[Federal Register Volume 67, Number 83 (Tuesday, April 30, 2002)]
[Proposed Rules]
[Pages 21327-21388]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 02-8143]



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Part II





Department of Transportation





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Research and Special Programs Administration



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49 CFR Part 171, et. al.



Hazardous Materials Regulations; Compatibility with the Regulations of 
the International Atomic Energy Agency; Proposed Rule

Federal Register / Vol. 67, No. 83 / Tuesday, April 30, 2002 / 
Proposed Rules

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DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Research and Special Programs Administration

49 CFR Parts 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177 and 178

[Docket No. RSPA-99-6283 (HM-230)]
RIN 2137-AD40


Hazardous Materials Regulations; Compatibility With the 
Regulations of the International Atomic Energy Agency

AGENCY: Research and Special Programs Administration (RSPA), DOT.

ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM).

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SUMMARY: RSPA proposes to amend requirements in the Hazardous Materials 
Regulations (HMR) pertaining to the transportation of radioactive 
materials based on changes contained in the International Atomic Energy 
Agency (IAEA) publication, entitled ``IAEA Safety Standards Series: 
Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material,'' 1996 
Edition, No. TS-R-1. The purpose of this rulemaking initiative is to 
harmonize requirements of the HMR with international standards for 
radioactive materials as well as to promulgate other DOT-initiated 
requirements.

DATES: Comments must be received by July 29, 2002.

ADDRESSES: Address comments to the Dockets Unit, U.S. Department of 
Transportation, Room PL 401, 400 Seventh St., SW., Washington, DC 
20590-0001. Comments should identify the docket number RSPA-99-6283 
(HM-230) and be submitted in two copies. Persons wishing to receive 
confirmation of receipt of their comments should include a self-
addressed stamped postcard. You may also submit comments to the docket 
electronically by accessing the Dockets Management System website at 
``http://dms.dot.gov.'' Click on ``Help & Information'' to obtain 
instructions for filing the document electronically. The Dockets Unit 
is located on the Plaza Level of the Nassif Building at the U.S. 
Department of Transportation at the above address. Public dockets may 
be reviewed between the hours of 9:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m., Monday 
through Friday, except on Federal holidays. Internet users may access 
all comments received by the U.S. Department of Transportation at 
http://dms.dot.gov. An electronic copy of the document may be 
downloaded using a modem and suitable communications software from the 
Government Printing Office Electronic Bulletin Board Service at (202) 
512-1661.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Fred D. Ferate II, Office of 
Hazardous Materials Technology, (202) 366-4545, or Charles E. Betts, 
Office of Hazardous Materials Standards, (202) 366-8553; RSPA, U.S. 
Department of Transportation, 400 Seventh Street SW., Washington, DC 
20590-0001.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

CONTENTS

I. Background.
II.Proposed Changes in this NPRM
    A. Summary
    A. Issue Discussion
    Issue 1: Nuclide-Specific Exemption Values
    Issue 2: Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials
    Issue 3: Changes in A1 and A2 Values
    Issue 4: Communication Changes
    Issue 5: Low Specific Activity (LSA) materials and Surface 
Contaminated Objects (SCO)
    Issue 6: Uranium Hexafluoride (UF6)
    Issue 7: Air Transport Requirements
    Issue 8: Fissile Material Package and Transport Requirements
    Issue 9: Transitional Requirements
    Issue 10: Additional TS-R-1 Change
III. Section-By-Section Review
IV. Regulatory Analyses and Notices
    A. Executive Order 12866 and DOT Regulatory Polices and 
Procedures
    B. Executive Order 13132
    C. Executive Order 13175
    D. Regulatory Flexibility Act
    E. Paperwork Reduction Act
    F. Regulation Identifier Number (RIN)
    G. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act
    H. Environmental Assessment

I. Background

    In 1958, at the request of the Economic and Social Council of the 
United Nations, the IAEA undertook the development of international 
regulations for the safe transportation of radioactive materials. The 
initial regulations published by the IAEA in 1961 were recommended to 
member states as the basis for national regulations and for application 
to international transportation. Most nations have since adopted the 
IAEA regulations as a basis for regulations governing the 
transportation of radioactive materials.
    In 1967, after extensive revisions, the IAEA published its 
regulations entitled ``Regulations for the Safe Transport of 
Radioactive Material, Safety Series No. 6.'' In October 1968, DOT 
published amendments to the Hazardous Materials Regulations (Title 49, 
Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 171-180; HMR) for radioactive 
materials which were in substantial conformance with the 1967 IAEA 
regulations (Docket HM-2, 33 FR 14918).
    Based on work done by participants from member states, including 
the U.S., the IAEA issued two major updates of Safety Series No. 6 in 
1973 and 1985. On March 10, 1983, the Research and Special Programs 
Administration (RSPA, we) published a final rule (Docket HM-169, 48 FR 
10218), bringing the HMR requirements relating to the transportation of 
radioactive materials into alignment with the 1973 IAEA regulations. On 
September 28, 1995, we published a final rule (Docket HM-169A, 60 FR 
50291) that revised the radioactive materials requirements in the HMR 
to align them with the 1985 revision of Safety Series No. 6. In each 
case, we coordinated the HMR revisions with the Nuclear Regulatory 
Commission (NRC), which concurrently revised 10 CFR part 71, and in 
each case these revisions made the United States radioactive material 
transport regulations compatible with those of most other 
industrialized nations.
    In 1996, the IAEA revised and issued IAEA Safety Standards Series 
No. ST-1, (``ST-1''). IAEA subsequently revised ST-1 in June 2000 to 
include minor editorial changes and renamed it ``TS-R-1.'' In this 
Notice, we use the nomenclature ``TS-R-1'' to refer to the 1996 IAEA 
``Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material.'' Copies 
of TS-R-1 may be obtained from the U. S. distributor, Bernan 
Associates, 4611-F Assembly Drive, Lanham, MD 20706-4391, telephone 
(301) 459-7666.
    As in past rulemakings to incorporate updates of the international 
regulations into the HMR, we are working in close cooperation with NRC 
in the development of this rulemaking. Currently, DOT and NRC jointly 
regulate the transportation of radioactive material in the United 
States in accordance with a July 2, 1979, Memorandum of Understanding 
(MOU; 44 FR 38690). In accordance with this MOU (a copy of which has 
been placed in the docket of this rulemaking):
    1. DOT regulates both shippers and carriers and has issued:
     Packaging requirements;
     Communication requirements for:

--Shipping paper contents,
--Package labeling and marking requirements, and
--Vehicle placarding requirements;

     Training and emergency response requirements; and
     Highway routing requirements.
    2. NRC requires its licensees to satisfy requirements to protect 
public health and safety and to assure the common defense and security, 
and:

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     Certifies Type B and fissile material package designs and 
approves package quality assurance programs for its licensees;
     Provides technical support to DOT and works with DOT to 
ensure consistency with respect to the transportation of radioactive 
materials; and
     Conducts inspections of licensees in accordance with DOT 
requirements.
    This rulemaking is being coordinated by RSPA with NRC to ensure 
that consistent regulatory standards are maintained for radioactive 
material transportation regulations, and to ensure coordinated 
publication of rules by both agencies. This NPRM addresses only the 
areas over which DOT has jurisdiction as defined in the MOU. Comments 
on non-DOT issues or on DOT issues not in the scope of this rulemaking 
will not be addressed in this NPRM. Comments responding to the NRC's 
parallel NPRM should be submitted directly to the NRC through its 
rulemaking process.
    On December 28, 1999 (64 FR 72633), we published an advance notice 
of proposed rulemaking (ANPRM) requesting comments from interested 
persons concerning the extent to which differences between the HMR and 
the IAEA publication TS-R-1 should be considered in proposing changes 
to the HMR. We identified a partial list of TS-R-1 requirements being 
considered for incorporation in the HMR. We invited interested persons 
to review and comment on any or all of the requirements in TS-R-1 that 
differ from current HMR requirements and identify related issues we 
should address in the NPRM. In response to the ANPRM, we received 
approximately 80 written comments from trade associations, hazardous 
materials consulting firms, chemical manufacturers, radiopharmaceutical 
manufacturers, shippers and carriers of hazardous materials, and 
private citizens.
    In addition, we compared TS-R-1 to the previous version of Safety 
Series No. 6 to identify changes made in TS-R-1, and then identified 
affected sections of the HMR. Based on this comparison and comments 
received from the ANPRM, we identified ten issues where increased 
compatibility between the HMR and TS-R-1 appears to be desirable.
    On February 1, 2000, we published a final rule under Docket HM-215D 
(66 FR 8644), in which we adopted the International Maritime Dangerous 
Goods (IMDG) Code, 2000 edition, including Amendment 30-00 and the UN 
Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, Eleventh Revised 
Edition (1999), both of which authorize the use of TS-R-1. We published 
a final rule on June 21, 2001 (66 FR 33315), which provided that TS-R-1 
could be used, as an alternative to the HMR, for international 
shipments or radioactive materials. Additionally, we retained Safety 
Series No. 6 with the same restrictions. Under this final rule, 
domestic shipments remain subject to the HMR requirements that are 
based on Safety Series No. 6. This NPRM will address the adoption of 
TS-R-1 for domestic use.
    This rulemaking will not propose any security related changes to 
the HMR. As a result of the terrorist incidents of September 11, 2001, 
and subsequent threats related to biological materials, we are 
reviewing the HMR to determine if additional requirements are necessary 
to assure the security of hazardous materials in transportation. We 
initiated a rulemaking project to address security issues related to 
the transportation of hazardous materials by all modes. We are 
examining hazard communication, shipping documentation, training, and 
other requirements to determine if rulemaking action is necessary.

II. Proposed Changes in This NPRM

A. Summary

    We have identified ten major issues concerning adoption of TS-R-1 
requirements, which are discussed in detail in Section B of this 
preamble. In addition, Section B also contains the analysis of 
comments.
    For incorporation into the HMR this NPRM proposes to:
     Adopt the nuclide-specific exemption activity 
concentrations and the nuclide-specific exemption consignment 
activities listed in TS-R-1 to assure continued consistency between 
domestic and international regulations for the basic definition of 
radioactive material;
     Provide an exception in the HMR that certain naturally 
occurring radioactive materials would not be subject to the 
requirements of the HMR so long as their specific activities do not 
exceed 10 times the activity concentration exemption values;
     Incorporate the TS-R-1 changes in the A1 and A2 values 
into the HMR;
     Adopt the new proper shipping names and UN identification 
numbers, except for those referring to Type C packages, to fissile LSA 
material and to fissile SCOs;
     Require, if customary units are used, that the appropriate 
quantity and customary units be placed within parentheses positioned 
after the original quantity expressed in the International System of 
Units (SI units);
     Adopt the use of the Criticality Safety Index (CSI) to 
refer to what was formerly the criticality control transport index, and 
to restrict the use of the concept of transport index (TI) to a number 
derived purely from the maximum radiation level at one meter from the 
package;
     Require the new fissile label be placed on each fissile 
material package, and that the CSI for that package be noted on the 
fissile label;
     Adopt the requirement that excepted packages be marked 
with the UN identification number, that industrial packagings be marked 
with the package type, and that Type IP-2 and IP-3 industrial packages 
and Type A packages be marked with the international vehicle 
registration code of the country of origin of packaging design;
     Remove some former requirements which would become 
redundant upon adoption of the new proper shipping names, such as the 
requirement that the shipping description contain the words 
``Radioactive Material'' unless those words are included in the proper 
shipping name;
     Remove plutonium-238 from the definition of fissile 
material. Remove the reference to Pu-238 in the list of fissile 
radionuclides for which the weight in grams or kilograms may be listed 
instead of or in addition to the activity, in the shipping paper or 
radioactive label description of the radioactive contents of a package;
     Adopt a definition of contamination, and include an 
authority to transport unpackaged LSA material and SCO, and an 
authority to use qualified tank containers, freight containers and 
metal intermediate bulk containers as industrial packagings, types 2 
and 3 (IP-2 and IP-3);
     Adopt the new class of LSA-I material, consisting of 
radioactive material in which the activity is distributed throughout 
and the estimated average specific activity does not exceed 30 times 
the activity concentration exemption level, and to remove the present 
category referring to mill tailings, contaminated earth, concrete, 
rubble, other debris, and activated material that is essentially 
uniformly distributed, with specific activity not exceeding 10-\6\ 
A2/g.
     Incorporate the TS-R-1 changes for packagings containing 
more than 0.1 kg of UF6;
     Authorize the use of the 1993 edition of ISO 7195 as an 
alternative to ANSI N14.1, to require UF6 packagings to meet 
the pressure, drop and thermal test requirements, to prohibit the use 
of pressure relief devices, and to certify the packagings in accordance 
with TS-R-1 requirements;

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     Revise Sec. 173.453 to reflect the NRC ``fissile material 
exemption provisions,'' to remove the definition of ``fissile material, 
controlled shipment,'' and to revise Sec. 173.457 and Sec. 173.459 to 
remove the references to ``fissile material, controlled shipment'' and 
to base requirements for non-exclusive use and exclusive use shipments 
of fissile material packages on TS-R-1 package and conveyance CSI 
limits;
     Accept the IAEA transitional requirements and begin the 
phase out of packages satisfying the 1967 IAEA requirements, including 
DOT specification packages;
     Require that manufacture of all Type B specification 
packages conforming to Safety Series No. 6 (1967) be prohibited as of 
the effective date of this rule and that use of these packages be 
prohibited two years after the effective date of this rule; and
     Add a requirement that the active material in an 
instrument or article intended to be transported in an excepted package 
be completely enclosed by the non-active components.

B. Issue Discussion

Issue 1: Nuclide-Specific Exemption Values
    Background. The HMR currently use a specific activity threshold of 
70 Bq/g (0.002 Ci/g) for defining a material as radioactive 
for purposes of transportation (see definition of radioactive material 
in Sec. 173.403), and radioactive material is not subject to the 
requirements of the HMR if its specific activity is equal to or below 
this value. The total activity per gram of all radionuclides present in 
a material is considered; i.e., if a chain of radionuclides is present, 
the material is regulated if the sum of the activities/gram of all 
radionuclides in the chain is 70 Bq/g or more.
    We use a threshold specific activity to determine the applicability 
of regulatory requirements because all material contains some level of 
radioactivity, although often in trivial amounts. In order not to 
regulate as radioactive material everything that is transported, it is 
necessary to specify what materials should be regulated in transport. 
The threshold value of 70 Bq/g has been thought by the international 
regulatory authorities to be sufficiently low as to present a 
negligible risk to transport workers or to members of the public from 
the radioactive nature of the material.
    In issuing TS-R-1, IAEA decided to replace the 70 Bq/g specific 
activity or activity concentration threshold with values that may be 
different for each radionuclide. In addition, TS-R-1 establishes 
threshold values for the total activity in a consignment, below which 
the risk is so small that the material could be transported without 
being subject to transportation regulatory requirements. These 
threshold values for specific activity and activity in a consignment 
are termed ``exemption values'' in TS-R-1. According to paragraph 236 
of TS-R-1, ``radioactive material,'' i.e., radioactive material that is 
considered radioactive for purposes of transport, is defined as the 
subset of radioactive material for which both the specific activity and 
the consignment activity are greater than the exemption values.
    The principles upon which the determination of the exemption values 
is based are that:
    (a) The radiation risks to individuals caused by the exempted 
practice or source are sufficiently low as to be of no regulatory 
concern;
    (b) The collective radiological impact of the exempted practice or 
source is sufficiently low as to not warrant regulatory control under 
the prevailing circumstances; and
    (c) The exempted practices and sources are inherently safe, with no 
appreciable likelihood of scenarios that could lead to a failure to 
meet the criteria in (a) and (b).
    The members of IAEA in deliberations leading to the adoption of 
Safety Series No. 115, ``International Basic Safety Standards for 
Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation 
Sources,'' IAEA, Vienna (1996) (also known as BSS), agreed to adopt 
exemption values for activity concentrations and total activities 
related to practices involving radioactive materials and to sources of 
radioactive material in fixed facilities. In accordance with 
``Radiation Protection-65: Principles and Methods for Establishing 
Concentrations and Quantities (Exemption Values) Below Which Reporting 
is not Required in the European Directive,'' by M. Harvey et al., 
Commission of the European Communities Doc. XI-028/93, 1993, each 
exemption value was selected to be the lesser of:
    (a) That at which a member of the critical group, under defined 
models (representative scenarios, including guiding assumptions) for 
practices and sources, would receive an effective dose of 10 
Sv (1 mrem) in a year under normal conditions; or
    (b) That for which the collective dose to all persons exposed to 
those practices and sources in a year for normal conditions is 1 
person-Sv (100 person-rem).
    The BSS calculations used three scenarios: (1) Normal use in the 
workplace, (2) an accident in the workplace where the probability of an 
exposure due to the accident was taken into account, and
    (3) exposure to the public as the result of disposal in a public 
landfill. Criteria (a) and (b) were applied to all scenarios 
considered. Criterion (a) was used with all scenarios to determine 
initial BSS exemption values. The collective dose criterion (b) was 
also applied, but found not to affect the results.
    The BSS calculation also incorporated two other criteria. One was 
an annual limit of 50 mSv (5 rem) to the skin of an individual. The 
other was that the exemption level would be chosen to assure that in 
the case of an accident, even in pessimistic situations, a dose limit 
of 1 mSv (100 mrem) would not be exceeded.
    In principle, the BSS exemption values assure that, for exempt 
practices and sources within practices at fixed facilities, no member 
of the public would likely receive an annual dose greater than 10 
Sv (1 mrem). In practice, however, since about 300 
radionuclides are involved, the values obtained were simplified by 
rounding to powers of 10, such that calculated xxx values between 
3 x 10x and 3 x 10x+1 would be replaced in the 
BSS tables by 1 x 10x+1. By determining the exemption values 
for each radionuclide so that they correspond to a single annual dose 
of 10 Sv (1 mrem), the calculations assure, within the 
uncertainty of the models employed, that the use of each radionuclide 
at its specific activity or total activity exemption value level will 
involve roughly the same small risk, since radioactivity is regulated 
under the assumption that the risk is proportional to the dose 
received. The rounding process used reduces that uniformity in risk, 
although it should be emphasized that the risks among which those 
variations occur are still small.
    Because the BSS exposure scenarios and pathways do not explicitly 
address the transport of radioactive material, during the development 
of TS-R-1 additional calculations were performed for 20 commonly 
transported radionuclides. The calculations considered transport 
scenarios consisting of a subset of the BSS scenarios thought to be 
pertinent to transportation and additional transport-specific scenarios 
[A. Carey et al., ``The Application of Exemption Values to the 
Transport of Radioactive Materials,'' Final Report, CEC Contract CT/
PST6/1540/1123 (September 1995). The calculations were originally 
performed for presentation at the Fourth Technical

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Committee Meeting on the Revision of the IAEA Regulations for the Safe 
Transport of Radioactive Material, Vienna, 25-29 September, 1995, at 
the request of SAGSTRAM-XI (11th Meeting of the IAEA Standing Advisory 
Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, TC-407.9, 6-10 
March, 1995). Synopses of this report may be found in: ``The 
Application of Exemption Values to the Transport of Radioactive 
Materials,'' by P. Francois et al., Proceedings of the 11th 
International Conference on the Packaging and Transportation of 
Radioactive Materials (PATRAM '95), Las Vegas, NV, Vol. I, p. 462 
(1995); and ``The Application of Exemption Values to the Transport of 
Radioactive Materials,'' by P. Francois et al., Proceedings of the IRPA 
9 Conference, Vienna, Vol. 4, p. 674 (1996).].
    For purposes of the calculations, it was first shown that at the 
current threshold activity concentration of 70 Bq/g, under the 
transport-derived scenarios, 14 of the 20 radionuclides considered were 
predicted to result in an annual individual dose greater than 1 mrem 
with 4 resulting in doses greater than 1 mSv (100 mrem); the highest 
was Th-232N (Th-232 in secular equilibrium with its decay products), 
with a predicted dose of about 2.3 mSv (230 mrem). Of the six 
radionuclides with annual doses less than 1 mrem, S-35 had the lowest 
dose, about 0.02 Sv (0.002 mrem). The average annual dose for 
these 20 nuclides was about 0.50 mSv (50 mrem). When the calculations 
were reversed, to find what activity concentration for each nuclide 
would result in an annual dose of 10 Sv, the necessary 
threshold activity concentrations ranged from 0.3 Bq/g for Th-232N to 
36,000 Bq/g for S-35.
    The same conditions used for fixed facilities were applied to the 
transport exemption value calculations for the 20 nuclides, namely that 
a member of the public (including transport workers, since the 
objective is to estimate the dose they might receive if they were not 
subject to the transportation regulations) receive no more than about 
10 Sv (1 mrem) per year, and that the annual collective dose 
be no greater than 1 person-Sv (100 person-rem). The main purpose of 
this analysis was to check the adequacy, with regard to the dose 
criteria, of the BSS exemption values in the case of exposure 
situations associated with transport. SAGSTRAM-XI accepted that if the 
exemption values provided by the analysis of transport scenarios 
differed by no more than one to two orders of magnitude, then it would 
be preferable to directly apply the BSS exemption values to the 
transport regulations, instead of defining a separate set of exemption 
values for transportation, in order to provide consistency with other 
practices. The results of the analysis of transport scenarios did in 
fact result in exemption values that did not differ from the BSS values 
by more than two orders of magnitude, with the exception of one 
radionuclide, Kr-85, for which it was argued that because Kr-85 is not 
transported in such large containers the scenarios used were overly 
conservative. On this basis it was decided to utilize the BSS exemption 
values for the transport regulations. For those radionuclides in the 
transport regulations not listed in the BSS, transportation exemption 
values were calculated using the BSS methodology.
    Because of the rounding procedure used to obtain the BSS values and 
the differences between the BSS- and transport-derived exemption values 
even without rounding, the annual individual doses derived using the 
transport scenarios combined with the BSS exemption activity 
concentrations for the 20 nuclides considered are no longer equal to 10 
Sv (1 mrem). A rough calculation, assuming strict 
proportionality between the annual dose and the transport-derived 
activity concentration exemption values, indicates that those 
calculated doses, using the BSS values in TS-R-1 for the 20 nuclides, 
now range (except for Kr-85, which gave an anomalously high value) from 
about 3 Sv (0.3 mrem) for C-14 to about 420 Sv (42 
mrem) for Au-198. If Kr-85 is included, the estimated annual dose to a 
transport worker transporting one of these 20 radionuclides at the TS-
R-1 exemption activity concentrations, averaged over these 20 
radionuclides, is about 230 Sv (23 mrem).
    There are some nuclides listed in Table I of TS-R-1 that contain a 
reference to footnote (b). These nuclides have the radiological 
contributions from their listed decay products, assumed to be in 
secular equilibrium with the initial radionuclide in the decay chain 
(activities of all members in the chain assumed equal, taking into 
account branching ratios), already included in the footnoted exemption 
value. For example, Sr-90 has a TS-R-1 exemption activity concentration 
of 100 Bq/g. This means that one may transport up to 100 Bq/g of Sr-90, 
which is equivalent to up to 200 Bq/g of Sr-90 combined with its decay 
product Y-90, before becoming subject to the regulations for 
transporting radioactive material.
    Discussion. Commenters to the 1999 ANPRM who address this issue 
generally do not support a change in the HMR definition of 
``radioactive material.'' One commenter who supports the change states 
that requiring materials to meet both the concentration criteria and 
the consignment activity level to be classed as Class 7 (radioactive) 
material adds much needed flexibility to the rules and suggests that 
this revision would be of great value, particularly for research 
institutions that frequently need to transfer small quantities and low 
concentrations of radioactive materials.
    Among commenters who oppose the IAEA revisions, several state that 
the use of radionuclide-specific concentration and total consignment 
exemption thresholds to determine whether a material is to be 
considered ``radioactive'' for purposes of transport would require 
substantial additional effort with few, if any, benefits. Other 
comments note that the current definition of radioactive material has 
served the United States well for several decades and assert that the 
benefits to be derived from a risk-based system that spans 7 orders of 
magnitude are not significant when compared to the simplicity of the 
current system.
    Another commenter states that the new IAEA thresholds will create 
problems with the transportation of consumer products since the new 
thresholds would result in varying points at which the regulations 
would apply, depending on the material.
    Many commenters who addressed this issue as part of the HM-215D 
rulemaking [Docket No. RSPA-2000-7702] state that the TS-R-1 revised 
definition of radioactive material lowers the level of safety provided 
by the current regulations, because under TS-R-1 some of the exemption 
activity concentrations are higher than the current 70 Bq/g.
    Several commenters suggest combinations of the current and proposed 
radioactive material definitions, such as using the TS-R-1 approach for 
international shipments while retaining the 70 Bq/g threshold for 
domestic shipments or adopting the new specific activity exemption 
values only in those cases where the new values are greater than 70 Bq/
g and retaining the 70 Bq/g threshold for the remainder.
    RSPA believes that the improved risk basis for the proposed 
exemption values and the advantages of harmonization with the 
international radioactive material transport regulations outweigh the 
benefits of the current more simple system. The proposed activity 
concentration exemption values distribute the risk to workers and

[[Page 21332]]

members of the public more equitably, around a value corresponding to 
an annual dose of approximately 230 Sv (23 mrem). This should 
be compared with the situation using the single activity concentration 
threshold of 70 Bq/g, which for the same 20 radionuclides distributes 
the risk around a value corresponding to an annual dose of about 500 
Sv (50 mrem).
    We agree that the new system is more complex. However, for most 
manufactured products the determination of whether those products fall 
under the domain of the HMR need be made only once or very 
occasionally. For those cases where there is more variation in the 
specific activity of the consumer product, such as might be the case 
for products manufactured from ores containing small amounts of 
naturally occurring radioactive material, the types of radioactive 
material which may be present are relatively well known, and it will 
usually be possible to set up a standard procedure for determining 
whether the product is subject to the HMR. It should be kept in mind 
that with the current 70 Bq/g threshold such determinations are also 
necessary.
    Because some proposed exemption concentrations are greater than the 
current value of 70 Bq/g, it might be argued that in these cases we are 
proposing to ``lower the level of safety.'' However, the increase in 
risk in these cases is in a range where the risk is very small. For P-
32, for example, the increase in exemption level from 70 
Bq/g to the BSS threshold of 1,000 
Bq/g results in an increase of the risk for a worker transporting this 
material without being subject to the HMR from a value corresponding to 
0.58 mrem/y up to a value corresponding to 8.3 mrem/y. For comparison 
purposes, it was mentioned earlier in this section that for the 20 
nuclides to which the transport and fixed facility scenarios were first 
applied, the original threshold of 70 Bq/g corresponds to an average 
annual dose of about 50 mrem, while use of the BSS exemption activity 
concentrations adopted in TS-R-1 corresponds to an average annual dose 
of about 23 mrem. Thus, use of the proposed exemption values will 
reduce the overall risk by about 50%.
    We prefer not to adopt a combination approach to defining 
radioactive materials in which different exemption values would apply 
to international and domestic shipments, since doing so would tend to 
make the proposed system still more complex, and lead us away from the 
goal of harmonization.
    Accordingly, we propose to adopt the nuclide-specific exemption 
activity concentrations and the nuclide-specific exemption consignment 
activities listed in TS-R-1. These would be listed in a new section 
(Sec. 173.436). The purpose of adopting the TS-R-1 exemption values 
would be to assure continued consistency between domestic and 
international regulations for the basic definition of radioactive 
material. In addition, adoption of the TS-R-1 exemption values would 
reduce and make more uniform the risk to transport workers and members 
of the public when radioactive material is transported at levels below 
the exemption values, where these materials would not be regulated as 
radioactive. Adoption of these values would provide a consistent level 
of protection for all radionuclides and would result in a single 
regulatory structure valid for both domestic and international 
shipments, thus reducing the potential for error in classifying the 
material for shipment, reducing costs for those entities that ship 
domestically and internationally, and increasing regulatory efficiency. 
Since shippers who have materials with radioactivity near the exemption 
levels currently need to know what radionuclides and activity levels 
are present in order to determine compliance with the 70 Bq/g 
threshold, the primary changes that would be needed when using the 
nuclide-specific exemption values would be those introduced to apply 
the sum rules for mixtures, and possible changes in computer software, 
recordkeeping, training, and other mostly administrative requirements. 
We believe that the cost savings associated with the enhanced 
regulatory efficiency due to having common domestic and international 
criteria for classifying material for shipment, and with thus 
facilitating the goal of consistency between countries with respect to 
future modifications of the regulations, outweigh the additional costs 
resulting from applying the new procedures.
    As described under Issue 2, certain naturally occurring radioactive 
materials with activity concentrations or activities up to 10 times the 
exemption values, which are not extracted for their radioactive 
properties, would be excluded from these regulations in order to avoid 
regulating large amounts of these materials which have not heretofore 
been subject to radioactive material transport regulations. Since, 
however, for some radionuclides 10 times the exemption activity 
concentrations will not be the same as the present 70 Bq/g threshold, 
some currently unregulated naturally occurring radioactive materials 
will fall under the scope of the regulations, and some materials which 
were formerly regulated because they had a specific activity slightly 
greater than 70 Bq/g, may no longer be regulated. The former situation 
would lead to some additional costs for the companies involved; 
however, that would be at least partially offset by reduced costs for 
shipping those materials in the latter category. Commenters did not 
provide details or numbers to aid in estimating the magnitude of the 
projected costs or cost savings, or who would be affected.
    Issue 2: Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials
    An important addition to the list of circumstances in TS-R-1 under 
which the regulations do not apply is found in paragraph 107(e) of that 
document. That paragraph excludes certain naturally occurring 
radioactive materials from being regulated during transportation. The 
purpose of the exclusion is to take into account practical difficulties 
that result from reducing the exemption concentrations for several 
alpha emitters from the present level of 70 Bq/g (0.002 Ci/g) 
in conjunction with the adoption of nuclide-specific exemption values 
(see the discussion under Issue 1).
    Certain of these radionuclides, such as natural uranium and natural 
thorium, are widespread in nature and found in almost all ores, such as 
coal, phosphate, gypsum, or a large variety of metals or other 
minerals. Application of the new exemption values to the radioactive 
material in these ores would result in bringing under the scope of the 
regulations enormous amounts of material that have until now not been 
subject to those regulations, and whose specific activity level 
presents a very low hazard.
    On the other hand, there are ores in nature where the specific 
activity concentration is much higher than the exemption values, and 
the regular transport of these ores may require the use of the 
radiation protection measures inherent in applying the regulations. 
Thus, for low specific activity ores not intended to be processed for 
use of those radionuclides, a threshold of 10 times the exemption 
values provides an appropriate balance between the need for 
radiological controls at higher concentrations and the practical 
problems associated with over-regulation which would arise for large 
quantities of material with low specific activity concentrations of 
naturally occurring radionuclides.
    Discussion. Commenters to the ANPRM generally agree that the HMR 
should be revised to incorporate the scope limitations of TS-R-1.

[[Page 21333]]

Commenters state that this would remove HMR controls from consumer 
commodities, such as smoke detectors, and radioactive material that is 
an integral part of the packaging, such as casks with depleted uranium 
shielding. (We note that this is not necessarily a valid argument for 
incorporating the cited scope limitation since, for example, materials 
used in smoke detectors are not usually naturally occurring, and 
uranium in depleted uranium shielding would have been originally mined 
for its radioactive properties. In addition, such materials are usually 
found to be in quantities above ten times the proposed exemption 
values.) Commenters further state that, since these items are 
inherently safe, they should be removed from the scope of the HMR. 
Several commenters state that any change to the scope should ensure 
that materials regulated as ``radioactive'' for transportation purposes 
does not extend to ores and natural materials, including products made 
from those ores and materials, that are outside the nuclear fuel cycle 
and do not exceed an appropriate regulatory threshold and, thus, 
present a very low hazard.
    Several commenters suggest that a provision to allow radiation 
protection personnel to carry excepted quantities of solid radioactive 
material on passenger aircraft as checked baggage should be added to 
allow radiation protection personnel to travel to a site with 
appropriate radiation detection equipment without the worry that they 
are in violation of the HMR. These commenters assert that this 
provision would have a very direct benefit to public health protection 
and since the quantities involved are far below the A1 or 
A2 limits, the risk would not be significant. We note that 
the HMR currently permit carriage aboard an aircraft of a limited 
quantity of radioactive material, or an instrument or article 
containing radioactive material, meeting the requirements of 
Sec. 173.421 or Sec. 173.424, in checked baggage. This was formally 
stated in a letter issued on March 19, 1991, from the Federal Aviation 
Administration Director of the Office of Civil Aviation Security 
Operations to the Director of State Programs of the U.S. Nuclear 
Regulatory Commission. Therefore, we do not agree that a specific 
regulatory provision is necessary.
    One commenter asserts that there is no significant safety or 
economic impact from the application of the graded approach to 
performance standards described in paragraph 106 of TS-R-1. The 
commenter expresses support for the incorporation of the three severity 
levels (routine, normal and accident conditions of transport) to 
determine the level of regulation required by the HMR. The HMR are 
designed as to assure that the severity of regulatory requirements is 
proportional to the hazard of the materials to be transported. TS-R-1 
and several previous revisions of the IAEA regulations refer to the 
industrial and Type A package performance requirements, found in 49 CFR 
173.465, as ``tests for demonstrating ability to withstand normal 
conditions of transport,'' and the additional performance requirements 
for Type B and fissile material packages, found in 10 CFR 71, as 
``tests for demonstrating ability to withstand accident conditions of 
transport.'' We believe that the distinction made in TS-R-1 between 
routine (incident free) and normal (minor mishaps) is artificial, and 
does not enhance the use of the graded approach.
    Finally, one commenter suggests that language in the regulations 
should be simplified and clarified, rather than further complicated, to 
ensure understanding by various segments of the distribution network 
with a wide range of educational levels. This commenter states that TS-
R-1 uses several terms, the definition and application of which are 
unclear and vulnerable to subjective interpretation. Examples include 
``worker,'' ``appropriate training,'' ``unlikely to exceed,'' 
``appropriate records,'' and ``regularly occupied working areas.'' This 
commenter suggests that, due to the extensive interface between 
transport of radioactive materials and sites subject to NRC, Agreement 
State, and other nuclear regulatory agency jurisdiction, the definition 
and application of terms should be clarified and consistent between TS-
R-1 and the regulations of these other agencies, and should be 
consistent with international regulations. We agree. In this NPRM we 
have attempted to reduce the number of undefined terms, and to add or 
modify definitions where appropriate.
    Accordingly, in this NPRM we are proposing to provide an exception 
in the HMR, in Sec. 173.401, that naturally occurring radioactive 
materials not intended to be processed for their radioactive components 
and with activity concentration not to exceed ten times the exemption 
activity concentrations would not be subject to the requirements of the 
HMR.
Issue 3: Changes in A1 and A2 Values
    Background.
    The international and domestic transportation regulations use 
calculated activity values for each radionuclide to specify the amount 
of radioactive material that is permitted to be transported in 
particular packaging and for other purposes. These numbers, known as 
the A1 and A2 values, indicate the maximum 
activity that is permitted to be transported in a Type A package. For 
example, A1 is the maximum activity of radioactive material 
in special form, and A2 is the maximum activity in non-
special form that may be transported in a Type A package. A1 
and A2 values for the most commonly transported 
radionuclides are listed in 49 CFR 173.435, and in Appendix A to 10 CFR 
71.
    A1 and A2 values for most of the commonly 
transported radionuclides were provided in the 1973 IAEA Safety Series 
No. 6, and were based on certain dosimetric models and the assumption 
of certain exposure scenarios and pathways. These models and scenarios 
were extended and improved in the 1985 Safety Series No. 6, where the 
calculation procedure was called the ``Q-system.'' This resulted in 
changes in the A1 and A2 values listed there. 
More recent biokinetic data and dosimetric models have been used to 
update the Q-system and the resulting A1 and A2 
values in the 1996 TS-R-1.
    To determine whether a given amount of radioactive material may be 
shipped in a Type A package, or if a Type B package must be used 
instead, the total activity to be shipped is compared directly with the 
appropriate A1 or A2 value. Fractions or 
multiples of the A1 and A2 values are also used 
for several other purposes, such as specifying Type B package activity 
leakage limits, low specific activity and excepted package limits, and 
determining whether a given amount of radioactive material constitutes 
a Highway Route Controlled Quantity.
    Based on the results from the updated Q-system (see TS-G-1.1, 
Appendix I), IAEA has adopted new A1 and A2 
values for radionuclides listed in TS-R-1 (see paragraph 201 and Table 
1 of TS-R-1). IAEA adopted these new values based on calculations that 
were performed using the latest dosimetric models recommended by the 
International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 
Publication 60, ``1990 Recommendations of the ICRP.'' A thorough review 
of the Q-system also included incorporation of data from updated 
metabolic uptake studies. In addition, several refinements were 
introduced in the calculation of contributions to the effective dose 
from each of the pathways considered. The pathways themselves are the 
same ones considered in the 1985 version of the Q-system, i.e., 
external photon dose;

