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0 SOUVENIRS OF LAKE MICHIGAN: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY TEACHERS WORKSHOP AT THE ILLINOIS BEACH STATE PARK by ILLINOIS DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION submitted to ILLINOIS COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM STATE OF ILLINOIS DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION The preparation of this report was financed in part by the National Oceanic Atmaspheric United States Department of Commerce under the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972, and in part by the State of Illinois, Department of Transportation Division of Water Resources. S 946 SEPTEMBER 30, 1978 S68 1978 SOUVENIRS OF LAKE MICHIGAN;X AN INTERDISCIPLINARY TEACHERS WORKSHOP 'AT THE ILLINOIS BEACH STATE PARK cr- ILA by -::r ILLINOIS DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION 011 submitted to ILLINOIS COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM STATE OF ILLINOIS DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION The preparation of.this report was financed in part by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 'United States Department of.Commerce under the Coastal -Zone Management Act of 1972, and in part by the State of Illinois, Department of Transportation, Division of Water Resources. SEPTEMBER 30, 1978 CONTENTS INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter .I Organizational Details, .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II Workshop Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 III Conclusions of Participants of the "Souvenirs of Lake Michigan" Workshop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 TV Conclusions of "Souvenirs of Lake Michigan" Instructors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 V Spinoff Benefits of the "Souvenirs of Lake Michigan" Workshop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 VI Recommendations of the Staff of the "Souvenirs of Lake Michigan!' Workshop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 VII Reference Mater.ials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2$ VIII Curriculum Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 A. Previously'Existing Materials B. Especially Developed Materials IX Financial Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 X Workshop Participants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Appendix . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 INTRODUCTION One of the prime objectives of the Illinois Department of Conservation is its dedication to the preservation, protection, and enhancement of the natural resources of the State of Illinois. Coincidentally, the Illinois Department of Transportation, through the Illinois Coastal Zone Management Program, has been delegated the responsibility of developing a management plan for the protection and enhancement of one of themost valuable resources of the State - Lake Michigan. Clearly, the similarity of goals provided many (?pporturrities -for inter-agency cooperation and planning with respect to this valuable resource for the mutual benefit of the citizens of the State. In a joint effort to generate a public awareness of the resources of the Illinois Lake Michigan coastal region, the Illinois Department of Conser- vation and the Illinois Coastal Zone Management Program developed and conducted an interdis-ciplinary workshop for teachers in Northeastern Illinois. With -fund-s-provided by,the Illinois Coastal.Zone.Management Program, the Department of Conservation contracted with a group called "Mobius, Inc.", a trio of science education consultants to develop and conduct this workshop. The workshop, attended by 19 teachers, was held during the last week in June. Three hours of graduate credit from Governors State University was granted to those who successfully achieved the course competencies. The main emphasis of the workshop was to expose teachers to the geologic, sociologic and economic factors and importance of the Illinois Lake Michigan coastal regions and to motivate these teachers to develop and present learning experiences to-their students on this coastal region. A multitude of teaching tools and in-field learning experienceswere utilized to further this goal. In.response to information generated by a pilot workshop held in the Spring of 1977, the "Souvenirs of Lake Michigan" workshop was designed and implemented. The home base for the workshop-was Illinois Beach State Park, a six mile reach of shoreline located near the northern boundary of Illinois. The Department of Conservation in.its management of.the Park.has preserved a major portion of the park in its natural state for the enjoyment of the public. In addition, the park is used by the public for a variety of rbcreatiolial activities such as interpretative hikes, camping, swimming, etc. The Illinois Coastal'Zone Management Program, recognizing the recreational opportunities that the park offers and its unique ecological value, has proposed this area. for designation as a Geographic Area of Particular Concern. Utilizing the techniques and materials ofthis "Souvenirs of Lake Michigan" workshop, future workshops can be undertaken to impact teachers and assist them in generating student interest in our Great Lakes environment. CHAPTER I ORGANIZATIONAL DETAIL ,.-At the.inception-of the "'Souvenirs of Lake Michigan Workshop' various groups, singly or in combination were considered as possible audiences for the workshop. These.groups included elementary teachers, secondary teachers, park and recreation district personnel, and Boy and Girl Scout leaders, leaders of community organizations (the League of Women Voters, Jaycees, Lions, Kiwanis), adult education facilitors, and representatives from Lake Michigan related organizations (Salmon Unlimited, Yacht Clubs, Boating Associations). Criteria for selecting the audience included the following considerations: 1. Multiplier effect that could be expected of the participants, 2. Availability to attend aworkshop of a weeks duration, 3. Receptivity to the activities and goals of the workshop, 4. Ability to quickly assimilate impact of workshop goals into ekis- ting programs, S. Ability to be reached through mailings. "Souvenirs of Lake Michigan" was ultimately designed with teachers of kindergarten through eighth grade in-mind. This audience was chosen for its receptivity to new ideas in curriculum and teaching methods, the potential- multiplier affect, political neutrality, easy accessibility by mail, and relative freedom to attend a week-long workshop. Elementary teachers were also deemed the-group most able to introduce and impact children with Lake Michigan Coastal Region awareness early in-their conceptual and affective development. Teachers of secondary education were not specifically sought because of the rigidity of most high-school curricula and the highly depart- mentalized.nature of the content of secondary courses of study. Teachers were chosen as the focus of the course because of the multiplier effect of their contacts. School-age children were the ultimate target of the ideas developed by "Souvenirs of Lake Michigan." However, children are not likely.to be reached except through the adults,who directly impact and guide their lives. For an opportunity to develop coastal awareness to be presented. to children in a school setting, it must first be presented to teachers. It is the teacher who must be provided the chance to become aware of the coastal region before that teacher can be expected to present awareness activities to students. The teacher is the key to change in classroom curricula, attitudes and activities. The teacher must be presented with experiences that bring about intellectual stimulation, awareness.of problems and possibilities, and opportunities for attitudinal change before'being able to facilitate the same for others. It is unrealistic to presume that Lake Michigan Coastal Region curri- culum would be included in any classroom situat-ion without the personal dynamic involvement of the teacher. "Souvenirs of Lake Michigan" was .therefore designed to provide the.p.articipating teachers with the widest posIsible exposure to 'the geologic, economic and sociologic conditions of the Illinois Lake Michigan coastal region. The 19 teacher participants of the WOTkshops,included teachers from Cook, DuPage, Lake, Will, and McHenry Counties, Their teaching experience included primary, intermediate, junior high and high school, Specialty areas of physical education, special education, biology, earth science and mathematics as well as the self contained classroom were represented, One-fourth of the participants had been involved-An the pilot workshop taught in the Spring of 1977. The non-teacher participants in "Souvenirs of Lake Michigan$' included a charter fishing boat captain from the Waukegan Charter *Boat Association, the CETA fimded aide to the Illinois Beach State Park Naturalist and a graduate student in Parks and Recreation from Northeastern Illinois University. A promotional flyer I ed by ep.aT _,Barbara Pavilonis of Pavisions. The flyer was mailed to schools and sichood administrators in Cook and Lake Counties in Illinois. The mailing labels were obtained from the Illinois Office of Education by Wayne H. Schimpff, Chief Naturalist of the Illinois Department of Conservation. The actual mailing was done by the Illinois Coastal Zone Manage- ment Program-offices in Chicago, Illinois.. @The conception, promotion, and execution of the Workshop were carried out by Mobius-, InCOrPOTatdd, a group of people dedicated to inquiry and the propo- sition that all things change. ?'The Chase is the Thing" is their creed.' As a team they have presented numerous workshops in elementaryscience education methods, new developments in science education, Great Lakes ecology, and energy education. Mobius, Incorporated members are Gretchen Hanson, Science Specialist for Avoca School District 37; Carl Bollwinkel, Science Department Chairman for Palatine School District IS: and Larry Small, Science Consultant for Schaumburg School District 54. Assistance was provided by Wayne Schimpff, Chief Naturalist of the Illinois Department'of Conservation; Darrell Johnson, Park Naturalist of Illinois Beach State Park; Donna Christman,. Program Manager of the Illinois Coastal,Zone Management Program; Peter Wise, Past Chief of the Bureau of Resource Regulation, Illinois Department of Transportation; Jim Kashmier, Liaison and Public Parti- cipation Officer of the Illinois Coastal Zone Management Program, and Vicky Wong, Liaison and Public Participation Assistant of the Illinois Coastal.Zone Management Program. Dr. Charles Collinson of the Illinois Geological'Survey is to be thanked for presenting an introduction to the geology of the Illinois'Lake Michigan he workshop, Coastal Region as a part of t Captain Verne Soballe, Director of the Port of Chicago; George Hanekamp, of the Port of Chicago; Tom Donovan of the office of Chicago Mayor Michael -B1,1andic;[email protected], Seniff , of--the.EaTboT, Pilot Association of the Great Lakes; CkPiEdin'Tom'Gockel of the Waukegan Charter Boat Association, and Linda Wilson, 2 Assistant Curator of the John G, Shedd Aquarium are to be thanked for their assistance in the execution of the workshop. Graduate credit for participants was arranged by Dr. John Hockett, Dean of the College of Environmental and Applied Science of Governors State University, Park Forest South, Illinois, The resulting course was entitled: "Ecological Study: Living With the Lake" C#EAS 8SOO), The competencies for the course include: Locate and use appropriately natural and maTmade,features of Illinois Beach State Park. Recognize and use in non-consumptive ways the physical and biological elements of the coastal environment. Apply concepts of ecology in determining appropriate human uses for this coastal environment, Select and.develop educational activities appropriate to their students and the coastal environment. Integrate the use of Illinois Lake Michigan Coastal Region activities into existing curricula in science and other subjects, Design and implement their own classroom utilization projects.fOT the Illinois LakeMichigan Coastal Region, -Coordination of activities and responsibilities of the various agencies and consultants was managed by Wayne H, Schimpff, ZZ, 3 CHAPTER II WORKSHOP ACTIVITIES 'Some, philosophical @badkground ls-neces8ary, -for- [email protected] understanding of the design and intent of the workshop activities, The success of Mobius, Incorporated is based on the:synergistic relation- ship of its members. The design of Mobius, Incorporated endeavors is to facili- tate the development of a synergistic experience for all participants through experiences that prompt inquiry, change, wonder, dialog, commitment and co=eraderie. "Souvenirs of Lake Michigan"'workshop activities were designed to provide maximum opportunities to examine the geologic, sociologic and economic past, present and future of the Illinois Lake Michigan Coastal Region and to inte- grate this knowledge into classroom Curriculum. The workshop was-divided into two.parts. Exploration and Integration. The first three days of the workshop (Monday through Wednesday,June 26, 27, 28) constituted the exploration phase, Activities during this time were designed to expose the participants to as much of the Illinois Lake Michigan coastline as physically possible, During this exposure geologic, sociologic and economic factors of the Illinois Lake Michigan coastal region were intro- duced. It was hoped that the participants would be overwhelmed by the amount. of inforpation they -received about the region, the contrast of uses of the coastline, the resulting impact on the [email protected] of the region, and the possi- bilities inherent in the region as it presently exists, The integration phase of the workshop occurred during the,final two days CThuTsday and Friday, June 29 and 30), The group was provided with a common home base (camping site) and encouraged to reflect, philosophize and to.begin to internalize the exposure to the Illinois Lake Michigan coastal region into their own lives and teaching. Because of the interaction of the participants and instructors in the exploration phase,. a trust bond had been established that allowed this shift in emphasis to take place. A large conference room was rented at the Holiday Inn Lodge at Illinois Beach State Park. This room served as headquarters for workshop activities; providing shelter in case of inclement weather, a secure storage area for workshop materials, and a comfortable meeting space for indoor activities. Monday, June 26 Site: Illinois Beach State Park Nature Center 9:00 a.m.. to 4:30 p.m, Participants gathered at the nature center for an introduction and over- view of the activities for the workshop. Care was taken for each instructor t sonal se.If-introduction and to raise questions. and. participant o give -a.per Students received packets of materials that provided background information 4 coordinating with the workshop activities, Time was provided for exploring the nature center. An introductory hike through the Dead River Mature Preserve provided the participants with an initial view of the only remaining natural portion 'of the Illinois Lake Michigan coastline, Features of the preserve were examined including the native and non-native species of flora, the cyclical nature of the Dead River; the impact of the Easter, 1977 fire, the ridge and swale nature of the land, temperature changes, and local fauna, The hike continued through the park to allow identification of the group camping area and ended at the meeting room at the Lodge, Following lunch, Dr. Charles Collinson of the Illinois Geological. Survey presented an overview of the geology of the Illinois Lake Michigan coastal region. The National Film Board of Canada film "The Rise and Fall of the Great Lakes" was shown. Dr. Collinson then conducted'a shoreline tour of the park while discussing the geological formation of the area as well as recent and possible future erosion effects on the shore, The participants were dismissed after making arrangements for the following day. Tuesday, June 27 Site: Illinois Lake Michigan Coastline.from Winnetka to Indiana 8:00a.m. to 4:30 p,m.. Participants met at the parkinglot of a Junior High'School in Wilmette, illinois. A bus had been chartered fOT-the day. The.purpose of the day's activities was to present a wide view of the recreational, residential, commer- cial and..municipal uses of the Illinois Lake Mi6higan coastal region. The format of the morning segment of the day was adapted from the "Illinois Coastal Zone Management Program Third Year Project-, A Shoreline Tour" developed by the Landmarks Preservation Council and Service. An interesting feature of this day was the changing weather situation which existed. As the group disembarked at their first stop, Tower Road Beach in Winnetka, Illinois, rain was falling heavily. When the group assembled on the the beach at the foot of the bluff, they were confronted with a heavy fog that 'was rapidly slipping in across the immaculate, yet deserted, beach. -Subsequent stops along the tour saw a shift in the weather from the early thundersto to bright sunshine. Other points of interest in the morning tour included Wayside', the home of social reformer Henry Demarest Lloyd, the Illinois Coastal Zone Management bluff restoration project in Kenilworth, the small boat harbor and the original mouth of the north branch of the Chicago.River at Gillson Park in Wilmette, the historic Grosse Point Light House, the Northwestern UniveTSity land fill area and the.Dawes, House in Evanston. During this segment of the day, the historical aspects of communities along the shore, shipping on Lakes and Lake Michigan water use allocation were presented, Erosion patterns and human attempts to thwart erosion were also noted, The tour continued down Lake Shore Drive to Navy Pier where gracious arrangements had been made br George Hanekamp, of the Port of Chicago. Following a picnic lunch at Navy Pier, the group was put aboard the Great Lakes Harbor Pilot Association boat Ccourtesy of Captain Edward Seniff) or onto a Chicago Fire Department Rescue boat for the continuation of the tour down the Illinois Lake Michigan Coast and into the Little Calumet River, the Cal-Sag Canal and Lake Calumet, As the by now bright sun shone down, the participants found themselves dealing not only with a-change in the weather, but subsequent changes in shore usage: from recreational and residential to the heavily industrial development of the southern end of the Illinois Lake Michigan coast. When possible, points of interest were called to the attention of the group. This phase of the tour ended at Lake Calumet. After disembarking, the group was received by,Max Cohen,.D.irector of Lake Calumet at his office. He- discussed the creation, present functioning and future plans for the develop- ment of Lake Calumet. The chartered bus returned the group to Wilmette, The intensity and variety of the dayls experience left many of the group attempting, with some difficulty, to resolve and integrate the various forms, functions and faces of the Illinois Lake Michigan coastal region that had been seen during the day. Wednesday, June 24 Site: 12th Street Beach and John G, Shedd Aquarium 9:30 a,m. to 4:00 p,m, The activities forday three of "Souvenirs of Lake Michigan" were designed to narrow in on a specific urban coastal site and the learni ng opportunities available at such a site. Participants met on the steps of the John G. Shedd Aquarium in Chicago. From there the group was led to the 12th Street Beach on the lake side of Miegs Field, Stream tables were constructed along the beach and used to simulate shore line development, erosion patterns, and the impact of marmade structures on the lake shore. An interesting contrast was presented by the re-creation of age-old wave patterns alongside a modern airfield. Participants obtained beach sand samples which. were poured through graduated sieves. . These samples were examined for their origin, composition, deposition patterns and economic importance, CoTings of the sand were taken and preserved along with thesievings for comparison. with, samples to be taken at Illinois Beach State Park, A picnic lunch was eaten overlooking the Chicago skyline and the Monroe Street,..Harbor. 6 The afternoon was spent at the John Q, Shedd Aquarium. Linda Wilson, Assistant Curator of Education, discussed the programs the aquarium has to offer both students and teachers. She presented a "behind the scenes" tour and enable&the participants to collect water, flora, and fauna samples from Burnham Harbor adjacent to the aquarium, These samples were brought back to the fresh water laboratory of the aquarium for closer inspection. For many, this was their first experience in collecting such samples Or in con- ducting specific tests, Thursday, June 29 and Friday, June 30 Site: Illinois Beach State Park The final two days of the workshop were designed to Offer experiences that would encourage the participants to reflect upon what they had seen and experienced in the first three days of the Workshop, to think through their own values as applied to.the Illinois Lake Michigan Coastal Region, and to begin to internalize the exposure to the region into their own lives and teaching. The previous highly transient nature of the workshop was changed to a stable site for the remainder of the workshop as the participants were brought together for an intense final 36 hours of contact. As participants arrived at Illinois Beach State Park Thursday morning, they helped to set up a camping site which was to be headquarters for the group. Potir large tents were erected and picnic tables assembled. After establishing camp, a newexperience for many, the day's activities got under- way. Dichotomus keys were introduced by way of "The Shoe Game.." As proficiency with this type of key was.developed, the participants-keyed out plants along the shore using a key specifically designed to identify the plants found in the Dead'River Nature Preserve, The concept of transecting an area to recognize patterns of successional development was--introduced. -Following lunch, the participants worked a 400 meter transect line from the water's edge inland to the first set of black oak trees. Using specifically designed information sheets, records were made every five,meteTS of the,soil and air temperature, percentage-and composition of vegetation, sand/soil composition, andland slope. By staggering the starting positions of each small group of participants, a complete record was.obtained for the entire 400 meter distance.. Sample seivings of the beach sand and corings were also obtained. It should be noted that the enthusiasm and motiviation level of the participants was so high that they worked consistently over a three hour period in the bright sun of a 95'degree day. -Excitement reigned at each newdiscovery - whether that discovery. was found at meter three or three hundred ninety-three. When the tTansect study was completedparticipants were given a free period with instructions to be back at the campsite by 5:00 p.m. 7 "Coast Mime", a land use simulation game, was developed by Mobius, Incor- porated for use along the Illinois Lake Michigan coastal region. The intent of "Coast Mime" is to focus on the political, social and economic forces at work when land use regulation legislation is proposed. "Coast Mime" relies heavily upon thedevice'of role playing. As [email protected]'assembled at the campsite, they were given specific assignments in the game such as reporters legislators, and representatives of special interests, The "press paTtyll segment of the game took place in the convivial atmosphere of the campsite as horst douvres and cool drinks were served, The game was brought to its conclusion prior to dinner. After dinner had been served and the clean up accomplished, the entire group assembled on the beach for a period of reflection and sharing. Songs from The Great Lakes Songbook and poetry from The Great -Lakes Reader were used to initiate discussion, The sharing experiences and thoughts expressed dealt with earlier experiences with Lake Michigan and other bodies of water, indivi- dual needs that are filled by involvement with a natural area, and philosophies of education. 