[Federal Register Volume 59, Number 134 (Thursday, July 14, 1994)]
[Unknown Section]
[Page 0]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 94-17134]

[[Page Unknown]]

[Federal Register: July 14, 1994]


Fish and Wildlife Service

50 CFR Part 17

RIN 1018-AB83


Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; The Plant, Water 
Howellia (Howellia Aquatilis), Determined To Be a Threatened Species

AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior.

ACTION: Final rule.


SUMMARY: The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) determines 
Howellia aquatilis (water howellia) a wetlands plant, to be a 
threatened species. Populations of H. aquatilis are extant in Montana, 
Washington, and Idaho, but this aquatic plant has bee extirpated from 
California, Oregon, and some sites in Washington and Idaho. The species 
is threatened by loss of wetland habitat and habitat changes due to 
timber harvesting, livestock grazing, residential development, and 
competition by introduced plant species. Listing H. aquatilis will 
afford this species protection under the Endangered Species Act of 
1973, as amended.

EFFECTIVE DATE: August 15, 1994.

ADDRESSES: The complete file for this rule is available for inspection, 
by appointment, during normal business hours at the Office of the Field 
Supervisor, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Montana State Office, 100 
North Park Avenue, Suite 320, Helena, Montana 59601.

Dale Harms at the above address (406/449-5225).



