(cdxli), (a)(1)(cdxlii), 
(a)(1)(cdxliii), (a)(1)(cdxliv), (a)(1)(cdxlv), (a)(1)(cdxlvi), 
(a)(1)(cdxlvii), (a)(1)(cdxlviii), (a)(1)(cdxlix), (a)(1)(cdl), 
(a)(1)(cdli), (a)(1)(cdlii), (a)(1)(cdliii), (a)(1)(cdliv), 
(a)(1)(cdlv), (a)(1)(cdlvi), (a)(1)(cdlvii), and (a)(1)(cdlviii), to 
read as set forth below;
0
wwww. By amending the table at newly designated paragraph (a)(1)(cdlix) 
by adding the following entries, first by unit number and then 
alphabetically by species name, in the same order as these units are 
presented in the preceding subparagraphs of this section, as set forth 
below:
New entry:
    Kauai 4-Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis-a
    Kauai 4-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-a
    Kauai 4-Cyanea dolichopoda-a
    Kauai 4-Cyrtandra oenobarba-a
    Kauai 4-Cyrtandra paliku-a
    Kauai 4-Dubautia plantaginea ssp. magnifolia-a
    Kauai 4-Lysimachia iniki-a
    Kauai 4-Lysimachia pendens-a
    Kauai 4-Lysimachia venosa-a
    Kauai 4-Platydesma rostrata-a
    Kauai 7-Canavalia napaliensis-a

[[Page 19099]]

    Kauai 7-Chamaesyce eleanoriae-a
    Kauai 7-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-b
    Kauai 7-Charpentiera densiflora-a
    Kauai 7-Doryopteris angelica-a
    Kauai 7-Dubautia kenwoodii-a
    Kauai 7-Labordia helleri-a
    Kauai 7-Pittosporum napaliense-a
    Kauai 7-Platydesma rostrata-b
    Kauai 7-Psychotria hobdyi-a
    Kauai 7-Tetraplasandra bisattenuata-a
    Kauai 10-Astelia waialealae-a
    Kauai 10-Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis-b
    Kauai 10-Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis-c
    Kauai 10-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-c
    Kauai 10-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-d
    Kauai 10-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-e
    Kauai 10-Charpentiera densiflora-b
    Kauai 10-Cyanea dolichopoda-b
    Kauai 10-Cyanea eleeleensis-a
    Kauai 10-Cyanea kolekoleensis-a
    Kauai 10-Cyanea kuhihewa-a
    Kauai 10-Cyrtandra oenobarba-b
    Kauai 10-Cyrtandra oenobarba-c
    Kauai 10-Cyrtandra paliku-b
    Kauai 10-Dryopteris crinalis var. podosorus-a
    Kauai 10-Dubautia imbricata ssp. imbricata-a
    Kauai 10-Dubautia kalalauensis-a
    Kauai 10-Dubautia plantaginea ssp. magnifolia-b
    Kauai 10-Dubautia waialealae-a
    Kauai 10-Geranium kauaiense-a
    Kauai 10-Keysseria erici-a
    Kauai 10-Keysseria helenae-a
    Kauai 10-Labordia helleri-b
    Kauai 10-Labordia helleri-c
    Kauai 10-Labordia pumila-a
    Kauai 10-Lysimachia daphnoides-a
    Kauai 10-Lysimachia iniki-b
    Kauai 10-Lysimachia pendens-b
    Kauai 10-Lysimachia venosa-b
    Kauai 10-Melicope degeneri-a
    Kauai 10-Melicope paniculata-a
    Kauai 10-Melicope puberula-a
    Kauai 10-Melicope puberula-b
    Kauai 10-Myrsine mezii-a
    Kauai 10-Phyllostegia renovans-a
    Kauai 10-Phyllostegia renovans-b
    Kauai 10-Platydesma rostrata-c
    Kauai 10-Platydesma rostrata-d
    Kauai 10-Platydesma rostrata-e
    Kauai 10-Psychotria grandiflora-a
    Kauai 10-Stenogyne kealiae-a
    Kauai 10-Tetraplasandra bisattenuata-b
    Kauai 10-Tetraplasandra flynnii-a
    Kauai 10-Tetraplasandra flynnii-b
    Kauai 11-Astelia waialealae-b
    Kauai 11-Canavalia napaliensis-b
    Kauai 11-Chamaesyce eleanoriae-b
    Kauai 11-Chamaesyce eleanoriae-c
    Kauai 11-Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis-d
    Kauai 11-Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis-e
    Kauai 11-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-f
    Kauai 11-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-g
    Kauai 11-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-h
    Kauai 11-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-i
    Kauai 11-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-j
    Kauai 11-Charpentiera densiflora-c
    Kauai 11-Charpentiera densiflora-d
    Kauai 11-Cyanea dolichopoda-c
    Kauai 11-Cyanea eleeleensis-b
    Kauai 11-Cyanea kolekoleensis-b
    Kauai 11-Cyanea kuhihewa-b
    Kauai 11-Cyrtandra oenobarba-d
    Kauai 11-Cyrtandra oenobarba-e
    Kauai 11-Cyrtandra paliku-c
    Kauai 11-Diellia mannii-a
    Kauai 11-Doryopteris angelica-b
    Kauai 11-Dryopteris crinalis var. podosorus-b
    Kauai 11-Dubautia imbricata ssp. imbricata-b
    Kauai 11-Dubautia kalalauensis-b
    Kauai 11-Dubautia kenwoodii-b
    Kauai 11-Dubautia plantaginea ssp. magnifolia-c
    Kauai 11-Dubautia waialealae-b
    Kauai 11-Geranium kauaiense-b
    Kauai 11-Keysseria erici-b
    Kauai 11-Keysseria helenae-b
    Kauai 11-Labordia helleri-d
    Kauai 11-Labordia helleri-e
    Kauai 11-Labordia helleri-f
    Kauai 11-Labordia helleri-g
    Kauai 11-Labordia pumila-b
    Kauai 11-Lysimachia daphnoides-b
    Kauai 11-Lysimachia iniki-c
    Kauai 11-Lysimachia pendens-c
    Kauai 11-Lysimachia scopulensis-a
    Kauai 11-Lysimachia venosa-c
    Kauai 11-Melicope degeneri-b
    Kauai 11-Melicope paniculata-b
    Kauai 11-Melicope puberula-c
    Kauai 11-Melicope puberula-d
    Kauai 11-Myrsine knudsenii-a
    Kauai 11-Myrsine mezii-b
    Kauai 11-Myrsine mezii-c
    Kauai 11-Phyllostegia renovans-c
    Kauai 11-Phyllostegia renovans-d
    Kauai 11-Pittosporum napaliense-b
    Kauai 11-Platydesma rostrata-f
    Kauai 11-Platydesma rostrata-g
    Kauai 11-Platydesma rostrata-h
    Kauai 11-Platydesma rostrata-i
    Kauai 11-Platydesma rostrata-j
    Kauai 11-Psychotria grandiflora-b
    Kauai 11-Psychotria grandiflora-c
    Kauai 11-Psychotria hobdyi-b
    Kauai 11-Schiedea attenuata-a
    Kauai 11-Stenogyne kealiae-b
    Kauai 11-Stenogyne kealiae-c
    Kauai 11-Stenogyne kealiae-d
    Kauai 11-Tetraplasandra bisattenuata-c
    Kauai 11-Tetraplasandra bisattenuata-d
    Kauai 11-Tetraplasandra flynnii-c
    Kauai 11-Tetraplasandra flynnii-d
    Kauai 11-Tetraplasandra flynnii-e
    Kauai 18-Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis-f
    Kauai 18-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-k
    Kauai 18-Cyanea dolichopoda-d
    Kauai 18-Cyrtandra oenobarba-f
    Kauai 18-Cyrtandra paliku-d
    Kauai 18-Dubautia plantaginea ssp. magnifolia-d
    Kauai 18-Lysimachia iniki-d
    Kauai 18-Lysimachia pendens-d
    Kauai 18-Lysimachia venosa-d
    Kauai 18-Platydesma rostrata-k
    Kauai 19-Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis-g
    Kauai 19-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-l
    Kauai 19-Cyanea dolichopoda-e
    Kauai 19-Cyrtandra oenobarba-g
    Kauai 19-Cyrtandra paliku-e
    Kauai 19-Dubautia plantaginea ssp. magnifolia-e
    Kauai 19-Lysimachia iniki-e
    Kauai 19-Lysimachia pendens-e
    Kauai 19-Lysimachia venosa-e
    Kauai 19-Platydesma rostrata-l
    Kauai 20-Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis-h
    Kauai 20-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-m
    Kauai 20-Charpentiera densiflora-e
    Kauai 20-Cyanea eleeleensis-c
    Kauai 20-Cyanea kolekoleensis-c
    Kauai 20-Cyanea kuhihewa-c
    Kauai 20-Cyrtandra oenobarba-h
    Kauai 20-Dubautia imbricata ssp. imbricata-c
    Kauai 20-Labordia helleri-h
    Kauai 20-Melicope paniculata-c
    Kauai 20-Melicope puberula-e
    Kauai 20-Phyllostegia renovans-e
    Kauai 20-Platydesma rostrata-m
    Kauai 20-Stenogyne kealiae-e
    Kauai 20-Tetraplasandra bisattenuata-e
    Kauai 20-Tetraplasandra flynnii-f
    Kauai 21-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-n
    Kauai 21-Diellia mannii-b
    Kauai 21-Labordia helleri-i
    Kauai 21-Myrsine knudsenii-b
    Kauai 21-Myrsine mezii-d
    Kauai 21-Platydesma rostrata-n
    Kauai 21-Psychotria grandiflora-d
    Kauai 21-Stenogyne kealiae-f
    Kauai 21-Tetraplasandra flynnii-g
    Kauai 22-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-o
    Kauai 22-Diellia mannii-c
    Kauai 22-Labordia helleri-j
    Kauai 22-Myrsine knudsenii-c
    Kauai 22-Myrsine mezii-e

[[Page 19100]]

    Kauai 22-Platydesma rostrata-o
    Kauai 22-Psychotria grandiflora-e
    Kauai 22-Stenogyne kealiae-g
    Kauai 22-Tetraplasandra flynnii-h
    Kauai 23-Astelia waialealae-c
    Kauai 23-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-p
    Kauai 23-Dryopteris crinalis var. podosorus-c
    Kauai 23-Dubautia kalalauensis-c
    Kauai 23-Dubautia waialealae-c
    Kauai 23-Geranium kauaiense-c
    Kauai 23-Keysseria erici-c
    Kauai 23-Keysseria helenae-c
    Kauai 23-Labordia helleri-k
    Kauai 23-Labordia pumila-c
    Kauai 23-Lysimachia daphnoides-c
    Kauai 23-Melicope degeneri-c
    Kauai 23-Melicope puberula-f
    Kauai 23-Myrsine mezii-f
    Kauai 23-Phyllostegia renovans-f
    Kauai 23-Platydesma rostrata-p
    Kauai 23-Psychotria grandiflora-f
    Kauai 23-Tetraplasandra flynnii-i
    Kauai 24-Astelia waialealae-d
    Kauai 24-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-q
    Kauai 24-Dryopteris crinalis var. podosorus-d
    Kauai 24-Dubautia kalalauensis-d
    Kauai 24-Dubautia waialealae-d
    Kauai 24-Geranium kauaiense-d
    Kauai 24-Keysseria erici-d
    Kauai 24-Keysseria helenae-d
    Kauai 24-Labordia helleri-l
    Kauai 24-Labordia pumila-d
    Kauai 24-Lysimachia daphnoides-d
    Kauai 24-Melicope degeneri-d
    Kauai 24-Melicope puberula-g
    Kauai 24-Myrsine mezii-g
    Kauai 24-Phyllostegia renovans-g
    Kauai 24-Platydesma rostrata-q
    Kauai 24-Psychotria grandiflora-g
    Kauai 24-Tetraplasandra flynnii-j
    Kauai 25- Astelia waialealae-e
    Kauai 25-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-r
    Kauai 25-Dryopteris crinalis var. podosorus-e
    Kauai 25-Dubautia kalalauensis-e
    Kauai 25-Dubautia waialealae-e
    Kauai 25-Geranium kauaiense-e
    Kauai 25-Keysseria erici-e
    Kauai 25-Keysseria helenae-e
    Kauai 25-Labordia helleri-m
    Kauai 25-Labordia pumila-e
    Kauai 25-Lysimachia daphnoides-e
    Kauai 25-Melicope degeneri-e
    Kauai 25-Melicope puberula-h
    Kauai 25-Myrsine mezii-h
    Kauai 25-Phyllostegia renovans-h
    Kauai 25-Platydesma rostrata-r
    Kauai 25-Psychotria grandiflora-h
    Kauai 25-Tetraplasandra flynnii-k
0
xxxx. By amending paragraph (b) as follows:
0
i. In paragraph (b)(1), by adding ``Family Amaranathaceae'', ``Family 
Asteliaceae'', and ``Family Pittosporaceae'' in alphabetical order to 
the list of family names;
0
ii. In paragraph (b)(1), by adding entries in alphabetical order by 
family name to read as set forth below:
New entry:
    Family Amaranathaceae: Charpentiera densiflora
    Family Araliaceae: Tetraplasandra bisattenuata
    Family Araliaceae: Tetraplasandra flynnii
    Family Asteliaceae: Astelia waialealae
    Family Asteraceae: Dubautia imbricata ssp. imbricata
    Family Asteraceae: Dubautia kalalauensis
    Family Asteraceae: Dubautia kenwoodii
    Family Asteraceae: Dubautia plantaginea ssp. magnifolia
    Family Asteraceae: Dubautia waialealae
    Family Asteraceae: Keysseria erici
    Family Asteraceae: Keysseria helenae
    Family Campanulaceae: Cyanea dolichopoda
    Family Campanulaceae: Cyanea eleeleensis
    Family Campanulaceae: Cyanea kolekoleensis
    Family Campanulaceae: Cyanea kuhihewa
    Family Caryophyllaceae: Schiedea attenuata
    Family Euphorbiaceae: Chamaesyce eleanoriae
    Family Euphorbiaceae: Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis
    Family Euphorbiaceae: Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi
    Family Fabaceae: Canavalia napaliensis
    Family Geraniaceae: Geranium kauaiense
    Family Gesneriaceae: Cyrtandra oenobarba
    Family Gesneriaceae: Cyrtandra paliku
    Family Lamiaceae: Phyllostegia renovans
    Family Lamiaceae: Stenogyne kealiae
    Family Loganiaceae: Labordia helleri
    Family Loganiaceae: Labordia pumila
    Family Myrsinaceae: Lysimachia daphnoides
    Family Myrsinaceae: Lysimachia iniki
    Family Myrsinaceae: Lysimachia pendens
    Family Myrsinaceae: Lysimachia scopulensis
    Family Myrsinaceae: Lysimachia venosa
    Family Myrsinaceae: Myrsine knudsenii
    Family Myrsinaceae: Myrsine mezii
    Family Pittosporaceae: Pittosporum napaliense
    Family Rubiaceae: Psychotria grandiflora
    Family Rubiaceae: Psychotria hobdyi
    Family Rutaceae: Melicope degeneri
    Family Rutaceae: Melicope paniculata
    Family Rutaceae: Melicope puberula
    Family Rutaceae: Platydesma rostrata
0
iii. In paragraph (b)(2), by adding ``Family Dryopteridaceae'' and 
``Family Pteridaceae'' in alphabetical order to the list of family 
names; and
0
iv. In paragraph (b)(2), by adding entries in alphabetical order by 
family name to read as set forth below:
New entry:
    Family Aspleniaceae: Diellia mannii
    Family Dryopteridaceae: Dryopteris crinalis var. podosorus
    Family Pteridaceae: Doryopteris angelica


Sec.  17.99  Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, 
Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and Hawaii, HI, and on the Northwestern 
Hawaiian Islands.

    (a) * * *
    (1) Kauai. Critical habitat units are described below. Coordinates 
are in UTM Zone 4 with units in meters using North American Datum of 
1983 (NAD83). The following map shows the general locations of the 
critical habitat units designated on the island of Kauai.
    (i) Note: Map 1--Index map follows:
BILLING CODE 4310-55-S

[[Page 19101]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR13AP10.035

BILLING CODE 4310-55-C

[[Page 19102]]

* * * * *
    (vi) Kauai 4-Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis-a
    (A) This is a unit of the Wet Cliff ecosystem and consists of 38 ac 
(15.4 ha). This unit includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, 
NAD 83 coordinates (E, N): 457610, 2449548; 457661, 2449558; 457661, 
2449558; 457651, 2449568; 457646, 2449571; 457637, 2449567; 457631, 
2449564; 457621, 2449558; 457618, 2449556; 457613, 2449551; 457611, 
2449549; 457144, 2449549; 457144, 2449549; 456901, 2449549; 457285, 
2449395; 457635, 2449536; 457541, 2449482; 457611, 2449549; 457388, 
2449419; 456313, 2449442; 457278, 2449394; 457141, 2449391; 456345, 
2449426; 456848, 2449384; 456731, 2449379; 456589, 2449387; 456467, 
2449400; 456999, 2449392; 457474, 2449457. This unit is also critical 
habitat for Kauai 4-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-a, Kauai 4-Cyanea 
dolichopoda-a, Kauai 4-Cyrtandra oenobarba-a, Kauai 4-Cyrtandra paliku-
a, Kauai 4-Dubautia plantaginea ssp. magnifolia-a, Kauai 4-Lysimachia 
iniki-a, Kauai 4-Lysimachia pendens-a, Kauai 4- Lysimachia venosa-a, 
and Kauai 4-Platydesma rostrata-a (see paragraphs (a)(1)(vii), 
(a)(1)(ix), (a)(1)(xvi), (a)(1)(xvii), (a)(1)(xviii), (a)(1)(xxv), 
(a)(1)(xxvi), (a)(1)(xxvii), and (a)(1)(xxix), respectively, of this 
section).
    (B) Note: Map 5a follows:

[[Page 19103]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR13AP10.036

BILLING CODE 4310-55-C

[[Page 19104]]

    (vii) Kauai 4-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-a
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(vi)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(vi)(B) of this section for the map of this 
unit.
* * * * *
(ix) Kauai 4-Cyanea dolichopoda-a
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(vi)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(vi)(B) of this section for the map of this 
unit.
* * * * *
(xvi) Kauai 4-Cyrtandra oenobarba-a
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(vi)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(vi)(B) of this section for the map of this 
unit.
(xvii)Kauai 4-Cyrtandra paliku-a
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(vi)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(vi)(B) of this section for the map of this 
unit.
(xviii) Kauai 4-Dubautia plantaginea ssp. magnifolia-a
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(vi)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(vi)(B) of this section for the map of this 
unit.
* * * * *
(xxv) Kauai 4-Lysimachia iniki-a
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(vi)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(vi)(B) of this section for the map of this 
unit.
(xxvi) Kauai 4-Lysimachia pendens-a
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(vi)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(vi)(B) of this section for the map of this 
unit.
(xxvii) Kauai 4- Lysimachia venosa-a
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(vi)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(vi)(B) of this section for the map of this 
unit.
* * * * *
(xxix) Kauai 4-Platydesma rostrata-a
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(vi)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(vi)(B) of this section for the map of this 
unit.
* * * * *
(xxxiv) Kauai 7-Canavalia napaliensis-a (37 ac; 15 ha)
    (A) This is a unit of the Lowland Mesic ecosystem and consists of 
37 ac (15 ha). This unit includes land bounded by the following UTM 
Zone 4, NAD 83 coordinates (E, N): 458130, 2424804; 458259, 2424774; 
458356, 2424758; 458478, 2424743; 458570, 2424730; 458648, 2424694; 
458648, 2424470; 458666, 2424580; 458010, 2424827; 458671, 2424648; 
458429, 2424488; 458620, 2424409; 458620, 2424409; 457920, 2424829; 
458513, 2424437; 458579, 2424401; 458340, 2424534; 458241, 2424577; 
458160, 2424631; 458068, 2424690; 458000, 2424733; 457959, 2424769. 
This unit is also critical habitat for Kauai 7-Chamaesyce eleanoriae-a, 
Kauai 7-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-b, Kauai 7-Charpentiera densiflora-
a, Kauai 7-Doryopteris angelica-a, Kauai 7-Dubautia kenwoodii-a, Kauai 
7-Labordia helleri-a, Kauai 7-Pittosporum napaliense-a, Kauai 7-
Platydesma rostrata-b, Kauai 7-Psychotria hobdyi-a, and Kauai 7-
Tetraplasandra bisattenuata-a (see paragraphs (a)(1)(xxxv), 
(a)(1)(xxxvi), (a)(1)(xxxvii), (a)(1)(xxxix), (a)(1)(xl), (a)(1)(xlii), 
(a)(1)(xlviii), (a)(1)(xlix), (a)(1)(l), and (a)(1)(liii), 
respectively, of this section).
    (B) Note: Map 23a follows:
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(xxxv) Kauai 7-Chamaesyce eleanoriae-a
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(xxxiv)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(xxxiv)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(xxxvi) Kauai 7-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-b
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(xxxiv)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(xxxiv)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(xxxvii) Kauai 7-Charpentiera densiflora-a
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(xxxiv)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(xxxiv)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
* * * * *
(xxxix) Kauai 7-Doryopteris angelica-a
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(xxxiv)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(xxxiv)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(xl) Kauai 7-Dubautia kenwoodii-a
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(xxxiv)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(xxxiv)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
* * * * *
(xlii) Kauai 7-Labordia helleri-a
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(xxxiv)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(xxxiv)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
* * * * *
(xlviii) Kauai 7-Pittosporum napaliense-a
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(xxxiv)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(xxxiv)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(xlix) Kauai 7-Platydesma rostrata-b
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(xxxiv)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(xxxiv)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(l) Kauai 7-Psychotria hobdyi-a
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(xxxiv)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(xxxiv)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
* * * * *
(liii) Kauai 7-Tetraplasandra bisattenuata-a
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(xxxiv)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(xxxiv)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
* * * * *
(lvii) Kauai 10--Astelia waialealae--a
    (A) This is a unit of the Montane Wet ecosystem and consists of 99 
ac (40 ha). This unit includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 
4, NAD83 coordinates (E, N): 449000, 2441660; 449004, 2441650; 449006, 
2441639; 448995, 2441668; 449009, 2441625; 449012, 2441616; 449030, 
2441595; 448925, 2441722; 449037, 2441588; 449017, 2441611; 448986, 
2441677; 448972, 2441689; 448957, 2441700; 449043, 2441578; 448933, 
2441715; 449060, 2441481; 448915, 2441738; 448913, 2441753; 448914, 
2441760; 448913, 2441774; 448915, 2441796; 448910, 2441807; 448900, 
2441814; 448939, 2441710; 448964, 2441441; 448677, 2442140; 448892, 
2441817; 448916, 2441369; 448918, 2441381; 448922, 2441392; 448930, 
2441400; 448936, 2441403; 448940, 2441404; 448945, 2441411; 449065, 
2441502; 448952, 2441427; 449046, 2441569; 448971, 2441443; 449003, 
2441449; 449032, 2441461; 449040, 2441466; 449049, 2441471; 449053, 
2441472; 449064, 2441492; 449066, 2441511; 449061, 2441528; 449050, 
2441561; 448948, 2441420; 448764, 2442029; 448684, 2442157; 448675, 
2442123; 448677, 2442115; 448683, 2442101; 448694, 2442089; 448710, 
2442077; 448718, 2442069; 448723, 2442061; 448728, 2442058; 448736, 
2442055; 448682, 2442148; 448755, 2442041; 448917, 2441357; 448768, 
2442019; 448773, 2442013; 448777, 2442002; 448781, 2441990; 448787, 
2441967; 448789, 2441938; 448803, 2441914; 448813, 2441900; 448814, 
2441894; 448817, 2441884; 448746, 2442051; 448707, 2442267; 448884, 
2441820; 448877, 2441825; 448850, 2441844; 448840, 2441852; 448697, 
2442342; 448711, 2442341; 448721, 2442331; 448724, 2442320; 448723, 
2442309; 448722, 2442303; 448944, 2441075; 448712, 2442283; 448890, 
2441818; 448706, 2442257; 448705, 2442250; 448699, 2442238; 448692, 
2442233; 448684, 2442226; 448678, 2442221; 448673, 2442209; 448671, 
2442202; 448674, 2442187; 448680, 2442169; 448718, 2442295; 448601, 
2440652; 448638, 2440764; 449173, 2441529; 449106, 2441435; 449078, 
2441297; 449111, 2441196; 449121, 2441114; 449121, 2441114; 449068, 
2441051; 449006, 2441012; 448887, 2440934; 449249, 2441697; 448678, 
2440741; 449275, 2441773; 448601, 2440652; 448599, 2440647; 448600, 
2440668; 448601, 2440679; 448606, 2440704; 448612, 2440722; 448615, 
2440731; 448619, 2440740; 448622, 2440749; 448954, 2441097; 448777, 
2440842; 448640, 2442451; 448682, 2442350; 448677, 2442356; 448673, 
2442365; 448671, 2442369; 448665, 2442379; 448657, 2442387; 448648, 
2442399; 448643, 2442410; 448642, 2442419; 448642, 2442430; 449201, 
2441638; 448831, 2441859; 448650, 2440769; 448637, 2442455; 448880, 
2442563; 448917, 2442504; 448983, 2442384; 449024, 2442290; 449064, 
2442221; 449090, 2442135; 449115, 2442038; 449148, 2441893; 449244, 
2441819; 448642, 2442440; 448940, 2441238; 448630, 2440759; 448969, 
2441116; 448971, 2441119; 448972, 2441136; 448973, 2441143; 448972, 
2441150; 448967, 2441159; 448961, 2441163; 448949, 2441170; 448941, 
2441177; 448820, 2441871; 448934, 2441230; 448948, 2441084; 448944, 
2441250; 448946, 2441259; 448948, 2441264; 448948, 2441273; 448948, 
2441281; 448944, 2441291; 448935, 2441302; 448928, 2441313; 448925, 
2441322; 448920, 2441333; 448930, 2441194; 448837, 2440912; 448663, 
2440773; 448678, 2440780; 448691, 2440790; 448711, 2440806; 448720, 
2440813; 448727, 2440820; 448735, 2440829; 448745, 2440841; 448764, 
2440857; 448788, 2440878; 448964, 2441109; 448811, 2440896; 448919, 
2441341; 448841, 2440914; 448861, 2440927; 448877, 2440939; 448918, 
2440982; 448940, 2441006; 448941, 2441024; 448943, 2441044; 448943, 
2441053; 448943, 2441063; 448926, 2441212; 448802, 2440889; 448933, 
2441184. This unit is also critical habitat for Kauai 10-Chamaesyce 
remyi var. remyi-c, Kauai 10-Dryopteris crinalis var. podosorus-a, 
Kauai 10-Dubautia kalalauensis-a, Kauai 10-Dubautia waialealae-a, Kauai 
10-Geranium kauaiense-a, Kauai 10-Keysseria erici-a, Kauai 10-Keysseria 
helenae-a, Kauai 10-Labordia helleri-b, Kauai 10-Labordia pumila-a, 
Kauai 10-Lysimachia daphnoides-a, Kauai 10-Melicope degeneri-a, Kauai 
10-Melicope puberula-a, Kauai 10-Myrsine mezii-a, Kauai 10-Phyllostegia 
renovans-a, Kauai 10-Platydesma rostrata-c, Kauai 10-Psychotria 
grandiflora-a, and Kauai 10-Tetraplasandra flynnii-a (see