'the day's activities culminated with a "star party" [email protected] of the early summer sky) and a "snipe hunt", complete with a hand made snipe. Friday morning began with a bird-hike led by Darrell Johnson, Early Friday morning, Captain Tom Gockel of the Waukegan Charter Boat Association took five of the participants fishing on his charter boat. A successful catch of one steelhead and one chenook delighted-the anglers. An early morning downpour sent participants scurrying for the shelter of the conference room at the Lodge. Breakfait was prepared at the campsite, but was served at.the conference room. The morning provided an opportunity to conclude activities begun earlier in the workshop. The transect was compiled and a slide and cassette pTesen- tation given on the succession of a natural environment, One*participant exclaimed,'Now I see it, The whole world is in a state of succession." A streamtable equipped with an electrical motor had been set and allowed to run for 24 hours. The resultant formations were compared with those obtained with the stream tables constructed at the 12th Street Beath. The two sets of sand sievings and-coTings were comparatively examined. A film entitled "Sand" was shown and helped to fill in the gaps of understanding related to sand. The weather cleared late in the morning, enabling the participants to beach- comb for materials to be used in craft projects, The Great Lakes Craftbook_pro- vided detailed instructions for printing, sculptures, mobiles, fish casts, fish prints,--sun prints and sand casting. Participants were encouraged to try. each of the projects which had been set up in a learning station format. After lunch the group began the task of integrating in a classroom curri- culum what had been experienced in the "Souvenirs of Lake Michigan" workshop. A materials pot pourri was presented by the instructors. The resources and references delineated in the bibliography were shown and their relevance explained. 8 The culminating activity of the workshop was a brain storming session involving all participants. The group was seated in a circle on the floor, In front of each person was a noisemaker to be-used if criticism or limitations were expressed in response to an idea, for approximately an hour the group was encouraged to express in an open, creative manner any and all ideas related to the possible Creation of a curriculum for the study of the Illinois Lake Michigan Coastal Region, Following the general brainstorming session the participants were divided into groups according to the age of the children they taught (primary, intermediate, Jr. high and high school), The groups addressed the questions of what specific content and affective areas should be included for that particular grade level, what conditions existed thatmight interfere with-the implementation of such a curriculum and ways to oveTCome such difficulties, Witten summations of these small group discussions were collected, In closing the workshop, the participants gathered to hear remarks by Wayne Schimpff, Darrell Johnson, and the Mobius, Incorporated staff. Appreciation for the.par-ticipants' enthusia-sm, willingness, cooperation and insight was expressed. Traditional "Black Tailed Hebron Awards" were presented to each participant in recognition of the.valued contribution each individual had made to the Workshop, 9 CHAPTER III CONCLUSIONS OF WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS -The-- -culminating activities 'of, the, [email protected];;:provided participants a form to express conclusions regarding workshop activities and recommendations for further Lake Michigan educational opportunities, Participant-written evaluations and verbal commentary gave high praise to the workshop experiences and activities. Cited as especially valuable were the Introductory Walk, Geology Overview, Stream Tables and Sand Studies, Transect Studies, Plant Keying and Identification, Shedd Aquarium, Art Activities, Shore- line and Boat Tour. The actual personal physical involvement with various Lake Michigan coastal region sites seemed to offer the most intellectually challenging experiences. Suggestions for future Lake Michigan workshops included: 1. Making the reference and materials bibliographies and items available [email protected]'-first,, day"'and-thtoughouv the workshop, 2. Increase the time allotted for the transect studies. S. Include a trip through the locks at the mouth of the Chicago River, 4. Increase the narrative-given during-.the boat.trip. S. Create separate workshops for each level of educator. 6. Increase the time allotted to the study of specific content areas, 7. Include more of the political aspects of Coastal Region use. Ideas and hopes expressed by "Souvenirs of Lake Michigan" participants for further educational opportunities were Prolific, creative, and diverse. The ideas are delineated here under the following headings: Development philoso hy and methods, specific areas of.study, curriculum materials, activities, deve3op- ment of a Lake Michigan Coastal Region Ecology Station, teacher motivation and public awareness. Development Philosophr_and Methods Philosophical aspects for development of a coastal curriculum were suggested throughout the Workshop. Those considerations delineated here represent some but not all of the philisophical elements needed in7developing a curriculum. Activities.that are developed for a coastal region curriculum should be based on inquiry -- process teaching techniques. The curriculum should provide open-ended activities that are adaptable for use in differing time allotments and in various subject areas. _10- The Curriculum should recognize existing curricula, supporting the goals of education for the Great Lakes coastal environment. Activities developed for the coastal curriculum should be correlated with, and when possible, included [email protected] ex-isting 'curricula. Effort should be taken to utilize fully those facilities, sites, personnel, and organizations presently involved w1tK the-ca-re and consideration of the Coastal Region, A group of interested, committed, and competent people need to be trained to serve as generators of ideas, writers, pilot project directors and teachers, evaluators and supporters of the project, In developing the curriculum and its materials consideration should be given to the following items: 1. Flexibility of approach to accommodate various groups using the curriculum. It should be applicable -- adaptable to those groups not living.,directly on.the shore of Lake Michigan, This may necessitate the development of extensive audio visualmaterials.. 2. Discrepant events should-be included to facilitate intellectual growth on the part of the learner, 3. Recognizing the implementation difficulties inherent in any new curriculum.,some of the units should be of an elective or mini- course nature. 4.* Materials developed for the curriculum should be consistent with the intellectual development of the children for whom it is being written, Specific Areas of Study These specifically suggested topic areas to be included in a curriculum devel'oped for the Illinois Lake Michigan Coastal Region and the Great Lakes should not be considered a complete and all-encompassing base from which a curriculum should be developed. These suggestions represent those ideas shared. by participants during the closing activities of the "Souvenirs of Lake Michigan. Workshop." 1. Ecology of Lake Michigan including flora, fauna, food chains, energy flow in the lake, 2-. Geography of Lake Michigan including the physical geography of the region and its implications for human development of the area. 3. Geology of the region, both.past and present. 4. Meteorological effects of.Lake Michigan:on the surrounding land mass. S. Succession patterns of the, coastaL region including natural and manmaded successional changes. 7. The condition of the Lake in regard to pollution and erosion. 8, interdependency of the elements affecting and.affected by the eco- :system of Lake Michigan. 9. The economic needs and considerations of the region. In the Activities section of this chaptersuggested ways to pursue some of these areas of study are proposed, However-, not all the topics had correlating activities suggested for them, Curriculum Materials Very few curriculum materials directly concerned with the Illinois Lake Michigan coastal region presently exist = are commonly available to teachers, Such materials need to be developed for the successful implementation of all phases., of...,the curriculum. Curriculum materials would include audio visual materials Cfilms, film strips, overhead transparencies, maps, charts) specific to the Great Lakes and Lake Michigan. A stream tables unit with directions for constructing equipment should be developed.and Water quality testing equipment should be made available, Reading materials for the Great Lakes and Lake Michigan and its Illinois coastal region also need to be developed., These may include "Great Lakes Readers 11 short books or pamphlets containing related articles on subjects PeTtine;t to a study of the Great Lakes; i.e,, shipping, the St. Lawrence Seaway, Indians of the Great Lakes, early settlers, Monographscould be developed at various levels of difficulty to enhance the spiralling sequence of the curriculum, These one-topic books Or pamphlets -might-cover such ideas,,as sand, glaciers, harbors. Simulation activities developed for a Great Lakes Coastal Region could include a land use simulation such as "Coast Mime," food chains, the water cycle. Suggested Activities It should be noted that the following suggestions by no means encompass all of the possible activities for a LakQ Michigan Coastal Region Curriculum rather these suggestions represent those ideas submitted during a idea session following the !'Souvenirs of Lake Michigan" workshop. 1, Establish a "Lake Michigan Fair! patterned after "Science Fair" formats. Topics of interest and concern would be researcned.and presented by students. Local and regional 'competitions could be held,. 12 2. Develop instructions for establishing and maintaining a freshwater aquarium of Lake Michigan organisms for use in the class-room, 3, Design a unit to simulate shoreline development, erosion patterns and the effects of erosion control measures through the use of easily constructed stream tables, 4, Design m orienterering course(s) for the Illinois Lake Michigan coastal regiou. S. Design units for beach studies, These units could be: a. Sand studies covering origin, composition and deposition of sand. b. Making sand from existing rocks, c. The beach in fall, winter, Spring, summer, d. Sahd structures, Such beach studies would serve to legitimize "playing at beach" by establishing the objectives and possible educational outcomes of such "play.'" 6. Design and help to implement field trips for the high school student. These trips could be offered several times a year and would need to be sufficiently structured in nature to meet with.appToval from school administrators. Field trip design should include ways and means of freeing high school students and teachers for such trips, (At present the existing high-school'structure is not as conducive to field trips as is the elementary school), It was @.suggested that secondary teachers who havesuccessfully overcome these barriers share their methods of establishing and conducting field trips with other teachers. 7. Design a set of value clarification activities regarding the Illinois Lake Michigan coastal region, 8. Establish a "Save the Lake Day, patterned after Earth Day and Sun Day to provide a vehicle to increase awareness of Lake Michigan and its coastal region. 9. Design tests of water quality that include turb idity, chemical analysis and ability to support life, 10. Provide acclimatization activities suitable for the Lake Michigan coastal reglon 11. Establish population studies specific to Great Lakes and Lake, Michigan. These could begin with familial relationships for the young child and develop into demographic studies of the region and the resulting impli- cations for human and lake ecology, 13 12, Establish a curriculum for the study of the social aspects of Lake Michigan and its coastal region.- This curriculum would include the history of human habitation of the region, the role of the Tegion on;,[email protected] settlement_ of-the @nati,on,' [email protected],. economic. importance of the region locally, nationally and internationally, The various uses of the [email protected],-,- commercial, municipal, recreational, and Individual would be studied for the Interdependency of their nature.. 13, Develop a guide of the permanent and migratory birds of the area. 14. Establish a program of political studies for Lake Michigan Coastal Region. This program would consider; a. Laws governing the area, b. Identifying holders of political power, c, Federal, state and International political considerations of the regi on., d. Ownership of Lake Michigan itself, and its surrounding shoreline, e. What agencies and individuals control policy making for Lake Michi- gan and its coastal region, f. Lake Calumet as a case study, g. Law enforcement in the region, h. Water allocations. 1S. Develop a program of comparative studies of the five Great Lakes. 16. Design studies of the successional patterns of the region, These studies should be developed for various levels of students, A study of the successional patterns of the Illinois Dunes as seen at Illinois Beach State Park.should be developed, Successional studies should include the use of a tTansect. Designs for,several types Of tTansect studies would be prepared with accompanying record sheets and equipment. These transect plans should-be done in metric measurement and encom- pass mapping techniques and mathematical considerations. It should be noted that recommendations were received for including the timeparameters for teachi 'ng each unit as an aid to teacher planning. It Was also strongly suggested that each unit begin with some type of activity that not only is an attention-getter, but one that creates a need-to-know situation within the learner. 14 Lake Michigan Coastal Region Ecology Station The-need to create a permanent Lake Michigan Coastal Region Ecology Station was seen as having a high priority by the participants. Developing such an area would provide a center for curriculum development, teacher training, a lending library of audio-visual materials and research data, and a recognized and easily identifiable source of educational resources and expertise for all levels of Illinois Lake Michigan Coastal Region studies. This station could provide for residential and non-residential Lake Michigan environment education experiences at a lake site. The types of activities it offers might include a summer school course for high school students that could be taken in lieu of or in addition to biology, enrichment courses for junior high school students, a site for a Voyage Brigade, and a site for childrenis studies of the lake. The set of ex- periences available at the station would be designed to present the inter- relationship of the historical, recreational, economic, social and ecologi- cal aspects of the Lake. Activities would employ a multi-disciplinary ap- proach. Various experts from the area could be available for presenting classes as well as offering consulting services. A coastal region station could also provide internships for high school and college students in en- vironment studies and education. Teacher Motivation Teacher interest and comfort with a particular subject are the keys to the successful presentation of that material to students. To facilitate that interest and comfort with Lake Michigan and its coastal.region, an ex- tensive teacher training program needs to be -developed. This traiTling could be provided within the "in-servicell programs of a school or district through offering a capsulized "Souvenirs of Lake Michigan" Workshop, field trips'that offer first hand experience, providing the teachers with a well-developed set of curriculum materials and legitimizing the inclusion of Coastal Region .studies by support and encouragement of Boards of Education and the communi- ties. The benefits'of such an in-service program would be maximized by the inclusion of all'teachers of a school or district in the program. Graduate level courses on Lake Michigan and its coastal region could be offered to teachers to counteract their lack of knowledge and to provide methods for presenting Lake Michigan studies to-children. Field courses designed for secondary school teachers could be developed. One participant in "Souvenirs of Lake Michigan" made the following comments, "We need more courses like this ("Souvenirs of Lake Michigan") that give us something we can relate to our students and to-our own lives. Otherwise, to gain additional credit hours to stay current or advance on our pay.scale,we end up taking courses like [email protected] parisitology' which has little or no application to our own,lives or those of our students." CHAPTER IV CONCLUSIONS OF "SOUVENIRS OF LAKE MICHIGAN" INSTRUCTORS The "Souvenirs of Lake Michigan" Workshop was an overwhelming success in the degree to which the goals of its design were met and the participants were impacted by an awareness of Lake Michigan. The format for the workshop had been developed in careful response to the "Conclusions and Recommenda- tions*for Future Workshops" of the pilot workshop held in the Spring of 1971. For future Lake Michigan workshops an earlier mailing of the promo- tional flyers is recommended. At least six weeks should be allotted;be- tween the mailing and the beginning of the workshop. This particular mail- ing was directed to principals of schools just at a time (the last two weeks of the school year) when most principals have a tendency to drop such-flyers in the wastepaper basket. While a general mailing allowed a diverse audience to,participate. a specific audience.could be achieved by using the State bf'@ice'o'f'Educaiio'n miiiiing list foIr.a part.iculartype of teacher (science, mathematics, etc.). It would be advisable to include in any future teacher workshop mailing the Illinois Science Teachers Association mailing list . for Region I (northeastern Illinois) and the mailing list for the Illinois Environmental Education Association. Governors State University, as the academic credit institution of the workshop, should be asked to promote the workshop through its own publicity and participation channels. The format, techniques, and materials for "Souvenirs of *Lake Michigan" Workshop were consideredhighly successful and appropriate. At this time there are no recommendations for changing the style or actual execution of the workshop. "Souvenirs of Lake Michigan" is an attractive, well-designed model on which future workshops could be based. The audience for the Lake Michigan workshops ha*s been primarily elementary teachers. Secondary teachers were not directly sought but experience with the participants would indicate that future teacher workshops should not be restricted to any particular level of teachers. The interaction of elementary and secondary teachers proved to be of benefit to all. A second type of workshop could be de- signed to include a more detailed exploration of concepts specifically for secondary teachers. This might take the form of an advance course as parti- cipation in a general awareness experience is seen as crucial to create .the desired awareness in the participants. "Souvenirs of Lake Michigan" type of workshop could be offered to many types of groups: Park and Recreation District personnel (perhaps through the Illinois Association of Parks and Recreation Districts), community leaders, youth Organization leaders, adults involved in adult or continuing education programs, family groups through park and recrea- tion districts or community education programs, and Lake Michigan related .,.orga-nizations.-..Adaptations could-be made in the workshop format to pro- vide the most advantageous experience foreach audience. As in all endeavors designed to bring about attitudinal change, it needs to be recog- nized that workshops on Lake Michigan regardless of audience are working ..,toward long7t,erm, results and. implication'. There was some initial disappointment in the number of participants in "Souvenirs of Lake Michigan" when compared to 39 participants in the previous year's pilot project. However,.the fewer number of participants was of benefit to the overall success of the workshop. The smaller number of people facilitated greater involvement with the instructors, other participants and the coastal region environment. The degree to which dia- log between instructors and participants and among participants was possi- ble is a direct function of the smaller number of people. The element lacking in the previous workshop was that dialog. The types of idea shar- ing at the end of the workshop was possible due to the size of the group that allowed each person to have direct input into the conclusions and recommendations. Each person became integral to the function and success of the program. -17- CHAPTER V SPINOFF BENEFITS OF THE "SOUVENIRS OF LAKE MICHIGAN" WORKSHOP "Souvenirs of Lake Michigan" was seen by the instructors as a vehicle to bring about changes in individuals on behalf of the Illinois Lake Michigan 'doastal region. This change was to take place within the consciousness of the participants; in a heightened awareness of the coastal region, its needs and considerations; in the individualY s perceptions of being effec- tive in terms of doing something for the region, in the individual's per- ceptions about children's learning, and in the individual's understanding that as a resident of the region he or she cannot live apart or aside from those elements that impact the region. "Souvenirs of Lake Michigan" was worth all of the energy, time and re- sources expended to permit its execution. This statement is made from the personal evaluations of both instructors and participants. The spinoff benefits of the workshop have been overwhelming. Ninety third grade children at the Aptakisic Tripp School District in Prairie View, Illinois will participate in a week-long unit on Lake Michigan. Eugene Field School, Chicago is utilizing "Souvenirs of Lake Michigan" materials as part of the "Options in Environment Education" program of the Access to Excellence program of the Chicago Board of Education. Florence Pashkin, principal, has offered her staff and schools as a pilot center should a Great Lakes'or Lake Michigan curriculum be developed. St. Philip of Neri School, 72nd and Jeffery, Chicago is utilizing workshop materials and has also offered to be a pilot school. Avoca District 37 is utilizing "Souvenirs of Lake Michigan" in the third, fifth, and sixth, grades. What had been "Oceanography" is now Limnology. Palatine District 54 has made a video cassette program of a fourth grade's trip to Illinois Beach State Park. This cassette has been de- veloped as a teacher in-service training tool to facilitate other class trips to the Lake. Dr. Stuart Spitzer, Environment Education Coordinator of the Chicago Board of Education, has recommended that "Souvenirs of Lake Michigan" ma- terials beused as the base of Lake Studies to be used at the Environmental Education Awareness site of the South Shore Country Club. Ms. Kay Kandrac, site director, has received the materials and been in contact with Mobius for consultation.. The Illinois Lake Michigan Coastal Region has been selected for use as-a case study topic for a film strip series "Environmental Issues" produced by Projected Learning Program, Reno, Nevada. The filrn- [email protected] is entitled "Coastal Region Usage - Lake Michigan Case Study." Cheryd Brown and.Alice Urbaniak, high.school teachers in Chicago, ini- tiated a teacher campout weekend at Illinois Beach State Park. Forty teachers and their families participated. Workshop materials were given to Linda Wilson, Assistant Curator of Education of the John G. Shedd Aquarium. Aquarium representatives plan to utilize the bibliographies and Great Lakes Reader. The John G. Shedd Aquarium has offered a letter of institutional support for a curriculum de- velopmeni project on Lake Michigan. Director of the Great Lakes Commission, Dr. A. G. Ballert, contacted Mobius to'-request workshop materials. Dr. Ballert plans to utilize the materials in a course he teaches on the Great Lakes. The First Congregational Church in Wilmette instituted a Lake Michigan course in July at its "Family Camp" at Sawyer, Michigan. The workshop participants have initiated a "reunion" set for mid- January,to renew friendships, exchange ideas, and to share again in the glow of involvement generated during the workshop. Was "Souvenirs of Lake Michigan" worth it? An unequivocal "Yes." When all the participants had gone home late in the afternoon of June 30, Mobius sat down for a few moments of reflection. Carl Bollwinkel offered a statement that epitomizes the feelings of each member of Mobius. "I've given hundreds of workshops over the years. If I never do another one at least I can say this one was truly a success it was good." '19- CHAPTER VI RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE STAFF OF "SOUVENIRS OF LAKE MICHIGAN" WORKSHOP Althdugh-millions of people live within the 'Illinois Lake Michigan Coastal Region, this general populace has extremely limited knowledge of the limnological aspects of the region despite the sociologic, economic, and ecological influence of the region upon the lives of its residents. The im- pact and significance of the Illinois Coastal area is not recognized by the public. The creation of a knowledgeable adult citizenry begins with the educa- tion of the young to the factual and psychological forces at work in the region. Very little has been or is being done to create an awareness on the part of children to.the s6igni-ficance. and impact @of this unique regionupon. their lives. Teachers of kindergarten through high school classes are not prepared to use the Illinois Lake Michi,,g4n_P9astal_R 'eg"ionas a.teaching-resource primarily because there are very few curriculum materials available that are directly concerned with Great Lakes limnology generally and the Illinois Coastal Region specifically. There has been insufficient effort made to com- pile and distribute research materials on the Great Lakes and the IllinoiA Coastal Region to the public and to teachers at pre-college levels. Oceanog- rapky is taught in Illinois Lake Michigan Coastal Region schools betause there are few teaching resources available for the study of Lake Michigan and Great Lakes Limnology at pre-college levels. The great [email protected] human concern for the quality of life demands close examination of the use.and misuse of natural resources. One of these re- sources is the Illinois Lake Michigan coastal region. Lake Michigan and the manageiient of its coastal region influence the quality of life through eco- logic, sociologic and economic factors. The resources afforded by the Illinois Lake Michigan coastal region are not being utilized to the ultimate .welfare of the ecosystem of which they are a part. Therefore, it is the recommendation of Mobius that an educational pro- gram be developed to provide opportunities for cognitive growth that will promote attitudinal and behavioral change on the part of the residents who are a significant force in the Illinois Lake Michigan coastal region eco- system. The primary goal of aneducational program for the Illinois Lake Michigan coastal region is the creation of a knowledgeable, thinking, caring adult population, aware of and concerned with the finite nature of their coastal region. This goal must be approached as one that will be long term in nature as well as one.that may have few visible signs of success in its initial stages. The objectives for an Illinois Lake Michigan Coastal Region Curriculum Programare: _20- 1. To research,design and develop an educational curriculum and materials to increase knowledge and understanding of the various aspects of the Illinois Lake Michigan Coastal Region for use with elementary and high school students and continuing education programs for adults. 