[[Page 21334]]

external beta dose; inhalation dose; skin and ingestion dose from 
contamination; and dose from submersion in gaseous radionuclides. The 
impact of these analyses is that for each radionuclide a thorough up-
to-date radiological assessment has been performed of potential 
exposures to an individual should a Type A transport package of 
radioactive material be involved in an accident during transport. The 
new A1 and A2 values reflect that assessment.
    While the dosimetric models and dose pathways within the Q-system 
were thoroughly reviewed and updated, the reference doses that the 
model uses were unchanged. The reference doses are the dose values that 
are used to define a ``not unacceptable'' dose in the event of an 
accident. Consequently, while some revised A1 and 
A2 values are higher and some are lower, the potential dose 
following an accident is the same. The revised dosimetric models are 
accepted internationally as more accurate ways of calculating the doses 
from individual nuclides, and this improvement in accuracy and the 
additional refinements in the pathways calculations result in various 
changes to the A1 and A2 values. In other words, 
where an A1 or A2 value has increased, the 
potential dose is still the same--the use of the revised dosimetric 
models merely illustrates that a higher activity of that radionuclide 
is actually required to produce the same reference dose. Conversely, 
where an A1 or A2 value has decreased, the 
revised models show that less activity of that nuclide is needed to 
produce the reference dose. Many A1 and A2 values 
have been adjusted to reflect more recent dosimetric data; in general, 
the adjustments are not large.
    Some radionuclides for which A1 and A2 values 
are presently listed in 49 CFR 173.435 and Appendix A of 10 CFR 71 do 
not appear in Table I of TS-R-1. These are Ar-42, Au-196, Es-253, Es-
254, Es-254m, Es-255, Fm-255, Fm-257, Ho-163, Ir-193m, Nb-92m, Po-208, 
Po-209, Re-183, Te-118, and Tm-168. All except the Einsteinium (Es) and 
Fermium (Fm) isotopes appear in Safety Series No. 6, 1985 Edition; the 
latter (Es and Fm) isotopes were appended to the tables in DOT's and 
NRC's domestic regulations when these incorporated the 1985 IAEA 
regulations. Through an oversight, numerical A1 and 
A2 values were never entered for Es-255. The above nuclides 
were not included in TS-R-1 Table I because of uncertainties in their 
decay schemes and/or the biological models used to determine doses from 
internal exposures (Dr. K. Eckerman, Oak Ridge National Laboratory).
    Discussion. Several commenters to the ANPRM support the new 
A1 and A2 values in general, but request 
retention of the present A2 value of 20 Ci for domestic 
shipments of Mo-99, citing an increase in the needed number of 
shipments with consequent greater radiation exposure to workers and 
greater costs as probable consequences of eliminating the present 20 Ci 
domestic exception. We note that the A2 value for Mo-99 in 
TS-R-1 is 0.6 TBq (16.2 Ci), compared to 0.5 TBq (13.5 Ci) in Safety 
Series No. 6, 1985 Edition. Upon further review of these comments, and 
of similar comments received and analyzed during the incorporation of 
Safety Series No. 6, 1985 Edition changes into the HMR (60 FR 50292), 
we are proposing to continue to allow this domestic exception of 0.74 
TBq (20 Ci) for the A2 value of Mo-99.
    A major manufacturer and a major user of californium-252 (Cf-252) 
neutron sources oppose any proposal that would reduce the A1 
quantity for Cf-252 from its present value of 0.1 TBq (2.7 Ci) to 0.05 
TBq (1.35 Ci). One commenter states that reducing the A1 
limit for Cf-252 is not justifiable based on potential radiation 
exposure rates, and emphasizes that the physical and chemical forms of 
the californium sources are such that this material, if released, is 
insoluble in water and will not burn in air, and that this was not 
taken into account in the Q-system calculations. This commenter asserts 
that Cf-252 is shipped in Type A packages, and that the costs of 
designing, qualifying and using Type B packages for sources that will 
continue to have an activity no greater than 0.1 TBq (2.7 Ci) are much 
higher and not necessary. This commenter additionally states that using 
a special form Type A limit which is one half the previous value would 
double the number of shipments, thereby increasing the risk of 
transport damage and increasing the potential of exposure of transport 
workers to radiation. The commenter further states that the company has 
a substantial investment in the design and construction of Type A 
packages for transporting Cf-252 in the 0.05 to 0.1 TBq range, and that 
a general purpose unit for shipping 5 mg (0.1 TBq) of Cf-252 weighs 
several tons. Changing to the TS-R-1 A1 value would render 
these packages unusable. The company estimates that its costs for 
dismantling and disposing of these packages, which may contain 
activated metallic parts and would have to be treated as potentially 
radioactive material, to be on the order of $500,000, not counting the 
high additional costs required to design, construct, test, and obtain 
certification for new Type B containers.
    During analysis of these comments, RSPA and NRC staff members 
learned that the IAEA is proposing, for the 2003 revision of TS-R-1, to 
change the A1 and A2 values in TS-R-1 for Cf-252 
back to the values currently in the HMR. For this reason we decided to 
include in this rulemaking a domestic exception to the TS-R-1 Cf-252 
A1 and A2 values, retaining the present Title 49 
A1 and A2 values for domestic shipments. Import 
and export shipments, however, would be subject to the TS-R-1 
A1 and A2 values.
    Other commenters are supportive of the proposed adoption of the new 
A2 activity limits. One commenter, who will be moving large 
quantities of radioactive waste (especially LSA and SCO) as result of 
environmental cleanup, sites (or facilities) closures, and waste 
repository operations, states that adopting the new A2 
values will increase the waste shipping volume per conveyance. As a 
result, the transportation costs will decrease and the number of 
packagings required will be reduced.
    In this NPRM, we propose to incorporate the TS-R-1 A1 
and A2 values into the HMR, in Sec. 173.435, with the 
exceptions noted above for Mo-99 and Cf-252. There are two principal 
arguments for adopting the new values: One is the need to continue to 
assure the safety of workers and the public, taking into account the 
latest scientific analyses. The other is the need for harmonization 
with the international regulations in this area. This harmonization 
would eliminate the complexities resulting from having to move back and 
forth between two already complex A1 and A2 
systems, and the resultant increased probability of inadvertent errors 
from doing so. In addition, retaining the current values, which are 
essentially those from Safety Series No. 6, 1985 Edition, would in most 
cases not be scientifically justifiable, since the new values were 
introduced in TS-R-1 precisely in order to take into account 
advancements in scientific knowledge.
    In this NPRM, we propose to not include A1 and 
A2 values for the 16 isotopes described above which are 
listed in our present domestic regulations, but which do not appear in 
TS-R-1. This means that the default A1 and A2 
values in TS-R-1 would have to be used for these isotopes. However, DOT 
regulations at Sec. 173.433(b) provide a mechanism for obtaining 
approval from the Associate Administrator for Hazardous Materials 
Safety to use convincingly documented values of A1

[[Page 21335]]

and A2 for radionuclides not listed in the table in 
Sec. 173.435. We propose in this NPRM to include a similar mechanism to 
obtain approval for use of non-default exemption values for these 
radionuclides.
Issue 4: Communication Changes
    Background. The TS-R-1 revisions in hazard communication includes 
the following:
     Proper shipping names and UN identification numbers are 
changed (Table VIII in TS-R-1);
     UN identification numbers now must be marked on excepted 
packages (paragraph 535), and package type, international vehicle 
registration code (the letters USA in the case of the U.S.) and 
packaging manufacturer now must be marked on all industrial and Type A 
packages (paragraph 537);
     Radionuclide activities must be expressed in SI units 
(paragraphs 543 and 549);
     The former criticality transport index (criticality TI) 
for fissile material has been abolished, and replaced with the CSI 
(paragraph 218); TI is now derived exclusively from the maximum 
radiation dose rate at one meter from the package (paragraphs 243, 526, 
527); and
     For fissile material, a fissile label is introduced, upon 
which the CSI must be displayed (Figure 5, paragraphs 544, 545). 
Industrial packagings are to carry the markings TYPE IP-1, TYPE IP-2 or 
TYPE IP-3 as appropriate (paragraph 537).
    Discussion. Several commenters note that changing proper shipping 
names will require all shipments to be re-labeled. One commenter states 
that the majority of labels that would be affected are metal and pop-
riveted directly onto the container, requiring major work to replace 
these labels with no net safety benefit. These commenters further 
assert that many preprinted shipping papers will be affected and 
request a grandfathering or transition period to update the paperwork 
to reflect the new names.
    We agree that there would be definite and sometimes appreciable 
costs associated with the change to the use of new proper shipping 
names and UN identification numbers. However, those who import or 
export radioactive material, as well as those who offer for 
transportation such material domestically to air carriers operating 
under the Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous 
Goods by Air of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), 
must necessarily use the new shipping names and UN numbers as of ICAO's 
implementation of the TS-R-1 requirements effective July 1, 2001. In 
addition, in order to accommodate domestic and international air 
transport of radioactive material in accordance with the ICAO Technical 
Instructions as well as domestic transport by other modes in accordance 
with the present requirements of Title 49, and to permit the use in 
transport by those other modes of packages which had been marked with 
the new names and numbers for air transport, the final rule adopted 
under docket HM-215D authorizes the use for all modes of either the 
previous proper shipping names and UN numbers or the new ones. Thus, 
many shippers are already required to use the new names and numbers or 
are doing so voluntarily. Morever, since these transition arrangements 
are likely to remain in place until the effective date of the final 
rule that is expected to result from this NPRM, there should be ample 
time to implement the proposed changes.
    Several commenters supported the adoption of the new package 
labeling requirements to provide information on the CSI. Commenters 
state that the CSI provides essential information relevant for proper 
separation of packages with fissile material contents during their 
storage and stowage. Commenters further state that there would be a 
one-time operational impact and cost of incorporating the new FISSILE 
label. One commenter estimates this one-time cost to their operation to 
be a few million dollars that would include personnel training; 
procedure revisions; and package, overpack and container labeling. 
Commenters request a five-year transition period to allow for the use 
and depletion of existing label inventories and to develop, manufacture 
and obtain new labels prior to the implementation date. We agree that 
there will be an appreciable but not major one-time impact and a minor 
ongoing impact of using the new FISSILE labels for shippers of fissile 
material, but that the simplicity and improvement in safety that will 
result from distinguishing the CSI from the TI fully justifies this 
proposal. The use of existing label inventories should not be a 
problem, since we are proposing no change to existing labeling 
requirements. There should be sufficient time between the publication 
date and the effective date of a final rule to obtain the new FISSILE 
labels, particularly since these labels are already required for most 
international fissile material shipments.
    Several commenters oppose the new excepted package marking 
requirements in TS-R-1. They assert that current HMR do not require 
exterior marking of excepted packages, and suggest that the addition of 
the UN identification number with the letters ``UN'' would do little to 
enhance the understanding of the contents of excepted packages or the 
safety of individuals responding to excepted package incidents. They 
further state that the addition would more likely confuse carriers and 
end users.
    We are aware of the sometimes appreciable initial costs, and the 
change of culture that placing the UN identification numbers on 
excepted packages would entail. However, we do not agree that this 
addition will confuse carriers and end users, nor that it would do 
little to enhance the understanding of package contents. Possible 
confusion should be minimal, since carrier personnel are required to 
receive appropriate training in accordance with subpart H of Part 172. 
The addition of the UN identification numbers would indicate to first 
responders in an accident that packages containing small quantities of 
radioactive material are present. By referring to the DOT Emergency 
Response Guidebook, in the use of which all first responders are 
required to be trained, appropriate remedial measures can be taken. 
Also, as in the case of other TS-R-1 requirements, those who import or 
export commercial items in excepted packages, as well as those who 
offer for transportation such items domestically using air carriers who 
operate under the ICAO Technical Instructions, are currently required 
to mark the UN identification numbers on those packages, so that the 
harmonization of our requirements with those of TS-R-1 in this respect 
seems indicated. On balance, the benefits of adopting this requirement 
outweigh the disadvantages.
    Commenters to the ANPRM generally oppose adoption of any new 
requirements that would require the placarding of all vehicles engaged 
in the transportation of radioactive materials labeled RADIOACTIVE 
WHITE-I, RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II, or RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III. Currently, 
the HMR require the placarding of vehicles transporting YELLOW-III 
labeled packages of radioactive materials, or certain exclusive use 
shipments of LSA materials or SCO. Commenters representing 
radiopharmaceutical shippers and carriers state that requiring all 
radioactive material shipments to be placarded would result in adverse 
operational and financial impacts on nuclear pharmacies and 
radiopharmaceutical distribution in the United States by requiring 
these

[[Page 21336]]

facilities to employ only driver personnel with commercial driver's 
licenses, who generally command higher salaries. These commenters 
assert that the established safety record for transporting RADIOACTIVE 
WHITE-I and RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II labeled packages in the United States 
does not justify a tightening of the regulations for local 
transportation of these packages to hospitals and clinics. These 
commenters suggest that the increased cost of running a program 
encompassing some 500 nuclear pharmacies throughout the United States 
would be immense without any improvement in safety.
    We agree with these comments, which can be extended to the 
transport of other relatively low levels of radioactive material; 
therefore, we propose no change to the current policy of requiring 
RADIOACTIVE placards only on vehicles carrying packages with 
RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III labels, or on certain exclusive use vehicles 
transporting LSA or SCO, as described in proposed Sec. 173.427.
    Accordingly, in this NPRM we are proposing to adopt, in 
Sec. 172.101, the new proper shipping names and UN identification 
numbers, except for those referring to Type C packages, or to fissile 
LSA or SCO materials. They are not needed, since we do not propose to 
adopt the concept of Type C packages for domestic use (see Issue 7), 
and fissile material (above the level considered fissile-excepted) may 
not be transported domestically as LSA material or SCO.
    We do not propose to make any substantial change with respect to 
the use of SI units to describe activity or radiation levels. Part 172 
currently requires the use of SI units or SI units followed by the 
appropriate quantity in ``customary'' units; it is our position that 
this does not violate the TS-R-1 requirement, facilitates communication 
and reduces the possibility of errors for domestic shipments, while 
promoting familiarity with the use of the SI system. We do propose to 
require in Secs. 172.203(d) and 172.403(g), if customary units are to 
be used, that the appropriate quantity and customary units be placed 
within parentheses positioned after the original quantity expressed in 
SI units.
    We also propose to adopt the use of the CSI to refer to what was 
formerly the criticality control transport index, and to restrict the 
use of the concept of TI to a number derived purely from the maximum 
radiation level at one meter from the package. In conjunction with 
this, we propose that the new fissile label be placed on each fissile 
material package, and that the CSI for that package be noted on the 
FISSILE label. This would make it obvious that the package is carrying 
fissile material, and would reduce the complexity of the system 
presently in use, in which for packages of fissile materials the 
transport index is determined through a comparison between a number 
related to radiation levels and another determined on the basis of a 
criticality analysis. It would also simplify decisions as to how many 
packages can be grouped together, since under the proposed system the 
description of radiation and criticality hazards would be uncoupled, 
and during transport each hazard can be considered separately.
    We propose to adopt the requirement that excepted packages be 
marked with the UN identification number, that industrial packagings be 
marked with the package type, and that industrial and Type A packages 
be marked with the international vehicle registration code of the 
country of origin of packaging design.
    We propose to remove some former requirements which would become 
redundant upon adoption of the new proper shipping names, such as the 
requirement that the shipping description contain the words 
``Radioactive Material'' unless those words are included in the proper 
shipping name.
    Because the isotope plutonium-238 has been removed from the TS-R-1 
definition of fissile material (see the discussion for Issue 9), we 
propose to remove it from our definition of fissile material in 
Sec. 173.403, and to remove the reference to it in the list of fissile 
radionuclides for which the weight in grams or kilograms may be listed 
instead of or in addition to the activity, in the shipping paper or 
radioactive label description of the radioactive contents of a package.
    We propose to improve readability and clarity of the HMR by moving 
the labeling requirements for overpacks to subpart E of part 172, and 
by stating explicitly that the Class 7 label category for an overpack 
is to be determined using the maximum surface radiation level on the 
interior package(s) unless the overpack is the appropriate package type 
for its contents.
Issue 5: Low Specific Activity (LSA) Materials and Surface Contaminated 
Objects (SCO)
    Background. On September 28, 1995, in a final rule, published under 
Docket, HM-169A (60 FR 50292), we attempted to refine the existing LSA 
and SCO regulations by adopting complementary, but not additional, 
features of the LSA and SCO provisions of the IAEA regulations. This 
approach was considered best because it offered minimal changes to 
existing requirements while facilitating international transport 
consistent with IAEA regulations. Shortly after implementing this new 
regulatory program, we recognized the shortcomings of not adopting all 
the provisions, such as the Safety Series No. 6 definition of 
contamination.
    IAEA TS-R-1 proposed a new class of LSA-I material (paragraph 226), 
consisting of radioactive material in which the activity is distributed 
throughout and the estimated average specific activity does not exceed 
30 times the activity concentration exemption values. The purpose of 
this category is to allow shipment as LSA-I of very low specific 
activity materials containing one or more of a variety of 
radionuclides.
    Discussion. In response to the ANPRM, commenters agreed that we 
should adopt a definition of contamination that is consistent with the 
one used in TS-R-1. Due to the insufficient availability of industrial 
packages, significant volumes of material that would have to be 
repackaged and the lack of a significant safety benefit, many 
commenters support continued use of strong, tight packages for 
transport of LSA and SCO material. Commenters also suggest that due to 
minimal risk but large size or volume of many shipments of LSA and SCO, 
provisions for unpackaged material are appropriate and necessary.
    One commenter requests that we retain the present LSA-I 
classification in Sec. 173.403 which refers to mill tailings, 
contaminated earth, concrete, rubble, other debris, and activated 
material in which Class 7 (radioactive) material is essentially 
uniformly distributed and the average specific activity does not exceed 
10-\6\ A2/g. We do not agree. We propose to 
replace this classification with the new TS-R-1 classification of other 
radioactive material in which the activity is distributed throughout 
and the estimated average specific activity does not exceed 30 times 
the activity concentration values. The present LSA-I classification 
does not provide an equivalent level of safety to the exemption-based 
classification from TS-R-1 which we are proposing to adopt.
    In this NPRM, we are proposing to simplify the HMR by bringing them 
into closer harmony with the TS-R-1 by adopting a definition of 
contamination, an authorization to transport unpackaged LSA and SCO, 
and an

[[Page 21337]]

authorization to use qualified tank containers, freight containers and 
metal intermediate bulk containers as industrial packagings, types 2 
and 3 (IP-2 and IP-3). We also propose to adopt a new class of LSA-I 
material (paragraph 226), consisting of radioactive material in which 
the activity is distributed throughout and the estimated average 
specific activity does not exceed 30 times the activity concentration 
exemption value. We believe that incorporating these changes will 
greatly simplify LSA and SCO regulations by bringing them into closer 
harmony with the TS-R-1. Specifically, we believe that the addition of 
a contamination definition and the authority to transport unpackaged 
LSA and SCO will better focus the regulations on radioactive material 
that truly poses a hazard to persons, property and the environment. We 
also believe the authorization to use qualified tank containers, 
freight containers and metal intermediate bulk containers as industrial 
packagings and the other packaging changes made for LSA and SCO would 
greatly simplify the HMR with no increase in risk.
    We also propose to eliminate present paragraph Sec. 173.427(d), 
which when offered for transportation for disposal or recovery by means 
other than aircraft, excepts from all requirements of the HMR for Class 
7 materials LSA material and SCO that conform to the provisions of 10 
CFR 20.2005. Such material is 1.85 kBq (0.05 Ci) or less of H-
3 or C-14 per gram of liquid scintillation counting medium or of animal 
tissue. These exceptions would no longer be needed if the TS-R-1 
exemption values are adopted, since the TS-R-1 exemption activity 
concentrations are 1  x  10\6\ Bq/g (27 Ci/g) for H-3 and 1 
x  10\4\ Bq/g (0.27 Ci/g) for C-14. Note, however, that this 
does not necessarily mean that these materials would be exempt from the 
provisions of the HMR relating to other hazard classes.
Issue 6: Uranium Hexafluoride (UF\6\)
    Background. Current regulation for uranium hexafluoride 
(UF6) packaging and transportation is a combination of NRC 
and HMR requirements. The HMR contain provisions that govern many 
aspects of UF\6\ packaging and shipment preparation, including a 
requirement that the UF6 material be packaged in cylinders 
that meet the ANSI N14.1 standard. NRC regulates fissile materials and 
Type B packaging designs for all materials. Since UF6 is a 
fissile material, it is also regulated by NRC.
    Previous editions of the IAEA regulations did not specifically 
address UF6, but TS-R-1 contains detailed requirements for 
UF6 packagings designed for more than 0.1 kg UF6. First, TS-
R-1 requires the use of the International Organization for 
Standardization (ISO) Standard 7195, ``Packaging of Uranium 
Hexafluoride (UF6) for Transport,'' instead of the ANSI 
N14.1 standard, with the condition that approval by all countries 
involved in the shipment is obtained (i.e., multilateral approval 
(Paragraph 629)). Second, TS-R-1 requires that all packages containing 
more than 0.1 kg UF6 must meet the ``normal conditions of 
transport'' drop test, a minimum internal pressure test and the 
hypothetical accident condition thermal test (Paragraph 630). However, 
TS-R-1 does allow a competent national authority to waive certain 
design requirements, including the thermal test for packages designed 
to contain greater than 9,000 kg UF6, provided that 
multilateral approval is obtained. Third, TS-R-1 prohibits use of 
packages utilizing pressure relief devices (Paragraph 631). Fourth, TS-
R-1 includes a new exception for UF6 packages, regarding the 
evaluation of a single package. This new exception (Paragraph 677(b)) 
allows UF6 packages to be evaluated without considering the 
in-leakage of water into the containment system if the packages satisfy 
certain specified conditions. Under these conditions, a single fissile 
UF6 package does not have to be shown to be subcritical 
under the assumption that there is water inside the containment system. 
This provision only applies when there is no contact between the valve 
and any other component of the cylinder under hypothetical accident 
tests and the valve remains leak-tight following the thermal test, and 
when there is a high degree of quality control in the manufacture, 
maintenance, and repair of packagings coupled with tests to demonstrate 
closure of each package before each shipment.
    There are specific performance and design requirements for packages 
containing uranium hexafluoride (paragraphs 629-632), including 
conformance with ISO Standard 7195, ``Packaging of Uranium Hexafluoride 
(UF6) for Transport.'' Competent Authority package design 
certificates are required for international shipments of uranium 
hexafluoride (paragraph 828).
    Discussion. Although many commenters to the ANPRM do not agree with 
the need or basis of the changes, most of the commenters do agree that 
we should adopt them to facilitate international transportation of 
UF6. Commenters asked for the following information to be 
included in the HMR: (1) Clarification of the requirements for new 
cylinders, cleaned cylinders, and cylinders containing residual amounts 
of UF6 (heel cylinders); (2) additional details regarding 
approval provisions; and (3) transitional or grandfathering provisions. 
We agree with the need for additional information and are proposing to 
include all of what was requested. We also recommend that shippers and 
carriers of UF6 consult with IAEA Safety Guide TS-G-1.1, 
``Advisory Material for the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of 
Radioactive Material,'' for further clarification.
    Accordingly, in this NPRM we are proposing to incorporate the TS-R-
1 changes for packagings containing more than 0.1 kg of UF6. 
RSPA also proposes to authorize the use of the 2001 edition of ISO 
Standard 7195 as an alternative to ANSI N14.1, to require the 
packagings to meet the pressure, drop and thermal test requirements 
found in paragraphs 629-632; to prohibit the use of pressure relief 
devices; and to certify the packagings in accordance with paragraph 
828.
Issue 7: Air Transport Requirements
    Background. TS-R-1 has introduced two new concepts for the air 
transport of radioactive material: the Type C package (paragraphs 230, 
667-670, 730, 734-737) and Low Dispersible Material (LDM). Type C 
packages are designed to withstand severe accident conditions 
associated with air transport without loss of containment or 
significant increase in external radiation levels. The LDM is a 
material exemption to these new air transport standards that is granted 
based on a material's limited radiation hazard and low dispersibility. 
If qualified as LDM, material in quantities that would otherwise 
require a Type C package could continue to be transported by aircraft 
in a Type B package. U.S. regulations do not contain a Type C package 
or LDM category, but do have specific requirements for the air 
transport of plutonium (10 CFR 71.64 and 71.74). These specific NRC 
requirements for air transport of plutonium will continue to apply.
    The Type C requirements apply to all radionuclides packaged for air 
transport that contain a total activity value above 3,000 A1 
or 100,000 A2, whichever is less, for special form material, 
or above 3,000 A2 for all other radioactive material. Below 
these thresholds, Type B packages may be used in air transport. The 
Type C package performance requirements are significantly more 
stringent than those for Type B packages. For example, a 90-meter per 
second (m/s) impact test is required instead of the 9-meter drop test. 
A 60-

[[Page 21338]]

minute fire test is required instead of the 30-minute for Type B 
packages. These stringent tests are expected to result in package 
designs that will survive more severe aircraft accidents than Type B 
package designs.
    The LDM specification was added in TS-R-1 to account for 
radioactive materials (package contents) that have inherently limited 
dispersibility, solubility, and radiation levels. The test requirements 
for LDM to demonstrate limited dispersibility, and leachability are a 
subset of the Type C package requirements (90-m/s impact and 60-minute 
thermal test) with an added solubility test, and must be performed on 
the material without packaging. The LDM must also have an external 
radiation level below 10 mSv/h (1 rem/hr) at 3 meters. Specific 
acceptance criteria are established for evaluating the performance of 
the material during and after the tests (less than 100 A2 in 
gaseous or particulate form of less than 100 micrometer aerodynamic 
equivalent diameter and less than 100 A2 in solution). These 
stringent performance and acceptance requirements are intended to 
ensure that these materials can continue to be transported safely in 
Type B packages aboard aircraft. LDM must be certified as such by the 
Competent Authority (Paragraphs 803, 804, 828, 830).
    In 1996, the NRC communicated to the IAEA that the NRC did not 
oppose the IAEA adoption of the newly created Type C packaging 
standards (letter dated May 31, 1996, from James M. Taylor, EDO, NRC, 
to A. Bishop, President, Atomic Energy Control Board, Ottawa, Canada). 
However, Mr. Taylor stated in the letter that, to be consistent with 
United States law, any plutonium air transport to, within or over the 
United States will be subject to the more rigorous U.S. packaging 
standards.
    Discussion. A commenter to the 1999 ANPRM asserts that the testing 
criteria for Type C packages is inadequate. For example, the commenter 
questions the rigorousness of the testing described in TS-R-1, 
indicating that the minimum acceptable impact speed should be increased 
to at least 129 m/s, as was mandated by Congress. Several commenters 
state that it is unclear what the differences are between a Type B and 
Type C package and that the definitions should be clarified. Several 
commenters support the addition of the term LDM and recommend its 
incorporation into the HMR. Finally, one commenter suggests that the 
new concept of LDM was introduced to offset the problems encountered in 
developing a Type C package. The commenter further asserts that the 
nuclear industry would attempt to certify reprocessed fuel known as MOX 
as LDM. The commenter believes there are significant safety 
implications regarding the movement of these substances via 
transportation by air and very strongly opposes any adoption of 
requirements in this area.
    According to the DOT/NRC Memorandum of Understanding, the NRC has 
responsibility for matters concerning packagings for fissile and 
greater-than-Type-A quantities of radioactive material. The NRC is 
proposing not to adopt the concepts of Type C packages or LDM at this 
time. In accordance with the NRC position, RSPA is not proposing to 
adopt the IAEA standards for Type C packaging or LDM.
Issue 8: Fissile Material Package and Transport Requirements
    Background. Under the MOU between DOT and NRC, NRC establishes the 
packaging requirements for the transport of fissile radioactive 
material. In February 1997, NRC published an emergency final rule (62 
FR 5913, February 10, 1997) to amend Part 71 of Title 10 of the Code of 
Federal Regulations (10 CFR 71) with respect to the regulations for 
shipping small quantities of fissile material; this rule was issued in 
response to a regulatory defect in the fissile material exemption 
regulations in Sec. 71.53 of 10 CFR identified by an NRC licensee. 
Based on the public comments on the emergency final rule, NRC 
contracted with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to perform a 
thorough analysis of the possible hazards involved and to provide 
recommendations. In July 1998, the NRC published ORNL's conclusions as 
NUREG/CR-5342, entitled Assessment and Recommendations for Fissile-
Material Packaging Exemptions and General Licenses Within 10 CFR Part 
71. Based on the research and recommendations of this report, the NRC 
in its notice of proposed rulemaking to harmonize 10 CFR 71 with TS-R-
1, is proposing several changes to its requirements for fissile 
exemptions.
    In addition, the NRC is proposing in its NPRM the introduction of a 
Type B(DP) package, to be certified for use and used both to transport 
and to store spent nuclear fuel. Such a package would be issued an NRC 
Certificate of Compliance approving the design of a spent fuel (fissile 
material) transportation package, in accordance with the requirements 
of subpart I of 10 CFR 71, and an NRC Certificate of Compliance 
approving the design of a spent fuel storage cask, in accordance with 
the requirements of subpart L of 10 CFR 72.
    Discussion. Several commenters assert that the TS-R-1 requirements 
for conducting criticality analyses for fissile materials being shipped 
by air require clarification. The commenters stated that a guidance 
note should be issued and included in TS-R-2 ( now referred to as TS-G-
1.1) when published and the HMR should reflect this clarification. RSPA 
has no authority to make unilateral changes in IAEA documents. RSPA, in 
coordination with the NRC, will analyze problems in performing 
criticality analyses for the shipment of fissile materials by air as 
they arise; the possibility of issuing a guidance document will be 
considered if it appears to be an appropriate means to address any 
problems encountered.
    These commenters further stated that RSPA should provide clear 
guidance regarding the requirements for obtaining U.S. Competent 
Authority Certificates for air transport of fissile materials prior to 
formal harmonization of TS-R-1 and the HMR. As indicated in Issue 7, 
the NRC and RSPA do not propose to adopt TS-R-1 provisions for Type C 
packages or LDM. The practical consequence of this is that RSPA's 
Office of Hazardous Materials Safety, as U.S. Competent Authority, does 
not intend to issue Certificates of Competent Authority for Type C 
packages or LDM. Other Certificates of Competent Authority for the 
international transport of fissile materials by air will be issued 
following normal procedures described in Secs. 173.471 and 173.473.
    Accordingly, in this NPRM we propose to adopt the NRC fissile 
material exemption provisions in Sec. 173.453, and to introduce the 
Type B(DP) package proposed by the NRC in its NPRM. We propose to 
remove the definition of ``fissile material, controlled shipment,'' and 
to revise Sec. 173.457 and Sec. 173.459 to remove the references to 
``fissile material, controlled shipment'' and to base requirements for 
non-exclusive use and exclusive use shipments of fissile material 
packages on TS-R-1 package and conveyance CSI limits, since we feel 
that this would considerably simplify the transport of fissile material 
packages, while maintaining appropriate criticality safeguards.
Issue 9: Transitional Requirements
    Background. Transitional requirements typically authorize: (1) 
Continued use of existing package designs and packagings already 
fabricated, although some additional requirements may be imposed; (2)

[[Page 21339]]

completion of packagings that are in the process of being fabricated or 
that may be fabricated within a given time period after the regulatory 
change; and (3) limited modifications to package designs and packagings 
without the need to demonstrate full compliance with the revised 
regulations, provided that the modifications do not significantly 
affect the safety of the package.
    Each transition from one edition of the IAEA regulations to another 
(and the corresponding revisions of the NRC and DOT regulations) 
included transitional provisions. The transitional provisions in TS-R-
1, the latest version, are found in paragraphs 815-818. Although 
provisions for continued use of packages and special form sources 
previously approved in accordance with the 1973 and 1985 editions of 
the IAEA regulations remain virtually unchanged, TS-R-1 does not 
provide transitional provisions for packages approved under the 1967 
edition of the IAEA regulations.
    The restrictive TS-R-1 transitional provisions will have several 
impacts. The primary impact of these two paragraphs is that Safety 
Series No. 6 (1967) approved packagings are no longer authorized. The 
second impact is that fabrication of packagings designed and approved 
under Safety Series No. 6 (1985/1985A) must be completed by a specified 
date. In TS-R-1, packages approved for use based on Safety Series No. 6 
(1973/1973A revisions) will continue to be authorized for use and can 
continue to be used through their design life, provided they meet the 
following conditions: (1) multilateral approval is obtained; (2) TS-R-1 
quality assurance requirements are adhered to; (3) TS-R-1 A1 
and A2 activity values are used; and, (4) if applicable, 
approval for air transport of fissile radioactive material is obtained. 
While existing packagings are still authorized, no new packagings may 
be fabricated to this design standard. Should a safety issue associated 
with the package be identified, this packaging will need to meet all of 
the applicable requirements of TS-R-1. In summary, a packaging designed 
to Safety Series No. 6 (1973/1973A) can continue to be used.
    In similar fashion, TS-R-1 states that those packages approved for 
use based on Safety Series No. 6 (1985/1985A revisions) may continue to 
be used, provided the packaging meets the following conditions: (1) TS-
R-1 quality assurance requirements, (2) TS-R-1 A1 and 
A2 activity values, and, (3) if applicable, approval for air 
transport of fissile radioactive material. After December 31, 2003, use 
of these packages may continue under multilateral approval. Should a 
safety issue associated with the package be identified, the packaging 
will need to meet all of the applicable requirements of TS-R-1. 
Additionally, use of this packaging will end on December 31, 2006. 
Beginning January 1, 2007, all packagings will be required to meet TS-
R-1 packaging approval requirements.
    Discussion. Commenters to the ANPRM generally state that some type 
of transitional arrangements should be provided in the HMR to clarify 
how packages manufactured under earlier versions of Safety Series 6 
will be phased out, and how and if these packages may be re-validated. 
One commenter suggests that we should provide a transition period prior 
to the full adoption of TS-R-1 that would provide shippers and carriers 
the flexibility to make shipments of radioactive materials under the 
current HMR requirements (equivalent to Safety Series 6) or under TS-R-
1. Several commenters state that for domestic shipments, we should 
provide a one-year transition period for complete implementation of the 
TS-R-1 regulations. Other commenters suggest that we incorporate the 
following statement into the HMR: ``Packages that have been prepared 
for transport prior to (five-year effective date) may be offered for 
transport provided that the labeling, marking, and placarding 
provisions of the regulations in effect at time of shipment are 
complied with.''
    We do not agree that the HMR should adopt the above suggestions. 
Radioactive material transport regulations in the HMR apply only to 
domestic transport and to the domestic portion of import and export 
shipments. Because the international modal organizations IMO and ICAO 
have adopted TS-R-1, international shipments must follow TS-R-1 
requirements.
    Accordingly, in this NPRM, we propose to accept the IAEA 
transitional requirements and will begin the phase out of its Type B 
specification packages. We propose that manufacture of all Type B 
specification packages conforming to Safety Series 6 for radioactive 
material be prohibited as of the date of implementation of this rule 
and that use of these packages be prohibited two years after 
implementation of this rule.
Issue 10: Other TS-R-1 Changes
    We propose to add a requirement that the active material in an 
instrument or article intended to be transported in an excepted package 
be completely enclosed by the non-active components. This is a 
requirement which appears in paragraph 517(c) of TS-R-1, and is a 
change from the wording in Safety Series No. 6. It is intended to 
enhance the safety of shipments of instruments or articles in excepted 
packages by making it explicit that the radioactive contents in such an 
instrument or article must be completely enclosed by the non-
radioactive material of which the instrument or article is constructed 
in order to prevent release of the active contents under normal 
conditions of transport.