    Howellia aquatilis (water howellia) is a monotypic genus in the 
bellflower family (Campanulaceae). The plant was first described by 
Grey in 1879 from specimens collected in Multnomah County near 
Portland, Oregon. Water howellia is described as an aquatic annual 
plant that grows 10-60 cm (4-24 in) in height. It has extensively 
branched, submerged or floating stems with narrow leaves 1-5 cm (0.4-2 
in) in length. Two types of flowers are produced: small, inconspicuous 
flowers beneath the water's surface, and emergent white flowers 2-2.7 
mm (0.08-0.11 in) in length. The plant is predominantly self-
pollinating, and each fruit contains up to 5 large (2-4 mm; 0.08-1.6 
in) brown seeds (Shelly and Moseley 1988).
    Water howellia historically occurred over a large area of the 
Pacific Northwest region of the United States, but today the species is 
found only in specific habitats within the Pacific Northwest (Shelly 
and Moseley 1988; Gamon 1992). It has been reported from Mendocino 
County, California; Clackamas, Marion, and Multnomah Counties, Oregon; 
Mason, Thurston, Clark, and Spokane Counties, Washington; Kootenai and 
Latah Counties, Idaho; and Lake and Missoula Counties, Montana (Jokerst 
1980; Shelly and Moseley 1988; Oregon Natural Heritage Program 1991; 
Gamon 1992). Distribution of howellia in eastern Washington, Idaho, and 
Montana is most likely related to the glacial history of these areas 
(Shelly and Moseley 1988; Gamon 1992). Populations in Oregon and in 
Clark County, Washington, occur within the floodplains of the lower 
Columbia and Willamette Rivers.
    Howellia grows in firm consolidated clay and organic sediments that 
occur in wetlands associated with ephemeral glacial pothole ponds and 
former river oxbows (Shelly and Moseley 1988; Lesica 1992). These 
wetland habitats are filled by spring rains and snowmelt run-off; and 
depending on temperature and precipitation, exhibit some drying during 
the growing season. This plant's microhabitats include shallow water, 
and the edges of deep ponds that are partially surrounded by deciduous 
trees (Shelly and Moseley 1988; Gamon 1992; N. Curry, U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, in litt., 1993).
    Howellia reproduces entirely from seed and germination only occurs 
when ponds dry out and the seeds are exposed to air (Lesica 1990, 
1992). The size of a population is affected by the extent of drying the 
previous growing season (Lesica 1992). Thus, populations vary in annual 
abundance (Lesica 1992; Roe and Shelly 1992), and exceedingly wet or 
dry seasons can have a detrimental effect on plant numbers the 
following year. The length of time seeds remain viable is unknown. 
However, seeds that remain in the soil longer than 8 months have shown 
decreased rates of germination and vigor (Lesica 1992).
    Genetic variability in howellia populations is low throughout its 
range (Lesica et al. 1988). This suggests that all populations of 
howellia most likely represent a single, narrowly adapted genotype. 
This low rate of genetic variability within populations may explain why 
the species is restricted to a highly specific habitat.
    Only seventy-nine small populations of this aquatic plant were 
known to exist when the proposed rule to list the species was published 
(58 FR 19795). Subsequent inventories conducted for howellia in the 
State of Washington located 28 new sites in Spokane County alone, thus 
expanding the number of known populations to 107 (Roe and Shelly 1992; 
N. Curry, in litt., 1993; J. Gamon, Washington Natural Heritage Program 
in litt., 1993; R. Moseley, Idaho Conservation Data Center, in litt. 
1993). In Montana, this aquatic plant has been found in only 13.5 
percent of 437 potential habitats that have been surveyed since 1987 
(Roe and Shelly 1992). Howellia appears to be extirpated from 
California and Oregon and from Mason, and Thurston Counties in 
Washington, and Kootenai County in Idaho (Jokerst 1980; Shelly and 
Moseley 1988; Oregon Natural Heritage Program 1991; Gamon 1992).
    Nearly all of the remaining populations of howellia are clustered 
in two main population centers or metapopulations. Within these areas, 
individual populations occur primarily in clusters of closely adjacent 
ponds, although some ponds within the range of these metapopulations 
are unoccupied. One metapopulation near Spokane, Washington, consists 
of 46 individual populations in Spokane County, Washington, and one in 
Latah County, Idaho. A second metapopulation is found in the drainage 
of the Swan River in northwestern Montana (Lake and Missoula Counties), 
where 59 individual populations are found. In addition to 
metapopulations, a third site near Vancouver in southwestern Washington 
(Clark County) contains two small populations that are in close 
proximity of each other (Gamon 1992).
    The large fluctuations in annual numbers, the low genetic 
variability, and habitat specificity indicates that isolated 
populations of howellia may be vulnerable to extirpation (Lesica 1992). 
However, the individual populations within the metapopulations appear 
interdependent, and may act as founders (Lesica 1992; S. Shelly, pers. 
comm., 1991). Most populations are extremely small. The fifty-nine 
populations found in Montana cover an area of only about 51 ha (127 
acres). Of this area, one population occurs in a 12-ha (30-acre) pond, 
one in a 2-ha (5-acre) pond, one in a 1.6-ha (4-acre) pond, 4 in 1.2 ha 
(3 acres) of ponds, 24 in ponds of 0.4 to 0.8 ha (1 to 2 acres) in 
size, and the remaining 28 are in ponds of 0.4 ha (1 acre) or less 
(Shelly and Moseley 1988; Schassberger and Shelly 1991). The U.S. 
Forest Service (Forest Service) estimates total area of occupied and 
suitable unoccupied habitat on Forest Service lands to be less than 80 
ha (200 acres) (J. Overbay, U.S. Forest Service, in litt., 1993).
    Populations of howellia occur both on private and public lands. Of 
the 59 known populations in Montana, 21 (36 percent) are found on 
private lands, 34 (57 percent) occur on lands administered by the 
Forest Service, and 4 (7 percent) occur on a mixture of private and 
Forest Service lands (Schassberger and Shelly 1991). In Washington, 34 
of the 47 populations (72 percent) are found on Service administered 
lands, 11 (24 percent) occur on private lands, 1 (2 percent) is on 
State land, and 1 (2 percent) is on Bureau of Land Management land (J. 
Gamon, in litt., 1993). The one population in Idaho occurs solely on 
private property (Shelly and Moseley 1988).
    In the February 21, 1990, Notice of Review, the species was 
reclassified from a Category 2 to a Category 1 species because: (1) It 
has been extirpated from a large portion of its previously known range, 
(2) it has narrow ecological requirements, (3) it has a low degree of 
inter- and intrapopulation genetic variation, and (4) habitat 
alteration is presently continuing throughout a major portion of its 
range (Shelly and Moseley 1988).
    On October 30, 1991, the Service was petitioned by the Biodiversity 
Legal Foundation to list howellia as an endangered species. A petition 
finding and proposed rule to list H. aquatilis as a threatened species 
without designating critical habitat was published in the April 16, 
1993, Federal Register (58 FR 19795).