2. To acquaint teachers with the teaching applications of the Illinois Lake Michigan Coastal Region. 3. To acquaint teachers with compatible usage activities of the various resources of the Illinois Lake Michigan Coastal Region. 4. To familiarize teachers with curriculum materials on the Illinois Coastal Region for use with their classes. S. To develop comprehensive plans for institutionalizing Illinois Lake Michigan Coastal Region studies through their infusion into existing courses. The proposed curriculum for the*Illinois Lake Michigan Coastal Region would make use of the best educational techniques and research available. The concepts would be approached in a multi-disciplinary manner: offering an in- tegration of social science, science, language arts, mathematics, and the arts. The mode of learning utilized will be the process inquiry method. The objectives for the curriculum may be grouped into five-categories-.- 'I. Skills: for example, manipulative inquiry, investigative, organi- zational'and communicative; 2. Concepts: for example, hypothesis, theoretical, model, taxonomic category; 3. Cognitive abilities: for example, critical thinking, problem solv- ing, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation, de,cision-making, creativity; 4. Understanding.the nature of science: for example, the multiplicity of scientific methods and the,inte elationship between science and technology. 5. Attitudes: for example, curiosity, interest, risk-taking, objec- tivity, ecision, confidence, perseverance, satisfaction, Te- ..sponsibility concensus and collaboration, appreciation, and aware- ness. Inquiry proces's is the preferred method of curriculum design and imple- mentation on the belief that: I hear . . . . and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand. (Ancient Chinese Proverb), _21- The concept-cognitive content of the curriculum would include the geo- logic, sociologic, economic, technologic and ecologic aspects of the Illinois Lake Michigan coastal region, These concepts would be incorporated into a spiralling-,[email protected]:of -objectives. . A..concept may be introduced to a very young child and later developed toincreasingly complex levels of understand- ing. The concepts would be presented at levels compatible with the child's degree of intellectual development. The topics possible for inclusion under each of the content areas (geology, sociology, economics, technology and ecology) are many and offer a delightful panorama of learning opportunities (A review of suggestions offered by the workshop participants gives some insight of the multitude of topics that might be included in such a curriculum). Materials and equipment would need to be specifically designed as the curriculum develops. As little or no previous materials now exist for the Illinois Lake Michigan coastal region, the largest part of this curriculum project would be the research and development of teaching materials and -,,equ-ipment. Learning units would be developed ihat would require varying lengths of instruction time. These units could be developed for as short a time as one class period to units requiring several weeks for completion. A variety of learning materials would be included to provide for the differences in schools, teachers, and children's methods of learning . A partial listing.of these learning materials might include learning centers, monographs, slide guide sets, field trips (containing a list of procedures and materials to be used in organizing activities before, during and after a field trip - including a list of activities for the bus ride, teacher and student reference materials, charts and diagrams, etc.), field investiga- tions, films, film strips, charts, maps, classroom packets for specific learning concepts, and an awareness packet for each school in the Region. Mobius specifically recommends that all curriculum materials be pre- pared with an understanding.tha 't the visual appeal of such materials has a considerable role to play in.the implementation and actual use of such materials. A visually-"uninteresting" format would be difficult to 11sellif to administrators and teachers. Integral to the success of a curriculum Project are the methods of teacher training employed on behalf of the proj;-Oct. The implementation process of the program would include a design for the initial training of teachers as well as supportive services for those teachers actively en- gaged in using the curriculum. Evaluation objectives and methods to measure student progress would be.included-in the curriculum materials. Evaluation materials would be included for measurin&both the cognitive and affective aspects of the. program. -22- Evaluation of the program itself would be accomplished by consulta- tion 4ith,[email protected] authorities, by field testing of the educational materials followed by revision of the materials and additional field test- ing. Curriculum development project of this scope would require a long- term commitment. Such a project could most feasibly be undertaken in steps that would break the project into stages. These stages might be set up on one to three year cycles. Stage I Part i - Curriculum (A Plan for Learning) Development: the design and development of a conceptual framework for: a. Rationale b. Philosophy c. Goals d. Methodology e. Materials f. Evaluation g. Scope and Sequence of the curriculum for primary through adult education h. Developmental scheme for dissemination and implementation of the curriculum Part 2 Development of specific pilot modules of 'materials. Stage 2 Part I - Further clarification of the components of the conceptual framework through consultations and field testing of developed materials. Part 2 - Development of additional learning modules for all levels of.instruction.. ..Sta_ae 3 Creati=of an Illinois Lake Michigan Coastal Region Education Center to provide apermanent. location for continuing the development of materials and perpetuat- ing Coastal Region education (As the Lake changes so must the curriculum). .5CqEMr. OF CUIZRICULUM OP-15IGN FOk IPF. ILLINCIt LAVE MIC1416AN COA15TAL RF.41ON -rive IWOIZMAI 0 FT r MLEM5 AWAIZF.Ne55 OF 4aOL061C.. ILLIN016 LAM M10414AN EOW41C ACTIVMe5 C-OA'S AL IM(alON ecoNOMIC AFFECTIVe - CONTENT OY NAl-bef- MODeL F09, NCCe,55 ISOUIV LEARNIN(A -Mt! NAMOM OP 5r-lemce- 6 TI-Wr OF: I. A RUMAR ERTe9-?gi5E A e;MOA FCC [email protected] 3. A MUM WLVIN4 eNVEAVM lr46?UIIZ%( A411VITIF.115 UHAMVWw-el7 reOOLEM IftNTIFICATION e)(15Tit44 Mg rwmLem '[email protected] KKOW LE Mle 1. Vf- R4VjMt7L$A-L -tue 62CUP. VALU60, W-EV fm 90LE5. AN INMOUAL 09' 6WL)f MAY, EMW AT AW 6TA41E OF 1911.5 LMWIN4 &CLZ The staff for the Illinois Lake Michigan Coastal Region Curriculum Project should be comprised of educational specialists who are knowledgeable about the region. A part-time consultant staff would offer the necessary @expertise.in..:specific -content areas. The conclusions and recommendations regarding the development of a Curriculum for the Illinois Lake Michigan Coastal Region are drawn from the knowledge and experience of Mobius. It is the fervent hope and desire of Mobius to be instrumental in the creation of a curriculum for the Illinois Lake Michigan Coastal Region. -2.4- CHAPTER VII REFERENCE MATERIALS "SOUVENIRS -OF LAKE MICH-I'GAN" l.- Natural History Dillard, Annie, Pilgrim of Tinker Creek, Bantam Books, Inc., New York NY, 1975. "A mystical excursion into the natural world." Downing, Elliot, A Naturalist in the Great Lakes Region, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 192Z. Two chapters dealing with the plants and andmals of the Indiana sand dunes but not Illinois Beach State Park. Hungerford, Harold, Ecology, the Circle of Life, Childrens Press, Chicago, IL, 1971. Book o.a ecology for upper grade students. .-..Explains-successioa but does not deal with sand succession. Komaiko, Jean and Schaeffer, Norma, Doing the Dunes, Dunes Enter- prises, Beverly Shores, IN, 1973. This book was first con- sidered a "text" for our course, but was eliminated when we found that, out of 232 pages, 48 concerned science and nature. The book deals with the Indiana dunes, but those 48 pages are still very concise, and an excellent,sampling of an environment which sports-much of1the same flora, fauna, and geology of illino:Cs Beach State Park. It might be well, worth the $2.50 to explore the difference. Leopold, Luna B., Round River from the Journal,of Aldo Leopold, Oxford University Press New York, NY, 1972. Essays and excerpts from Journals ;f Aldo Leopold. Information on ani-1 habitats and canoeing from travels across U.S. Palmer, Laurence E.,,Fieldbook [email protected] History, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, NY, 1949. A good pictoral field identification guide without-keys. Steinhacket, Charles with Susan Flader, The Sand County of Aldo 'Leopold, Sierra Club Book, San Francisco, CA, 1973. Watts, May Theilgaard, Reading the Landscape: an Adventure in Ecology, Macmillian, New York, NY, 1957. Excellent chapter on, Indiana Sand Dunes.. 2. Art Elam, Jane, Photography, Simple and Creative, With and Without a Camera, VanNostrand.Reinhold Company, 1973. Especially exciting.and creative ideas Afor use in making photograms. This book assumes you do not own lots of expensive equipment. $5.95 worth it! Escher, Maurits Cornelius, The Graphic Work of M.C. Escher, Ballantine Books, New York, NY, 1967. Exciting graphics, many of Mobius strips. Radford, Don, Science, Models, and toys, Science 5/13, MacDonald Education, London, England, 1974.. Available through "The Science Man"-, -(sea sources) Richards, Roy, Holes, Gaps, and Cavitities, Science 5/13, MacDonald Education, London, England, 1973. Available through "The Science Man", (see sources). Snead, Stella, Beach Patterns,the World of Sea and Sand, Barre Publishing, Barra, MA, 1975. Available through National Audubon Society, 950 Third Avenue, New York, NY, 10022, 1975. Sale price $2.98; List price $12.95. 3. Botany the,Vegetation on.the Sand Dunes of Lake Michigan, Bot. Gaz. 27:95-117, 167-202,' 281-308, 361-391, 1899. Data chiefly from the study of dunes in north- western Indiana and vicinity of Chicago. Gates, Frank C., The Vegetation of the Beach Area in Northeastern Illinois and Southeastern Wisconsin, Bull. Illinois State Lab. Natural History, 9:255-272, 19121. A thorough study of the physiography, climate, edaphic.factors, and plant associations of that area. Species list and bibliography included. Jones,-G.N., Flora of Illinois, Ed. 2, University of Notre Dame Press, South Bend, IN, 1950. Plant identification key for teachers. Mholenbrock, Robert-H., 'Forest Trees of [email protected], Department of Conservation, Division of Forestry, Springfield, IL, 1973. Parker, Sheila 'Trees, Science 5/13, MacDonald Education, London, England, 1973. Available through "The Science Man", see sources. Pepoon, 'H.S., An Annotated Flora of the Chicago Region, Chicago Acadamy of Sciences, Natural History Survey Bulletin No. 8, 554 pp., 1927. Includes material on the flora of Waukegan "moorlands" and ravines, woodlands and littoral of the North Shore. Voss, John and Eifert, Virginia, Illinois Wild Flowers, Popular Science Series Vol. IV, Illinois State Museum, Springfield, IL, 1967. weaver, John E. and Clements, Frederic E., Plant Ecology, McGraw- Hill Book Company, New York, NY, 1938. [email protected] 4. Geology Rocks and Charts, Elementary Science Study, Webster Division, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, NY, 1969. See sources. Stream Tables, Elementary Science Study, Webster Division, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, N.Y, 1971. See.sources. Crusty Problems, Intermediate Science Curriculum Study, Silver Burdett, Morristown, NJ, 195 pp., 1972. Bretz, Harlen, Geology of the Chicago Region, Part I-General. Bulletin 65 Illinois State Geological Survey, Urbana, IL, 61801, 1939, reprinted 1964. Illinois State Geological Survey, Urbana, IL, 61801, Education Series: Pocks and Minerals of Illinois, No. 1. Guide to the Geologic Map of Illinois, No. 7, Field [email protected] - Pennsylvanian Plant Fossils of Illinois, No. 6, Rock and Mineral Set of Illinois, (one set per school). de Michele, Vincenzo, The World.of Minerals, Orbis Publishing, London, England, 1976. Available from the National Audubon Society, 350 ThirdAvenue, New York, NY, 10022. Willman, H.B., Summary of the Geolog,,@ of the Chicago Area, Circular 460, 1111nois,$.tata Geological Survey, Urbana, IL,'61801, 1971. Zlm,, Herbert and Shaffer, Paul, Rocks and.Minerals: A Guide to.Familiar- Minerals, Gems, Ores, and Rocks, Golden Press, New York, NY, 1957. 5. Zbology Tracks, Elementary Science Study, Webster Division, McGraw-Hill Book C.6i6apany, New York, NY, 1971. See so'4rces Chase, Charles and Chase, Myron, Field Guide to Tracks of.North American Wildlife, NASCO, Ft. Atkinson, WI, 1969. Eddy, Samuel and Hodson, A.D., Taxonomic Keys to the Common Animals of the North Central States, exclusive of worms, insects, and. birds, Burgess Publishing Company, Minneapolis, MN, 1961. Kendeigh, S. Charles, Animal Ecology, Prentice Hall, Inc. Englewood' Cliffs, NJ, 1961. -27- 6. TechniLues Material Objects, Science Curriculum Improvement Study, Rand McNally and Company, Chicago, IL, 10.70. See Sources. Collis,, Margaret, Using the Environment.: Early Explorations, Investi- gatioJis, ?a'-,rt*s'I ran -II;t"[email protected],-'Probl s. Pa-rft'[email protected] I and'II., Ways and Means, Science 5/13, MacDonald Education, London, England, 1974. Fairwell, Kay, OBIS Trial Edition Set I and Set II, Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies, L ence Hall of Science, University of California, Berkley, CA, 94720, 1975. Hillcourt, William, Outdoor Things To Do, Golden Press, New York, NY,. 1975. Kjellstrom, Bjorn, Be Expert with Map and Compass, the "Orienteering" Handbook, revised, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, Dri, 1975. -nnesota. -Environmental, :Sciences. Foundation,. Inc...,,, Transect @tudies, National Wildlife Federation, Educational Servicing, 1412 16th Street, Washington, DC, 20036, 1972. 24 booklets available such as Shadows, Wind, Nature's Part in Art, Outdoor Fun for Students. Swan, Malcolm, Tips-and Tricks in Outdoor Education, The Interstate Printers and Publishers, Inc., Danville, IL, 61832, 1970. Wentworth, D.F., Mapping Small Places-Examinina tour Environment, Winston Press, 25 Groveland Terrace', Minneapolis,. MIN,: 55403, 1972. The Illinois Coastal Zone Management Program, Division of Water Resources, Illinois Department of Transportation, Springfield, IL. List of Second Year Publications: VOLUME I.: LEGAL ANALYSIS -VOLUME-II: COASTAL GEOLOGICAL STUDIES VOLUME III: BEACH & BLUFF PROTECTION VOLUME IV. COASTAL BIOLOGICAL STUDIES VOLUME V: COASTAL U12E NEEDS & CAPACITIES VOLUME VI: PUBLIC PARTICIPATION [email protected] Film strip. Hungerford, Harold, Life in a Sand Dune Succession, 1345 Diversity Pa;kway, Chicago, IL, 60614. -28- 8. Sources Forestry Suppliers, Inc. Box 8397 205 West Rankin Street Jack.son, MS 39204 Rand McNally & Company P..O. Box 7600 Chicago, TL 60680 The Science Man - Lee M. Jorik 4738 North Harlem Harwood Heights, IL 60656 Ward's Natural. Science Establishment P. 0. Box 1712 3000 East Ridge Road Rochester,'NY 14603 Webster Division McGraw-Hill Book Company 5940 Touhy Niles, IL 60648 -29- CHAPTER VIII CURRICULUM MATERIALS Curriculum Materials for Souvenirs of Lake Michigan were of two types. The first are materials that had been previously developed by a variety of sources. These materials were researched and compiled as a part of the participant information packet. The second set of materials are those that were researched, written and compiled specifically for "Souvenirs of Lake Michigan." These materials were created by Mobius, Inc. Previously existing curriculum materials include: "A Day at the Beach." Ann McGeady. Winston Churchill School, Palatine, Illinois. '[email protected]'lametariUm-'Sky'CAlendars"for-June and July, 1978. Abrams Planetarium, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan. "Introducing the Dichotomous Key In the Middle School." Science and Children. May, 1974. Show*Case of Wild Things - Illinois Beach State Park Nature Preserve. "Reasons for the Urgent Need to Preserve Illinois Beach State Park." Floyd Swink. Morton Arboretum, Lisle, Illinois. "Messing About in Science." Science and Children. February, 1965. Science Notes of the Chicago Academy of Science: The Indiana Dunes Design-in Nature is Mathematical Pond Life, Parts 1 and 2 Chicago Ancient Coral Reefs The Chicagoland Prairie "Basic Grnmmar of Track Language." Curious Naturalist Supplement 18-A. Massachusetts Audubon Society. _30- Project 1: Sun Pictures Essex Publication of Science Resource Center, School District 15, Palatine, Illinois. Flow Spring Balance "Introduction to a Pond." Knock the Four Walls Down, Nick Rodes. "Insight: Suburbs Getting Lake Water Will Feel the Drain." Chicago Daily News. "Living With The Lake." Illinois Coastal Zone Management Program. (Brochure) "Living With The Lake." Landmarks Preservation Council and Service. cmap) "Beaches and the' Curving of Waves." Crusty Problems Module of ISCS Level 3. Florida State University. "Middleboro." A land use simulation game by Mary Keegan of Winnetka Public Schools, Winnetka, Illinois. U.'S. Geological Survey Teacher's Packet Information Sheet. "Charles Gates Dawes Mansion." The Evanston.Historial Society. "Harmony With The Lake - A Guide to Bluff.Stabilization.11 Illinois Coastal Zone Management Program. "The Dunesland Heritage of Illinois." Illinois Natural History-Survey. "Development of the Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago." "The Lake." Chicago Magazine, August, 1977. "Chicago A Background Report." -Chicago-Tribune, 1978. -31- "A Sand County Almanac." Aldo Leopold. Ballantine Books, New York, New York, 1949. "Living With the Lake." Illinois Department of Transportation. Illinois Department of Transportation, Coastal Zone Management Pro- gram, 300 North State Street, Room 1010, Chicago, Illinois 60610, 1972. "Today's Art." The Flax Company. The Flax Company, Chicago, Illinois 60601, April, 1977. How's and Why's of Watercolor Painting. "How to Lead a Field Trip." Ward's National Science Establishment, Inc. -Ward's National Science Establishment, Inc., Rochester, New York, and Monterey, California, 1970. Price: .25 "Identification of Environmental Education Concepts for Inclusion in.an Elementary Curriculum." Delphi Survey Technique, prepared by Sybil %Nebraska,--May, 1972. "Reasons for the Urgent Need to Preserve Illinois Beach State Park." Floyd Swink. Floyd Swink, Botanist-Ecologist, Morton Arboretum, Lisle, Illinois. "A Sound of Thunder." Ray Biadbury. Harold Matson Company, Inc., 1952.- "The Faces of the Great Lakes." Jonathan Ela. Sierra Club, 1977.- "Beach: River of Sand." Encyclopedia Britannica Films, 1965. "Succession: Communities Chane-Over Time." Carl Bollwinkel. Pro- jected Learning Programs, 1978. -32- Specifically Designed Materials for Souvenirs of Lake Michigan: "Coast Mime." A land simulation game specific to the Illinois Lake Michigan Coastal Region. "Reading Suggestions." An annotated bibliography of readings for children and adults related to the'Great Lakes. "A Key to Some of the Plants Most Commonly Observed in June in the Sandy Areas of Illinois Beach State Park." "Line Transect Record Sheet." "Transecting the Dunes." "Living With the Lake Reader." An anthology of poems, stories and -personal-reflections of the Great Lakes. "Living With the Lake Craftbook.11 A compilation of'craft projects using natural objects. "Living With the Lake.Song book." A compilation of songs appropriate to the Great Lakes. (See appendix of materials) -33r CHAPTER IX FINANCIAL REPORT Funding for "Souvenirs: Living With The Lake" was supplied in the form of a grant of $5,b00.00 from the Illinois Coastal Zone Management Program. .The funds were allocated in the following manner: Planning $ Evaluation Time for Workshop $1,600.00 Reference Materials 643.57 Camping and Materials 416.76 Transportation for Instructors and Field Trips 696.29 Preparation, -.and,,.. Editing, -,of-Recommend-atdons for Use in Developing Instructional Materials 897.00 Workshop publicity, printing and mailing 599.65 Evaluation preparation, mailing and review 146.73 TOTAL $S,000.00 -34- CHAPTER X WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS Barbara A. Bobrich Ken Klipp 4839 West Balmoral Avenue 665 South Small Chicago, Illinois 60630 Kankakee, Illinois 60901 High School Biology High School Biology Melsa N. Bobrich Barbara Knight 4839 West Balmoral Avenue. 