[Federal Register Volume 59, Number 160 (Friday, August 19, 1994)]
[Unknown Section]
[Page 0]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 94-20441]

[[Page Unknown]]

[Federal Register: August 19, 1994]


40 CFR Part 63



National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for 
Source Category: Gasoline Distribution (Stage I)

AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

ACTION: Announcement of the availability of supplemental information, 
and reopening of public comment period on the supplemental information.


SUMMARY: On February 8, 1994 (59 FR 5868), the EPA proposed standards 
(the proposal or proposed standards) to limit emissions of hazardous 
air pollutants (HAP's) from existing and new bulk gasoline terminals 
and pipeline breakout stations under section 112 of the Clean Air Act 
as amended in 1990 (Act). The public comment period on the proposed 
rule ended April 11, 1994. This action announces the availability of 
supplemental information and the reopening of the comment period for 
comment on only the supplemental information. This supplemental 
information was provided during the comment period on the proposal and 
pertains to the level of control and test procedures for tank truck 
leakage. The EPA plans to consider comments received on this action, 
along with the comments received on the proposal, and take final action 
on the rule on November 23, 1994 as required under consent decree. Due 
to this short schedule, only a 30-day comment period is being provided 
and no public hearing will be held.

DATES: Comments must be received on or before September 19, 1994.

ADDRESSES: Comments. Comments should be submitted (in duplicate, if 
possible) to: Air Docket Section (6102), ATTN: Docket No. A-92-38, Room 
M1500, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 401 M Street, SW., 
Washington, DC 20460, and Mr. Stephen Shedd, address shown in FOR 
FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section of this notice.
    Docket. Docket No. A-92-38, containing supporting information used 
in developing the proposed standards, public comments received on the 
proposal, and the test procedures and methods discussed in today's 
notice, is available for public inspection and copying between 8:30 
a.m. and 3:30 p.m., Monday through Friday, at the EPA's Air Docket 
Section, Waterside Mall, Room 1500, 1st Floor, 401 M Street, SW, 
Washington, DC 20460. A reasonable fee may be charged for copying.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information concerning today's 
notice, contact Mr. Stephen Shedd at (919) 541-5397, Chemicals and 
Petroleum Branch, Emission Standards Division (MD-13), U.S. 
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On February 8, 1994 (59 FR 5868), the EPA 
proposed standards to limit emissions of hazardous air pollutants 
(HAP's) from existing and new bulk gasoline terminals and pipeline 
breakout stations under section 112 of the Act. Two comment letters 
presented information on California standards for tank truck leaks at 
existing facilities that are more stringent than those standards 
proposed by the EPA. The EPA proposed that tank trucks and railcars 
annually pass a pressure and vacuum test before loading gasoline at 
existing and new major source facilities. The California standards have 
a more stringent requirement for the annual test, an additional annual 
test for internal vapor valves, and a year-round leak rate requirement 
and test procedures. Additionally, the EPA proposed for new facilities 
the use of a loading rack vacuum assist system, in addition to the 
proposed annual pressure and vacuum test, to further control leakage 
from tank trucks and railcars. The EPA did not analyze nor fully 
discuss these California standards during development of the proposal 
or at proposal. The purpose of this notice is to announce and discuss 
the consideration of these additional standards. Below is a discussion 
of the California standard for tank truck leakage and the EPA's 
consideration of that information. As noted in the ADDRESSES section of 
today's notice, the docket (Docket No. A-92-38) contains the California 
test procedures and methods discussed below.
    The California Air Resources Board (ARB) and the California air 
pollution control districts have been implementing tank truck leakage 
standards since the late 1970's. Currently all tank trucks transporting 
gasoline in California, including tank trucks from neighboring States 
that operate in California, must meet the California standards. In 
summary they include three major standards, an annual certification and 
a year-round standard for the tank and its vapor piping and hoses and a 
year-round pressure standard for the tank truck's internal vapor valve. 
The annual certification standards include initially pressurizing and 
later evacuating the tank and associated vapor piping and hoses, to 18 
inches of water and to 6 inches of water, respectively. In 5 minutes 
the allowable pressure change can be no more than the values shown in 
Table 1. The EPA's Control Techniques Guideline (CTG) document and New 
Source Performance Standards (NSPS) (40 CFR part 60, subpart XX) 
contain annual pressure and vacuum test levels of initial pressures and 
test duration which are the same as California's. However, a less 
stringent pressure change of 3 inches of water column is allowed for 
all tank trucks under the NSPS, CTG, and proposal.

                Table 1. Allowable Tank Pressure Change                 
                                               Allowable pressure change
                                                per tank or compartment 
                                                tested (inches of water,
                                                 gauge, per 5 minutes)  
    Tank or compartment capacity (gallons)    --------------------------
                                                   Annual     (not to be
                                               certification   exceeded 
2,500 & Up...................................             1          2.5
2,499-1,500..................................           1.5          3.0
1,499-1,000..................................           2.0          3.5
999-less.....................................           2.5         4.0 

