[Federal Register Volume 67, Number 183 (Friday, September 20, 2002)]
[Rules and Regulations]
[Pages 59161-59162]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 02-23878]

[[Page 59161]]



Drug Enforcement Administration

21 CFR Part 1308


Schedules of Controlled Substances: Temporary Placement of 
Benzylpiperazine and Trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine Into Schedule I

AGENCY: Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), Department of Justice.

ACTION: Final rule.


SUMMARY: The Deputy Administrator of the Drug Enforcement 
Administration (DEA) is issuing this final rule to temporarily place N-
benzylpiperazine (BZP) and 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl) piperazine 
(TFMPP) into Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) pursuant 
to the temporary scheduling provisions of the CSA. This final action is 
based on a finding by the DEA Deputy Administrator that the placement 
of BZP and TFMPP into Schedule 1 of the CSA is necessary to avoid an 
imminent hazard to the public safety. As a result of this rule, the 
criminal sanctions and regulatory controls of Schedule I substances 
under the CSA will be applicable to the manufacture, distribution, and 
possession of BZP and TFMPP.

Effective Date: September 20, 2002.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Frank Sapienza, Chief, Drug and 
Chemical Evaluation Section, Drug Enforcement Administration, 
Washington, DC 20537, (202) 307-7183.


Under What Authority Are BZP and TFMPPP Being Temporarily Scheduled?

    The Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984 (Pub. L. 98-473), which 
was signed into law on October 12, 1984, amended section 201 of the 
Controlled Substances Act (CSA)(21 U.S.C. 811) to give the Attorney 
General the authority to temporarily place a substance into Schedule I 
of the CSA for one year without regard to the requirements of 21 U.S.C. 
811 (b) if he finds that such action is necessary to avoid an imminent 
hazard to the public safety. The Attorney General may extend the 
temporary scheduling up to 6 months. A substance may be temporarily 
scheduled under the emergency provisions of the CSA if that substance 
is not listed in any other schedule under section 202 of the CSA (21 
U.S.C. 812) or if there is no exemption or approval in effect under 21 
U.S.C. 355 for the substance. The Attorney General has delegated his 
authority under 21 U.S.C. 811 to the Administrator of DEA (28 CFR 
0.100). The Administrator has redelgated this function to the Deputy 
Administrator, pursuant to 28 CFR 0.104.
    A notice of intent to temporarily place BZP and TFMPP into Schedule 
I of the CSA was published in the Federal Register on July 18, 2002 (67 
FR 47341). The Deputy Administrator transmitted notice of his intention 
to temporarily place BZP and TFMPP into Schedule I of the CSA to the 
Assistant Secretary for Health of the Department of Health and Human 
Services (HHS). In response to this notification, the Food and Drug 
Administration has advised DEA that there are no exemptions or 
approvals in effect under 21 U.S.C. 355 of the Food, Drug and Cosmetic 
Act for BZP and TFMPP and HHS has no objection to DEA's intention to 
temporarily place N. benzylpiperazine and 1-(3-
trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine into Schedule I of the CSA.

What Factors Were Considered in the Determination To Temporarily 
Schedule N-benzylpiperazine and 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine?

    The Deputy Administrator has considered the available data and the 
following three factors required for a determination to temporarily 
schedule a substance under the CSA (21 U.S.C. 811 (c)):
    4. Its history and current pattern of abuse;
    5. Scope, duration and significance of abuse; and
    6. What, if any, risk there is to the public health.
    Additionally, DEA has considered the three criteria for placing a 
substance into Schedule I of the CSA (21 USC 812). The data available 
and reviewed for BZP and TFMPP indicate that they have a high potential 
for abuse, no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the US and 
are not safe for use under medical supervision.

What Are BZP and TFMPP?

    BZP and TFMPP are piperazine derivatives, BZP was first synthesized 
in 1944 as a potential antiparasitic agent. There are no therapeutic 
applications for BZP and TFMPP, BZP and TFMPP have no accepted medical 
use in treatment in the United States. The safety for use of these two 
substances has not been determined. They are available primarily as 
chemical intermediates in syntheses. These two substances are similar 
in chemical structure and are often found to be abused together in 
tablets or powder form.