[[Page 19107]]

paragraphs (a)(1)(lxi), (a)(1)(lxxvi), (a)(1)(lxxviii), (a)(1)(lxxxi), 
(a)(1)(lxxxiii), (a)(1)(lxxxvi), (a)(1)(lxxxvii), (a)(1)(lxxxviii), 
(a)(1)(xci), (a)(1)(xciii), (a)(1)(xcviii), (a)(1)(c), (a)(1)(ciii), 
(a)(1)(cv), (a)(1)(cviii), (a)(1)(cxi), and (a)(1)(cxv), respectively, 
of this section).
    (B) Note: Map 35a follows:
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* * * * *
(lix) Kauai 10-Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis-b
    (A) This is a unit of the Lowland Wet ecosystem and consists of 
2,330 ac (943 ha). This unit is also critical habitat for Kauai 10-
Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-d, Kauai 10-Charpentiera densiflora-b, 
Kauai 10-Cyanea eleeleensis-a, Kauai 10-Cyanea kolekoleensis-a, Kauai 
10-Cyanea kuhihewa-a, Kauai 10-Cyrtandra oenobarba-b, Kauai 10-Dubautia 
imbricata ssp. imbricata-a, Kauai 10-Labordia helleri-c, Kauai 10-
Melicope paniculata-a, Kauai 10-Melicope puberula-b, Kauai 10-
Phyllostegia renovans-b, Kauai 10-Platydesma rostrata-d, Kauai 10-
Stenogyne kealiae-a, Kauai 10-Tetraplasandra bisattenuata-b, and Kauai 
10-Tetraplasandra flynii-b, (see paragraphs (a)(1)(lxii), (a)(1)(lxiv), 
(a)(1)(lxvii), (a)(1)(lxviii), (a)(1)(lxix), (a)(1)(lxxiii), 
(a)(1)(lxxvii), (a)(1)(lxxxix), (a)(1)(xcix), (a)(1)(ci), (a)(1)(cvi), 
(a)(1)(cix), (a)(1)(cxiii), (a)(1)(cxiv), and (a)(1)(cxvi), 
respectively, of this section).
    (1) This unit includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, 
NAD83 coordinates (E, N): 450218, 2439675; 451901, 2438605; 451485, 
2438695; 451170, 2438845; 450653, 2439686; 450094, 2440396; 450101, 
2440409; 450009, 2440531; 450060, 2439401; 450044, 2439436; 450080, 
2439502; 450121, 2439558; 450313, 2437467; 450187, 2439652; 452012, 
2438334; 450243, 2439684; 450236, 2439581; 450179, 2439451; 450144, 
2439400; 450116, 2439393; 450060, 2439401; 450009, 2440531; 449922, 
2440494; 449797, 2440464; 449675, 2440467; 450154, 2439614; 451319, 
2437948; 450466, 2437546; 450580, 2437507; 450757, 2437431; 450948, 
2437416; 451043, 2437429; 451072, 2437437; 451101, 2437491; 451108, 
2437503; 451138, 2437581; 451245, 2437644; 451275, 2437714; 452023, 
2438472; 451205, 2437885; 452004, 2438389; 451411, 2437910; 451488, 
2437910; 451579, 2437997; 451593, 2438098; 451654, 2438137; 451738, 
2438169; 451822, 2438170; 451898, 2438217; 451952, 2438225; 451982, 
2438287; 449326, 2440266; 451228, 2437792; 450799, 2438248; 449502, 
2440462; 450261, 2439193; 450390, 2438961; 450492, 2438803; 450601, 
2438722; 450715, 2438722; 450776, 2438704; 450786, 2438622; 450835, 
2438510; 450888, 2438416; 450949, 2438380; 450103, 2439293; 450921, 
2438291; 450098, 2439272; 450704, 2438180; 450742, 2438065; 450785, 
2437968; 450701, 2437933; 450657, 2437930; 450554, 2437925; 450467, 
2437958; 450381, 2437976; 450256, 2438015; 450165, 2438076; 448286, 
2436668; 451002, 2438334; 449748, 2439830; 450248, 2439634; 449295, 
2440144; 449323, 2440106; 449435, 2440131; 449639, 2440133; 449771, 
2440087; 449931, 2440046; 450041, 2440031; 450084, 2440003; 450061, 
2439947; 449964, 2439881; 450172, 2439295; 449758, 2439861; 449402, 
2440381; 449760, 2439660; 449816, 2439481; 449861, 2439257; 449886, 
2439054; 449944, 2438939; 449945, 2438937; 450092, 2438827; 450179, 
2438817; 450222, 2438885; 450189, 2439030; 450136, 2439186; 449852, 
2439858; 449221, 2436668; 449007, 2436513; 449328, 2436406; 449213, 
2436403; 449145, 2436465; 449130, 2436544; 449158, 2436572; 449514, 
2436395; 449231, 2436635; 449615, 2436301; 449188, 2436712; 449145, 
2436768; 449110, 2436794; 449120, 2436671; 449102, 2436620; 449079, 
2436605; 450823, 2436692; 449219, 2436602; 449927, 2436216; 450785, 
2436606; 450862, 2436552; 450878, 2436459; 450894, 2436334; 450928, 
2436285; 450659, 2436369; 449414, 2436418; 450332, 2436229; 449008, 
2436511; 449924, 2436215; 449870, 2436206; 449812, 2436172; 449765, 
2436128; 449727, 2436090; 449689, 2436186; 449683, 2436195; 450351, 
2436329; 448790, 2437520; 449020, 2436554; 448912, 2438027; 448953, 
2437948; 448991, 2437897; 449024, 2437853; 448994, 2437683; 448926, 
2438111; 448920, 2437538; 449012, 2438179; 448665, 2437510; 448596, 
2437431; 448540, 2437294; 448517, 2437230; 448459, 2437218; 448428, 
2437261; 448226, 2436801; 450205, 2439505; 449412, 2438461; 448436, 
2436335; 450010, 2438158; 449905, 2438254; 449811, 2438272; 449689, 
2438311; 449567, 2438395; 448910, 2438029; 449445, 2438454; 449027, 
2437802; 449303, 2438449; 449280, 2438423; 449234, 2438327; 449198, 
2438248; 449146, 2438227; 449117, 2438215; 449027, 2438184; 449506, 
2438446; 450506, 2437164; 450691, 2436909; 450656, 2436941; 450515, 
2437040; 450407, 2437210; 450299, 2437233; 448983, 2437578; 450584, 
2437009.
    (2) This unit includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, 
NAD 83 coordinates (E, N): 448864, 2430994; 448915, 2431294; 448870, 
2430976; 448747, 2431927; 448866, 2430965; 448877, 2431143; 448890, 
2431196; 448902, 2431222; 448896, 2431533; 448792, 2431836; 448857, 
2431685; 448875, 2431636; 448879, 2431616; 448879, 2431586; 448904, 
2431254; 448883, 2431556; 448907, 2431280; 448580, 2432096; 448909, 
2431441; 448926, 2431397; 448922, 2431378; 448920, 2431356; 448871, 
2430833; 448858, 2431071; 449196, 2430298; 448319, 2429275; 449002, 
2429203; 448999, 2429252; 449004, 2429384; 449017, 2429491; 449053, 
2429598; 449076, 2429644; 449139, 2429727; 449175, 2429758; 449262, 
2429801; 449318, 2429811; 449326, 2430025; 449290, 2430091; 448866, 
2430960; 448995, 2430341; 448858, 2431041; 448902, 2430792; 448947, 
2430723; 448983, 2430644; 448991, 2430617; 449290, 2430208; 449026, 
2430433; 449260, 2430300; 448959, 2430257; 448970, 2430209; 449020, 
2430214; 449086, 2430250; 449107, 2430262; 448869, 2430883; 449011, 
2430547; 447154, 2430979; 448122, 2430928; 446849, 2430738; 446921, 
2430739; 446961, 2430832; 448892, 2431475; 446996, 2430939; 448686, 
2432011; 446996, 2430939; 447214, 2431052; 447347, 2431063; 447367, 
2431032; 447520, 2431054; 447836, 2431129; 447989, 2431010; 447038, 
2430959; 447800, 2431556; 448534, 2432102; 448512, 2432103; 448509, 
2432100; 448291, 2431933; 448077, 2431769; 446723, 2430729; 447808, 
2431563; 447073, 2430978; 447681, 2431465; 447305, 2431176; 448877, 
2431143; 447222, 2431112; 448868, 2431103; 447039, 2430972; 448011, 
2431718; 447907, 2429318; 448615, 2432078; 448288, 2429278; 448283, 
2429271; 448109, 2429291; 446993, 2430912; 448055, 2429303; 448174, 
2430856; 447613, 2429349; 447532, 2429359; 447492, 2429364; 447530, 
2429461; 447517, 2429602; 447489, 2429733; 447465, 2429924; 448370, 
2430494; 448055, 2429297; 447481, 2430092; 448175, 2430731; 448297, 
2430722; 448369, 2430567; 448340, 2430390; 448312, 2430325; 447855, 
2430195; 447580, 2430191; 448297, 2430660; 447684, 2430223; 448070, 
2430056; 448138, 2430060; 448199, 2430119; 448260, 2430203.
    (B) Note: Map 36a follows:
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[[Page 19111]]


(lx) Kauai 10-Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis-c
     (A) This is a unit of the Wet Cliff ecosystem and consists of 489 
ac (198 ha). This unit includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 
4, NAD 83 coordinates (E, N): 449326, 2440266; 449663, 2440988; 449861, 
2440726; 449771, 2440087; 449639, 2440133; 449435, 2440131; 449323, 
2440106; 449295, 2440144; 449931, 2440046; 449402, 2440381; 449502, 
2440462; 449675, 2440467; 449797, 2440464; 449922, 2440494; 450009, 
2440531; 449861, 2440726; 449663, 2440988; 449758, 2439861; 449987, 
2440561; 450084, 2440003; 449943, 2438939; 448756, 2439586; 448792, 
2439355; 448831, 2439328; 448887, 2439317; 448953, 2439254; 449067, 
2439195; 448605, 2440582; 449760, 2439660; 448605, 2440585; 449964, 
2439881; 449245, 2439220; 449852, 2439858; 449748, 2439830; 449816, 
2439481; 449861, 2439257; 449886, 2439054; 449944, 2438939; 449177, 
2439197; 448777, 2440842; 449662, 2441006; 449661, 2441029; 449533, 
2441052; 449396, 2441083; 449396, 2441083; 449121, 2441114; 449068, 
2441051; 448770, 2439804; 448887, 2440934; 450061, 2439947; 448678, 
2440741; 448601, 2440652; 448599, 2440647; 448599, 2440637; 448600, 
2440627; 448601, 2440618; 448603, 2440603; 448604, 2440594; 449006, 
2441012; 449309, 2439083; 449311, 2439179; 450041, 2440031. This unit 
is also critical habitat for Kauai 10-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-e, 
Kauai 10-Cyanea dolichopoda-b, Kauai 10-Cyrtandra oenobarba-c, Kauai 
10-Cyrtandra paliku-b, Kauai 10-Dubautia plantaginea ssp. magnifolia-b, 
Kauai 10-Lysimachia iniki-b, Kauai 10-Lysimachia pendens-b, Kauai 10-
Lysimachia venosa-b, and Kauai 10-Platydesma rostrata-e (see paragraphs 
(a)(1)(lxiii), (a)(1)(lxvi), (a)(1)(lxxiv), (a)(1)(lxxv), (a)(1)(lxxx), 
(a)(1)(xcv), (a)(1)(xcvi), (a)(1)(xcvii), and (a)(1)(cx), respectively, 
of this section).
     (B) Note: Map 36b follows:

[[Page 19112]]

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[[Page 19113]]

(lxi) Kauai 10-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-c
     (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lvii)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
     (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lvii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(lxii) Kauai 10-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-d
     (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lix)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
     (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lix)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(lxiii) Kauai 10-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-e
     (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lx)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
     (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lx)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(lxiv) Kauai 10-Charpentiera densiflora-b
     (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lix)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
     (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lix)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
* * * * *
(lxvi) Kauai 10-Cyanea dolichopoda-b
     (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lx)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
     (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lx)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(lxvii) Kauai 10-Cyanea eleeleensis-a
     (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lix)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
     (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lix)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(lxviii) Kauai 10-Cyanea kolekoleensis-a
     (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lix)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
     (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lix)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(lxix) Kauai 10-Cyanea kuhihewa-a
     (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lix)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
     (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lix)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
* * * * *
(lxxiii) Kauai 10-Cyrtandra oenobarba-b
     (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lix)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
     (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lix)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(lxxiv) Kauai 10-Cyrtandra oenobarba-c
     (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lx)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
     (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lx)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(lxxv) Kauai 10-Cyrtandra paliku-b
     (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lx)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
     (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lx)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(lxxvi) Kauai 10-Dryopteris crinalis var. podosorus-a
     (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lvii)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
     (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lvii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(lxxvii) Kauai 10-Dubautia imbricata ssp. imbricata-a
     (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lix)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
     (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lix)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(lxxviii) Kauai 10-Dubautia kalalauensis-a
     (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lvii)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
     (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lvii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
* * * * *
(lxxx) Kauai 10-Dubautia plantaginea ssp. magnifolia-b
     (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lx)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
     (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lx)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(lxxxi) Kauai 10-Dubautia waialealae-a
     (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lvii)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
     (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lvii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
* * * * *
(lxxxiii) Kauai 10-Geranium kauaiense-a
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lvii)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lvii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
* * * * *
(lxxxvi) Kauai 10-Keysseria erici-a
     (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lvii)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
     (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lvii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(lxxxvii) Kauai 10-Keysseria helenae-a
     (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lvii)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
     (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lvii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(lxxxviii) Kauai 10-Labordia helleri-b
     (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lvii)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
     (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lvii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(lxxxix) Kauai 10-Labordia helleri-c
     (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lix)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
     (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lix)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
* * * * *
(xci) Kauai 10-Labordia pumila-a
     (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lvii)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
     (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lvii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
* * * * *
(xciii) Kauai 10-Lysimachia daphnoides-a
     (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lvii)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
     (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lvii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
* * * * *
(xcv) Kauai 10-Lysimachia iniki-b
     (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lx)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
     (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lx)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(xcvi) Kauai 10-Lysimachia pendens-b
     (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lx)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
     (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lx)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(xcvii) Kauai 10-Lysimachia venosa-b
     (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lx)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
     (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lx)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(xcviii) Kauai 10-Melicope degeneri-a
     (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lvii)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
     (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lvii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.

[[Page 19114]]

(xcix) Kauai 10-Melicope paniculata-a
     (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lix)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
     (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lix)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(c) Kauai 10-Melicope puberula-a
     (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lvii)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
     (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lvii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ci) Kauai 10-Melicope puberula-b
     (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lix)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
     (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lix)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
* * * * *
(ciii) Kauai 10-Myrsine mezii-a
     (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lvii)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
     (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lvii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
* * * * *
(cv) Kauai 10-Phyllostegia renovans-a
     (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lvii)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
     (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lvii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cvi) Kauai 10-Phyllostegia renovans-b
     (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lix)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
     (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lix)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
* * * * *
(cviii) Kauai 10-Platydesma rostrata-c
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lvii)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lvii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cix) Kauai 10-Platydesma rostrata-d
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lix)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lix)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cx) Kauai 10-Platydesma rostrata-e
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lx)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lx)(B) of this section for the map of this 
unit.
(cxi) Kauai 10-Psychotria grandiflora-a
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lvii)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lvii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
* * * * *
(cxiii) Kauai 10-Stenogyne kealiae-a
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lix)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lix)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cxiv) Kauai 10-Tetraplasandra bisattenuata-b
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lix)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lix)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cxv) Kauai 10-Tetraplasandra flynnii-a
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lvii)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lvii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cxvi) Kauai 10-Tetraplasandra flynnii-b
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(lix)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(lix)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
* * * * *
(cxxx) Kauai 11--Astelia waialealae--b
    (A) This is a unit of the Montane Wet ecosystem and consists of 
14,096 ac (5,704 ha). This unit is also critical habitat for Kauai 11-
Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-f, Kauai 11-Dryopteris crinalis var. 
podosorus-b, Kauai 11-Dubautia kalalauensis-b, Kauai 11-Dubautia 
waialealae-b, Kauai 11-Geranium kauaiense-b, Kauai 11-Keysseria erici-
b, Kauai 11-Keysseria helenae-b, Kauai 11-Labordia helleri-d, Kauai 11-
Labordia pumila-b, Kauai 11-Lysimachia daphnoides-b, Kauai 11-Melicope 
degeneri-b, Kauai 11-Melicope puberula-c, Kauai 11-Myrsine mezii-b, 
Kauai 11-Phyllostegia renovans-c, Kauai 11-Platydesma rostrata-f, Kauai 
11-Psychotria grandiflora-b, and Kauai 11-Tetraplasandra flynnii-c (see 
paragraphs (a)(1)(cxlii), (a)(1)(clxxvii), (a)(1)(clxxix), 
(a)(1)(clxxxv), (a)(1)(cxcix), (a)(1)(ccxvi), (a)(1)(ccxvii), 
(a)(1)(ccxxii), (a)(1)(ccxxix), (a)(1)(ccxxxv), (a)(1)(ccxli), 
(a)(1)(ccxlix), (a)(1)(cclviii), (a)(1)(cclxvi), (a)(1)(cclxxvii), 
(a)(1)(ccxc), and (a)(1)(cccxxxiv), respectively, of this section).
    (1) This unit includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, 
NAD83 coordinates (E, N): 441848, 2446265; 441620, 2446723; 442005, 
2446171; 441982, 2446194; 441963, 2446219; 441943, 2446256; 441929, 
2446268; 441897, 2446273; 441879, 2446263; 441852, 2446219; 442039, 
2446165; 441834, 2446230; 442059, 2446159; 441855, 2446295; 441856, 
2446328; 441868, 2446401; 441864, 2446424; 441847, 2446451; 441836, 
2446475; 441829, 2446501; 441829, 2446505; 441674, 2446682; 440599, 
2447501; 441838, 2446221; 442317, 2445917; 442501, 2445803; 442492, 
2445803; 442467, 2445799; 442448, 2445805; 442444, 2445807; 442435, 
2445813; 442430, 2445827; 442430, 2445830; 442428, 2445851; 442019, 
2446165; 445907, 2442657; 441584, 2446741; 442273, 2445945; 442261, 
2445949; 442202, 2445986; 442175, 2445995; 442100, 2446007; 442082, 
2446029; 442072, 2446052; 442067, 2446082; 442073, 2446121; 442071, 
2446146; 442381, 2445882; 440800, 2447339; 441648, 2446705; 441083, 
2447147; 441058, 2447153; 441039, 2447168; 440969, 2447210; 440941, 
2447230; 440888, 2447250; 440873, 2447265; 440865, 2447286; 441113, 
2447170; 440842, 2447328; 441133, 2447183; 440740, 2447346; 440722, 
2447354; 440710, 2447368; 440699, 2447389; 440693, 2447407; 440695, 
2447430; 440703, 2447452; 440703, 2447461; 440693, 2447475; 443497, 
2444548; 440858, 2447311; 441373, 2447026; 441549, 2446752; 441532, 
2446763; 441521, 2446777; 441476, 2446797; 441455, 2446804; 441434, 
2446820; 441405, 2446869; 441402, 2446899; 441403, 2446972; 441095, 
2447154; 441398, 2446997; 442710, 2445647; 441363, 2447030; 441317, 
2447043; 441283, 2447083; 441268, 2447104; 441240, 2447171; 441231, 
2447186; 441219, 2447195; 441201, 2447195; 441172, 2447190; 441148, 
2447188; 441399, 2446995; 443193, 2444946; 442711, 2445664; 443294, 
2444870; 443290, 2444876; 443281, 2444890; 443271, 2444898; 443260, 
2444907; 443252, 2444914; 443240, 2444927; 443234, 2444932; 443307, 
2444833; 443196, 2444944; 443309, 2444829; 443177, 2444962; 443175, 
2444965; 443163, 2444984; 443158, 2444995; 443156, 2445003; 443153, 
2445020; 443153, 2445040; 443152, 2445059; 443150, 2445078; 443144, 
2445096; 443215, 2444938; 443403, 2444695; 443483, 2444551; 443478, 
2444555; 443464, 2444570; 443459, 2444579; 443452, 2444591; 443447, 
2444608; 443444, 2444627; 443443, 2444647; 443440, 2444655; 443301, 
2444851; 443423, 2444686; 443122, 2445132; 443385, 2444699; 443373, 
2444702; 443366, 2444706; 443352, 2444721;

[[Page 19115]]