III. Section-by-Section Review

Part 171

Section 171.7
    In the table of material incorporated by reference, we are 
proposing to remove the DOE Uranium Hexafluoride Good Practices manual, 
the1985 IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive 
Material, Safety Series No. 6. and an ISO standard entry, revise the 
IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, No. 
TS-R-1, 1996 Edition and two ISO standard entries, and add three new 
entries consisting of two ISO standards and a United States Enrichment 
Corporation Good Handling Practices for Uranium Hexafluoride.
Section 171.11
    In HM-215D, [66 FR 33336], we added a paragraph to Secs. 171.11 and 
171.12 to clarify that only the current definition of radioactive 
material applies (i.e., 70 Bq/g (0.002 microcurie/g)) when transporting 
a Class 7 (radioactive) material domestically. In addition, we 
maintained the current provisions in Secs. 171.11 and 171.12, including 
the values for Type A packaging contents. Therefore, in Sec. 171.11, we 
are proposing to remove paragraph (d)(6)(vi) that limits the Class 7 
(radioactive) material to the current definition in Sec. 173.403. This 
would allow for the proposed adoption of the current edition of the 
IAEA regulations for both domestic and international shipments. To 
clarify that the exceptions described in Sec. 173.422 apply to 
instruments or articles containing natural uranium or thorium, and 
empty packagings, as well as limited quantities of radioactive 
material, we are also proposing to change the phrase ``limited 
quantities'' in Sec. 171.11(d)(6)(ii) and (iv) to ``excepted 
packages.''
Section 171.12
    In Sec. 171.12, we propose to revise paragraphs (d) introductory 
text and (d)(4) to remove the reference to Safety Series No. 6, 1985 
edition and replace

[[Page 21340]]

it with TS-R-1, 1996 edition. In addition, we propose to remove 
paragraph (d)(7) that limits the Class 7 (radioactive) material 
definition to the current definition in Sec. 173.403. This would allow 
for the proposed adoption of the current edition of the IAEA 
regulations for both domestic and international shipments.

Part 172

Section 172.101
    In the Hazardous Materials Table, we propose to revise the 
radioactive material (Class 7) entries consistent with new entries 
introduced in the UN Recommendations and IAEA's ``Regulations for the 
Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, No. TS-R-1'' to allow for both 
domestic and international shipment. In addition, we propose to remove 
those radioactive material entries that currently allow for domestic 
shipment only.
Section 172.203
    In paragraph (d) we propose to remove two requirements that would 
become redundant upon adoption of the new proper shipping names: (1) 
Paragraph (d)(1) requiring that the words ``Radioactive Material'' be 
entered on the shipping paper unless already contained in the proper 
shipping name, and
    (2) paragraph (d)(11) requiring that for a shipment of low specific 
activity material or surface contaminated objects, the appropriate 
group notation of LSA-I, LSA-II, LSA-II, SCO-I, or SCO-II be entered in 
the shipping description. In addition, we are proposing to revise 
paragraph (d)(4) to require that customary units, if used, be enclosed 
in parentheses. Because the isotope plutonium-238 has been removed from 
the definition of fissile material, we propose to revise paragraph 
(d)(4) to remove plutonium-238 from the list of fissile radionuclides 
for which the weight in grams or kilograms may be listed instead of or 
in addition to the activity. Paragraphs (d)(7)(ii) and (d)(7)(iii) 
would be redesignated (d)(7)(iii) and (d)(7)(iv), and a new paragraph 
(d)(7)(ii) would be added to require inclusion of the criticality 
safety index in the shipping description for fissile material packages. 
Paragraphs (d)(2) through (d)(10) would be redesignated (d)(1) through 
(d)(9). A new paragraph (d)(10) would be added to require the words 
``Highway route controlled quantity'' on a package containing a highway 
route controlled quantity of Class 7 (radioactive) materials.
Section 172.301
    We propose to revise paragraph (a)(1) to include the UN 
identification number marking requirement for excepted packages of 
Class 7 (radioactive) materials.
Section 172.310
    We are proposing to revise paragraph (b) to require industrial 
packagings to be marked Type IP-1,'' ``Type IP-2,'' or ``Type IP-3,'' 
as appropriate. We propose to revise paragraph (c) to remove the 
reference to Type B package designs, and to bring the wording into 
closer correspondence to that in TS-R-1. We further propose to 
redesignate paragraphs (c) and (d) as (d) and (e), and to add a new 
paragraph (c) to require the outside of a Type IP-2, Type IP-3 or Type 
A packaging to be marked with the international vehicle registration 
code of the country of origin of design.
Section 172.400
    For fissile material packages, TS-R-1 (paragraph 218) introduced 
the concept of a CSI to replace the ``TI for criticality control 
purposes,'' in use until now, and decoupled it from the determination 
of the TI for such a package. The CSI must be displayed on shipments of 
fissile material (paragraphs 544 and 545) using a new ``FISSILE'' 
label. The redefined TI is determined in the same way as the ``TI for 
radiation control purposes'' and continues to be displayed on the 
traditional ``radioactive material'' label. Therefore, we propose to 
revise the table in Sec. 172.400 to add the new ``FISSILE'' label.
Section 172.402
    Paragraph (d) would be revised to require each package containing 
fissile material, other than fissile excepted, to bear the new FISSILE 
label. (See discussion under Sec. 172.400 above.)
Section 172.403
    We propose to add a new paragraph (e) to require each FISSILE label 
to be completed with the CSI. (See discussion under Sec. 172.400 
above.) Paragraph (g)(2) would be revised to require that customary 
units, if used, be enclosed in parentheses. Because the isotope 
plutonium-238 has been removed from the definition of fissile material, 
we are also proposing to revise paragraph (g)(2) to remove plutonium-
238 from the list of fissile radionuclides for which the weight in 
grams or kilograms may be listed instead of or in addition to the 
activity.
    For convenience to the reader, we propose to add a new paragraph 
(h) to incorporate the requirements presently in Sec. 173.448(g) 
pertaining to the labeling of overpacks, and to add a clarification 
that the label category for the overpack must be determined using the 
maximum surface radiation level of the interior package(s) unless the 
overpack qualifies as an appropriate package type for its contents.
Section 172.441
    We are proposing to add a new Sec. 172.441 to identify the 
specification requirements for the new ``FISSILE'' label. (See 
discussion under Sec. 172.400 above.)

Part 173

Section 173.401
    We are proposing to revise paragraphs (b)(2) and (b)(3) for 
clarity. In addition, we propose to add new paragraph (b)(4) to expand 
upon those areas when the HMR would not apply by including under 
specific conditions Class 7 (radioactive) material in natural material 
and ores containing naturally occurring radionuclides, respectively. In 
regard to paragraph (b)(2), the proposed language accurately and more 
succinctly reflects the present contents of Sec. 173.401(b)(2) and 
(b)(3). In regard to paragraph (b)(3) the proposed language is intended 
to codify actual practice. In regard to paragraph (b)(4), the proposed 
language is intended to except from the HMR the majority of shipments 
of ores and materials that contain naturally occurring radionuclides, 
but that are to be used to produce materials whose benefits lie in 
their non-radiological qualities (such as coal, gypsum, phosphates, 
non-radioactive metals, etc.). The upper limit of 10 times the activity 
concentration or consignment activity thresholds assures that worker 
and public doses will remain small from these unregulated materials, 
while the exemption permits their continued use in commerce without 
making that use economically unfeasible.
Section 173.403
    We propose to revise this section by removing the definitions for 
``Non-fixed radioactive contamination,'' and ``Fissile material, 
controlled shipment,'' and revising the definitions for ``Exclusive 
use,'' ``Fissile material,'' ``Low Specific Activity (LSA) material,'' 
``Low toxicity alpha emitters,'' ``Maximum normal operating pressure,'' 
``Multilateral approval,'' ``Package,'' ``Radioactive contents,'' 
``Radioactive material,'' ``Special form Class 7 (radioactive) 
material,'' ``Surface Contaminated Object (SCO),'' ``Transport Index 
(T)(I),'' ``Unilateral approval,'' ``Unirradiated uranium,'' and 
``Uranium--natural, depleted, or

[[Page 21341]]

enriched.'' New definitions for ``Consignment,'' ``Contamination,'' 
``Criticality Safety Index (CSI),'' ``Exemption value'', and ``Quality 
assurance'' would be added.
    The following definitions would be removed:
    Non-fixed radioactive contamination. We propose to remove this 
definition but its essential elements would be added to the definition 
of ``contamination'' for clarity. (See discussion under the definition 
for contamination below.)
    Fissile material, controlled shipment. We propose to remove this 
definition as part of the revision of Secs. 173.457 and 173.459 of this 
subchapter, in order to simplify the requirements for transporting 
fissile material.
    The following definitions would be revised:
    Exclusive use. We propose to clarify that a vehicle survey is 
required under certain circumstances after use.
    Fissile material. We propose to revise this definition for 
consistency with TS-R-1 and to include uranium-233, uranium-235, 
plutonium-239, plutonium-241, or any combination of these 
radionuclides. Plutonium-238 would be removed from the definition of 
``fissile material,'' because plutonium-238 is only fissionable, not 
fissile. It refers only to the fissile radionuclides themselves and 
does not include the non-fissile material containing these fissile 
radionuclides.
    Low Specific Activity (LSA) material. We propose to revise the 
definition of LSA-I to allow shipments of very low specific activity 
materials containing one or more of a variety of radionuclides, and to 
remove the present category which refers to mill tailings, contaminated 
earth, concrete, rubble, other debris, and activated material in which 
Class 7 (radioactive) material is essentially uniformly distributed and 
the average specific activity does not exceed 10-6 
A2/g.
    Low toxicity alpha emitters. This definition would be revised for 
consistency with TS-R-1 and primarily includes physical and chemical 
concentrates in addition to natural uranium, depleted uranium, natural 
thorium, uranium-235, uranium-238, thorium-228 and thorium-230 when 
contained in ores; or alpha emitters with a half-life of less than 10 
days.
    Maximum normal operating pressure. We propose to revise this 
definition to align the HMR with the wording in TS-R-1 and 10 CFR 71.4.
    Multilateral approval. We propose to revise this definition for 
clarity by adding the word ``design.'' The Competent Authority approval 
for a package is actually for the package design.
    Package. We propose to revise this definition for clarity. The 
definitions of each package type in Sec. 173.403 include the 
requirements they must satisfy if their contents are not fissile. 
Therefore, we are proposing to include the caveat that if the contents 
are fissile, additional requirements must be satisfied. In addition, 
the definitions of types of packages would be rearranged, to put the 
package types in an order more closely reflecting their increased 
capability to retain the contents under normal, as well as hypothetical 
accidental, conditions of transportation. Finally, the revision of the 
definition of Package would include the addition of the definition for 
the proposed NRC Type B(DP) package.
    Radioactive contents. We propose to revise this definition to be 
consistent with TS-R-1.
    Radioactive material. We propose to revise this definition to be 
consistent with TS-R-1. Currently, we use a specific activity threshold 
of 70 Bq/g (0.002 microcurie/g) for defining a material as radioactive 
for transportation purposes. The HMR applies to all radioactive 
materials with specific activities above this value. Therefore, 
radioactive materials with specific activities equal to or below this 
value are not regulated. The 70 Bq/g specific activity value is applied 
collectively for all radionuclides present in a material; i.e., if a 
chain of radionuclides is present, the sum of the activities of all 
radionuclides in the chain is to be compared with 70 Bq/g. During the 
development of TS-R-1, it was recognized that there is no technical 
justification for the use of a single activity-based exemption (70 Bq/
g) value for all radionuclides. As a result, it was concluded that a 
more rigorous technical approach would be to base radionuclide 
exemptions on a uniform dose basis, rather than a uniform specific 
activity (also known as activity concentration) basis. (Please refer to 
a more detailed discussion of this in Section II of this notice under 
Issue No. 1.)
    Special form Class 7 (radioactive) material. We propose to revise 
this definition to be consistent with TS-R-1.
    Surface Contaminated Object (SCO). We propose to revise this 
definition for clarity.
    Transport Index. We propose to revise this definition consistent 
with TS-R-1. This is the number which is used to provide control over 
radiation exposure and is assigned to a package, overpack or freight 
container, or to unpackaged LSA-I or SCO-I.
    Unilateral approval. We propose to revise this definition by adding 
the word ``design.'' The Competent Authority approval for a package is 
actually for the package design.
    Unirradiated uranium. We propose to revise this definition to be 
consistent with TS-R-1.
    Uranium--natural, depleted, or enriched. We propose to revise this 
definition for clarity. Minor word and number changes, in addition to 
clarifying that ``natural uranium'' does not refer to ores, and that 
all unirradiated uranium contains a small amount of uranium-234.
    We propose to add the following definitions:
    Consignment. We propose to add this definition to clarify to what 
total quantity of radioactive material the consignment activity 
exemption values are to be applied.
    Contamination. We propose to add this definition for consistency 
with TS-R-1. The proposed definition includes the definitions for 
``fixed radioactive contamination'' and ``non-fixed radioactive 
contamination.'' The quantitative definition of contamination is in 
Safety Series No. 6, 1985 Edition (As Amended 1990) as well as TS-R-1; 
it was inadvertently omitted in the previous harmonization rulemaking 
(HM-169A, September 28, 1995). The consequence would be that non-
radioactive materials with radioactive substances on the surface in 
levels below those listed in the definition for contamination would not 
be considered radioactive for purposes of transportation.
    Criticality Safety Index (CSI). This definition would be added to 
be consistent with TS-R-1. The introduction of the CSI is intended to 
simplify the representation on labels, and in shipping papers of a 
package's criticality hazard and its radiation hazard by using separate 
numbers to describe the two. Currently, the TI serves a dual role, in 
that for fissile packages a TI is determined for the radiation hazard, 
another for the criticality hazard, and then the final TI assigned to 
the packages is the greater of the two. The introduction of the CSI 
permits the use of the TI exclusively for describing the radiation 
hazard. This reduces the uncertainty inherent in not knowing whether 
the TI value is because of one hazard or the other, and should aid 
shippers, carriers, and emergency responders in understanding the 
hazards associated with a radioactive materials package.

[[Page 21342]]

    Exemption value. This definition would be added to clarify that the 
phrase refers to the activity concentration or consignment activity 
thresholds above which a material would be considered sufficiently 
radioactive to be subject to the HMR, and to distinguish if from a DOT 
exemption, defined in Sec. 171.8.
    Fissile material package. This definition would be added to clarify 
that Type AF package, Type BF package, Type B(U)F package, Type B(M)F 
package, or fissile material package means a fissile material packaging 
together with its fissile material contents.
    Fixed radioactive contamination. This definition would be added to 
be consistent with TS-R-1. (See discussion under the definition for 
``contamination'' above.)
    Quality assurance (QA). This definition would be added to be 
consistent with TS-R-1. We currently require evidence of a QA program 
for issuing Certificates of Competent Authority, but do not define it, 
except to indicate that a USNRC approved program is acceptable, or also 
that adhering to Secs. 173.474 and 173.475 is acceptable for export of 
DOT Specification packages. Therefore, the introduction of the TS-R-1 
definition would clarify what we mean by a QA program, and call 
attention to the fact that this is something we associate with 
radioactive material transport.
Section 173.411
    We propose to revise paragraph (b)(5)(ii) to correct the reference 
to the ISO Standard 1496. As described in the 1985 Edition of Safety 
Series No. 6 and in TS-R-1, the reference should be to Part 1, Cargo 
Containers, instead of Part 3, Tank Containers.
Section 173.415
    We propose to revise paragraph (a) to clarify that after April 1, 
1997, the use of Specification 7A packagings designed in accordance 
with the requirements of Sec. 178.350 in effect on October 1, 1996 
would continue to be authorized.
Section 173.416
    We propose to remove paragraphs (d), (e) and (f) to discontinue the 
use of DOT Specification 20WC and 21WC as authorized Type B packaging. 
We also propose to revise paragraph (c) to discontinue the use of DOT 
Specification 6M as an authorized Type B package, and to specify that 2 
years after the effective date of the final rule, these DOT 
Specification packages may no longer be used.
Section 173.417
    We propose to remove paragraphs (a)(1), (a)(2), (a)(6), (b)(1) and 
(b)(2) to discontinue the use of DOT Specification 6L, 6M and 1A2 as 
authorized fissile materials packagings. We also propose to add a new 
paragraph (c) to specify that 2 years after the effective date of the 
final rule, these packages may no longer be used. Tables 2, 4, and 5 
would be removed. Tables 3 and 6 would be redesignated as Tables 2 and 
3, respectively. Paragraphs (a)(3), (a)(4), (a)(5), (a)(7) and (a)(8) 
would be redesignated as (a)(1) through (a)(5), respectively, and 
(b)(3), (b)(4), and (b)(5) as (b)(1) through (b)(3). The new paragraphs 
(a)(3) and (b)(2) would have the references to Safety Series No. 6 
changed to No. TS-R-1. The new paragraph (a)(4) would be revised to 
include the greater than 0.1 kg of uranium hexafluoride provision. The 
proposed NRC Type B(DP) packaging would be added to new paragraph 
(b)(1), and Type B packagings would be removed from the new paragraphs 
(a)(2), (a)(3), (b)(1) and (b)(2).
Section 173.420
    We propose to revise Sec. 173.420 to introduce new performance 
packaging requirements for packagings containing more than 0.1 kg of 
UF6 to include ISO Standard 7195 as an alternative to 
American National Standard N14.1.
Section 173.421
    We propose to revise paragraph (a) to indicate that an excepted 
package of a limited quantity of Class 7 (radioactive) material is not 
excepted from all marking requirements.
Section 173.422
    Consistent with the new marking provisions for excepted packages 
containing radioactive materials in TS-R-1, we propose to eliminate the 
requirement in Sec. 173.422(a) for a certification statement for such 
packages. In addition, we are proposing to add the requirement that 
excepted packages be marked with the UN identification number, and to 
remove the reference to Sec. 173.423, since Sec. 173.422 deals with 
Class 7 (radioactive) material classed as Class 7, while Sec. 173.423 
refers only to multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) 
materials.
Section 173.424
    We propose to revise Sec. 173.424 to indicate that an excepted 
package containing a radioactive instrument or article is not excepted 
from all marking requirements. In addition, we propose to require each 
instrument or article, except radio luminescent time-pieces or devices, 
to be transported in an excepted package bearing the marking 
``RADIOACTIVE,'' and that the active material in an instrument or 
article containing radioactive material be completely enclosed by the 
non-active components.
Section 173.426
    We propose to revise Sec. 173.426 to indicate that excepted 
packages of articles containing natural uranium or thorium are not 
excepted from all marking requirements.
Section 173.427
    We propose to revise Sec. 173.427 to clarify: (1) LSA/SCO 
transportation and packaging requirements; (2) that fissile LSA is 
prohibited; i.e., that material containing fissile radionuclides may be 
classified as LSA only if it satisfies one of the sets of conditions in 
Sec. 173.453 to be considered fissile-excepted material; and (3) 
exclusive use requirements and provisions. In addition, we are also 
proposing to revise this section to authorize the transportation of 
unpackaged LSA-I and SCO-I material, and to remove the present 
exception for LSA material and SCO conforming to the provisions 
specified in 10 CFR 20.2005.
Section 173.428
    We propose to revise Sec. 173.428 to include a requirement for 
marking an empty package with the UN identification number. We propose 
to redesignate paragraphs (c), (d) and (e) as (d), (e) and (f). In 
addition, we propose to add a new paragraph (c) to require that the 
outer surface of any uranium or thorium component of a radioactive 
materials package intended to be shipped as an empty package be covered 
by an inactive sheath. This is a safety improvement, and makes this 
requirement consistent with that in TS-R-1 for the transport of empty 
radioactive material packages.
Section 173.431
    We propose to revise paragraph (b) to remove the reference to a 
Type B package.
Section 173.433
    We propose to revise Sec. 173.433 to reference the nuclide-specific 
exemption values, and clarify how these may be calculated for mixtures. 
We also propose to revise the wording to reflect more closely the 
wording in TS-R-1, and to incorporate the TS-R-1 expression for 
determining the limits on activities of radionuclides which may be 
transported in a Type A package when

[[Page 21343]]

some of the material is in special form and some in normal form.
Section 173.435
    We propose to replace the present ``Table of A1 and 
A2 values for radionuclides,'' with accompanying footnotes, 
with the A1 and A2 values and accompanying 
footnotes from Table I of TS-R-1. The exception to allow the domestic 
transport of up to 20 Ci of Mo-99 in a Type A package would be 
retained. In addition, the Safety Series No. 6 values of A1 
and A2 would be retained for Cf-252.
Section 173.436
    In accordance with our proposal to adopt the nuclide-specific 
exemption values found in TS-R-1, we propose to add a new Sec. 173.436 
to contain a table entitled ``Exempt material activity concentrations 
and exempt consignment activity limits for radionuclides.'' This table, 
along withaccompanying footnotes, would be taken from Table I of TS-R-
1.
Section 173.441
    The title would be revised to include exclusive use provisions. 
Paragraph (d) would be redesignated paragraph (e). A new paragraph (d) 
would be added in order to assemble in one location the total TI 
restrictions for non-exclusive use and exclusive use shipments, and 
storage in transit, of Class 7 (radioactive) materials.
Section 173.443
    We propose to revise Table 11, in Sec. 173.443 to list the true 
non-fixed contamination limits for the outer surfaces of packages. In 
addition, we propose to revise paragraph (a)(1) to indicate that in 
calculating the contamination level from the activity measured on the 
wipe, the true wipe efficiency must be used or a default efficiency of 
0.10 may be assumed.
Section 173.448
    We propose to revise Sec. 173.448 to remove the requirements in 
Sec. 173.448(g)(1) for the labeling of overpacks and relocate them to 
Sec. 172.403(h). Relocating the requirements for the labeling of 
overpacks to Sec. 172.403(h) is more logical and should aid the reader.
Section 173.453
    We propose to revise Sec. 173.453 to be consistent with the new 
fissile material exceptions included in NRC rulemaking.
Section 173.457
    We propose to simplify the requirements for transporting fissile 
material packages by incorporating in Sec. 173.457 the TS-R-1 concept 
of CSI and TS-R-1 CSI limits, and by eliminating the concept of 
``fissile material, controlled shipment,'' which was originally 
developed to control transport of Fissile Class III materials, under a 
now obsolete scheme for classifying fissile material packages. Because 
all fissile material transport is now limited by the total CSI which 
may be carried on a conveyance, this concept is no longer needed.
Section 173.459
    We propose to revise Sec. 173.459(a) to replace the reference to 
the criticality control transport index with the criticality safety 
index. With the elimination of the concept of ``fissile material, 
controlled shipment'' and the inclusion of the total TI limits in 
Sec. 173.441 and total CSI limits in Sec. 173.457, we propose to remove 
Sec. 173.459(b) and (c), that refer to circumstances under which a 
shipment would become a fissile material, controlled shipment. Because 
the total CSI conveyance limits provide adequate safeguards against 
criticality, these paragraphs are no longer needed.
Section 173.469
    To allow for the substitution of the Class 4 impact test from ISO 
2919-1980(E) for the basic impact and percussion tests, we propose to 
revise paragraph (d)(1) to include the TS-R-1 restriction that the 
sealed capsule and contents have a mass less than 200 g. In addition, 
we propose to revise the reference for the alternate leak test methods 
in paragraph (a)(4)(ii) from ISO/TR 4826-1979(E) to ISO 9978-1992(E), 
and other minor revisions of syntax would be incorporated in this 
section to reflect more accurately the wording of TS-R-1.
Section 173.471
    We propose to revise the introductory text to remove Type B as a 
sub-class of NRC approved packages, since the NRC no longer issues 
certificates for this sub-class.
Section 173.473
    We propose to revise the introductory text to clarify the types of 
foreign-made packages that would require certification, and to change 
the reference to Safety Series No. 6 to that for No. TS-R-1.
Section 173.476
    We propose to revise paragraph (c)(4) to specify what the required 
quality assurance program should cover. In addition, we propose to add 
a new paragraph (c)(5) to require that a description of any planned 
pre-shipment actions for use in the consignment of special form 
radioactive material be included in an application for a U.S. Competent 
Authority Certificate for Special Form Material. The former is in 
Safety Series No. 6, 1985 Edition, but never included in the HMR; the 
latter is new to TS-R-1.
Section 173.477
    We propose to add a new Sec. 173.477 to define the approval 
requirements for packagings containing more than 0.1 kg of 
UF6.
Part 174
    Section 174.700
    We propose to revise paragraph 174.700(b) to reflect the fact that 
the upper TI limit of 50 refers to both the total TI and the total CSI 
for non-exclusive use shipments. In addition, we propose to add a new 
paragraph (d) to emphasize that the appropriate transport restrictions 
for fissile material packages apply to transport by rail.
Part 175
    Section 175.700
    We propose to revise paragraph (a) by adding a requirement to limit 
the CSI to a maximum of 3.0 for a fissile material package transported 
in a passenger carrying aircraft; this is necessary because under TS-R-
1 the historical limitation of 3.0 TI on a passenger carrying aircraft 
would only limit the radiation hazard and not the criticality hazard. 
In addition, we propose to add a new paragraph (e) to ensure that on a 
passenger aircraft neither the total TI nor the total CSI exceeds 50.
Section 175.702
    We propose to revise Sec. 175.702 to include the requirements for 
non-exclusive use cargo aircraft only, based on the separate TS-R-1 
limits on total transport index and total criticality safety index.
Section 175.703
    We propose to add a new paragraph (c) to emphasize that the 
appropriate transport restrictions for fissile material packages also 
apply to transport by air. Current paragraphs (c), (d), and (e) would 
be redesignated paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) respectively, and the 
redesignated paragraph (d) would be revised to replace the reference to 
fissile material, controlled shipment with requirements for exclusive 
use shipments by air.
Part 176
    Section 176.700

[[Page 21344]]

    We propose to remove paragraph (c) due to the proposed elimination 
of the term ``fissile material, controlled shipment. Paragraphs (d) and 
(e) would be redesignated (c) and (d) respectively. In addition, the 
requirement that groups of radioactive material packages containing 
fissile material be separated by at least 6 m (20 feet) from all other 
such groups would be moved to Sec. 176.704.
Section 176.704
    We propose to revise Sec. 176.704 including the section title to 
reflect the introduction of additional transportation controls based on 
the criticality safety index for fissile material packages, and the 
decoupling of package controls according to transport indexes and 
criticality safety indexes. We also propose to replace Table III with 
Table IIIA to list ``Transport Index Limits'' and Table IIIB for the 
``Criticality Safety Index Limits.'' In addition, we propose to add to 
this section the requirement that groups of radioactive material 
packages containing fissile material be separated by at least 6 m (20 
feet) from all other such groups (see discussion under Sec. 176.700 ).
Section 176.708
    We propose to revise Sec. 176.708 to provide a more detailed dose 
rate guidance pertaining to an alternate method for determining 
segregation distances, in accordance with the requirements of the 
latest IMDG Code. We also propose to restrict the use of this alternate 
method to the case of exclusive use shipments, for which the proposed 
Sec. 176.704(f) requires a radiation protection program approved by the 
competent authority of the flag state of the vessel.
Part 177
    Section 177.842
    In Sec. 177.842, in paragraph (g), a reference to transport index 
for fissile material packages would be replaced by one to criticality 
safety index.
Part 178
    Section 178.350
    In Sec. 178.350, paragraph (b) would be revised to remove the 
wording ``and Radioactive Material'' from the marking requirement. It 
is duplicative since all proposed proper shipping names include the 
words ``Radioactive Material.'' In addition, we propose to add a new 
paragraph (c) to require that each Specification 7A package be marked 
with the manufacturer's or offeror's name.
Section 178.352
    As a result of our proposal to discontinue the use of DOT 
Specification 6L metal packagings as an authorized fissile material 
packaging, we propose to remove in its entirety Sec. 178.352.
Section 178.354
    As a result of our proposal to discontinue the use of DOT 
Specification 6M metal packagings as an authorized Type B and fissile 
material packaging, we propose to remove in its entirety Sec. 178.354.
Section 178.362
    As a result of our proposal to discontinue the use of DOT 
Specification 20WC wooden protective jacket as an authorized Type B 
packaging, we propose to remove in its entirety Sec. 178.362.
Section 178.364
    As a result of our proposal to discontinue the use of DOT 
Specification 21WC wooden-steel protective overpack as an authorized 
Type B packaging, we propose to remove in its entirety Sec. 178.364.

IV. Regulatory Analyses and Notices

A. Executive Order 12866 and DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures

    This proposed rule is not considered a significant regulatory 
action under section 3(f) of Executive Order 12866 and, therefore, was 
not reviewed by the Office of Management and Budget. The proposed rule 
is not considered a significant rule under the Regulatory Policies and 
Procedures of the Department of Transportation [44 FR 11034].
    In consideration of the proposed changes in this notice, we looked 
to the ``Draft Regulatory Analysis of Major Revision of 10 CFR Part 
71'' NUREG/CR-6713, dated March 2001 prepared for the Nuclear 
Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of its related notice of 
proposed rulemaking. A copy of that document is available for review in 
this docket (RSPA-99-6283).
    Potential benefits identified in this NPRM include enhanced safety 
resulting from the consistency of domestic and international 
requirements for transportation of radioactive materials. In addition, 
the proposed changes should permit continued access to foreign markets 
by domestic shippers of radiopharmaceuticals and other radioactive 
materials.
    The NUREG/CR-6713 analysis of regulatory proposals concerning 
revisions to packaging standards, including the phased elimination of 
certain DOT specification packagings (e.g., DOT 6L, 6M, 20WC and 21WC) 
in favor of NRC approved packagings indicates that none of the 
evaluated changes (individually or collectively) are expected to result 
in significant economic impacts to NRC licensees. We believe the same 
holds true for all other shippers, e.g., contractors performing work in 
support of the Department of Defense and the Department of Energy.
    One area that has the greatest potential for substantially 
increased costs to shippers of radioactive materials, concerns large 
stocks of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6) stored in 
currently authorized packagings at three different locations. If it is 
eventually determined that this material should be moved off-site to 
one or more conversion facilities, then it is likely that the current 
packagings will not meet the standards proposed in this NPRM. In that 
case the existing packages likely will be required to be overpacked in 
order to meet the standard for a hypothetical fire test. That action 
could result in a one-time cost of $9 million to $13 million to design 
overpacks, purchase overpacks, and purchase additional trailers with 
the proper tie-down locations. However, because the likely number and 
location of UF6 conversion facilities is purely speculative 
at this time, we do not think these potential costs should weigh 
heavily in our determination to propose higher standards for presently 
on-going shipments of UF6. As appropriate, we could 
subsequently revisit the issue of packaging standards for existing 
packages of depleted UF6 in a separate rulemaking docket.
    Numerical data for most of the proposed changes are difficult to 
obtain. Therefore, we invite all commenters to address the issues 
discussed in this NPRM. For persons required to comply with the HMR, 
can you quantify any increases or decreases in costs resulting from the 
proposals in this NPRM? Can you quantify any benefits that may result?

B. Executive Order 13132

    This proposed rule has been analyzed in accordance with the 
principles and criteria contained in Executive Order 13132 
(``Federalism''). This proposed rule would preempt State, local and 
Indian tribe requirements but does not propose any regulation that has 
direct effects on the States, the relationship between the national 
government and the States, or the distribution of power and 
responsibilities among the various levels of government. Therefore, the

[[Page 21345]]

consultation and funding requirements of Executive Order 13132 do not 
apply.
    The Federal hazardous material transportation law, 49 U.S.C. 5101-
5127, contains an express preemption provision (49 U.S.C. 5125(b)) that 
preempts State, local, and Indian tribe requirements on certain covered 
subjects. Covered subjects are:
    (i) The designation, description, and classification of hazardous 
material;
    (ii) The packing, repacking, handling, labeling, marking, and 
placarding of hazardous material;
    (iii) The preparation, execution, and use of shipping documents 
related to hazardous material and requirements related to the number, 
contents, and placement of those documents;
    (iv) The written notification, recording, and reporting of the 
unintentional release in transportation of hazardous material; or
    (v) The design, manufacturing, fabricating, marking, maintenance, 
reconditioning, repairing, or testing of a packaging or container 
represented, marked, certified, or sold as qualified for use in 
transporting hazardous material.
    This proposed rule concerns the classification, packaging, marking, 
labeling, and handling of hazardous material, among other covered 
subjects and would preempt any State, local, or Indian tribe 
requirements not meeting the ``substantively the same'' standard. This 
proposed rule is necessary to incorporate changes already adopted in 
international standards. If the changes proposed in this NPRM are not 
adopted in the HMR, U.S. companies, including numerous small entities 
competing in foreign markets, will be at an economic disadvantage. 
These companies would be forced to comply with a dual system of 
regulation. The proposed changes are intended to avoid this result.
    Federal hazardous materials transportation law provides at 
Sec. 5125(b)(2) that, if the Secretary of Transportation issues a 
regulation concerning any of the covered subjects, the Secretary must 
determine and publish in the Federal Register the effective date of 
Federal preemption. The effective date may not be earlier than the 90th 
day following the date of issuance of the final rule and not later than 
two years after the date of issuance. We propose that the effective 
date of Federal preemption will be 180 days from publication of a final 
rule in the Federal Register.

C. Executive Order 13175

    This proposed rule has been analyzed in accordance with the 
principles and criteria contained in Executive Order 13175 
(``Consultation and Coordination with Indian Tribal Governments''). 
Because this proposed rule does not have tribal implications, does not 
impose substantial direct compliance costs, and is required by statute, 
the funding and consultation requirements of Executive Order 13175 do 
not apply.

D. Regulatory Flexibility Act

    The Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) requires an 
agency to review regulations to assess their impact on small entities 
unless the agency determines that a rule is not expected to have a 
significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. This 
proposed rule would incorporate changes introduced in the 1996 edition 
(revised) of the IAEA Regulations For The Safe Transport of Radioactive 
Material, TS-R-1. It would apply to offerors and carriers of 
radioactive materials and would facilitate the transportation of 
hazardous materials in international commerce by providing consistency 
with international requirements. Alternatively, if we do not so revise 
the HMR, U.S. companies will be forced to comply with a dual system of 
regulation, to their economic disadvantage, and to the cause of 
decreased safety in transportation attributed to the complexity of 
having to comply with multiple sets of regulations. The proposed 
changes are intended to avoid this result.
    Many of the persons subject to revisions of the HMR proposed in 
this NPRM are small businesses. They comprise a wide variety of 
shippers and carriers, including nuclear pharmacies, as well as 
packaging manufacturers, and manufacturers of measuring instruments and 
other articles that contain radioactive materials. To a large extent 
the greatest impact on these small entities concerns proposed 
requirements for hazard communication, e.g., reformatting shipping 
papers and package markings to reflect revised hazardous materials 
descriptions and proper shipping names, marking the ``UN'' number on 
excepted packages of Class 7 (radioactive) material, and a new labeling 
requirement to communicate the criticality safety index of packages 
containing fissile materials. These proposed revisions to the HMR 
obviously affect the administrative procedures of shippers, carriers, 
and the like, and it will require retraining of hazmat employees, but 
none are expected to have an adverse effect on core business 
operations.
    In addition to revisions to hazard communication requirements, 
currently authorized packagings conforming to specification DOT 6L, 6M, 
and UN standard packaging 1A2 used for the transportation of fissile 
radioactive materials would be prohibited under the proposed rule, 
thereby requiring the manufacturers of these packaging designs to 
requalify their packagings to conform to NRC requirements for fissile 
materials or to utilize other packages which conform to those 
requirements. The NRC approval process requires the packaging 
manufacturer to pay a fee to the NRC for its technical review of the 
design and test results, but again we believe that fee is not so great 
as to cause manufacturers to discontinue a line of packagings, much 
less adversely affect the manufacturer's ability to continue to exist 
as a going concern. The proposed phase-in period of 2 years following 
the effective date of a final rule for continued use of currently 
authorized packagings should provide for a smooth transition to the NRC 
approval process.
    Several commenters to the advance notice of proposed rulemaking 
noted that one of the requirements in TS-R-1 would require placarding 
of each transport vehicle containing any quantity of a Class 7 
(radioactive) material. Incorporating that requirement into the HMR 
would impose numerous, potentially costly, requirements on shippers and 
carriers. That includes a requirement that all operators of motor 
vehicles have a commercial driver's license, and the carrier would be 
required to file a registration statement with RSPA and pay an annual 
fee. Over the years, we examined the need for placarding of transport 
vehicles carrying any quantity of radioactive material and in each 
instance we determined that is unnecessary. As background materials 
used in the development of TS-R-1 provide no new justification for 
placarding for any quantity of radioactive material, we find ourself in 
agreement with commenters to the docket and we are not now proposing 
such a requirement for domestic shipments.
    In consideration of the above, and on the basis of the NUREG/CR-
6713 analysis of regulatory proposals prepared for the NRC in support 
of its associated notice of proposed rulemaking, I hereby certify that 
this proposal will not, if promulgated, have a significant economic 
impact on a substantial number of small entities. This certification is 
subject to modification as a result of a review of comments received in 
response to this proposal. A copy of NUREG/CR-6713 is available for 
review in this docket (RSPA-99-6283).