4550 North Drake Chicago, Illinois 60630 Chicago, Illinois 6062S High School Physical Education Intermediate Science Cheryl L. Brown Florine Lesht 621S South Richmond 3237 West Ardmore Chicago, Illinois 60629 Chicago, Illinois 60659 HighSchool Generad:--Science Spec .ial Options Teacher: Ecology Irma Claiborne Olga C. Nakutny 3S28 Forest Avenue 729 North Mitchell Wilmette,.Illinois 60091 Arlington Heights, Illinois 60004 Fifth Grade Environmental Ed. Coordinator Elizabeth Crawford Lee Rank 1216 Central Street 834 Pine Oak Lane Wilmette, Illinois 60091 Park Forest So., Iili:nois Sixth Grade Arthur Diez 2113 Washington Frederic H. Tarnow Evanston, Illinois 60202 3657 N. St. Louis .High School General Science Chicago, Illinois 60618 Jr. High Life Science Fern Falcon 3127 Greenleaf Alice M. Urbaniak Wilmette,,Illinoi 60091 3425 South Ashland Avenue Special Education Chicago, Illinois 60608 Art and Science Joan George 102 North-Home Avenue John Wendt Park Ridge, Illinois 60068 437 Highland Avenue Fourth Grade Dundee, Illinois 60018 Sixth Grade Science Margaret M. Keay 919 Harvard Lane Juanita Zink Wilmette, Illinois 60091 524 Fairview Avenue Jr. High Mathematics Park Ridge, Illinois 60068 Second Grade Arline Kingwell 17 Cedar Lane Lincolnshire, Illinois 60015 Jr. High Reading -35- APPENDIX The materials specifically designed and developed for the "Souvenirs of Lake Michigan" workshop should not be considered to be in their final form. They were prototypes, developed as pilot materials, tobe used, evaluated and further developed. No effort has been made to secure copywriter permission for the ma- terials included in the 'Great Lakes Reader and the Great Lakes Song Book. These were compiled for educational purposes as exaip-l-es 3-f-whal a person might develop to facilitate cognitive and affective learning regarding the Great Lakes coastal region. While these materials should not be regarded as finished products, neither should they be regarded as finite in nature. They offer a beginning. -36- Purpose of the Games To simulate, in an informal atmosphere, the situation which now exists concerning the Illinois Coast use. Materials: Name tags for each player Writing materials for note-taking Enough copies of the "bill" and the "role plays" for players Players: 2 Reporterst one for each side of the argument (in a classroom., It might be suggested to have 2 for each side.) 11 Representativesp one,for each of the 11 shore sectors in the Illinois Coastal Area I "Speaker of the House" 9 (or any multiple of 9) to play the various roles (any number will fit here; just keep track of the number of people in each role category.) Method of Play: This method is suggested,but please invent variations! This can take from an hour and a half to a few months, depending on how far you'Want to go with it. Much of the simulation is very contrivedl keep this in mind when presenting to the childreno Four basic time periodst le The "Press Party"(20 to 30 minutes) (a contrivancel) Interested parties who represent all viewpoints attend this gathering. Each person acts his or her role to his or her fullest and tries to mingle with the crowd as much as.possible. .Those who support a.particular position should try to convince @the Congressman or Congresswoman, or Press representative that their position is the "right" one. The "Press," depending ,.on their roles, should take notes with which to write their "editorials." People in each "role group" should team together to choose a spokesperson for the hearing. This person will present the group's position to the legislature during the hearing. 2, The"Hearing" (20 to 30 minutes) During-this time the reporters prepare their "editorials," based on information and quotes gathered from interviews at the "Press Party." Spokespersons wills at this times present their groups' positions,, one at a times, to the legislature. The Reading of the Articles (optional)(10 minutes-no discussion) To gain some insight into :Ehe possibility of human error* and the power of persuasion in the press, the reporters should now read 'the "editorials" which they have spent the last period-. writing. A more effective classroom technique would probably be to have the articles really "published," then distributed before the vote. The Vote (10 to 20 minutes) er" calls the role, duringwhich the members of the The "Speak Legislature vote "Fort""Against," or "Pass." The Speaker then reads-the final tally and announces the fate of the bill. Tally: 1- 2 3- 5_ 6- 7- 9 10 11 Reporters Representatives 1. 2. 34 THE ROLES +1 You work for the Illinois Department of Transportationt and helped to write the "bill" which is in question. From all angles that you have viewed the situation, you can see your plan as the only choice, and the only way to save the shoreline. Convince others of the benefit of the plan. +2 Your house is just about ready to slide into Lake Michigan. It is an old .-family,.estate,tha:t-has been,willed to you. If youhad listened to the state 4 years ago, and had taken their advice on planning methods seriously, you would not have your current problem. Convince others to adopt the program. +3 You are on the board of your city councile You realize that your city could have saved $100tOOO in planning fees last year if the CZM plan had been in effect. Your city has, among other thingsp just shelled out $800,000 for a new sand groin. You were a geology major in college and think that steps like that must be taken in order to save the city's beaches. -1 You have just paid $290OOtOOO for some gorgeous lakefront property on which you intend to build condominiums. You intend to keep the land aesthetically appealing to all, and promise to listen to federal or state 11advice" on anti-erosion devices for your land as long as you can use your own moneyl build your condominiums$ and keep the government out of your personal.business. You are very.,opposed to receiving any money from the government, because you think th at would surely mean government control over YOU! -2 You are a Condominium builder with your very own successful company. You also are on the Zoning Board of your municipality. You have recently, with the approval of the rest of.the Board, of courseg approved one sector- of the coast for zoning in the %ondominium" category. This will mean a new job for your company, who happens to get most of the contracts on the shoreline for this, type, of-project. See what you can do to change some m1nds. -3 You are a construction worker, or the spouse of a c-onstruction worker. Your family of 8 children has seen very hard-timest especially through the last bitter winter. You (or your spouse) have been laid off for.6 months now, and a new job at a condominium site would mean a return t.6 a decent standard of living for you and your family ... new car# stabilityt food. Convince the opposition to understand the economic facts of life. =1 Yau are 'a taxpayer who is also interested in the conservation of the lakeshore and its natural resources. You realize that new work for people in the areavould mean less tax dollars spent for welfare and unemployment, but you also think that the coastline is in need of preservation. Your job is to decide how you feel about the issue, based on what you hear from all sides. .=2You are an environmentalist who would,like to see more ."teeth" in the law. You would like.to see the zone expanded from the boundaries proposed by the bill. YotVare very disappointed with the "meager" $1,.2 million @vhich has been suggested. In addition to money forzoning regulatory boards, you'd like to see money given to help people buildithe necessary anti-erosion devices. You.like the plant basically,, but want it to.go farther. By convincing people to,vote "against," you might either succeed in killing the bill completely or you might get people to reconsider writing a new one in -your favor. By pushing a."for" vote,':you may not get everything you want, but,you may get "nearer" to your goals. Listen to others and take a position. =3 You have worked for many years to become the proud owner of a sailboat. The city harbors are filled, and the North Shore Harbors are impossibly crowded. You would like to see a new Tna ina built, but you also know that with that would come the motels, the taco jointst and the souvenir stands. Find the position that benefits you mostt and stick by it. Representativesi cont1d: 4. 5- 7. 8. .9. 10. "Speaker of the House" Roles +2 +3 -2 -3 =2 If you have extra people, make sure that you assign roles so that all side! are balanced fairly. If an even numbers assign - and + roles. When there an odd number, assign the "odd man out" as an =role. STATEMENT OF PROBLEMt Vote "Against" or "For" this bill, whose main purpost is to designate the Lake Michigan shoreline in Illinois as a special regulatory zone. X -HE S ITU , ..ATI,.,Q.N:.,,The...Illinois,.,.;q.4Qre,@ine... has'suffered from shore erosions blu,' erosion, and coastal flooding in recent yearso' A'government survey found that public and private losses from shore erosion in the state from 1972 to 1975 exceeded $25 million. High water levels have seriously eaten away at the bluffs overlooking the lake at Lake Bluffs Lake Forests and Highland Park. At least 17 homes atop those bluffs are in danger of being undercut, According to Coastal Zone Management researchers. THIS BILL WOULD: 1. Allocate to the Communities within the Zone $1.2 million in annual shore preservation moneyl.which may'be used for planning, design, and administration of the project. 2. Require riparian (living an the edge of a body of water) owners to obtain a special,building permit for construction or land modification within the zone. 3. Allow municipalities to issue such building permits, but only if the towns are certified* by the state CZM office. -(*,.to be,,"certified," a, town must adopt ordinanaces against shore erosion and water pollution$ and agree to the plan's general "priorities of land use" along the shore.) 4. Promote zoning for boat. marinast beaches, and other "coastal- dependent" uses over housing or commercial development. 5. Create off-shore spawning areas for trout and salmon. 6. Require "certified" towns to adopt "set-back" ordinances, pro- hibiting erection of a permanent'structure east of a "high risk erosion line," which.ranges up to 90 feet landward of the bluff's edge. 7. Fine the owners of such illegal structures up to $1pOOO per day. I 8. Allow construction in the erosion-prone area only if the builder includes extensive anti-erosion devices along the shore. 9. See that the structures currently in violation of this law-not be affected by itt,but instead be "grandfathered" in. Much of the material for the "bill" you see here was obtained from an article by John McCarron, which appeared in the Metrol North section of the Chicago Tribune, Thursdays April 28, 1977. Much of the material for the role plays was also inspired by thatarticle, the Preliminary DrafA- November 1976, of.the Illinois Coastal-Zone Management Program, and*tL Briar Place Brainstorming sessions. READING SUGGESTIONS THE ART AND INDUSTRY OF SANDCASTLES. Jan Adkins. ,Walker PUblishing Co. 1971. Grades 5-8 and all other readers. 29 pages. Informational. #107 Twenty-nine 11" x 15" hard-cover pages. This unique book cleverly combines the popular seaside occupation of sand castle building with the lives and times of ancient castle dwellers. The handsome monochrome illustrations show the sand castle builder and how and why of castle construc- tion; they help develop a vocabulary and a historical perspective in the process. Thoroughly enjoyable. THE BEAVER POND. Alvin Tresselt. Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Co. 1970. Grades 1-6. 17 pages. Fiction. Following the construction of a beaver dam, there is a complex and predictable succession of ecological events. book [email protected] of the history of a beaver pond and meadow. There are about 28 illustrations, most of which are in color. THE BIGGEST HOUSE IN THE WORLD. Leo Lionni. Pantheon Books, Inc. 1968. Grades 30 pages. Fiction. #101 A story about a snail and his longing for the "biggest house." Large, colorful pictures shou 'ld enhance the appeal'of this-book to the youngest-readers.. A BOOK OF.SNAILS..Sally Moffet [email protected] Wm. R. Scott, Inc. 1963. Grades 5-6. 43 pages. Informational.. A reference book about snails includes the snail's life cycle and instructions for keeping them as pets in terrariums. Reference is made-to why snails may be con- siddred as pests. Black-and-white photographs help to make this book a good selection for high-interest reluctant readers. CLIMATOLOGY AND WEATHER SERVICES OF THE ST. LAWRENCE SEAWAY AND GREAT LAKES. U. S. Weather Bureau. Technical Paper No. 35 1959. DIRECTORY OF SHIPWRECKS OF THE GREAT LAKES. Karl E. Heden. Bruce Humphries Publishers. Boston. 1966. -2- ELISABETH AND THE MARSH MYSTERY. Felice Holman. The Macmillan Co. 1966. Lower Intermediate. 49 pages. Fiction. A mystery story that offer's ihfbrmation'as well as intrigue. Elisabeth and a friend try to identify strange calls from the marsh. In doing this they learn about bird migration. The facts in this book do not seem dull because humor is maintained through story-telling. EXPLORING A BROOK: LIFE IN THE RUNNING WATER. Winifred and Cecil Lubell. Parents Magazine Press. 1975. Lower Intermediate. 61 pages. Informational. #114 A one or two-page explanation of the various kinds of plant and animal life found in and near a brook. Pencil sketches illustrate each description. FISHES. .,Brian Wildsmith. Franklin Watts, Inc. 1968. 'F r i m a r y pages. ' "In'formational. A picture book about names given to different groups of fish. Illustrated in shimmering colors. Geared to the primary student but holds aesthetic enchantment for lower intermediate groups. FISHES. Herbert S. Zim and Hurst H. Shoemaker. The Golden Press. 1955. Middle Schoolaid others. 160 pages. Informational. For the identification of the common fresh and salt water fishes of North America. Species are identified by color pictures.. Common and scientific names are given. Useful guide for beginners. FISHES. OF THE GREAT LAKES REGION. Carl Hubbs and Karl Lagler. Bulletin 26 (rev.). Bloomfield Hills, Michigan. Cranbrook Institute of Science, 1958. FISHING FOR TUNA. Lewis Allison. Melmont Publishers, Inc. 7. LoweF -Middle School. 35 pages.-Informational. #104, #105 The ships, nets, and procedure of catching tuna are well described. Good monochrome illustrations of tuna and tuna fishing. FISH IS FISH. Leo Lionni. Pantheon Books, Inc. 1970. Grades K-2. Fiction. 'An.enchanting...,story about the way a fish imagines the outside -world%as described to him by a worldly frog who's seen it. @Beautiful illustrations. -3- FRESHWATER FURY YARNS AND REMINISCENCES OF THE GREATEST STOP24 IN INLAND NAVIGATION. Frank Barcus. Wayne State University Press, Detroit. 1960. THE GREAT LAKES READER. Walter Havighurst. New York, New York. The Macmillan Company. 1966. GEOLOGY OF THE GREAT LAKES. Jack L. Hough. Urbana, Illinois. U-niversity of Illinois Press. 1958. THE GLACIAL LAKES SURROUNDING 'MICHIGAN. Robert W. Kelly. Lansing, Michigan. Michigan Department of Conservation. December 1960. GREAT LAKES COUNTRY.. Russell McKee. New York, New York. Thomas Y. Crowell Co. GREAT STEAMBOAT.MYSTERY. Richard Scarry. Random House. id- _K 1975.'' GFa es -2. Fiction. Mr. and Mrs. Pig staged a party on a steamboat and hired two detectives to protect the wedding gifts. Nevertheless, there's a theft and quite a mystery until the clever detectives bring the story to a happy ending. Attractive cartoon illustrations. GULLS. Sarel Eimer 1. Simon'and Schuster. 1969. Grades-4-8. -'64 pages. Infdrmational. #202 Nature writer Sarel Eimerl describes various members of.the gull-family, their feeding and hunting habits, and their migratory and courtship behavior. Illustrated with 30 black-and-white Photographs. Index included. HARVEY'S HIDEOUT. Russell Hoban. Scholastic Book Services. 1972. Grades K-3. Fiction. #108 The story of a rivalry between a brother and.sister muskrat who soon realize they are lonely and need each other. Good-for children with brothers and sisters. Cute brown illustrations. HIGH WATER AT CATFISH BEND. Ben Lucien Burman. Puffin Books. 1974. Grades 4 and up. 123 pages. Fiction. Enchanting story of five animals who realize they must forget* their personal problems and work together. Their home is the Mississippi floo'd plains.and they are disgusted.with the way humans are contolling floods. They unite to do something about it. -4- LAKE ERIE. Harlan Hatcher. Bobbs Merrill Company. LAKE HURON. Fred Landon. Bobbs Merrill Company. .LAKE MICHIGAN. Milo M. Quaife. Bobbs Merrill Company. LAKE ONTARIO. Arthur Pond. Bobbs Merrill Company. LAKE SUPERIOR. Grace Lee Nute. Bobbs Merrill Company. THE LAST FREE BIRD. Harris A. Stone. Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1967. All grades. Fiction. #104 A plea to save our environment is made in this picture book for all ages. Beautiful water color illustrations. LOG TRANSPORTATION IN THE LAKE STATES. W. G. Rector. Glendale, California. A. H. Clark Company. 1953. LORE OF THE LAKES. Dana Thomas Bowen. Cleveland, Ohio. The Lakeside Printing Company. 1948. LIFE IN A POND. -Carmelita Kipple Robinson, et al. Golden Press. 1967-. Primary. 28 pages. Informational. #114 Presents the.living things of a pond with labels and a.few words of text. Only two pages on plants. The animals represented include-common fishes, frogs andtoads and their life cycles, snakes, turtles, salamanders, snails, crayfish, insects and birds. Attractively hard-bound. A MAP IS A PICTURE. Barbara Rinkoff. Thomas Y. Crowell Co. 1965. Upper Elementary School and others. 35 pages. Informational. Various kinds of maps and charts and their symbols are introduced. This brief experience could lead to many educational experiences. ..MARSHES AND MARSH LIFE. Arnold Dobrin. Coward-McCann. 1969. Grades 4-8. 47 pages. Informational. The author successfully describes marsh life in terms of the effects that seasonal changes and tidal fluctuations have on the marsh's inhabitants. The well written book is illustrated.with the author's brilliant watercolors. A strong case is made for marsh conservation. NORTH, SOUTH, EAST, AND WEST. Franklyn M. Branley. Thomas Y. Crowell Co. 1966. Grades 3 and up. Informational. 4105 The useful skill of knowing how to determine directions is dealt with here. Shadows, compasses, and maps are used to help determine north, south, east, and west. Simple, clear illustrations. PADDLE-TO-THE-SEA. Holling Clancy Holling. Houghton Mifflin-Co. 1941. Grades 3-5. Fiction. #110 An excellent book for learning about the flow of water from the snow on the mountaintop to salt water in the ocean. A young Indian boy carves an Indian in a canoe that he places in the snow on a mountain near the Great Lakes. The book traces its voyage to the Atlantic Ocean. Wonderful illustrations. PIONEERS OF EARLY WATERWAYS. Edith McCall. Childrens Press. 1961. Middle School. 127 pages. Biography. A collection of storeis about early Americans"on the canals and rivers. Includes stories about Davy Crockett, Mike Fink, and Mark Twain. A steamboat race is the climax. THE POND. Donald and Carol Carrick. The Macmillan Co. 1970. Grh,des K-2. .33 pages. Informational #114 Contains little science, but the,watercolors by artist Donald Carrick are good. They portray pond life in the style of oriental silk screens. The text by Carol.Carrick is poetic, but too brief. POND LIFE: A GUIDE TO COMMON PLANTS AND ANIMALS OF NORTH AMERICAN PONDS AND LAKES. George K. Reid.% Golden Press. .1967. Middle School and others. 160 pages. #114 Informational. Mostly a very usable manual for identification of a wide variety of common plants and animals of fresh water.ponds, including birds and mammals. There is a.very brief treatment of the physical features of the pond and of aquatic ecosystems, and a bibliography and five-page index. Useful for amateur pond watchers of.all ages. -6- THE RAINBOW BOOK OF NATURE. Donald Culross Peattie. Collins, William & World Publishing Co., Inc. 1957. Grades 3-6. 319 pages. Informational. This lengthy resource book includes many different aspects of nature: ecosystems; plants' and their unique characteris- tics; animals and their unique characteristics; the effects of temperature and surroundings on plants and animals; and the interactions between species. Factual text and life-like illustrations. RED FOX AND HIS CANOE. Nathaniel Benchley. Scholastic Book Services. 1973. Grades K-2. 64 pages. Fiction.' A young Indian boy, Red Fox, wants the largest canoe in the world. Who would have guessed all the animals along the river would want to take a ride::--all at the same time? SANDPIPERS. Edith Thacher Hurd. Thomas Y. Crowell Co. 1961. Grades K-2. Informational. #102 Simple but descriptive words make this "Let's Read and Find Out Science Book" a pleasure. The child will surely come away with a clearer understanding of the sandpiper. SCIENCE ON THE SHORE AND BANKS. Elizabeth-K. Cooper. Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc. 1960. Informational. Useful-guide for observing, gathering, and studying various .forms of plant and animal wildlife in shallow fresh and salt waters.' THE SECRET THREE. Mildred Myrick. Harper & Row Publishers. 1963. Primary. 64 pages. Fiction. #107 'A story about three boys at the beach who form a club with ,secret signals, coded.messages,. passwords, and a meeting place. They have a campout on a beach island and explore dunes, shells, grasses, etc. SEE THROUGH THE LAKE. Millicent Selsam. Harper & Row Publishers. 1958. Lower Intermediate. 48 pages. Informational. An-explanation of lakes--how they are formed, what types of life they support, and the effect of the land around them. A description of specific types of life found at different levels of water is.included. Pictures showing clearly what the author is discussing aid in understanding for the young reader. -7- SHIPS THAT NEVER DIE. Marine Historical Society of Detroit. Detroit, Michigan. 1952. OF-THE -LAKES. Dana Thomas Bowen. Cleveland, Ohio The Lakeside Publishing Company. 1952. "SOME SEA TERMS IN LAND SPEECH". Samuel F. Batchelder. The New England Quarterly (January-October). 1929. pp. 625-653. A delightful compendium of nautical terms in the U. S. language. THREE BOYS AND A LIGHTHOUSE. Nan Hayden Agle and Ellen son. Charles Scribner's Sons. 1951. Lower Middle School. 100 pages. #105, #110 Fiction. A good story with a few black-and-white illustrations about the adventures of three boys who spend a summer helping to tend a lighthouse. THE TRUE BOOK OF PEBBLES AND SHELLS. Illa Podendorf. Childrens Press., 1954. Primary. 47 pages. Informational. #102. An explanation, with accompanying pictures, of how some of the pebbles and shells that might be found on a beach came to be there. The author identifies for the'young reader what the shells look.like.' THE TRUE BOOK OF SHIPS AND SEAPORTS. Katharine Carter. Childrens Press. 1963. Primary. 47 paged. Informational. #105, #110 A general descriptive book about different kinds of ships. A brief history of ships and their importance is given. The author closes with a chapter about different kinds of seaports and ways in.which people depend on them. .WEATHER OR NOT. Wallene T. Dockery. Abingdon Press. .1976. Grades 4 and others. 32 pages. Fiction. Young people visit a weather station and are intgOduced to the basic principles of meteorology and how a weather forecast is made. Fictionalized format contains a lot of information. 0 THE WHITE PALACE. Mary O'Neill. Thomas Y. Crowell Co. 1966. Lower intermediate. 48 pages. Fiction (poetic story). This is an animal fiction story that conveys information to the reader. It is the story of the life cycle of a Chinook salmon. His life begins and he moves into the "white palace." A plot develops and the author's description of the fish's behavior and habitat are credible. Wash drawing illustrations are used in thos, book. YOU CAN MAKE SEASIDE TREASURES. Louis Beetschen. Pinwheel Books. 1971. Middle School and others. 32 pages. Informational. #102 Describes a number of arts and crafts activities that can be done with sand and other items commonly found on beaches. Included are sand molding, making shell necklaces, painting pebbles, building sandcastles, and collecting shells. Also includes games to be played at the beach. -9- AMERICANS AND THE WORLD OF WATER. Harold L. Goodwin (ed.). University of Delaware Sea Grant College Program. 1977. Highly recommended! THE GREAT LAKES READER. Walter Havighurst, New York, New York. The Macmillan Company. 1966. OF MEN AND MARSHES. Paul L. Errington The Iowa State University Press. 1957. Grades 8-12. 150 pages. Informational. #202, #208 This is a book of memories and philosophy by a man who rose from fur trapper to college professor. It describes marshes all over America, but dwells on the glaciated prairie marshes of the Dakotas. The 23 illustrations are excellent but do not have captions. There is no index. The author's knowledge of marsh ecology makes this a very worthwhile book. VROIS'MINDING THE SHOAE?- A CITI'ZEN'S GUIDE TO.COASTAL MANAGE- MENT. National Resources Defense Council. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 1976. Transecting the Dunes The sand dunes and ridges of Illinois Beach State Park offer an excellent opportunity for a first hand study of succession as it occurs in; s,andy-are-a.