443346, 2444728; 443341, 2444740; 443333, 2444758; 443327, 2444778; 
443320, 2444796; 443313, 2444815; 443435, 2444664; 442675, 2445453; 
442804, 2445357; 442798, 2445359; 442785, 2445364; 442765, 2445370; 
442747, 2445377; 442743, 2445378; 442727, 2445386; 442709, 2445399; 
442694, 2445414; 443140, 2445105; 442682, 2445433; 442858, 2445342; 
442671, 2445471; 442667, 2445490; 442668, 2445494; 442672, 2445510; 
442673, 2445515; 442668, 2445560; 442666, 2445576; 442668, 2445590; 
442674, 2445604; 440579, 2447511; 442689, 2445419; 442990, 2445276; 
442713, 2445661; 443103, 2445152; 443083, 2445171; 443066, 2445190; 
443066, 2445209; 443067, 2445215; 443068, 2445227; 443065, 2445247; 
443047, 2445260; 443029, 2445263; 442821, 2445353; 443006, 2445268; 
442842, 2445347; 442981, 2445284; 442972, 2445292; 442956, 2445301; 
442952, 2445303; 442934, 2445314; 442915, 2445323; 442898, 2445330; 
442877, 2445336; 442862, 2445341; 443135, 2445115; 443009, 2445266; 
438435, 2450985; 438472, 2451261; 438715, 2450373; 438690, 2450392; 
438621, 2450415; 438581, 2450423; 438578, 2450438; 438554, 2450559; 
438488, 2450686; 438501, 2450796; 438736, 2450325; 438427, 2450964; 
438737, 2450311; 438425, 2451047; 438434, 2451069; 438455, 2451089; 
438463, 2451098; 438475, 2451113; 438484, 2451141; 438486, 2451163; 
438481, 2451188; 438472, 2451209; 440674, 2447485; 438472, 2450910; 
438831, 2450010; 439025, 2449671; 439016, 2449687; 438999, 2449702; 
438974, 2449738; 438965, 2449767; 438944, 2449813; 438919, 2449853; 
438904, 2449863; 438894, 2449879; 438731, 2450342; 438850, 2449982; 
438481, 2451287; 438816, 2450028; 438791, 2450036; 438765, 2450051; 
438744, 2450081; 438730, 2450109; 438717, 2450158; 438716, 2450162; 
438713, 2450206; 438717, 2450241; 438732, 2450286; 438884, 2449918; 
438851, 2452395; 438467, 2451228; 438979, 2452233; 439031, 2452285; 
439037, 2452297; 439061, 2452327; 439083, 2452342; 439138, 2452428; 
439171, 2452514; 439201, 2452565; 438936, 2452213; 438954, 2452430; 
438888, 2452163; 438816, 2452396; 438779, 2452391; 438716, 2452393; 
438669, 2452384; 438605, 2452379; 438540, 2452374; 438510, 2452340; 
438449, 2452330; 438431, 2452414; 438490, 2452605; 439114, 2452513; 
438484, 2451690; 438485, 2451346; 438478, 2451359; 438454, 2451380; 
438422, 2451414; 438410, 2451464; 438419, 2451509; 438435, 2451571; 
438440, 2451600; 438425, 2451652; 438977, 2452232; 438442, 2451682; 
439065, 2449586; 438529, 2451692; 438599, 2451708; 438657, 2451738; 
438670, 2451754; 438675, 2451766; 438680, 2451783; 438680, 2451858; 
438715, 2451908; 438761, 2452013; 438833, 2452090; 438429, 2451670; 
440218, 2448446; 439037, 2449642; 440416, 2448314; 440411, 2448336; 
440402, 2448352; 440391, 2448353; 440375, 2448361; 440350, 2448395; 
440331, 2448411; 440307, 2448418; 440421, 2448239; 440237, 2448434; 
440413, 2448216; 440198, 2448467; 440190, 2448485; 440179, 2448496; 
440157, 2448511; 440136, 2448537; 440125, 2448578; 440120, 2448633; 
440124, 2448663; 440125, 2448690; 440121, 2448718; 440254, 2448428; 
440435, 2447959; 440540, 2447539; 440487, 2447571; 440468, 2447593; 
440451, 2447620; 440413, 2447711; 440383, 2447794; 440377, 2447819; 
440378, 2447845; 440384, 2447871; 440415, 2448290; 440436, 2447941; 
440073, 2448762; 440426, 2447974; 440409, 2447991; 440343, 2448005; 
440329, 2448016; 440325, 2448033; 440331, 2448061; 440341, 2448084; 
440374, 2448123; 440384, 2448138; 440401, 2448191; 440395, 2447896; 
439260, 2449242; 439451, 2449000; 439437, 2449023; 439437, 2449066; 
439433, 2449078; 439421, 2449088; 439399, 2449097; 439382, 2449107; 
439361, 2449126; 439330, 2449145; 440112, 2448732; 439277, 2449220; 
439526, 2448944; 439244, 2449261; 439230, 2449287; 439220, 2449318; 
439200, 2449362; 439167, 2449414; 439146, 2449435; 439114, 2449463; 
439102, 2449480; 439076, 2449548; 442372, 2445885; 439307, 2449169; 
439761, 2448926; 439044, 2449631; 440036, 2448815; 440000, 2448878; 
439982, 2448899; 439961, 2448915; 439941, 2448924; 439922, 2448928; 
439900, 2448928; 439875, 2448932; 439853, 2448941; 439508, 2448984; 
439788, 2448929; 439516, 2448971; 439733, 2448930; 439697, 2448941; 
439678, 2448950; 439656, 2448949; 439633, 2448940; 439611, 2448928; 
439578, 2448906; 439553, 2448909; 439539, 2448922; 440089, 2448747; 
439830, 2448945; 439685, 2444334; 440025, 2445056; 439890, 2444912; 
439948, 2444922; 439994, 2444883; 440052, 2444784; 440032, 2444731; 
439996, 2444642; 439945, 2444540; 439876, 2444423; 439859, 2444782; 
439759, 2444342; 439859, 2444723; 439583, 2444266; 439456, 2444205; 
439364, 2444192; 439298, 2444154; 439282, 2444110; 439268, 2444068; 
439181, 2444032; 439094, 2444009; 439048, 2443913; 439043, 2443859; 
439825, 2444344; 439258, 2444658; 437689, 2441877; 439796, 2445123; 
439719, 2445133; 439696, 2445110; 439681, 2445072; 439673, 2445011; 
439668, 2444981; 439643, 2444902; 439571, 2444823; 439864, 2444845; 
439386, 2444762; 438723, 2443923; 439172, 2444564; 439145, 2444538; 
439156, 2444527; 439254, 2444472; 439413, 2444371; 439522, 2444418; 
439617, 2444459; 439747, 2444522; 439800, 2444594; 439843, 2444655; 
439485, 2444800; 437493, 2441868; 437088, 2442647; 437103, 2442643; 
437156, 2442615; 437159, 2442579; 437120, 2442503; 437105, 2442445; 
437174, 2442422; 437294, 2442356; 437425, 2442191; 438964, 2443837; 
437476, 2442051; 437052, 2442940; 437495, 2441869; 437522, 2441879; 
437532, 2441880; 437566, 2441876; 437601, 2441867; 437602, 2441867; 
437617, 2441866; 437635, 2441866; 437647, 2441866; 437674, 2441875; 
437307, 2442101; 437950, 2443233; 440124, 2445056; 438608, 2443916; 
438453, 2443825; 438438, 2443814; 438318, 2443723; 438201, 2443629; 
438183, 2443628; 438143, 2443587; 438208, 2443477; 437981, 2443476; 
437226, 2442709; 437928, 2443310; 437182, 2442830; 437657, 2443231; 
437364, 2443298; 437363, 2443282; 437277, 2443228; 437144, 2443208; 
437065, 2443211; 437060, 2443212; 436974, 2443182; 436997, 2443061; 
438835, 2443883; 437808, 2443397; 435517, 2452192; 439910, 2445087; 
436003, 2452334; 435955, 2452326; 435902, 2452378; 435838, 2452443; 
435810, 2452427; 435719, 2452378; 435698, 2452376; 435477, 2452358; 
436579, 2452559; 435479, 2452304; 436804, 2452559; 435519, 2452190; 
435540, 2452168; 435631, 2452072; 435779, 2451881; 435895, 2451700; 
435961, 2451591; 436027, 2451466; 436103, 2451262; 436162, 2451016; 
436212, 2450766; 435478, 2452345; 438386, 2452854; 445955, 2442594; 
445951, 2442593; 445907, 2442657; 444117, 2444107; 444088, 2444202; 
444193, 2443965; 444117, 2444107; 438490, 2452605; 438476, 2452702; 
436189, 2452365; 438430, 2452817; 436235, 2450550; 438269, 2452930; 
438116, 2453088; 438110, 2453148; 438006, 2453313; 437935, 2453510; 
437933, 2453512; 437797, 2453318; 437592, 2453026; 437202, 2452948; 
437201, 2452932; 438465, 2452788; 443516, 2444546; 438927, 2444790; 
438982, 2444746; 439037, 2444786; 439157, 2444829; 439238, 2444846; 
439360, 2444907; 439434, 2444999; 439480, 2445095; 439484, 2445120; 
436230, 2450590; 439598, 2445317; 438580, 2444854; 439794, 2445352;

[[Page 19116]]

439883, 2445309; 439994, 2445245; 440078, 2445204; 440165, 2445166; 
440214, 2445151; 440216, 2445150; 440347, 2445106; 440289, 2445097; 
440216, 2445076; 442301, 2445924; 437248, 2447657; 439699, 2445360; 
436250, 2450410; 436234, 2450237; 436386, 2449952; 436472, 2449769; 
436566, 2449560; 436566, 2449559; 436706, 2449252; 436739, 2449180; 
436811, 2449026; 438807, 2444845; 437230, 2447713; 438677, 2444833; 
437232, 2447645; 438168, 2444734; 438179, 2444732; 438263, 2444805; 
438343, 2444896; 438406, 2444952; 438475, 2444955; 438523, 2444886; 
438536, 2444858; 436234, 2450558; 437237, 2447714; 446348, 2441177; 
441656, 2441573; 445235, 2441328; 445344, 2441376; 445392, 2441392; 
445510, 2441194; 445551, 2441162; 445886, 2441308; 446122, 2441415; 
446214, 2441291; 444560, 2441032; 446300, 2441227; 444480, 2440997; 
446357, 2441185; 446375, 2441172; 446499, 2441271; 446610, 2441349; 
446673, 2441408; 446651, 2441424; 446641, 2441436; 446587, 2441501; 
446587, 2441543; 446640, 2441627; 446228, 2441279; 442977, 2441356; 
441659, 2441579; 441727, 2441586; 441774, 2441575; 441900, 2441576; 
441968, 2441515; 442287, 2441225; 442568, 2441274; 442723, 2441295; 
442843, 2441314; 445124, 2441205; 442982, 2441350; 446591, 2442195; 
443016, 2441342; 443023, 2441344; 443707, 2441132; 443889, 2441172; 
444062, 2441230; 444083, 2441215; 444109, 2441224; 444113, 2441221; 
444124, 2441223; 444455, 2440990; 442924, 2441340; 443628, 2444469; 
443985, 2444416; 443769, 2444440; 443760, 2444446; 443740, 2444454; 
443732, 2444458; 443722, 2444464; 443703, 2444469; 443685, 2444463; 
443677, 2444459; 446686, 2441764; 443647, 2444460; 444075, 2444349; 
443617, 2444477; 443610, 2444483; 443598, 2444493; 443579, 2444514; 
443571, 2444521; 443557, 2444532; 443553, 2444537; 443534, 2444543; 
437697, 2441878; 439501, 2445220; 443666, 2444456; 445254, 2443156; 
445380, 2441414; 446650, 2442430; 446675, 2442432; 446482, 2442513; 
446373, 2442574; 446256, 2442602; 446100, 2442628; 445966, 2442725; 
445808, 2442898; 445681, 2442977; 443984, 2444419; 445437, 2443077; 
444016, 2444444; 445045, 2443240; 444824, 2443350; 444659, 2443447; 
444532, 2443516; 444456, 2443572; 444423, 2443638; 444334, 2443811; 
444237, 2444013; 444161, 2444181; 446694, 2442007; 445559, 2443010; 
438098, 2442237; 437996, 2442188; 437998, 2442202; 437998, 2442205; 
437999, 2442211; 438000, 2442216; 438012, 2442229; 438030, 2442243; 
438049, 2442246; 438065, 2442246; 438392, 2442294; 438095, 2442238; 
437954, 2442136; 438114, 2442232; 438130, 2442234; 438157, 2442234; 
438219, 2442244; 438238, 2442248; 438254, 2442248; 438305, 2442256; 
438355, 2442265; 438373, 2442277; 438376, 2442278; 438088, 2442240; 
437791, 2442074; 437705, 2441878; 437711, 2441887; 437717, 2441899; 
437736, 2441928; 437740, 2441938; 437745, 2441950; 437747, 2441961; 
437751, 2441981; 437754, 2441991; 437758, 2441998; 437984, 2442167; 
437777, 2442052; 437973, 2442147; 437799, 2442084; 437806, 2442092; 
437826, 2442106; 437839, 2442110; 437873, 2442121; 445395, 2441389; 
437912, 2442123; 441650, 2441573; 437939, 2442128; 437926, 2442125; 
437766, 2442017; 440002, 2440430; 438866, 2442347; 438934, 2442351; 
438960, 2442270; 438967, 2442246; 438976, 2442220; 439037, 2442031; 
439088, 2441871; 439096, 2441847; 439491, 2440617; 438838, 2442340; 
439832, 2440430; 439556, 2440414; 440014, 2440441; 440110, 2440524; 
440113, 2440527; 440114, 2440528; 440464, 2440832; 440528, 2440844; 
438418, 2442311; 437887, 2442121; 440586, 2440905; 441637, 2441552; 
439551, 2440431; 438535, 2442314; 438436, 2442321; 438453, 2442321; 
438453, 2442321; 439931, 2440426; 438821, 2442339; 438460, 2442320; 
438496, 2442310; 438433, 2442319; 438523, 2442310; 438536, 2442314; 
438561, 2442316; 438577, 2442315; 438668, 2442322; 438704, 2442326; 
438517, 2442310; 438721, 2442329; 438679, 2442324; 438656, 2442321; 
438626, 2442315; 438757, 2442331; 438609, 2442314; 438694, 2442327.
    (2) This unit includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, 
NAD 83 coordinates (E, N): 433880, 2448827; 434279, 2447951; 434073, 
2448685; 434228, 2448620; 434292, 2448479; 433725, 2448994; 434318, 
2448298; 434357, 2447229; 434202, 2447345; 434086, 2447693; 434254, 
2447886; 433546, 2449412; 434073, 2447500; 434163, 2447783; 434318, 
2448182; 433545, 2449136; 433389, 2449256; 433567, 2449260; 433588, 
2449244; 433599, 2449252; 433612, 2449262; 433567, 2449398; 433525, 
2449415; 433448, 2449426; 434486, 2447126; 434498, 2449522; 433367, 
2449352; 433339, 2449381; 433368, 2449293; 433589, 2449323; 435236, 
2449347; 433313, 2449484; 434899, 2449305; 434074, 2449972; 434124, 
2449948; 434137, 2449869; 434141, 2449863; 434208, 2449767; 434338, 
2449660; 434752, 2449405; 435080, 2449407; 435183, 2449401; 435232, 
2449399; 434920, 2449394; 435236, 2449351; 434627, 2447088; 435266, 
2448909; 435272, 2448835; 435282, 2448685; 435360, 2447538; 435295, 
2447440; 435290, 2447449; 435093, 2447245; 434994, 2447085; 434795, 
2447069; 434738, 2447030; 434738, 2447045; 434713, 2447038; 434686, 
2447020; 435234, 2449384; 434884, 2449298; 434026, 2449951; 434034, 
2449950; 434074, 2449972; 434844, 2449248; 434848, 2449239; 434872, 
2449246; 434890, 2449251; 434908, 2449290; 434908, 2449290; 434948, 
2449300; 435005, 2449310; 435010, 2449343; 433969, 2449958; 434898, 
2449304; 435010, 2449343; 434881, 2449297; 434872, 2449294; 434833, 
2449281; 434833, 2449280; 434833, 2449278; 434833, 2449278; 434834, 
2449277; 434839, 2449258; 434842, 2449253; 434844, 2449248; 433339, 
2449600; 434991, 2449344; 434938, 2449321; 433440, 2449604; 433460, 
2449707; 433468, 2449706; 433484, 2449694; 433419, 2449599; 433461, 
2449623; 433458, 2449707; 433455, 2449620; 433480, 2449629; 433437, 
2449592; 433426, 2449556; 433903, 2449882; 435011, 2449352; 433401, 
2449697; 433414, 2449628; 433457, 2449622; 433493, 2449765; 433831, 
2449767; 433742, 2449724; 433461, 2449623; 433633, 2449724; 433467, 
2449787; 433429, 2449741; 433408, 2449708; 433436, 2449707; 433436, 
2449707; 433443, 2449707; 433444, 2449707; 433426, 2449707; 433445, 
2449707.
    (3) This unit includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, 
NAD83 coordinates (E, N): 448881, 2447609; 449040, 2448659; 449045, 
2448506; 449032, 2448326; 449044, 2448132; 449087, 2447916; 448981, 
2446981; 448979, 2446983; 448980, 2446982; 448980, 2446980; 449012, 
2448822; 449105, 2447827; 448702, 2449395; 448235, 2448042; 448931, 
2447092; 448577, 2449143; 448641, 2449184; 448610, 2449255; 448623, 
2449141; 448613, 2449357; 448987, 2448959; 448812, 2449420; 448906, 
2449440; 448959, 2449443; 448964, 2449425; 448952, 2449316; 448954, 
2449143; 448593, 2449298; 448511, 2449199; 448321, 2447795; 448887, 
2447191; 448577, 2449143; 448440, 2449296; 448382, 2449406; 448328, 
2449449; 448242, 2449457; 448099, 2449454; 448059, 2449434; 448056, 
2449368; 448091, 2449266; 448119, 2449134; 448122, 2449037; 448288, 
2447915; 448834, 2447273; 448763, 2447342; 448088, 2448897; 448412, 
2447653; 448669, 2447406; 448133, 2448200; 448042, 2448338; 447976, 
2448470;

[[Page 19117]]

447943, 2448562; 447961, 2448628; 448037, 2448780; 448516, 2447525.
    (4) This unit includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, 
NAD83 coordinates (E, N): 447249, 2443451; 447247, 2443586; 447295, 
2443639; 447325, 2443651; 447556, 2443686; 447603, 2443646; 447616, 
2443588; 447631, 2443389; 447645, 2443143; 447623, 2443445; 447287, 
2443339; 447374, 2443275; 447631, 2443389; 447636, 2443160; 447645, 
2443146; 447894, 2443371; 447865, 2443358; 447712, 2443351; 447481, 
2443262.
    (5) This unit includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, 
NAD83 coordinates (E, N): 448470, 2443889; 448141, 2444294; 448479, 
2443895; 448470, 2443888; 447864, 2444277; 448479, 2443895; 448609, 
2443974; 448591, 2444072; 448566, 2444172; 448548, 2444233; 448510, 
2444279; 448464, 2444284; 448299, 2444289; 447925, 2444320; 447843, 
2444325; 448458, 2443882; 447942, 2444178; 448003, 2444015; 448008, 
2443903; 447967, 2443867; 447932, 2443750; 447904, 2443646; 447921, 
2443582; 447949, 2443460; 447939, 2443412; 447996, 2444312.
    (B) Note: Map 64a follows:
BILLING CODE 4310-55-S

[[Page 19118]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR13AP10.041

BILLING CODE 4310-55-C

[[Page 19119]]

* * * * *
(cxxxiii) Kauai 11-Canavalia napaliensis-b
    (A) This is a unit of the Lowland Mesic ecosystem and consists of 
2,590 ac (1,048 ha). This unit is also critical habitat for Kauai 11-
Chamaesyce eleanoriae-b, Kauai 11-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-g, Kauai 
11-Charpentiera densiflora-c, Kauai 11-Doryopteris angelica-b, Kauai 
11-Dubautia kenwoodii-b, Kauai 11-Labordia helleri-e, Kauai 11-
Pittosporum napaliense-b, Kauai 11-Platydesma rostrata-g, Kauai 11-
Psychotria hobdyi-b, and Kauai 11-Tetraplasandra bisattenuata-c (see 
paragraphs (a)(1)(cxxxv), (a)(1)(cxliii), (a)(1)(cxlvii), 
(a)(1)(clxxvi), (a)(1)(clxxx), (a)(1)(ccxxiii), (a)(1)(cclxxii), 
(a)(1)(cclxxviii), (a)(1)(ccxcii), and (a)(1)(cccxxxii), respectively, 
of this section).
    (1) This unit includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, 
NAD83 coordinates (E, N): 429310, 2448345; 429679, 2448361; 427873, 
2448495; 429992, 2448363; 428727, 2448356; 428429, 2448252; 428229, 
2448295; 428072, 2448380; 429040, 2448343; 427702, 2448480; 427616, 
2448566; 427957, 2448626; 428640, 2448616; 428497, 2448745; 430177, 
2448336; 429127, 2448025; 428184, 2448758; 427985, 2448814; 428413, 
2448542; 429801, 2448080; 430583, 2449736; 428239, 2449004; 428246, 
2447831; 428459, 2447934; 428558, 2447963; 428771, 2448066; 428927, 
2448067; 429511, 2447984; 429626, 2447973; 430131, 2448232; 429914, 
2448112; 429866, 2448131; 430049, 2448165; 430037, 2448217; 430042, 
2448265; 430059, 2448285; 430092, 2448290; 430115, 2448276; 429340, 
2447983; 430819, 2449646; 430408, 2449802; 430410, 2449802; 430405, 
2449796; 428032, 2447946; 430527, 2449754; 427907, 2446845; 430635, 
2449693; 430471, 2449787; 430720, 2449646; 430340, 2449778; 430899, 
2449674; 430918, 2449717; 430904, 2449834; 430927, 2449905; 430948, 
2449965; 431049, 2449934; 431249, 2449791; 430696, 2449656; 430016, 
2449884; 429093, 2448894; 428893, 2449066; 428991, 2449270; 429489, 
2449345; 429872, 2449507; 430071, 2449494; 430041, 2449682; 430392, 
2449798; 430004, 2449889; 430365, 2449787; 430027, 2449878; 430068, 
2449856; 430088, 2449848; 430172, 2449815; 430207, 2449804; 430261, 
2449795; 430317, 2449781; 428666, 2448993; 429941, 2449841; 430191, 
2446386; 428996, 2446347; 430671, 2447997; 430690, 2447765; 430393, 
2447748; 430242, 2447664; 430107, 2447429; 430073, 2447126; 430793, 
2448310; 430291, 2446570; 430886, 2448507; 429871, 2446234; 429547, 
2446209; 429451, 2446226; 429357, 2446224; 429280, 2446207; 429242, 
2446209; 429160, 2446277; 428149, 2446847; 430124, 2446907; 431362, 
2449169; 431520, 2449691; 431720, 2449620; 431705, 2449569; 431769, 
2449447; 431727, 2449372; 431403, 2449436; 431322, 2449418; 430764, 
2448188; 431391, 2449273; 428979, 2446425; 431200, 2449070; 431205, 
2448983; 431414, 2448890; 431629, 2448739; 431560, 2448675; 431171, 
2448699; 430985, 2448705; 430903, 2448664; 431322, 2449372; 427039, 
2447867; 429036, 2446320; 427161, 2447669; 427157, 2447676; 427157, 
2447711; 427165, 2447729; 427158, 2447803; 427133, 2447817; 427520, 
2447201; 427039, 2447866; 427535, 2447190; 427001, 2447889; 426958, 
2448061; 426963, 2448149; 427064, 2448142; 427235, 2448086; 427563, 
2447928; 427677, 2447929; 427733, 2448045; 427108, 2447853; 428047, 
2446484; 428831, 2446497; 428775, 2446510; 428706, 2446470; 428620, 
2446396; 428570, 2446443; 428493, 2446458; 428399, 2446395; 427178, 
2447664; 428248, 2446467; 427932, 2448032; 427784, 2446844; 429744, 
2449390; 427992, 2446846; 431520, 2449691; 428177, 2446890; 428105, 
2447006; 427906, 2447077; 427734, 2447192; 428326, 2446439; 429333, 
2449272.
    (2) This unit includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, 
NAD83 coordinates (E, N): 434084, 2450395; 434586, 2450652; 434573, 
2450493; 434417, 2450376; 434288, 2450520; 434089, 2450518; 433962, 
2450344; 435379, 2451538; 433998, 2450334; 434826, 2450972; 434156, 
2450444; 434237, 2450456; 434288, 2450459; 434329, 2450469; 434298, 
2450420; 434255, 2450337; 433951, 2450321; 435177, 2451612; 435402, 
2451617; 435412, 2451678; 435318, 2451714; 435231, 2451780; 435178, 
2451869; 435105, 2451886; 434656, 2450870; 435205, 2451713; 434640, 
2451058; 435064, 2451510; 435050, 2451437; 435164, 2451394; 435165, 
2451250; 435152, 2451105; 435053, 2450974; 434229, 2450100; 435091, 
2451771; 435635, 2451403; 434201, 2450220; 435693, 2450581; 435744, 
2450673; 435769, 2450813; 435762, 2450931; 435759, 2450963; 435608, 
2450342; 435676, 2451273; 435567, 2450146; 435602, 2451485; 435568, 
2451531; 435564, 2451535; 435526, 2451558; 435488, 2451543; 435455, 
2451520; 435379, 2451538; 435724, 2451110; 434791, 2450099; 434415, 
2450298; 434275, 2450082; 434315, 2450105; 434354, 2450189; 434458, 
2450344; 434527, 2450344; 435649, 2450502; 434695, 2450176; 434198, 
2450176; 434834, 2450015; 434933, 2449939; 435091, 2449882; 435257, 
2449864; 435432, 2449887; 435496, 2449915; 435537, 2449994; 434578, 
2450244; 434504, 2450369.
    (3) This unit includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, 
NAD83 coordinates (E, N): 434600, 2453100; 434431, 2452829; 434289, 
2452715; 434275, 2452687; 434275, 2452765; 434274, 2452895; 435095, 
2453567; 434458, 2453099; 434814, 2453088; 434628, 2453158; 434656, 
2453260; 434769, 2453333; 434911, 2453349; 435025, 2453349; 434330, 
2453055; 434735, 2453035; 435237, 2453582; 434890, 2453142; 434915, 
2453139; 434902, 2452974; 434943, 2452791; 435055, 2452699; 435187, 
2452668; 435284, 2452706; 435360, 2452826; 435353, 2452958; 435266, 
2453062; 435177, 2453131; 435129, 2453220; 434569, 2452921; 435534, 
2453517; 435067, 2453494; 435279, 2453583; 435145, 2453314; 435221, 
2453373; 435488, 2453454; 435129, 2453220; 435626, 2453626; 435703, 
2453748; 435563, 2453642; 435772, 2453903; 435792, 2453934; 435775, 
2453963; 435675, 2453918; 435620, 2453730; 435741, 2453842; 435376, 
2453408.
    (4) This unit includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, 
NAD83 coordinates (E, N): 439159, 2453759; 439171, 2453735; 439242, 
2453562; 439244, 2453448; 439043, 2454237; 439466, 2454892; 439468, 
2454903; 439115, 2453850; 439485, 2454824; 439087, 2453909; 439065, 
2454132; 439121, 2454259; 439243, 2454297; 439360, 2454300; 439454, 
2454376; 439498, 2454643; 439296, 2454804; 439268, 2454731; 439480, 
2454475; 438791, 2453685; 439211, 2454615; 439381, 2454833; 439016, 
2454063; 439016, 2453962; 439002, 2453918; 438904, 2453772; 438791, 
2453608; 438833, 2453598; 438870, 2453588; 438962, 2453532; 439041, 
2453446; 439145, 2453405; 439244, 2453448; 439085, 2454310; 439001, 
2454179; 439085, 2454397; 439098, 2454498; 438982, 2453510; 438946, 
2453845; 439183, 2454600.
    (B) Note: Map 66a follows:
BILLING CODE 4310-55-S