Why Are BZP and TFMPP Being Controlled?

    Abuse of BZP was first reported in late 1996 in California. BZP and 
TFMPP are being encountered in several regions of the United States and 
their abuse has spread rapidly from the states where they were 
initially encountered. Over the past few years, in the United States, 
BZP and TFMPP have increasingly been found in similar venues as the 
popular club drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, also known 
as Ecstasy). BZP and TFMPP are also sold as MDMA and are targeted to 
the youth population. The tablet form often bears imprints commonly 
seen on MDMA tablets such as a fly, crown, heart, butterfly, or bull's 
head logos in pink, tan, white, or green. BZP and TFMPP have also been 
found in powder form or liquid form packaged in small convenience sizes 
sold on the Internet, Illicit distributions occur through smuggling of 
bulk powder through organizations with connections to overseas sources 
of supply. The bulk powder is then processed into capsule, tablet, or 
pill form and distributed through organized networks. These 
organizations also distribute other controlled substances such as MDMA, 
2C-B, marijuana and anabolic steroids.
    The increasing abuse of BZP and TFMPP in the United States is 
evidenced by increasing encounters by law enforcement agencies. DEA, 
State and local law enforcement agencies reported BZP and TFMPP in drug 
exhibits seized in the states of California, Connecticut, Florida, 
Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Louisiana, Minnesota, Nevada, New York, 
Oregon, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia, Washington and 
Wisconsin. Over fifty (50) seizures have been reported and amounted to 
over 39,000 tablets and 1000 pounds of powder. BZP and TFMPP are being 
promoted as legal alternatives to MDMA. They are often sold as 
``Ecstasy'', or as ``BZP'', ``A\2\'', ``legal E'' or ``legal X''. BZP 
and TFMPP, with their easy availability and their so-called legal 
status, are becoming drugs of abuse in the United States.
    As with amphetamine and MDMA, the effects of BZP are stimulant-like 
and those of TFMPP are hallucinogen-like. The risks to the public 
health associated with MDMA and amphetamine, both substances with high 
potential for abuse, are well known and documented. BZP acts as a 
stimulant similar in effect to MDMA or amphetamine, producing euphoria 
and inducing cardiovascular

[[Page 59162]]

effects in humans, including increased heart rate, systolic blood 
pressure and pulse rate. TFMPP, at approximately 100 mg, produces 
hallucinogenic effects similar to those produced by MDMA. TFMPP is a 
serotonin releasing agent and binds to serotonin receptors in the 
brain. In 2001, a report from University Hospital in Zurich, 
Switzerland details the death of a young female which was attributed to 
the combined use of benzylpiperazine and MDMA.

What Is the Effect of This Final Rule?

    With the issuance of this final order, BZP and TFMPP become subject 
to regulatory controls and administrative, civil and criminal sanctions 
applicable to the manufacture, distribution, dispensing, importing and 
exporting of a Schedule I controlled substance.
    1. Registration. Any person who manufactures, distributes, 
dispenses, imports or exports BZP and TFMPP or who engages in research 
or conducts instructional activities with respect to BZP and TFMPP or 
who proposes to engage in such activities must submit an application 
for Schedule I registration in accordance with part 1301 of Title 21 of 
the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) by October 21, 2002.
    2. Security. BZP and TFMPP are subject to Schedule I security 
requirements and must be manufactured, distributed and stored in 
accordance with Sec. Sec.  1301.7, 1301.72(a), (c), and (d), 1301.73, 
1301.74, 1301.75(a) and (c) and 1301.76 of Title 21 of the Code of 
Federal Regulations.
    3. Labeling and Packaging. All labels and labeling for commercial 
containers of BZP and TFMPP which are distributed on or after October 
21, 2002 shall comply with requirements of Sec. Sec.  1302.02-1302.07 
of Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations.
    4. Quotas. Quotas for BZP and TFMPP are established pursuant to 
Part 1303 of Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations.
    5. Inventory. Every registrant required to keep records and who 
possesses any quantity of BZP and TFMPP is required to keep an 
inventory of all stocks of the substances on hand pursuant to 
Sec. Sec.  1304.03, 1304.04 and 1304.11 of Title 21 of the Code of 
Federal Regulations. Every registrant who desires registration in 
Schedule I for BZP and TFMPP shall conduct an inventory of all stocks 
of BZP and TFMPP on or before October 21, 2002.
    6. Records. All registrants are required to keep records pursuant 
to Sec. Sec.  1304.03, 1304.04 and Sec. Sec.  1304.21-1304.23 of Title 
21 of the Code of Federal Regulations.
    7. Reports. All registrants required to submit reports in 
accordance with Sec.  1304.31 through Sec.  1304.33 of Title 21 of the 
Code of Federal Regulations shall do so regarding BZP and TFMPP.
    8. Order Forms. All registrants involved in the distribution of BZP 
and TFMPP must comply with the order form requirements of part 1305 of 
Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations.
    9. Importation and Exportation. All importation and exportation of 
BZP and TFMPP must be in compliance with part 1312 of Title 21 of the 
Code of Federal Regulations.
    10. Criminal Liability. Any activity with BZP and TFMPP not 
authorized by, or in violation of, the Controlled Substances Act or the 
Controlled Substances Import and Export Act occurring on or after 
September 20, 2002 is unlawful.