Summary of Comments and Recommendations

    A proposed rule to list this aquatic plant was published on April 
16, 1993 (58 FR 19795). In that rule, all interested parties were 
requested to submit any reports or information that might contribute to 
the development of a final rule. Newspaper notices inviting public 
comment were published in six different newspapers in Washington, 
Idaho, and Montana (from May 5 to May 7, 1993). The Service received 12 
comments from 2 Federal and 3 State agencies, and 7 from private 
organizations, companies, and individuals. Ten comments were in support 
of the listing, one was opposed, and one did not state a position.
    Comments pertinent to this rulemaking on whether Howellia aquatilis 
merits listing and if critical habitat should be designated are 
discussed in the following summary:
    Issue 1: One individual representing a cattlemen's association 
opposed the listing of howellia due to the potential economic effects 
it may have on private landowners on whose property it is located, 
especially if this land is used for livestock grazing.
    Response: The Service is required to evaluate five listing criteria 
in making a decision on whether a species should be listed as 
threatened or endangered. During this evaluation, the Service did 
determine that livestock grazing is a threat to the plant and its 
habitat. However, listing this species as threatened does not preclude 
livestock grazing by private landowners on their property.
    Issue 2: Two individuals believe that critical habitat should be 
designated since it would protect the mosaic of ponds necessary for the 
long-term survival of howellia.
    Response: The Service finds that designation of critical habitat is 
not prudent at this time. The Service is concerned that publication of 
site-specific maps of critical habitat might increase take and 
vandalism at these sites. Only federally authorized, permitted, or 
funded activities that would destroy or adversely modify critical 
habitat would be precluded if critical habitat were designated. The 
Service believes that section 7 consultation without critical habitat 
designation will sufficiently protect those populations that occur on 
Federal lands.

Summary of Factors Affecting the Species

    The Service has determined that howellia should be listed as a 
threatened species based on a thorough review and consideration of all 
available information. A species may be determined to be an endangered 
or threatened species due to one or more of the five factors described 
in section 4(a)(1) of the act. These factors and their application to 
Howellia aquatilis (water howellia) are as follows:

A. The Present or Threatened Destruction, Modification, or Curtailment 
of Its Habitat or Range

    Howellia aquatilis has narrow ecological requirements and any 
subtle changes in its habitat could devastate a population. Any 
disturbance that alters the surface or subsurface hydrology of the 
habitat can negatively influence a population. Activities that affect 
the ecology of a wetland bottom habitat also may affect wetland 
succession and the survival of howellia populations.
    Howellia aquatilis and its wetlands habitats are being threatened 
by Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass), a highly competitive, 
robust grass that invades wetlands. Reed canary grass has the potential 
to extirpate howellia populations due to its ability to rapidly form 
dense monocultures, causing the decline of nearly all other plants in a 
wetland (Apfelbaum and Sams 1987). This exotic grass accelerates the 
rate of wetland succession causing significant changes in substrate and 
water table levels (Gamon 1992).
    Both native and exotic varieties of this grass occur in North 
America and it is not known whether the variety that occurs in wetlands 
within the range of howellia is native or exotic (Lackschewitz 1991; L. 
Kunze, Washington Natural Heritage Program, pers. comm., 1993). 
However, due to the pernicious characteristic of the invasions, and the 
lack of historical records of its presence in this region, some 
ecologists in the Pacific northwest believe this invasive variety of P. 
arundinacea is an exotic form that was introduced by humans (L. Kunze, 
pers. comm, 1993; S. Vrilakas, Oregon Natural Heritage Program, pers. 
comm., 1993).
    Howellia is most abundant in areas with little or no other aquatic 
vegetation, since it does not compete well with other plants (Gamon 