[[Page 19120]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR13AP10.042

BILLING CODE 4310-55-C

[[Page 19121]]

* * * * *
(cxxxv) Kauai 11-Chamaesyce eleanoriae-b
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxxiii)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxxiii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cxxxvi) Kauai 11-Chamaesyce eleanoriae-c
    (A) This is a unit of the Dry Cliff ecosystem and consists of 712 
ac (288 ha). This unit is also critical habitat for Kauai 11-Lysimachia 
scopulensis-a, Kauai 11-Schiedea attenuata-a, and Kauai 11-Stenogyne 
kealiae-b (see paragraphs (a)(1)(ccxxxviii), (a)(1)(cccix), and 
(a)(1)(cccxxix), respectively, of this section).
    (1) This unit includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, 
NAD83 coordinates (E, N): 434920, 2449394; 434124, 2449948; 435916, 
2450057; 434137, 2449869; 434141, 2449863; 434208, 2449767; 434338, 
2449660; 434752, 2449405; 434074, 2449972; 433287, 2450063; 434498, 
2449522; 434034, 2449950; 434026, 2449951; 433969, 2449958; 433903, 
2449882; 433831, 2449767; 433742, 2449724; 433633, 2449724; 433493, 
2449765; 435080, 2449407; 433353, 2449880; 435576, 2449421; 433196, 
2450196; 433467, 2449787; 435716, 2449506; 435496, 2449915; 433046, 
2450280; 435915, 2449832; 435916, 2450057; 435762, 2450931; 435853, 
2450609; 435876, 2450522; 435906, 2450349; 435908, 2450232; 435913, 
2450123; 435549, 2449426; 435728, 2449514; 435183, 2449401; 435669, 
2449472; 435664, 2449469; 435598, 2449429; 435573, 2449422; 435517, 
2449423; 435501, 2449420; 435498, 2449418; 435469, 2449405; 435420, 
2449387; 435284, 2449396; 435232, 2449399; 435813, 2449619; 434834, 
2450015; 434229, 2450100; 435257, 2449864; 434315, 2450105; 434354, 
2450189; 434415, 2450298; 434458, 2450344; 435769, 2450813; 434504, 
2450369; 434527, 2450344; 434578, 2450244; 432904, 2450341; 434791, 
2450099; 434198, 2450176; 434933, 2449939; 435091, 2449882; 435892, 
2449772; 435432, 2449887; 435537, 2449994; 435567, 2450146; 435608, 
2450342; 435649, 2450502; 435693, 2450581; 435744, 2450673; 434695, 
2450176; 433480, 2450152; 432882, 2450351; 432808, 2450383; 432852, 
2450453; 432985, 2450649; 433015, 2450660; 433154, 2450657; 433185, 
2450610; 433146, 2450539; 433093, 2450504; 434275, 2450082; 433237, 
2450310; 434201, 2450220; 433807, 2450155; 433920, 2450257; 433951, 
2450321; 433998, 2450334; 434084, 2450395; 434156, 2450444; 434237, 
2450456; 434288, 2450459; 434329, 2450469; 434298, 2450420; 434255, 
2450337; 433051, 2450468.
    (2) This unit includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, 
NAD83 coordinates (E, N): 435055, 2452699; 435912, 2452703; 435448, 
2452106; 435379, 2451538; 435455, 2451520; 435488, 2451543; 435526, 
2451558; 435564, 2451535; 435568, 2451531; 435537, 2451675; 435516, 
2451752; 435744, 2452655; 435461, 2451989; 435318, 2451714; 435472, 
2452346; 435476, 2452390; 435474, 2452446; 435495, 2452579; 435560, 
2452671; 435574, 2452690; 435596, 2452692; 435668, 2452695; 435284, 
2452706; 435483, 2451879; 435031, 2452321; 434814, 2453088; 434735, 
2453035; 434569, 2452921; 434431, 2452829; 434289, 2452715; 434275, 
2452687; 434275, 2452664; 434475, 2452549; 434646, 2452550; 435402, 
2451617; 434902, 2452407; 435412, 2451678; 435003, 2452190; 435131, 
2452148; 435118, 2451988; 435062, 2451915; 435105, 2451887; 435105, 
2451886; 435178, 2451869; 435231, 2451780; 435859, 2452647; 434789, 
2452406; 435858, 2453212; 435772, 2453903; 435792, 2453934; 435807, 
2453891; 435744, 2452655; 435812, 2453641; 435817, 2453489; 435839, 
2453341; 435741, 2453842; 435880, 2453252; 435805, 2453913; 435833, 
2453129; 435816, 2453051; 435815, 2452963; 435839, 2452896; 435922, 
2452711; 435914, 2452704; 435912, 2452703; 435880, 2453252; 435353, 
2452958; 435881, 2452670; 434890, 2453142; 434915, 2453139; 434902, 
2452974; 434943, 2452791; 435802, 2453804; 435360, 2452826; 435703, 
2453748; 435266, 2453062; 435534, 2453517; 435187, 2452668; 435626, 
2453626; 435177, 2453131; 435488, 2453454; 435376, 2453408; 435221, 
2453373; 435145, 2453314; 435129, 2453220.
    (B) Note: Map 67a follows:
BILLING CODE 4310-55-S

[[Page 19122]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR13AP10.043

BILLING CODE 4310-55-C

[[Page 19123]]

* * * * *
(cxl) Kauai 11-Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis-d
    (A) This is a unit of the Lowland Wet ecosystem and consists of 
2,618 ac (1,060 ha). This unit is also critical habitat for Kauai 11-
Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-h, Kauai 11-Charpentiera densiflora-d, 
Kauai 11-Cyanea eleeleensis-b, Kauai 11-Cyanea kolekoleensis-b, Kauai 
11-Cyanea kuhihewa-b, Kauai 11-Cyrtandra oenobarba-d, Kauai 11-Dubautia 
imbricata ssp. imbricata-b, Kauai 11-Labordia helleri-f, Kauai 11-
Melicope paniculata-b, Kauai 11-Melicope puberula-d, Kauai 11-
Phyllostegia renovans-d, Kauai 11-Platydesma rostrata-h, Kauai 11-
Stenogyne kealiae-c, Kauai 11-Tetraplasandra bisattenuata-d, and Kauai 
11-Tetraplasandra flynii-d (see paragraphs (a)(1)(cxliv), 
(a)(1)(cxlviii), (a)(1)(cli), (a)(1)(clii), (a)(1)(cliii), 
(a)(1)(clxiii), (a)(1)(clxxviii), (a)(1)(ccxxiv), (a)(1)(ccxlviii), 
(a)(1)(ccl), (a)(1)(cclxvii), (a)(1)(cclxxix), (a)(1)(cccxxx), 
(a)(1)(cccxxxiii), and (a)(1)(cccxxxv) respectively, of this section).
    (1) This unit includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, 
NAD83 coordinates (E, N): 439674, 2454816; 440829, 2456531; 440674, 
2456209; 440674, 2456209; 440498, 2455883; 440318, 2455684; 440265, 
2455650; 440437, 2456434; 441321, 2455601; 440968, 2454371; 441022, 
2454452; 441060, 2454503; 441116, 2454605; 441175, 2454734; 441201, 
2454902; 441196, 2455050; 441203, 2455144; 441204, 2455238; 439597, 
2454271; 441257, 2455421; 440812, 2453929; 441354, 2455706; 441400, 
2455825; 441459, 2455917; 441541, 2456046; 441561, 2456125; 441543, 
2456184; 441556, 2456273; 441574, 2456339; 441574, 2456384; 441564, 
2456402; 441227, 2455309; 439928, 2453312; 439377, 2452849; 439390, 
2452876; 439414, 2452909; 439464, 2452963; 439473, 2452985; 439481, 
2453022; 439503, 2453046; 439553, 2453082; 439600, 2453107; 439618, 
2453112; 440902, 2454287; 439788, 2453246; 440828, 2454112; 440061, 
2453330; 440216, 2453312; 440430, 2453245; 440521, 2453222; 440539, 
2453242; 440554, 2453392; 440588, 2453586; 440685, 2453700; 440805, 
2453832; 441338, 2456446; 439646, 2453139; 438605, 2452379; 441501, 
2456407; 439055, 2453168; 439012, 2453084; 438938, 2452886; 438872, 
2452703; 438787, 2452586; 439373, 2452840; 438691, 2452533; 438684, 
2452527; 438617, 2452469; 439307, 2453234; 438540, 2452374; 439402, 
2453308; 438669, 2452384; 438716, 2452393; 438779, 2452391; 438816, 
2452396; 438851, 2452395; 438954, 2452430; 439114, 2452513; 439201, 
2452565; 439225, 2452608; 439322, 2452763; 438550, 2452386; 439705, 
2455362; 439372, 2452836; 441231, 2456494; 440834, 2456579; 440867, 
2456555; 440437, 2456434; 440319, 2456582; 440302, 2456453; 440131, 
2455839; 439992, 2455240; 439972, 2455227; 439183, 2453214; 439766, 
2455332; 441434, 2456415; 439659, 2455337; 439664, 2455162; 439671, 
2454996; 439635, 2454556; 439595, 2454252; 439571, 2454009; 439545, 
2453798; 439499, 2453587; 439453, 2453425; 439827, 2455286.
    (2) This unit includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, 
NAD83 coordinates (E, N): 437020, 2453189; 435477, 2452358; 435941, 
2452670; 435881, 2452670; 435859, 2452647; 435744, 2452655; 435744, 
2452655; 435668, 2452695; 435596, 2452692; 435579, 2452684; 435560, 
2452671; 435495, 2452579; 436027, 2452670; 435476, 2452390; 435810, 
2452427; 435698, 2452376; 435719, 2452378; 435838, 2452443; 435955, 
2452326; 436003, 2452334; 436189, 2452365; 436579, 2452559; 436804, 
2452559; 437201, 2452932; 437201, 2452932; 435474, 2452446; 437541, 
2453313; 435902, 2452378; 436122, 2452693; 437202, 2452948; 437592, 
2453026; 437797, 2453318; 437675, 2453322; 437408, 2453303; 437279, 
2453284; 437072, 2453217; 437144, 2453246; 436929, 2453132; 436865, 
2453080; 436370, 2452779; 436152, 2452704; 436156, 2452702; 437746, 
2453322; 436849, 2453037; 436289, 2452750; 436289, 2452751; 436230, 
2452707; 436547, 2452854; 436556, 2452755; 436617, 2452681; 436668, 
2452719; 436783, 2452859.
    (3) This unit includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, 
NAD83 coordinates (E, N): 446053, 2443486; 445952, 2443580; 446981, 
2444484; 446142, 2443241; 445804, 2443684; 446282, 2443149; 446918, 
2444619; 446104, 2443348; 447039, 2444332; 447126, 2444222; 447271, 
2444151; 447573, 2443995; 447576, 2443919; 445601, 2443759; 446555, 
2445050; 447507, 2443875; 447387, 2443832; 447525, 2444041; 444938, 
2444714; 446880, 2443495; 447257, 2443817; 446806, 2444770; 446697, 
2444890; 446605, 2444969; 446565, 2445119; 446615, 2445149; 446102, 
2445409; 445418, 2443802; 444984, 2444620; 445009, 2444513; 445012, 
2444375; 444988, 2444177; 445001, 2443989; 445072, 2443925; 445224, 
2443866; 446305, 2445519; 446994, 2442927; 446674, 2443625; 446456, 
2443857; 446573, 2443696; 446918, 2444619; 446771, 2443591; 446964, 
2443367; 446176, 2444094; 447035, 2443034; 446024, 2444124; 446915, 
2442876; 446884, 2442866; 446775, 2442871; 446694, 2442917; 446590, 
2443009; 446526, 2443067; 446401, 2443101; 447022, 2443176; 446142, 
2444537; 446985, 2443802; 446860, 2443759; 446738, 2443759; 446647, 
2443816; 446614, 2443869; 446586, 2443953; 446533, 2444139; 446339, 
2444002; 446342, 2444424; 447097, 2443835; 445951, 2444583; 445795, 
2444540; 445727, 2444471; 445716, 2444349; 445736, 2444232; 445790, 
2444143; 445920, 2444117; 446459, 2444299.
    (4) This unit includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, 
NAD83 coordinates (E, N): 448432, 2447019; 447903, 2444783; 448513, 
2444734; 448070, 2445147; 447289, 2445280; 447290, 2445278; 447361, 
2445143; 447455, 2445039; 448629, 2445470; 447763, 2444809; 448699, 
2445511; 447992, 2444811; 448076, 2444859; 448152, 2444890; 448229, 
2444872; 448272, 2444798; 448279, 2444742; 448386, 2444722; 447626, 
2444886; 447985, 2447674; 448180, 2447012; 448099, 2447086; 448061, 
2447208; 448030, 2447292; 447961, 2447328; 447898, 2447376; 448658, 
2445334; 447964, 2447547; 447413, 2447271; 447960, 2447776; 447907, 
2447792; 448254, 2446981; 447397, 2447323; 448180, 2447012; 448450, 
2446319; 448577, 2445718; 447903, 2447455; 448762, 2446566; 449384, 
2445679; 449351, 2445830; 449234, 2445954; 449125, 2446061; 449008, 
2446171; 448932, 2446245; 449330, 2445539; 448871, 2446421; 448828, 
2446507; 448696, 2446769; 448661, 2446881; 448582, 2446983; 448518, 
2447032; 448345, 2446991; 448661, 2444721; 447568, 2447493; 448889, 
2446339; 449086, 2444624; 448760, 2444688; 448714, 2446647; 449284, 
2445379; 448923, 2444619; 448956, 2444594; 449025, 2444591; 448854, 
2444652; 449177, 2444680; 449226, 2444703; 449340, 2444954; 449294, 
2444695; 449376, 2444651; 449391, 2444608; 449459, 2444635; 449346, 
2444938; 449302, 2445178; 448981, 2444568; 449312, 2445026.
    (B) Note: Map 70a follows:
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[[Page 19125]]


(cxli) Kauai 11-Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis-e
    (A) This is a unit of the Wet Cliff ecosystem and consists of 190 
ac; 77 ha. This unit includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, 
NAD83 coordinates (E, N): 436103, 2451262; 436027, 2451466; 435961, 
2451591; 435895, 2451700; 435779, 2451881; 435540, 2452168; 435479, 
2452304; 436162, 2451016; 435519, 2452190; 435517, 2452192; 435631, 
2452072; 436212, 2450766; 436230, 2450590; 436234, 2450558; 436235, 
2450550; 436250, 2450410; 436234, 2450237; 436107, 2450051; 436007, 
2449993; 435478, 2452345; 435913, 2450123; 435941, 2449899; 436186, 
2450120; 435635, 2451403; 435941, 2449899; 435915, 2449832; 435916, 
2450057; 435908, 2450232; 435876, 2450522; 435853, 2450609; 435762, 
2450931; 435759, 2450963; 435906, 2450349; 435676, 2451273; 435477, 
2452358; 435602, 2451485; 435568, 2451531; 435537, 2451675; 435516, 
2451752; 435483, 2451879; 435461, 2451989; 435448, 2452106; 435472, 
2452346; 435476, 2452390; 435724, 2451110. This unit is also critical 
habitat for Kauai 11-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-i, Kauai 11-Cyanea 
dolichopoda-c, Kauai 11-Cyrtandra oenobarba-e, Kauai 11-Cyrtandra 
paliku-c, Kauai 11-Dubautia plantaginea ssp. magnifolia-c, Kauai 11-
Lysimachia iniki-c, Kauai 11-Lysimachia pendens-c, Kauai 11- Lysimachia 
venosa-c, and Kauai 11-Platydesma rostrata-i (see paragraphs 
(a)(1)(cxlv), (a)(1)(cl), (a)(1)(clxiv), (a)(1)(clxv), (a)(1)(clxxxiv), 
(a)(1)(ccxxxvi), (a)(1)(ccxxxvii), (a)(1)(ccxxxix), and (a)(1)(cclxxx), 
respectively, of this section).
    (B) Note: Map 70b follows:

[[Page 19126]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR13AP10.045

BILLING CODE 4310-55-C

[[Page 19127]]

(cxlii) Kauai 11-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-f
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxx)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxx)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cxliii) Kauai 11-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-g
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxxiii)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxxiii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cxliv) Kauai 11-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-h
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxl)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxl)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cxlv) Kauai 11-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-i
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxli)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxli)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cxlvi) Kauai 11-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-j
    (A) This is a unit of the Montane Mesic ecosystem and consists of 
2,790 ac (1,129 ha). This unit is also critical habitat for Kauai 11-
Diellia mannii-a, Kauai 11-Labordia helleri-g, Kauai 11-Myrsine 
knudsenii-a, Kauai 11-Myrsine mezii-c, Kauai 11-Platydesma rostrata-j, 
Kauai 11-Psychotria grandiflora-c, Kauai 11-Stenogyne kealiae-d, and 
Kauai 11-Tetraplasandra flynnii-e (see paragraphs (a)(1)(clxxii), 
(a)(1)(ccxxv), (a)(1)(ccliii), (a)(1)(cclix), (a)(1)(cclxxxi), 
(a)(1)(ccxci), (a)(1)(ccxxxi), and (a)(1)(cccxxxvi), respectively, of 
this section).
    (1) This unit includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, 
NAD83 coordinates (E, N): 434254, 2447886; 430671, 2447997; 430191, 
2445898; 429898, 2446100; 429871, 2446234; 430191, 2446386; 430291, 
2446570; 430124, 2446907; 430073, 2447126; 430107, 2447429; 430242, 
2447664; 431205, 2448983; 430690, 2447765; 430442, 2445640; 430764, 
2448188; 430793, 2448310; 430886, 2448507; 430903, 2448664; 430985, 
2448705; 431171, 2448699; 431560, 2448675; 431629, 2448739; 432609, 
2447647; 430393, 2447748; 431069, 2446331; 432320, 2447497; 432195, 
2447587; 432136, 2447629; 432133, 2447631; 432081, 2447668; 432073, 
2447674; 432001, 2447726; 431323, 2447013; 431211, 2446394; 430204, 
2445809; 431112, 2446394; 430323, 2445779; 431058, 2446300; 431007, 
2446203; 430944, 2446145; 430939, 2446061; 430902, 2445976; 430854, 
2445930; 430826, 2445805; 430857, 2445727; 430824, 2445631; 431200, 
2449070; 431101, 2446447; 432882, 2450351; 432579, 2450036; 432552, 
2450080; 432551, 2450083; 432531, 2450116; 432534, 2450174; 432530, 
2450196; 432565, 2450262; 432560, 2450267; 432740, 2450249; 431414, 
2448890; 432808, 2450383; 432486, 2449909; 432904, 2450341; 433046, 
2450280; 432827, 2447751; 432932, 2447668; 433014, 2447717; 433109, 
2447775; 433094, 2447922; 432827, 2447751; 434318, 2448182; 432796, 
2450365; 431904, 2449665; 431362, 2449169; 431391, 2449273; 431322, 
2449372; 431322, 2449418; 431403, 2449436; 431727, 2449372; 431769, 
2449447; 431705, 2449569; 431720, 2449620; 432504, 2449961; 431919, 
2449578; 432498, 2449952; 432046, 2449781; 432052, 2449783; 432113, 
2449740; 432217, 2449712; 432251, 2449685; 432259, 2449679; 432344, 
2449744; 432419, 2449806; 432441, 2449848; 431905, 2449660; 431805, 
2449591; 434202, 2447345; 434612, 2446807; 434073, 2448685; 434228, 
2448620; 434292, 2448479; 434318, 2448298; 434279, 2447951; 434163, 
2447783; 433725, 2448994; 434073, 2447500; 433545, 2449136; 434357, 
2447229; 434486, 2447126; 434627, 2447088; 434686, 2447020; 434682, 
2447017; 434657, 2446977; 434652, 2446933; 434086, 2447693; 433401, 
2449697; 431875, 2449780; 432639, 2447624; 433046, 2450280; 433196, 
2450196; 433287, 2450063; 433353, 2449880; 433429, 2449741; 433880, 
2448827; 433399, 2449709; 433408, 2449708; 433339, 2449600; 433313, 
2449484; 433339, 2449381; 433368, 2449293; 433368, 2449292; 433369, 
2449255; 433389, 2449256; 433407, 2449708; 433257, 2446958; 434392, 
2446421; 434386, 2446429; 434103, 2446297; 434090, 2446098; 434086, 
2446095; 433862, 2446165; 433606, 2446193; 434400, 2446429; 433397, 
2446440; 432672, 2447598; 432918, 2447407; 433577, 2447086; 433467, 
2449787; 433706, 2447138; 433746, 2447766; 433562, 2447841; 433527, 
2447856; 434641, 2446663; 433449, 2446235; 434533, 2446441; 434631, 
2446528; 434623, 2446526; 434620, 2446512; 434628, 2446479; 434625, 
2446467; 434618, 2446459; 434201, 2446573; 434558, 2446439; 434403, 
2446435; 434514, 2446449; 434423, 2446441; 434582, 2446443; 434416, 
2446441; 434500, 2446448; 434434, 2446428; 434447, 2446420; 434457, 
2446416; 434471, 2446422.
    (2) This unit includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, 
NAD83 coordinates (E, N): 431975, 2446280; 432548, 2444752; 432135, 
2444807; 432674, 2444970; 431873, 2444849; 431730, 2445114; 431645, 
2445326; 432001, 2445941; 431950, 2444792; 432559, 2446255; 432659, 
2446240; 432948, 2446150; 433067, 2445928; 432912, 2445580; 432758, 
2445304; 432674, 2444970; 432377, 2444722.
    (B) Note: Map 70c follows:
BILLING CODE 4310-55-S

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[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR13AP10.046

BILLING CODE 4310-55-C

[[Page 19129]]

(cxlvii) Kauai 11-Charpentiera densiflora-c
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxxiii)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxxiii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cxlviii) Kauai 11-Charpentiera densiflora-d
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxl)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxl)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
* * * * *
(cl) Kauai 11-Cyanea dolichopoda-c
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxli)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxli)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cli) Kauai 11-Cyanea eleeleensis-b
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxl)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxl)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(clii) Kauai 11-Cyanea kolekoleensis-b
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxl)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxl)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cliii) Kauai 11-Cyanea kuhihewa-b
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxl)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxl)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
* * * * *
(clxiii) Kauai 11-Cyrtandra oenobarba-d
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxl)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxl)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(clxiv) Kauai 11-Cyrtandra oenobarba-e
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxli)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxli)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(clxv) Kauai 11-Cyrtandra paliku-c
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxli)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxli)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
* * * * *
(clxxii) Kauai 11-Diellia mannii-a
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxlvi)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxlvi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
* * * * *
(clxxvi) Kauai 11-Doryopteris angelica-b
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxxiii)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxxiii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(clxxvii) Kauai 11-Dryopteris crinalis var. podosorus-b
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxx)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxx)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(clxxviii) Kauai 11-Dubautia imbricata ssp. imbricata-b
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxl)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxl)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(clxxix) Kauai 11-Dubautia kalalauensis-b
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxx)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxx)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(clxxx) Kauai 11-Dubautia kenwoodii-b
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxxiii)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxxiii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
* * * * *
(clxxxiv) Kauai 11-Dubautia plantaginea ssp. magnifolia-c
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxli)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxli)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(clxxxv) Kauai 11-Dubautia waialealae-b
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxx)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxx)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
* * * * *
(cxcix) Kauai 11-Geranium kauaiense-b
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxx)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxx)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
* * * * *
(ccxvi) Kauai 11-Keysseria erici-b
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxx)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxx)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccxvii) Kauai 11-Keysseria helenae-b
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxx)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxx)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
* * * * *
(ccxxii) Kauai 11-Labordia helleri-d
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxx)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxx)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccxxiii) Kauai 11-Labordia helleri-e
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxxiii)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxxiii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccxxiv) Kauai 11-Labordia helleri-f
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxl)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxl)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccxxv) Kauai 11-Labordia helleri-g
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxlvi)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxlvi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
* * * * *
(ccxxix) Kauai 11-Labordia pumila-b
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxx)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxx)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
* * * * *
(ccxxxv) Kauai 11-Lysimachia daphnoides-b
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxx)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxx)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.