--A.s on,e -pr-o-c,eeds -a-wwa-y- from the lake shore, one becomes aware of the variance of vegetation, a variance which appears to be in bands. Each of those bands is representative of a stage of succession with the youngest stage of succession near the water and the oldest stage farthest away. Although some variance in vegetation is obvious even to the casual observer, the bands of vegetation and the significance of the types and function of the plants in each band become more meaningful if a more careful measurement and identification of plants is made. It is in this interest that a line transect can be used with success as a measuring device for intermediate level elementary students as well as advanced graduate students. By use of the line transect one can determine with accuracy and speed the variance and frequence of plants which in turn are indicative of the successional stage. In using a line transect one works along a rope which is stretched from waters edge on back into the more mature stages where trees are present. A record is made of all plants and animal signs which are found along the line and are in actual contact with the rope. It is useful to estimate the percentage of the line which is occupied �k each type 6f plant and also the amount of unoccupied space between plants. In order for groups to gather data very rapidly, it is possible for a group to gather data from every fifth meter and still' obtain a useful picture.of the vegetational variation.. One method of recording data is exemplified on the following sheets. A simple drawing of the general plant form is particularly useful for young students who may be able to do only a minimum of plant identification. Additional data relating to soil conditions, tem- perature, wind etc. may be gathered at desired intervals which may be at least S meters apart. Separate sheets are provided for the recording of data. The line on the sheet represents the transect line which is marked in meter units. It is important to indicate elevation changes along the transect line by either-dTawing an elevation line or recording ele- vation data. 'Books with references to using transects: .0oating, Henry J. 1956. The Study of Plant Communities. W.'E. Freeman & Co., San Francisco. Collis, Margaret. 1974. Using the. Environment, 3, Tackling Problems, Part 2. Macdonald Educational. London. LINE TRANSECT RECORD SHEET STATION DATA_-Station No. STATION bATA--Station No. Temperature TeTp Lratare Air Temperature Air.tomperature soil surface temperature Soil surface temperature Soil temperature 3 cm down $Oil ItempeTature 3 cm down Soil temperature 20 cm down Soil [email protected] 20 cm down Soil Soil Desci-iption surface Description surface 3 cm 3 cm 20 cm, 20 cm, Soil moisture t surface soil moisture our f OLce 3 cm 3 cm 20 cm 20 Cm Wind direction Wind direction Wind speed wind speed Dol/er 5-4-77 DATA-Station-No. STATION STATION [email protected] Temperature Temperature Air Temperature. [email protected] -L' Air t6mp Soil surface temperature Soil iBurface tPMP 9r*iuvil. Soil temperature 3 cm down Soil temperature,:@,@M own' Soil temperat a 20'em down 20.,Om down Soil temperaturet, Soil Soil iption surf Descr aCe tion SUrfaCe, -Descrip 3 cis. 20 9M 20 CM, .. .. . .... Soil moisture aW PLc9 Soil moisture surf 409',` CM, c 20 cn; .... .. ... . Wind direction io, Wind direct n @X", . Wind speed Wind speed q DoI/er 7. @1 1, .5-4-77 "A Key to Some of The Plants Most Commonly Observed in June in the Sandy Areas of Illinois Beach State Park" Plants woody (trees and shrubs) 2. Trees (having one main woody stem) 3. Leaves deeply divided or lobed 4. Leaves with large teeth and bristles on the teeth S. [email protected] branches spreading, bark black and deeply furrowed Black Oak - Quercus velutin;.t S. Lower branches drooping, bark brown and not as deeply furrowed - Pin Oak - Quercus paluatris 4.. Leaves with rounded teeth or lobes and without bristles Bur Oak - Quercus macrocarpa 3. Leaves not deeply divided or lobed, Populus sp. 2. Shrubs and vines (having numerous woody stems) 6. Stems vihe like trailing over ground or climbing, bunches of small white flowers .7.. Leaves toothed, sometimes 3 - lobed Wild Grape. - Vitis sp. 7. Leaves formed of 3 distinct leaflets, leaflets often have "thumb" lobes - Poison-ivy Rhus radicans 6. Stems not vine like and climbing 8. Leaves needle like (evergreens) 9. Branches trailing along the ground, usually less than one foot tall - Trailing Juniper Juniperus. horizontalis 9. Branches upright to spreading but u-sual,ly more than one foot tall - Low Juniper - Juniperus canadensis 8. Leaves blade like, flattened. 10. Branches trailing along the ground, leaves leathery, most berries green in June., red when mature Bearberry Arctos.taphylos Uva-ursi 10. Branches upright. 11. Flowering.in late.June 12. Flowers pink, stems with thorns, some red fruits remaining from previous year Wild Rose Rosa sp. -2- 12. Flowers white, small, in bunches 13. Leaves simple, flowers in bunches at end of present years growth-Inland New Jersey Tea - Ceanothus ovatus 13. Leaves compound,'3 - leaflets, leaflets often have "thumb" lobes Poison ivy - Rhus radicans 11. Fruiting in late June (green) 14. Fruit a one seeded drupe (like a cherry-outer part fleshy and inner part one-hard seed) 15. Fruits in clusters of 2 to 4 along branches - Sand Cherry Pruaus pumila 15. Fruits in elongate bunches (raceme) at-.the end of the Youngest twigs - Chokecherry - Prunus virgirrians 14. Fruits in a.,,s,pike (ma,ny..fruits.gro.wing next,.to,.:each other on one "stem") leaves usually narrow Willow - Salix sp. 1. Plants herbaceous ( not hard woody stems that remain alive year after year) 16. 'Stems broad, flattened, fleshy, evergreen and bearing spines prickly pear cactus 02untis compressa 16. Stems rounded (or tiiangular) 17. Stems segmented, grooved, rough to touch, no evident leaves-- Horsetail - Equisetum sp. 17. Stems with branches or leaves (leaves may all be at base of stem) 18. Plants grass like with long narrow leaves 19. Flowers with obvious colored petals 20. Petals blue (rarely white) Blue-eyed grass- Sisyrinchium sp. (not a grass - Iris-family) 20. Petals yellow -'Stargrass - Hypoxis hirsuta (hot a grass - Ameryllis family) 19. Flowers Without obvious colored petals grasses,hedges. or rushes 21. @[email protected] (nodes usually,not c,onspicuous) 22. Stem extending many inches beyond flower bunches which branch and spread to one side of stem Rush Juncus sp. 3- 22. Stem not extending beyond flowers or fruits which are compacted into a "head" or spikelet. 23. Spikelets of "male" and "female" flowers on distinct, separate short stalks, stems often triangular - Sedge - Carex sp. 23. Spikelet solitary, terminal, each tiny flower having both "male" and "female"-parts - Spike Rush - El*eocharis sp. 21. Stems usually hollow except at the conspicuous nodes - Grasses (the following includes only three of the most conspicuous grasses of the open sand dune area.) 24. Gr'ass in large bunches, stems with blue tinge - Little Blue Stem - Andropogon scoparius 24. Grass with one or only a few stems together, sandy spaces between stems, found near open beach 25. Panicle spike-like (flowers and seeds from last year are bunched tightly together) Beach Grass - Amnophila breviligulata Fern. 2S. Panicle open (flowers and seeds from last year on very tiny branches) @- Sand Reed Grass - Ca:lanovilfa longifolia (Hook.) Scribn. 18. Plants not grass like, having broad or divided leaves or if leaves are narrow, they are abundant all along the main stem. 26. Plants flowering in late June. 27. Flowers white, small 28. Petals 3 or 4, stems weak, square or 4-angled, leaves in whorls --Bed Straw - Galium sp. 28. Petals or petal like structures S 29. Leaves opposite (with short leafy shoots in the axils) stems 1 to 4 dm. long Stiff Sandwort - Arenaria Stricte 29. Leaves along stem alternate (leaves of the inflores- cence may be alternate or opposite) stems 3-10 dm. long, with.milky sap Flowering Spurg Muphorbia corollata 27. Flowers not white 30. Flowers. pale redpurple, [email protected] blue. 31.. Flowers*3 pa.-rted,,.blue to pink Spiderwort Tradescantla sp. 3.1. [email protected]:5 parted, red-purple-Downy Phlox Phlox Pil.osa -4- 30. Flowers yellow to greenish yellow or greenish white 32. Flowers hanging down from leaf axils, yellowish to greenish white, leaves broad and parallel veined True Solomon's Seal P"l @nat,um s.p. 32. Flowers terminal, bright yellow 33. Flowers in an umbel, each flower small Meadow parsnip Thaspium trifoliatum 33. Flowers not in an umbel 34. Flowers of a composite (daisy like) having both disk and ray flowers 35. Heads few or solitary, basal leaves spatulate to linear, stem leaves similar - Tickseed - C*oreopsis lanceolata 35. Heads several to numerous, basal leaves heart sha ped, stem leaves divided - Golden Ragwort Senecio aureus 34. Flowers not of a c omposite, each flower having S petal lobes 36. Petal lobes with teeth-Narrow Leaved Pucoon Lithospermum incisum 3,6. Petal lobes entire (no teeth) stem and leaves soft pubescent Hoary Pucoon - Lithospermum canescens 26. Plants not flowering in late June 37. Plants in fruit, berries terminal, leaves parallel veined 38. Berries with dark stripes. numerous leaves, - False Solomon Seal-- Smilacina stellata. 38. Berries without stripes, few leaves, smaller plants - False Lilly-of-the-valley-.- Maianthemum canadenoe 37. Plant not in fruit ..39. Leaves silver-grey, narrowly divided Wormwood Artemisia caudata 39. Leaves otherwise (any one of several hundred different plants) Materials to help teach the use of keys and grouping by characteristics From Scinece Curriculum Improvement Study (Rand McNally) Objects Ch-3 .,p28, Grandmas Button Box 'From Elementary Science Study (McGraw-Hill) Rocks and Charts-Unit Attribute Games and Problems (A-games, People Pieces, Color Cubes) From Time, Space and Matter (McGraw-Hill) Jr. High Teacher Folia - Investigation 4 AW CHICAGO Hog Butcher for the World, Toolmaker, Stacker of Wheat, Player with Railroads and the Nation's Freight Handler; Stormy, husky, brawling, City of the Big Shoulders: They tell me you are wicked and I believe them, for I have seen your painted women under the gas lamps luring the farmboys. And they tell me you are crooked and I answer: Yes, it is true I have seen the gunman kill and go free to kill again., And they tell me you are brutal and my reply is: On the faces of women and children I have seen the marks of wanton hunger. And having answered so I turn once more to those who sneer at this my city, and I give them back the sneer and say to them: Come and show me another city with lifted head singing so proud to be alive.and course and strong and cunning. - Flinging magnetic curses amid the toil of piling job on job, here is a,tall bold slugger set vivid against the little soft cities; Fierce as a dog with tongue lapping for action, cunhing as a Isavage pitted against the wilderness, Bareheaded, Shoveling, Wrecking, Plann'ing, Building breaking, rebuilding, Under the smoke, dust all over his mouth, laughing with white teeth, Under the terrible burden of destiny laughing as a young man laughs, Laughing even as an ignorant fighter laughs who has never lost ,a battle, Bragging and laughing that under his wrist is the pulse, and, under his ribs the heart of the people, Laughing! Laughing the stormy, husky, brawling laughter of Youth, half-naked, sweating, proud to be Hog Butcher, Toolmaker, Stacker of Wheat, Player with Railroads, and Freight Handler to the Nation. "Chicago" from Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg, CLEAN CURTAINS. New neighbors came to the corner house at Congress and Green Streets. The look of their clean white curtains was the same as the rim of a nun's bonnet. One way was an oyster-pail factory, one way they made candy, one way paper boses,lstrawboard.cartons. The warehouse trucks shook the dust of the ways loose and the wheels whirled dust - there was dust of hoof and wagon wheel and rubber tire - dust of police and fire wagons - dust of the winds that circled at midnight and noon listening to no prayers. - "0 mother, I know the heart of you," I sang passing the rim of a nun's bonnet - 0 white curtains - and people clean as the prayers of Jesus here in the faded ramshackle at Congress and Green. Dust and the'thundering trucks won the barrages of the street wheels and the lawless wind took their way - was it five weeks or six [email protected] little mother,-the new neighbors, battled and then took away the,white prayers in the windows? .."Clean Curtains" is from Sandburg's Smoke and Steel. 2 THE COPPERFACES, THE RED MEN The copperfaces,the red men, handed us tobacco, the weed for the pipe of friendship, also the bah-tah-to, the potato, the spud. Sunflowers came from Peruvians in Ponchos. Early Italians taught us of chestnuts, walnuts and peaches being Persian momentos, Siberians finding for us what rye might do, Hindus coming through with the cucumber, Egyptians giving us the onion, the pea, Arabians handing advice with one gift: "Some like it, some say it's just spinach." To the Chinese we have given kerosene, bullets, Bibles and .they have.given us radishesi soy beans, silk, poems, paintings, proverbs, porcelain, egg foo yong, gunpowder, Fourth of July firecrackers, fireworks And labor gangs for the first Pacific railways. Now we may thank these people or reserve our thanks and speak of them as outsiders and imply the request, "Would you just as soon get off the earth?" holding ours-elves aloof in pride*bf distinction waying to ourselves this costs us nothing as though hate has no cost as though hate ever grew anything worth growing. Yes we may say-this trash is beneath our notice or we may hold them in [email protected] and affection as fellow creepers on a commodious planet saying, "Yes you too you too are people." The Copperfaces, the Red Men, from The People, Yes by Carl Sandburg IT IS A STRANGE THING TO BE AN AMERICAN It is 'a strange thing to -be...-an "American. it is strange to sleep in the bare stars and to die On an open land where few bury before us: (From the new earth the dead return no more). It is strange to be born of no race and no people. In the old lands they are many together. They keep The wise past and the words spoken in common. They remember the dead with their hands, their mouths dumb. They answer each other with two words in their meeting. They live together in small things. They eat The same dish, their drink is the same and their proverbs. Their youth is like. They are like in their waY3 Of love. They are many men. There are always others beside them. Here it is one man and another and wide On the darkening hills the faint smoke of the houses. -Here, -.it is, [email protected]@--.Man. and. the.: wind In -the boughs. "It Is a Strange Thing - to Be an American" from American Letter by Archibald MacLeish. ONE WANTS A TELLER IN A-TIME LIKE THIS -One's not a man, one's not a woman grown, To bear enormous business all alone. One cannot walk this winding street with pride, Straight-shouldered, tranquil-eyed, Knowing one knows for sure the way back home. One wonders if one has a home. One is not certain if or why or how. One wants a Teller now: Put on your rubbers and you won't catch cold. Here's hell, there's heaven. Go to Sunday School. Be patient, time brings all good things - (and cool Strong balm to calm the burning at the brain?) 'Behold, Love's true, and triumphs; and God's actual. "One wants a Teller in a time like this." from Annie Allen by Gwendolyn Brooks ON THE BEACH AT NIGHT On the beach at night, Stands a child with,her.father, Watching the east, the autumn sky. Up through the darkness, While ravening clouds, the burial clouds, in black masses spreading, Lower sullen and fast athwart and down the sky, Amid a transparent clear belt of ether yet left in-the east, Ascends large and calm the lord-star Jupiter, And nigh at hand, only a very little above, Swim the delicate sisters the Pleiades. From the beach the child holding the hand of her father, Those burial clouds that lower victorious soon to devour all, Watching, silently weeps. Weep not, child, Weep not; my darling, With these kisses let me remove your tears, The ravening clouds shall not long be victorious; They shall not long possess the sky, They devour the stars only in apparition, Jupiter shall emerge, be patient, watch again another night, The Pleiades shall emerge, They are iminortal, all those stars both silvery and golden Shall shine out again, The great stars and the little ohes.shall shine out again, They endure, I The vast immortal suns and the long-enduring pensive moons shall again shine. Then,dearest child mournest thou only for Jupiter? Considerest thou alone the burial of the stars? Something there is (With my lips soothing thee, adding I whisper, I give thee the first suggestion, the problem and indirection), Something there is more immortal even than the stars,. (Many the burials, many the days and nights, passing away,) Something that shall endure longer even than lustrous Jupiter, Longer than sun or..,any revolving satellite, Or the radiant sisters the Pleiades. Pleiades: the cluster of stars called "The Seven.-Sisters." "On.the Beach at Night" from Leaves of Grass by Walt Whitman -S 2 TO MAKE A PRAIRIE To make a prairie it takes a clover And one bee - one clover, and a bee, And reverie. The reverie alone will do If bees are few. WHEN I HEARD THE LEARN'D ASTRONOMER When I heard the learn'd astronomer, When the proofs, the figures, were ranged in columns before me, ilhen *-I was -shown -the -charts -,and diagrams, to add, divide, and measure them, When I was sitting heard the astronomer where he lectured with much applause in the lecture room, How soon unaccountable I became tired and sick, Till rising and gliding out I wandered off by myself, In the mystical moist night air, and from time to time, Looked up in perfect silence at the stars. 6 On one dark night at Lac St. Claire De win' she blo' blol, blo An de crew of de wood scow, Julie Plante, Get scar an' run below. De win' she blow lak hurricane; By-n-by she blo' some more; An' de scow bus' up on Lac St. Claire Tree acre from de shore. Sailors' Song More than a century ago the Chippeway chief Kichiwiski paddled a canoe from Duluth to Buffalo, and then walked on to Washington to attend a Congressional conference on Indian affairs. When the conference was over he walked back to Buffalo, pushed his canoe out of a screen of willows and paddled the 988 miles back to Duluth. He found the lakes a convenient route to travel. They were a highway, unique in the geography of the earth, linkitg widely separated regions, ready to carry an Indian on an errand or the bulk commerce of the age of steel. Walter Havighurst The Long.Ships Passing Off on the lakes the pike-fisher watches and waits by the hole iii the frozen surface, The stumps stand thick round the clearing, the squatter strikes deep with his axe. Walt Whitman "Song of Myself" Early the red men gave a name to a river, the place of the skunk, the river of the wild onion smell, Shee.-caw-go. -Carl Sandburg "The Windy City" 7 many moons ago, when the Indian people owned all the land from the Manitoulin to the Blue'Mountains, tkibes'lived-within a few atrows' flight of one another. There were many wars... Toward the end of the eighteenth century, the son of a powerful tribal chief *fell in love with the daughter of another chief, and ran away with her. The lovers travelled by canoe. Soon the maiden's father assembled his warriors and set off after them ... The young lover remembered the Island of the Caves and hurried there to hide his sweetheart...But the maiden's father had also thought of this ... The young brave was killed, and the maiden died of a broken heart. Since that time, Indians have called the island the Island -.of the _Flower @Pots., T;and they-,claim that -the two flower-pot formations are the stone spirits of the young Indian lovers. To them that island is a forbidden place, and they will not set foot on its shore. Melba Croft Tall Tales & Collections of the Georgian Bay In the late 1800s the catches of sturgeon in each of the major Lakes exceeded a million pounds a year - and these figures do not include the uncounted numbers that were simply killed and not marketed. Old residents of lake fishing ports recall seeing sturgeon piled up on the beaches like cordwood, doused with kerosene, and burned. James P. Barry The Fate of the Lakes Lake Huron.rolls, Superior.sings in the rooms of her ice water mansion. Old Michigan steams like a young man's dreams; the islands and bays are for sportsmen. And further.below Lake Ontario takes in what Lake Erie can send.her, and the iron boats go as the mariners all know with the Gales of November remembered. The,legend lives on from the Chippeway on down of the big lake they called "gitche Gumee." "Superiori" they said, "never gives up her dead when the Gales of November come early!" Gordon Lightfoot 8 - "The Wreck Of the Edmund Fitzgerald" A second sky spread at the city's feet.... Howard Spencer Fiske "An Ode to Lake Michigan" Lake Michigan has always been one of ourmost treasured assets and we deeply cherish it '. We have generally prevented industry from building along the Chicago shore and thereby preserved its value as a source of recreation for the people of Chicago. Virtually all of Chicago's 29 miles of shoreline are devoted to public use including some 30 bathing beaches and eight marinas. Former Mayor Richard J. Daley There is no need to review the danger signs we've all seen... the signs on beaches in many areas saying, "No swimming - Polluted". We all remember the recent nuisance of dead alewives, the unseemly sight of weeds and algae along the shore and the massive oil slicks of only last summer. Former Mayor Richard J. Daley In some unused lagoon, some nameless bay, On sluggish, lonesome waters, anchor'd near the shore, An old, dismasted, gray and batter'd ship, disabled, done, After free voyages to all the seas of earth, haulld up at last and hawser's tight, lies rusting, mouldering. Walt Whitman "The Pismantled Ship" Sport fishing is nearer the heart of the average man than is commercial fishing. Whether he sits on a harbor breakwater fishing forcarp or goes out in a powerful,boat with compli- cated equipment in search of trout or walleye, the sport fisherman engages in a personal adventure. Even when he comes back empty handed he has.gained something. Perhaps.the final sizzle of fish in a pan is.the least important part of the sport. James P. Barry The Fate of the Lakes 9 Here were oaks partly clothes in red and brown, a flash of red in the top of the sumach, blueberries and black- berries in.ted-and russet, touches of dogwood, gray aspen, red maple and shad, weird shapes of sour gum, and thousands of red tips of the swamp rose. But the most poetic of all the foreground carpeted with delicate rose colored grasses, now made more vivid by the brilliant light of dawn and amonst the grasses glistened millions of rosy diamonds, the first frost of the year. Jens Jensen The Dunes Dawn It has been decided to construct and put in operation a new plant to be located on the south shore of Lake Michigan in Calumet -,Town-ship, @., Lake rCounty, -Indiana, @, and a large acreage of land has been purchased for that purpose. Judge Elbert H. Gary U. S. Steel Corporation Annual Report some bon't Want Dunes In Indiana (To the Tun6 ot"Back Home Again in Indiana") Some don't want dunes in Indiana; Some want steel mills spreading smog Across the bathing beach, on top of trees, And killing grogs in bogs! ...Some ones get rich in.Indiana, While the people pay the bills! Take a good last look upon.the sunny sand dunes, For they soon may be leveled'by steel mills! Pat Walsh First, we have a remarkable example of Dunes,. a shifting, moving, living landscape; a natural phenomenon which in, itself holds much scientific interest as well as beauty. We have, as a result of the Glaciers many hundreds of years ago, a rare collection of Southern Flora which was deposited here and which can be found no further North.; and Northern Flora which was deposited here and which can be found no further,South. Senator Paul Douglas Speech in Senate, May 26, 1958 10 INDIANS by*John Fandel Margaret mentioned Indians, and I began to think about Indians Indians once living where now we are living - And I thought how little I know about Indians. Oh, I know What I have heard. Not much, when I think how much I wonder about them, when a mere mention of them, Indians, starts me. I think of their wigwa]ms. I think-of canoes. I think of quick arrow. I think Of things Indian. And still I think of their bright, still Summers, when these hills and meadows on these hills Shone in the morning suns before this morning. LULLABY by Robert Hillyer The long canoe Toward the shadowy shore, One ... two..'