[[Page 21346]]

E. Paperwork Reduction Act

    RSPA has a current information collection approval under OMB No. 
2137-0510, Radioactive (RAM) Transportation Requirements, with 14,480 
burden hours and $117,270.60 annual cost for burden. RSPA believes that 
this proposed rule may result in an increase in annual burden hours and 
costs. If these proposals are finalized, the current approval would be 
required to be revised and resubmitted to OMB for extension and re-
approval.
    Section 1320.8(d), Title 5, Code of Federal Regulations requires 
that RSPA provide interested members of the public and affected 
agencies an opportunity to comment on information collection and 
recordkeeping requests. This notice identifies information collection 
that RSPA is submitting to OMB for extension and re-approval based on 
the requirements in this proposed rule. RSPA has revised burden 
estimates, where appropriate, to reflect current reporting levels or 
adjustments based on changes in this proposed rule since the 
information collection was last approved. RSPA estimates that the total 
information collection and recordkeeping burden as proposed in this 
rule would be revised as follows:
OMB No. 2137-0510: 2137-0510
    Number of Respondents: 3,817.
    Total Annual Responses: 21,519.
    Total Annual Burden Hours: 15,270.
    Total Annual Burden Cost: $139,895.60.
    RSPA specifically requests comments on the information collection 
and recordkeeping burdens associated with developing, implementing, and 
maintaining these requirements for approval under this proposed rule.
    Requests for a copy of the information collection should be 
directed to Deborah Boothe, Office of Hazardous Materials Standards 
(DHM-10), Research and Special Programs Administration, Room 8102, 400 
Seventh Street, SW, Washington, DC 20590-0001, Telephone (202) 366-
8553.
    Written comments should be addressed to the Dockets Unit as 
identified in the ADDRESSES section of this rulemaking. Comments should 
be received prior to the close of comment period identified in the 
DATES section of this rulemaking. Under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 
1995, no person is required to respond to an information collection 
unless it displays a valid OMB control number. If these proposed 
requirements are adopted in a final rule, RSPA will submit the revised 
information collection and recordkeeping requirements to the Office of 
Management and Budget for approval.

F. Regulation Identifier Number (RIN)

    A regulation identifier number (RIN) is assigned to each regulatory 
action listed in the Unified Agenda of Federal Regulations. The 
Regulatory Information Service Center publishes the Unified Agenda in 
April and October of each year. The RIN number contained in the heading 
of this document can be used to cross-reference this action with the 
Unified Agenda.

G. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act

    This proposed rule does not impose unfunded mandates under the 
Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995. It does not result in costs of 
$100 million or more to either State, local or tribal governments, in 
the aggregate, or to the private sector, and is the least burdensome 
alternative that achieves the objective of the rule.

H. Environmental Assessment

    The NRC prepared an environmental assessment entitled: 
``Environmental Assessment (EA) of Major Revision to Packaging and 
Transportation of Radioactive Material Regulations'', Final Report, 
February 2000, on its proposed rule which addresses issues also raised 
in this rulemaking. On the basis of this EA, we find that there are no 
significant environmental impacts associated with this proposed rule. A 
copy of the environmental assessment prepared by the NRC is available 
for review in the docket.

List of Subjects

49 CFR Part 171

    Exports, Hazardous materials transportation, Hazardous waste, 
Imports, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements.

49 CFR Part 172

    Education, Hazardous materials transportation, Hazardous waste, 
Labeling, Markings, Packaging and containers, Reporting and 
recordkeeping requirements.

49 CFR Part 173

    Hazardous materials transportation, Packaging and containers, 
Radioactive materials, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, 
Uranium.

49 CFR Part 174

    Hazardous materials transportation, Radioactive materials, Railroad 
safety.

49 CFR Part 175

    Air carriers, Hazardous materials transportation, Radioactive 
materials, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements.

49 CFR Part 176

    Hazardous materials transportation, Maritime carriers, Radioactive 
materials, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements.

49 CFR Part 177

    Hazardous materials transportation, Motor carriers, Radioactive 
materials, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements.

49 CFR Part 178

    Hazardous materials transportation, Motor vehicle safety, Packaging 
and containers, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements.

    In consideration of the foregoing, 49 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter C 
is proposed to be amended as follows:

PART 171--GENERAL INFORMATION, REGULATIONS, AND DEFINITIONS

    1. The authority citation for part 171 would continue to read as 
follows:

    Authority: 49 U.S.C. 5101-5127; 49 CFR 1.53.

    2. In Sec. 171.7, in the paragraph (a)(3) table make the following 
amendments:
    a. Under the entry ``Department of Energy (USDOE),'' the entry for 
``USDOE, ORO 651-Uranium Hexafluoride; A Manual of Good Practices, 
Revision 6, 1991 edition'' would be removed;
    b. Under the entry ``International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA),'' 
the entries ``IAEA, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive 
Material Safety Series No. 6, 1985 Edition (As Amended 1990); Including 
1985 Edition (Supplemented 1986 and 1988)'' and ``IAEA, Regulations for 
the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, No. TS-R-1, 1996 Edition'' 
would be removed and a new entry would be added in alphabetical order;
    c. Under the entry ``International Organization for 
Standardization,'' the entries for ``ISO/TR 4826-1979(E)--Sealed 
radioactive sources--Leak test methods'', ``ISO 1496-3 Series 1 freight 
containers-Specification and testing, Part 3: Tank containers for 
liquids, gases and pressurized dry bulk, March 1, 1995, Fourth 
Edition'' and ``ISO 1496-3-1995(E)--Series 1 Freight Containers--
Specification and Testing--Part 3: Tank Containers for Liquid, Gases 
and Pressurized Dry Bulk'' would be removed and two new entries added 
in alpha-numeric order, and the entries ``ISO-7195:1993(E)--packaging 
of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) for transport, November 1, 
1993, First

[[Page 21347]]

Edition'' and ``ISO 9978:1992 (E)--Radiation protection--Sealed 
radioactive sources--Leakage test methods, February 15, 1992, First 
Edition'' would be added in alpha-numeric order; and
    d. A new entry for ``United States Enrichment Corporation, Inc. 
(USEC) would be added in appropriate alpha-numeric order.
    The revisions and additions read as follows:


Sec. 171.7  Reference material.

    (a) Matter incorporated by reference * * *
    (3) Table of material incorporated by reference. * * *

------------------------------------------------------------------------
       Source and name of material               49 CFR reference
------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
*                  *                  *                  *
                  *                  *                  *
   International Atomic Energy Agency
              (IAEA) * * *
IAEA, Regulations for the Safe Transport  171.12, 173.473
 of Radioactive Material, 1996 Edition
 (Revised), No. TS-R-1 (ST-1, Revised).
 
*                  *                  *                  *
                  *                  *                  *
     International Organization for
          Standardization * * *
 
*                  *                  *                  *
                  *                  *                  *
ISO 1496-1: 1990(E)--Series 1 freight     173.411
 containers--Specification and testing,
 Part 1: General cargo containers,
 August 15, 1990, Fifth Edition.
ISO 1496-3: 1995(E)--Series 1 freight     178.274
 containers--Specification and testing,
 Part 3: Tank containers for liquids,
 gases and pressurized dry bulk, March
 1, 1995, Fourth Edition.
 
*                  *                  *                  *
                  *                  *                  *
ISO-7195: 1993(E)--Packaging of uranium   173.420
 hexafluoride (UF6) for transport,
 November 1, 1993, First Edition.
 
*                  *                  *                  *
                  *                  *                  *
ISO 9978: 1992(E)--Radiation protection-- 173.469
 Sealed radioactive sources--Leakage
 test methods, February 15, 1992, First
 Edition.
 
*                  *                  *                  *
                  *                  *                  *
  United States Enrichment Corporation,
 Inc. (USEC), USEC Inc., 6903 Rockledge
        Drive, Bethesda, MD 20817
 
USEC-651--Good Handling Practices for     173.417
 Uranium Hexafluoride, Revision 8,
 January 1999.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

* * * * *
    3. In Sec. 171.11, paragraph (d)(6)(vi) would be removed and 
paragraphs (d)(6)(iii) and (d)(6)(iv) would be revised to read as 
follows:


Sec. 171.11  Use of ICAO Technical Instructions.

* * * * *
    (d) * * *
    (6)* * *
    (iii) Except for excepted packages of Class 7 (radioactive) 
materials, the provisions of Secs. 172.204(c)(4), 173.448(e), (f) and 
(g)(3) of this subchapter apply.
    (iv) Excepted packages of radioactive materials must meet the 
provisions of Secs. 173.421, 173.424 or 173.426 of this subchapter, as 
appropriate.
* * * * *
    4. In Sec. 171.12, paragraphs (d) introductory text and (d)(4) 
would be revised, the semi-colon at the end of paragraph (d)(5) would 
be removed and ``; and'' would be added in its place, ``; and'' at the 
end of paragraph (d)(6) would be removed and a period would be added in 
its place, and paragraph (d)(7) would be removed to read as follows:


Sec. 171.12  Import and export shipments.

* * * * *
    (d) Use of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations 
for Class 7 (radioactive) materials. Class 7 (radioactive) materials 
being imported into or exported from the United States, or passing 
through the United States in the course of being shipped between places 
outside the United States, may be offered and accepted for 
transportation when packaged, marked, labeled, and otherwise prepared 
for shipment in accordance with IAEA ``Regulations for the Safe 
Transport of Radioactive Material,'' No. TS-R-1 1996 edition (see 
Sec. 171.7), if--
* * * * *
    (4) The country of origin for the shipment has adopted, No. TS-R-1 
of the IAEA ``Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive 
Material,'' 1996 edition;
* * * * *

PART 172--HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL PROVISIONS, HAZARDOUS 
MATERIALS COMMUNICATIONS, EMERGENCY RESPONSE INFORMATION, AND 
TRAINING REQUIREMENTS

    5. The authority citation for part 172 would continue to read as 
follows:

    Authority: 49 U.S.C. 5101-5127; 49 CFR 1.53.

    6. In Sec. 172.101, the Hazardous Materials Table would be amended 
by removing and revising, in appropriate alphabetical sequence, the 
following entries to read as follows:


Sec. 172.101  Purpose and use of hazardous materials table.

* * * * *

[[Page 21348]]



                                                                             Sec.  172.101 Hazardous Materials Table
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                               (8)  Packaging  (Sec.  173.***)         (9)  Quantity       (10)  Vessel stowage
                 Hazardous                                                                                  -------------------------------------       limitations      -----------------------
                 materials        Hazard     Identification                                     Special                                          ------------------------
  Symbols    descriptions and    class or       numbers           PG         Label codes       provisions                                          Passenger     Cargo
              proper shipping    division                                                   (Sec.  172.102)   Exceptions   Non-bulk      Bulk      aircraft/   aircraft    Location      Other
                   names                                                                                                                             rail        only
(1)          (2).............         (3)   (4)............  (5)........  (6).............  (7)............  (8A).......  (8B)......  (8C)......  (9A)......  (9B)......  (10A).....  (10B)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
                                       *                  *                  *                  *                  *                  *                  *
             [REVISE:]
             Radioactive                7   UN2909.........  ...........  None............  ...............  422, 426...  422, 426..  ..........  ..........  ..........  A           ..........
              material,
              excepted
              package--articl
              es manufactured
              from natural
              uranium or
              depleted
              uranium or
              natural thorium.
 
                                       *                  *                  *                  *                  *                  *                  *
             Radioactive                7   UN2908.........  ...........  Empty...........  ...............  422, 428...  422, 428..  ..........  ..........  ..........  A           ..........
              material,
              excepted
              package--empty
              packaging.
 
                                     *                  *                  *                   *                   *                   *                   *
             Radioactive                7   UN2911.........  ...........  None............  ...............  422, 424...  422, 424..  ..........  ..........  ..........  A           ..........
              material,
              excepted
              package--instru
              ments or
              articles.
 
                                       *                  *                  *                  *                  *                  *                  *
             Radioactive                7   UN2912.........  ...........  7...............  W7.............  421, 422,    427.......  ..........  ..........  ..........  A           95
              material, low                                                                                   428.
              specific
              activity (LSA-
              I) non fissile
              or fissile-
              excepted.
             Radioactive                7   UN3321.........  ...........  7...............  W7.............  421, 422,    427.......  ..........  ..........  ..........  A           95
              material, low                                                                                   428.
              specific
              activity (LSA-
              II) non fissile
              or fissile-
              excepted.
             Radioactive                7   UN3322.........  ...........  7...............  W7.............  421, 422,    427.......  ..........  ..........  ..........  A           95
              material, low                                                                                   428.
              specific
              activity (LSA-
              III) non
              fissile or
              fissile-
              excepted.
 
                                      *                  *                  *                  *                  *                   *                  *
             Radioactive                7   UN2913.........  ...........  7...............  ...............  421, 422,    427.......  ..........  ..........  ..........  A           95
              material,                                                                                       428.
              surface
              contaminated
              objects (SCO-I
              or SCO-II) non
              fissile or
              fissile-
              excepted.
             Radioactive                7   UN2919.........  ...........  7...............  139
              material,
              transported
              under special
              arrangement,
              non fissile or
              fissile
              excepted.
             Radioactive                7   UN3331.........  ...........  7...............  139
              material,
              transported
              under special
              arrangement,
              fissile.
             Radioactive                7   UN3327.........  ...........  7...............  W7, W8.........  453........  417.......  ..........  ..........  ..........  A.........  95
              material, Type
              A package,
              fissile non-
              special form.
             Radioactive                7   UN2915.........  ...........  7...............  W7, W8.........  ...........  415.......  ..........  ..........  ..........  A.........  95
              material, Type
              A package non-
              special form,
              non fissile or
              fissile-
              excepted.
             Radioactive                7   UN3332.........  ...........  7...............  W7, W8.........  ...........  415, 476..  ..........  ..........  ..........  A.........  95
              material, Type
              A package,
              special form
              non fissile or
              fissile-
              excepted.
             Radioactive                7   UN3333.........  ...........  7...............  W7, W8.........  453........  417, 476..  ..........  ..........  ..........  A
              material, Type
              A package,
              special form,
              fissile.
             Radioactive                7   UN3329.........  ...........  7...............  ...............  453........  417.......  ..........  ..........  ..........  A
              material, Type
              B(M) package,
              fissile.
             Radioactive                7   UN2917.........  ...........  7...............  ...............  ...........  416.......  ..........  ..........  ..........  A.........  95
              material, Type
              B(M) package
              non fissile or
              fissile-
              excepted.
             Radioactive                7   UN3328.........  ...........  7...............  ...............  453........  417.......  ..........  ..........  ..........  A
              material, Type
              B(U) package,
              fissile.
             Radioactive                7   UN2916.........  ...........  7...............  ...............  ...........  416.......  ..........  ..........  ..........  A.........  95
              material, Type
              B(U) package
              non fissile or
              fissile
              excepted.
             Radioactive                7   UN2978.........  ...........  7, 8............  ...............  423........  420.......  ..........  ..........  ..........  A.........  95
              material,
              uranium
              hexafluoride
              non fissile or
              fissile-
              excepted.
             Radioactive                7   UN2977.........  ...........  7, 8............  ...............  453........  417, 420..  ..........  ..........  ..........  A
              material,
              uranium
              hexafluoride,
              fissile.
 
                                       *                  *                  *                  *                  *                  *                  *
             [REMOVE:]
D..........  Radioactive                7   UN2910.........  ...........  None............  ...............  422, 426...  422, 426..  422, 426..  ..........  ..........  ..........  A
              material,
              excepted
              package--articl
              es manufactured
              from natural or
              depleted
              uranium or
              natural thorium.
D..........  Radioactive                7   UN2910.........  ...........  Empty...........  ...............  428........  428.......  428.......  ..........  ..........  ..........  A
              material,
              excepted
              package--empty
              package or
              empty packaging.
D..........  Radioactive                7   UN2910.........  ...........  None............  ...............  422, 424...  422, 424..  422, 424..  ..........  ..........  A
              material,
              excepted
              package--instru
              ments or
              articles.

[[Page 21349]]

 
D..........  Radioactive                7   UN2918.........  ...........  7...............  ...............  453........  417.......  417.......  ..........  ..........  A.........  40, 95
              material,
              fissile, n.o.s.
D..........  Radioactive                7   UN22912........  ...........  7...............  ...............  421, 428...  427.......  427.......  ..........  ..........  A.........  95
              material, low
              specific
              activity,
              n.o.s. or
              Radioactive
              material, LSA,
              n.o.s..
D..........  Radioactive                7   UN2982.........  ...........  7...............  ...............  421, 428...  415, 416..  415, 416..  ..........  ..........  A.........  40, 95
              material, n.o.s.
D..........  Radioactive                7   UN2974.........  ...........  7...............  ...............  421, 424...  415, 416..  415, 416..  ..........  ..........  A.........  95
              material,
              special form,
              n.o.s.
D..........  Radioactive                7   UN2913.........  ...........  7...............  ...............  421, 424,    427.......  427.......  ..........  ..........  A.........  95
              material,                                                                                       426.
              surface
              contaminated
              object or
              Radioactive
              material SCO.
D..........  Thorium metal,             7   UN2975.........  ...........  7, 4.2..........  ...............  None.......  418.......  None......  Forbidden.  Forbidden.  D.........  95
              pyrophoric.
D..........  Thorium nitrate,           7   UN2976.........  ...........  7, 5.1..........  ...............  None.......  419.......  None......  Forbidden.  15 kg.....  A.........  95
              solid.
D..........  Uranium                    7   UN2978.........  ...........  7, 8............  ...............  423........  420, 427..  420, 427
              hexafluoride,
              fissile
              excepted or non-
              fissile.
D..........  Uranium,                   7   UN2977.........  ...........  7, 8............  ...............  453........  417, 420..  417, 420..  ..........  ..........  A.........  95
              hexafluoride,
              fissile (with
              more than 1
              percent U-235).
D..........  Uranium metal,             7   UN2979.........  ...........  7, 4.2..........  ...............  None.......  418.......  None......  ..........  ..........  D.........  95
              pyrophoric.
D..........  Uranyl nitrate             7   UN2980.........  ...........  7, 8............  ...............  421, 427...  415, 416,   415, 416,   ..........  ..........  D.........  95
              hexahydrate                                                                                                  417.        417.
              solution.
D..........  Uranyl nitrate,            7   UN2981.........  ...........  7, 5.1..........  ...............  None.......  419.......  None......  Forbidden.  15 kg.....  A.........  95
              solid.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


[[Page 21350]]

    7. In Sec. 172.203, paragraph (d) would be revised to read as 
follows:


Sec. 172.203  Additional description requirements.

* * * * *
    (d) Radioactive material. The description for a shipment of a Class 
7 (radioactive) material must include the following additional entries 
as appropriate:
    (1) The name of each radionuclide in the Class 7 (radioactive) 
material that is listed in Sec. 173.435 of this subchapter. For 
mixtures of radionuclides, the radionuclides that must be shown must be 
determined in accordance with Sec. 173.433(f) of this subchapter. 
Abbreviations, e.g., ``\99\ Mo,'' are authorized.
    (2) A description of the physical and chemical form of the 
material, if the material is not in special form (generic chemical 
description is acceptable for chemical form).
    (3) The activity contained in each package of the shipment in terms 
of the appropriate SI units (e.g., Becquerels (Bq), Terabecquerels 
(TBq), etc.). The activity may also be stated in appropriate customary 
units (Curies (Ci), milliCuries (mCi), microCuries (uCi), etc.) in 
parentheses following the SI units. Abbreviations are authorized. 
Except for plutonium-239 and plutonium-241, the weight in grams or 
kilograms of fissile radionuclides may be inserted instead of activity 
units. For plutonium-239 and plutonium-241, the weight in grams of 
fissile radionuclides may be inserted in addition to the activity 
units.
    (4) The category of label applied to each package in the shipment. 
For example: ``RADIOACTIVE WHITE-I.''
    (5) The transport index assigned to each package in the shipment 
bearing RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II OR RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III labels.
    (6) For a fissile package:
    (i) The words ``Fissile Excepted'' if the package is excepted 
pursuant to Sec. 173.453 of this subchapter; or
    (ii) For a fissile material package, the criticality safety index.
    (7) For a package approved by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 
or U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), a notation of the 
package identification marking as prescribed in the applicable DOE or 
USNRC approval (see Sec. 173.471 of the subchapter).
    (8) For an export shipment or a shipment in a foreign made package, 
a notation of the package identification marking as prescribed in the 
applicable International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Certificate of 
Competent Authority which has been issued for the package (see 
Sec. 173.473 of the subchapter).
    (9) For a shipment required by this subchapter to be consigned as 
exclusive use:
    (i) An indication that the shipment is consigned as exclusive use; 
or
    (ii) If all the descriptions on the shipping paper are consigned as 
exclusive use, then the statement ``Exclusive Use Shipment'' may be 
entered only once on the shipping paper in a clearly visible location.
    (10) For the shipment of a package containing a highway route 
controlled quantity of Class 7 (radioactive) materials (see 
Sec. 173.403 of this subchapter) the words ``Highway route controlled 
quantity'' must be entered in association with the basic description 
when all or a portion of the shipment is by highway.
* * * * *
    8. In Sec. 172.301, paragraph (a)(1) would be revised to read as 
follows:


Sec. 172.301  General marking requirements for non-bulk packages.

    (a) Proper shipping name and identification number. (1) Except as 
otherwise provided by this subchapter, each person who offers for 
transportation a hazardous material in a non-bulk packaging shall mark 
the package with the proper shipping name and identification number 
(preceded by ``UN'' or ``NA'', as appropriate) for the material as 
shown in the Sec. 172.101 Table. Except for Class 7 (radioactive) 
material, identification numbers are not required on packages which 
contain only limited quantities, as defined in Sec. 171.8 of this 
subchapter, or ORM-D materials. Excepted packages of Class 7 
(radioactive) material (see Secs. 173.421, 173.422, 173.424, 173.426 
and 173.428 of this subchapter) must be marked with the identification 
number but are excepted from the proper shipping name marking 
requirement.
* * * * *
    9. Section 172.310 would be revised to read as follows:


Sec. 172.310  Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    In addition to any other markings required by this subpart, each 
package containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials must be marked as 
follows:
    (a) Each package with a gross mass greater than 50 kg (110 lb) must 
have its gross mass including the unit of measurement (which may be 
abbreviated) marked on the outside of the package.
    (b) Each industrial, Type A, Type B(U), or Type B(M) package must 
be legibly and durably marked on the outside of the packaging, in 
letters at least 13 mm (0.5 in) high, with the words ``TYPE IP-1,'' 
``TYPE IP-2,'' ``TYPE IP-3,'' ``TYPE A,'' ``TYPE B(U)'' or ``TYPE 
B(M),'' as appropriate. A package which does not conform to Type IP-1, 
Type IP-2, Type IP-3, Type A, Type B(U) or Type B(M) requirements may 
not be so marked.
    (c) Each package which conforms to an Industrial Package Type 1, 
Industrial Package Type 2, Industrial Package Type 3 or a Type A 
package design must be legibly and durably marked on the outside of the 
packaging with the international vehicle registration code of the 
country of origin of the design. The international vehicle registration 
code for packages designed by a United States company or agency is the 
symbol ``USA.''
    (d) Each package which conforms to a Type B(U) or Type B(M) package 
design must have the outside of the outermost receptacle, which is 
resistant to the effects of fire and water, plainly marked by 
embossing, stamping or other means resistant to the effects of fire and 
water with a radiation symbol that conforms to the requirements of 
Appendix B to part 172.
    (e) Each Type B(U), Type B(M) or fissile material package destined 
for export shipment must also be marked ``USA'' in conjunction with the 
specification marking, or other package certificate identification. 
(See Secs. 173.471, 173.472, and 173.473 of this subchapter.)
    10. In Sec. 172.400, in paragraph (b), the table would be amended 
by adding immediately after the entry for `` 7 RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-
III'', the following entry to read as follows:


Sec. 172.400  General labeling requirements.

* * * * *
    (b) * * *

------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                 Label
                                                               design or
        Hazard class or division              Label  name       section
                                                               reference
------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
                      *        *        *        *
7 ( fissile material; see Sec.           FISSILE.............    172.441
 172.402).
 
                      *        *        *        *
------------------------------------------------------------------------

* * * * *
    11. In Sec. 172.402, paragraph (d) would be revised to read as 
follows:


Sec. 172.402  Additional labeling requirements.

* * * * *
    (d) Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials. Except as otherwise provided 
in this paragraph (d), each package containing a Class 7 material that 
also meets the

[[Page 21351]]

definition of one or more additional hazard classes must be labeled as 
a Class 7 material as required by Sec. 172.403 and for each additional 
hazard.
    (1) For a package containing a Class 7 material that also meets the 
definition of one or more additional hazard classes, whether or not the 
material satisfies Sec. 173.4(a)(1)(iv) of this subchapter, a 
subsidiary label is not required on the package if the material 
conforms to the remaining criteria in Sec. 173.4 of this subchapter.
    (2) Each package, overpack, or freight container containing fissile 
material, other than fissile-excepted material, described in 
Sec. 173.453 of this subchapter, must bear two FISSILE labels, affixed 
to opposite sides of the package, which conforms to the figure shown in 
Sec. 172.441; such labels, where applicable, must be affixed adjacent 
to the labels for radioactive materials. Overpacks or freight 
containers containing one or more fissile material packages must bear 
FISSILE labels. Labels must not cover the markings specified in 
Secs. 172.301, 172.302, and 172.310.
* * * * *
    12. In Sec. 172.403, paragraph (e) would be added, paragraphs 
(g)(1) and (g)(2) would be revised, and paragraph (h) would be added to 
read as follows:


Sec. 172.403  Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

* * * * *
    (e) FISSILE label. For packages required in Sec. 172.402 to bear a 
FISSILE label, each such label must be completed with the criticality 
safety index (CSI) assigned in the NRC or DOE package design approval, 
or in the certificate of approval for special arrangement or the 
certificate of approval for the package design issued by the Competent 
Authority for import and export shipments. For overpacks and freight 
containers required in Sec. 172.402 to bear a FISSILE label, the CSI on 
the label must be the sum of the CSIs for all of the packages contained 
in the overpack or freight container.
* * * * *
    (g) * * *
    (1) Contents. Except for LSA-I material, the names of the 
radionuclides as taken from the listing of radionuclides in 
Sec. 173.435 of this subchapter (symbols which conform to established 
radiation protection terminology are authorized, i.e., \99\ Mo, \60\ 
Co, etc.). For mixtures of radionuclides, with consideration of space 
available on the label, the radionuclides that must be shown must be 
determined in accordance with Sec. 173.433(f) of this subchapter. For 
LSA-I material, the term ``LSA-I'' may be used in place of the names of 
the radionuclides.
    (2) Activity. The activity in the package must be expressed in 
appropriate SI units (e.g., Becquerels (Bq), Terabecquerels (TBq), 
etc.). The activity may also be stated in appropriate customary units 
(Curies (Ci), milliCuries (mCi), microCuries (uCi), etc.) in 
parentheses following the SI units. Abbreviations are authorized. 
Except for plutonium-239 and plutonium-241, the weight in grams or 
kilograms of fissile radionuclides may be inserted instead of activity 
units. For plutonium-239 and plutonium-241, the weight in grams of 
fissile radionuclides may be inserted in addition to the activity 
units.
* * * * *
    (h) When one or more packages of Class 7 (radioactive) material are 
placed within the same outside container or overpack, the outside 
container or overpack must be labeled as prescribed in this section, 
except as follows:
    (1) The ``contents'' entry on the label may state ``mixed'' in 
place of the names of the radionuclides unless each inside package 
contains the same radionuclide(s).
    (2) The ``activity'' entry on the label must be determined by 
adding together the number of becquerels of the Class 7 (radioactive) 
materials packages contained therein.
    (3) For a non-rigid overpack, the transport index must be 
determined by adding together the transport indices of the Class 7 
(radioactive) materials packages contained therein.
    (4) For a rigid overpack, the transport index must be determined 
by:
    (i) Adding together the transport indices of the Class 7 
(radioactive) materials packages contained in the overpack; or
    (ii) Direct measurements as prescribed in Sec. 173.403 of this 
subchapter under the definition for ``transport index,'' taken by the 
person initially offering the packages contained within the overpack 
for shipment.
    (5) The category of Class 7 label for the overpack must be 
determined from the table in Sec. 172.403(c) using the TI derived 
according to paragraph (c)(3) or (c)(4) of this section, and the 
maximum surface radiation level on the interior package or packages. 
The maximum radiation level on the external surface of the overpack may 
be used for this purpose only if the overpack has been demonstrated to 
satisfy the packaging requirements for the package type appropriate for 
the totality of its contents.
    (6) For fissile material, the criticality safety index which must 
be entered on the overpack FISSILE label is the sum of the criticality 
safety indices of the individual packages in the overpack, as stated in 
the certificate of approval for the package design issued by the U.S. 
NRC or the U.S. Competent Authority.
    13. A new Sec. 172.441 would be added to read as follow:


Sec. 172.441  FISSILE label.

    (a) Except for size and color, the FISSILE label must be as 
follows:

[[Page 21352]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP30AP02.000

    (b) In addition to complying with Sec. 172.407, the background 
color on the FISSILE label must be white.

PART 173--SHIPPERS--GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND 
PACKAGINGS

    14. The authority citation for part 173 would continue to read as 
follows:

    Authority: 49 U.S.C. 5101-5127, 44701; 49 CFR 1.53.

    15. In Sec. 173.401, paragraphs (b)(2) and (b)(3) would be revised 
and paragraphs (b)(4) would be added to read as follows:


Sec. 173.401  Scope.

* * * * *
    (b) * * *
    (2) Class 7 (radioactive) materials that have been implanted or 
incorporated into a person or live animal for diagnosis or treatment.
    (3) Class 7 (radioactive) material that is an integral part of the 
means of transport.
    (4) Natural material and ores containing naturally occurring 
radionuclides which are not intended to be processed for use of these 
radionuclides, provided the activity concentration of the material does 
not exceed 10 times the values specified in Sec. 173.436.
    16. In Sec. 173.403, the definitions for ``Fissile material, 
controlled shipment'' and ``Non-fixed radioactive contamination'' would 
be removed; definitions for ``Exclusive use,'' ``Fissile material,'' 
``Low Specific Activity (LSA) material'' paragraphs (1), (2), and (3), 
``Low toxicity alpha emitters,'' ``Maximum normal operating pressure,'' 
``Multilateral approval,'' ``Package,'' ``Radioactive contents,'' 
``Radioactive material,'' ``Special form Class 7 (radioactive) 
material,'' ``Surface Contaminated Object (SCO),'' ``Transport index 
(TI),'' ``Unilateral approval,'' ``Unirradiated uranium,'' and 
``Uranium--natural, depleted or enriched'' would be revised; and the 
definitions for ``Consignment,'' ``Contamination,'' ``Criticality 
Safety Index (CSI),'' ``Exemption value,'' and ``Quality assurance'' 
would be added in appropriate alphabetical order, to read as follows:


Sec. 173.403  Definitions.