1992). Howellia has been observed growing amongst reed canary grass 
stands, but only where these stands are sparse or in openings (N. 
Curry, in litt., 1993). Reed canary grass is considered a major threat 
to howellia in the State of Washington since it occurs in 83 percent of 
the ponds where howellia is present. This exotic also threatens the 
howellia population in Idaho since it is present in nearby ponds (R. 
Moseley, in litt., 1993). Reed canary grass has also been found in 
several of the Montana ponds occupied by howellia (Shelly and Moseley 
    Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife), another aggressive exotic 
plant, also poses a threat to howellia (Gamon, in litt., 1993), because 
it can out-compete and eliminate other aquatic plants (West 1990). 
Purple loosestrife is present in Lake County, Montana, and also in the 
immediate vicinity of the Spokane howellia metapopulation (West 1990; 
N. Curry, pers. comm., 1993).
    Impacts associated with timber harvest also pose a threat to H. 
aquatilis populations. Of the 59 populations of howellia in the Swan 
Valley, Montana, 22 (37 percent) occur within areas where logging has 
occurred around the wetland margins (Shelly and Moseley 1988). In 
Montana, 58 percent of the populations of howellia occur on Forest 
Service lands, and an additional 7 percent occur on lands partially 
owned by the Forest Service (Schassberger and Shelly 1991). Thirty-
eight percent of the private lands in Montana where howellia occurs are 
owned by the Plum Creek Timber Company (Shelly and Moseley 1988). 
Timber harvest has been increasing within the area of the Spokane 
metapopulation (Gamon 1992).
    The removal of trees from around ponds may cause an increase in 
water temperatures and evaporation, thus increasing wetland drying and 
influencing plant succession. Increased siltation occurs in wetlands 
where logging or associated road building and maintenance is conducted, 
also impacting bottom substrates and the vegetational composition of 
the sites. Water howellia occurs most frequently in ponds with firm, 
consolidated organic clay bottom sediments. It also is found in more 
open areas within these ponds. An increase in bottom sedimentation and 
subsequent competition from other vegetation could have an adverse 
effect on H. aquatilis populations.
    Livestock, by their grazing and trampling, can also adversely 
affect howellia populations due to the disturbance of shorelines and 
associated vegetation. Trampling of bottom sediments adversely affects 
the seed bank and the consolidated substrate which appears to be 
necessary for germination. Additionally, livestock waste increases 
nutrient loading in wetlands causing a change in the water quality that 
may alter pond vegetation composition. It is not known how much grazing 
impact can be tolerated by H. aquatilis, although the plant still 
exists in ponds that have been disturbed by grazing (N. Curry, pers. 
comm., 1993; B. Wiseman, Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge, pers. 
comm., 1992). The timing, magnitude, and duration of grazing evidently 
influences the plant's ability to withstand grazing. The cumulative 
impacts of grazing and other human-induced disturbances threaten a 
number of populations.
    The California population may have been eliminated by cattle 
grazing and trampling (Griggs and Dibble 1979), and two wetlands on 
private lands in Montana with populations of H. aquatilis have been 
heavily impacted by domestic livestock, especially horses (Shelly and 
Moseley 1988). In Washington, 23 percent of the populations occur on 
private lands (J. Gamon, pers. comm. 1991), many of which are subject 
to grazing. Additionally, grazing occurred on some of the lands 
administered by the Service until 1993 (N. Curry, pers. comm. 1993). In 
Spokane County, Washington, several of the ponds containing H. 
aquatilis have been significantly altered by past and current grazing 
    Sites where howellia was historically found in Oregon have been 
converted to urban areas, and an increase in residential development is 
occurring in the Spokane metapopulation area (Gamon 1992). 
Additionally, the construction of dams along the Columbia and 
Willamette Rivers has led to a loss of suitable wetland habitats 
(Shelly and Moseley 1988; Gamon 1992). Many wetlands within the 
historic range of H. aquatilis have been drained, filled, or excavated 
for other uses (Gamon 1992).