. Three-fout... The paddle dips, Turns in the wake, Pauses, then Forward again. Water drips From the blade to the lake. Nothing but that, No sound of wings; The'own and bat Are velvet things. No wind awakes, No fishes leap; No rabbits creep Among the brakes. The long canoe At the shadowy shore, One ... two... Three... four... A murmur now Under the prow Where.rushes bow To le -t-us through. One... two... Upon the shore, Thre... four... Upon the lake, No one's awake, No-one's awake, One ... two... No one, not even you. A strong norlwester's blowin', Bill! Hark! don't ye hear it roar now? Lord help lem, how I pities them Unhappy,folks on-shore now! The wind's nortwest and a-blowing all night, See them big seas roll with their bonnets all white! And far o'er our starbIrd rail Is half a hundred sail. Hooray! For a sail down the lakes. The lake freighter,is a specialized ship developed to meet conditions found on these waters. It is quite different from the usual ocean-going cargo ship; when ..-.one -occasionally:-,sees, [email protected] a,di-stant. -sa-l-t-water port a lake freighter that somehow has strayed into ocean trade, there still is no questions as to where and how she began her career. The flat sides; wheelhouse in the bows; long, open deck; engine room in the stern all these are the marks recognized the world over, of the Great Lakes freighter. James P. Barry The Fate of the Lakes And he wore cdol cream pants, the Mayor of Gary, and white shoes, and a barber had fixed him up with a shampoo and a shave and he was easy and imperturbable though the government weather bureau thermometer said 96 and children were soaking their heads at bubbling fountains on the street corners. Carl Sandburg "The Mayor of Gary" Am I asking too much?. Of any Sunday-morning balloon-man's spring in Chicago, that it fill the wishes of all young .men in landlocked bars a little, waiting for their lifelong lives to start? Orraise the hopes of Sunday-morning.sidestreet solitaries all over town, to let them drift slowly and low...toward that wonderful garden where all things are possible? To -all-those,[email protected]@merely waiting for rain or bread or love or peace with a pinch of the salt of magic in it that will last till the big dark falls. Nelson Algren 12 The Last Carousel A power-house in the shape of a red brick chair 90 feet high on the seat of which sit the figures of two metal stacks - aluminum commanding an area of squalid shacks side by side - from one of which buff smoke streams while under a grey sky the other remains passive today William Carlos Williams "Classic Scene" THE MOSQUITO by John Updike On the fine wire of her whine she walked, Unseen in the ominous bedroom dark. � traitor to her camouflage, she talked � thirsty blue streak distinct as a spark. I was to her a fragrant lake of blood From which she had to sip a drop or die. A reservoir, a lavish field of food, I lay awake, unconscious of my size. .We,,seemed fair-matched-opponents. -Soft she dropped Down like an Anchor on her thread of song. Her nose sank thankfully in; then I slapped At the sting on my arm, cunning and strong. A cunning, strong Gargantua, I struck This lover pinned in the feast of my flesh, Lulled by my blood, relaxed, half-sated, stuck Engrossed in the gross rivers of myself.. Success! Without a cry the creature died, Became a fleck of fluff upon the sheet. The small welt of remorse subsides a-s side By side we, murderer and murdered, sleep. THE ORB WEAVER By Robert Francis @Here is the spinner, the orb weaver, devised of jet, Embossed with sulphur, hanging among the fruits of summer, Hour after hour serenely sullen, ripening as September ripens, Plumping like a grape or melon. And in its winding-sheet The grasshopper. The art, the craftsmanship, the cunning, the patience, the Self-control, the waiting, the sudden dart and the needled poison. I have no quarrel with the spider but with the.mind or mood That made her to thrive in nature and in man's nature. 14 ODE TO THE AMOEBA by Arthur Guiterman Recall from Time's abysmal chasm That piece of primal protoplasm The First Amoeba, strangely splendid, From whom we're all of us descended. That First Amoeba, weirdly cleve, Exists today and shall forever, Because he reproduced by fission; He split himself, and each division And subdivision deemed it fitting To keep on splitting, splitting, splitting; So, whatsoe'er their billions be, All, all amoebas still are he. Zoologists discern his features In every sort of breathing 'creatures, Since all of every living species, No matter how their breed increases Or how their ranks have been recruited, From him alone were evoluted. King Solomon, the Queen of Sheba And Hoover sprang from that amoeba; Columbus, Shakespeare, Darwin, Shelley Derived from that same bit of jelly. So famed he is and well-connected, His statue ought to be erected, For you and I and William Beebe Are undeniably amoebae! SEAGULLS by Frances Higginson Savage Two medicos, immaculate in gray Hold converse on the pilings of the quai. Each eyes the other with a chilly glance, As rivals will, of deep malevolence; Each then.propounds his learned diagnosis: "Ulcer," screams one;,the other shrieks, "Cirrhosis!" Then, since the conference.will not agree, Professionally cool, they fly away. FISH STORY by Richard Armour Count this among my heartfelt wishes: To hear a fish tale told by fishes And stand among the fish who doubt The honor of a fellow trout, And watch the bulging of their eyes To hear of imitation flies And worms with rather droopy looks Stuck through with hateful, horrid hooks, And fishermen they fled all day from (As big as this) and got away from. ANGLER'S CHOICE by H. J. Gottlieb These he cast where the pool lay still Under a lichened ledge: Silver Doctor, Olive Quill, Ibis, Lady Beaverkill, And a Dark Blue Sedge. These he chose for the stony flat Spanned.by the covered bridge: Royal Coachman, Cahill, Gnat, March Brown, Little Marryat, And a Berry Midge. These he tried in the fading light Down by the alder thicket: Yellow Sally, Sandy Mike, Wickham's Fancy, Cocky Knight, And a real, live cricket. THE FISHER by Lyle.Glazier At half past four, mornings in June, he met the sliding Whispery sound of Four Mile Brook, and liked the tune, And liked the log road, morning-hushed; His bare feet liked the dew-soaked ground. At half past ten, he.was headed for hom, having tried His last last-hole for luck; The heat and noise of the day had come, but his bones were cool with the brookside shade, And his ears kept the whirlpool's silvery suck. 16 BY THE SWIMMING by Robert Sward By the Swimming The sand was wetter The farther down you dug; I dug: My head and eat on top of the sand, my hand felt water... And the lake was blue not watching. The water was just waiting there In the sand, like a private lake. And no one could kick sand into my digging, and the.water Kept going through my fingers slow Like the sand, and the sand was water too. And then the wind was blowing everyplace, And the sand smelled like the lake, Only wetter. It was raining then: Everybody was making waxpaper noises, And sandwiches, kicking sand And 'running with newspapers on their heads-, And all the sand turned brown and gtuck together Hard: and the sky was lightning,'and the sun Looked down sometimes to see how dark it was And to make sure the moon wasn't there. And then we were running: and everybody*was under The hotdog-tent eating things, spitting very mad And waiting for the sky, and to go home. 17 CROWS by David McCord I like to walk and hear the black crows talk. I like to lie and watch crows sail the sky. I like the crow that wants the wind to blow: I like the one that thinks the wind is fun. I like to see crows spilling from a tree, and try to find the top crow left behind. I like to hear crows caw that spring is near. I like the great wild clamor of crow hate Three farms away when owls are out by day. I like the slow tired homeward-flying crow; I like the sight of crows for my good night. [email protected]@[email protected],WITH.. FROGS by Sy Kahn Under his relentless eye, jarred and jeered, The small.frogs hop and pulse in their Suddenly glass world. He, blohd and curious, captive.and captivated, Holds in his hands world of water, pebbles, grass And the power of topsy-turvy and crash. But he is content to study them a while, With their delicate legs pressed against the glass, The futile leaps to freedom and their frantic eyes.. It's a game for a God of course. Later, the vibrant frogs, still leaping with protest 'And life, are forgotten on a shelf.. He is out Wondering about the waterbugs. 18 DEPOT IN A RIVER TOWN by Miller Williams In the depot and the darkened day the clack of an old pinball machine demands a cui;ious notice. More sleeping than not a satchel faced farmer makes noises. A sailor circles like a child,in church. In the depot and the darkened day I surrender my back to the imperative bench, unlistening hear the emphatic pencil tap itself on the table. The little blonde reads and fingers the cloth of her blouse like a nun telling beads. Cracked across after an ancient painting the face of the woman with children* ignores and ignores. There is fog at the windows and the open doors. Within the ear's rim rises a.separate sound. Wood slapping side slipping water sounds settle me deep. I feel again the penny in my pocket and the slow sleep of the river wraps me round. 19 REFLECTIONS ON A GIFT OF WATERMELON PICKLE RECEIVED FROM A FRIEND CALLED FELICITY by John, Tobias During that summer when unicorns were still possible; When the purpose of knees was to be skinned; When shiny horse chestnuts (Hollowed out fitted with straws crammed with tobacco stolen from butts in family ashtrays) Were puffed in green lizard silence While straddling thick branches far above and away From the softening effects of civilizat.ion; During that summer - which may never have been at all; But which has become more real than the one that was.- Watermelons ruled. -Thick, pink i perial slices. ;mel-I-ing. f rigidly on sun-parched tongues Dribbling from chins; leaving the best part, The black bullet seeds, to be spit out in rapid fire Against the sall, against the wind, against each other;- And when the ammunition was spent, there was always another bite: it was a summer of limitless bites, of hungers quickly felt and'quickly forgotten with the next careless gorging. The bites are fewer now. Each one is savored lingeringly, swallowed reludtantly. But in a jar put up by Felicity, the summer which maybe never was Has been captured and preserved. And when we unscrew the lid and slice off a piece And let it linger on our tongue: Unicorns become possible again. WILD GOOSE .by Curtis Heath. He climbs the wind above green clouds of pine, Honking to hail the gathering migration, And, arching toward the south, pulls to align His flight into the great spearhead formation. He'll find a bayou land of hidden pools, And bask amid lush fern and water lilly Far from the frozen world of earth-bound fools Who, shivering, maintain that geese are silly. 20 THE MICROSCOPE by Maxine Kumin Anton Leeuwenhoek was Dutch. He sold pincushions, cloth, and such. The waiting townsfolk fumed and fussed As Anton's dry goods gathered dust. He worked, instead of tending store, At grinding special lenses'for A microscope. Some of-the things He looked at were: mosquitoes' wings, the hairs of sheep, the legs of lice, the-skin of people, dogs, and mice; ox eyes, spiders' spinning gear, fishes' scales, a little smear of his own blood, and best of all, the unknown, busy, very small bugs that swim and bump and hop inside a simple water drop. Impossible! -Most Dutchmen said. This Anton's crazy in the head. We ought to ship him off to Spain. He says he's seen a housefly's brain. He says the water that we drink Is full of bugs. He's mad, we think! They called him dumkopf, which means dope. That's how we got the microscope. LOST by Carl Sandburg Desolate and lone all night long on the lake Where fot trails and mist creeps, the whistle of a boat Calls and cries unendingly, like some lost child In tears and trouble hunting the harbor's breast And the harbor's eyes. 21 UNFOLDING BUD by Naoshi Koriyama one is amazed by a water-lily bud, unfolding, With each passing day, taking on a richer color And new dimensions. One is not amazed, at a first glance, by a poem, Which is as.tight-closed as a tiny bud. Yet one is surprised to see the poem gradually Unfolding, revealing its rich inner self, As one reads it again and over again. TO LOOK AT ANY THING by John Mo.f f it1t To look at any thing, If you would know that thing, You must look at it long: To look at this green and say 11 have seen spring in these Woods', will not do - you must Be the thing you see: You must be the dark snakes of Stems and ferny plumes of leaves, You must enter in To the small silences between The leaves, You must take your time And touch the very peace They issue from. RESUME by Dorothy Parker Razors pain you; Rivers are damp; Acids stain you; And drugs cause cramp. Guns aren't lawful; Nooses give; 'Gas smells awful; You might as well live. 22 A VALIDICTORY TO STANDARD OIL OF INDIANA by,David Wagoner In the darkness east of Chicago, the sky burns over the plumbers' nightmares Red and blue, and my hometown lies there loaded with gasoline. Registers ring like gas-pumps, pumps like pinballs, pinballs like broken alarm clocks, And it's-time for morning, but nothing's going to work. From cat-cracker to candle-shop, from grease-works along the pipeline, Over storage tanks like kings on a checkerboard ready to jump the county, The word goes out: With refined regrets We suggest you sleep all day in your houses-shaped like lunch buckets 'And don't show up at the automated gates. Something else will tap the gauges without yawning And check the valves at the feet of the cooling-towers without complaining. Standard Oil is canning my high school classmates And the ones who fell out of junior high or slipped in the grades. What should they do, gassed up in their Tempests and Comets, raring to go* Somewhere with their wives scowling in front and kids stuffed in the back, Past drive-ins jammed like car-lots, trying to find the beaches But blocked by freights for hours, stopped dead in their tracks Where the rails, as thick.as thieves along the lakefront, Lower their crossing gates to shut the frontier? What can they think.about As they stare at the side of boxcars for a sign, And Lake Michigan drains slowly into Lake Huron, The mills level the Dunes, and the eels go sailing through the trout, And mosquitoes inherit the evening, while toads no bigger than horseflies Hop crazily after them over the lawns and sidewalks, and the rainbows fall 23 A Validictory to Standard Oil of Indiana (Page 2) Flat in the oil they came from? There are two towns now, One dark, one going to be dark, divided by cyclone fences; One papered and cared for like pillboxes and cathedrals, The other vanishing overnight in the dumps and swamps like a struck sideshow. As the Laureate of the Class of '44 - which doesn't know it has one - I offer this poem, not from hustings or barricades Or the rickety stage where George Rogers Clark stood glued to the wall, But from another way out, like Barnum's "This Way to the Egress," Which moved the suckers when they'd seen enough, Get out of town. 24 THE PICNIC by John Logan It is the picnic with Ruth in the spring. Ruth was third on my list of seven girls But the first two were gone (Betty) or else Had someone (Ellen has accepted Doug). Indian Gully the last day of school; Girls make the lunches for the boys too. I wrote a note to Ruth in algebra class Day before the test. She smiled, and nodded. We-left the cars and walked through the young corn The shoots green as paint and the leaves like tongues Trembling. Beyond the fence where we stood Some wild strawberry flowered by an' elm tree And Jack-in-the-pulpit was olive ripe. A blackbird fled.as I* crossed, and showed A spot of gold or red under its quick wing. I held,the wire for Ruth and watched the whip Of her long, striped skirt as she followed. Three feckles blossomed on her thin, white back Underneath the loop where the blouse buttoned. We went for our lunch away from the rest, Stretched in the new grass, our heads close Over unknown things wrapped up in wax papers. Ruth-tried for the same, I.-forget what it was, And our hands were together. She laughed, And a breeze caught the edge of her little Collar and the edge of her brown, loose hair That touched my cheek. I turned my face into the gentle fall. *1 saw how sweet it smelled. She didn't move her head or take her hand. I felt a soft caving in my stomach As at-the top of the highest slide When I had been a child, but was not afraid, And idd*not know why my eyes moved with wet As I brushed her cheek with my lips and brushed Her lips with my own lips. She said to me Jack, Jack, different than I had ever heard, Because she wasn't calling me, I think, Or telling me. She used my name to Talk in another way I wanted to know. She laughed again and then she took her hand; I gave her what we both had touched - can't Remember when it-was., and weate the lunch. Afterward we walked in the small, cool creek Our shoes offj her skirt hitched, and she smiling, My pants folledf and [email protected] climbed up the high Side of Indian Gully and looked Where we had been, our hands.together again. 25 The Picnic (Page 2) It was then some bright thing came in my eyes, Starting at the back of them and flowing Suddenly through my head and down my arms And stomach and my bare legs that seemed not To stop in feet, not to feel the red earth Of the Gully, as though we hung in a Touch of birds. There was a word in my throat With the feeling and I knew the first time What it meant and I said, it's beautiful. Yes, she said, and I felt the sound and word In my hand join the sound and word in hers As in one name said, or in one cupped hand. We put back on our shoes and socks and we Sat in the grassawhile, crossleged, under A blowing . tree,. not saying, -anything. And Ruth played with shells she found inthe creek, As I watched. Her small wrist which was so sweet To me turned by her breast and the shells dropped Green, white blue, easily into her lap, Passing light through themselves. She gave the pale Shells to me, and got up and touched her hips With her.light hands,- and we walked down slowly To play the @chool games with the others. 26 THE,STONE by Paul Blackburn The stone found me in bright sunlight around 9th and Stuyvesant Streets and found, if not a friend, at least a travelling companion. Kicking, we crossed Third Avenue, then Cooper Square, avoiding the traffic in our oblique and random way, a cab almost got him, and I had to wait a few seconds, crowding in from the triangular portion edged about with signs, safety island, crossed Lafayette, him catching between the cobbles, then with a judicious blow from the toes of my foot (right), well, a soccer kick aiming for height, we cleared the curb and turned left down Lafette, that long block, with a wide sidewalk and plenty of room to maneuver in over metal cellar doorways or swinging out toward the curb edge. The low worn curb at 4th was a cinch to make, and at Great Jones Street the driveway into a gas station promised no impediment. But then he rolled suddenly to the right as though following an old gentleman in a long coat, and at the same time I was addressed by a painter I know and his girl on their way .to Washington Square, and as I looked up to answer, I heard the small sound. He had fallen in his run, into water gathered in a sunken plate which they lift to tighten or loosen something to do with the city water supply I think, and sank out of.sight. I splke to Simeon and Dee about a loft it turned out he hadn't gotten, but felt so desolate at having lost him they didn't stay.long, I looked at the puddle, explained held come all the way from beyond Cooper Square, they hurried away. 27 The Stone (Page 2) I supplise I could have used my hands, picked him out and continued, he'd have been dry by the time we got home, but just as I decided to abandon him the sun disappeared. I continued on down Bleecker finally, a warm front moving in from the west, the cirrus clotting into alto-cumulus, sun seeping through as the front thickened, but not shining, the air turned cool, and there were pigeons circling over the buildings at West Broadway, and over them a gull, a young man with a beard and torn army jacket walked a big mutt on a short leash teaching him to heel. 'The mutt- was fine, 'trbtting''alorigside, -nuzzling lightly at his master's chino pants, the young man smiled, the dog smiled too, and on they went. They had each other. I had left him there in the puddle, our game over, no fair using hands I.had.told myself. Not that he could have smiled. The sun gone in. He had been shaped like a drunken pyrami'd, irregularly triangular. I liked him. 28 .AN AMERICAN HERCULES BY James Stevens The Northwestern lumber camps gave American folklore the fabulous hero of tall tales, Paul Bunyan. James Stevens worked for many months in lumber camps in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho before retelling the best stories.about .the giant logger in his book PAUL BUNYAN. In "An American Hercules" Mr. Stevens has written especially for "Adventures in American Literature" an account of the way the Paul Bunyan legend developed, giving as an example of the stories a hitherto unrecorded yarn of typical flavor. Picture the proper setting for the tale, as Mr. Stevens describes it in the introduction to his book: "A Paul Bunyan bunkhouse service is a glory to hear, when it is spontaneous and in a proper setting; preferably around a big heated stove in the winter, when the wind is howing through crackling boughs outside and the pungent smell of steaming wool drifts down from the drying lines above the stove. When a vasy spirit of the woods really moves the meeting, a noble and expansive ecstasy of the soal is exhibited." Draw up your chair, stranger. Paul.Bunyan, the mythical hero of the lumberjacks, is the [email protected] American folklore. Paul was a Herculean logger who combed his beard with a young pine tree; who skidded his timber with Babe the Blue Ox, a creature so vast that he measured forty-two ax handles and a plug of chewing tobacco between the horns; who operated a camp cookhouse where the flapjack griddle was.greased by twenty-four Arabs,.- imported from the Sahara Desert because they could stand the heat - skating to.and fro with slabs of bacon strapped to their feet; who tamed the Mississippi when it, was young and wild by building river corrals and driving the river -z through their gates (the Great Lakes remain as evidence of this feat); who ruled the American country in the period when it was only a timberland. This epoch, according to the best authorities, began with the Winter of the Blue Snow and ended with the Spring the Rain Came Up from China... Here, indeed, is a full-bodied myth. The Paul Bunyan stories have been told in American logging camps since 1840. They are unquestionably of Canadian origin. There was a Paul Bunyan who won fame in the Papineau Rebellion of 1837.. Thereis no evidence that the beginnings of the stories-are beyond him. The other materials and characters of the myth were developed out of the magic of bunkhouse nights;.when the workday in the woods, or.on the iced.road, or on the drive,.was done;-when 29 the camp men, isolated from all life but that of the woods, bad no other outlet for their fancies than the creation of romances about their own life. Thus Paul Bunyan; Babe the Blue Ox; Johnny Inkslinger, the timekeeper who figured with a fountain pen fed by hose lines from twenty-four barrels of ink; Hels Helson, the Big Swede and bull of the woods, who muddied the Missouri River forever with one spring bath; and many smaller characters - such a 's Hot Biscuit Slim, the cook; Shanty Boy, the bard; and Big Ole, the blacksmith - have been celebrated in logging camps from Bangor, Maine, to Portland, Oregon. The tall tale, the tv whopper", is not confined, of course, to the lumber camps. It appears with the earliest accounts of the Appalachian .pioneers. It is forever present in the best writings of Mark Twain. Other mythical heroes have won a certain fame, such as Tony Beaver of the Virginia mountains and Pecos Bill, the Southwestern vaquero who once straddled a cyclone and rode 11n-ish. .,@Zut.the,'myth:[email protected],Paul Bunyan-stands alone, possessing, as it-does, its own time, place and people. The storeis are told in this manner. Supper is over in the logging camp, and the after-supper period of smoking and quiet is also done. A murmur of talk about the day's work rises from the gang around the heating stove. There is a strong smell of steaming wool from*the drying lines. Blue pipe smoke drifts through the mellow light of the Rochester burners. A gust of frosty air blows.in whenever the bunkhouse door is.opened. Some logger ventures the opinion that this will be the hardest winter this part of the country has ever known. Weather talk runs on until someone states soleumnly that "the weather ain't what she used to be. Gettin' old now, the weather is. Take the Year of the Two Winters, in Paul Bunyan's time. Yes, sir. Then. That year two winters come all at once.