* * * * *
    Consignment means each shipment of a package or group of packages 
or load of radioactive material offered by a shipper for transport.
* * * * *
    Contamination means the presence of a radioactive substance on a 
surface in quantities in excess of 0.4 Bq/cm\2\ for beta and gamma 
emitters and low toxicity alpha emitters or 0.04 Bq/cm\2\ for all other 
alpha emitters. Contamination exists in two phases.
    (1) Fixed radioactive contamination means radioactive contamination 
that

[[Page 21353]]

cannot be removed from a surface during normal conditions of transport.
    (2) Non-fixed radioactive contamination means radioactive 
contamination that can be removed from a surface during normal 
conditions of transport. Non-fixed (removable) radioactive 
contamination is not significant if it does not exceed the limits 
specified in Sec. 173.443.
* * * * *
    Criticality Safety Index (CSI) means a number which is used to 
provide control over the accumulation of packages, overpacks or freight 
containers containing fissile material. The CSI for packages containing 
fissile material is determined in accordance with the instructions 
provided in 10 CFR 71.22, 71.23, and 71.59. The CSI for an overpack, 
freight container, or consignment containing fissile material packages 
is the arithmetic sum of the criticality safety indices of all the 
fissile material packages contained within the overpack, freight 
container, or consignment.
* * * * *
    Exclusive use means sole use by a single consignor of a conveyance 
for which all initial, intermediate, and final loading and unloading 
are carried out in accordance with the direction of the consignor or 
consignee. The consignor and the carrier must ensure that any loading 
or unloading is performed by personnel having radiological training and 
resources appropriate for safe handling of the consignment. The 
consignor must provide to the initial carrier specific written 
instructions in writing, for maintenance of exclusive use shipment 
controls, including the vehicle survey requirement of Sec. 173.443 (c) 
as applicable, and include them with the shipping paper information 
provided to the carrier by the consignor.
    Exemption value means either an exempt material activity 
concentration or an exempt consignment activity limit listed in the 
table in Sec. 173.436, or determined according to the procedures 
described in Sec. 173.433, and used to determine whether a given 
physically radioactive material is sufficiently radioactive to be 
subject to the HMR (see definition of radioactive material). An 
exemption value is to be distinguished from an exemption, as defined in 
Sec. 171.8 of this subchapter.
    Fissile material means plutonium\239\, plutonium\241\, 
uranium\233\, uranium\235\, or any combination of these radionuclides. 
This term does not apply to material containing fissile nuclides, 
unirradiated natural uranium and unirradiated depleted uranium, or to 
natural uranium or depleted uranium that has been irradiated in thermal 
reactors only.
* * * * *
    Low Specific Activity (LSA) material * * *
    (1) LSA-I:
    (i) Uranium and thorium ores, concentrates of uranium and thorium 
ores, and other ores containing naturally occurring radionuclides which 
are intended to be processed for the use of these radionuclides; or
    (ii) Solid unirradiated natural uranium or depleted uranium or 
natural thorium or their solid or liquid compounds or mixtures; or
    (iii) Radioactive material other than fissile material, for which 
the A2 value is unlimited; or
    (iv) Other radioactive material, excluding fissile material in 
quantities not excepted under Sec. 173.453, in which the activity is 
distributed throughout and the estimated average specific activity does 
not exceed 30 times the values for activity concentration specified in 
Sec. 173.436, or 30 times the default values listed in Table 10B of 
Sec. 173.433.
    (2) LSA-II:
    (i) Water with tritium concentration up to 0.8 TBq/L (20.0 Ci/L); 
or
    (ii) Other radioactive material in which the activity is 
distributed throughout and the average specific activity does not 
exceed 10-\4\ A2/g for solids and gases, and 
10-\5\ A2/g for liquids.
    (3) LSA-III. Solids (e.g., consolidated wastes, activated 
materials), excluding powders, that meet the requirements of 
Sec. 173.468 and which:
    (i) The radioactive material is distributed throughout a solid or a 
collection of solid objects, or is essentially uniformly distributed in 
a solid compact binding agent (such as concrete, bitumen, ceramic, 
etc.);
    (ii) Radioactive material is relatively insoluble, or it is 
intrinsically contained in a relatively insoluble material, so that, 
even under loss of packaging, the loss of Class 7 (radioactive) 
material per package by leaching when placed in water for seven days 
would not exceed 0.1 A2; and
    (iii) The average specific activity 
of the solid does not exceed 2 x 10-\3\ A2/g.
    Low toxicity alpha emitters means natural uranium; depleted 
uranium; natural thorium; uranium-235 or uranium-238; thorium-232; 
thorium-228 and thorium-230 when contained in ores or physical and 
chemical concentrates; and alpha emitters with a half-life of less than 
10 days.
    Maximum normal operating pressure means the maximum gauge pressure 
that would develop in a containment system during a period of one year, 
in the absence of venting or cooling, under the heat conditions 
specified in 10 CFR 71.71(c)(1).
    Multilateral approval means approval of a package design or 
shipment by the relevant Competent Authority of the country of origin 
and of each country through or into which the package or shipment is to 
be transported. This definition does not include approval from a 
country over which Class 7 (radioactive) materials are carried in 
aircraft, if there is no scheduled stop in that country.
* * * * *
    Package means the packaging together with its radioactive contents 
as presented for transport.
    (1) ``Excepted package'' means a packaging together with its 
excepted Class 7 (radioactive) materials as specified in Secs. 173.421-
173.426 and 173.428.
    (2) ``Industrial package'' means a packaging that, together with 
its low specific activity (LSA) material or surface contaminated object 
(SCO) contents, meets the requirements of Secs. 173.410 and 173.411. 
Industrial packages are categorized in Sec. 173.411 as either:
    (i) ``Industrial package Type 1 (IP-1)'';
    (ii) ``Industrial package Type 2 (IP-2)''; or
    (iii) ``Industrial package Type 3 (IP-3)''.
    (3) ``Type A package'' means a packaging that, together with its 
radioactive contents limited to A1 or A2 as 
appropriate, meets the requirements of Secs. 173.410 and 173.412 and is 
designed to retain the integrity of containment and shielding required 
by this part under normal conditions of transport as demonstrated by 
the tests set forth in Sec. 173.465 or Sec. 173.466, as appropriate. A 
Type A package does not require Competent Authority approval.
    (4) ``Type B package'' means a packaging designed to transport 
greater than an A1 or A2 quantity of radioactive 
material that, together with its radioactive contents, is designed to 
retain the integrity of containment and shielding required by this part 
when subjected to the normal conditions of transport and hypothetical 
accident test conditions set forth in 10 CFR part 71.
    (i) ``Type B(U) package'' means a Type B packaging that, together 
with its radioactive contents, for international shipments requires 
unilateral approval only of the package design and of any stowage 
provisions that may be necessary for heat dissipation.
    (ii) ``Type B(M) package'' means a Type B packaging, together with 
its

[[Page 21354]]

radioactive contents, that for international shipments requires 
multilateral approval of the package design, and may require approval 
of the conditions of shipment. Type B(M) packages are those Type B 
package designs which have a maximum normal operating pressure of more 
than 700 kPa/cm \2\ (100 lb/in\2\) gauge or a relief device which would 
allow the release of Class 7 (radioactive) material to the environment 
under the hypothetical accident conditions specified in 10 CFR part 71.
    (5) ``Type B(DP) package'' means a dual purpose packaging intended 
for both the transport and storage of spent fuel, together with its 
radioactive contents. A package may be used as a Type B(DP) package 
only if the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has issued separate 
Certificates of Compliance for it approving its design as a spent fuel 
transportation package, in accordance with the requirements of subpart 
I of 10 CFR part 71, and approving its design as a spent fuel storage 
cask, in accordance with the requirements of subpart L of 10 CFR part 
72.
    (6) ``Fissile material package'' means a packaging, together with 
its fissile material contents, which meets the requirements for fissile 
material packages described in Subpart E of 10 CFR 71. A fissile 
material package may be a Type AF package, a Type B(U)F package, a Type 
B(M)F package, or a Type B(DP) package.
* * * * *
    Quality assurance means a systematic program of controls and 
inspections applied by each person involved in the transport of 
radioactive material which provides confidence that a standard of 
safety prescribed in this subchapter is achieved in practice.
* * * * *
    Radioactive contents means a Class 7 (radioactive) material, 
together with any contaminated or activated solids, liquids and gases 
within the packaging.
* * * * *
    Radioactive material means any material containing radionuclides 
where both the activity concentration and the total activity in the 
consignment exceed the values specified in the table in Sec. 173.436 or 
values derived according to the instructions in Sec. 173.433.
    Special form Class 7 (radioactive) material means either an 
indispersible solid radioactive material or a sealed capsule containing 
radioactive material which satisfies the following conditions:
    (1) It is either a single solid piece or a sealed capsule 
containing radioactive material that can be opened only by destroying 
the capsule;
    (2) The piece or capsule has at least one dimension not less than 5 
mm (0.2 in); and
    (3) It satisfies the test requirements of Sec. 173.469. Special 
form encapsulations designed in accordance with the requirements of 
Sec. 173.389(g) in effect on June 30, 1983 (see 49 CFR part 173, 
revised as of October 1, 1982), and constructed prior to July 1, 1985 
and special form encapsulations designed in accordance with the 
requirements of Sec. 173.403 in effect on March 31, 1996 (see 49 CFR 
part 173, revised as of October 1, 1995), and constructed prior to 
April 1, 1997, may continue to be used. Any other special form 
encapsulation must meet the requirements of this paragraph (3).
* * * * *
    Surface Contaminated Object (SCO) means a solid object which is not 
itself radioactive but which has radioactive material distributed on 
its surface. SCO exists in two phases:
    (1) SCO-I: A solid object on which:
    (i) The non-fixed contamination on the accessible surface averaged 
over 300 cm \2\ (or the area of the surface if less than 300 cm \2\) 
does not exceed 4 Bq/cm \2\ (10-\4\ microcurie/cm \2\) for 
beta, gamma and low toxicity alpha emitters, or 0.4 Bq/cm \2\ 
(10-\5\ microcurie/cm \2\) for all other alpha emitters;
    (ii) The fixed contamination on the accessible surface averaged 
over 300 cm \2\ (or the area of the surface if less than 300 cm \2\) 
does not exceed 4 x 10 \4\ Bq/cm \2\ (1.0 microcurie/cm \2\) for beta, 
gamma and low toxicity alpha emitters, or 4 x 10 \3\ Bq/cm \2\ (0.1 
microcurie/cm \2\) for all other alpha emitters; and
    (iii) The non-fixed contamination plus the fixed contamination on 
the inaccessible surface averaged over 300 cm \2\ (or the area of the 
surface if less than 300 cm \2\) does not exceed 4x10 \4\ Bq/cm \2\ (1 
microcurie/cm \2\) for beta, gamma and low toxicity alpha emitters, or 
4 x 10 \3\ Bq/cm \2\ (0.1 microcurie/cm \2\) for all other alpha 
emitters.
    (2) SCO-II: A solid object on which the limits for SCO-I are 
exceeded and on which:
    (i) The non-fixed contamination on the accessible surface averaged 
over 300 cm \2\ (or the area of the surface if less than 300 cm \2\) 
does not exceed 400 Bq/cm \2\ (10-\2\ microcurie/cm \2\) for 
beta, gamma and low toxicity alpha emitters, or 40 Bq/cm \2\ 
(10-\3\ microcurie/cm \2\) for all other alpha emitters;
    (ii) The fixed contamination on the accessible surface averaged 
over 300 cm \2\ (or the area of the surface if less than 300 cm \2\) 
does not exceed 8 x 10 \5\ Bq/cm \2\ (20 microcurie/cm \2\) for beta, 
gamma and low toxicity alpha emitters, or 8 x 10 \4\ Bq/cm \2\ (2 
microcuries/cm \2\) for all other alpha emitters; and
    (iii) The non-fixed contamination plus the fixed contamination on 
the inaccessible surface averaged over 300 cm \2\ (or the area of the 
surface if less than 300 cm \2\) does not exceed 8 x 10 \5\ Bq/cm \2\ 
(20 microcuries/cm \2\) for beta, gamma and low toxicity alpha 
emitters, or 8 x 10 \4\ Bq/cm \2\ (2 microcuries/cm \2\) for all other 
alpha emitters.
    Transport index (TI) means the dimensionless number (rounded up to 
the next tenth) placed on the label of a package, to designate the 
degree of control to be exercised by the carrier during transportation. 
The transport index is determined by multiplying the maximum radiation 
level in millisievert (mSv) per hour at 1 m (3.3 ft) from the external 
surface of the package by 100 (equivalent to the maximum radiation 
level in millirem per hour at 1 m (3.3 ft)).
* * * * *
    Unilateral approval means approval of a package design solely by 
the Competent Authority of the country of origin of the design.
* * * * *
    Unirradiated uranium means uranium containing not more than 2 x 10 
\3\ Bq of plutonium per gram of uranium-235, not more than 9 x 10 \6\ 
Bq of fission products per gram of uranium-235 and not more than 
5 x 10-\3\ g of uranium-236 per gram of uranium-235.
    Uranium--natural, depleted or enriched means the following: (1)(i) 
``Natural uranium'' means chemically separated uranium containing the 
naturally occurring distribution of uranium isotopes (approximately 
99.28% uranium-238 and 0.72% uranium-235 by mass).
    (ii) ``Depleted uranium'' means uranium containing a lesser mass 
percentage of uranium-235 than in natural uranium.
    (iii) ``Enriched uranium'' means uranium containing a greater mass 
percentage of uranium-235 than 0.72%.
    (2) In all cases listed in paragraph (1) of this definition, a very 
small mass percentage of uranium-234 is present.
    17. In Sec. 173.411, paragraph (b)(5)(ii) would be revised to read 
as follows:


Sec. 173.411  Industrial packagings.

* * * * *
    (b) * * *
    (5) * * *
    (ii) Be designed to conform to the standards prescribed in ISO 
1496-1 : 1990(E) ``Series 1 Freight Containers--Specifications and 
Testing--Part 1 :

[[Page 21355]]

General Cargo Containers,'' excluding dimensions and ratings (see 
Sec. 171.7 of this subchapter);
* * * * *
    18. In Sec. 173.415, paragraphs (a), (c) and (d) would be revised 
to read as follows:


Sec. 173.415  Authorized Type A packages.

* * * * *
    (a) DOT Specification 7A (see Sec. 178.350 of this subchapter) Type 
A general packaging. Each offeror of a Specification 7A package must 
maintain on file for at least one year after the latest shipment, and 
shall provide to DOT on request, complete documentation of tests and an 
engineering evaluation or comparative data showing that the 
construction methods, packaging design, and materials of construction 
comply with that specification.
* * * * *
    (c) Any Type B(U) or Type B(M) packaging authorized pursuant to 
Sec. 173.416.
    (d) Any foreign-made packaging that meets the standards in ``IAEA 
Regulations for the safe Transport of Radioactive Material No. TS-R-1'' 
(see Sec. 171.7 of this subchapter) and bears the marking ``Type A'' 
and was used for the import of Class 7 (radioactive) materials. Such 
packagings may be subsequently used for domestic and export shipments 
of Class 7 (radioactive) materials provided the offeror obtains the 
applicable documentation on file in accordance with paragraph (a) of 
this section. These packagings must conform with requirements of the 
country of origin (as indicated by the packaging marking) and the IAEA 
regulations applicable to Type A packagings.
    19. In Sec. 173.416, paragraphs (a), (b), and (c) would be revised 
and paragraphs (d), (e) and (f) would be removed to read as follows:


Sec. 173.416  Authorized Type B packages.

* * * * *
    (a) Any Type B(U) or Type B(M) packaging that meets the applicable 
requirements of 10 CFR part 71 and that has been approved by the U.S. 
Nuclear Regulatory Commission may be shipped pursuant to Sec. 173.471.
    (b) Any Type B(U) or B(M) packaging that meets the applicable 
requirements in ``IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of 
Radioactive Material, No. TS-R-1'' (see Sec. 171.7 of this subchapter) 
and for which the foreign Competent Authority Certificate has been 
revalidated by DOT pursuant to Sec. 173.473. These packagings are 
authorized only for export and import shipments.
    (c) Continued use of an existing Type B packaging constructed to 
DOT Specification 6M, 20WC, or 21WC is authorized until [2 Years From 
Effective Date of Final Rule] if it conforms in all aspects to the 
requirements of this subchapter in effect on October 1, 2001.
    20. Section 173.417 would be revised to read as follows:


Sec. 173.417  Authorized fissile materials packages.

    (a) Except as provided in Sec. 173.453, fissile materials 
containing not more than A1 or A2 as appropriate, must be packaged in 
one of the following packagings: (1)(i) A Class 7 (radioactive) 
material specified in 10 CFR part 71, subpart C, may be packaged in any 
packaging listed in Sec. 173.415;
    (ii) Any Type AF, Type B(U)F, or Type B(M)F packaging that meets 
the applicable standards for fissile material packages in 10 CFR part 
71; or
    (iii) Any Type AF, Type B(U)F, or Type B(M)F packaging that meets 
the applicable requirements for fissile material packages in Section VI 
of the International Atomic Energy Agency ``Regulations for the Safe 
Transport of Radioactive Material, No. TS-R-1 (see Sec. 171.7 of this 
subchapter),'' and for which the foreign Competent Authority 
certificate has been revalidated by the U.S. Competent Authority, in 
accordance with Sec. 173.473. These packages are authorized only for 
export and import shipments.
    (2) Residual ``heels'' of enriched solid uranium hexafluoride may 
be transported without a protective overpack in any metal cylinder that 
meets both the requirements of Sec. 173.415 and Sec. 178.350 of this 
subchapter for Specification 7A Type A packaging, and the requirements 
of Sec. 173.420 for packagings containing greater than 0.1 kg of 
uranium hexafluoride. Such shipments must be made in accordance with 
Table 2, as follows:

                           Table 2.--Allowable Content of Uranium Hexafluoride (UF6) ``Heels'' in a Specification 7A Cylinder
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       Maximum cylinder diameter                            Cylinder volume       Maximum        Maximum ``Heel'' weight per cylinder
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- uranium-235 --------------------------------------------
                                                                                                 enrichment           UF6                Uranium-235
                         Centimeters                            Inches     liters   cubic feet    (weight)  --------------------------------------------
                                                                                                  percent        kg          lb         kg         lb
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12.7........................................................          5        8.8      0.311         100.0      0.045         0.1      0.031       0.07
20.3........................................................          8       39.0      1.359          12.5      0.227         0.5      0.019       0.04
30.5........................................................         12       68.0      2.410           5.0      0.454         1.0      0.015       0.03
76.0........................................................         30      725.0     25.64            5.0     11.3          25.0      0.383       0.84
122.0.......................................................         48    3,084.0  \1\ 108.9           4.5     22.7          50.0      0.690       1.52
122.0.......................................................         48    4,041.0  \2\ 142.7           4.5     22.7          50.0      0.690      1.52
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ 10 ton.
\2\ 14 ton.

    (3) DOT Specification 20PF-1, 20PF-2, or 20PF-3 (see Sec. 178.356 
of this subchapter), or Specification 21PF-1A, 21PF-1B, or 21PF-2 (see 
Sec. 178.358 of this subchapter) phenolic-foam insulated overpack with 
snug fittings inner metal cylinders, meeting all requirements of 
Secs. 173.24, 173.410, 173.412, and 173.420 and the following:
    (i) Handling procedures and packaging criteria must be in 
accordance with United States Enrichment Corporation Report No. USEC-
651 or ANSI N14.1(see Sec. 171.7 of this subchapter); and
    (ii) Quantities of uranium hexafluoride are authorized as shown in 
Table 3 of this section, with each package assigned a minimum 
criticality safety index as also shown.
    (b) Fissile Class 7 (radioactive) materials with radioactive 
content exceeding A1 or A2 must be packaged in 
one of the following packagings:
    (1) Type B(U), Type B(M), or Type B(DP) packaging that meets the 
standards for packaging of fissile materials in 10 CFR part 71, and is

[[Page 21356]]

approved by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and used in 
accordance with Sec. 173.471;
    (2) Type B(U) or Type B(M) packaging that also meets the applicable 
requirements for fissile material packaging in Section VI of the 
International Atomic Energy Agency ``Regulations for the Safe Transport 
of Radioactive Material, No. TS-R-1,'' and for which the foreign 
Competent Authority certificate has been revalidated by the U.S. 
Competent Authority in accordance with Sec. 173.473. These packagings 
are authorized only for import and export shipments; or
    (3) DOT Specifications 20PF-1, 20PF-2, or 20PF-3 (see Sec. 178.356 
of this subchapter), for DOT Specifications 21PF-1A or 21PF-1B (see 
Sec. 178.356 of this subchapter) phenolic-foam insulated overpack with 
snug fitting inner metal cylinders, meeting all requirements of 
Secs. 173.24, 173.410, and 173.412, and the following:
    (i) Handling procedures and packaging criteria must be in 
accordance with United States Enrichment Corporation Report No. USEC-
651 and ANSI N14.1 (see Sec. 171.7 of this subchapter); and
    (ii) Quantities of uranium hexafluoride are authorized as shown in 
Table 3, with each package assigned a minimum criticality safety index 
as also shown:

                                                 Table 3.--Authorized Quantities of Uranium Hexafluoride
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                              Maximum inner  cylinder         Maximum weight of  UF6       Maximum U-235
                                                                     diameter                        contents               enrichment        Minimum
        Protective overpack specification number         ----------------------------------------------------------------    (weight/       criticality
                                                            Centimeters       Inches         Kilograms        Pounds         percent)      safety index
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
20PF-1..................................................            12.7               5              25              55           100.0             0.1
20PF-2..................................................            20.3               8             116             255            12.5             0.4
20PF-3..................................................            30.5              12             209             460             5.0             1.1
21PF-1A\1\ or 21PF-1B\1\................................        \2\ 76.0          \2\ 30           2,250           4,950             5.0             5.0
21PF-1A\1\ or 21PF-1B\1\................................        \3\ 76.0          \3\ 30           2,282           5,020             5.0             5.0
21PF-2\1\...............................................        \2\ 76.0          \2\ 30           2,250           4,950             5.0             5.0
21PF-2\1\...............................................        \3\ 76.0          \3\ 30           2,282           5,020             5.0             5.0
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ For 76 cm (30 in) cylinders, the maximum H/U atomic ratio is 0.088.
\2\ Model 30A inner cylinder (reference USEC-651).
\3\ Model 30B inner cylinder (reference USEC-651).

    (c) Continued use of an existing Type B packaging constructed to 
DOT Specification 6L, 6M, or 1A2, is authorized until [2 Years From 
Effective Date of Final Rule] if it conforms in all respect to the 
requirements of this subchapter in effect on October 1, 2001.
    21. Section 173.420 would be revised to read as follows:


Sec. 173.420  Uranium hexafluoride (fissile, fissile excepted and non-
fissile).

    (a) In addition to any other applicable requirements of this 
subchapter, quantities greater than 0.1 kg of fissile, fissile excepted 
or non-fissile uranium hexafluoride must be offered for transportation 
as follows:
    (1) Before initial filling and during periodic inspection and test, 
packagings must be cleaned in accordance with American National 
Standard N14.1 (see Sec. 171.7 of this subchapter) or International 
Organization for Standardization (ISO) document ISO 7195 (see 
Sec. 171.7 of this subchapter).
    (2) Packagings must be designed, fabricated, inspected, tested and 
marked in accordance with--
    (i) American National Standard N14.1 in effect at the time the 
packaging was manufactured;
    (ii) Specifications for Class DOT-106A multi-unit tank car tanks 
(see Secs. 179.300 and 179.301 of this subchapter);
    (iii) International Organization for Standardization (ISO) document 
7195; or
    (iv) Section VIII, Division I of the ASME Code (see Sec. 171.7 of 
this subchapter), provided the packaging--
    (A) Was manufactured on or before June 30, 1987;
    (B) Conforms to the edition of the ASME Code in effect at the time 
the packaging was manufactured;
    (C) Is used within its original design limitations; and
    (D) Has shell and head thicknesses that have not decreased below 
the minimum value specified in the following table:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                             Minimum
                                                            thickness;
                    Packaging model                        millimeters
                                                             (inches)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1S, 2S.................................................     1.58 (0.062)
5A, 5B, 8A.............................................     3.17 (0.125)
12A, 12B...............................................     4.76 (0.187)
30B....................................................     7.93 (0.312)
48A, F, X, and Y.......................................    12.70 (0.500)
48T, O, OM, OM Allied, HX, H, and G....................     6.35 (0.250)
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (3) Each package shall be designed so that it will:
    (i) withstand a hydraulic test at an internal pressure of at least 
1.4 MPa (200 psi) without leakage and without unacceptable stress;
    (ii) withstand the test specified in Sec. 173.465(c) without loss 
or dispersal of the uranium hexafluoride; and
    (iii) withstand the test specified in 10 CFR 71.73(c)(4) without 
rupture of the containment system.
    (4) Uranium hexafluoride must be in solid form.
    (5) The volume of solid uranium hexafluoride, except solid depleted 
uranium hexafluoride, at 20 deg. C (68 deg. F) may not exceed 61% of 
the certified volumetric capacity of the packaging. The volume of solid 
depleted uranium hexafluoride at 20 deg. C (68 deg. F) may not exceed 
62% of the certified volumetric capacity of the packaging.
    (6) The pressure in the package at 20 deg. C (68 deg. F) must be 
less than 101.3 kPa (14.8 psig).
    (b) Packagings for uranium hexafluoride must be periodically 
inspected, tested, marked and otherwise conform with the American 
National Standard N14.1or ISO document ISO 7195.
    (c) Each repair to a packaging for uranium hexafluoride must be 
performed in accordance with the American National Standard N14.1 or 
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) document ISO 7195.
    (d) Non-fissile uranium hexafluoride, in quantities of less than 
0.1 kg, may be shipped in packaging that meets Secs. 173.24, 173.24a, 
and 173.410.

[[Page 21357]]

    22. In Sec. 173.421, paragraph (a) introductory text would be 
revised to read as follows:


Sec. 173.421  Excepted packages for limited quantities of Class 7 
(radioactive) materials.

    (a) A Class 7 (radioactive) material with an activity per package 
which does not exceed the limited quantity package limits specified in 
Table 7 in Sec. 173.425, and its packaging, are excepted from 
requirements in this subchapter for specification packaging, labeling, 
marking (except for the UN identification number), and if not a 
hazardous substance or hazardous waste, shipping papers, and the 
requirements of this subpart if:
* * * * *
    23. Section 173.422 would be revised to read as follows:


Sec. 173.422  Additional requirements for excepted packages containing 
Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    An excepted package of Class 7 (radioactive) material that is 
classified in accordance with Sec. 173.29 as Class 7, and is prepared 
for shipment under the provisions of Sec. 173.421, Sec. 173.424, 
Sec. 173.426, or Sec. 173.428 is not subject to the requirements of 
this subchapter, except for the following:
    (a) The outside of each package must be marked with the 
identification number for the material as shown in Sec. 172.101 of this 
subchapter, the Hazardous Materials Table;
    (b) Sections 171.15, 171.16, 174.750 and 176.710 of this 
subchapter, pertaining to the reporting of incidents and 
decontamination, when transported by a mode other than air;
    (c) Sections 171.15, 171.16, and 175.700(b) of this subchapter, 
pertaining to the reporting of incidents and decontamination, when 
transported by aircraft; and
    (d) The training requirements of subpart H of part 172 of this 
subchapter and, for materials that meet the definition of a hazardous 
substance or a hazardous waste, the shipping paper requirements of 
subpart C of part 172 of this subchapter.
    24. Section 173.424 would be revised to read as follows:


Sec. 173.424  Excepted packages for radioactive instruments and 
articles.

    A radioactive instrument or article and its packaging are excepted 
from requirements in this subchapter for specification packaging, 
labeling, marking (except for the UN identification number), and if not 
a hazardous substance or hazardous waste, shipping papers and the 
requirements of this subpart if:
    (a) Each package meets the general design requirements of 
Sec. 173.410;
    (b) The activity of the instrument or article does not exceed the 
relevant limit listed in Table 7 in Sec. 173.425;
    (c) The total activity per package does not exceed the relevant 
limit listed in Table 7 in Sec. 173.425;
    (d) The radiation level at 10 cm (4 in) from any point on the 
external surface of any unpackaged instrument or article does not 
exceed 0.1 mSv/hour (10 mrem/hour);
    (e) Each instrument or article (except radio-luminescent time-piece 
or devices) bears the marking ``RADIOACTIVE';
    (f) The active material is completely enclosed by non-active 
components (a device performing the sole function of containing 
radioactive material shall not be considered to be an instrument or 
manufactured article);
    (g) The radiation level at any point on the external surface of a 
package bearing the article or instrument does not exceed 0.005 mSv/
hour (0.5 mrem/hour), or, for exclusive use domestic shipments, 0.02 
mSv/hour (2 mrem/hour);
    (h) The nonfixed (removable) radioactive surface contamination on 
the external surface of the package does not exceed the limits 
specified in Sec. 173.443(a);
    (i) Except as provided in Sec. 173.426, the package does not 
contain more than 15 g of uranium-235; and
    (j) The package is otherwise prepared for shipment as specified in 
Sec. 173.422.
    25. In Sec. 173.426, the introductory text would be revised to read 
as follows:


Sec. 173.426  Excepted packages for articles containing natural uranium 
or thorium.

    A manufactured article in which the sole Class 7 (radioactive) 
material content is natural uranium, unirradiated depleted uranium or 
natural thorium, and its packaging, are excepted from the from the 
requirements in this subchapter for specification packaging, labeling, 
marking (except for the UN identification number), and if not a 
hazardous substance or hazardous waste, shipping papers and the 
requirements of this subpart if:
* * * * *
    26. Section 173.427 would be revised to read as follows:


Sec. 173.427  Transport requirements for low specific activity (LSA) 
Class 7 (radioactive) materials and surface contaminated objects (SCO).

    (a) In addition to other applicable requirements specified in this 
subchapter, LSA materials and SCO, unless excepted by paragraph (c) or 
(d) of this section, must be packaged in accordance with paragraph (b) 
of this section and must be transported in accordance with the 
following conditions:
    (1) The external dose rate may not exceed an external radiation 
level of 10 mSv/h (1 rem/h) at 3 m from the unshielded material;
    (2) The quantity of LSA and SCO material in any single conveyance 
may not exceed the limits specified in Table 9;
    (3) LSA material and SCO that are or contain fissile material must 
conform to the applicable requirements of Sec. 173.453;
    (4) Packages must conform to the contamination control limits 
specified in Sec. 173.443;
    (5) External radiation levels may not exceed those specified in 
Sec. 173.441; and
    (6) For LSA material and SCO consigned as exclusive use:
    (i) Shipments shall be loaded by the consignor and unloaded by the 
consignee from the conveyance or freight container in which originally 
loaded;
    (ii) There may be no loose radioactive material in the conveyance; 
however, when the conveyance is the packaging, there may not be any 
leakage of radioactive material from the conveyance;
    (iii) Packages must be braced so as to prevent shifting of lading 
under conditions normally incident to transportation;
    (iv) Specific instructions for maintenance of exclusive use 
shipment controls shall be provided by the offeror to the carrier. Such 
instructions must be included with the shipping paper information;
    (v) Except for shipments of unconcentrated uranium or thorium ores, 
the transport vehicle must be placarded in accordance with subpart F of 
part 172 of this subchapter;
    (vi) For domestic transportation only, packages containing less 
than an A2 quantity are excepted from the marking and labeling 
requirements of this subchapter. However, the exterior of each package 
must be stenciled or otherwise marked ``RADIOACTIVE--LSA'' or 
``RADIOACTIVE--SCO'', as appropriate, and packages that contain a 
hazardous substance must be stenciled or otherwise marked with the 
letters ``RQ'' in association with the description in this paragraph 
(a)(6)(vi); and
    (vii) Transportation by aircraft is prohibited except when 
transported in an industrial package in accordance with Table 8 of this 
section, or in an authorized Type A or Type B package.

[[Page 21358]]

    (b) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, LSA 
material and SCO must be packaged as follows:
    (1) In an industrial package (IP-1, IP-2 or IP-3; Sec. 173.411), 
subject to the limitations of Table 8;
    (2) In a DOT Specification 7A (Sec. 178.350 of this subchapter) 
Type A package;
    (3) In any Type B, B(U), or B(M) packaging authorized pursuant to 
Sec. 173.416;
    (4) For domestic, exclusive use transport of less than an A2 
quantity only, in a packaging which meets the requirements of 
Secs. 173.24, 173.24a, and 173.410;
    (5) For exclusive use transport of liquid LSA-I only, in either:
    (i) Specification 103CW, 111A60W7 (Secs. 179.200, 179.201, 179.202 
of this subchapter) tank cars. Bottom openings in tanks are prohibited; 
or
    (ii) Specification MC 310, MC 311, MC 312, MC 331 or DOT 412 
(Sec. 178.348 or Sec. 178.337 of this subchapter) cargo tank motor 
vehicles. Bottom outlets are not authorized. Trailer-on-flat-car 
service is not authorized.
    (c) LSA material and SCO in groups LSA-I and SCO-I may be 
transported unpackaged under the following conditions:
    (1) All unpackaged material, other than ores containing only 
naturally occurring radionuclides, shall be transported in such a 
manner that under normal conditions of transport there will be no 
escape of the radioactive contents from the conveyance nor will there 
be any loss of shielding;
    (2) Each conveyance must be under exclusive use, except when only 
transporting SCO-I on which the contamination on the accessible and the 
inaccessible surfaces is not greater than 4.0 Bq/cm2 for 
beta and gamma emitters and low toxicity alpha emitters and 0.4 Bq/
cm2 for all other alpha emitters; and
    (3) For SCO-I where it is suspected that non-fixed contamination 
exists on inaccessible surfaces in excess of the values specified in 
paragraph (c)(2) of this section, measures shall be taken to ensure 
that the radioactive material is not released into the conveyance or to 
the environment.
    (d) LSA and SCO that exceed the packaging limits in this section 
must be packaged in accordance with 10 CFR part 71.
    (e) Tables 8 and 9 are as follows:

Table 8.--Industrial Package Integrity Requirements for LSA Material and
                                   SCO
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                         Industrial packaging type
                                  --------------------------------------
             Contents                Exclusive  use    Non exclusive use
                                        shipment            shipment
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. LSA-I:
  Solid..........................  IP-1                IP-1
  Liquid.........................  IP-1                IP-2
2. LSA-II:
  Solid..........................  IP-2                IP-2
  Liquid and gas.................  IP-2                IP-3
3. LSA-III.......................  IP-2                IP-3
  SCO-I..........................  IP-1                IP-1
  SCO-II.........................  IP-2                IP-2
------------------------------------------------------------------------


      Table 9.--Conveyance Activity Limits for LSA Material and SCO
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                 Activity limit for
            Nature of material                       conveyances
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. LSA-I..................................  No limit.
2. LSA-II and LSA-III; non-Combustible      No limit.
 solids.
3. LSA-II and LSA-III; Combustible solids   100 A2.
 and all liquids and gases.
4. SCO....................................  100 A2.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    27. In Sec. 173.428, the introductory text would be revised, 
paragraphs (c), (d) and (e) would be redesignated as paragraphs (d), 
(e) and (f) respectively, and a new paragraph (c) would be added to 
read as follows:


Sec. 173.428  Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    A packaging which previously contained Class 7 (radioactive) 
materials and has been emptied of contents as far as practical, is 
excepted from the shipping paper, marking (except for the UN 
identification number) requirements of this subchapter, provided that--
* * * * *
    (c) The outer surface of any uranium or thorium in its structure is 
covered with an inactive sheath made of metal or some other substantial 
material;
* * * * *
    28. In Sec. 173.431, paragraph (b) would be revised to read as 
follows:


Sec. 173.431  Activity limits for Type A and Type B packages.

* * * * *
    (b) The limits on activity contained in a Type B(U) or Type B(M) 
package are those prescribed in Secs. 173.416 and 173.417, or in the 
applicable approval certificate under Secs. 173.471, 173.472 or 
173.473.
    29. Section 173.433 would be revised to read as follows:


Sec. 173.433  Requirements for determining basic radionuclide values, 
and for the listing of radionuclides on shipping papers and labels.

    (a) For individual radionuclides listed in the table in 
Sec. 173.435 and Sec. 173.436:
    (1) A1 and A2 values are given in the table 
in Sec. 173.435; and
    (2) Activity concentration exemption values and consignment 
activity exemption values are given in the table in Sec. 173.436.
    (b) For individual radionuclides which are not listed in the tables 
in Sec. 173.435 or Sec. 173.436, the radionuclide values must be 
determined in one of the following ways:
    (1) Where the chemical form of each radionuclide is known, it is 
permissible to use the A2 value related to its solubility 
class as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological 
Protection, if the chemical forms under both normal and accident 
conditions of transport are taken into consideration;
    (2) the radionuclide values in Tables 10A or 10B of this section 
may be used; or
    (3) an approval issued by the Associate Administrator or, for 
international transport, multilateral approval.
    (c) In calculating A1 and A2 values for a 
radionuclide not listed in the table in Sec. 173.435, a single 
radioactive decay chain in which the radionuclides are present in their 
naturally-occurring proportions, and in which no daughter nuclide has a 
half life either longer than 10 days or longer than that of the parent 
nuclide, will be considered as a single radionuclide, and the activity 
to be taken into account and the A1 or A2 value 
to be applied will be those corresponding to the parent nuclide of that 
chain. Otherwise, the parent and daughter nuclides will be considered 
as a mixture of different nuclides.
    (d) Mixtures of radionuclides whose identities and respective 
activities are known must conform to the following conditions:
    (1) For special form Class 7 (radioactive) material, the activity 
which may be transported in a Type A package must satisfy:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP30AP02.001

Where:

B(i) is the activity of radionuclide i in special form; and
A1(i) is the A1 value for radionuclide i.

    (2) For normal form Class 7 (radioactive) material, the activity

[[Page 21359]]

which may be transported in a Type A package must satisfy:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP30AP02.002

Where:

C(j) is the activity of radionuclide j in normal form; and
A2(j) is the A2 value for radionuclide j.

    (3) If the package contains both special and normal form Class 7 
(radioactive) material, the activity which may be transported in a Type 
A package must satisfy:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP30AP02.003

Where:

The symbols are defined as in paragraphs (d)(2) and (d)(3) of this 
section.

    (4) Alternatively, the A1 value for a mixture of special 
form material may be determined as follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP30AP02.004

Where:

f(i) is the fraction of activity for radionuclide i in the mixture; and
A1(i) is the appropriate A1 value for 
radionuclide i.

    (5) Alternatively, the A2 value for mixtures of normal 
form material may be determined as follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP30AP02.005

Where:

f(i) is the fraction of activity for normal form radionuclide i in the 
mixture; and
A2(i) is the appropriate A2 value for 
radionuclide i.

    (6) The exempt activity concentration for mixtures of nuclides may 
be determined as follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP30AP02.006

Where:

f(i) is the fraction of activity concentration of nuclide i in the 
mixture; and
[A](i) is the activity concentration for exempt material containing 
nuclide i.

    (7) The activity limit for an exempt consignment for mixtures of 
nuclides may be determined as follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP30AP02.007

    Where:

f(i) is the fraction of activity of nuclide i in the mixture; and
A(i) is the activity limit for exempt consignments for nuclide i.

    (e) When the identity of each nuclide is known but the individual 
activities of some of the radionuclides are not known, the 
radionuclides may be grouped and the lowest A1 or 
A2 value, as appropriate, for the radionuclides in each 
group may be used in applying the formulas in paragraphs (d)(1) through 
(d)(5) of this section. Groups may be based on the total alpha activity 
and the total beta/gamma activity when these are known, using the 
lowest A1 or A2 values for the alpha emitters or 
beta/gamma emitters, respectively.
    (f) When the identity of each nuclide is known but the individual 
activities of some of the radionuclides are not known, the 
radionuclides may be grouped and the lowest [A] (activity concentration 
for exempt material) or A (activity limit for exempt consignment) 
value, as appropriate, for the radionuclides in each group may be used 
in applying the formulas in paragraphs (d)(6) and (d)(7) of this 
section. Groups may be based on the total alpha activity and the total 
beta/gamma activity when these are known, using the lowest [A] or A 
values for the alpha emitters or beta/gamma emitters, respectively.
    (g) Shipping papers and labeling. For mixtures of radionuclides, 
the radionuclides (n) that must be shown on shipping papers and labels 
in accordance with Secs. 172.203 and 172.403 of this subchapter, 
respectively, must be determined on the basis of the following formula:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TP30AP02.008

Where:

n+m represents all the radionuclides in the mixture;
m are the radionuclides that do not need to be considered;
a(1) is the activity of radionuclide i in the mixture; and
A(i) is the A11 or A2 value, as 
appropriate for radionuclide i.