[[Page 19130]]

(ccxxxvi) Kauai 11-Lysimachia iniki-c
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxli)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxli)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccxxxvii) Kauai 11-Lysimachia pendens-c
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxli)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxli)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccxxxviii) Kauai 11-Lysimachia scopulensis-a
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxxvi)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxxvi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccxxxix) Kauai 11-Lysimachia venosa-c
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxli)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxli)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
* * * * *
(ccxli) Kauai 11-Melicope degeneri-b
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxx)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxx)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
* * * * *
(ccxlviii) Kauai 11-Melicope paniculata-b
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxl)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxl)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccxlix) Kauai 11-Melicope puberula-c
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxx)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxx)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccl) Kauai 11-Melicope puberula-d
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxl)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxl)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
* * * * *
(ccliii) Kauai 11-Myrsine knudsenii-a
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxlvi)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxlvi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
* * * * *
(cclviii) Kauai 11-Myrsine mezii-b
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxx)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxx)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cclix) Kauai 11-Myrsine mezii-c
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxlvi)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxlvi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
* * * * *
(cclxvi) Kauai 11-Phyllostegia renovans-c
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxx)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxx)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cclxvii) Kauai 11-Phyllostegia renovans-d
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxl)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxl)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
* * * * *
(cclxxii) Kauai 11-Pittosporum napaliense-b
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxxiii)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxxiii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
* * * * *
(cclxxvii) Kauai 11-Platydesma rostrata-f
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxx)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxx)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cclxxviii) Kauai 11-Platydesma rostrata-g
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxxiii)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxxiii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cclxxix) Kauai 11-Platydesma rostrata-h
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxl)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxl)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cclxxx) Kauai 11-Platydesma rostrata-i
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxli)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxli)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cclxxxi) Kauai 11-Platydesma rostrata-j
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxlvi)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxlvi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
* * * * *
(ccxc) Kauai 11-Psychotria grandiflora-b
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxx)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxx)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccxci) Kauai 11-Psychotria grandiflora-c
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxlvi)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxlvi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccxcii) Kauai 11-Psychotria hobdyi-b
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxxiii)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxxiii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
* * * * *
(cccix) Kauai 11-Schiedea attenuata-a
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxxvi)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxxvi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
* * * * *
(cccxxix) Kauai 11-Stenogyne kealiae-b
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxxvi)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxxvi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cccxxx) Kauai 11-Stenogyne kealiae-c
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxl)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxl)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cccxxxi) Kauai 11-Stenogyne kealiae-d
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxlvi)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxlvi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.

[[Page 19131]]

(cccxxxii) Kauai 11-Tetraplasandra bisattenuata-c
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxxiii)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxxiii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cccxxxiii) Kauai 11-Tetraplasandra bisattenuata-d
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxl)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxl)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cccxxxiv) Kauai 11-Tetraplasandra flynnii-c
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxx)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxxx)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cccxxxv) Kauai 11-Tetraplasandra flynnii-d
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxl)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxl)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cccxxxvi) Kauai 11-Tetraplasandra flynnii-e
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxlvi)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cxlvi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
* * * * *
(cccli) Kauai 18--Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis-f
    (A) This is a unit of the Wet Cliff ecosystem and consists of 296 
ac (120 ha). This unit includes lands bounded by the following UTM Zone 
4, NAD83 coordinates (E, N): 450192, 2441100; 450045, 2441036; 449907, 
2441014; 449732, 2441017; 449661, 2441029; 449662, 2441006; 449663, 
2440988; 450391, 2441245; 449861, 2440726; 450358, 2441446; 449987, 
2440561; 449861, 2440726; 450478, 2441377; 450009, 2440531; 450480, 
2441446; 450309, 2440710; 450188, 2441428; 450030, 2441469; 449977, 
2441622; 450043, 2441776; 450987, 2441509; 450061, 2441818; 451012, 
2441536; 450204, 2441935; 450313, 2442034; 450493, 2441438; 450738, 
2441687; 450390, 2442146; 450854, 2441404; 450786, 2441366; 450732, 
2441298; 450694, 2441214; 450762, 2441153; 450892, 2441119; 450971, 
2441101; 451006, 2441096; 451065, 2441045; 451024, 2440992; 450235, 
2440578; 451009, 2440898; 450036, 2440543; 450976, 2440839; 450923, 
2441455; 450866, 2440829; 450759, 2440839; 450630, 2440857; 450492, 
2440870; 450439, 2440863; 450352, 2440802; 450263, 2440642; 450209, 
2440565; 450148, 2440581; 450981, 2440954; 450959, 2441758; 450649, 
2441819; 450519, 2441677; 450483, 2441603; 450567, 2441606; 450649, 
2441639; 450942, 2442140; 450855, 2441735; 450807, 2441995; 451040, 
2441587; 451048, 2441778; 451104, 2441763; 451135, 2441750; 451127, 
2441727; 451071, 2441643; 450459, 2442263; 451207, 2442613; 450538, 
2442344; 450573, 2442334; 450550, 2442082; 450540, 2442051; 450598, 
2442069; 450759, 2442234; 450927, 2442387; 451072, 2442509; 451307, 
2442664; 451370, 2442679; 451385, 2442651; 451299, 2442539; 451115, 
2442323; 450942, 2442140. This unit is also critical habitat for Kauai 
18-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-k, Kauai 18-Cyanea dolichopoda-d, Kauai 
18-Cyrtandra oenobarba-f, Kauai 18-Cyrtandra paliku-d, Kauai 18-
Dubautia plantaginea ssp. magnifolia-d, Kauai 18-Lysimachia iniki-d, 
Kauai 18-Lysimachia pendens-d, Kauai 18- Lysimachia venosa-d, and Kauai 
18-Platydesma rostrata-k (see paragraphs (a)(1)(ccclii), 
(a)(1)(cccliii), (a)(1)(cccliv), (a)(1)(ccclv), (a)(1)(ccclvi), 
(a)(1)(ccclvii), (a)(1)(ccclviii), (a)(1)(ccclix), and (a)(1)(ccclx), 
respectively, of this section).
    (B) Note: Map 217a follows:
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[[Page 19133]]

(ccclii) Kauai 18-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-k
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cccli)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cccli)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cccliii) Kauai 18-Cyanea dolichopoda-d
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cccli)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cccli)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cccliv)Kauai 18-Cyrtandra oenobarba-f
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cccli)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cccli)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccclv) Kauai 18-Cyrtandra paliku-d
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cccli)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cccli)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccclvi) Kauai 18-Dubautia plantaginea ssp. magnifolia-d
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cccli)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cccli)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccclvii) Kauai 18-Lysimachia iniki-d
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cccli)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cccli)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccclviii) Kauai 18-Lysimachia pendens-d
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cccli)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cccli)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccclix) Kauai 18-Lysimachia venosa-d
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cccli)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cccli)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccclx) Kauai 18-Platydesma rostrata-k
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cccli)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cccli)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccclxi) Kauai 19-Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis-g
    (A) This is a unit of the Wet Cliff ecosystem and consists of 23 ac 
(9 ha). This unit includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, 
NAD83 coordinates (E, N): 457006, 2449562; 456297, 2449627; 456152, 
2449645; 456213, 2449635; 456892, 2449577; 456297, 2449627; 456355, 
2449622; 456429, 2449624; 456528, 2449621; 456587, 2449619; 456683, 
2449611; 457144, 2449549; 456823, 2449588; 456116, 2449661; 457123, 
2449562; 456901, 2449549; 456313, 2449442; 456256, 2449472; 456187, 
2449533; 456154, 2449589; 456126, 2449635; 456742, 2449603. This unit 
is also critical habitat for Kauai 19-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-l, 
Kauai 19-Cyanea dolichopoda-e, Kauai 19-Cyrtandra oenobarba-g, Kauai 
19-Cyrtandra paliku-e, Kauai 19-Dubautia plantaginea ssp. magnifolia-e, 
Kauai 19-Lysimachia iniki-e, Kauai 19-Lysimachia pendens-e, Kauai 19-
Lysimachia venosa-e, and Kauai 19-Platydesma rostrata-l (see paragraphs 
(a)(1)(ccclxii), (a)(1)(ccclxiii), (a)(1)(ccclxiv), (a)(1)(ccclxv), 
(a)(1)(ccclxvi), (a)(1)(ccclxvii), (a)(1)(ccclxviii), (a)(1)(ccclxix), 
and (a)(1)(ccclxx), respectively, of this section).
    (B) Note: Map 217b follows:
BILLING CODE 4310-55-S

[[Page 19134]]

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[[Page 19135]]

(ccclxii) Kauai 19-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-l
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxi)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccclxiii) Kauai 19-Cyanea dolichopoda-e
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxi)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccclxiv) Kauai 19-Cyrtandra oenobarba-g
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxi)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccclxv) Kauai 19-Cyrtandra paliku-e
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxi)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccclxvi) Kauai 19-Dubautia plantaginea ssp. magnifolia-e
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxi)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccclxvii) Kauai 19-Lysimachia iniki-e
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxi)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccclxviii) Kauai 19-Lysimachia pendens-e
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxi)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccclxix) Kauai 19-Lysimachia venosa-e
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxi)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccclxx) Kauai 19-Platydesma rostrata-l
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxi)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccclxxi) Kauai 20-Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis-h
    (A) This is a unit of the Lowland Wet ecosystem and consists of 65 
ac (26 ha). This unit includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 
4, NAD83 coordinates (E, N): 440498, 2455883; 440674, 2456209; 440674, 
2456209; 440829, 2456531; 440867, 2456555; 440834, 2456579; 440382, 
2456676; 440343, 2456672; 440329, 2456652; 440319, 2456582; 440437, 
2456434; 440265, 2455650; 440318, 2455684; 440318, 2455684. This unit 
is also critical habitat for Kauai 20-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-m, 
Kauai 20-Charpentiera densiflora-e, Kauai 20-Cyanea eleeleensis-c, 
Kauai 20-Cyanea kolekoleensis-c, Kauai 20-Cyanea kuhihewa-c, Kauai 20-
Cyrtandra oenobarba-h, Kauai 20-Dubautia imbricata ssp. imbricata-c, 
Kauai 20-Labordia helleri-h, Kauai 20-Melicope paniculata-c, Kauai 20-
Melicope puberula-e, Kauai 20-Phyllostegia renovans-e, Kauai 20-
Platydesma rostrata-m, Kauai 20-Stenogyne kealiae-e, Kauai 20-
Tetraplasandra bisattenuata-e, and Kauai 20-Tetraplasandra flynnii-f, 
(see paragraphs (a)(1)(ccclxxii), (a)(1)(ccclxxiii), (a)(1)(ccclxxiv), 
(a)(1)(ccclxxv), (a)(1)(ccclxxvi), (a)(1)(ccclxxvii), 
(a)(1)(ccclxxviii), (a)(1)(ccclxxix), (a)(1)(ccclxxx), 
(a)(1)(ccclxxxi), (a)(1)(ccclxxxii), (a)(1)(ccclxxxiii), 
(a)(1)(ccclxxxiv), (a)(1)(ccclxxxv), and (a)(1)(ccclxxxvi), 
respectively, of this section).
    (B) Note: Map 217c follows:
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[[Page 19136]]

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[[Page 19137]]

(ccclxxii) Kauai 20-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-m
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxi)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccclxxiii) Kauai 20-Charpentiera densiflora-e
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxi)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccclxxiv) Kauai 20-Cyanea eleeleensis-c
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxi)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccclxxv) Kauai 20-Cyanea kolekoleensis-c
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxi)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccclxxvi) Kauai 20-Cyanea kuhihewa-c
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxi)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccclxxvii) Kauai 20-Cyrtandra oenobarba-h
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxi)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccclxxviii) Kauai 20-Dubautia imbricata ssp. imbricata-c
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxi)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccclxxix) Kauai 20-Labordia helleri-h
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxi)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccclxxx) Kauai 20-Melicope paniculata-c
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxi)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccclxxxi) Kauai 20-Melicope puberula-e
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxi)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccclxxxii) Kauai 20-Phyllostegia renovans-e
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxi)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccclxxxiii) Kauai 20-Platydesma rostrata-m
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxi)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccclxxxiv) Kauai 20-Stenogyne kealiae-e
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxi)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccclxxxv) Kauai 20-Tetraplasandra bisattenuata-e
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxi)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccclxxxvi) Kauai 20-Tetraplasandra flynnii-f
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxi)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(ccclxxxvii) Kauai 21-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-n
    (A) This is a unit of the Montane Mesic ecosystem and consists of 8 
ac (3 ha). This unit includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 4, 
NAD83 coordinates (E, N): 431626, 2445435; 432001, 2445941; 431736, 
2445617; 432001, 2445941; 431645, 2445326. This unit is also critical 
habitat for Kauai 21-Diellia mannii-b, Kauai 21-Labordia helleri-i, 
Kauai 21-Myrsine knudsenii-b, Kauai 21-Myrsine mezii-d, Kauai 21-
Platydesma rostrata-n, Kauai 21-Psychotria grandiflora-d, Kauai 21-
Stenogyne kealiae-f, and Kauai 21-Tetraplasandra flynnii-g (see 
paragraphs (a)(1)(ccclxxxviii), (a)(1)(ccclxxxix), (a)(1)(cccxc), 
(a)(1)(cccxci), (a)(1)(cccxcii), (a)(1)(cccxciii), (a)(1)(cccxciv), and 
(a)(1)(cccxcv), respectively, of this section).
    (B) Note: Map 217d follows:
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(ccclxxxviii) Kauai 21-Diellia mannii-b
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxxvii)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxxvii)(B) of this section for the map 
of this unit.
(ccclxxxix) Kauai 21-Labordia helleri-i
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxxvii)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxxvii)(B) of this section for the map 
of this unit.
(cccxc) Kauai 21-Myrsine knudsenii-b
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxxvii)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxxvii)(B) of this section for the map 
of this unit.
(cccxci) Kauai 21-Myrsine mezii-d
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxxvii)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxxvii)(B) of this section for the map 
of this unit.
(cccxcii) Kauai 21-Platydesma rostrata-o
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxxvii)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxxvii)(B) of this section for the map 
of this unit.
(cccxciii) Kauai 21-Psychotria grandiflora-d
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxxvii)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxxvii)(B) of this section for the map 
of this unit.
(cccxciv) Kauai 21-Stenogyne kealiae-f
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxxvii)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxxvii)(B) of this section for the map 
of this unit.
(cccxcv) Kauai 21-Tetraplasandra flynnii-g
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxxvii)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(ccclxxxvii)(B) of this section for the map 
of this unit.
(cccxcvi) Kauai 22-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-o
    (A) This is a unit of the Montane Mesic ecosystem and consists of 
139 ac (56 ha). This unit includes land bounded by the following UTM 
Zone 4, NAD83 coordinates (E, N): 438012, 2440389; 437687, 2439960; 
438227, 2440730; 438149, 2440714; 438111, 2440652; 438112, 2440588; 
438028, 2440577; 438243, 2440830; 438014, 2440437; 438253, 2440854; 
437922, 2440355; 437912, 2440201; 437870, 2440140; 437827, 2440132; 
437817, 2440071; 437785, 2440013; 438023, 2440484; 437335, 2440180; 
437586, 2439743; 437636, 2439819; 437586, 2439743; 437529, 2439721; 
438287, 2440738; 437450, 2440047; 437335, 2440329; 437336, 2440335; 
437602, 2440771; 437987, 2441027; 438159, 2440914; 438249, 2440857; 
437545, 2439761. This unit is also critical habitat for Kauai 22-
Diellia mannii-c, Kauai 22-Labordia helleri-j, Kauai 22-Myrsine 
knudsenii-c, Kauai 22-Myrsine mezii-e, Kauai 22-Platydesma rostrata-o, 
Kauai 22-Psychotria grandiflora-e, Kauai 22-Stenogyne kealiae-g, and 
Kauai 22-Tetraplasandra flynnii-h (see paragraphs (a)(1)(cccxcvii), 
(a)(1)(cccxcviii), (a)(1)(cccxcix), (a)(1)(cd), (a)(1)(cdi), 
(a)(1)(cdii), (a)(1)(cdiii), and (a)(1)(cdiv), respectively, of this 
section).
    (B) Note: Map 217e follows:
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(cccxcvii) Kauai 22-Diellia mannii-c
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cccxcvi)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cccxcvi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cccxcviii) Kauai 22-Labordia helleri-j
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cccxcvi)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cccxcvi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cccxcix) Kauai 22-Myrsine knudsenii-c
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cccxcvi)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cccxcvi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cd) Kauai 22-Myrsine mezii-e
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cccxcvi)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cccxcvi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdi) Kauai 22-Platydesma rostrata-o
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cccxcvi)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cccxcvi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdii) Kauai 22-Psychotria grandiflora-e
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cccxcvi)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cccxcvi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdiii) Kauai 22-Stenogyne kealiae-g
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cccxcvi)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cccxcvi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdiv) Kauai 22-Tetraplasandra flynnii-h
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cccxcvi)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cccxcvi)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdv) Kauai 23-Astelia waialealae-c
    (A) This is a unit of the Montane Wet ecosystem and consists of 0.4 
ac (0.2 ha). This unit includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 
4, NAD83 coordinates (E, N): 444193, 2443965; 444088, 2444202; 444117, 
2444107; 444088, 2444202. This unit is also critical habitat for Kauai 
23-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-p, Kauai 23-Dryopteris crinalis var. 
podosorus-c, Kauai 23-Dubautia kalalauensis-c, Kauai 23-Dubautia 
waialealae-c, Kauai 23-Geranium kauaiense-c, Kauai 23-Keysseria erici-
c, Kauai 23-Keysseria helenae-c, Kauai 23-Labordia helleri-k, Kauai 23-
Labordia pumila-c, Kauai 23-Lysimachia daphnoides-c, Kauai 23-Melicope 
degeneri-c, Kauai 23-Melicope puberula-f, Kauai 23-Myrsine mezii-f, 
Kauai 23-Phyllostegia renovans-f, Kauai 23-Platydesma rostrata-p, Kauai 
23-Psychotria grandiflora-f, and Kauai 23-Tetraplasandra flynnii-i (see 
paragraphs (a)(1)(cdvi), (a)(1)(cdvii), (a)(1)(cdviii), (a)(1)(cdix), 
(a)(1)(cdx), (a)(1)(cdxi), (a)(1)(cdxii), (a)(1)(cdxiii), 
(a)(1)(cdxiv), (a)(1)(cdxv), (a)(1)(cdxvi), (a)(1)(cdxvii), 
(a)(1)(cdxviii), (a)(1)(cdxix), (a)(1)(cdxx), (a)(1)(cdxxi), and 
(a)(1)(cdxxii), respectively, of this section).
    (B) Note: Map 217f follows:
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(cdvi) Kauai 23-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-p
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdv)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdv)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdvii) Kauai 23-Dryopteris crinalis var. podosorus-c
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdv)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdv)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdviii) Kauai 23-Dubautia kalalauensis-c
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdv)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdv)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdix) Kauai 23-Dubautia waialealae-c
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdv)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdv)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdx) Kauai 23-Geranium kauaiense-c
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdv)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdv)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdxi) Kauai 23-Keysseria erici-c
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdv)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdv)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdxii) Kauai 23-Keysseria helenae-c
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdv)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdv)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdxiii) Kauai 23-Labordia helleri-k
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdv)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdv)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdxiv) Kauai 23-Labordia pumila-c
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdv)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdv)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdxv) Kauai 23-Lysimachia daphnoides-c
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdv)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdv)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdxvi) Kauai 23-Melicope degeneri-c
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdv)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdv)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdxvii) Kauai 23-Melicope puberula-f
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdv)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdv)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdxviii) Kauai 23-Myrsine mezii-f
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdv)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdv)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdxix) Kauai 23-Phyllostegia renovans-f
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdv)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdv)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdxx) Kauai 23-Platydesma rostrata-p
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdv)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdv)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdxxi) Kauai 23-Psychotria grandiflora-f
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdv)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdv)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdxxii) Kauai 23-Tetraplasandra flynnii-i
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdv)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdv)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdxxiii) Kauai 24-Astelia waialealae-d
    (A) This is a unit of the Montane Wet ecosystem and consists of 
0.04 ac (0.01 ha). This unit includes land bounded by the following UTM 
Zone 4, NAD83 coordinates (E, N): 445955, 2442594; 445955, 2442594; 
445951, 2442593; 445907, 2442657. This unit is also critical habitat 
for Kauai 24-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-q, Kauai 24-Dryopteris 
crinalis var. podosorus-d, Kauai 24-Dubautia kalalauensis-d, Kauai 24-
Dubautia waialealae-d, Kauai 24-Geranium kauaiense-d, Kauai 24-
Keysseria erici-d, Kauai 24-Keysseria helenae-d, Kauai 24-Labordia 
helleri-l, Kauai 24-Labordia pumila-d, Kauai 24-Lysimachia daphnoides-
d, Kauai 24-Melicope degeneri-d, Kauai 24-Melicope puberula-g, Kauai 
24-Myrsine mezii-g, Kauai 24-Phyllostegia renovans-g, Kauai 24-
Platydesma rostrata-q, Kauai 24-Psychotria grandiflora-g, and Kauai 24-
Tetraplasandra flynnii-j (see paragraphs (a)(1)(cdxxiv), (a)(1)(cdxxv), 
(a)(1)(cdxxvi), (a)(1)(cdxxvii), (a)(1)(cdxxviii), (a)(1)(cdxxix), 
(a)(1)(cdxxx), (a)(1)(cdxxxi), (a)(1)(cdxxxii), (a)(1)(cdxxxiii), 
(a)(1)(cdxxxiv), (a)(1)(cdxxxv), (a)(1)(cdxxxvi), (a)(1)(cdxxxvii), 
(a)(1)(cdxxxviii), (a)(1)(cdxxxix), and (a)(1)(cdxl), respectively, of 
this section).
    (B) Note: Map 217g follows:
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(cdxxiv) Kauai 24-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-q
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxxiii)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxxiii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdxxv) Kauai 24-Dryopteris crinalis var. podosorus-d
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxxiii)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxxiii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdxxvi) Kauai 24-Dubautia kalalauensis-d
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxxiii)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxxiii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdxxvii) Kauai 24-Dubautia waialealae-d
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxxiii)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxxiii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdxxviii) Kauai 24-Geranium kauaiense-e
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxxiii)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxxiii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdxxix) Kauai 24-Keysseria erici-d
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxxiii)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxxiii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdxxx) Kauai 24-Keysseria helenae-d
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxxiii)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxxiii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdxxxi) Kauai 24-Labordia helleri-l
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxxiii)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxxiii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdxxxii) Kauai 24-Labordia pumila-d
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxxiii)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxxiii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdxxxiii) Kauai 24-Lysimachia daphnoides-d
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxxiii)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxxiii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdxxxiv) Kauai 24-Melicope degeneri-d
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxxiii)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxxiii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdxxxv) Kauai 24-Melicope puberula-g
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxxiii)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxxiii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdxxxvi) Kauai 24-Myrsine mezii-g
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxxiii)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxxiii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdxxxvii) Kauai 24-Phyllostegia renovans-g
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxxiii)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxxiii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdxxxviii) Kauai 24-Platydesma rostrata-q
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxxiii)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxxiii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdxxxix) Kauai 24-Psychotria grandiflora-g
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxxiii)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxxiii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdxl) Kauai 24-Tetraplasandra flynnii-j
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxxiii)(A) of this section for the 
textual description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxxiii)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdxli) Kauai 25-Astelia waialealae-e
     (A) This is a unit of the Montane Wet ecosystem and consists of 64 
ac (26 ha). This unit includes land bounded by the following UTM Zone 
4, NAD83 coordinates (E, N): 448428, 2442750; 448440, 2442604; 448443, 
2442627; 448443, 2442636; 448447, 2442663; 448447, 2442675; 448447, 
2442688; 448443, 2442699; 448437, 2442711; 448438, 2442565; 448428, 
2442738; 448464, 2442531; 448431, 2442766; 448432, 2442775; 448435, 
2442791; 448437, 2442805; 448442, 2442821; 448462, 2442858; 448432, 
2442727; 448536, 2442523; 448481, 2442894; 448637, 2442455; 448634, 
2442459; 448623, 2442466; 448615, 2442472; 448602, 2442477; 448587, 
2442486; 448449, 2442536; 448550, 2442513; 448441, 2442549; 448530, 
2442527; 448515, 2442533; 448505, 2442534; 448488, 2442531; 448474, 
2442530; 448455, 2442534; 448880, 2442563; 448566, 2442503; 448512, 
2443792; 448522, 2443706; 448507, 2443727; 448504, 2443735; 448502, 
2443743; 448504, 2443752; 448509, 2443760; 448513, 2443769; 448669, 
2443477; 448512, 2443783; 448552, 2443643; 448500, 2443823; 448473, 
2443878; 448470, 2443888; 448479, 2443895; 448609, 2443974; 448614, 
2443950; 448634, 2443800; 448469, 2442871; 448513, 2443779; 448518, 
2443559; 448588, 2443466; 448591, 2443484; 448589, 2443493; 448582, 
2443508; 448577, 2443516; 448569, 2443527; 448560, 2443535; 448553, 
2443539; 448538, 2443682; 448518, 2443552; 448546, 2443665; 448523, 
2443570; 448527, 2443576; 448533, 2443587; 448544, 2443601; 448549, 
2443613; 448551, 2443621; 448552, 2443630; 448674, 2443301; 448528, 
2443546; 448579, 2443112; 448587, 2443214; 448586, 2443203; 448582, 
2443190; 448582, 2443172; 448582, 2443162; 448583, 2443151; 448585, 
2443140; 448657, 2443629; 448585, 2443122; 448592, 2443254; 448562, 
2443086; 448545, 2443051; 448529, 2443019; 448507, 2442976; 448498, 
2442952; 448490, 2442930; 448486, 2442910; 448585, 2443461; 448586, 
2443129; 448584, 2443388; 448651, 2443187; 448653, 2443075; 448696, 
2442955; 448765, 2442787; 448805, 2442677; 448861, 2442593; 448880, 
2442563; 448578, 2443441; 448589, 2443224; 448576, 2443405; 448591, 
2443241; 448590, 2443369; 448595, 2443352; 448593, 2443325; 448590, 
2443306; 448591, 2443291; 448592, 2443277; 448592, 2443261; 448477, 
2442887; 448572, 2443417. This unit is also critical habitat for Kauai 
25-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-r, Kauai 25-Dryopteris crinalis var. 
podosorus-e, Kauai 25-Dubautia kalalauensis-e, Kauai 25-Dubautia 
waialealae-e, Kauai 25-Geranium kauaiense-e, Kauai 25-Keysseria erici-
e, Kauai 25-Keysseria helenae-e, Kauai 25-Labordia helleri-