- Then there is a contest.to see who can tell the tallest tale about cold weather in the day of Paul Bunyan. Or is it a summer night, and the loggers are circuling a smudge fire outside the bunkhouse. Mosquitoes swarm up from the swamp below camp. So mosquito stories are in order. Any man is free to invent new Paul Bunyan yarns himself, or he can repeat the stories heard from other bards. Occasionally some bard is so inspired that his creation is never forgotten, and becomes a permanent addition to the Paul Bunyan myth. Such is the story of the mammoth mosquitoes and their amazing experiences with Bum and Bill, Paul Bunyan's battling bees. Here is the story. 30 It was in the Year of the Dry Summer that Paul Bunyan's loggers first encountered mosquitoes. That was the season Paul Bunyan invented thunder. Day after day, week after week, month after month, the,great hero-leader os the loggers toiled through experiments with all the sounds he could imagine. Just as cows, pigs,, dogs, hens, and ducks could be called, so could clouds be called, thought Paul Bunyan. Seventeen thousand various kinds of calls the-great logger tried that summer before he hit on the sound of thunder. Then his labors were rewarded. Paul Bunyan had not thundered once before a stray cloud rolled up from the west. He thundered on, and by midnight so many clouds had gathered that the.Dry Summer ended in a downpour that was a deluge instead of a rain. Ever since that parched season the weather has used the-thunder which Paul Bunyan invented for it. But Paul Bunyan had Qther troubles during this wretched summer. Time and again he had to quit his important labor of trying out sounds that would call up clouds, and attend to small bothers, some of all these troubles was the invasion of mosquitos. The mammoth mosquitoes came from the Tall Wolf country. There the tribe had experienced a devastating famifie. For the larger it grew, the smaller became the tribe of tall wolves, the mammoth mosquitos' natural prey. Eventually the last tall wolf was gone, and only a small company of female'mosquitoes was left from the once vast and powerful insect tribe. These females'were forced by hunger into migration. They were ready to fall and perish from exhaustion when they reached Paul Bunyan's loggers, who, stripped to the waist, were at work even on this, the hottest of the Dry Summer's days. Paul Bunyan was afar from his loggers at the mom eht, pondering deeply on the,problem of calling up the clouds. He failed to notice when the ring of axes and the drone of sawx were hushed. Not until agonizing yells arose from his loggers did the hero-leader realize that a new trouble had come to 'camp. Then he saw that his men were struggling for their-lives all through the timber five miles.away. Two strides and one leap, and Paul Bunyan was on the scene of battle. 31 Many of his loggers were already white and fait from the loss of blood, and the otherw were hacking desperately with their axes at the dodging, diving mosquitoes. Two of the mammoth winged females were sprawled lifelessly over some pine logs. others had.paused in [email protected] to bind up their split bills. The battle raged on. Paul Bunyan was so stirred with wrath at the sight that he [email protected] loosed a yell of astonishment and anger. The loggers, of course, were all lifted off their feet and then hurled to the ground by the force of that cyclonic voice; and the mammoth mosquitos instantly took advantage of this and plunged on the loggers with bloodthirsty hums. Each one held down seven or more men at once.and prepared to feast. For a moment Paul-Bunyan was in a panic. He thought of smashing the mosquitos with smacks of his hand but that would have crushed the loggers underneath. With a mighty effort, the great logger collected his wits. He had to think fast, and he did. Paul Bunyan was that -kind @of-man, , -A-nd. @at 'once ;he acted. What he did was to call for Babe the Blue Ox, whose ears were so far from his muzzle that he couldn't hear himself snort. As he approached, Babe saw what was needed for the emergency. He did not wait for orders. Without even a glance at Paul, the Blue Ox did a squads rightabout, halted,'straightened out his tail, and-began to flirt the mosquitoes off the prone loggers. with swishes of his huge tail brush. In one minute every 'frustrated mosquito was humming angrily in the.air and the- saved loggers were galloping for the protection of the bunkhouges. There they remained. All night the ravenous mammoth mosquitos maintained a deafening and ominous hum over the bunkhouses. Paul Bunyan listened. He figured and planned, the ideas for sounds to call clouds forgotten for the moment. At dawn Paul Bunyan had a satisfying idea. He called for Johnny Inkslinger, his timekeeper and man of science. "Johnny," said Paul, "you need a vacation." "Yes, sir, Mr. Bunya," said Johnny, but not very enthusiastically; for if there was anything he hated it was to leave his figures, his grand fountain pen and ink barrels. "A vacation," Paul Bunyan repeated firmly. "So a vacation you shall take. A hunting vacation, Johnny. I'm going to send you bee hunting." "MMr. Bunyan", said Johnny Inkslingger, "I am a good hunter and I like to hung., Why, once I found a moose who had -died of old age, found.his moldering bones, I did, and I tracked him to his birthplace. How's that for hunting, Mr. Bunyan?" said Johnny proudly. 'But then he looked doubtful. "I don't know @about [email protected],-though, Mr. Bunyan." 32 "You msut not only hunt bees, Johnny. You must trap 'em and tame lem." IINow, Mr. Bunyan, that's asking a lot," protested Johnny Inkslinger. "I never did claim. to be a bee trapper, or a bee tamer, either. Why pick on me, Mr. Bunyan?" "Don't question orders, Johnny," said Paul Bunyan, kindly but sternly. "You pack up now for a vacation in the Masto- donic Clover country. Once there, hunt, trap, and tame the two fightingest, savagest, irritablest, cantankerousest bees you can find. Then trot lem. home to camp." "Trot lem, Mr. Bunyan?" "Trot 'em, Johnny. Trot the bees." "Yes, sir," said Johnny; and.with a will, for he was senti- mental about obeying orders. When Johnny INkslinger was sent by Paul Bunyan to do anything, he did it. So he wasn't a day in the Mastodonic Clover country until he had hunted down, trapped, and tamed - as nearly as two such fighting, savage, irritable and cantankerous bees can be tamed - the two famous battling bees, Bvim and Bill. J`bhnny tamed the two bees so [email protected] allowd*d him to chain their wings to their bodies. They also trusted him with their stingers, which he put in his knapsack. Then Johnny Inkslinger put calked boots on the bees' hind feet, trotted them out of the clover country, trotted them all the way to camp, just as Paul Bunyan had ordered. Paul.Bunyan had a great hive ready for the two warrior. When their wings were unchained, Bum and Bill took off their calked boots, stretched their legs, ate a hearty meal of lump sugar, and turned in.for a refreshing sleep. The next morning they buzzed for their stingers at sunup and showed in other ways that they were eager for battle. Paul.Bunyan himself led them to the woods, for Johnny Inkslinger insisted on getting back to his figures at once. 33 Logging .had been continued under the tail of Babe the Blue Ox. For three days he had been swishing the ravenous mammoth mosquitoes.:away,from [email protected] -He was so-tail-weary that he welcomed Bum and Bill, the battling bees, with a joyful moo that shivered the timber for miles. The bees answered with buzzes of rage, and it required all of Paul Bunyan's bee-taming art to convince the fighting bees that Babe was a friend and not the enemy. Bum and Bill were still buzzing suspicion when they sighted the actual foe. Then, with a battle cry that sounded like the ra'sping roar of a band saw, Bum and Bill lit out in a beeline and charged in an irresistable attack. In seventeen seconds the bodies of seventeen mammoth mosquitoes crashed down into the timber, shattering scores of great pines into splinters. A thunderous hum of fear sounded from the survivors. They flew off in a panic. Pursued and pursuers vanished in the haze of the Dry Summer, which smothered the forest. Soon the hums of fear and the buzzes of rage were only faint m.urmu.rs.,among.,@4efar.trees...,Paul.Bunyan's teeth shone through his beard in a smile of triumph. "Yay, Babe!" he commanded the Blue Ox. The logging went on. Paul Bunyan brushed his hand$ and praised the saints that this mosquito trouble had been so easily ended. Then he returned to his great task of trying out sounds which would call up clouds. The labor angrossed.the great logger to such a degree that the mosquito invasion vanished from his thoughts. He also forgot the two big battling bees who had driven the invaders from the-7,logging camp. But Johnny Inkslinger did not forget. Often he raised his head fromhis books and held his fountain pen poised in the air, while the hose lines from the ink barrels gushed an inky flood to the office floor. This Johnny Inkslinger did not notice in such moments, for he was remembering his grand success,as a bee hunter, a bee trapper, and a bee tamer. it was one of the proudest memories of his life. And often Johnny Inkslinger wondered what had become of the bees he had tamed, what had happened to the female mammoth mosquitos Bum and Bill had driVen from the camp. Weeks had passed, and still there was not a hum from the mosquitoes or a buzz from the bees. Then, during such a moment of wondering and remembering, Johnny Inkslinger heird a sound from the distance that was nothing but a buzz-hum. He ran out of the office and peered into the heat haze. A small, dark cloud seemed to be moving toward the camp. Johnny watched and waited. The cloud grew.larger. As it approached the loggers in the woods, Johnny saw that the cloud.-was a vast..swarm of giant insects. They hovered over the 54 loggers for an instant, then dived without circling. And again agonizing yells rolled up from the timber and smote Paul Bunyan's ears. "What's happened down there?" Paul Bunyan shouted. "The mosquitoes have come back!" said Johnny Inkslinger. "It's a new kind, then," said Paul Bunyan, coming on the run and calling Babe the Blue Ox. "Look at 'em. They're bees!" They're mosquitoes," said Johnny. "Lock at their bills!" "But look at their stingers!" "Sure enough," said Johnny Inkslinger, almost dumb with astonishment. "Why-why-Mr. Bunyan-they-" "Look at-'-em!" yelled Paul Bunyan.-"Why, they got bills in front and stingers behind, and they're getting the loggers going and coming! You.know what's happened? Those two bees have married the mosquitoes, that's what! And these are the offspring! Bills in front and stingers behind! Yay, Babe!" And on Paul galloped with Babe the Blue Ox, who soon got his tail brush to working and let the loggers escape to the bunkhouses. One would stick his bill under one side of a s.hake on a bunkhouse roof, and his stinger under the other side; and then he would flap his wings until he had ripped off the shake; and the loggers would have to stand guard with pike poles and peavies to keep the savage insects from coming at them through the ripped roofs. Paul Bunyan saw that he needed to act quick. So he spent another night in figuring and palnning. And, just as usual, he had a grand idea at daylight. He called for Johnny Inkslinger. "Johnny," said Paul Bunyan, "we are going to carry sugar." "Yes, Mr. Bunyan." "We are' going to throw some rafts together, Johnny, and then we are going to load the rafts with all the sugar in camp. After that we aregoing to rope the rafts together and have @Babe the Blue Ox tow the shole raft fleets out into.the middle of Lake Michigan." 35 Johnny Inkslinger never batted an eye. He knew the great logger too well,to think that any of his ideas were foolish. So Johnny went to work without a word; and by noon the rafts were built, loaded, and roped together. Paul hitched Babe to the head raft of the fleet. "Yay, Babe," he commanded. And the Blue Ox bowed his neck , lumbered off, and straight to the center of Lake MIchigan he towed the raftloads of sugar. Johnny Inkslinger stayed on shore. He watched and waited. Soon he saw all the mosquito-bees flying out over the lake after the rafts. Then Johnny INkslinger realized what Paul Bunyan was up to. "Oh, ain't he got a brain, though?" said Johnny Inks.linger worshipfully. "Oh, but ain't Paul Bunyan got a brain?" And a brain Paul Bunyan certainly had. For he had figured that the bee blood in the hybrid insects would send them after the sugar., And he figured that their mosquito blood would make them fill their stomachs till they were stuffed. And Paul Bunyan knew the weight of sugar... Sure enough, the mosquito-bees glutted themselves on sugar till they could hardly fly. Then Paul Bunyan.started Babe on a run for the shore. The stuffed insedts tried to follow. But lower-and lower they flew; and.soon, with anguished buzz-hums they all sankinto the waters of the great.lake; and that was the last of them. The camp of Paul Bunyan was never again troubled by mammoth mosquitoes, or by mammoth mosquito-bees, either. Bum and Bill at last returned to camp, and gave every appearance of being ashamed of themselves. Paul Bunyan did not reproach them, but gave them a home in a furnished hive; and thereafter Bum and Bill occupied themselves solely with making honey for, the loggers' flapjacks. Their fighting days were done. History does not state the fate of the female mammoth mosquitos. some authorities advance the idea that they flew to Asia. They point to the elephant to prove their contention. The elephant, they,.assert, is descended from the mammoth mosquito.of Paul Bunyan's time. Other authorities, ridicule this idea, asserting that the elephant is too small to be a descendant of the mammoth mosquito. All such ideas and contentions are guesswork, however. And guesswork has no place in the history of Paul Bunyan. 36 HOW TO PRINT FISH Buy a fish that interests you at a fish store or the fish counter of a supermarket. The ink you will use can be washed off with cold water, and the.fish can be eaten when you have finished printing it. Make certain the head and tail are left on the fish. If the'fish is cleaned,,or has its insides removed, at the store, ask the clerk to make only a small slit in its body. It will be easier to control the shape of the fish if the slit is small. At an art supply shop ask for a pad of newsprint. Newsprint comes in large sheets, is inexpensive and prints well. Another paper that makes good prints is shelf paper. It comes in rolls. You can find it in a supermarket. Rice paper makes 'an especially good print. When you want to keep a print, use this special paper. It is more expensive than the others. Buy a few sheets large enough to take a print of the entire fish. For many centuries people in the island co.untry of Japan have used rice paper,.to,make fish prints. Some of those prints are so beautiful they are in museums. Wash the fish with a mild soapy-solation. This removes the fish's surface slime which protects it from disease. Dry the fish thoroughly, all the time looking at it carefully. Study the parts of the fish you wish to capture on your print. Look at its shape, the size and placement of the fins, the pattern of the scales, and the shape of the head. Stuff Pieces of cotton or tissue in the cavity from which its organs were taken and in its mouth. This will keep any liquid still on the inside from leaking out. The gills, or openings behind the head, mhy also leak. Put some [email protected] tissue in them at the same time. -Look for a tiny vent, or hole, near the tail and plug it too. A flat fish is easiest.to print. If yours is plump, you may have to roll up some.paper and place it under the fish to keep it from slipping while you are printing it. Spead out the fins And the tail. They ar*e collapsible, like an old- fashioned fan. Roll,the ink across the surface of the fish, running the roller from the head to the tail. Otherwise, you may disturb the position of the scales. :Take some extra time to see that thehead is inked completelyl as well as.the fins and tail. How to Print a Fish Lay the paper over the fish and begin to-explore all of the fish's surface with your fingers. Run your fingers around its head, over the pattern of scales, and along each fin, capturing as many details as possible. Lift your print and examine it. You may be surprised by its wonderful detail.. Continue making prints, using more or less ink and more or less rubbing, until you get results that particularly satisfy you. Then try making a print with the rice paper. After printing your fish a number of times you may find that its scales have become clogged with ink. Then, instead of gatting a print of the scales, you may be getting only more ink. If this happens, wash off the ink and dry and stuff the fish once again. Don't forget, when you are finished printing, wash off all the ink. The fish can then be cooked and eaten. Some Common Fish That Can Be Printed: Trout of all kinds Cod Pollack Flounder Shad Herring Mackerel Skate Catfish Bass .,,:Snapper Porgy 2 THE SIDE OF THE ROAD The intricate design you see here is the web of an orb-weaving spider. This spider is a member of a community of plants and animals that lives in grassy areas along the sides of roads. Roads are more than tar, concrete, and speed limits. They have borders which are filled with stands of colorful roadside flowers. The flowers attract nectar-seeking insects. Small birds and animals come to feed on the insects and later on the seeds of the flowers. This narrow band of roadside life is a rich area for collecting and observing. ORB-WEAVING SPIDERS Spiders build structures that interest both scientists and artists. Fortunately for all of us who delight in spider webs, the world's largest family of spiders is also that which builds orb webs. Not all spiders build webs. Some-of the best times to enjoy webs are early mornings, when they are covered with dew, after summer showers, or on foggy days. Droplets of moisture glisten on the lines of the web. But spider webs are worth watching at any time. If you watch the web closely ydu may get a glimpse of its bui-lder. Many orb-weavihg spiders roll up in a leaf nearby, hiding from the insects on which they prey. A direct'line from the hub of the web to the hidden spider transmits vibrations made by. insects caught in the web. Some spider watchers suggest cuttinga part of the web gently with a blade of grass, then waiting silently. The spider might come out and repair it before your very eyes! But remain still. Spiders are very shy creatures and will flee from any movement. it.takes approximately an hour for a spider to build one of nature's more complicated wonders. A lot of web building is done at night. The spider's thousands of tiny spinnerets provide the silk from which the web is constructed. The spider starts by making a bridge. Usually a line is blown out from the spinneret and attaches itself to another point. The spider then walks across,this bridge and drops a second line, anchoring it firmly. Now it returns to what will be the center, or hub, of [email protected] Radial threads, those stretching from the center outward, are carried from the hub to the bridge. 3 Orb-Weaving Spiders When the orb weaver begins to make the spirals, those lines linking one radial thread to another, its leg touches the previous spiral before beginning a new round. In that way @[email protected],sp1der measures, the distance-between spirals. This is only a temporary spiral. When it is finished, the spider reverses itself. It eats the old spiral as it proceeds toward the center and puts a more closely spaced one in its place. This gives the web greater strength. Spiders work hard at keeping the web in repair. Some part of it needs to be mended daily. Spiderlings know instinc- ,tively how to build webs. Researchers have found, however, that their ability to make webs improves with experience. SPIDER PICTURES ,Spider pic,tures.4rp_,easy_to make -and,are a [email protected] the times you spent spider watching. Buy a small can of black spray paint such as Rustoleum or any other brand that does not contain the spray propellant known as florocarbon or Freon. You will find a list of the can's contents on the label. Many scientists believe that fluorocarbons are harmful, to the environment. You will also need a piece of mat bo 'ard or stiff,paper such as oak tag on which to gollect your, spider picture. Carry some old newspapers to protect-the surrounding plants from the spray paint. Spider webs are abundant in the.fields along the roads. When you find an attractive one, examine it carefully. Locate the lines that anchor the web to the surrounding vegetation. They are called guidelines. You will need to know where they are later. Hold the newspaper behind the web. It is useful to have a helper to hold the.paper for you., start spraying paint at the center of the web, moving outward around the spirals. In this way you will not miss any of the lines. When the lines are completely covered, move the newspaper to the opposite side and spray again. Spraying both sides will.help toadhere the web to the board. Hold.the stiff paper or board firmly.' Look, for the guidelines and loosen or cut them. Move the paper upright toward the web,with one hand behind it for support,, capturing the web on the paper as you-move. Allow it to dry for ten minutes. before touching. 4 WEAVING Weaving is very simple. In the early days of civilization, people wove useful objects from natural materials. Touching things is a special way of experiencing them. It is not a way we express ourselves very often. The roughness, the softness, the different lines and rhythms of objects that you can feel through your fingers and hands are very satisfying. You can find a variety of things along the roadside to weave into patterns. Grasses of different kinds weave very well. They are tough yet supple. You will also find other natural objects which accent the grasses, like the soft gauzy texture of a bird's feather, a twig [email protected] with lichen, or a dried seed pod. Collect many different objects for your weaving project. MAKING A LOOM weaving is done on a loom of some sort. The loom is simply an old board with tiny nails tacked at both ends and strung with string. To make a loom then, you will need a board, nails, and some string or heavy thread. You can arrange the nails across the loom in a straight line, or stigger them. They are easier to string if you line them up. Tack them firmly into the board. Tie the string around a nail at a lower corner of'the board. Run it up the board to the nail directly above it. Lead the string over to the next hail, and theo down the board. Loop it around the nail at the bottom, then over to the next riail and up again. Follow this pattern, pulling the string tightly, until you reach the last nail. Tie the string around the last nail to hold'it in place. Once the loom is strung, you are ready to weave it with the grasses and other material.s you have gathered. Choose the grass with which you want to start. Move it over the first string, under the nextJ, over And under, until you reach the opposite side. If the grass is long enough, fold it back and return it, over and under, to the starting point. If you began your firstrow by pushing the stem over the first string and under the next,.begin your second row in just the opposite way - push the stem of your grass or other plant under the first string and over the second. By alternating your weave, you wiU.find that it holds together better; it will be a firmer fit. Continue alternating the rows until you reach the bottom of your loom. 5 Hangings can have many patterns. Some of the materials can be repeated many times, like the chorus of a song. Others, such as a feather, are used as an accent. Some of the thread that is used in stringing the loom can be woven in to add a constrasting color. Other pieces of [email protected] or yarn can be woven in, too. As you add more materials and different patterns, your weaving will take on a life of its own. It will become a pleasing object to hang on your wall. It will express to your friends,.- your eye for design and your special sense of touch. 