    (h) Tables 10A and 10B are as follows:

                                    Table 10A.--General Values for A1 and A2
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                    A1                                      A2
      Radioactive contents      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                        (TBq)                (Ci)                (TBq)               (Ci)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. Only beta or gamma emitting   1                    2.7 x 10\0\         2 x 10-\2\          5.4 x 10-\1\
 nuclides are known to be
 present.
                                --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. Only alpha emitting nuclides  2 x 10-\1\           5.4 x 10-\0\        9 x 10-\5\          2.4 x 10-\3\
 are known to be present.
                                --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 21360]]

 
3. No relevant data are          1 x 10-\3\           2.7 x 10-\2\        9 x 10-\5\          2.4 x 10-\3\
 available..
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                                      Table 10B.--General Exemption Values
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                    Activity Concentration for Exempt           Activity limits for exempt
                                                 material                              consignments
      Radioactive contents      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                        (Bq/g               (Ci/g)               (Bq)                (Ci)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. Only beta or gamma emitting   1 x 10\1\            2.7 x 10\10\        1 x 10\4\           2.7 x 10\7\
 nuclides are known to be
 present.
2. Only alpha emitting nuclides  1 x 10\1\            2.7 x 10\12\        1 x 10\3\           2.7 x 10\8\
 are known to be present.
                                --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. No relevant data are          1 x 10\1\            2.7 x 10-\12\       1 x 10\3\           2.7 x 10\8\
 available..
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    30. Section 173.435 would be revised to read as follows:


Sec. 173.435  Table of A1 and A2 values for 
radionuclides.

    The Table of A1 and A2 Values for 
Radionuclides is as follows:

                                                                              A 1 and A 2 Values for Radionuclides
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                                                                  Specific activity
      Symbol of radionuclide        Element and atomic          A1(TBq)                 A1(Ci)                A2(TBq)                 A2(Ci)        --------------------------------------------
                                          number                                                                                                            (TBq/g)                (Ci/g)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ac-225 (a).......................  Actinium (89).......  8.0 x 10-1             2.2 x 101              6.0 x 10-3             1.6 x 10-1             2.1 x 103              5.8 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ac-227 (a).......................  ....................  9.0 x 10-1             2.4 x 101              9.0 x 10-5             2.4 x 10-3             2.7                    7.2 x 101
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ac-228...........................  ....................  6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 101              8.4 x 104              2.2 x 106
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ag-105...........................  Silver (47).........  2.0                    5.4 x 101              2.0                    5.4 x 101              1.1 x 103              3.0 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ag-108m (a)......................  ....................  7.0 x 10-1             1.9 x 101              7.0 x 10-1             1.9 x 101              9.7 x 10-1             2.6 x 101
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ag-110m (a)......................  ....................  4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 101              4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 101              1.8 x 102              4.7 x 103
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ag-111...........................  ....................  2.0                    5.4 x 101              6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              5.8 x 103              1.6 x 105
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Al-26............................  Aluminum (13).......  1.0 x 10-1             2.7                    1.0 x 10-1             2.7                    7.0 x 10-4             1.9 x 10-2
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Am-241...........................  Americium (95)......  1.0 x 101              2.7 x 102              1.0 x 10-3             2.7 x 10-2             1.3 x 10-1             3.4
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Am-242m (a)......................  ....................  1.0 x 101              2.7 x 102              1.0 x 10-3             2.7 x 10-2             3.6 x 10-1             1.0 x 101
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Am-243 (a).......................  ....................  5.0                    1.4 x 102              1.0 x 10-3             2.7 x 10-2             7.4 x 10-3             2.0 x 10-1
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ar-37............................  Argon (18)..........  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              3.7 x 103              9.9 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ar-39............................  ....................  2.0 x 101              5.4 x 102              4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              1.3                    3.4 x 101
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ar-41............................  ....................  3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    1.5 x 106              4.2 x 107
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
As-72............................  Arsenic (33)........  3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    6.2 x 104              1.7 x 106
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
As-73............................  ....................  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              8.2 x 102              2.2 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
As-74............................  ....................  1.0                    2.7 x 101              9.0 x 10-1             2.4 x 101              3.7 x 103              9.9 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
As-76............................  ....................  3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    5.8 x 104              1.6 x 106
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
As-77............................  ....................  2.0 x 101              5.4 x 102              7.0 x 10-1             1.9 x 101              3.9 x 104              1.0 x 106
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
At-211 (a).......................  Astatine............  2.0 x 101              5.4 x 102              5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 101              7.6 x 104              2.1 x 106
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Au-193...........................  Gold (79)...........  7.0                    1.9 x 102              2.0                    5.4 x 101              3.4 x 104              9.2 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Au-194...........................  ....................  1.0                    2.7 x 101              1.0                    2.7 x 101              1.5 x 104              4.1 x 105
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 21361]]

 
Au-195...........................  Gold (79)...........  1.0 x 101              2.7 x 102              6.0                    1.6 x 102              1.4 x 102              3.7 x 103
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Au-198...........................  ....................  1.0                    2.7 x 101              6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              9.0 x 103              2.4 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Au-199...........................  ....................  1.0 x 101              2.7 x 102              6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              7.7 x 103              2.1 x 105
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ba-131 (a).......................  Barium (56).........  2.0                    5.4 x 101              2.0                    5.4 x 101              3.1 x 103              8.4 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ba-133...........................  ....................  3.0                    8.1 x 101              3.0                    8.1 x 101              9.4                    2.6 x 102
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ba-133m..........................  ....................  2.0 x 101              5.4 x 102              6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              2.2 x 104              6.1 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ba-140 (a).......................  ....................  5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 101              3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    2.7 x 103              7.3 x 104
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Be-7.............................  Beryllium...........  2.0 x 101              5.4 x 102              2.0 x 101              5.4 x 102              1.3 x 104              3.5 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Be-10............................  ....................  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              8.3 x 10-4             2.2 x 10-2
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bi-205...........................  Bismuth (83)........  7.0 x 10-1             1.9 x 101              7.0 x 10-1             1.9 x 101              1.5 x 10-3             4.2 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bi-206...........................  ....................  3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    3.8 x 103              1.0 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bi-207...........................  ....................  7.0 x 10-1             1.9 x 101              7.0 x 10-1             1.9 x 101              1.9                    5.2 x 101
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bi-210...........................  ....................  1.0                    2.7 x 101              6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              4.6 x 103              1.2 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bi-210m (a)......................  ....................  6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              2.0 x 10-2             5.4 x 10-1             2.1 x 10-5             5.7 x 10-4
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bi-212(a)........................  ....................  7.0 x 10-1             1.9 x 10\1\            6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 10\1\            5.4 x 10\5\            1.5 x 10\7\
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bk-247...........................  Berkelium (97)......  8.0                    2.2 x 10\2\            8.0 x 10-4             2.2 x 10-2             3.8 x 10-2             1.0
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Bk-249 (a)......................  ....................  4.0 x 10\1\            1.1 x 10\3\            3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    6.1 x 10\1\            1.6 x 10\3\
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Br-76............................  Bromine (35)........  4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 10\1\            4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 10\1\            9.4 x 10\4\            2.5 x 10\6\
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Br-77............................  ....................  3.0                    8.1 x 10\1\            3.0                    8.1 x 10\1\            2.6 x 10\4\            7.1 x 10\5\
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Brn82............................  ....................  4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 10\1\            4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 10\1\            4.0 x 10\4\            1.1 x 10\6\
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
C-11.............................  Carbon (6)..........  1.0                    2.7 x 10\1\            6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 10\1\            3.1 x 10\7\            8.4 x 10\8\
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
C-14.............................  ....................  4.0 x 10\1\            1.1 x 10\3\            3.0                    8.1 x 10\1\            1.6 x 10-1             4.5
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ca-41............................  Calcium (20)........  Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              3.1 x 10-3             8.5 x 10-2
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ca-45............................  ....................  4.0 x 10\1\            1.1 x 10\3\            1.0                    2.7 x 10\1\            6.6 x 10\2\            1.8 x 10\4\
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ca-47 (a)........................  ....................  3.0                    8.1 x 10\1\            3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    2.3 x 10\4\            6.1 x 10\5\
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cd-109...........................  Cadmium (48)........  3.0 x 10\1\            8.1 x 10\2\            2.0                    5.4 x 10\1\            9.6 x 10\1\            2.6 x 10\3\
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cd-113m..........................  ....................  4.0 x 10\1\            1.1 x 10\3\            5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 10\1\            8.3                    2.2 x 10\2\
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cd-115 (a).......................  ....................  3.0                    8.1 x 10\1\            4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 10\1\            1.9 x 10\4\            5.1 x 10\5\
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cd-115m..........................  ....................  5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 10\1\            5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 10\1\            9.4 x 10\2\            2.5 x 10\4\
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ce-139...........................  Cerium (58).........  7.0                    1.9 x 10\2\            2.0                    5.4 x 10\1\            2.5 x 10\2\            6.8 x 10\3\
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ce-141...........................  ....................  2.0 x 10\1\            5.4 x 10\2\            6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 10\1\            1.1 x 10\3\            2.8 x 10\4\
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ce-143...........................  ....................  9.0 x 10-1             2.4 x 10\1\            6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 10\1\            2.5 x 10\4\            6.6 x 10\5\
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ce-144...........................  ....................  2.0 x 10-1             5.4                    2.0 x 10-1             5.4                    1.2 x 10\2\            3.2 x 10\3\
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cf-248...........................  Californium (98)....  4.0 x 101\1\           1.1 x 10\3\            6.0 x 10-3             1.6 x 10-1             5.8 x 10\1\            1.6 x 10\3\
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cf-249...........................  ....................  3.0                    8.1 x 10\1\            8.0 x 10-4             2.2 x 10-2             1.5 x 10-1             4.1
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cf-250...........................  ....................  2.0 x 10\1\            5.4 x 10\2\            2.0 x 10-3             5.4 x 10-2             4.0                    1.1 x 10\2\
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 21362]]

 
Cf-251...........................  ....................  7.0                    1.9 x 10\2\            7.0 x 10-4             1.9 x 10-2             5.9 x 10-2             1.6
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cf-252...........................  ....................  5.0 x 10-2             1.35                   3.0 x 10-3             8.1 x 10-2             2.0 x 10\1\            5.4 x 10\2\
                                                         (h)                    (h)                    (h)
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cf-253 (a).......................  ....................  4.0 x 10\1\            1.1 x 10\3\            4.0 x 10-2             1.1                    1.1 x 10\3\            2.9 x 10\4\
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cf-254...........................  ....................  1.0 x 10-3             2.7 x 10-2             1.0 x 10-3             2.7 x 10-2             3.1 x 10\2\            8.5 x 10\3\
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cl-36............................  Chlorine (17).......  1.0 x 10\1\            2.7 x 10\2\            6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101\1\           1.2 x 10-3             3.3 x 10-2
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cl-38............................  ....................  2.0 x 10-1             5.4                    2.0 x 10-1             5.4                    4.9 x 10\6\            1.3 x 10\8\
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cm-240...........................  Curium (96).........  4.0 x 10\1\            1.1 x 10\3\            2.0 x 10-2             5.4 x 10-1             7.5 x 10\2\            2.0 x 10\4\
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cm-241...........................  ....................  2.0                    5.4 x 10\1\            1.0                    2.7 x 10\1\            6.1 x 10\2\            1.7 x 10\4\
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cm-242...........................  Curium (96).........  4.0 x 10\1\            1.1 x 10\3\            1.0 x 10-2             2.7 x 10-1             1.2 x 10\2\            3.3 x 10\3\
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cm-243...........................  ....................  9.0                    2.4 x 10\2\            1.0 x 10-3             2.7 x 10-2             1.9 x 10-3             5.2 x 10\1\
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cm-244...........................  ....................  2.0 x 10\1\            5.4 x 10\2\            2.0 x 10-3             5.4 x 10-2             3.0                    8.1 x 10\1\
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cm-245...........................  ....................  9.0                    2.4 x 10\2\            9.0 x 10-4             2.4 x 10-2             6.4 x 10-3             1.7 x 10-1
Cm-246...........................  ....................  9.0                    2.4 x 102              9.0 x 10-4             2.4 x 10-2             1.1 x 10-2             3.1 x 10-1
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cm-247(a)........................  ....................  3.0                    8.1 x 101              1.0 x 10-3             2.7 x 10-2             3.4 x 10-6             9.3 x 10-5
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cm-248...........................  ....................  2.0 x 10-2             5.4 x 10-1             3.0 x 10-4             8.1 x 10-3             1.6 x 10-5             4.2 x 10-3
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Co-55............................  Cobalt (27).........  5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 101              5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 101              1.1 x 105              3.1 x 106
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Co-56............................  ....................  3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    1.1 x 103              3.0 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Co-57............................  ....................  1.0 x 101              2.7 x 102              1.0 x 101              2.7 x 102              3.1 x 102              8.4 x 103
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Co-58............................  ....................  1.0                    2.7 x 101              1.0                    2.7 x 101              1.2 x 103              3.2 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Co-58m...........................  ....................  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              2.2 x 105              5.9 x 106
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Co-60............................  ....................  4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 101              4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 101              4.2 x 101              1.1 x 103
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cr-51............................  Chromium (24).......  3.0 x 101              8.1 x 102              3.0 x 101              8.1 x 102              3.4 x 103              9.2 x 104
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cs-129...........................  Cesium (55).........  4.0                    1.1 x 102              4.0                    1.1 x 102              2.8 x 104              7.6 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cs-131...........................  ....................  3.0 x 101              8.1 x 102              3.0 x 101              8.1 x 102              3.8 x 103              1.0 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cs-132...........................  ....................  1.0                    2.7 x 101              1.0                    2.7 x 101              5.7 x 103              1.5 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cs-134...........................  ....................  7.0 x 10-1             1.9 x 101              7.0 x 10-1             1.9 x 101              4.8 x 101              1.3 x 103
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cs-134m..........................  ....................  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              3.0 x 105              8.0 x 106
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cs-135...........................  ....................  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              1.0                    2.7 x 101              4.3 x 10-5             1.2 x 10-3
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cs-136...........................  ....................  5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 101              5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 101              2.7 x 10-3             7.3 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cs-137 (a).......................  ....................  2.0                    5.4 x 101              6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              3.2                    8.7 x 101
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cu-64............................  Copper (29).........  6.0                    1.6 x 102              1.0                    2.7 x 101              1.4 x 105              3.9 x 106
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cu-67............................  ....................  1.0 x 101              2.7 x 102              7.0 x 10-1             1.9 x 101              2.8 x 104              7.6 x 105
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dy-159...........................  Dysprosium (66).....  2.0 x 101              5.4 x 102              2.0 x 101              5.4 x 102              2.1 x 102              5.7 x 103
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dy-165...........................  ....................  9.0 x 10-1             2.4 x 101              6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              3.0 x 105              8.2 x 106
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dy-166(a)........................  ....................  9.0 x 10-1             2.4 x 101              3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    8.6 x 103              2.3 x 105
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Er-169...........................  Erbium (68).........  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              1.0                    2.7 x 101              3.1 x 103              8.3 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 21363]]

 
Er-171...........................  ....................  8.0 x 10-1             2.2 x 101              5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 101              9.0 x 104              2.4 x 106
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Eu-147 (63)......................  Europium............  2.0                    5.4 x 101              2.0                    5.4 x 101              1.4 x 103              3.7 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Eu-148...........................  ....................  5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 101              5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 101              6.0 x 102              1.6 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Eu-149...........................  ....................  2.0 x 101              5.4 x 102              2.0 x 101              5.4 x 102              3.5 x 102              9.4 x 103
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Eu-150 (short lived).............  ....................  2.0                    5.4 x 101              7.0 x 10-1             1.9 x 101              6.1 x 104              1.6 x 106
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Eu-150 (long lived)..............  ....................  2.0                    5.4 x 101              7.0 x 10-1             1.9 x 101              6.1 x 104              1.6 x 106
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Eu-152...........................  ....................  1.0                    2.7 x 101              1.0                    2.7 x 101              6.5                    1.8 x 102
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Eu-152m..........................  ....................  8.0 x 10-1             2.2 x 101              8.0 x 10-1             2.2 x 101              8.2 x 104              2.2 x 106
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Eu-154...........................  ....................  9.0 x 10-1             2.4 x 101              6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              9.8                    2.6 x 102
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Eu-155...........................  ....................  2.0 x 101              5.4 x 102              3.0                    8.1 x 101              1.8 x 101              4.9 x 102
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Eu-156...........................  ....................  7.0 x 10-1             1.9 x 101              7.0 x 10-1             1.9 x 101              2.0 x 103              5.5 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
F-18.............................  Fluorine............  1.0                    2.7 x 101              6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              3.5 x 106              9.5 x 107
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Fe-52 (a)........................  Iron (26)...........  3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    2.7 x 105              7.3 x 106
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Fe-55............................  ....................  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              8.8 x 101              2.4 x 103
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Fe-59............................  ....................  9.0 x 10-1             2.4 x 101              9.0 x 10-1             2.4 x 101              1.8 x 103              5.0 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Fe-60 (a)........................  ....................  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              2.0 x 10-1             5.4                    7.4 x 10-4             2.0 x 10-2
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ga-67............................  Gallium (31)........  7.0                    1.9 x 102              3.0                    8.1 x 101              2.2 x 104              6.0 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ga-68............................  ....................  5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 101              5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 101              1.5 x 106              4.1 x 107
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ga-72............................  ....................  4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 101              4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 101              1.1 x 105              3.1 x 106
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Gd-146 (a).......................  Gadolinium (64).....  5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 101              5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 101              6.9 x 102              1.9 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Gd-148...........................  ....................  2.0 x 101              5.4 x 102              2.0 x 10-3             5.4 x 10-2             1.2                    3.2 x 101
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Gd-153...........................  ....................  1.0 x 101              2.7 x 102              9.0                    2.4 x 102              1.3 x 102              3.5 x 103
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Gd-159...........................  ....................  3.0                    8.1 x 101              6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              3.9 x 104              1.1 x 106
----------------------------------
Ge-68 (a)........................  Germanium (32)......  5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 101              5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 101              2.6 x 102              7.1 x 103
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ge-71............................  ....................  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              5.8 x 103              1.6 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ge-77............................  ....................  3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    1.3 x 105              3.6 x 106
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hf-172...........................  Hafnium (72)........  6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              4.1 x 101              1.1 x 103
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hf-175...........................  ....................  3.0                    8.1 x 101              3.0                    8.1 x 101              3.9 x 102              1.1 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hf-181...........................  ....................  2.0                    5.4 x 101              5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 101              6.3 x 102              1.7 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hf-182...........................  ....................  Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              8.1 x 10-6             2.2 x 10-4
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hg-194 (a).......................  Mercury (80)........  1.0                    2.7 x 101              1.0                    2.7 x 101              1.3 x 10-1             3.5
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hg-195m (a)......................  ....................  3.0                    8.1 x 101              7.0 x 10-1             1.9 x 101              1.5 x 104              4.0 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hg-197...........................  ....................  2.0 x 101              5.4 x 102              1.0 x 101              2.7 x 102              9.2 x 103              2.5 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hg-197m..........................  ....................  1.0 x 101              2.7 x 102              4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 101              2.5 x 104              6.7 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hg-203...........................  ....................  5.0                    1.4 x 102              1.0                    2.7 x 101              5.1 x 102              1.4 x 104
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ho-166...........................  Holmium.............  4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 101              4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 101              2.6 x 104              7.0 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 21364]]

 
Ho-166m..........................  ....................  6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 101              6.6 x 10-2             1.8
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
I-123............................  Iodine (53).........  6.0                    1.6 x 102              3.0                    8.1 x 101              7.1 x 104              1.9 x 106
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
I-124............................  ....................  1.0                    2.7 x 101              1.0                    2.7 x 101              9.3 x 103              2.5 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
I-125............................  ....................  2.0 x 101              5.4 x 102              3.0                    8.1 x 101              6.4 x 102              1.7 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
I-126............................  ....................  2.0                    5.4 x 101              1.0                    2.7 x 101              2.9 x 103              8.0 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
I-129............................  ....................  Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              6.5 x 10-6             1.8 x 10-4
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
I-131............................  ....................  3.0                    8.1 x 101              7.0 x 10-1             1.9 x 101              4.6 x 103              1.2 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
I-132............................  ....................  4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 101              4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 101              3.8 x 105              1.0 x 107
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
I-133............................  ....................  7.0 x 10-1             1.9 x 101              6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              4.2 x 104              1.1 x 106
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
I-134............................  ....................  3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    9.9 x 105              2.7 x 107
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
I-135 (a)........................  ....................  6.0 x 101-1            1.6 x 10-1             6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              1.3 x 105              3.5 x 106
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
In-111...........................  Indium (49).........  3.0                    8.1 x 101              3.0                    8.1 x 101              1.5 x 104              4.2 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
In-113m..........................  ....................  4.0                    1.1 x 102              2.0                    5.4 x 101              6.2 x 105              1.7 x 107
In-114m (a)......................  ....................  1.0 x 101              2.7 x 102              5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 101              8.6 x 102              2.3 x 104
In-115m..........................  ....................  7.0                    1.9 x 102              1.0                    2.7 x 101              2.2 x 105              6.1 x 106
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ir-189 (a).......................  Iridium (77)........  1.0 x 101              2.7 x 102              1.0 x 101              2.7 x 102              1.9 x 103              5.2 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ir-190...........................  ....................  7.0 x 10-1             1.9 x 101              7.0 x 10-1             1.9 x 101              2.3 x 103              6.2 x 104
Ir-192...........................  ....................  1.0 (c)                2.7 x 101              6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              3.4 x 102              9.2 x 103
Ir-194...........................  ....................  3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    3.1 x 104              8.4 x 105
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
K-40.............................  Potassium (19)......  9.0 x 10-1             2.4 x 101              9.0 x 10-1             2.4 x 101              2.4 x 10-7             6.4 x 10-6
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
K-42.............................  ....................  2.0 x 10-1             5.4                    2.0 x 10-1             5.4                    2.2 x 105              6.0 x 106
K-43.............................  ....................  7.0 x 10-1             1.9 x 101              6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              1.2 x 105              3.3 x 106
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kr-81............................  Krypton (36)........  4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 103              4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              7.8 x 10-4             2.1 x 10-2
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kr-85............................  ....................  1.0 x 101              2.7 x 102              1.0 x 102              2.7 x 102              1.5 x 101              3.9 x 102
Kr-85m...........................  ....................  8.0                    2.2 x 102              3.0                    8.1 x 101              3.0 x 105              8.2 x 106
 Kr-87...........................  ....................  2.0 x 10-1             5.4                    2.0 x 10-1             5.4                    1.0 x 106              2.8 x 107
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
La-137...........................  Lanthanum (57)......  3.0 x 101              8.1 x 102              6.0                    1.6 x 102              1.6 x 10-3             4.4 x 10-2
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
La-140...........................  ....................  4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 101              4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 10-1             2.1 x 104              5.6 x 105
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lu-172...........................  Lutetium (71).......  6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              4.2 x 103              1.1 x 105
Lu-173...........................  ....................  8.0                    2.2 x 102              8.0                    2.2 x 102              5.6 x 101              1.5 x 103
Lu-174...........................  ....................  9.0                    2.4 x 102              9.0                    2.4 x 102              2.3 x 101              6.2 x 102
Lu-174m..........................  ....................  2.0 x 101              5.4 x 102              1.0 x 101              2.7 x 102              2.0 x 102              5.3 x 103
Lu-177...........................  ....................  3.0 x 101              8.1 x 102              7.0 x 101              1.9 x 101              4.1 x 103              1.1 x 105
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Mg-28 (a)........................  Magnesium...........  3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    2.0 x 105              5.4 x 106
Mn-52............................  Manganese (25)......  3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    1.6 x 104              44.4 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Mn-53............................  ....................  Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              6.8 x 10-5             1.8 x 10-3
Mn-54............................  ....................  1.0                    2.7 x 101              1.0                    2.7 x 101              2.9 x 102              7.7 x 103
Mn-56............................  ....................  3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    8.0 x 105              2.2 x 107
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Mo-93............................  Molybdenum (42).....  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              2.0 x 101              5.4 x 102              4.1 x 10-2             1.1
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Mo-99 (a)........................  ....................  1.0                    2.7 x 101              6.0 x 10-1(i)          1.6 x 101(i)           1.8 x 104              4.8 x 10-5
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
N-13.............................  Nitrogen (7)........  9.0 x 10-1             2.4 x 101              6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              5.4 x 107              1.5 x 109
Na-22............................  Sodium (11).........  5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 101              5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 101              2.3 x 102              6.3 x 103
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Na-24............................  ....................  2.0 x 10-1             5.4                    2.0 x 10-1             5.4                    3.2 x 105              8.7 x 106
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 21365]]

 
Nb-93m...........................  Niobium (41)........  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              3.0 x 101              8.1 x 102              8.8                    2.4 x 102
----------------------------------
Nb-94............................  ....................  7.0 x 10-1             1.9 x 10-1             7.0 x 10-1             1.9 x 101              6.9 x 10-3             1.9 x 10-1
Nb-95............................  ....................  1.0                    2.7 x 101              1.0                    2.7 x 101              1.5 x 103              3.9 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Nb-97............................  ....................  9.0 x 10-1             2.4 x 101              6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              9.9 x 105              2.7 x 107
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Nd-147...........................  Neodymium (60)......  6.0                    1.6 x 102              6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              3.0 x 103              8.1 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Nd-149...........................  ....................  6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 101              4.5 x 105              1.2 x 107
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ni-59............................  Nickel (28).........  Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              3.0 x 10-3             8.0 x 10-2
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ni-63............................  ....................  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              3.0 x 101              8.1 x 102              2.1                    5.7 x 101
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ni-65............................  ....................  4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 101              4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 101              7.1 x 105              1.9 x 107
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Np-235...........................  Neptunium (93)......  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              5.2 x 101              1.4 x 103
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Np-236 (short-lived).............  ....................  2.0 x 101              5.4 x 102              2.0                    5.4 x 101              4.7 x 10-4             1.3 x 10-2
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Np-236 (long-lived)..............  ....................  2.0 x 101              5.4 x 102              2.0                    5.4 x 101              4.7 x 10-4             1.3 x 10-2
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Np-237...........................  ....................  2.0 x 101              5.4 x 102              2.0 x 10-3             5.4 x 102              2.6 x 10-5             7.1 x 10-4
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Np-239...........................  ....................  7.0                    1.9 x 102              4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 101              8.6 x 103              2.3 x 105
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Os-185...........................  Osmium (76).........  1.0                    2.7 x 101              1.0                    2.7 x 101              2.8 x 102              7.5 x 103
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Os-191...........................  ....................  1.0 x 101              2.7 x 102              2.0                    5.4 x 101              1.6 x 103              4.4 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Os-191m..........................  ....................  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              3.0 x 101              8.1 x 102              4.6 x 104              1.3 x 106
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Os-193...........................  ....................  2.0                    5.4 x 101              6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              2.0 x 104              5.3 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Os-194(a)........................  ....................  3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    1.1 x 101              3.1 x 102
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
P-32.............................  Phosphorus (15).....  5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 101              5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 101              1.1 x 104              2.9 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
P-33.............................  ....................  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              1.0                    2.7 x 101              5.8 x 103              1.6 x 105
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pa-230(a)........................  Protactinium(91)....  2.0                    5.4 x 101              7.0 x 10-2             1.9                    1.2 x 103              3.3 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pa-231...........................  ....................  4.0                    1.1 x 102              4.0 x 10-4             1.1 x 10-2             1.7 x 10-3             4.7 x 10-2
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pa-233...........................  ....................  5.0                    1.4 x 102              7.0 x 10-1             1.9 x 101              7.7 x 102              2.1 x 104
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pb-201...........................  Lead (82)...........  1.0                    2.7 x 101              1.0                    2.7 x 101              6.2 x 104              1.7 x 106
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pb-202...........................  ....................  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              2.0 x 101              5.4 x 102              1.2 x 10-4             3.4 x 10-3
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pb-203...........................  ....................  4.0                    1.1 x 102              3.0                    8.1 x 101              1.1 x 104              3.0 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pb-205...........................  ....................  Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              4.5 x 10-6             1.2 x 10-4
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pb-210(a)........................  ....................  1.0                    2.7 x 101              5.0 x 10-2             1.4                    2.8                    7.6 x 101
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pb-212(a)........................  ....................  7.0 x 10-1             1.9 x 101              2.0 x 10-1             5.4                    5.1 x 104              1.4 x 106
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pd-103(a)........................  Palladium(46).......  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              2.8 x 103              7.5 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pd-107...........................  ....................  Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              1.9 x 10-5             5.1 x 10-4
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pd-109...........................  ....................  2.0                    5.4 x 101              5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 101              7.9 x 104              2.1 x 106
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pm-143...........................  Promethium(61)......  3.0                    8.1 x 101              3.0                    8.1 x 101              1.3 x 102              3.4 x 103
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pm-144...........................  ....................  7.0 x 10-1             1.9 x 101              7.0 x 10-1             1.9 x 101              9.2 x 101              2.5 x 103
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pm-145...........................  ....................  3.0 x 101              8.1 x 102              1.0 x 101              2.7 x 102              5.2                    1.4 x 102
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 21366]]

 
Pm-147...........................  ....................  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              2.0                    5.4 x 101              3.4 x 101              9.3 x 102
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pm-148m (a)......................  ....................  8.0 x 10-1             2.2 x 101              7.0 x 10-1             1.9 x 101              7.9 x 102              2.1 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pm-149...........................  ....................  2.0                    5.4 x 101              6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              1.5 x 104              4.0 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pm-151...........................  ....................  2.0                    5.4 x 101              6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              2.7 x 104              7.3 x 105
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Po-210...........................  Polonium (84).......  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              2.0 x 10-2             5.4 x 10-1             1.7 x 102              4.5 x 103
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pr-142...........................  Praseodymium (59)...  4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 101              4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 101              4.3 x 104              1.2 x 106
Pr-143...........................  ....................  3.0                    8.1 x 101              6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              2.5 x 103              6.7 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pt-188 (a).......................  Platinum (78).......  1.0                    2.7 x 101              8.0 x 10-1             2.2 x 101              2.5 x 103              6.8 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pt-191...........................  ....................  4.0                    1.1 x 102              3.0                    8.1 x 101              8.7 x 103              2.4 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pt-193...........................  ....................  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              1.4                    3.7 x 101
Pt-193m..........................  ....................  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 101              5.8 x 103              1.6 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pt-195m..........................  ....................  1.0 x 101              2.7 x 102              5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 101              6.2 x 103              1.7 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pt-197...........................  ....................  2.0 x 101              5.4 x 102              6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              3.2 x 104              8.7 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pt-197m..........................  ....................  1.0 x 101              2.7 x 102              6.0 x 101              1.6 x 101              3.7 x 105              1.0 x 107
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pu-236...........................  Plutonium (94)......  3.0 x 101              8.1 x 102              3.0 x 10-3             8.1 x 10-2             2.0 x 101              5.3 x 102
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pu-237...........................  ....................  2.0 x 101              5.4 x 102              2.0 x 101              5.4 x 102              4.5 x 102              1.2 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pu-238...........................  ....................  1.0 x 101              2.7 x 102              1.0 x 10-3             2.7 x 10-2             6.3 x 10-1             1.7 x 101
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pu-239...........................  ....................  1.0 x 101              2.7 x 102              1.0 x 10-3             2.7 x 10-2             2.3 x 10-3             6.2 x 10-2
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pu-240...........................  ....................  1.0 x 101              2.7 x 102              1.0 x 10-3             2.7 x 10-2             8.4 x 10-3             2.3 x 10-2
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pu-241 (a).......................  ....................  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              6.0 x 10-2             1.6                    3.8                    1.0 x 102
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pu-242...........................  ....................  1.0 x 101              2.7 x 102              1.0 x 10-3             2.7 x 10-2             1.5 x 10-4             3.9 x 10-3
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pu-244 (a).......................  ....................  4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 101              1.0 x 10-3             2.7 x 10-2             6.7 x 10-7             1.8 x 10-5
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ra-223 (a).......................  Radium (88).........  4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 101              7.0 x 10-3             1.9 x 10-1             1.9 x 103              5.1 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ra-224 (a).......................  ....................  4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 101              2.0 x 10-2             5.4 x 10-1             5.9 x 103              1.6 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ra-225 (a).......................  ....................  2.0 x 10-1             5.4                    4.0 x 10-3             1.1 x 10-1             1.5 x 103              3.9 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ra-226 (a).......................  ....................  2.0 x 10-1             5.4                    3.0 x 10-3             8.1 x 10-2             3.7 x 10-2             1.0
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ra-228 (a).......................  ....................  6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              2.0 x 10-2             5.4 x 10-1             1.0 x 101              2.7 x 102
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rb-81............................  Rubidium (37).......  2.0                    5.4 x 101              8.0 x 10-1             2.2 x 101              3.1 x 105              8.4 x 106
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rb-83 (a)........................  ....................  2.0                    5.4 x 101              2.0                    5.4 x 101              6.8 x 102              1.8 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rb-84............................  ....................  1.0                    2.7 x 101              1.0                    2.7 x 101              1.8 x 103              4.7 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rb-86............................  ....................  5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 101              5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 101              3.0 x 103              8.1 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rb-87............................  ....................  Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              3.2 x 10-9             8.6 x 10-8
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rb(nat)..........................  ....................  Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              6.7 x 106              1.8 x 108
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Re-184...........................  Rhenium (75)........  1.0                    2.7 x 101              1.0                    2.7 x 101              6.9 x 102              1.9 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Re-184m..........................  ....................  3.0                    8.1 x 101              1.0                    2.7 x 101              1.6 x 102              4.3 x 103
Re-186...........................  ....................  2.0                    5.4 x 101              6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              6.9 x 103              1.9 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Re-187...........................  ....................  Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              1.4 x 10-9             3.8 x 10-8
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 21367]]

 
Re-188...........................  ....................  4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 10\1\            4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 10\1\            3.6 x 10\4\            9.8 x 10\5\
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Re-189 (a).......................  ....................  3.0                    8.1 x 10\1\            6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 10\1\            2.5 x 10\4\            6.8 x 10\5\
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Re(nat)..........................  ....................  Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              0.0                    2.4 x 10-8
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rh-99............................  Rhodium (45)........  2.0                    5.4 x 10\1\            2.0                    5.4 x 10\1\            3.0 x 10\3\            8.2 x 10\4\
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rh-101...........................  ....................  4.0                    1.1 x 10\2\            3.0                    8.1 x 10\1\            4.1 x 10\1\            1.1 x 10\3\
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rh-102...........................  ....................  5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 10\1\            5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 10\1\            4.5 x 10\1\            1.2 x 10\3\
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rh-102m..........................  ....................  2.0                    5.4 x 10\1\            2.0                    5.4 x 10\1\            2.3 x 10\2\            6.2 x 10\3\
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rh-103m..........................  ....................  4.0 x 10\1\            1.1 x 10\3\            4.0 x 10\1\            1.1 x 10\3\            1.2 x 10\6\            3.3 x 10\7\
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rh-105...........................  ....................  1.0 x 10\1\            2.7 x 10\2\            8.0 x 10-1             2.2 x 10\1\            3.1 x 10\4\            8.4 x 10\5\
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rn-222 (a).......................  Radon (86)..........  3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    4.0 x 10-3             1.1 x 10-1             5.7 x 10\3\            1.5 x 10\5\
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ru-97............................  Ruthenium (44)......  5.0                    1.4 x 10\2\            5.0                    1.4 x 10\2\            1.7 x 10\4\            4.6 x 10\5\
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ru-103 (a).......................  ....................  2.0                    5.4 x 10\1\            2.0                    5.4 x 10\1\            1.2 x 10\3\            3.2 x 10\4\
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ru-105...........................  ....................  1.0                    2.7 x 10\1\            6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 10\1\            2.5 x 10\5\            6.7 x 10\6\
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ru-106 (a).......................  ....................  2.0 x 10-1             5.4                    2.0 x 10-1             5.4                    1.2 x 10\2\            3.3 x 10\3\
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
S-35.............................  Sulphur (16)........  4.0 x 10\1\            1.1 x 10\3\            3.0                    8.1 x 10\1\            1.6 x 10\3\            4.3 x 10\4\
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sb-122...........................  Antimony (51).......  4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 10\1\            4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 10\1\            1.5 x 10\4\            4.0 x 10\5\
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sb-124...........................  ....................  6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 10\1\            6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 10\1\            6.5 x 10\2\            1.7 x 10\4\
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sb-125...........................  ....................  2.0                    5.4 x 10\1\            1.0                    2.7 x 10\1\            3.9 x 10\1\            1.0 x 10\3\
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sb-126...........................  ....................  4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 10\1\            4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 10\1\            3.1 x 10\3\            8.4 x 10\4\
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sc-44............................  Scandium (21).......  5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 10\1\            5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 10\1\            6.7 x 10\5\            1.8 x 10\7\
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sc-46............................  ....................  5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 10\1\            5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 10\1\            1.3 x 10\3\            3.4 x 10\4\
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sc-47............................  ....................  1.0 x 10\1\            2.7 x 10\2\            7.0 x 10-1             1.9 x 10\1\            3.1 x 10\4\            8.3 x 10\5\
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sc-48............................  ....................  3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    5.5 x 10\4\            1.5 x 10\6\
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Se-75............................  Selenium (34).......  3.0                    8.1 x 10\1\            3.0                    8.1 x 10\1\            5.4 x 10\2\            1.5 x 10\4\
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Se-79............................  ....................  4.0 x 10\1\            1.1 x 10\3\            2.0                    5.4 x 10\1\            2.6 x 10-3             7.0 x 10-2
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Si-31............................  Silicon (14)........  6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 10\1\            6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 10\1\            1.4 x 10\6\            3.9 x 10\7\
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Si-32............................  ....................  4.0 x 10\1\            1.1 x 10\3\            5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 10\1\            3.9                    1.1 x 10\2\
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sm-145...........................  Samarium (62).......  1.0 x 10\1\            2.7 x 10\2\            1.0 x 10\1\            2.7 x 10\2\            9.8 x 10\1\            2.6 x 10\3\
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sm-147...........................  ....................  Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              8.5 x 10-1             2.3 x 10-8
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sm-151...........................  ....................  4.0 x 10\1\            1.1 x 10\3\            1.0 x 10\1\            2.7 x 10\2\            9.7 x 10-1             2.6 x 10\1\
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sm-153...........................  ....................  9.0                    2.4 x 10\2\            6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 10\1\            1.6 x 10\4\            4.4 x 10\5\
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sn-113 (a).......................  Tin (50)............  4.0                    1.1 x 10\2\            2.0                    5.4 x 10\1\            3.7 x 10\2\            1.0 x 10\4\
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sn-117m..........................  ....................  7.0                    1.9 x 10\2\            4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 10\1\            3.0 x 10\3\            8.2 x 10\4\
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sn-119m..........................  ....................  4.0 x 10\1\            1.1 x 10\3\            3.0 x 10\1\            8.1 x 10\2\            1.4 x 10\2\            3.7 x 10\3\
Sn-121m (a)......................  ....................  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              9.0 x 10-1             2.4 x 101              2.0                    5.4 x 101
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sn-123...........................  ....................  8.0 x 10-1             2.2 x 101              6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              3.0 x 102              8.2 x 103
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 21368]]