[[Page 19146]]

m, Kauai 25-Labordia pumila-e, Kauai 25-Lysimachia daphnoides-e, Kauai 
25-Melicope degeneri-e, Kauai 25-Melicope puberula-h, Kauai 25-Myrsine 
mezii-h, Kauai 25-Phyllostegia renovans-h, Kauai 25-Platydesma 
rostrata-r, Kauai 25-Psychotria grandiflora-h, and Kauai 25-
Tetraplasandra flynnii-k (see paragraphs (a)(1)(cdxlii), 
(a)(1)(cdxliii), (a)(1)(cdxliv), (a)(1)(cdxlv), (a)(1)(cdxlvi), 
(a)(1)(cdxlvii), (a)(1)(cdxlviii), (a)(1)(cdxlix), (a)(1)(cdl), 
(a)(1)(cdli), (a)(1)(cdlii), (a)(1)(cdliii), (a)(1)(cdliv), 
(a)(1)(cdlv), (a)(1)(cdlvi), (a)(1)(cdlvii), and (a)(1)(cdlviii), 
respectively, of this section).
    (B) Note: Map 217h follows:
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(cdxlii) Kauai 25-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-r
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxli)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxli)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdxliii) Kauai 25-Dryopteris crinalis var. podosorus-e
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxli)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxli)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdxliv) Kauai 25-Dubautia kalalauensis-d
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxli)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxli)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdxlv) Kauai 25-Dubautia waialealae-e
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxli)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxli)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdxlvi) Kauai 25-Geranium kauaiense-f
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxli)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxli)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdxlvii) Kauai 25-Keysseria erici-e
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxli)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxli)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdxlviii) Kauai 25-Keysseria helenae-e
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxli)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxli)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdxlix) Kauai 25-Labordia helleri-m
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxli)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxli)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdl) Kauai 25-Labordia pumila-e
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxli)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxli)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdli) Kauai 25-Lysimachia daphnoides-e
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxli)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxli)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdlii) Kauai 25-Melicope degeneri-e
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxli)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxli)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdliii) Kauai 25-Melicope puberula-h
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxli)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxli)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdliv) Kauai 25-Myrsine mezii-h
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxli)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxli)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdlv) Kauai 25-Phyllostegia renovans-h
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxli)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxli)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdlvi) Kauai 25-Platydesma rostrata-r
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxli)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxli)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdlvii) Kauai 25-Psychotria grandiflora-h
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxli)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxli)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.
(cdlviii) Kauai 25-Tetraplasandra flynnii-k
    (A) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxli)(A) of this section for the textual 
description of this unit.
    (B) See paragraph (a)(1)(cdxli)(B) of this section for the map of 
this unit.

(CDLIX) TABLE OF PROTECTED SPECIES WITHIN EACH CRITICAL HABITAT UNIT FOR
                                  KAUAI
------------------------------------------------------------------------
            Unit name              Species occupied   Species unoccupied
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 4-Chamaesyce remyi var.                         Chamaesyce remyi
 kauaiensis-a                                          var. kauaiensis
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 4-Chamaesyce remyi var.                         Chamaesyce remyi
 remyi-a                                               var. remyi
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 4-Cyanea dolichopoda-a                           Cyanea
                                                       dolichopoda
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 4-Cyrtandra oenobarba-a                          Cyrtandra
                                                       oenobarba
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 4-Cyrtandra paliku-a        Cyrtandra paliku    Cyrtandra paliku
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 4-Dubautia plantaginea                          Dubautia
 ssp. magnifolia-a                                     plantaginea ssp.
                                                       magnifolia
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 4-Lysimachia iniki-a                             Lysimachia iniki
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 19149]]

 
Kauai 4-Lysimachia pendens-a                           Lysimachia
                                                       pendens
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 4-Lysimachia venosa-a                           Lysimachia venosa
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 4-Platydesma rostrata-a                          Platydesma
                                                       rostrata
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 7-Canavalia napaliensis-a                        Canavalia
                                                       napaliensis
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 7-Chamaesyce eleanoriae-a                        Chamaesyce
                                                       eleanoriae
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 7-Chamaesyce remyi var.     Chamaesyce remyi    Chamaesyce remyi
 remyi-b                           var. remyi          var. remyi
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 7-Charpentiera densiflora-                       Charpentiera
 a                                                     densiflora
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 7-Doryopteris angelica-a                         Doryopteris
                                                       angelica
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 7-Dubautia kenwoodii-a                          Dubautia kenwoodii
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 7-Labordia helleri-a                             Labordia helleri
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 7-Pittosporum napaliense-a                       Pittosporum
                                                       napaliense
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 7-Platydesma rostrata-b                          Platydesma
                                                       rostrata
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 7-Psychotria hobdyi-a                            Psychotria hobdyi
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 7-Tetraplasandra            Tetraplasandra      Tetraplasandra
 bisattenuata-a                    bisattenuata        bisattenuata
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Astelia waialealae-a     Astelia waialealae  Astelia waialealae
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Chamaesyce remyi var.                        Chamaesyce remyi
 kauaiensis-b                                          var. kauaiensis
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Chamaesyce remyi var.    Chamaesyce remyi    Chamaesyce remyi
 kauaiensis-c                      var. kauaiensis     var. kauaiensis
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Chamaesyce remyi var.    Chamaesyce remyi    Chamaesyce remyi
 remyi-c                           var. remyi          var. remyi
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Chamaesyce remyi var.    Chamaesyce remyi    Chamaesyce remyi
 remyi-d                           var. remyi          var. remyi
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Chamaesyce remyi var.                        Chamaesyce remyi
 remyi-e                                               var. remyi
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Charpentiera densiflora-                      Charpentiera
 b                                                     densiflora
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Cyanea dolichopoda-b                         Cyanea dolichopoda
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Cyanea eleeleensis-a                         Cyanea eleeleensis
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Cyanea kolekoleensis-a                       Cyanea
                                                       kolekoleensis
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Cyanea kuhihewa-a                            Cyanea kuhihewa
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Cyrtandra oenobarba-b    Cyrtandra           Cyrtandra
                                   oenobarba           oenobarba
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 19150]]

 
Kauai 10-Cyrtandra oenobarba-c    Cyrtandra           Cyrtandra
                                   oenobarba           oenobarba
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Cyrtandra paliku-b                            Cyrtandra paliku
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Dryopteris crinalis      Dryopteris          Dryopteris
 var. podosorus-a                  crinalis var.       crinalis var.
                                   podosorus           podosorus
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Dubautia imbricata ssp.  Dubautia imbricata  Dubautia imbricata
 imbricata-a                       ssp. imbricata      ssp. imbricata
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Dubautia kalalauensis-a                       Dubautia
                                                       kalalauensis
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Dubautia plantaginea     Dubautia            Dubautia
 ssp. magnifolia-b                 plantaginea ssp.    plantaginea ssp.
                                   magnifolia          magnifolia
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Dubautia waialealae-a    Dubautia            Dubautia
                                   waialealae          waialealae
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Geranium kauaiense-a     Geranium kauaiense  Geranium kauaiense
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Keysseria erici-a        Keysseria erici     Keysseria erici
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Keysseria helenae-a      Keysseria helenae   Keysseria helenae
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Labordia helleri-b       Labordia helleri    Labordia helleri
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Labordia helleri-c                            Labordia helleri
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Labordia pumila-a        Labordia pumila     Labordia pumila
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Lysimachia daphnoides-a  Lysimachia          Lysimachia
                                   daphnoides          daphnoides
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Lysimachia iniki-b       Lysimachia iniki    Lysimachia iniki
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Lysimachia pendens-b     Lysimachia pendens  Lysimachia pendens
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Lysimachia venosa-b                          Lysimachia venosa
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Melicope degeneri-a      Melicope            Melicope
                                   paniculata          paniculata
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Melicope paniculata-a    Melicope            Melicope
                                   paniculata          paniculata
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Melicope puberula-a      Melicope puberula   Melicope puberula
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Melicope puberula-b                           Melicope puberula
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Myrsine mezii-a          Myrsine mezii       Myrsine mezii
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Phyllostegia renovans-a  Phyllostegia        Phyllostegia
                                   renovans            renovans
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Phyllostegia renovans-b  Phyllostegia        Phyllostegia
                                   renovans            renovans
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Platydesma rostrata-c    Platydesma          Platydesma
                                   rostrata            rostrata
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Platydesma rostrata-d    Platydesma          Platydesma
                                   rostrata            rostrata
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Platydesma rostrata-e    Platydesma          Platydesma
                                   rostrata            rostrata
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 19151]]

 
Kauai 10-Psychotria grandiflora-                       Psychotria
 a                                                     grandiflora
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Stenogyne kealiae-a                           Stenogyne kealiae
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Tetraplasandra           Tetraplasandra      Tetraplasandra
 bisattenuata-b                    bisattenuata        bisattenuata
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Tetraplasandra flynnii-                      Tetraplasandra
 a                                                     flynnii
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 10-Tetraplasandra flynnii-                      Tetraplasandra
 b                                                     flynnii
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Astelia waialealae-b     Astelia waialealae  Astelia waialealae
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Canavalia napaliensis-b  Canavalia           Canavalia
                                   napaliensis         napaliensis
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Chamaesyce eleanoriae-b  Chamaesyce          Chamaesyce
                                   eleanoriae          eleanoriae
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Chamaesyce eleanoriae-c  Chamaesyce          Chamaesyce
                                   eleanoriae          eleanoriae
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Chamaesyce remyi var.    Chamaesyce remyi    Chamaesyce remyi
 kauaiensis-d                      var. kauaiensis     var. kauaiensis
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Chamaesyce remyi var.                        Chamaesyce remyi
 kauaiensis-e                                          var. kauaiensis
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Chamaesyce remyi var.    Chamaesyce remyi    Chamaesyce remyi
 remyi-f                           var. remyi          var. remyi
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Chamaesyce remyi var.    Chamaesyce remyi    Chamaesyce remyi
 remyi-g                           var. remyi          var. remyi
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Chamaesyce remyi var.    Chamaesyce remyi    Chamaesyce remyi
 remyi-h                           var. remyi          var. remyi
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Chamaesyce remyi var.    Chamaesyce remyi    Chamaesyce remyi
 remyi-i                           var. remyi          var. remyi
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Chamaesyce remyi var.    Chamaesyce remyi    Chamaesyce remyi
 remyi-j                           var. remyi          var. remyi
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Charpentiera densiflora- Charpentiera        Charpentiera
 c                                 densiflora          densiflora
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Charpentiera densiflora- Charpentiera        Charpentiera
 d                                 densiflora          densiflora
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Cyanea dolichopoda-c                         Cyanea dolichopoda
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Cyanea eleeleensis-b                         Cyanea eleeleensis
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Cyanea kolekoleensis-b                       Cyanea
                                                       kolekoleensis
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Cyanea kuhihewa-b                            Cyanea kuhihewa
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Cyrtandra oenobarba-d    Cyrtandra           Cyrtandra
                                   oenobarba           oenobarba
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Cyrtandra oenobarba-e                         Cyrtandra
                                                       oenobarba
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Cyrtandra paliku-c                            Cyrtandra paliku
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Diellia mannii-a         Diellia mannii      Diellia mannii
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Doryopteris angelica-b   Doryopteris         Doryopteris
                                   angelica            angelica
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 19152]]

 
Kauai 11-Dryopteris crinalis      Dryopteris          Dryopteris
 var. podosorus-b                  crinalis var.       crinalis var.
                                   podosorus           podosorus
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Dubautia imbricata ssp.                      Dubautia imbricata
 imbricata-b                                           ssp. imbricata
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Dubautia kalalauensis-b  Dubautia            Dubautia
                                   kalalauensis        kalalauensis
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Dubautia kenwoodii-b                         Dubautia kenwoodii
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Dubautia plantaginea                         Dubautia
 ssp. magnifolia-c                                     plantaginea ssp.
                                                       magnifolia
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Dubautia waialealae-b    Dubautia            Dubautia
                                   waialealae          waialealae
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Geranium kauaiense-b     Geranium kauaiense  Geranium kauaiense
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Keysseria erici-b        Keysseria erici     Keysseria erici
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Keysseria helenae-b      Keysseria helenae   Keysseria helenae
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Labordia helleri-d       Labordia helleri    Labordia helleri
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Labordia helleri-e       Labordia helleri    Labordia helleri
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Labordia helleri-f       Labordia helleri    Labordia helleri
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Labordia helleri-g       Labordia helleri    Labordia helleri
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Labordia pumila-b        Labordia pumila     Labordia pumila
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Lysimachia daphnoides-b  Lysimachia          Lysimachia
                                   daphnoides          daphnoides
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Lysimachia iniki-c                            Lysimachia iniki
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Lysimachia pendens-c                          Lysimachia
                                                       pendens
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Lysimachia scopulensis-  Lysimachia          Lysimachia
 a                                 scopulensis         scopulensis
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Lysimachia venosa-c                          Lysimachia venosa
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Melicope degeneri-b      Melicope degeneri   Melicope degeneri
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Melicope paniculata-b    Melicope            Melicope
                                   paniculata          paniculata
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Melicope puberula-c      Melicope puberula   Melicope puberula
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Melicope puberula-d      Melicope puberula   Melicope puberula
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Myrsine knudsenii-a      Myrsine knudsenii   Myrsine knudsenii
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Myrsine mezii-b          Myrsine mezii       Myrsine mezii
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Myrsine mezii-c                               Myrsine mezii
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 19153]]

 
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Phyllostegia renovans-c  Phyllostegia        Phyllostegia
                                   renovans            renovans
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Phyllostegia renovans-d  Phyllostegia        Phyllostegia
                                   renovans            renovans
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Pittosporum napaliense-  Pittosporum         Pittosporum
 b                                 napaliense          napaliense
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Platydesma rostrata-f    Platydesma          Platydesma
                                   rostrata            rostrata
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Platydesma rostrata-g    Platydesma          Platydesma
                                   rostrata            rostrata
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Platydesma rostrata-h    Platydesma          Platydesma
                                   rostrata            rostrata
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Platydesma rostrata-i                         Platydesma
                                                       rostrata
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Platydesma rostrata-j    Platydesma          Platydesma
                                   rostrata            rostrata
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Psychotria grandiflora-  Psychotria          Psychotria
 b                                 grandiflora         grandiflora
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Psychotria grandiflora-  Psychotria          Psychotria
 c                                 grandiflora         grandiflora
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Psychotria hobdyi-b      Psychotria hobdyi   Psychotria hobdyi
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Schiedea attenuata-a     Schiedea attenuata  Schiedea attenuata
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Stenogyne kealiae-b      Stenogyne kealiae   Stenogyne kealiae
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Stenogyne kealiae-c      Stenogyne kealiae   Stenogyne kealiae
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Stenogyne kealiae-d      Stenogyne kealiae   Stenogyne kealiae
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Tetraplasandra                                Tetraplasandra
 bisattenuata-c                                        bisattenuata
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Tetraplasandra                                Tetraplasandra
 bisattenuata-d                                        bisattenuata
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Tetraplasandra flynnii-  Tetraplasandra      Tetraplasandra
 c                                 flynnii             flynnii
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Tetraplasandra flynnii-                       Tetraplasandra
 d                                                     flynnii
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 11-Tetraplasandra flynnii-  Tetraplasandra      Tetraplasandra
 e                                 flynnii             flynnii
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              * * * * * * *
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 18-Chamaesyce remyi var.    Chamaesyce remyi    Chamaesyce remyi
 kauaiensis-f                      var. kauaiensis     var. kauaiensis
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 18-Chamaesyce remyi var.                        Chamaesyce remyi
 remyi-k                                               var. remyi
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 18-Cyanea dolichopoda-d                         Cyanea dolichopoda
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 18-Cyrtandra oenobarba-f    Cyrtandra           Cyrtandra
                                   oenobarba           oenobarba
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 18-Cyrtandra paliku-d                            Cyrtandra paliku
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 18-Dubautia plantaginea     Dubautia            Dubautia
 ssp. magnifolia-d                 plantaginea ssp.    plantaginea ssp.
                                   magnifolia          magnifolia
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 18-Lysimachia iniki-d       Lysimachia iniki    Lysimachia iniki
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 18-Lysimachia pendens-d     Lysimachia pendens  Lysimachia pendens
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 18-Lysimachia venosa-d                          Lysimachia venosa
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 19154]]

 
Kauai 18-Platydesma rostrata-k    Platydesma          Platydesma
                                   rostrata            rostrata
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 19-Chamaesyce remyi var.                        Chamaesyce remyi
 kauaiensis-g                                          var. kauaiensis
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 19-Chamaesyce remyi var.                        Chamaesyce remyi
 remyi-l                                               var. remyi
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 19-Cyanea dolichopoda-e                         Cyanea dolichopoda
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 19-Cyrtandra oenobarba-g                         Cyrtandra
                                                       oenobarba
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 19-Cyrtandra paliku-e       Cyrtandra paliku    Cyrtandra paliku
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 19-Dubautia plantaginea                         Dubautia
 ssp. magnifolia-e                                     plantaginea ssp.
                                                       magnifolia
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 19-Lysimachia iniki-e                            Lysimachia iniki
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 19-Lysimachia pendens-e                          Lysimachia
                                                       pendens
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 19- Lysimachia venosa-e                         Lysimachia venosa
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 19-Platydesma rostrata-l                         Platydesma
                                                       rostrata
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 20-Chamaesyce remyi var.                        Chamaesyce remyi
 kauaiensis-h                                          var. kauaiensis
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 20-Chamaesyce remyi var.    Chamaesyce remyi    Chamaesyce remyi
 remyi-m                           var. remyi          var. remyi
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 20-Charpentiera densiflora- Charpentiera        Charpentiera
 e                                 densiflora          densiflora
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 20-Cyanea eleeleensis-c                         Cyanea eleeleensis
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 20-Cyanea kolekoleensis-c                       Cyanea
                                                       kolekoleensis
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 20-Cyanea kuhihewa-c                            Cyanea kuhihewa
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 20-Cyrtandra oenobarba-h                         Cyrtandra
                                                       oenobarba
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 20-Dubautia imbricata ssp.  Dubautia imbricata  Dubautia imbricata
 imbricata-c                       ssp. imbricata      ssp. imbricata
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 20-Labordia helleri-h       Labordia helleri    Labordia helleri
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 20-Melicope paniculata-c                         Melicope
                                                       paniculata
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 20-Melicope puberula-e                           Melicope puberula
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 20-Phyllostegia renovans-e  Phyllostegia        Phyllostegia
                                   renovans            renovans
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 20-Platydesma rostrata-m                         Platydesma
                                                       rostrata
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 20-Stenogyne kealiae-e                           Stenogyne kealiae
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 20-Tetraplasandra                                Tetraplasandra
 bisattenuata-e                                        bisattenuata
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 20-Tetraplasandra flynii-f                       Tetraplasandra
                                                       flynii
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 21-Chamaesyce remyi var.                         Chamaesyce remyi
 remyi-n                                               var. remyi
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 21-Diellia mannii-b         Diellia mannii      Diellia mannii
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 21-Labordia helleri-i                            Labordia helleri
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 21-Myrsine knudsenii-b                           Myrsine knudsenii
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 21-Myrsine mezii-d                               Myrsine mezii
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 21-Platydesma rostrata-n                         Platydesma
                                                       rostrata
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 21-Psychotria grandiflora-                       Psychotria
 d                                                     grandiflora
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 21-Stenogyne kealiae-f                           Stenogyne kealiae
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 19155]]

 
Kauai 21-Tetraplasandra flynnii-                       Tetraplasandra
 g                                                     flynnii
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 22-Chamaesyce remyi var.                         Chamaesyce remyi
 remyi-o                                               var. remyi
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 22-Diellia mannii-c                              Diellia mannii
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 22-Labordia helleri-j                            Labordia helleri
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 22-Myrsine knudsenii-c                           Myrsine knudsenii
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 22-Myrsine mezii-e          Myrsine mezii       Myrsine mezii
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 22-Platydesma rostrata-o                         Platydesma
                                                       rostrata
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 22-Psychotria grandiflora-                       Psychotria
 e                                                     grandiflora
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 22-Stenogyne kealiae-g                           Stenogyne kealiae
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 22-Tetraplasandra flynnii-                       Tetraplasandra
 h                                                     flynnii
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 23-Astelia waialealae-c     Astelia waialealae  Astelia waialealae
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 23-Chamaesyce remyi var.    Chamaesyce remyi    Chamaesyce remyi
 remyi-p                           var. remyi          var. remyi
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 23-Dryopteris crinalis      Dryopteris          Dryopteris
 var. podosorus-c                  crinalis var.       crinalis var.
                                   podosorus           podosorus
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 23-Dubautia kalalauensis-c                       Dubautia
                                                       kalalauensis
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 23-Dubautia waialealae-c    Dubautia            Dubautia
                                   waialealae          waialealae
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 23-Geranium kauaiense-c     Geranium kauaiense  Geranium kauaiense
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 23-Keysseria erici-c        Keysseria erici     Keysseria erici
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 23-Keysseria helenae-c      Keysseria helenae   Keysseria helenae
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 23-Labordia helleri-k       Labordia helleri    Labordia helleri
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 23-Labordia pumila-c        Labordia pumila     Labordia pumila
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 23-Lysimachia daphnoides-c  Lysimachia          Lysimachia
                                   daphnoides          daphnoides
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 23-Melicope degeneri-c      Melicope degeneri   Melicope degeneri
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 23-Melicope puberula-f      Melicope puberula   Melicope puberula
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 23-Myrsine mezii-f          Myrsine mezii       Myrsine mezii
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 23-Phyllostegia renovans-f  Phyllostegia        Phyllostegia
                                   renovans            renovans
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 23-Platydesma rostrata-p    Platydesma          Platydesma
                                   rostrata            rostrata
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 23-Psychotria grandiflora-                       Psychotria
 f                                                     grandiflora
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 23-Tetraplasandra flynnii-                       Tetraplasandra
 i                                                     flynnii
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 24-Astelia waialealae-d     Astelia waialealae  Astelia waialealae
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 24-Chamaesyce remyi var.    Chamaesyce remyi    Chamaesyce remyi
 remyi-q                           var. remyi          var. remyi
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 24-Dryopteris crinalis      Dryopteris          Dryopteris
 var. podosorus-d                  crinalis var.       crinalis var.
                                   podosorus           podosorus
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 24-Dubautia kalalauensis-d                       Dubautia
                                                       kalalauensis
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 24-Dubautia waialealae-d    Dubautia            Dubautia
                                   waialealae          waialealae
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 24-Geranium kauaiense-d     Geranium kauaiense  Geranium kauaiense
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 24-Keysseria erici-d        Keysseria erici     Keysseria erici
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 24-Keysseria helenae-d      Keysseria helenae   Keysseria helenae
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 24-Labordia helleri-l       Labordia helleri    Labordia helleri
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 19156]]

 
Kauai 24-Labordia pumila-d        Labordia pumila     Labordia pumila
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 24-Lysimachia daphnoides-d  Lysimachia          Lysimachia
                                   daphnoides          daphnoides
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 24-Melicope degeneri-d      Melicope degeneri   Melicope degeneri
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 24-Melicope puberula-g      Melicope puberula   Melicope puberula
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 24-Myrsine mezii-g          Myrsine mezii       Myrsine mezii
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 24-Phyllostegia renovans-g  Phyllostegia        Phyllostegia
                                   renovans            renovans
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 24-Platydesma rostrata-q    Platydesma          Platydesma
                                   rostrata            rostrata
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 24-Psychotria grandiflora-                       Psychotria
 g                                                     grandiflora
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 24-Tetraplasandra flynnii-                       Tetraplasandra
 j                                                     flynnii
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 25-Astelia waialealae-e     Astelia waialealae  Astelia waialealae
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 25-Chamaesyce remyi var.    Chamaesyce remyi    Chamaesyce remyi
 remyi-r                           var. remyi          var. remyi
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 25-Dryopteris crinalis      Dryopteris          Dryopteris
 var. podosorus-e                  crinalis var.       crinalis var.
                                   podosorus           podosorus
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 25-Dubautia kalalauensis-e                       Dubautia
                                                       kalalauensis
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 25-Dubautia waialealae-e    Dubautia            Dubautia
                                   waialealae          waialealae
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 25-Geranium kauaiense-e     Geranium kauaiense  Geranium kauaiense
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 25-Keysseria erici-e        Keysseria erici     Keysseria erici
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 25-Keysseria helenae-e      Keysseria helenae   Keysseria helenae
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 25-Labordia helleri-m       Labordia helleri    Labordia helleri
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 25-Labordia pumila-e        Labordia pumila     Labordia pumila
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 25-Lysimachia daphnoides-e  Lysimachia          Lysimachia
                                   daphnoides          daphnoides
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 25-Melicope degeneri-e      Melicope degeneri   Melicope degeneri
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 25-Melicope puberula-h      Melicope puberula   Melicope puberula
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 25-Myrsine mezii-h          Myrsine mezii       Myrsine mezii
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 25-Phyllostegia renovans-h  Phyllostegia        Phyllostegia
                                   renovans            renovans
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 25-Platydesma rostrata-r    Platydesma          Platydesma
                                   rostrata            rostrata
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 25-Psychotria grandiflora-                       Psychotria
 h                                                     grandiflora
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kauai 25-Tetraplasandra flynnii-                       Tetraplasandra
 k                                                     flynnii
------------------------------------------------------------------------

* * * * *
    (b) * * *
    (1) * * *
FAMILY AMARANATHACEAE: Charpentiera densiflora (PAPALA)
    Kauai 7-Charpentiera densiflora-a, Kauai 10-Charpentiera 
densiflora-b, Kauai 11-Charpentiera densiflora-c, Kauai 11-Charpentiera 
densiflora-d, and Kauai 20-Charpentiera densiflora-e, identified in the 
legal descriptions in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, constitute 
critical habitat for Charpentiera densiflora on Kauai.
    (i) In units Kauai 7-Charpentiera densiflora-a, and Kauai 11-
Charpentiera densiflora-c, the primary constituent elements of critical 
habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,000 ft (914 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 inches (127 to 190 centimeters).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Kauai 10-Charpentiera densiflora-b, Kauai 11-
Charpentiera densiflora-d, and Kauai 20-Charpentiera densiflora-e, the 
primary constituent elements of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,000 ft (914 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 centimeters).