B. Overutilization for Commercial, Recreational, Scientific, or 
Educational Purposes

    Overutilization for commercial, recreational, scientific, or 
educational purposes is presently not a threat to H. aquatilis. 
However, listing the species due to its taxonomic status as a monotypic 
genus may generate increased public interest. The Service has not 
designated critical habitat because the publication of precise maps and 
descriptions of critical habitat in the Federal Register could lead to 
increased take and vandalism (Gamon 1992).

C. Disease or Predation

    Howellia aquatilis may be subject to foraging by native and 
domestic animals, but it was found that domestic livestock do not feed 
on H. aquatilis in Idaho (Shelly and Moseley 1988). Incidence of 
disease is not known.

D. The Inadequacy of Existing Regulatory Mechanisms

    Some protection already exists for this species since it is 
contained on the U.S. Forest Service's list of sensitive species for 
the Pacific Northwest region. A sensitive species designation may help 
control the use of the species and its habitat. Federal laws, such as 
the Clean Water Act and the Food Security Act, and some State laws 
protect wetlands. However, it is doubtful that these laws are adequate 
to protect howellia and its habitats. Populations that occur entirely 
on private lands receive no Federal protection.

E. Other Natural or Manmade Factors Affecting Its Continued Existence

    The lack of genetic variation between populations of H. aquatilis, 
and its extremely specialized habitat requirements add to the 
vulnerability of the species. Because of its low genetic variability, 
howellia may be less able to adapt to abrupt environmental changes 
(Lesica et al. 1988). As a result, this species may be vulnerable to 
random environmental events and/or habitat alterations.
    Short- and long-term climatic changes could affect H. aquatilis by 
influencing the drying patterns of wetlands. Successive years of 
exceedingly wet or dry weather are expected to cause declines or even 
extirpation of some of the populations. Long-term climatic changes 
could also cause these shallow wetlands to dry up, ultimately causing 
expiration of the species.
    Natural wetland succession due to sediment deposition may in turn 
affect the existing plant community. This natural succession could 
cause the extirpation of H. aquatilis  populations (Jokerst 1980; 
Shelly and Moseley 1988; Gamon 1992).
    The Service has assessed the best scientific and commercial 
information available regarding past, present, and future threats to 
this species in determining to publish this rule final. Based on this 
evaluation, the preferred action is to list Howellia aquatilis (water 
howellia) as a threatened species. The Service has determined that, 
although it is not in immediate danger of extinction, howellia is 
likely to become an endangered species in the foreseeable future if the 
present threats and declines continue.
    Howellia has been extirpated from over one-third of its known range 
(Shelly and Moseley 1988). Although additional populations of this 
plant have recently been discovered, the Service does not believe that 
the overall status of the species has changed as a result of these 
recent discoveries. Nearly all known howellia populations are clustered 
within two areas of the northwestern United States, and these 
populations exhibit little genetic variation between or among 
populations. This highly specialized aquatic is vulnerable to both 
natural and human disturbances which if continued, will lead to its 
eventual extinction. For the reasons given below, it is not prudent to 
designate critical habitat for howellia at this time.

Critical Habitat

    Section 4(a)(3) of the Act, as amended, requires that, to the 
maximum extent prudent and determinable, the Secretary designate 
critical habitat at the time a species is determined to be endangered 
or threatened. The Service finds that designation of critical habitat 
is presently not prudent for the species because it could lead to 
increased take and vandalism. Publication of precise maps and 
descriptions of critical habitat in the Federal Register would likely 
contribute to vandalism of the species or its habitat (Gamon 1992).
    The proper Federal, State, and local agencies have been notified of 
the locations and management needs of this plant. Landowners have been 
notified of the location and importance of protecting habitat of this 
species. Protection of its habitat will be addressed through the 
recovery process and through the section 7 consultation process. The 
Service believes that Federal involvement can be effective without the 
designation of critical habitat and finds that designation of critical 
habitat for this plant is not prudent at this time.

Available Conservation Measures

    Conservation measures provided to species listed as endangered or 
threatened under the Endangered Species Act include recognition, 
recovery actions, requirements for Federal protection, and prohibitions 
against certain activities. Listing encourages conservation actions by 
Federal, State, and private agencies, groups, and individuals. The Act 
provides for possible land acquisition and cooperation with States and 
requires that recovery actions be carried out for all listed species. 
The protection required of Federal Agencies and the prohibitions 
against certain activities involving listed species are discussed, in 
part, below.
    Section 7(a) of the Act, as amended, requires Federal Agencies to 
evaluate their actions with respect to any species that is proposed or 
listed as endangered or threatened and with respect to its critical 
habitat, if designated. Regulations implementing this interagency 
cooperation provision of the Act are codified at 50 CFR Part 402. 
Section 7(a)(2) requires Federal Agencies to ensure that activities 
they authorize, fund, or carry out are not likely to jeopardize the 
continued existence of a listed species or to destroy or adversely 
modify its critical habitat. If a Federal action may affect a listed 
species or its critical habitat, the responsible Federal Agency must 
enter into formal consultation with the Service.
    In the case of howellia, Federal activities that might be affected 
by listing this plant as threatened include timber harvest, livestock 
grazing, road construction, and filling of wetlands. Such Federal 
activities may be subject to section 7 review.
    The Act and its implementing regulations found at 50 CFR 17.71 and 
17.72 for threatened species set forth a series of general prohibitions 
and exceptions that apply to all threatened plants. All trade 
prohibitions of section 9(a)(2) of the Act, implemented by 50 CFR 
17.71, apply. These prohibitions, in part, make it illegal for any 
person, subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, to import or 
export, transport in interstate or foreign commerce in the course of a 
commercial activity, sell or offer for sale, this species in interstate 
or foreign commerce, or to remove and reduce to possession the species 
from areas under Federal jurisdiction. Seeds from cultivated specimens 
of threatened plant species are exempt from these prohibitions provided 
that a statement of ``cultivated origin'' appears on their containers. 
The Act and 50 CFR 17.72 also provide for the issuance of permits to 
carry out otherwise prohibited activities involving threatened species 
under certain circumstances. In some instances permits may be issued 
for a specified time to relieve undue economic hardship. The Service 
anticipates that few trade permits would ever be sought or issued 
because H. aquatilis is not utilized in trade. Requests for copies of 
the regulations on plants and inquiries regarding them may be addressed 
to the Office of Management Authority, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 
4401 North Fairfax Drive, Room 432, Arlington, Virginia, 22203-3507 

National Environmental Policy Act

    The Service has determined that listing actions pursuant to section 
4(a) of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended, do not require 
an Environmental Assessment as defined under the authority of the 
National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. A notice outlining the 
Service's reasons for this determination was published in the October 
25, 1983 Federal Register (48 FR 49244).