Regulatory Certification

Regulatory Flexibility Act

    The Deputy Administrator hereby certifies that this rulemaking has 
been drafted in accordance with the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 
U.S.C. 605(b)), has reviewed this regulation, and by approving it 
certifies that this regulation will not have a significant economic 
impact on a substantial number of small entities. This action 
temporarily places BZP and TFMPP into Schedule I of the Controlled 
Substance Act.

Executive Order 12988

    This regulation meets the applicable standards set forth in 
Sections 3(a) and 3(b)(2) of Executive Order 12988 Civil Justice 

Executive Order 13132 Federalism

    This rule will not have substantial direct effects on the States, 
on the relationship between the national government and the States, or 
on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the various 
levels of government. Therefore, in accordance with Executive Order 
13132, it is determined that this rule will not have sufficient 
federalism implications to warrant the preparation of a Federalism 

Unfunded Mandates Reform Act

    This rule will not result in the expenditure by State, local and 
tribal governments, in the aggregate, or by the private sector, of 
$100,000,000 or more in any one year, and it will not significantly or 
uniquely affect small governments. Therefore, no actions were deemed 
necessary under provisions of the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995.

Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act of 1996

    This rule is not a major rule as defined by Sec.  804 of the Small 
Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act of 1996. This rule will 
not result in an annual effect on the economy of $100,000,000 or more; 
a major increase in costs or prices; or significant adverse effects on 
competition, employment, investment, productivity, innovation, or on 
the ability of United States-based companies to compete with foreign-
based companies in domestic and export markets.

List of Subjects in 21 CFR Part 1308

    Administrative practice and procedure, Drug traffic control, 
Narcotics, Prescription drugs, Reporting and Record keeping 

    Under the authority vested in the Attorney General by Section 
201(h) of the CSA (21 U.S.C. 811 (h)), and delegated to the 
Administrator of the DEA by 28 CFR 0.100, and redelegated to the Deputy 
Administrator by 28 CFR 0.104, the Deputy Administrator hereby orders 
that 21 CFR Part 1308 is amended as follows:


    1. The authority citation for 21 CFR Part 1308 continues to read as 

    Authority: 21 U.S.C. 811, 812, 871b, unless otherwise noted.

    2. Section 1308.11 is amended by adding paragraphs (g)(3) and 
(g)(4) to read as follows:

Sec.  1308.11  Schedule I.

* * * * *
    (g) * * *
    (3) N-benzylpiperazine (some other names: BZP; 1-benzylpiperazine), 
its optical isomers, salts and salts of isomers--7493
    (4) 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (other name: TFMPP), its 
optical isomers, salts and salts of isomers--7494
* * * * *

    Dated: September 5, 2002.
John B. Brown, III,
Deputy Administrator.
[FR Doc. 02-23878 Filed 9-19-02; 8:45 am]