 
Sn-125...........................  ....................  4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 101              4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 101              4.0 x 103              1.1 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sn-126 (a).......................  ....................  6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 101              1.0 x 10-3             2.8 x 10-2
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sr-82 (a)........................  Strontium (38)......  2.0 x 10-1             5.4                    2.0 x 10-1             5.4                    2.3 x 103              6.2 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sr-85............................  ....................  2.0                    5.4 x 101              2.0                    5.4 x 101              8.8 x 102              2.4 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sr-85m...........................  ....................  5.0                    1.4 x 102              5.0                    1.4 x 102              1.2 x 106              3.3 x 107
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sr-87m...........................  ....................  3.0                    8.1 x 101              3.0                    8.1 x 101              4.8 x 105              1.3 x 107
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sr-89............................  ....................  6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              1.1 x 103              2.9 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sr-90 (a)........................  ....................  3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    5.1                    1.4 x 102
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sr-91 (a)........................  ....................  3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    1.3 x 105              3.6 x 106
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sr-92 (a)........................  ....................  1.0                    2.7 x 101              3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    4.7 x 105              1.3 x 107
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
T(H-3)...........................  Tritium (1).........  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              3.6 x 102              9.7 x 103
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ta-178 (long-lived)..............  Tantalum (73).......  1.0                    2.7 x 101              8.0 x 10-1             2.2 x 101              4.2 x 106              1.1 x 108
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ta-179...........................  ....................  3.0 x 101              8.1 x 102              3.0 x 101              8.1 x 102              4.1 x 101              1.1 x 103
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ta-182...........................  ....................  9.0 x 10-1             2.4 x 101              5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 101              2.3 x 102              6.2 x 103
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tb-157...........................  Terbium (65)........  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              5.6 x 10-1             1.5 x 101
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tb-158...........................  ....................  1.0                    2.7 x 101              1.0                    2.7 x 101              5.6 x 10-1             1.5 x 101
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tb-160...........................  ....................  1.0                    2.7 x 101              6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              4.2 x 102              1.1 x 104
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tc-95m (a).......................  Technetium (43).....  2.0                    5.4 x 101              2.0                    5.4 x 101              8.3 x 102              2.2 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tc-96............................  ....................  4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 101              4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 101              1.2 x 104              3.2 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tc-96m (a).......................  ....................  4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 101              4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 101              1.4 x 106              3.8 x 107
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tc-97............................  ....................  Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              5.2 x 10-5             1.4 x 10-3
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tc-97m...........................  ....................  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              1.0                    2.7 x 101              5.6 x 102              1.5 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tc-98............................  ....................  8.0 x 10-1             2.2 x 101              7.0 x 10-1             1.9 x 101              3.2 x 10-5             8.7 x 10-4
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tc-99............................  ....................  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              9.0 x 10-1             2.4 x 101              6.3 x 10-4             1.7 x 10-2
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tc-99m...........................  ....................  1.0 x 101              2.7 x 102              4.0                    1.1 x 102              1.9 x 105              5.3 x 106
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Te-121...........................  Tellurium (52)......  2.0                    5.4 x 101              2.0                    5.4 x 101              2.4 x 103              6.4 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Te-121m..........................  ....................  5.0                    1.4 x 102              3.0                    8.1 x 101              2.6 x 102              7.0 x 103
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Te-123m..........................  ....................  8.0                    2.2 x 102              1.0                    2.7 x 101              3.3 x 102              8.9 x 103
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Te-125m..........................  ....................  2.0 x 101              5.4 x 102              9.0 x 10-1             2.4 x 101              6.7 x 102              1.8 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Te-127...........................  ....................  2.0 x 101              5.4 x 102              7.0 x 10-1             1.9 x 101              9.8 x 104              2.6 x 106
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Te-127m..........................  ....................  2.0 x 101              5.4 x 102              5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 101              3.5 x 102              9.4 x 103
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Te-129...........................  ....................  7.0 x 10-1             1.9 x 101              6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              7.7 x 105              2.1 x 107
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Te-129m (a)......................  ....................  8.0 x 10-1             2.2 x 101              4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 101              1.1 x 103              3.0 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Te-131m (a)......................  ....................   7.0 x 10-1            1.9 x 101              5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 101              3.0 x 104              8.0 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Te-132 (a).......................  ....................  5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 101              4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 101              1.1 x 104              8.0 x 105
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Th-227...........................  Thorium(90).........  1.0 x 101              2.7 x 102              5.0 x 10-3             1.4 x 10-1             1.1 x 103              3.1 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 21369]]

 
Th-228 (a).......................  ....................  5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 101              1.0 x 10-3             2.7 x 10-2             3.0 x 101              8.2 x 102
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Th-229...........................  ....................  5.0                    1.4 x 102              5.0 x 10-4             1.4 x 10-2             7.9 x 10-3             2.1 x 10-1
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Th-230...........................  ....................  1.0 x 101              2.7 x 102              1.0 x 10-3             2.7 x 10-2             7.6 x 10-4             2.1 x 10-2
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Th-231...........................  Thorium(90).........  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              2.0 x 10-2             5.4 x 10-1             2.0 x 104              5.3 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Th-232...........................  ....................  Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              4.0 x 10-9             1.1 x 10-7
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Th-234(a)........................  ....................  3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    8.6 x 102              2.3 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Th(nat)..........................  ....................  Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              8.1 x 10-9             2.2 x 10-7
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ti-44(a).........................  Titanium(22)........  5.0 x 10-1             1.4 x 101              4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 101              6.4                    1.7 x 102
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tl-200...........................  Thallium(81)........  9.0 x 10-1             2.4 x 101              9.0 x 10-1             2.4 x 101              2.2 x 104              6.0 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tl-201...........................  ....................  1.0 x 101              2.7 x 102              4.0                    1.1 x 102              7.9 x 103              2.1 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tl-202...........................  ....................  2.0                    5.4 x 101              2.0                    5.4 x 101              2.0 x 103              5.3 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tl-204...........................  ....................  1.0 x 101              2.7 x 102              7.0 x 10-1             1.9 x 101              1.7 x 101              4.6 x 102
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tm-167...........................  Thulium(69).........  7.0                    1.9 x 102              8.0 x 10-1             2.2 x 101              3.1 x 103              8.5 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tm-170...........................  ....................  3.0                    8.1 x 101              6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              2.2 x 102              6.0 x 103
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tm-171...........................  ....................  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
U-230 (fast lung                   Uranium(92).........  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              1.0 x 10-1             2.7                    1.0 x 103              2.7 x 104
 absorption)(a)(d).
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
U-230 (medium lung absorption)     ....................  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              1.0 x 10-1             2.7                    1.0 x 103              2.7 x 104
 (a)(e).
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
U-230 (slow lung absorption)       ....................  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              1.0 x 10-1             2.7                    1.0 x 103              2.7 x 104
 (a)(f).
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
U-232 (fast lung absorption) (d).  ....................  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              1.0 x 10-2             2.7 x 10-1             8.3 x 10-1             2.2 x 101
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
U-232 (medium lung absorption)     ....................  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              1.0 x 10-2             2.7 x 10-1             8.3 x 10-1             2.2 x 101
 (e).
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
U-232 (slow lung absorption) (f).  ....................  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              1.0 x 10-2             2.7 x 10-1             8.3 x 10-1             2.2 x 101
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
U-233 (fast lung absorption) (d).  Uranium (92)........  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              9.0 x 10-2             2.4                    3.6 x 10-4             9.7 x 10-3
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
U-233 (medium lung absorption)     ....................  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              9.0 x 10-2             2.4                    3.6 x 10-4             9.7 x 10-3
 (e).
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
U-233 (slow lung absorption) (f).  ....................  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              9.0 x 10-2             2.4                    3.6 x 10-4             9.7 x 10-3
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
U-234 (fast lung absorption) (d).  ....................  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              9.0 x 10-2             2.4                    2.3 x 10-4             6.2 x 10-3
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
U-234 (medium lung absorption)     ....................  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              9.0 x 10-2             2.4                    2.3 x 10-4             6.2 x 10-3
 (e).
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
U-234 (slow lung absorption) (f).  ....................  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              9.0 x 10-2             2.4                    2.3 x 10-4             6.2 x 10-3
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
U-235 (all lung absorption types)  ....................  Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              8.0 x 10-8             2.2 x 10-6
 (a), (d), (e), (f).
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 21370]]

 
U-236 (fast lung absorption) (d).  ....................  Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              2.4 x 10-6             6.5 x 10-5
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
U-236 (medium lung absorption)     ....................  Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              2.4 x 10-6             6.5 x 10-5
 (e).
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
U-236 (slow lung absorption) (f).  ....................  Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              2.4 x 10-6             6.5 x 10-5
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
U-238 (all lung absorption types)  ....................  Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              1.2 x 10-8             3.4 x 10-7
 (d), (e), (f).
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
U (nat)..........................  ....................  Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              2.6 x 10-8             7.1 x 10-7
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
U (enriched to 20% or less) (g)..  ....................  Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              Sec. 173.434           Sec. 173.434
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
U (dep)..........................  ....................  Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              Sec. 173.434           Sec. 173.434
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
V-48.............................  Vanadium (23).......  4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 101              4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 101              6.3 x 103              1.7 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
V-49.............................  ....................  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              3.0 x 102              8.1 x 103
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
W-178 (a)........................  Tungsten (74).......  9.0                    2.4 x 102              5.0                    1.4 x 102              1.3 x 103              3.4 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
W-181............................  ....................  3.0 x 101              8.1 x 102              3.0 x 101              8.1 x 102              2.2 x 102              6.0 x 103
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
W-185............................  ....................  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              8.0 x 10-1             2.2 x 101              3.5 x 102              9.4 x 103
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
W-187............................  ....................  2.0                    5.4 x 101              6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              2.6 x 104              7.0 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
W-188 (a)........................  ....................  4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 101              3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    3.7 x 102              1.0 x 104
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Xe-122...........................  Xenon (54)..........  4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 101              4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 101              4.8 x 104              1.3 x 106
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Xe-123...........................  ....................  2.0                    5.4 x 101              7.0 x 10-1             1.9 x 101              4.4 x 105              1.2 x 107
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Xe-127...........................  ....................  4.0                    1.1 x 102              2.0                    5.4 x 101              1.0 x 103              2.8 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Xe-131m..........................  ....................  4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              4.0 x 101              1.1 x 103              3.1 x 103              8.4 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Xe-133...........................  ....................  2.0 x 101              5.4 x 102              1.0 x 101              2.7 x 102              6.9 x 103              1.9 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Xe-135...........................  ....................  3.0                    8.1 x 101              2.0                    5.4 x 101              9.5 x 104              2.6 x 106
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Y-87 (a).........................  Yttrium (39)........  1.0                    2.7 x 101              1.0                    2.7 x 101              1.7 x 104              4.5 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Y-88.............................  ....................  4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 101              4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 101              5.2 x 102              1.4 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Y-90.............................  ....................  3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    2.0 x 104              5.4 x 105
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Y-91.............................  ....................  6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              9.1 x 102              2.5 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Y-91m............................  ....................  2.0                    5.4 x 101              2.0                    5.4 x 101              1.5 x 106              4.2 x 107
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Y-92.............................  ....................  2.0 x 10-1             5.4                    2.0 x 10-1             5.4                    3.6 x 105              9.6 x 106
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Y-93.............................  ....................  3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    3.0 x 10-1             8.1                    1.2 x 105              3.3 x 106
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Yb-169...........................  Ytterbium (79)......  4.0                    1.1 x 102              1.0                    2.7 x 101              8.9 x 102              2.4 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Yb-175...........................  ....................  3.0 x 101              8.1 x 102              9.0 x 10-1             2.4 x 101              6.6 x 103              1.8 x 105
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Zn-65............................  Zinc (30)...........  2.0                    5.4 x 101              2.0                    5.4 x 101              3.0 x 102              8.2 x 103
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Zn-69............................  ....................  3.0                    8.1 x 101              6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              1.8 x 106              4.9 x 107
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Zn-69m (a).......................  ....................  3.0                    8.1 x 101              6.0 x 10-1             1.6 x 101              1.2 x 105              3.3 x 106
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Zr-88............................  Zirconium (40)......  3.0                    8.1 x 101              3.0                    8.1 x 101              6.6 x 102              1.8 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 21371]]

 
Zr-93............................  ....................  Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              Unlimited              9.3 x 10-5             2.5 x 10-3
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Zr-95 (a)........................  ....................  2.0                    5.4 x 101              8.0 x 10-1             2.2 x 101              7.9 x 102              2.1 x 104
----------------------------------                      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Zr-97 (a)........................  ....................  4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 101              4.0 x 10-1             1.1 x 101              7.1 x 104              1.9 x 106
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
(a) A1 and/or A2 values include contributions from daughter nuclides with half-lives less than 10 days
(b) [Reserved]
(c) The quantity may be determined from a measurement of the rate of decay or a measurement of the radiation level at a prescribed distance from the source.
(d) These values apply only to compounds of uranium that take the chemical form of UF6, UO2F2 and UO2(NO3)2 in both normal and accident conditions of transport.
(e) These values apply only to compounds of uranium that take the chemical form of UO3, UF4, UCl4 and he x avalent compounds in both normal and accident conditions of transport.
(f) These values apply to all compounds of uranium other than those specified in notes (d) and (e) of this table.
(g) These values apply to unirradiated uranium only.
(h) A1 = 0.1 TBq (2.7 Ci) and A2 = 0.001 TBq (0.027 Ci) for Cf-252 for domestic use.
(i) A2 = 0.74 TBq (20 Ci) for Mo-99 for domestic use.

    31. A new Sec. 173.436 would be added to read as follows:


Sec. 173.436  Table of exempt material activity concentrations and 
exempt consignment activity limits for radionuclides.

    The table of exempt activity concentrations and exempt consignment 
activity limits for radionuclides is as follows:

                            Exempt Material Activity Concentrations and Exempt Consignment Activity Limits for Radionuclides
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                           Activity concentration  Activity concentration    Activity limit for      Activity limit for
      Symbol of radionuclide          Element and atomic     for exempt material     for exempt material     exempt consignment      exempt consignment
                                            number                 (Bq/g)                  (Ci/g)                   (Bq)                    (Ci)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ac-225 (a)........................  Actinium (89)........  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 104               2.7 x 10-7
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ac-227 (a)........................  .....................  1.0 x 10-1              2.7 x 10-12             1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ac-228............................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ag-105............................  Silver (47)..........  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ag-108m (a),(b)...................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ag-110m (a).......................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ag-111............................  .....................  1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Al-26.............................  Aluminum (13)........  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 105               2.7 x 10-6
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Am-241............................  Americium (95).......  1.0                     2.7 x 10-11             1.0 x 104               2.7 x 10-7
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Am-242m (a),(b)...................  .....................  1.0                     2.7 x 10-11             1.0 x 104               2.7 x 10-7
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Am-243 (a),(b)....................  .....................  1.0                     2.7 x 10-11             1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ar-37.............................  Argon (18)...........  1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5              1.0 x 108               2.7 x 10-3
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ar-39.............................  .....................  1.0 x 107               2.7 x 10-4              1.0 x 104               2.7 x 10-7
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ar-41.............................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 109               2.7 x 10-2
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
As-72.............................  Arsenic (33).........  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 105               2.7 x 10-6
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
As-73.............................  .....................  1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 107               2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
As-74.............................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
As-76.............................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 105               2.7 x 10-6
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
As-77.............................  .....................  1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5

[[Page 21372]]

 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
At-211 (a)........................  Astatine (85)........  1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 107               2.7 x 10-4
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Au-193............................  Gold (79)............  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 107               2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Au-194............................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Au-195............................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 107               2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Au-198............................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Au-199............................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ba-131 (a)........................  Barium (56)..........  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ba-133............................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ba-133m...........................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ba-140 (a),(b)....................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 105               2.7 x 10-6
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Be-7..............................  Beryllium (4)........  1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 10-7              2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Be-10.............................  .....................  1.0 x 104               2.7 x 10-7              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bi-205............................  Bismuth (83).........  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bi-206............................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 105               2.7 x 10-6
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bi-207............................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bi-210............................  .....................  1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bi-210m (a).......................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 105               2.7 x 10-6
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bi-212 (a),(b)....................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 105               2.7 x 10-6
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bk-247............................  Berkelium (97).......  1.0                     2.7 x 10-11             1.0 x 104               2.7 x 10-7
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bk-249 (a)........................  .....................  1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Br-76.............................  Bromine (35).........  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 105               2.7 x 10-6
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Br-77.............................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Br-82.............................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
C-11..............................  Carbon (6)...........  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
C-14..............................  .....................  1.0 x 104               2.7 x 10-7              1.0 x 107               2.7 x 10-4
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ca-41.............................  Calcium (20).........  1.0 x 105               2.7 x 10-6              1.0 x 107               2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ca-45.............................  .....................  1.0 x 104               2.7 x 10-7              1.0 x 107               2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ca-47 (a).........................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cd-109............................  Cadmium (48).........  1.0 x 104               2.7 x 10-7              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cd-113m...........................  .....................  1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cd-115 (a)........................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cd-115m...........................  .....................  1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ce-139............................  Cerium (58)..........  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ce-141............................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 107               2.7 x 10-4

[[Page 21373]]

 
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ce-143............................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ce-144 (a),(b)....................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 105               2.7 x 10-6
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cf-248............................  Californium (98).....  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 104               2.7 x 10-7
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cf-249............................  .....................  1.0                     2.7 x 10-11             1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cf-250............................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 104               2.7 x 10-7
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cf-251............................  .....................  1.0                     2.7 x 10-11             1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cf-252............................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 104               2.7 x 10-7
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cf-253 (a)........................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 105               2.7 x 10-6
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cf-254............................  .....................  1.0                     2.7 x 10-11             1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cl-36.............................  Chlorine (17)........  1.0 x 104               2.7 x 10-7              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cl-38.............................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 105               2.7 x 10-6
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cm-240............................  Curium (96)..........  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 105               2.7 x 10-6
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cm-241............................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cm-242............................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 105               2.7 x 10-6
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cm-243............................  .....................  1.0                     2.7 x 10-11             1.0 x 104               2.7 x 10-7
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cm-244............................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 104               2.7 x 10-7
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cm-245............................  .....................  1.0                     2.7 x 10-11             1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cm-246............................  .....................  1.0                     2.7 x 10-11             1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cm-247 (a)........................  .....................  1.0                     2.7 x 10-11             1.0 x 104               2.7 x 10-7
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cm-248............................  .....................  1.0                     2.7 x 10-11             1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Co-55.............................  Cobalt (27)..........  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Co-56.............................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 105               2.7 x 10-6
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Co-57.............................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Co-58.............................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Co-58m............................  .....................  1.0 x 104               2.7 x 10-7              1.0 x 107               2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Co-60.............................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 105               2.7 x 10-6
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cr-51.............................  Chromium (24)........  1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 107               2.7 x 10-4
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cs-129............................  Cesium (55)..........  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 105               2.7 x 10-6
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cs-131............................  .....................  1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cs-132............................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 105               2.7 x 10-6
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cs-134............................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 104               2.7 x 10-7
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cs-134m...........................  .....................  1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 105               2.7 x 10-6
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cs-135............................  .....................  1.0 x 104               2.7 x 10-7              1.0 x 107               2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cs-136............................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 105               2.7 x 10-6
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 21374]]

 
Cs-137 (a), (b)...................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 104               2.7 x 10-7
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cu-64.............................  Copper (29)..........  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cu-67.............................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dy-159............................  Dysprosium (66)......  1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 107               2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dy-165............................  .....................  1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dy-166 (a)........................  .....................  1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Er-169............................  Erbium (68)..........  1.0 x 104               2.7 x 10-7              1.0 x 107               2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Er-171............................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Eu-147............................  Europium (63)........  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Eu-148............................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Eu-149............................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 107               2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Eu-150 (short-lived)               .....................  1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Eu-150 (long-lived)...............  .....................  1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Eu-152............................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Eu-152 m..........................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Eu-154............................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Eu-155............................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 107               2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Eu-156............................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
F-18..............................  Fluorine (9).........  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Fe-52 (a).........................  Iron (26)............  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Fe-55.............................  .....................  1.0 x 104               2.7 x 10-7              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Fe-59.............................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Fe-60 (a).........................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 105               2.7 x 10-6
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ga-67.............................  Gallium (31).........  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ga-68.............................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 105               2.7 x 10-6
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ga-72.............................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 105               2.7 x 10-6
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Gd-146 (a)........................  Gadolinium (64)......  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Gd-148............................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 104               2.7 x 10-7
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Gd-153............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9               1.0 x 10\7\            2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Gd-159............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\3\             2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ge-68 (a).........................  Germanium (32).......  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\5\             2.7 x 10-6
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ge-71.............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\4\             2.7 x 10-7               1.0 x 10\8\            2.7 x 10-3
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ge-77.............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\5\             2.7 x 10-6
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hf-172 (a)........................  Hafnium (72).........  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 21375]]

 
Hf-175............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hf-181............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\1\              2.7 x 10-10            1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hf-182............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hg-194 (a)........................  Mercury (80).........  1.0 x 10\1\              2.7 x 10-10            1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hg-195m(a)........................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hg-197............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\7\             2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hg-197m...........................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hg-203............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\5\              2.7 x 10-6
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ho-166............................  Holmium (67).........  1.0 x 10\3\              2.7 x 10-8             1.0 x 10\5\             2.7 x 10-6
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ho-166m...........................  .....................  1.0 x 10\1\              2.7 x 10-10            1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
I-123.............................  Iodine (53)..........  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\7\             2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
I-124.............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
I-125.............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\3\             2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
I-126.............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
I-129.............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\5\             2.7 x 10-6
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
I-131.............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
I-132.............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10              1.0 x 10\5\            2.7 x 10-6
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
I-133.............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
I-134.............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\5\             2.7 x 10-6
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
I-135 (a).........................  .....................  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
In-111............................  Indium (49)..........  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
In-113m...........................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
In-114m (a).......................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
In-115m...........................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9               1.0 x 10\6\            2.7 x 10-5
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ir-189 (a)........................  Iridium (77).........  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 107               2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ir-190............................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ir-192............................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 104               2.7 x 10-7
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ir-194............................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 105               2.7 x 10-6
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
K-40..............................  Potassium (19).......  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
K-42..............................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
K-43..............................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kr-81.............................  Krypton (36).........  1.0 x 104               2.7 x 10-7              1.0 x 107               2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kr-85.............................  .....................  1.0 x 105               2.7 x 10-6              1.0 x 104               2.7 x 10-7
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kr-85m............................  .....................  1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 1010              2.7 x 10-1
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kr-87.............................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 109               2.7 x 10-2
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 21376]]

 
La-137............................  Lanthanum (57).......  1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 107               2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
La-140............................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 105               2.7 x 10-6
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lu-172............................  Lutetium (71)........  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lu-173............................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 107               2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lu-174............................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 107               2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lu-174m...........................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 107               2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lu-177............................  .....................  1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 107               2.7 x 10-4
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Mg-28 (a).........................  Magnesium (12).......  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 105               2.7 x 10-6
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Mn-52.............................  Manganese (25).......  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 105               2.7 x 10-6
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Mn-53.............................  .....................  1.0 x 104               2.7 x 10-7              1.0 x 109               2.7 x 10-2
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Mn-54.............................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Mn-56.............................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 105               2.7 x 10-6
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Mo-93.............................  Molybdenum (42)......  1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 108               2.7 x 10-3
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Mo-99 (a).........................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
N-13..............................  Nitrogen (7).........  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 109               2.7 x 10-2
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Na-22.............................  Sodium (11)..........  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Na-24.............................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 105               2.7 x 10-6
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Nb-93m............................  Niobium (41).........  1.0 x 104               2.7 x 10-7              1.0 x 107               2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Nb-94.............................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Nb-95.............................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Nb-97.............................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Nd-147............................  Neodymium (60).......  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Nd-149............................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ni-59.............................  Nickel (28)..........  1.0 x 104               2.7 x 10-7              1.0 x 108               2.7 x 10-3
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ni-63.............................  .....................  1.0 x 105               2.7 x 10-6              1.0 x 108               2.7 x 10-3
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ni-65.............................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Np-235............................  Neptunium (93).......  1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 107               2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Np-236 (short-lived)..............  .....................  1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 107               2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Np-236 (long-lived)...............  .....................  1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 107               2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Np-237 (b)........................  .....................  1.0                     2.7 x 10-11             1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Np-239............................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 107               2.7 x 10-4
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Os-185............................  Osmium (76)..........  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Os-191............................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 107               2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Os-191m...........................  .....................  1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 107               2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 21377]]

 
Os-193............................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Os-194 (a)........................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 105               2.7 x 10-6
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
P-32..............................  Phosphorus (15)......  1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 105               2.7 x 10-6
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
P-33..............................  .....................  1.0 x 105               2.7 x 10-6              1.0 x 108               2.7 x 10-3
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pa-230 (a)........................  Protactinium (91)....  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pa-231............................  .....................  1.0                     2.7 x 10-11             1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pa-233............................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 107               2.7 x 10-4
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pb-201............................  Lead (82)............  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pb-202............................  .....................  1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pb-203............................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pb-205............................  .....................  1.0 x 104               2.7 x 10-7              1.0 x 107               2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pb-210 (a),(b)....................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 104               2.7 x 10-7
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pb-212 (a),(b)....................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 105               2.7 x 10-6
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pd-103 (a)........................  Palladium (46).......  1.0 x 10\3\             2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 10\8\             2.7 x 10-3
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pd-107............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\5\             2.7 x 10-6              1.0 x 10\8\             2.7 x 10-3
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pd-109............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\3\             2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pm-143............................  Promethium (61)......  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pm-144............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pm-145............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\3\             2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 10\7\             2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pm-147............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\4\             2.7 x 10-7              1.0 x 10\7\             2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pm-148m (a).......................  .....................   1.0 x 10\1\            2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pm-149............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\3\             2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pm-151............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Po-210............................  Polonium (84)........   1.0 x 10\1\            2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\4\             2.7 x 10-7
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pr-142............................  Praseodymium (59)....  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9               1.0 x 10\5\            2.7 x 10-6
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pr-143............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\4\             2.7 x 10-7              1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pt-188 (a)........................  Platinum (78)........  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10              1.0 x 10\6\            2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pt-191............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pt-193............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\4\             2.7 x 10-7              1.0 x 10\7\             2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pt-193m...........................  .....................  1.0 x 10\3\             2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 10\7\             2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pt-195m...........................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pt-197............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\3\             2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pt-197m...........................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pu-236............................  Plutonium (94).......  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\4\             2.7 x 10-7
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 21378]]

 
Pu-237............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\3\             2.7 x 10-8               1.0 x 10\7\            2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pu-238............................  .....................  1.0                     2.7 x 10-11             1.0 x 10\4\             2.7 x 10-7
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pu-239............................  .....................  1.0                     2.7 x 10-11              1.0 x 10\4\            2.7 x 10-7
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pu-240............................  .....................   1.0                    2.7 x 10-11              1.0 x 10\3\            2.7 x 10-8
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pu-241 (a)........................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\5\             2.7 x 10-6
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pu-242............................  .....................  1.0                     2.7 x 10-11             1.0 x 10\4\             2.7 x 10-7
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pu-244 (a)........................  .....................  1.0                     2.7 x 10-11              1.0 x 10\4\            2.7 x 10-7
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ra-223 (a)........................  Radium (88) (b)......  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9               1.0 x 10\5\            2.7 x 10-6 (b)
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ra-224 (a),(b)....................  .....................  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\5\             2.7 x 10-6
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ra-225 (a)........................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\5\             2.7 x 10-6
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ra-226 (a),(b)....................  .....................  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\4\             2.7 x 10-7
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ra-228 (a),.......................  .....................  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\5\             2.7 x 10-6
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rb-81.............................  Rubidium (37)........  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rb-83 (a).........................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rb-84.............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rb-86.............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\5\             2.7 x 10-6
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rb-87.............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\4\             2.7 x 10-7              1.0 x 10\7\             2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rb(nat)...........................  .....................  1.0 x 10\4\             2.7 x 10-7              1.0 x 10\7\             2.7 x 10-4
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Re-184............................  Rhenium (75).........  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Re-184m...........................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Re-186............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\3\             2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Re-187............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5              1.0 x 10\9\             2.7 x 10-2
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Re-188............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\5\             2.7 x 10-6
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Re-189 (a)........................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Re(nat)...........................  .....................  1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5              1.0 x 10\9\             2.7 x 10-2
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rh-99.............................  Rhodium (45).........  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rh-101............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\7\             2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rh-102............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rh-102m...........................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rh-103m...........................  .....................  1.0 x 10\4\             2.7 x 10-7              1.0 x 10\8\             2.7 x 10-3
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rh-105............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\7\             2.7 x 10-4
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rn-222 (a),(b)....................  Radon (86)...........  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\8\             2.7 x 10-3
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ru-97.............................  Ruthenium (44).......  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\7\             2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ru-103 (a)........................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 21379]]

 
Ru-105............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ru-106 (a),(b)....................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\5\             2.7 x 10-6
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
S35...............................  Sulphur (16).........  1.0x105                 2.7x10-\6\              1.0x108                 2.7x10-3
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sb-122............................  Antimony (51)........  1.0x102                 2.7x10-9                1.0x104                 2.7x10-7
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sb-124............................  .....................  1.0x101                 2.7x10-10               1.0x106                 2.7x10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sb-125............................  .....................  1.0x102                 2.7x10-9                1.0x106                 2.7x10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sb-126............................  .....................  1.0x101                 2.7x10-10               1.0x105                 2.7x10-6
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sc-44.............................  Scandium (21)........  1.0x101                 2.7x10-10               1.0x105                 2.7x10-6
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sc-46.............................  .....................  1.0x101                 2.7x10-10               1.0x106                 2.7x10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sc-47.............................  .....................  1.0x102                 2.7x10-9                1.0x106                 2.7x10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sc-48.............................  .....................  1.0x101                 2.7x10-10               1.0x105                 2.7x10-6
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Se-75.............................  Selenium (34)........  1.0x102                 2.7x10-9                1.0x106                 2.7x10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Se-79.............................  .....................  1.0x104                 2.7x10-7                1.0x107                 2.7x10-4
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Si-31.............................  Silicon (14).........  1.0x103                 2.7x10-8                1.0x106                 2.7x10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Si-32.............................  .....................  1.0x103                 2.7x10-8                1.0x106                 2.7x10-5
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sm-145............................  Samarium (62)........  1.0x102                 2.7x10-9                1.0x107                 2.7x10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sm-147............................  .....................  1.0x101                 2.7x10-10               1.0x104                 2.7x10-7
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sm-151............................  .....................  1.0x104                 2.7x10-7                1.0x108                 2.7x10-3
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sm-153............................  .....................  1.0x102                 2.7x10-9                1.0x106                 2.7x10-5
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sn-113............................  (a)Tin (50)..........  1.0x103                 2.7x10-8                1.0x107                 2.7x10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sn-117m...........................  .....................  1.0x102                 2.7x10-9                1.0x106                 2.7x10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sn-119m...........................  .....................  1.0x103                 2.7x10-8                1.0x107                 2.7x10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sn-121m (a).......................  .....................  1.0x103                 2.7x10-8                1.0x107                 2.7x10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sn-123............................  .....................  1.0x103                 2.7x10-8                1.0x106                 2.7x10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sn-125............................  .....................  1.0x102                 2.7x10-9                1.0x105                 2.7x10-6
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sn-126 (a)........................  .....................  1.0x101                 2.7x10-10               1.0x105                 2.7x10-6
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sr-82 (a).........................  Strontium (38).......  1.0x101                 2.7x10-10               1.0x105                 2.7x10-6
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sr-85.............................  .....................  1.0x102                 2.7x10-9                1.0x106                 2.7x10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sr-85m............................  .....................  1.0x102                 2.7x10-9                1.0x107                 2.7x10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sr-87m............................  .....................  1.0x102                 2.7x10-9                1.0x106                 2.7x10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sr-89.............................  .....................  1.0x103                 2.7x10-8                1.0x106                 2.7x10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sr-90 (a),(b).....................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\4\             2.7 x 10-7
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sr-91 (a).........................  .....................  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\5\             2.7 x 10-6
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sr-92 (a).........................  .....................  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 21380]]

 
T(H-3)............................  Tritium (1)..........  1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5              1.0 x 10\9\             2.7 x 10-2
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ta-178 (long-lived)...............  Tantalum (73)........  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ta-179............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\3\             2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 10\7\             2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ta-182............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\4\             2.7 x 10-7
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tb-157............................  Terbium (65).........  1.0 x 10\4\             2.7 x 10-7              1.0 x 10\7\             2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tb-158............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tb-160............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tc-95m (a)........................  Technetium (43)......  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tc-96.............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tc-96m (a)........................  .....................  1.0 x 10\3\             2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 10\7\             2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tc-97.............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\3\             2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 10\8\             2.7 x 10-3
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tc-97m............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\3\             2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 10\7\             2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tc-98.............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tc-99.............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\4\             2.7 x 10-7              1.0 x 10\7\             2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tc-99m............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\7\             2.7 x 10-4
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Te-121............................  Tellurium (52).......  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Te-121m...........................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\5\             2.7 x 10-6
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Te-123m...........................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\7\             2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Te-125m...........................  .....................  1.0 x 10\3\             2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 10\7\             2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Te-127............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\3\             2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Te-127m (a).......................  .....................  1.0 x 10\3\             2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 10\7\             2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Te-129............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Te-129m (a).......................  .....................  1.0 x 10\3\             2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Te-131m (a).......................  .....................  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Te-132 (a)........................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\7\             2.7 x 10-4
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Th-227............................  Thorium (90).........  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\4\             2.7 x 10-7
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Th-228 (a),(b)....................  .....................  1.0                     2.7 x 10-11             1.0 x 10\4\             2.7 x 10-7
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Th-229 (b)........................  .....................  1.0                     2.7 x 1011              1.0 x 10\3\             2.7 x 10-8
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Th-230............................  .....................  1.0                     2.7 x 1011              1.0 x 10\4\             2.7 x 10-7
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Th-231............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\3\              2.7 x 108               1.0 x 10\7\            2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Th-232............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 1010              1.0 x 10-4              2.7 x 10-7
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Th-234 (a),(b)....................  .....................  1.0 x 10\3\             2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 10\5\             2.7 x 10-6
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Th (nat) (b)......................  .....................  1.0                     2.7 x 1011               1.0 x 10-3             2.7 x 10-8
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ti-44 (a).........................  Titanium (22)........  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10              1.0 x 10\5\            2.7 x 10-6
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 21381]]