    Table 1 presents a year-round allowable pressure change standard 
that is 1.5 inches of water column higher than annual certification 
allowable pressure change. This year-round standard is periodically 
demonstrated by a combustible gas detector method or the annual 
certification test procedure (using the allowable year-round pressure 
change value) by owners and operators and used by the California ARB 
and districts for audits and compliance, respectively. Combustible gas 
detectors are easy to use and transport and can be used in the field 
while trucks are loading gasoline. The annual certification pressure/
vacuum test procedure requires the tank to be taken out of gasoline 
service and requires more test equipment than the combustible gas 
detector method. Therefore, the combustible gas detector method 
provides an easy-to-use field compliance procedure. Tank trucks with a 
leak found above 100 percent of the lower explosive limit (LEL) on a 
combustible gas detector are required to be taken out of service until 
they pass the allowable year-round pressure change using the annual 
certification test method. If the truck fails both tests, the truck 
owner is fined and the tank is not allowed to return to service until 
it meets the annual certification standard. Those tanks found to have 
leaks above 100 percent of the LEL and found to meet the year-round 
allowable pressure change with the annual certification test procedure 
are not penalized if maintenance is not performed before the pressure 
test. A similar combustible gas detector procedure was presented in the 
EPA's CTG, but is not contained in the NSPS or this proposed NESHAP. 
However, some other States and oil companies are using this detector 
procedure as a compliance method, in addition to the annual pressure 
and vacuum tests. The Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD) 
developed a field pressure test procedure that measures the pressure 
change without taking the tank out of service. Nitrogen gas is used to 
pressurize the tank's vapor head space. This field pressure test method 
was determined by the California ARB in 1986 to be equivalent to the 
combustible gas detector method. Since 1986, the BAAQMD has implemented 
a comprehensive outreach program with the field pressure test. 
Operators are instructed in the field test procedure, and participate 
in an ongoing inspection and maintenance program. Participation is 
voluntary, and the incentive is to reduce the penalties for violations 
by having documentation showing a history of regular tests and 
maintenance on the tank truck.
    The third California standard for tank trucks is the annually 
tested certification pressure test on the tank truck's internal vapor 
valve. This valve provides a seal between the truck's tank and its 
vapor piping and connected hose. For this test, the tank and associated 
vapor piping and hose are pressurized to 18 inches of water column, and 
the valve is then closed. Then, while leaving the tank under pressure, 
the pressure in the tank truck's vapor collection piping and vapor hose 
is released to atmospheric pressure and then capped. After 5 minutes, a 
pressure increase of no more than 5 inches of water column is allowed 
to occur downstream of the valve in the tank truck's vapor piping and 
hose. Any pressure increase indicates that the valve is leaking. This 
leakage would eventually be released to the atmosphere when the vapor 
hose and piping are not connected to a vapor collection system. This 
standard for internal vapor valves is not contained in the CTG, the 
NSPS, or the proposed standard.
    The California ARB is currently revising its tank truck standards 
to change the level of the annual test and is updating its test 
procedures and methods. The BAAQMD tested 200 tank trucks and found 
that 86 percent of the trucks could pass a 0.25-inch standard and 91 
percent could pass a 0.5-inch standard. The California ARB proposed 
that the allowable annual certification's allowable pressure change be 
reduced by 50 percent (1-inch drop is proposed to be reduced to a 0.5-
inch, etc.). Besides general updating and clarifications of the test 
procedures and methods, the California ARB is adding the field pressure 
test used by BAAQMD in the ARB certification procedures.
    Under section 112 of the Act, the minimum baseline (floor) at which 
standards may be set, for existing sources, is the ``average emission 
limitation achieved by the best performing 12 percent of the existing 
sources''(section 112(d)(3) of the Act). The existing California 
standards are used statewide and on tank trucks from surrounding areas. 
California is estimated to account for nearly 12 percent of the 
national gasoline consumption. Since trucks in California and 
surrounding areas transport about 12 percent of the national gasoline, 
it is logical to assume that this represents about 12 percent of the 
affected gasoline tank truck population. The EPA looks at emission 
limitations achieved by each of the best performing 12 percent of 
existing sources, and average those limitations (59 FR 29196). 
``Average'' is interpreted to mean a measure of central tendency such 
as the arithmetic mean or median. In the case of the California 
standards, nearly or about 12 percent of tank trucks at least meet or 
exceed the California standards, therefore these standards are at least 
the arithmetic average, and certainly the 94 percentile or median. 
Additionally, the existing California standards achieve the lowest 
emission limitation (in this case by achieving the lowest leakage 
rates) and are the best performing of existing sources. Thus, the EPA 
now considers the existing California standards as the existing source 
floor since they represent the average emission limitation achieved by 
the best performing 12 percent of the existing sources.
    The EPA proposal contains a requirement to operate a vacuum assist 
system at new source facilities. The agency proposed this requirement 
for new sources based on the system providing ``emission control that 
is achieved in practice by the best controlled similar source'' 
(section 112(d)(3) of the Act). Many commenters questioned the amount 
of emission control that would be achieved by the vacuum assist system. 
In the EPA's consideration of the vacuum assist system as the floor for 
new sources, the EPA will also consider the existing California 
standards discussed earlier.
    Through consideration of comments received on today's notice along 
with those on the proposed rule, the EPA will determine the control 
levels to be applied to tank truck leakage. Today's opening of the 
comment period is only for taking comment on the supplemental material 
contained in this notice on tank truck vapor leakage controls.
    Specifically, the EPA is requesting comments and data on the 
consideration of the existing California standards as the floor level 
of control for new and existing facilities as required under section 
112 of the Act. The EPA is also requesting comment on whether the level 
of control for tank trucks at new and existing facilities should be 
based on the existing or the proposed California standards. Comments 
are also requested on the use and accuracy of the test procedures and 
methods referred to earlier and provided in the docket, including both 
the existing and updated or revised procedures and methods.

    Dated: August 4, 1994.
Mary D. Nichols,
Assistant Administrator, Office of Air and Radiation.
[FR Doc. 94-20441 Filed 8-18-94; 8:45 am]