[[Page 19157]]

    (C) Substrate: Clays, ashbeds, deep well-drained soils, lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
* * * * *
FAMILY ARALIACEAE: Tetraplasandra bisattenuata (NCN)
    Kauai 7-Tetraplasandra bisattenuata-a, Kauai 10-Tetraplasandra 
bisattenuata-b, Kauai 11-Tetraplasandra bisattenuata-c, Kauai 11-
Tetraplasandra bisattenuata-d, and Kauai 20-Tetraplasandra 
bisattenuata-e, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph 
(a)(1) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Tetraplasandra 
bisattenuata on Kauai.
    (i) In units Kauai 7-Tetraplasandra bisattenuata-a, and Kauai 11-
Tetraplasandra bisattenuata-c, the primary constituent elements of 
critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,000 ft (914 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 inches (127 to 190 centimeters).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Kauai 10-Tetraplasandra bisattenuata-b, Kauai 11-
Tetraplasandra bisattenuata-d, and Kauai 20-Tetraplasandra 
bisattenuata-e, the primary constituent elements of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,000 ft (914 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 centimeters).
    (C) Substrate: Clays, ashbeds, deep well-drained soils, lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
FAMILY ARALIACEAE: Tetraplasandra flynnii (NCN)
    Kauai 10-Tetraplasandra flynnii-a, Kauai 10-Tetraplasandra flynnii-
b, Kauai 11-Tetraplasandra flynnii-c, Kauai 11-Tetraplasandra flynnii-
d, Kauai 11-Tetraplasandra flynnii-e, Kauai 20-Tetraplasandra flynnii-
f, Kauai 21-Tetraplasandra flynnii-g, Kauai 22-Tetraplasandra flynnii-
h, Kauai 23-Tetraplasandra flynnii-i, Kauai 24-Tetraplasandra flynnii-
j, and Kauai 25-Tetraplasandra flynnii-k, identified in the legal 
descriptions in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, constitute critical 
habitat for Tetraplasandra flynnii on Kauai.
    (i) In units Kauai 11-Tetraplasandra flynnii-e, Kauai 21-
Tetraplasandra flynnii-g, and Kauai 22-Tetraplasandra flynnii-h, the 
primary constituent elements of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: 3,000 to 5,243 ft (914 to 1,598 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 inches (127 to 190 centimeters).
    (C) Substrate: Weathered aa lava flows, rocky mucks, thin silty 
loams, deep volcanic ash soils.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Metrosideros, Psychotria, Tetraplasandra, 
Zanthoxylum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cheirodendron, Coprosma, Kadua, Ilex, Myoporum, 
Myrsine.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Dryopteris, Leptecophylla, Poa, Scaevola, 
Sophora.
    (ii) In units Kauai 10-Tetraplasandra flynnii-a, Kauai 11-
Tetraplasandra flynnii-c, Kauai 23-Tetraplasandra flynnii-i, Kauai 24-
Tetraplasandra flynnii-j, and Kauai 25-Tetraplasandra flynnii-k, the 
primary constituent elements of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: 3,000 to 5,243 ft (914 to 1,598 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 centimeters).
    (C) Substrate: Well-developed soils, montane bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Charpentiera, Cheirodendron, Metrosideros.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cibotium, Eurya, Ilex, Myrsine.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Coprosma, Leptecophylla, Oreobolus, 
Rhynchospora, Vaccinium.
    (iii) In units Kauai 10-Tetraplasandra flynii-b, Kauai 11-
Tetraplasandra flynii-d, and Kauai 20-Tetraplasandra flynnii-f, the 
primary constituent elements of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,000 ft (914 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 centimeters).
    (C) Substrate: Clays, ashbeds, deep well-drained soils, lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
FAMILY ASTELIACEAE: Astelia waialealae (PAINIU)
    Kauai 10-Astelia waialealae-a, Kauai 11-Astelia waialealae-b, Kauai 
23-Astelia waialealae-c, Kauai 24-Astelia waialealae-d, and Kauai 25-
Astelia waialealae-e, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph 
(a)(1) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Astelia 
waialealae on Kauai. Within these units, the primary constituent 
elements of critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: 3,000 to 5,243 ft (914 to 1,598 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 
centimeters).
    (iii) Substrate: Well-developed soils, montane bogs.
    (iv) Canopy: Acacia, Charpentiera, Cheirodendron, Metrosideros.
    (v) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cibotium, Eurya, Ilex, Myrsine.
    (vi) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Coprosma, Leptecophylla, Oreobolus, 
Rhynchospora, Vaccinium.
    (vii) Hummocks in bogs.
FAMILY ASTERACEAE: Dubautia imbricata ssp. imbricata (NAENAE)
    Kauai 10-Dubautia imbricata ssp. imbricata-a, Kauai 11-Dubautia 
imbricata ssp. imbricata-b, and Kauai 20-Dubautia imbricata ssp. 
imbricata-c, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (a)(1) 
of this section, constitute critical habitat for Dubautia imbricata 
ssp. imbricata on Kauai. Within these units, the primary constituent 
elements of critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,000 ft (914 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 
centimeters).
    (iii) Substrate: Clays, ashbeds, deep well-drained soils, lowland 
bogs.
    (iv) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (v) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (vi) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
FAMILY ASTERACEAE: Dubautia kalalauensis (NAENAE)
    Kauai 10-Dubautia kalalauensis-a, Kauai 11-Dubautia kalalauensis-b, 
Kauai 23-Dubautia kalalauensis-c, Kauai 24-Dubautia kalalauensis-d, and 
Kauai 25-Dubautia kalalauensis-e, identified in the legal descriptions 
in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, constitute critical habitat for 
Dubautia kalalauensis on Kauai. Within these units, the primary 
constituent elements of critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: 3,000 to 5,243 ft (914 to 1,598 m).

[[Page 19158]]

    (ii) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 
centimeters).
    (iii) Substrate: Well-developed soils, montane bogs.
    (iv) Canopy: Acacia, Charpentiera, Cheirodendron, Metrosideros.
    (v) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cibotium, Eurya, Ilex, Myrsine.
    (vi) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Coprosma, Leptecophylla, Oreobolus, 
Rhynchospora, Vaccinium.
FAMILY ASTERACEAE: Dubautia kenwoodii (NAENAE)
    Kauai 7-Dubautia kenwoodii-a and Kauai 11-Dubautia kenwoodii-b, 
identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (a)(1) of this 
section, constitute critical habitat for Dubautia kenwoodii on Kauai. 
Within these units, the primary constituent elements of critical 
habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,000 ft (914 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 inches (127 to 190 
centimeters).
    (iii) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (iv) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (v) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (vi) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
* * * * *
FAMILY ASTERACEAE: Dubautia plantaginea ssp. magnifolia (NAENAE)
    Kauai 4-Dubautia plantaginea ssp. magnifolia-a, Kauai 10-Dubautia 
plantaginea ssp. magnifolia-b, Kauai 11-Dubautia plantaginea ssp. 
magnifolia-c, Kauai 18-Dubautia plantaginea ssp. magnifolia-d, and 
Kauai 19-Dubautia plantaginea ssp. magnifolia-e, identified in the 
legal descriptions in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, constitute 
critical habitat for Dubautia plantaginea ssp. magnifolia on Kauai. 
Within these units, the primary constituent elements of critical 
habitat are:
    (i) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 centimeters).
    (ii) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (iii) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (iv) Understory: Ferns, Bryophytes, Coprosoma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
* * * * *
FAMILY ASTERACEAE: Dubautia waialealae (NAENAE)
    Kauai 10-Dubautia waialealae-a, Kauai 11-Dubautia waialealae-b, 
Kauai 23-Dubautia waialealae-c, Kauai 24-Dubautia waialealae-d, and 
Kauai 25-Dubautia waialealae-e, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (a)(1) of this section, constitute critical habitat for 
Dubautia waialealae on Kauai. Within these units, the primary 
constituent elements of critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: 3,000 to 5,243 ft (914 to 1,598 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 
centimeters).
    (iii) Substrate: Well-developed soils, montane bogs.
    (iv) Canopy: Acacia, Charpentiera, Cheirodendron, Metrosideros.
    (v) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cibotium, Eurya, Ilex, Myrsine.
    (vi) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Coprosma, Leptecophylla, Oreobolus, 
Rhynchospora, Vaccinium.
    (vii) Bogs.
* * * * *
FAMILY ASTERACEAE: Keysseria erici (NCN)
    Kauai 10-Keysseria erici-a, Kauai 11-Keysseria erici-b, Kauai 23-
Keysseria erici-c, Kauai 24-Keysseria erici-d, and Kauai 25-Keysseria 
erici-e, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (a)(1) of 
this section, constitute critical habitat for Keysseria erici on Kauai. 
Within these units, the primary constituent elements of critical 
habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: 3,000 to 5,243 ft (914 to 1,598 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 
centimeters).
    (iii) Substrate: Well-developed soils, montane bogs.
    (iv) Canopy: Acacia, Charpentiera, Cheirodendron, Metrosideros.
    (v) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cibotium, Eurya, Ilex, Myrsine.
    (vi) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Coprosma, Leptecophylla, Oreobolus, 
Rhynchospora, Vaccinium.
    (vii) Bogs.
FAMILY ASTERACEAE: Keysseria helenae (NCN)
    Kauai 10-Keysseria helenae-a, Kauai 11-Keysseria helenae-b, Kauai 
23-Keysseria helenae-c, Kauai 24-Keysseria helenae-d, and Kauai 25-
Keysseria helenae-e, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph 
(a)(1) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Keysseria 
helenae on Kauai. Within these units, the primary constituent elements 
of critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: 3,000 to 5,243 ft (914 to 1,598 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 
centimeters).
    (iii) Substrate: Well-developed soils, montane bogs.
    (iv) Canopy: Acacia, Charpentiera, Cheirodendron, Metrosideros.
    (v) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cibotium, Eurya, Ilex, Myrsine.
    (vi) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Coprosma, Leptecophylla, Oreobolus, 
Rhynchospora, Vaccinium.
    (vii) Bogs.
* * * * *
FAMILY CAMPANULACEAE: Cyanea dolichopoda (HAHA)
    Kauai 4-Cyanea dolichopoda-a, Kauai 10-Cyanea dolichopoda-b, Kauai 
11-Cyanea dolichopoda-c, Kauai 18-Cyanea dolichopoda-d, and Kauai 19-
Cyanea dolichopoda-e, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph 
(a)(1) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Cyanea 
dolichopoda on Kauai. Within these units, the primary constituent 
elements of critical habitat are:
    (i) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 centimeters).
    (ii) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (iii) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (iv) Understory: Ferns, Bryophytes, Coprosoma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
FAMILY CAMPANULACEAE: Cyanea eleeleensis (HAHA)
    Kauai 10-Cyanea eleeleensis-a, Kauai 11-Cyanea eleeleensis-b, and 
Kauai 20-Cyanea eleeleensis-c, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (a)(1) of this section, constitute critical habitat for 
Cyanea eleeleensis on Kauai. Within these units, the primary 
constituent elements of critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,000 ft (914 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 
centimeters).
    (iii) Substrate: Clays, ashbeds, deep well-drained soils, lowland 
bogs.
    (iv) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (v) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (vi) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
FAMILY CAMPANULACEAE: Cyanea kolekoleensis (HAHA)
    Kauai 10-Cyanea kolekoleensis-a, Kauai 11-Cyanea kolekoleensis-b, 
and Kauai 20-Cyanea kolekoleensis-c, identified in the legal 
descriptions in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, constitute critical 
habitat for Cyanea kolekoleensis on Kauai. Within these units, the 
primary constituent elements of critical habitat are:

[[Page 19159]]

    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,000 ft (914 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 
centimeters).
    (iii) Substrate: Clays, ashbeds, deep well-drained soils, lowland 
bogs.
    (iv) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (v) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (vi) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
FAMILY CAMPANULACEAE: Cyanea kuhihewa (HAHA)
    Kauai 10-Cyanea kuhihewa-a, Kauai 11-Cyanea kuhihewa-b, and Kauai 
20-Cyanea kuhihewa-c, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph 
(a)(1) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Cyanea kuhihewa 
on Kauai. Within these units, the primary constituent elements of 
critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,000 ft (914 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 
centimeters).
    (iii) Substrate: Clays, ashbeds, deep well-drained soils, lowland 
bogs.
    (iv) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (v) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (vi) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
* * * * *
FAMILY CARYOPHYLLACEAE: Schiedea attenuata (NCN)
    Kauai 11-Schiedea attenuata-a, identified in the legal description 
in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, constitutes critical habitat for 
Schiedea attenuata on Kauai. Within this unit, the primary constituent 
elements of critical habitat are:
    (i) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 inches (190 centimeters).
    (ii) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (iii) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (iv) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
* * * * *
FAMILY EUPHORBIACEAE: Chamaesyce eleanoriae (AKOKO)
    Kauai 7-Chamaesyce eleanoriae-a, Kauai 11-Chamaesyce eleanoriae-b, 
and Kauai 11-Chamaesyce eleanoriae-c, identified in the legal 
descriptions in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, constitute critical 
habitat for Chamaesyce eleanoriae on Kauai.
    (i) In units Kauai 7-Chamaesyce eleanoriae-a and Kauai 11-
Chamaesyce eleanoriae-b, the primary constituent elements of critical 
habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,000 ft (914 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 inches (127 to 190 centimeters).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In unit Kauai 11-Chamaesyce eleanoriae-c, the primary 
constituent elements of critical habitat are:
    (A) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 inches (190 centimeters).
    (B) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (C) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (D) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
* * * * *
FAMILY EUPHORBIACEAE: Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis (AKOKO)
    Kauai 4-Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis-a, Kauai 10-Chamaesyce 
remyi var. kauaiensis-b, Kauai 10-Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis-c, 
Kauai 11-Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis-d, Kauai 11-Chamaesyce remyi 
var. kauaiensis-e, Kauai 18-Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis-f, Kauai 
19-Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis-g, and Kauai 20-Chamaesyce remyi 
var. kauaiensis-h, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph 
(a)(1) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Chamaesyce 
remyi var. kauaiensis on Kauai.
    (i) In units Kauai 10-Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis-b, Kauai 11-
Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis-d, and Kauai 20-Chamaesyce remyi var. 
kauaiensis-h, the primary constituent elements of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,000 ft (914 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 centimeters).
    (C) Substrate: Clays, ashbeds, deep well-drained soils, lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (ii) In units Kauai 4-Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis-a, Kauai 10-
Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis-c, Kauai 11-Chamaesyce remyi var. 
kauaiensis-e, Kauai 18-Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis-f, and Kauai 
19-Chamaesyce remyi var. kauaiensis-g, the primary constituent elements 
of critical habitat are:
    (A) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 centimeters).
    (B) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (C) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (D) Understory: Ferns, Bryophytes, Coprosoma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
FAMILY EUPHORBIACEAE: Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi (AKOKO)
    Kauai 4-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-a, Kauai 7-Chamaesyce remyi 
var. remyi-b, Kauai 10-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-c, Kauai 10-
Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-d, Kauai 10-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-e, 
Kauai 11-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-f, Kauai 11-Chamaesyce remyi var. 
remyi-g, Kauai 11-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-h, Kauai 11-Chamaesyce 
remyi var. remyi-i, Kauai 11-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-j, Kauai 18-
Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-k, Kauai 19-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-l, 
Kauai 20-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-m, Kauai 21-Chamaesyce remyi var. 
remyi-n, Kauai 22-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-o, Kauai 23-Chamaesyce 
remyi var. remyi-p, Kauai 24-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-q, and Kauai 
25-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-r, identified in the legal descriptions 
in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, constitute critical habitat for 
Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi on Kauai.
    (i) In units Kauai 7-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-b and Kauai 11-
Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-g, the primary constituent elements of 
critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,000 ft (914 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 inches (127 to 190 centimeters).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Kauai 10-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-d, Kauai 11-
Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-h, and Kauai 20-Chamaesyce remyi var. 
remyi-

[[Page 19160]]

m, the primary constituent elements of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,000 ft (914 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 centimeters).
    (C) Substrate: Clays, ashbeds, deep well-drained soils, lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (iii) In units Kauai 11-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-j, Kauai 21-
Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-n, and Kauai 22-Chamaesyce remyi var. 
remyi-o, the primary constituent elements of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: 3,000 to 5,243 ft (914 to 1,598 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 inches (127 to 190 centimeters).
    (C) Substrate: Weathered aa lava flows, rocky mucks, thin silty 
loams, deep volcanic ash soils.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Metrosideros, Psychotria, Tetraplasandra, 
Zanthoxylum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cheirodendron, Coprosma, Kadua, Ilex, Myoporum, 
Myrsine.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Dryopteris, Leptecophylla, Poa, Scaevola, 
Sophora.
    (iv) In units Kauai 10-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-c, Kauai 11-
Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-f, Kauai 23-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-p, 
Kauai 24-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-q, and Kauai 25-Chamaesyce remyi 
var. remyi-r, the primary constituent elements of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: 3,000 to 5,243 ft (914 to 1,598 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 centimeters).
    (C) Substrate: Well-developed soils, montane bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Charpentiera, Cheirodendron, Metrosideros.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cibotium, Eurya, Ilex, Myrsine.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Coprosma, Leptecophylla, Oreobolus, 
Rhynchospora, Vaccinium.
    (v) In units Kauai 4-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-a, Kauai 10-
Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-e, Kauai 11-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-i, 
Kauai 18-Chamaesyce remyi var. remyi-k, and Kauai 19-Chamaesyce remyi 
var. remyi-l, the primary constituent elements of critical habitat are:
    (A) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 centimeters).
    (B) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (C) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (D) Understory: Ferns, Bryophytes, Coprosoma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
* * * * *
FAMILY FABACEAE: Canavalia napaliensis (AWIKIWIKI)
    Kauai 7-Canavalia napaliensis-a and Kauai 11-Canavalia napaliensis-
b, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (a)(1) of this 
section, constitute critical habitat for Canavalia napaliensis on 
Kauai. Within these units, the primary constituent elements of critical 
habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,000 ft (914 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 inches (127 to 190 
centimeters).
    (iii) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (iv) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (v) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (vi) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
* * * * *
FAMILY GERANIACEAE: Geranium kauaiense (NOHOANU)
    Kauai 10-Geranium kauaiense-a, Kauai 11-Geranium kauaiense-b, Kauai 
23-Geranium kauaiense-c, Kauai 24-Geranium kauaiense-d, and Kauai 25-
Geranium kauaiense-e, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph 
(a)(1) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Geranium 
kauaiense on Kauai. Within these units, the primary constituent 
elements of critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: 3,000 to 5,243 ft (914 to 1,598 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 
centimeters).
    (iii) Substrate: Well-developed soils, montane bogs.
    (iv) Canopy: Acacia, Charpentiera, Cheirodendron, Metrosideros.
    (v) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cibotium, Eurya, Ilex, Myrsine.
    (vi) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Coprosma, Leptecophylla, Oreobolus, 
Rhynchospora, Vaccinium.
    (vii) Bogs.
* * * * *
FAMILY GESNERIACEAE: Cyrtandra oenobarba (HAIWALE)
    Kauai 4-Cyrtandra oenobarba-a, Kauai 10-Cyrtandra oenobarba-b, 
Kauai 10-Cyrtandra oenobarba-c, Kauai 11-Cyrtandra oenobarba-d, Kauai 
11-Cyrtandra oenobarba-e, Kauai 18-Cyrtandra oenobarba-f, Kauai 19-
Cyrtandra oenobarba-g, and Kauai 20-Cyrtandra oenobarba-h, identified 
in the legal descriptions in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, 
constitute critical habitat for Cyrtandra oenobarba on Kauai.
    (i) In units Kauai 10-Cyrtandra oenobarba-b, Kauai 11-Cyrtandra 
oenobarba-d, and Kauai 20-Cyrtandra oenobarba-h, the primary 
constituent elements of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,000 ft (914 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 centimeters).
    (C) Substrate: Clays, ashbeds, deep well-drained soils, lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (ii) In units Kauai 4-Cyrtandra oenobarba-a, Kauai 10-Cyrtandra 
oenobarba-c, Kauai 11-Cyrtandra oenobarba-e, Kauai 18-Cyrtandra 
oenobarba-f, and Kauai 19-Cyrtandra oenobarba-g, the primary 
constituent elements of critical habitat are:
    (A) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 centimeters).
    (B) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (C) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (D) Understory: Ferns, Bryophytes, Coprosoma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
FAMILY GESNERIACEAE: Cyrtandra paliku (HAIWALE)
    Kauai 4-Cyrtandra paliku-a, Kauai 10-Cyrtandra paliku-b, Kauai 11-
Cyrtandra paliku-c, Kauai 18-Cyrtandra paliku-d, and Kauai 19-Cyrtandra 
paliku-e, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (a)(1) of 
this section, constitute critical habitat for Cyrtandra paliku on 
Kauai. Within these units, the primary constituent elements of critical 
habitat are:
    (i) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 centimeters).
    (ii) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (iii) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (iv) Understory: Ferns, Bryophytes, Coprosoma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
* * * * *

[[Page 19161]]