References Cited

Apfelbaum, S.I. and C.E. Sams. 1987. Ecology and control of reed 
canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.). Natural Areas Journal. 7:69-
Gamon, J. 1992. Report on the status in Washington of Howellia 
aquatilis Gray. Unpublished Report, Washington Natural Heritage 
Program, Olympia. 46pp.
Griggs, F.T. and J.E. Dibble. 1979. Status Report, Howellia 
aquatilis Gray, for the Mendocino National Forest. Unpublished 
report, Mendocino National Forest, California. 12pp.
Jokerst, J.D. 1980. Status report Howellia aquatilis Gray for the 
Mendocino National Forest. Unpublished report, California State 
University, Chico. 18pp.
Lackschewitz, K. 1991. Vascular plants of west-central Montana--
identification guidebook. U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Intermountain 
Research Station, General Technical Report INT-277, 44pp.
Lesica, P. 1990. Habitat requirements, germination behavior and seed 
bank dynamics of Howellia aquatilis in the Swan Valley, Montana. 
Unpublished report, Flathead National Forest, Kalispell, Montana. 
Lesica, P. 1992. Autecology of the endangered plant Howellia 
aquatilis; implications for management and reserve design. 
Ecological Applications 2:411-421.
Lesica, P., R.F. Leary, F.W. Allendorf, and D.E. Bilderback. 1988. 
Lack of genic diversity within and among populations of an 
endangered plant, Howellia aquatilis. Conservation Biology 2:275-
Oregon Natural Heritage Program. 1991. Rare, threatened and 
endangered plants and animals of Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage 
Program, Portland. 64pp.
Roe, L.S. and J.S. Shelly. 1992. Update to the status review of 
Howellia aquatilis: field surveys, monitoring studies and transplant 
experiments, U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Flathead National Forest. 
Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena. 51pp.
Schassberger, L.A. and J.S. Shelly. 1991. Update to the status 
review of Howellia aquatilis: field surveys, monitoring studies, and 
transplant experiments 1990. Unpublished report, U.S. Forest 
Service, Flathead National Forest, Kalispell, MT. 57pp.
Shelly, J.S. and R. Moseley. 1988. Report on the conservation status 
of Howellia aquatilis, a candidate threatened species. Unpublished 
Report, Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, Montana. 166pp.
West, B. 1990. We've got trouble right here in River City. 
Proceeding of the 28th Annual Meeting of the Montana Chapter of The 
Wildlife Society, Lewiston (Abstract).


    The primary author of this proposed rule is Lori H. Nordstrom, 
Montana State Office (See ADDRESSES section). Harold M. Tyus, Denver 
Regional Office, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Denver, Colorado 
served as editor.

List of Subjects in 50 CFR Part 17

    Endangered and threatened species, Exports, Imports, Reporting and 
recordkeeping requirements, and Transportation.

Regulation Promulgation


    Accordingly, Part 17, Subchapter B of Chapter I, Title 50 of the 
Code of Federal Regulations, is amended as set forth below:
    1. The authority citation for Part 17 continues to read as follows:

    Authority: 16 U.S.C. 1361-1407; 16 U.S.C. 1531-1544; 16 U.S.C. 
4201-4245; Pub. L. 99-625, 100 Stat. 3500, unless otherwise noted.

    2. Sec. 17.12(h) is amended by adding the following, in 
alphabetical order under Campanulaceae--Bellflower family, to the List 
of Endangered and Threatened Plants to read as follows:

Sec. 17.12  Endangered and threatened plants.

* * * * *
    (h) * * *

----------------------------------------   Historic range       Status     When listed    Critical     Special  
  Scientific name        Common name                                                      habitat       rules   
                                                  * * * * * * *                                                 
 flower family:                                                                                                 
                                                  * * * * * * *                                                 
    Howellia         Water howellia....  U.S.A. (MT, ID,     T             ...........           NA           NA
     aquatilis.                           WA, OR, CA).                                                          
                                                  * * * * * * *                                                 

    Dated: June 30, 1994.
Mollie H. Beattie,
Director, Fish and Wildlife Service.
[FR Doc. 94-17134 Filed 7-13-94; 8:45 am]