 
Tl-200............................  Thallium (81)........  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10              1.0 x 10\6\            2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tl-201............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tl-202............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tl-204............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\4\             2.7 x 107               1.0 x 10-4              2.7 x 10-7
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tm-167............................  Thulium (69).........  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tm-170............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\3\              2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 10\6\            2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Tm-171............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\4\             2.7 x 10-7              1.0 x 10\8\             2.7 x 10-3
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
U-230 (fast lung absorption)        Uranium (92).........   1.0 x 10\1\            2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\5\             2.7 x 10-6
 (a),(b),(d).
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
U-230 (medium lung absorption)      .....................  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\5\             2.7 x 10-6
 (a),(e).
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
U-230 (slow lung absorption)        .....................  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\5\             2.7 x 10-6
 (a),(f).
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
U-232 (fast lung absorption)        Uranium (92).........  1.0                     2.7 x 10-11             1.0 x 10\3\             2.7 x 10-8
 (b),(d).
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
U-232 (medium lung absorption) (e)  .....................  1.0                     2.7 x 10-11             1.0 x 10\3\             2.7 x 10-8
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
U-232 (slow lung absorption) (f)..  .....................  1.0                     2.7 x 10-11             1.0 x 10\3\             2.7 x 10-8
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
U-233 (fast lung absorption) (d)..  .....................  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\4\             2.7 x 10-7
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
U-233 (medium lung absorption) (e)  .....................  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\4\             2.7 x 10-7
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
U-233 (slow lung absorption) (f)..  .....................  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\4\             2.7 x 10-7
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
U-234 (fast lung absorption) (d)..  .....................  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\4\             2.7 x 10-7
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
U-234 (medium lung absorption) (e)  .....................  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\4\             2.7 x 10-7
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
U-234 (slow lung absorption) (f)..  .....................  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\4\             2.7 x 10-7
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
U-235 (all lung absorption types)   .....................  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\4\             2.7 x 10-7
 (a),(b),(d),(e),(f).
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
U-236 (fast lung absorption) (d)..  .....................  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\4\             2.7 x 10-7
 
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
U-236 (slow lung absorption) (f)..  .....................  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\4\             2.7 x 10-7
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
U-238 (all lung absorption types)   .....................  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\4\             2.7 x 10-7
 (b),(d),(e),(f).
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
U (nat) (b).......................  .....................  1.0                      2.7 x 10-11            1.0 x 10\3\             2.7 x 10-8
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
U (enriched to 20% or less)(g)....  .....................  1.0                     2.7 x 10-11             1.0 x 10\3\             2.7 x 10-8
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
U (dep)...........................  .....................  1.0                     2.7 x 10-11             1.0 x 10\3\             2.7 x 10-8
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
V-48..............................  Vanadium (23)........  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\5\             2.7 x 10-6
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
V-49..............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\4\             2.7 x 10-7              1.0 x 10\7\             2.7 x 10-4
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
W-178 (a).........................  Tungsten (74)........  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
W-181.............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\3\             2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 10\7\             2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
W-185.............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\4\             2.7 x 10-7              1.0 x 10\7\             2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
W-187.............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[Page 21382]]

 
W-188 (a).........................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\5\             2.7 x 10-6
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Xe-122 (a)........................  Xenon (54)...........  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\9\             2.7 x 10-2
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Xe-123............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\2\             2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 10\9\             2.7 x 10-2
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Xe-127............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\3\             2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 10\5\             2.7 x 10-6
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Xe-131m...........................  .....................  1.0 x 10\4\             2.7 x 10-7              1.0 x 10\4\             2.7 x 10-7
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Xe-133............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\3\             2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 10\4\             2.7 x 10-7
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Xe-135............................  .....................  1.0 x 10\3\             2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 10\10\            2.7 x 10-1
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Y-87 (a)..........................  Yttrium (39).........  1.0 x 10\1\             2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 10\6\             2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Y-88..............................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Y-90..............................  .....................  1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 105               2.7 x 10-6
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Y-91..............................  .....................  1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Y-91m.............................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Y-92..............................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 105               2.7 x 10-6
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Y-93..............................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 105               2.7 x 10-6
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Yb-169............................  Ytterbium (79).......  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 107               2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Yb-175............................  .....................  1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 107               2.7 x 10-4
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Zn-65.............................  Zinc (30)............  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Zn-69.............................  .....................  1.0 x 104               2.7 x 10-7              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Zn-69m (a)........................  .....................  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Zr-88.............................  Zirconium (40).......  1.0 x 102               2.7 x 10-9              1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Zr-93 (b).........................  .....................  1.0 x 103               2.7 x 10-8              1.0 x 107               2.7 x 10-4
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Zr-95 (a).........................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 106               2.7 x 10-5
-----------------------------------                       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Zr-97 (a),(b).....................  .....................  1.0 x 101               2.7 x 10-10             1.0 x 105               2.7 x 10-6
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Notes:
(a) A1 and/or A2 values include contributions from daughter nuclides with half-lives less than 10 days
(b) Parent nuclides and their progeny included in secular equilibrium are listed in the following:
Sr-90    Y-90
Zr-93    Nb-93m
Zr-97    Nb-97
Ru-106    Rh-106
Cs-137    Ba-137m
Ce-134    La-134
Ce-144    Pr-144
Ba-140    La-140
Bi-212    Tl-208 (0.36), Po-212 (0.64)
Pb-210    Bi-210, Po-210
Pb-212    Bi-212, Tl-208 (0.36), Po-212 (0.64)
Rn-220    Po-216
Rn-222    Po-218, Pb-214, Bi-214, Po-214
Ra-223    Rn-219, Po-215, Pb-211, Bi-211, Tl-207
Ra-224    Rn-220, Po-216, Pb-212, Bi-212, Tl-208 (0.36), Po-212 (0.64)
Ra-226    Rn-222, Po-218, Pb-214, Bi-214, Po-214, Pb-210, Bi-210, Po-210
Ra-228    Ac-228
Th-226    Ra-222, Rn-218, Po-214
Th-228    Ra-224, Rn-220, Po-216, Pb212, Bi-212, Tl208 (0.36), Po-212 (0.64)
Th-229    Ra-225, Ac-225, Fr-221, At-217, Bi-213, Po-213, Pb-209
Th-nat    Ra-228, Ac-228, Th-228, Ra-224, Rn-220, Po-216, Pb-212, Bi-212, Tl-208 (0.36), Po-212 (0.64)
Th-234    Pa-234m
U-230    Th-226, Ra-222, Rn-218, Po-214

[[Page 21383]]

 
U-232    Th-228, Ra-224, Rn-220, Po-216, Pb-212, Bi-212, Tl-208 (0.36), Po-212 (0.64)
U-235    Th-231
U-238    Th-234, Pa-234m
U-nat    Th-234, Pa-234m, U-234, Th-230, Ra-226, Rn-222, Po-218, Pb-214, Bi-214, Po-214
U-240    Np-240m
Np-237    Pa-233
Am-242m    Am-242
Am-243    Np-239
(c) [Reserved]
(d) These values apply only to compounds of uranium that take the chemical form of UF6, UO2F2 and UO2(NO3)2 in both normal and accident conditions of
  transport.
(e) These values apply only to compounds of uranium that take the chemical form of UO3, UF4, UCl4 and he x avalent compounds in both normal and accident
  conditions of transport.
(f)These values apply to all compounds of uranium other than those specified in notes (d) and (e) of this table.
(g) These values apply to unirradiated uranium only.

    32. In Sec. 173.441, the section title would be revised, paragraph 
(d) would be redesignated as paragraph (e) and revised and a new 
paragraph (d) would be added to read as follows:


Sec. 173.441  Radiation level limitations and exclusive use provisions.

* * * * *
    (d) Conveyance limits on the sum of package transport indexes are 
as follows:
    (1) Except for shipments by cargo aircraft only or by seagoing 
vessel, the sum of transport indexes for a non-exclusive use shipment 
may not exceed 50.
    (2) Where a consignment is transported under exclusive use, there 
is no limit on the sum of the transport indexes aboard a single 
conveyance.
    (3) The number of packages, overpacks and freight containers 
containing Class 7 (radioactive) material being transported under 
exclusive use or stored in transit in any one storage area must be so 
limited that the total sum of the transport indexes in any group of 
packages, overpacks or freight containers does not exceed 50. Groups of 
packages must be situated so as to maintain a spacing of at least 6 m 
(20 ft) between the closest surfaces of packages, overpacks or freight 
containers from any two groups.
    (4) Provisions for shipments of Class 7 (radioactive) materials by 
air are described in Secs. 175.700-175.705 of this subchapter.
    (5) Provisions for shipment of Class 7 (radioactive) materials by 
vessel are described in Secs. 176.700-176.720 of this subchapter.
    (e) Packages exceeding the maximum surface radiation level or 
maximum transport index prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section may 
not be transported by aircraft.
    33. In Sec. 173.443, paragraphs (a)(1) and (a)(2) would be revised 
to read as follows:


Sec. 173.443  Contamination control.

    (a) * * *
    (1) Wiping an area of 300 cm2 of the surface concerned 
with an absorbent material, using moderate pressure, and measuring the 
activity on the wiping material. Sufficient measurements must be taken 
in the most appropriate locations to yield a representative assessment 
of the non-fixed contamination levels. The amount of radioactivity 
measured on any single wiping material, divided by the surface area 
wiped and divided by the efficiency of the wipe procedure, may not 
exceed the limits set forth in Table 11 at any time during transport. 
For this purpose the actual wipe efficiency may be used, or the wipe 
efficiency may be assumed to be 0.10; or
    (2) Alternatively, the level of non-fixed radioactive contamination 
may be determined by using other methods of equal or greater 
efficiency. Table 11 is as follows:

   Table 11.--Non-Fixed External Radioactive Contamination Limits for
                                Packages
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                         Maximum permissible limits
           Contaminant            --------------------------------------
                                     Bq/cm\2\    uCi/cm\2\    dpm/cm\2\
------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. Beta and gamma emitters and               4       10-\4\          220
 low toxicity alpha emitters.....
2. All other alpha emitting                0.4       10-\5\           22
 radionuclides...................
------------------------------------------------------------------------

* * * * *
    34. Section 173.448 would be revised to read as follows:


Sec. 173.448  General transportation requirements.

    (a) Each shipment of Class 7 (radioactive) materials must be 
secured to prevent shifting during normal transportation conditions.
    (b) Except as provided in Secs. 174.81, 176.83, and 177.848 of this 
subchapter, or as otherwise required by the Competent Authority in the 
applicable certificate, a package or overpack of Class 7 (radioactive) 
materials may be carried among packaged general cargo without special 
stowage provisions, if--
    (1) The heat output in watts does not exceed 0.1 times the minimum 
package dimension in centimeters; or
    (2) The average surface heat flux of the package or overpack does 
not exceed 15 watts per square meter and the immediately surrounding 
cargo is not in sacks or bags or otherwise in a form that would 
seriously impede air circulation for heat removal.
    (c) Packages or overpacks bearing labels prescribed in Sec. 172.403 
of this subchapter may not be carried in compartments occupied by 
passengers, except in those compartments exclusively reserved for 
couriers accompanying those packages.
    (d) Mixing of different kinds of packages that include fissile 
packages is authorized only in accordance with Sec. 173.459.
    (e) No person shall offer for transportation or transport aboard a 
passenger-carrying aircraft any single package or overpack with a 
transport index greater than 3.0.
    (f) No person shall offer for transportation or transport aboard a 
passenger-carrying aircraft any Class 7 (radioactive) material unless 
that material is intended for use in, or incident to, research, medical 
diagnosis or treatment.
    (g) If an overpack is used to consolidate individual packages or to 
enclose a single package of Class 7 (radioactive) materials, the 
package(s) must comply with the packaging,

[[Page 21384]]

marking, and labeling requirements of this subchapter, and:
    (1) The overpack must be labeled as prescribed in Sec. 172.403(h) 
of this subchapter;
    (2) The overpack must be marked as prescribed in subpart D of part 
172 of this subchapter and Sec. 173.25(a); and
    (3) The transport index of the overpack may not exceed 3.0 for 
passenger-carrying aircraft shipments, or 10.0 for cargo-aircraft 
shipments.
    35. Section 173.453 would be revised to read as follows:


Sec. 173.453  Fissile materials-exceptions.

    The requirements of Secs. 173.457 and 173.459 do not apply to 
packages containing fissile material for which:
    (a) The mass ratio of iron to fissile material is greater than 
200:1 and the package contents contain less than 15 g of fissile 
material.
    (b) The mass ratio of noncombustible, insoluble-in-water, material 
(including both the contents and packaging) to fissile material is 
greater than 2000:1 and the package contents contain less than 350 g of 
fissile material. Lead, beryllium, graphite, and hydrogenous material 
enriched in deuterium may be present in the package, but must not be 
included in determining the mass ratio for the package.
    (c) Uranium enriched in uranium-235 to a maximum of 1 percent by 
weight, and with total plutonium and uranium-233 content of up to 1 
percent of the mass of uranium-235, provided that the mass of any 
beryllium, graphite, and hydrogenous material enriched in deuterium 
present in the package is less than 0.1 percent of the fissile mass.
    (d) Liquid solutions of uranyl nitrate enriched in uranium-235 to a 
maximum of 2 percent by weight, provided that:
    (1) The total plutonium and uranium-233 content does not exceed 0.1 
percent of the mass of uranium-235;
    (2) The nitrogen to uranium atomic ratio (N/U) is greater than or 
equal to 2.0; and
    (3) The material must be packaged in a DOT Type A package or other 
specification packaging authorized for radioactive material.
    (e) Plutonium with a total mass of less than 1 kg, provided that: 
plutonium-239, plutonium-241, or any combination of these 
radionuclides, constitutes less than 20 percent by mass of the total 
quantity of plutonium in the package.
    36. Section 173.457 would be revised to read as follows:


Sec. 173.457  Transportation of fissile material packages--specific 
requirements.

    (a) Packages containing fissile radioactive material which are not 
excepted under Sec. 173.453 must be assigned by the offeror, in 
accordance with their definitions in Sec. 173.403, a criticality safety 
index (CSI) and a transport index (TI).
    (b) Fissile material packages and conveyances transporting fissile 
material packages must satisfy the radiation level restrictions of 
Sec. 173.441.
    (c) Except for consignments under exclusive use, the CSI of any 
package or overpack may not exceed 50. A fissile material package with 
CSI greater than 50 must be transported by exclusive use.
    (d) For non-exclusive use shipments of fissile material packages, 
except on vessels, the total sum of CSI's in a freight container or on 
a conveyance may not exceed 50.
    (e) For exclusive use shipments of fissile material packages, 
except on vessels, the total sum of CSI's in a freight container or on 
a conveyance may not exceed 100.
    (f) Exclusive use shipments of fissile material packages must 
satisfy the radiation level and administrative requirements of 
Sec. 173.441(b).
    (g) The number of packages, overpacks and freight containers 
containing fissile material stored in transit in any one storage area 
must be so limited that the total sum of the CSI's in any group of 
packages, overpacks or freight containers does not exceed 50. Groups of 
packages shall be stored so as to maintain a spacing of a least 6 m (20 
ft) between the closest surfaces of any two groups.
    (h) Provisions for shipment by vessel of Class 7 (radioactive) 
material packages, including fissile material packages by vessel are 
described in Secs. 176.700--176.720 of this subchapter.
    37. Section 173.459 would be revised to read as follows:


Sec. 173.459  Mixing of fissile material packages with non-fissile or 
fissile-excepted material packages.

    Mixing of fissile material packages with other types of Class 7 
(radioactive) materials in any conveyance or storage location is 
authorized only if the TI of any single package does not exceed 10, the 
CSI of any single package does not exceed 50, and the provisions of 
Secs. 173.441 and 173.457 are satisfied.
    38. In Sec. 173.469, paragraphs (a)(4)(ii), (c)(1)(i), (c)(1)(iv), 
(c)(2)(i), (c)(2)(iv), and (d)(1) would be revised to read as follows:


Sec. 173.469  Tests for special form Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    (a) * * *
    (4) * * *
    (ii) A specimen that comprises or simulates Class 7 (radioactive) 
material contained in a sealed capsule need not be subjected to the 
leaching assessment specified in paragraph (c) of this section provided 
it is alternatively subjected to any of the volumetric leakage 
assessment tests prescribed in the International Organization for 
Standardization document ISO 9978-1992(E): ``Radiation Protection--
Sealed Radioactive Sources--Leakage Test Methods'' (see Sec. 171.7 of 
this subchapter).
* * * * *
    (c) * * *
    (1) * * *
    (i) The specimen shall be immersed for seven days in water at 
ambient temperature. The volume of water to be used in the test shall 
be sufficient to ensure that at the end of the seven day test period 
the free volume of the unabsorbed and unreacted water remaining shall 
be at least 10% of the volume of the solid test sample itself. The 
water shall have an initial pH of 6-8 and a maximum conductivity of 1 
mS/m (10 micromho/cm) at 20 deg.C (68 deg.F).
* * * * *
    (iv) The specimen shall then be kept for at least seven days in 
still air at not less than 30 deg.C (86 deg.F) and relative humidity 
not less than 90%.
* * * * *
    (2) * * *
    (i) The specimen shall be immersed in water at ambient temperature. 
The water shall have an initial pH of 6-8 and a maximum conductivity of 
1 mS/m (10 micromho/cm) at 20 deg.C (68 deg.F).
* * * * *
    (iv) The specimen shall then be kept for at least seven days in 
still air at not less than 30 deg.C (86 deg.F) and relative humidity 
not less than 90%.
* * * * *
    (d) * * *
    (1) The impact test and the percussion test of this section 
provided that the mass of the special form radioactive material is less 
than 200 g and it is alternatively subjected to the Class 4 impact test 
prescribed in ISO 2919, ``Sealed Radioactive Sources--Classification'' 
(see Sec. 171.7 of this subchapter); and
* * * * *
    39. In Sec. 173.471, the introductory text would be revised to read 
as follows:


Sec. 173.471  Requirements for U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission 
approved packages.

    In addition to the applicable requirements of the U.S. Nuclear 
Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and other requirements of this 
subchapter, any offeror of a Type B(U), Type B(M), or Type B(DP) or 
other fissile material

[[Page 21385]]

package that has been approved by the USNRC in accordance with 10 CFR 
part 71 must also comply with the following requirements:
* * * * *
    40. In Sec. 173.473, the introductory text would be revised to read 
as follows:


Sec. 173.473  Requirements for foreign-made packages.

    In addition to other applicable requirements of this subchapter, 
each offeror of a foreign-made Type B(U), Type B(M), Type C, Type CF, 
Type H(U), Type H(M), or fissile material package for which a Competent 
Authority Certificate is required by IAEA's ``Regulations for the Safe 
Transport of Radioactive Material, No. TS-R-1, '' (see Sec. 171.7 of 
this subchapter) shall also comply with the following requirements:
* * * * *
    41. In Sec. 173.476, ``; and'' at the end of paragraph (c)(3) would 
be removed and a semi-colon would be added in its place, paragraph 
(c)(4) would be revised and a new paragraph (c)(5) would be added to 
read as follows:


Sec. 173.476  Approval of special form Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

* * * * *
    (c) * * *
    (4) For the original request for a Competent Authority Certificate, 
evidence of a quality assurance program based on international, 
national or other standards, for the design, manufacture, testing, 
documentation, use, maintenance and inspection, as appropriate, of all 
special form material transported by the requester; and
    (5) A description of any proposed pre-shipment actions, such as 
leak testing, for use in the consignment of special form radioactive 
material for transport.
* * * * *
    42. A new Sec. 173.477 would be added to read as follows:


Sec. 173.477  Approval of packagings containing greater than 0.1 kg of 
non-fissile or fissile-excepted uranium hexafluoride.

    (a) Each offeror of a package containing more than 0.1 kg of 
uranium hexafluoride must maintain on file for at least one year after 
the latest shipment, and provide to the Associate Administrator on 
request, a complete safety analysis, including documentation of any 
tests, demonstrating that the package meets the requirements of 
Sec. 173.420. An IAEA Certificate of Competent Authority issued for the 
design of the packaging containing greater than 0.1 kg of non-fissile 
or fissile-excepted uranium hexafluoride may be used to satisfy this 
requirement.
    (b) Prior to the first export shipment of a package containing 
greater than 0.1 kg of uranium hexafluoride from the United States, 
each offeror shall obtain a U.S. Competent Authority Certificate for 
the packaging design. For packagings manufactured outside the United 
States, each offeror shall comply with Sec. 173.473.
    (c) Each request for a U.S. Competent Authority Certificate as 
required by the IAEA regulations must be submitted in writing, in 
triplicate, to the Associate Administrator. Each request is considered 
in the order in which it is received. To allow sufficient time for 
consideration, requests must be received at least 90 days before the 
requested effective date. Each request for a U.S. Competent Authority 
Certificate must include the following information:
    (1) A safety analysis report which, at a minimum, provides a 
detailed description of the packaging and contents; a description of 
the manufacturing process used for the packaging; and details of the 
tests conducted and copy of their results, evidence based on 
calculative methods to show that the package is able to pass the tests, 
or other evidence that the package complies with Sec. 173.420; and
    (2) For the original request for a Competent Authority Certificate, 
evidence of a quality assurance program.

PART 174--CARRIAGE BY RAIL

    43. The authority citation for part 174 would continue to read as 
follows:

    Authority: 49 U.S.C. 5101-5127; 49 CFR 1.53.

    44. In Sec. 174.700, paragraph (b) would be revised, paragraphs (d) 
through (f) would be redesignated as paragraphs (e) through (g), 
respectively, and a new paragraph (d) would be added to read as 
follows:


Sec. 174.700  Special handling requirements for Class 7 (radioactive) 
materials.

* * * * *
    (b) The number of packages of Class 7 (radioactive) materials that 
may be transported by rail car or stored at any single location is 
limited to a total transport index and a total criticality safety index 
(as defined in Sec. 173.403 of this subchapter) of not more than 50 
each. This provision does not apply to exclusive use shipments as 
described in Secs. 173.403, 173.427, 173.441, and 173.457 of this 
subchapter.
* * * * *
    (d) Each shipment of fissile material packages must conform to 
requirements of Secs. 173.457 and 173.459.
* * * * *

PART 175--CARRIAGE BY AIRCRAFT

    45. The authority citation for part 175 would continue to read as 
follows:

    Authority: 49 U.S.C. 5101-5127; 49 CFR 1.53.

    46. In Sec. 175.700, paragraph (a) would be revised and a new 
paragraph (e) would be added to read as follows:


Sec. 175.700  Special limitations and requirements for Class 7 
(radioactive) materials.

    (a) In addition to other requirements, no person may carry in a 
passenger-carrying aircraft any package required to be labeled in 
accordance with Sec. 172.403 of this subchapter with a RADIOACTIVE 
YELLOW-II, RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III or FISSILE label unless:
    (1) For a package required to be labeled RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III, 
the transport index does not exceed 3.0;
    (2) For a package required to carry a FISSILE label, the 
criticality safety index does not exceed 3.0;
    (3) The package is carried on the floor of the cargo compartment, 
or freight container;
    (4) The package is carried in the aircraft in accordance with 
Secs. 175.701 and 175.703;
    (5) The total sum of transport indexes of all packages in the 
aircraft does not exceed 50; and
    (6) The total sum of criticality safety indexes of all packages in 
the aircraft does not exceed 50.
* * * * *
    (e) Any package or overpack having either a transport index greater 
than 10, or any consignment having a criticality safety index greater 
than 50, must be transported only under exclusive use.
    47. In Sec. 175.702, the section heading would be revised, and 
paragraph (b) would be revised to read as follows:


Sec. 175.702  Requirements for carriage of packages containing Class 7 
(radioactive) materials in a non-exclusive use cargo aircraft only.

* * * * *
    (b) No person may carry in a non-exclusive use cargo aircraft only 
any package required by Sec. 172.403 of this subchapter to be labeled 
RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-II or RADIOACTIVE YELLOW-III or FISSILE unless:
    (1) The total transport index for all of the packages does not 
exceed 50.0, the total criticality safety index for all of the packages 
does not exceed 50.0, and the

[[Page 21386]]

package is carried in accordance with Sec. 175.701(a); or
    (2) The total transport index for all of the packages is greater 
than 50.0 but does not exceed 200.0, the total criticality safety index 
for all of the packages does not exceed 50.0; and :
    (i) The transport index for any group of packages does not exceed 
50.0;
    (ii) Each group of packages is separated from every other group in 
the aircraft by not less than 6 m (20 feet), measured from the outer 
surface of each group; and
    (iii) The separation distance between the surfaces of the Class 7 
(radioactive) materials packages, overpacks or freight containers and 
any space occupied by--
    (A) Humans is at least 9 m (30 feet); and
    (B) Live animals is at least 0.5 m (20 inches) for journeys not 
exceeding 24 hours and at least 1.0 m (39 inches) for journeys longer 
than 24 hours.
    48. In Sec. 175.703, paragraph (b) would be revised, paragraphs 
(c), (d), and (e) would be redesignated as paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) 
respectively, a new paragraph (c) would be added, and paragraphs (d) 
and (f) would be revised to read as follows:


Sec. 175.703  Other special requirements for the acceptance and 
carriage of packages containing Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

* * * * *
    (b) No person may accept for carriage in an aircraft packages of 
Class 7 (radioactive) materials, other than limited quantities, 
contained in an overpack unless they have been prepared for shipment in 
accordance with Sec. 173.448(g) of this subchapter.
    (c) Each shipment of fissile material packages must conform to the 
requirements of Secs. 173.457 and 173.459 of this subchapter.
    (d) No person shall carry in an aircraft a fissile material package 
with a criticality safety index greater than 50, except--
    (1) In a cargo aircraft only which has been assigned for the 
exclusive use of the shipper for the specific shipment of fissile Class 
7 (radioactive) material. Instructions for the exclusive use must be 
developed by the shipper and carrier, and the instructions issued with 
the shipping papers.
    (2) There is no upper limit to the total transport index which may 
be carried in an exclusive use aircraft; however, radioactive material 
must be segregated sufficiently from crew members such that crew 
members in regularly occupied work areas do not receive a dose in 
excess of 5.0 mSv (500 mrem) in a year.
    (3) The total criticality safety index of all of the packages 
carried in an exclusive use aircraft shall not exceed 100.
* * * * *
    (f) Packages with radiation levels at the package surface or a 
transport index in excess of the limits specified in Sec. 173.441(a) of 
this subchapter may not be transported by aircraft except under special 
arrangements approved by the Associate Administrator.

PART 176--CARRIAGE BY VESSEL

    49. The authority citation for part 176 would continue to read as 
follows:

    Authority: 49 U.S.C. 5101-5127; 49 CFR 1.53.


Sec. 176.700  [Amended]

    50. In Sec. 176.700, paragraph (c) would be removed, and paragraphs 
(d) and (e) would be redesignated (c) and (d), respectively.
    51. Section 176.704 would be revised to read as follows:


Sec. 176.704  Requirements relating to transport indexes and 
criticality safety indexes.

    (a) The sum of the transport indexes (TI's) for all packages of 
Class 7 (radioactive) materials on board a vessel may not exceed the 
limits specified in Table IIIA of this section.
    (b) For packages in freight containers, the radiation level may not 
exceed 2 mSv per hour (200 mrem per hour) at any point on the surface 
and 0.1 mSv per hour (10 mrem per hour) at 2 m (6.6 ft) from the 
outside surface of the freight container.
    (c) The limitations specified in Table IIIA of this section do not 
apply to consignments of LSA-I material.
    (d) The sum of the criticality safety indexes (CSI's) for all 
packages of Class 7 (radioactive) materials on board a vessel may not 
exceed the limits specified in Table IIIB of this section.
    (e) Each group of Class 7 (radioactive) material packages, 
containing a sum of CSIs no greater than 50 for a non-exclusive use 
shipment, or no greater than 100 for an exclusive use shipment, must be 
separated from all other groups containing fissile material packages by 
a distance of at least 6 m (20 ft) at all times.
    (f) The limitations specified in paragraphs (a) through (c) of this 
section do not apply when the entire vessel is reserved or chartered 
for use by a single offeror under exclusive use conditions if--
    (1) The number of packages of fissile Class 7 (radioactive) 
material satisfies the individual package CSI limits of Sec. 173.457 of 
this subchapter, except that the total sums of CSI's in the last column 
of Table IIIB of this section, including table note (d) apply;
    (2) A radiation protection program for the shipment has been 
established and approved by the competent authority of the flag state 
of the vessel and, when requested, by the competent authority at each 
port of call;
    (3) Stowage arrangements have been predetermined for the whole 
voyage, including any consignments to be loaded at ports of call;
    (4) The loading, transport and unloading are to be supervised by 
persons qualified in the transport of radioactive material; and
    (5) The entire shipment operation is approved by the Associate 
Administrator in advance.
    (g) Table IIIA is as follows:

      Table IIIA.--TI Limits for Freight Containers and Conveyances
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                 Limit on total sum of transport indexes
                                 in a single freight container or aboard
  Type of freight container or                 a conveyance
           conveyance           ----------------------------------------
                                     Not under
                                   exclusive use     Under exclusive use
------------------------------------------------------------------------
I. Freight container--small....                 50  N/A
II. Freight container--large...                 50  No limit
III. Vessel: \a, b\
1. Hold, compartment or defined
 deck area:
    i. Packages, overpacks,                     50  No limit
     small freight containers.
    ii. Large freight                          200  No limit
     containers.
2. Total vessel:
    i. Packages, overpacks,                    200  No limit
     small freight containers.

[[Page 21387]]

 
    ii. Large freight                     No limit  No limit
     containers.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\a\ For vessels, the requirements in both 1 and 2 must be fulfilled.
\b\ Packages or overpacks transported in or on a vehicle which are
  offered for transport in accordance with the provisions of Sec.
  173.441(b) of this subchapter may be transported by vessels provided
  that they are not removed from the vehicle at any time while on board
  the vessel.

    (h) Table IIIB is as follows:

     Table IIIB.--CSI Limits for Freight Containers and Conveyances
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                      Limit on total sum of criticality
                                     safety indexes in a single freight
   Type of freight container or       container or aboard a conveyance
            conveyance             -------------------------------------
                                        Not under       Under exclusive
                                      exclusive use           use
------------------------------------------------------------------------
I Freight container-small.........                 50                N/A
II. Freight container-large.......                 50                100
III. Vessel: \a, b\
1. Hold, compartment or defined
 deck area:
    i. Packages, overpacks, small                  50                100
     freight containers...........
    ii. Large freight containers..                 50                100
2. Total vessel:
    i. Packages, overpacks, small              \c\200             \d\200
     freight containers...........
    ii. Large freight containers..       No limit \c\      No limit \d\
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\a\ For vessels, the requirements in both 1 and 2 must be fulfilled.
\b\ Packages or overpacks transported in or on a vehicle which are
  offered for transport in accordance with the provisions of Sec.
  173.441(b) of this subchapter may be transported by vessels provided
  that they are not removed from the vehicle at any time while on board
  the vessel. In that case, the entries under the heading ``under
  exclusive use'' apply.
\c\ The consignment must be handled and stowed such that the total sum
  of CSIs in any group does not exceed 50, and such that each group is
  handled and stowed so that the groups are separated from each other by
  at least 6 m (20 ft).
\d\ The consignment must be handled and stowed such that the total sum
  of CSIs in any group does not exceed 100, and such that each group is
  handled and stowed so that the groups are separated from each other by
  at least 6 m (20 ft). The intervening space between groups may be
  occupied by other cargo.

    52. In Sec. 176.708 the section title and paragraphs (a) through 
(e) would be revised and in note 6 to Table IV in paragraph (f), 
``176.704(f)'' would be revised to read ``176.704(g)'' to read as 
follows:


Sec. 176.708  Segregation distances.

    (a) Table IV lists minimum separation distances between radioactive 
materials and spaces regularly occupied by crew members or passengers, 
or between radioactive materials and undeveloped photographic film. It 
expresses the separation distances as a function of the sum of the TIs 
of all packages in a single consignment, in the case of 0 or 3 feet of 
intervening cargo of unit density for persons, and 0, 3, or 6 feet of 
intervening cargo of unit density for undeveloped film. Cargo of unit 
density is stowed cargo with a density of 1 long ton (2240 lbs.) per 36 
cubic feet. Separation distances may be interpolated from the table 
where appropriate.
    (b) Table IV is to be used to determine the separation distance for 
undeveloped film.
    (c) Category YELLOW-II or YELLOW-III packages or overpacks must not 
be transported in spaces occupied by passengers, except those 
exclusively reserved for couriers specially authorized to accompany 
such packages or over packs.
    (d) The separation distances for crew members and passengers may be 
determined by one of two methods:
    (1) By using Table IV to determine the minimum distances between 
the radioactive material packages and regularly occupied spaces or 
living quarters; or
    (2) For one or more consignments of Class 7 (radioactive) material 
to be loaded on board a vessel under the exclusive use conditions 
described in Sec. 176.704(f), by demonstration through direct 
measurement, made and documented by a suitably qualified person, that 
for the indicated exposure times the dose rate in regularly occupied 
spaces or living quarters is less than--
    (i) For the crew: 7.0 Sv/h (0.70 mrem/h) up to 700 hours 
in a year, or 1.8 Sv/h (0.18 mrem/h) up to 2750 hours in a 
year; and
    (ii) For the passengers: 1.8 Sv/h (0.18 mrem/h) up to 550 
hours in a year, taking into account any relocation of cargo during the 
voyage.
    (e) Any departure from the segregation provisions should be 
approved by the competent authority of the flag state of the ship and, 
when requested, by the competent authority at each port of call.
* * * * *

PART 177--CARRIAGE BY PUBLIC HIGHWAY

    53. The authority citation for part 177 would continue to read as 
follows:

    Authority: 49 U.S.C. 5101-5127; 49 CFR 1.53.

    54. In Sec. 177.842, paragraph (g) would be revised to read as 
follows:

[[Page 21388]]

Sec. 177.842  Class 7 (radioactive) material.

* * * * *
    (g) For shipments transported under exclusive use conditions the 
radiation dose rate may not exceed 0.02 mSv per hour (2 mrem per hour) 
in any position normally occupied in the motor vehicle. For shipments 
transported as exclusive use under the provisions of Sec. 173.441(b) of 
this subchapter for packages with external radiation levels in excess 
of 2 mSv (200 mrem per hour) at the package surface, the motor vehicle 
must meet the requirements of a closed transport vehicle (see 
Sec. 173.403 of this subchapter). The sum of criticality safety indexes 
(CSIs) for packages containing fissile material may not exceed 100.

PART 178--SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS

    55. The authority citation for part 178 would continue to read as 
follows:

    Authority: 49 U.S.C. 5101-5127; 49 CFR 1.53.

    56. In Sec. 178.350, paragraph (b) would be revised and paragraph 
(c) would be added to read as follows:


Sec. 178.350  Specification 7A; general packaging, Type A.

* * * * *
    (b) Each Specification 7A packaging must be marked on the outside 
``USA DOT 7A Type A.''
    (c) Each Specification 7A packaging must be marked with the name of 
the manufacturer, or offeror, in association with marking required by 
paragraph (b) of this section.


Secs. 178.352 and 178.352-1--178.352-6  [Removed]

    57. Sections 178.352 and 178.352-1 through 178.352-6 would be 
removed.


Secs. 178.354 and 178.354-1--178.354-5  [Removed]

    58. Sections 178.354 and 178.354-1 through 178.354-5 would be 
removed.


Secs. 178.362 and 178.362-1--178.362-7  [Removed]

    59. Sections 178.362 and 178.362-1 through 178.362-7 would be 
removed.


Secs. 178.364 and 178.364-1--178.364-6  [Removed]

    60. Sections 178.364 and 178.364-1 through 178.364-6 would be 
removed.

    Issued in Washington, DC on March 27, 2002 under authority 
delegated in 49 CFR part 106.
Frits Wybenga,
Deputy Associate Administrator for Hazardous Materials Safety.
[FR Doc. 02-8143 Filed 4-29-02; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 4910-60-P