FAMILY LAMIACEAE: Phyllostegia renovans (NCN)
    Kauai 10-Phyllostegia renovans-a, Kauai 10-Phyllostegia renovans-b, 
Kauai 11-Phyllostegia renovans-c, Kauai 11-Phyllostegia renovans-d, 
Kauai 20-Phyllostegia renovans-e, Kauai 23-Phyllostegia renovans-f, 
Kauai 24-Phyllostegia renovans-g, and Kauai 25-Phyllostegia renovans-h, 
identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (a)(1) of this 
section, constitute critical habitat for Phyllostegia renovans on 
Kauai.
    (i) In units Kauai 10-Phyllostegia renovans-b, Kauai 11-
Phyllostegia renovans-d, and Kauai 20-Phyllostegia renovans-e, the 
primary constituent elements of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,000 ft (914 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 centimeters).
    (C) Substrate: Clays, ashbeds, deep well-drained soils, lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (ii) In units Kauai 10-Phyllostegia renovans-a, Kauai 11-
Phyllostegia renovans-c, Kauai 23-Phyllostegia renovans-f, Kauai 24-
Phyllostegia renovans-g, and Kauai 25-Phyllostegia renovans-h, the 
primary constituent elements of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: 3,000 to 5,243 ft (914 to 1,598 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 centimeters).
    (C) Substrate: Well-developed soils, montane bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Charpentiera, Cheirodendron, Metrosideros.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cibotium, Eurya, Ilex, Myrsine.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Coprosma, Leptecophylla, Oreobolus, 
Rhynchospora, Vaccinium.
* * * * *
FAMILY LAMIACEAE: Stenogyne kealiae (NCN)
    Kauai 10-Stenogyne kealiae-a, Kauai 11-Stenogyne kealiae-b, Kauai 
11-Stenogyne kealiae-c, Kauai 11-Stenogyne kealiae-d, Kauai 20-
Stenogyne kealiae-e, Kauai 21-Stenogyne kealiae-f, and Kauai 22-
Stenogyne kealiae-g, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph 
(a)(1) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Stenogyne 
kealiae on Kauai.
    (i) In units Kauai 10-Stenogyne kealiae-a, Kauai 11-Stenogyne 
kealiae-c, and Kauai 20-Stenogyne kealiae-e, the primary constituent 
elements of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,000 ft (914 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 centimeters).
    (C) Substrate: Clays, ashbeds, deep well-drained soils, lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (ii) In units Kauai 11-Stenogyne kealiae-d, Kauai 21-Stenogyne 
kealiae-f, and Kauai 22-Stenogyne kealiae-g, the primary constituent 
elements of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: 3,000 to 5,243 ft (914 to 1,598 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 inches (127 to 190 centimeters).
    (C) Substrate: Weathered aa lava flows, rocky mucks, thin silty 
loams, deep volcanic ash soils.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Metrosideros, Psychotria, Tetraplasandra, 
Zanthoxylum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cheirodendron, Coprosma, Kadua, Ilex, Myoporum, 
Myrsine.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Dryopteris, Leptecophylla, Poa, Scaevola, 
Sophora.
    (iii) In unit Kauai 11-Stenogyne kealiae-b, the primary constituent 
elements of critical habitat are:
    (A) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 inches (190 centimeters).
    (B) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (C) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (D) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
FAMILY LOGANIACEAE: Labordia helleri (KAMAKAHALA)
    Kauai 7-Labordia helleri-a, Kauai 10-Labordia helleri-b, Kauai 10-
Labordia helleri-c, Kauai 11-Labordia helleri-d, Kauai 11-Labordia 
helleri-e, Kauai 11-Labordia helleri-f, Kauai 11-Labordia helleri-g, 
Kauai 20-Labordia helleri-h, Kauai 21-Labordia helleri-i, Kauai 22-
Labordia helleri-j, Kauai 23-Labordia helleri-k, Kauai 24-Labordia 
helleri-l, and Kauai 25-Labordia helleri-m, identified in the legal 
descriptions in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, constitute critical 
habitat for Labordia helleri on Kauai.
    (i) In units Kauai 7-Labordia helleri-a and Kauai 11-Labordia 
helleri-e, the primary constituent elements of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,000 ft (914 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 inches (127 to 190 centimeters).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Kauai 10-Labordia helleri-c, Kauai 11-Labordia 
helleri-f, and Kauai 20-Labordia helleri-h, the primary constituent 
elements of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,000 ft (914 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 centimeters).
    (C) Substrate: Clays, ashbeds, deep well-drained soils, lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (iii) In units Kauai 11-Labordia helleri-g, Kauai 21-Labordia 
helleri-i, and Kauai 22-Labordia helleri-j, the primary constituent 
elements of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: 3,000 to 5,243 ft (914 to 1,598 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 inches (127 to 190 centimeters).
    (C) Substrate: Weathered aa lava flows, rocky mucks, thin silty 
loams, deep volcanic ash soils.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Metrosideros, Psychotria, Tetraplasandra, 
Zanthoxylum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cheirodendron, Coprosma, Kadua, Ilex, Myoporum, 
Myrsine.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Dryopteris, Leptecophylla, Poa, Scaevola, 
Sophora.
    (iv) In units Kauai 10-Labordia helleri-b, Kauai 11-Labordia 
helleri-d, Kauai 23-Labordia helleri-k, Kauai 24-Labordia helleri-l, 
and Kauai 25-Labordia helleri-m, the primary constituent elements of 
critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: 3,000 to 5,243 ft (914 to 1,598 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 centimeters).
    (C) Substrate: Well-developed soils, montane bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Charpentiera, Cheirodendron, Metrosideros.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cibotium, Eurya, Ilex, Myrsine.

[[Page 19162]]

    (F) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Coprosma, Leptecophylla, Oreobolus, 
Rhynchospora, Vaccinium.
* * * * *
FAMILY LOGANIACEAE: Labordia pumila (KAMAKAHALA)
    Kauai 10-Labordia pumila-a, Kauai 11-Labordia pumila-b, Kauai 23-
Labordia pumila-c, Kauai 24-Labordia pumila-d, and Kauai 25-Labordia 
pumila-e, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (a)(1) of 
this section, constitute critical habitat for Labordia pumila on Kauai. 
Within these units, the primary constituent elements of critical 
habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: 3,000 to 5,243 ft (914 to 1,598 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 
centimeters).
    (iii) Substrate: Well-developed soils, montane bogs.
    (iv) Canopy: Acacia, Charpentiera, Cheirodendron, Metrosideros.
    (v) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cibotium, Eurya, Ilex, Myrsine.
    (vi) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Coprosma, Leptecophylla, Oreobolus, 
Rhynchospora, Vaccinium.
    (vii) Bogs.
* * * * *
FAMILY MYRSINACEAE: Lysimachia daphnoides (LEHUA MAKANOE)
    Kauai 10-Lysimachia daphnoides-a, Kauai 11-Lysimachia daphnoides-b, 
Kauai 23-Lysimachia daphnoides-c, Kauai 24-Lysimachia daphnoides-d, and 
Kauai 25-Lysimachia daphnoides-e, identified in the legal descriptions 
in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, constitute critical habitat for 
Lysimachia daphnoides on Kauai. Within these units, the primary 
constituent elements of critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: 3,000 to 5,243 ft (914 to 1,598 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 
centimeters).
    (iii) Substrate: Well-developed soils, montane bogs.
    (iv) Canopy: Acacia, Charpentiera, Cheirodendron, Metrosideros.
    (v) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cibotium, Eurya, Ilex, Myrsine.
    (vi) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Coprosma, Leptecophylla, Oreobolus, 
Rhynchospora, Vaccinium.
    (vii) Hummocks in bogs.
FAMILY MYRSINACEAE: Lysimachia iniki (NCN)
    Kauai 4-Lysimachia iniki-a, Kauai 10-Lysimachia iniki-b, Kauai 11-
Lysimachia iniki-c, Kauai 18-Lysimachia iniki-d, and Kauai 19-
Lysimachia iniki-e, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph 
(a)(1) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Lysimachia 
iniki on Kauai. Within these units, the primary constituent elements of 
critical habitat are:
    (i) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 centimeters).
    (ii) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (iii) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (iv) Understory: Ferns, Bryophytes, Coprosoma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
FAMILY MYRSINACEAE: Lysimachia pendens (NCN)
    Kauai 4-Lysimachia pendens-a, Kauai 10-Lysimachia pendens-b, Kauai 
11-Lysimachia pendens-c, Kauai 18-Lysimachia pendens-d, and Kauai 19-
Lysimachia pendens-e, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph 
(a)(1) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Lysimachia 
pendens on Kauai. Within these units, the primary constituent elements 
of critical habitat are:
    (i) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 centimeters).
    (ii) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (iii) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (iv) Understory: Ferns, Bryophytes, Coprosoma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
FAMILY MYRSINACEAE: Lysimachia scopulensis (NCN)
    Kauai 11-Lysimachia scopulensis-a, identified in the legal 
description in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, constitutes critical 
habitat for Lysimachia scopulensis on Kauai. Within this unit, the 
primary constituent elements of critical habitat are:
    (i) Annual precipitation: Less than 75 inches (190 centimeters).
    (ii) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, rocky talus.
    (iii) Subcanopy: Antidesma, Chamaesyce, Diospyros, Dodonaea.
    (iv) Understory: Bidens, Eragrostis, Melanthera, Schiedea.
FAMILY MYRSINACEAE: Lysimachia venosa (NCN)
    Kauai 4-Lysimachia venosa-a, Kauai 10-Lysimachia venosa-b, Kauai 
11-Lysimachia venosa-c, Kauai 18-Lysimachia venosa-d, and Kauai 19-
Lysimachia venosa-e, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph 
(a)(1) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Lysimachia 
venosa on Kauai. Within these units, the primary constituent elements 
of critical habitat are:
    (i) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 centimeters).
    (ii) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (iii) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (iv) Understory: Ferns, Bryophytes, Coprosoma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
FAMILY MYRSINACEAE: Myrsine knudsenii (KOLEA)
    Kauai 11-Myrsine knudsenii-a, Kauai 21-Myrsine knudsenii-b, and 
Kauai 22-Myrsine knudsenii-c, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (a)(1) of this section, constitute critical habitat for 
Myrsine knudsenii on Kauai. Within these units, the primary constituent 
elements of critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: 3,000 to 5,243 ft (914 to 1,598 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 inches (127 to 190 
centimeters).
    (iii) Substrate: Weathered aa lava flows, rocky mucks, thin silty 
loams, deep volcanic ash soils.
    (iv) Canopy: Acacia, Metrosideros, Psychotria, Tetraplasandra, 
Zanthoxylum.
    (v) Subcanopy: Cheirodendron, Coprosma, Kadua, Ilex, Myoporum, 
Myrsine.
    (vi) Understory: Bidens, Dryopteris, Leptecophylla, Poa, Scaevola, 
Sophora.
* * * * *
FAMILY MYRSINACEAE: Myrsine mezii (KOLEA)
    Kauai 10-Myrsine mezii-a, Kauai 11-Myrsine mezii-b, Kauai 11-
Myrsine mezii-c, Kauai 21-Myrsine mezii-d, Kauai 22-Myrsine mezii-e, 
Kauai 23-Myrsine mezii-f, Kauai 24-Myrsine mezii-g, and Kauai 25-
Myrsine mezii-h, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph 
(a)(1) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Myrsine mezii 
on Kauai.
    (i) In units Kauai 11-Myrsine mezii-c, Kauai 21-Myrsine mezii-d, 
and Kauai 22-Myrsine mezii-e, the primary constituent elements of 
critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: 3,000 to 5,243 ft (914 to 1,598 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 inches (127 to 190 centimeters).
    (C) Substrate: Weathered aa lava flows, rocky mucks, thin silty 
loams, deep volcanic ash soils.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Metrosideros, Psychotria, Tetraplasandra, 
Zanthoxylum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cheirodendron, Coprosma, Kadua, Ilex, Myoporum, 
Myrsine.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Dryopteris, Leptecophylla, Poa, Scaevola, 
Sophora.

[[Page 19163]]

    (ii) In units Kauai 10-Myrsine mezii-a, Kauai 11-Myrsine mezii-b, 
Kauai 23-Myrsine mezii-f, Kauai 24-Myrsine mezii-g, and Kauai 25-
Myrsine mezii-h, the primary constituent elements of critical habitat 
are:
    (A) Elevation: 3,000 to 5,243 ft (914 to 1,598 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 centimeters).
    (C) Substrate: Well-developed soils, montane bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Charpentiera, Cheirodendron, Metrosideros.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cibotium, Eurya, Ilex, Myrsine.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Coprosma, Leptecophylla, Oreobolus, 
Rhynchospora, Vaccinium.
* * * * *
FAMILY PITTOSPORACEAE: Pittosporum napaliense (HOAWA)
    Kauai 7-Pittosporum napaliense-a and Kauai 11-Pittosporum 
napaliense-b, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (a)(1) 
of this section, constitute critical habitat for Pittosporum napaliense 
on Kauai. Within these units, the primary constituent elements of 
critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,000 ft (914 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 inches (127 to 190 
centimeters).
    (iii) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (iv) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (v) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (vi) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
* * * * *
FAMILY RUBIACEAE: Psychotria grandiflora (KOPIKO)
    Kauai 10-Psychotria grandiflora-a, Kauai 11-Psychotria grandiflora-
b, Kauai 11-Psychotria grandiflora-c, Kauai 21-Psychotria grandiflora-
d, Kauai 22-Psychotria grandiflora-e, Kauai 23-Psychotria grandiflora-
f, Kauai 24-Psychotria grandiflora-g, and Kauai 25-Psychotria 
grandiflora-h, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (a)(1) 
of this section, constitute critical habitat for Psychotria grandiflora 
on Kauai.
    (i) In units Kauai 11-Psychotria grandiflora-c, Kauai 21-Psychotria 
grandiflora-d, and Kauai 22-Psychotria grandiflora-e, the primary 
constituent elements of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: 3,000 to 5,243 ft (914 to 1,598 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 inches (127 to 190 centimeters).
    (C) Substrate: Weathered aa lava flows, rocky mucks, thin silty 
loams, deep volcanic ash soils.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Metrosideros, Psychotria, Tetraplasandra, 
Zanthoxylum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cheirodendron, Coprosma, Kadua, Ilex, Myoporum, 
Myrsine.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Dryopteris, Leptecophylla, Poa, Scaevola, 
Sophora.
    (ii) In units Kauai 10-Psychotria grandiflora-a, Kauai 11-
Psychotria grandiflora-b, Kauai 23-Psychotria grandiflora-f, Kauai 24-
Psychotria grandiflora-g, and Kauai 25-Psychotria grandiflora-h, the 
primary constituent elements of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: 3,000 to 5,243 ft (914 to 1,598 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 centimeters).
    (C) Substrate: Well-developed soils, montane bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Charpentiera, Cheirodendron, Metrosideros.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cibotium, Eurya, Ilex, Myrsine.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Coprosma, Leptecophylla, Oreobolus, 
Rhynchospora, Vaccinium.
FAMILY RUBIACEAE: Psychotria hobdyi (KOPIKO)
    Kauai 7-Psychotria hobdyi-a and Kauai 11-Psychotria hobdyi-b, 
identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (a)(1) of this 
section, constitute critical habitat for Psychotria hobdyi on Kauai. 
Within these units, the primary constituent elements of critical 
habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,000 ft (914 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 inches (127 to 190 
centimeters).
    (iii) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (iv) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (v) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (vi) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
FAMILY RUTACEAE: Melicope degeneri (ALANI)
    Kauai 10-Melicope degeneri-a, Kauai 11-Melicope degeneri-b, Kauai 
23-Melicope degeneri-c, Kauai 24-Melicope degeneri-d, and Kauai 25-
Melicope degeneri-e, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph 
(a)(1) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Melicope 
degeneri on Kauai. Within these units, the primary constituent elements 
of critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: 3,000 to 5,243 ft (914 to 1,598 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 
centimeters).
    (iii) Substrate: Well-developed soils, montane bogs.
    (iv) Canopy: Acacia, Charpentiera, Cheirodendron, Metrosideros.
    (v) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cibotium, Eurya, Ilex, Myrsine.
    (vi) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Coprosma, Leptecophylla, Oreobolus, 
Rhynchospora, Vaccinium.
* * * * *
FAMILY RUTACEAE: Melicope paniculata (ALANI)
    Kauai 10-Melicope paniculata-a, Kauai 11-Melicope paniculata-b, and 
Kauai 20-Melicope paniculata-c, identified in the legal descriptions in 
paragraph (a)(1) of this section, constitute critical habitat for 
Melicope paniculata on Kauai. Within these units, the primary 
constituent elements of critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,000 ft (914 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 
centimeters).
    (iii) Substrate: Clays, ashbeds, deep well-drained soils, lowland 
bogs.
    (iv) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (v) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (vi) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
FAMILY RUTACEAE: Melicope puberula (ALANI)
    Kauai 10-Melicope puberula-a, Kauai 10-Melicope puberula-b, Kauai 
11-Melicope puberula-c, Kauai 11-Melicope puberula-d, Kauai 20-Melicope 
puberula-e, Kauai 23-Melicope puberula-f, Kauai 24-Melicope puberula-g, 
and Kauai 25-Melicope puberula-h, identified in the legal descriptions 
in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, constitute critical habitat for 
Melicope puberula on Kauai.
    (i) In units Kauai 10-Melicope puberula-b, Kauai 11-Melicope 
puberula-d, and Kauai 20-Melicope puberula-e, the primary constituent 
elements of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,000 ft (914 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 centimeters).
    (C) Substrate: Clays, ashbeds, deep well-drained soils, lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.

[[Page 19164]]

    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (ii) In units Kauai 10-Melicope puberula-a, Kauai 11-Melicope 
puberula-c, Kauai 23-Melicope puberula-f, Kauai 24-Melicope puberula-g, 
and Kauai 25-Melicope puberula-h, the primary constituent elements of 
critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: 3,000 to 5,243 ft (914 to 1,598 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 centimeters).
    (C) Substrate: Well-developed soils, montane bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Charpentiera, Cheirodendron, Metrosideros.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cibotium, Eurya, Ilex, Myrsine.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Coprosma, Leptecophylla, Oreobolus, 
Rhynchospora, Vaccinium.
FAMILY RUTACEAE: Platydesma rostrata (PILO KEA LAU LII)
    Kauai 4-Platydesma rostrata-a, Kauai 7-Platydesma rostrata-b, Kauai 
10-Platydesma rostrata-c, Kauai 10-Platydesma rostrata-d, Kauai 10-
Platydesma rostrata-e, Kauai 11-Platydesma rostrata-f, Kauai 11-
Platydesma rostrata-g, Kauai 11-Platydesma rostrata-h, Kauai 11-
Platydesma rostrata-i, Kauai 11-Platydesma rostrata-j, Kauai 18-
Platydesma rostrata-k, Kauai 19-Platydesma rostrata-l, Kauai 20-
Platydesma rostrata-m, Kauai 21-Platydesma rostrata-n, Kauai 22-
Platydesma rostrata-o, Kauai 23-Platydesma rostrata-p, Kauai 24-
Platydesma rostrata-q, and Kauai 25-Platydesma rostrata-r, identified 
in the legal descriptions in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, 
constitute critical habitat for Platydesma rostrata on Kauai.
    (i) In units Kauai 7-Platydesma rostrata-b and Kauai 11-Platydesma 
rostrata-g, the primary constituent elements of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,000 ft (914 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 inches (127 to 190 centimeters).
    (C) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (F) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
    (ii) In units Kauai 10-Platydesma rostrata-d, Kauai 11-Platydesma 
rostrata-h, and Kauai 20-Platydesma rostrata-m, the primary constituent 
elements of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: Less than 3,000 ft (914 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 centimeters).
    (C) Substrate: Clays, ashbeds, deep well-drained soils, lowland 
bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Antidesma, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pisonia, Psychotria.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cibotium, Claoxylon, Kadua, Melicope.
    (F) Understory: Alyxia, Cyrtandra, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, 
Machaerina, Microlepia.
    (iii) In units Kauai 11-Platydesma rostrata-j, Kauai 21-Platydesma 
rostrata-n, and Kauai 22-Platydesma rostrata-o, the primary constituent 
elements of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: 3,000 to 5,243 ft (914 to 1,598 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 inches (127 to 190 centimeters).
    (C) Substrate: Weathered aa lava flows, rocky mucks, thin silty 
loams, deep volcanic ash soils.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Metrosideros, Psychotria, Tetraplasandra, 
Zanthoxylum.
    (E) Subcanopy: Cheirodendron, Coprosma, Kadua, Ilex, Myoporum, 
Myrsine.
    (F) Understory: Bidens, Dryopteris, Leptecophylla, Poa, Scaevola, 
Sophora.
    (iv) In units Kauai 10-Platydesma rostrata-c, Kauai 11-Platydesma 
rostrata-f, Kauai 23-Platydesma rostrata-p, Kauai 24-Platydesma 
rostrata-q, and Kauai 25-Platydesma rostrata-r, the primary constituent 
elements of critical habitat are:
    (A) Elevation: 3,000 to 5,243 ft (914 to 1,598 m).
    (B) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 centimeters).
    (C) Substrate: Well-developed soils, montane bogs.
    (D) Canopy: Acacia, Charpentiera, Cheirodendron, Metrosideros.
    (E) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cibotium, Eurya, Ilex, Myrsine.
    (F) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Coprosma, Leptecophylla, Oreobolus, 
Rhynchospora, Vaccinium.
    (v) In units Kauai 4-Platydesma rostrata-a, Kauai 10-Platydesma 
rostrata-e, Kauai 11-Platydesma rostrata-i, Kauai 18-Platydesma 
rostrata-k, and Kauai 19-Platydesma rostrata-l, the primary constituent 
elements of critical habitat are:
    (A) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 centimeters).
    (B) Substrate: Greater than 65 degree slope, shallow soils, 
weathered lava.
    (C) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cheirodendron, Leptecophylla, 
Metrosideros.
    (D) Understory: Ferns, Bryophytes, Coprosoma, Dubautia, Kadua, 
Peperomia.
* * * * *
    (2) * * *
* * * * *
FAMILY ASPLENIACEAE: Diellia mannii (NCN)
    Kauai 11-Diellia mannii-a, Kauai 21-Diellia mannii-b, and Kauai 22-
Diellia mannii-c, identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph 
(a)(1) of this section, constitute critical habitat for Diellia mannii 
on Kauai. Within these units, the primary constituent elements of 
critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: 3,000 to 5,243 ft (914 to 1,598 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 inches (127 to 190 
centimeters).
    (iii) Substrate: Weathered aa lava flows, rocky mucks, thin silty 
loams, deep volcanic ash soils.
    (iv) Canopy: Acacia, Metrosideros, Psychotria, Tetraplasandra, 
Zanthoxylum.
    (v) Subcanopy: Cheirodendron, Coprosma, Kadua, Ilex, Myoporum, 
Myrsine.
    (vi) Understory: Bidens, Dryopteris, Leptecophylla, Poa, Scaevola, 
Sophora.
* * * * *
FAMILY DRYOPTERIDACEAE: Dryopteris crinalis var. podosorus (PALAPALAI 
AUMAKUA)
    Kauai 10-Dryopteris crinalis var. podosorus-a, Kauai 11-Dryopteris 
crinalis var. podosorus-b, Kauai 23-Dryopteris crinalis var. podosorus-
c, Kauai 24-Dryopteris crinalis var. podosorus-d, and Kauai 25-
Dryopteris crinalis var. podosorus-e, identified in the legal 
descriptions in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, constitute critical 
habitat for Dryopteris crinalis var. podosorus on Kauai. Within these 
units, the primary constituent elements of critical habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: 3,000 to 5,243 ft (914 to 1,598 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: Greater than 75 inches (190 
centimeters).
    (iii) Substrate: Well-developed soils, montane bogs.
    (iv) Canopy: Acacia, Charpentiera, Cheirodendron, Metrosideros.
    (v) Subcanopy: Broussaisia, Cibotium, Eurya, Ilex, Myrsine.
    (vi) Understory: Ferns, Carex, Coprosma, Leptecophylla, Oreobolus, 
Rhynchospora, Vaccinium.
* * * * *
FAMILY PTERIDACEAE: Doryopteris angelica (NCN)
    Kauai 7-Doryopteris angelica-a and Kauai 11-Doryopteris angelica-b,

[[Page 19165]]

identified in the legal descriptions in paragraph (a)(1) of this 
section, constitute critical habitat for Doryopteris angelica on Kauai. 
Within these units, the primary constituent elements of critical 
habitat are:
    (i) Elevation: Less than 3,000 ft (914 m).
    (ii) Annual precipitation: 50 to 75 inches (127 to 190 
centimeters).
    (iii) Substrate: Shallow soils, little to no herbaceous layer.
    (iv) Canopy: Acacia, Diospyros, Metrosideros, Myrsine, Pouteria, 
Santalum.
    (v) Subcanopy: Dodonaea, Freycinetia, Leptecophylla, Melanthera, 
Osteomeles, Pleomele, Psydrax.
    (vi) Understory: Carex, Dicranopteris, Diplazium, Elaphoglossum, 
Peperomia.
* * * * *

    Dated: January 21, 2010
Thomas L. Strickland
Assistant Secretary for Fish and Wildlife and Parks
[FR Doc. 2010-1904 Filed 4-12-10; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 4310-55-S