6 LIGHT WINDOW PICTURES Flowers from bossoming trees or cultivated gardens are colorful, and often larger than wild flowers. They have been bred to produce these showy flowers. Press cultivated flowers as you would wild ones. You can use them in much the same way for stationery, notecards, bookmarks, and place mats. But these splendid flowers are particularly effective in light window pictures. HOW TO MAKE LIGHT WINDOW PICTURES Light shining through a plant vividly reveals the structure of the flower and the leaves. Mounting plants to hang in win- dows as light pictures is a good way to study their structure. To make light window pictures, you need contact paper, colored construction paper, scissors, paste, string, and your pressed flowers and leaves. You also need a special paper called rice paper which you can buy in an art supply store. The size of your light picture will depend on the size of the flowers and leaves you have collected. Cut the contact paperand the rice paper to the proper size for the finished picture. Six inches by ten inches should be about right, though you might want to vary if a little. Lay the flowers.and the.leaves down on the contact paper. Keep a margin ofabout an inch around the edge of the contact paper. This will give you space to add a frame. Lay the rice paper .over the flowers and contact paper. Press with your fingers around the flowers and leaves. Select two sheets of construction paper. With a ruler and pencil, make a-margin on each sheet an inch from the edge on all sides. Cut out the part inside 'the margin. Now you have a frame. Glue.a frame to each side of the light,picture. Put a thread through a tiny hole at the top and hang your pi-cture in a window. 7 PEBBLES AND SAND Beaches composed of rocks are on their way to bec oming beaches of pebbles and san'd. There has not yet been time for the sea togtind'themdown. ',The sea is taking its own time. Every grain of sand you see on the beach has had a long history. Sand was once part of a large slab of rock. Waves and ice fractured the rock. Glaciers ground the rocky pieces into pebbles. The sea rolled the pebbles,,against one another, rounding and polishing them. Pebbles that are flattened and smoothed by the sea's violent movement are collectors' items. Their patterns glisten in the water, their rounded edges are cool and soothing to the touch. We can almost feel the restless ocean through the pebbles. Day after day the sea hurls-the pebbles against larger rocks @ox,against;one-another. It finally grinds them into fine sand. The largest grains are measured in hundredths of an inch, the smallest in thousandths of an inch. We can tell the kinds of rocks from.which the sand came by its color. Dark gray sand beaches come from slate, and red sand beaches from sandstone. The glittering white beaches most of us know were ground from quartz. No grain of sand. remains in any.one place for long.. It is at the mercy of the wind. If you return in Deceriber to a beach you visited in June, it is not the same. The beach and its [email protected] sandbars have shifted. Wind and water keep sand always on the move. 8 HOW TO MAKE A SPORE PRINT Choose a fresh mushroom with a flat cap. An old dried mtshroom will have already dropped its spores. Cut off the stem close to the cap. Put-the cap flat on a sheet of paper. Cover the cap with a jar for three or four hours. Remove the jar and the cap carefully. You will find the spores.have dropped into a fascinating design on the paper. Each species of mushroom makes a design of its own. Some spores are white, others are brown. If you use colored paper you will get an interesting contrast in your spore print. Spray the fin'ished print with a fixative so that it will not smear. You can buy alixative at a hobby shop. 9 @SHORES There are several kinds of shores, but nearly all of them are rock. It is the size of the rock particles that m4kes the difference. Rock breaks down into boulders, pebbles, sand, or mud. Rocky shores draped with seaweeds provide homes for mussels, barnacles, snails, sea urchins, and starfish, clinging among the ledges. Shores strewn with pebbles or boulders give little shelter for living things. Sandy shores hide worms, moon shells, and clams beneath their surface. Muddy shores, protected from the full force of storm waves, have rich stands of sea plants. The picture'here is of a printing of weathered driftwood. Parts of old trees, boats, crates or wharves drift on the sea. They are washed in salt water and pounded by wind- driven waves on rocky and sandy shores. Look for driftwood along the shore. Its shape broken and twisted, its interior.pitted with insect holes, and its surface grooved and smoothed by [email protected], sand, a*nd wind, driftwood becomes a reflection of nature'sharsh forces. It tells us something about Life on the open beaches. 10 PRINTING DRIFTWOOD Lay the wood out in front of you. Look at its grain, which is the,patternmade by its [email protected] Run your.fingers lightly over the markings left on the once-living wood by water and weather. What you see and feel now, you will record in your driftwood print. Assemble your brayer, ink, a pane of glass, paper, and the pieces of driftwood you have chosen to print. Ink the glas,s with the brayer. The ink is the right consis- tency-when the glass begins to sound sticky. Run the inked brayer back and forth over the surface of a piece of driftwood, making certain that it is thoroughly inked. Lay the printing paper on top of the wood. Run your hand firmly over it. With your fingertips, follow the grain of the wood beneath the paper, as you felt for the fish scales and leaf veins in your earlier prints. Pressing the paper into all of the wood's hollows and patterns enables you to transfer its variety to your paper. Take several prints of,the same piece of wood. Each will be different from the previous one because of the varying amounts of ink on the wood. Or make prints of several pieces of wood ..on the-same paper, contrasting their textures. Mount your favorite printt on construction paper or mat board. DRIFTWOOD SCULPTURES Driftwood is often collected by dealers, who sell it to crafts people. The crafts people make lamp bases and other useful objects from the wood. Molded and decorated by nature :- sand, wind.,, and salt water - this wood is pleasing to work with and display for others to admire. On a visit to the beach you may find a piece of driftwood you would like to*keep. Take it home and make a driftwood sculpture. Nature, of course, has already sculptured it for you. All you have to do is display it. Look over your piece of driftwood. Turn it this way and that, finding the position in which it looks best * Then choose a flattened piece of.driftwood for a base.. Hammer a small nail through the bottom of the base into the driftwood to anchor it in place. You can also apply Elmer's glue.for added strength. Your mounted driftwood sculpture makes an attractive ornament for a bookshelf or desk. HOW TO MAKE A MOBILE In making a mobile you will see once more the driftwood's grain and the complex-rhythms that the sea and weather have worn into its surface. Collect screw eyes, thread or nylon fishing line, a nail, a hammer, and a number of pieces of driftwood. You can buy small screw eyes in a hardware store. A mobile is a study of form in motion. You can make a mobile of as many units as you have time and space for. Divide your driftwood into two piles. Use pieces that are long and slender as bars or crosspieces. The other pieces may be of a variety of sizes, shapes, and textures. They will be hung from the bars. Plan_,or ... des.ign.,,your.-mobile,.,[email protected] you fast-en -the pieces into place. Lay out the driftwood on the table. Begin the construction at the bottom and work up to the top. Arrange the bars and the smaller pieces, which will hang from screw eyes set in the bars. As you work, you may find that you want to make some changes in your design. Find the best place to insert a screw eye in the bottom bar. Sometimes the wood is very hard. To start ja hole for-the screw eye, first tap a nail part of the way into the wood *W*th a hammer. Then7 r mo I e [email protected] the nail, -and it will be easy ,to screw in the eye the rest of the way. Put a screw eye in each of the smaller pieces you plan to hang fromthis bar. Hold the bar over a smaller piece, turning the two pieces to find the best angle at which they should be hung and their proper distance apart. Then tie the thread through the bar's screw eye, and fasten it to the screw eye in the piece below. If you are hanging a second piece from this bar, go through the same steps. Look at the mobile pictured here. You will see that there are two pieces hanging from the bottom bar. One is chunky, the other much narrower. They make a nice contrast. Now,you are ready to attach this unit to the bar above it. Before you fix the screw eye on the top of the lower bar, you must find the point at which it balances. Wrap a string around the bar. The point at which the string holds the bar and its two hanging pieces in-perfect balance is the point at which to insert the screw eye. Make this point with a pencil. 12 How to Make a Mobile Insert the screw eye at that point. Attach the bar by thread to a screw eye inserted at any point in the bar above. It can be attached near one end: of the bar, and another hanging can be attached at the opposite end, To hang the second bar to the longer one above it, use the string once more. Wrap.the string around the second bar. Find the point at which the string balances the bar. Mark it and insert a screw eye in its top. Follow these steps until you have assembled allparts of your mobile. Fasten a screw eye on the top bar, and tie a long thread to it. Hold up the mobile by this thread. If you have followed the above steps carefully, all the bars and smaller pieces will be in balance. Hang your mobile from a-hook, a light fixture, or some other point on the ceiling. The whole construction will turn slowly, displaying the shapes and patterns created by wind and water and calling back the sense of life you felt at the edge of the sea. You can also make a mobile with sea shells. You will not need screw eyes. Look for shells with tiny holes through which you can run the thread. Or carefully tap holes in the shells with a small'nail and a hammer. Follow the same steps tha+- you did in @aaking the driftwood mobile. HOW TO MAKE PEBBLE HOT PLATES Starting a collection of surf-polished pebbles and adding to it on every visit to the beach can be an entertaining hobby. The pebbles in themselves are natural treasures. You may want to take some of the most interesting ones from your.collection and display them. ' This is a long-range project., It will take you five days to make a pebble hot plate. Choose pebbles with a flat surface. Choose them also for their color, texture, and size. Besides pebbles you will need a package of plain gelatin, a cake pan, plaster of Paris, a glass acrylic medium, and a square piece of felt. Plaiff-gelatin isil,sold @at,grocery-stores i-n-packagps containing several packets. IYou will need only half a packet for this project. A layer-cake pan with sloping sides is best because you will be able to remove the hardened plaster of Paris from it more easily. Buy the plaster of Paris in & hardware store. Buy the glass-acrylic medium in an art supply store. You can buy the square of felt, [email protected] apply to the bottom of the hot plate, at the sewing supply counter of a department store, dry gopds store, or fabric store.. FIRST DAY. Grease the cake pan lightly ;iith cooking oil-to keep the plaster of Paris from sticking to it when it dries. Mix one half a packet of gelatin, following .the instructions on the box. Pour a thin layer (less than one-eighth inch), into the pan. Lay out your pebbles in a design on the table. Then transfer them in the same design to the bottom of the cake pan. The 'flattest side-o,f the stones should be laid face down, because the side facing the pan's bottom will be the top of your hot plate. Put the pan, with the pebbles and gelatin, in the refrigerator overnight. At this point you might ask, "Why gelatin?" The answer is that the gelatin forms a platform for the pebbles. Without the gelatin, the plaster of Paris which you will pour over the pebbles would be completely hidden by it. 14 How to Make a Pebble Hot Plate SECOND DAY - Mix the plaster of Paris, following the directions on the box. Pour it over the pebbles, making sure they are all covered. Set the pan aside for a day and let the plaster harden. THIRD DAY Turn over the pan, tap it lightly, and carefully remove the pebble hot plate. Parts of the gelatin will stick to the top of the plate. Wash it off gently with warm water. Pat it dry with a towel and set the plate aside for two days to let it dry thoroughly. FIFTH DAY - Cover the bottom of the hot plate with the gloss acrylic medium. Lay the felt over it and trim the edges. Turn the plate over again and rub the stones with baby oil to make them glisten, just as they did in the water. Apply a coat of any dark paint to the rim. To add a professional touch to your hot plate, apply the gloss acrylic medium to its top and sides. This will give it a lasting ,finish. [email protected] the plaster, helps the stones to keep their luster, and makes the hot plate easier to clean. You will find the finished hot plate well worth the effort you put into making it. 15 HOW TO MAKE SAND PAINTINGS Grains of sand mixed with dry tempera will give you a bright, sparkling painting. Collect a jar of sand. You will also need dry tempera paint, Elmer's glue, paper cups, and a stiff background such as card- board or mat board. Buy the dry tempera at an art supply store. Set out one paper cup for each color you plan to use in your painting. Put a quarter of a cup of sand in each. Then put a different color tempera in each cup. The more tempera you put in, the brighter your color will be. Mix the sand and tempera well. Make a sketch of your picture on the background board. Let us say that you have decided to paint a flower, Draw the outline bf-,,t-he-- f,,Iowers- oan& @..kts -leaves. If you want -to make the petals yellow, apply glue to each of the petals. Then pour the mixture of sand and yellow tempera over the glue. The mixture will stick only to the petals where you have applied the glue. Stand the board on its side and tap it to knock off the excess sand. If you want to make the center of the flower orange, brush on some glue. Then pour the mixture of sand and orange tempera.over the glue. Again, stand the board on its side and tap off the excess sand. If the leaves are to be green, brush glue on'them, then add the mixture of sand and green temp6ra. When you have added all the colors, set the painting aside to dry. Tap off whatever excess sand still clings to the surkace. 16 SEASHORE ANIMALS Seashore animals have no backbones. They breathe, eat, grow, and reproduce in the sea. Often what you see on the beach are only parts of these animals that spent their lives in the ocean. The.bottom halves of jingle shells or the circular plates of sand dollars are reminders of the sea's teeming life. The building blocks of this life are microscopic plankton. These tiny plants and animals provide nourishment for mussels, barnacles, clams, oysters, sand dollars, and many other creatures, which strain the plankton from the water. These plankton strainers, in turn, nourish larger starfish, whelks, crabs, and moon snails. It is often possible to watch some of these animals at the edge of the tide line on rocky shores. Creatures live in pools left behind by the tide or cling to rocks, covered and protected by curtains of seaweed. Here you can watch a barnacle swing its hairy legs, beating its tiny cilia in search of,food. 17 USING FLOTSAM AND JETSAM Shore Collage Stone, shell, and driftwood collages combine the materials you find on the beach in a handsome composition. Use a weathered driftwood board for a background. Lay out your dried seaweeds, broken shells, parts of animals, and polished stones. Combine them and glue them to the board in a design that will express the life and forces of the shore. Shore Sculpture Many objects you find on the shore are interesting enough to be mounted alone. A flat piece of driftwood as a base, a .'s ,na,il,:.%and-;' ome- Erlmerl-s -g1ue-,,will help you display your trea- sures. Follow the same steps described for driftwood sculpture. 18 This -song book was comniled with the- halo of Stephanie Bollwinkel Ray Hanson Laura Woodworth. Note on Copyright In accordance with the copyright laws of the United States., no part of this book may be reproduced to be sold at a vrofit. Ner may this book be used to produce a profit in any way. In accordance with the intertwetation of the copyright law interpretation by the United States Supreme Court, these songs have been reproduced without copyright permission or payment of royalties for the sole purpose of educational use. Traditional songs are excluded from copyriqht laws. This Land Is Your Land -A Moderately Bright G D G7 C I A i THIS LAND`JS . YOUR LAND M G D7 A=7 ;7 G !7- f--4- W [email protected] lafid is 'my land fr-orn Cal -'I for nia to the New Yorl, )land- D G7 C D7 G ej From the red wood for est to t'he Gulf Stream wa tersi Oo Verses) D7 G G Ani7 71is land was made for you and me. me. Verses G D7 G7 C- D7 G 1. As I was walk ing that rib bon of high - way 2. I've roamed and ram bled- and I fol lowed my foot - steps was stroll - ing 3.When fl.-:' L.U11 ComUs shin ing and DT A=7 D 7 G ej F'- r r saw a bove ine that end - less sky way to the spark - ling sands of her dia - -mond de serts- and the wheat - fields wav ing, and the dust clouds roll ing ------ A .4 [email protected] G7 C D7 G H Fog V Y saw be low me that gold - en Val ley And all a round me a voice was sound ing- As the fog was iif t ijrx a voice was 7 chant ing D? G D G7 A This land was made for you and me. 'r is Idnd @Was made for you and Me. THIS LAND IS This I and was made for yoti and Yre. 0 Where great whales come sailing by, sail and sail with unshut eye."-ARNOLD BEATIFUL ISLE OF SOMEWHERE Somewhere the sun is shining, Somewhere my love lies waiting, Somewhere the song-birds dwell. Somewhere my love is true. Hush, then, thy sad rcpining, There'll be no hesitating, God lives and all is well. Once I am safe with you. Somewhere, somewhere, Somewhere, somewhere, Beautiful Isle of Somewhere. Beautiful IsIc.of Somewhere. Land-'bf the true, We'll find out rest, Where we live anew, We'll be heaven blest, Beautiful Isle of Somewhere. Beautiful Isle of Somewhere. BEAUTIFUL SEA Beautiful sea, Beautiful sea, Oh, how r love on thy bosom to roam. Foaming and free, foaming and free, There is my resting place, There is my home. Wonderful sea, Wonderful sea,- Oh, all the joy that you bring to me. Beautiful sea, beautiful sea, SomedayJ will sleep In the beautiful sea. All the rivers run into the sea, yet tile sea is not full. --BIBLE RIVER COME DOWN By RICHARD WEISSMAN AND JOHN PHILLIPS Refr a in 'A A A G A Verse F, i tj A 0 A G o 0 0! Refrain [email protected] 4s A 'A A r r Refrain A River, river, She come down. My gal's across the rivcr. (Three times) Won't you come over? Refrain ' B': Ooh- Hannah- Won't you come over- Build a raft of bamboo. (Three times) And float across tile river. (Refrain * B') We dance on the banksidc. (Three. times) So glad you come over. (Refrain 'B') Floatin' 'cross the river. (Three times) See her come over. (Refrain B') CRAAVDAD SONG -A .4 D A7 D A7 D. A it A7 D 4U You get a line, and I'll -get a pole, Honcy. You..g.et a line, and I'll get a pole, Babe. You flet a line and 1*11 get a Pole, We'll go down to the cram*dad hole, Honey. Baby mine. ON SILVER WATERS C7 F Gm C7 F F 24 W 46 W V vp ij W C F F Gm C7 F F+ CM AP 3r dP 7 Over the foam we Slide, Love's golden star will guide. Borne on the rippling tide, Drifting along. Under the dreamy, summer skies, Glad is our song, Watching the mist around us rise. While we are side by side, What though the world be wide, While we are side by side. The Glow Worn Modet-atel By L. Q Robinson y bri&M aad*P. Lincke 4 on zw- -0 i .11 *- I * i I . i j Shioe. it- tie glow,%*orm, gL.,m.mvr, glim-imr. shine, lit. tic g:ow worm, glim-mer, glim-frier. C G7 C Lead us, lest too far mv van der, Love's sweet voice is call ing you - der. G7 a 000 C. rTTM shine. lit - tic glow wezza, glima- mor. glint-mer, Shine, lit - tie glow wom, glina-ruer, glim-iner, C G? C 0 a 000 [email protected] PAth. ba low, a bovej And: Irad us on to love. C DMI G7 0 000. [email protected] 0 tiuii E-R-I-E CANAL D7 G D7 C; C I I F-T- I - I 1 1 1 Chorus G D 7 G G D7 a W D7. G C G D7 G D7 G 0 kv It was forty miles from Albany, Two days out from Syracuse Forget it I never shall, The vessel struck a shoal, What a terrible storm N%,c had that night And we like to all been foundered, On the E-M-E Canal. On a chunk of Lackawanna coal. Chorus: We hollered to the captain, Oh, the E-R-I-E was a-risin', On the towpath trcadin' dirt; The gin was a-gettin' low, He pumped on board and stopped the leak, And I scarcely think we'll get a drink With his old red nannel shirt. 'Til we get to Buffalo, 'Til we get to Buffalo. The cook-, she was a grand old gal, She had a rigged dress. We were loaded down with barley, We hoisted lier upon the masi, Chuck tip full of ryc, As a signal of distress. And the captain, he looked down at me With his goddarn wicked eye. The captain lic got married, The cook, she went to jail. The captain, he came up on dcck And I*ni the only son of a gun With a spy glass in his hand, That's left to tell the talc. And the fo-, it was so goshdarncd thick, That he couldn't spy the land. S r-i C. E 17 Peace I ask of thee, o ri- v'er, peace, peace peace [email protected] -7 r- 6-7 When I learn to-live se- rene- ly cares will --ease. p. ic e- [email protected], M -J L d* 0 OP 40 Fr om the hills I Sa- ther cour-aqe, vi-sions of a day to be. 7 stren6th to leAd and faith to fol-low, all are gi- ven un- to me.- -7 C C; L) R!td Ce I ask 'n- f tlpec% n ri -.;^r Tpe-eept. pcdcc.. pta-r-e- STRANGER. ON THE SFl"ORE r Gm7 C7 F C7 F7 Here I stand watch - inX the Ude- g ou So A DMT G7 GM GM7 C7 F v 9.11 a lone- and blue, just dream -Ing dreams of you. I watcbed your Gm7 C7 F CT F7 [email protected] B6m F Dm7 A= P7 A t I 1 14 tak-Ing all- my dreams and ship as it salled out to sea.- [email protected] [email protected] F P7 [email protected] F Gm7 C769 C7 A R -P X of The sigh-Ing- 02 waves, the wail-Ing of- the A F7 [email protected] G7 G76 9 Gm7 CT r v4nd. The tears in my eyes barn- plead - Ing "MY love.- re tu=- 1- F DM F G=7 C17 p C7 F7 like this?- Shall I just be a why Ohl why must 90 on_ 712. GM7 7. Am FT '[email protected] [email protected] F Gm7 C7 A. A 0 ly STRMG-ER ON- TEE SHORE ?- Original Frcnch Words by SAND AND SEA 14AURICE VIDALIN (PLEIN SOLEIL) English lVerds by Music by KkCK DAV I D C GILBERT BECAUD Gin 7 C. Fairly, slowly C Sand and sea, Sea and Plein so - kil, Plein to- Got 7 C 6m7 _dP6 W 06 And the warm n up a bove Sum-iner sand, bright st, El to Ville est tout eg-gvur-die Be som- 7 C C D?n 7 G -7 da3rs Hap-Py days, With my love. meil aar xa kit De mi di. 6 m 7 C Sand and sea, Seaand H ear th e ,wi n gs i n J& In't Jexdj au so kii Pres do la /on Gm7 C D.,w 7 G 7 EE 46- fl ight of the dove, Summer nights,[email protected]_ Hap-py nights,- Mak-ing- Mix* at- UW - die re i Ist -tende au so' - kil, No n a - C G nr 7 C C 6 C 07 0 di al 'J love. The twinklingstars Aredanc-ingon thc Ri - pe - cA* loi Elk 091 jO- lie, 14 C C)"31 7 C6 Oyn 7 67 white caps. Those era-zy. stars They've had too ma ny night caps! ro, - be. re 1,ndsk, &a, Ver, eel-tefleurqui VO le C G+ Of C7 F I touchyour hand, Thehaudthatlies be-sideme. la Pia-ge C G7 Pa 7 C7 0i6 Pa. ra-dise can be foLind It' you'll [email protected] me. Sand and sea, - k jo-li vo -ya .90, Plein so kil, - Gm7 7 Sec. and [email protected] And the an gels sing from [email protected] bove, pleits kil, El Is able tit Maud eove"llu" tit MICHAEL, ROW THE BOAT C F C G7 F G C F C G7 F G7 G C F C G7 F G? C 06 - ' '1 '0 :;@6 d' A F C G7 F G7 C 10 Milo. *J GO .06 41 d;l, .06 C F C C7 F G7 C 0 do Michael, row the boat ashore, hallelujah. Michael, row the boat ashore, halleltijah, Michael row the boat ashore, hallclujah. Michael, row the boat ashore, hallelujah. "Sist6r, @hclo to trim the s:ail, hallelujah. the river Jordan is chilly and cold, hallclujah, Sister, help to trim the sail, hallelujah. Chills the body, but not the soul, hallelujah. Michael, row the boat ashore, hallelujah, Michael, row the boat ashore, hallelujah, Michael, row the boat ashore, hallelujah. Michael, row the boat ashore, hallelujah. The river Jordan is chilly and cold, hallelujah, CUls the body,. but not the soul, hallelujah. MY BONNIE -A C F C D7 G C 10 1 @@[ III: [email protected] I - 17= F C D 7 G 7 C C F C D7 G7 C G7 C F D G7 I&- .==*==I - - *C* F- f,1. F- f 4 k My bonnie lics over the ocean, My bonnic lics over the sea-, My bonnic lies over the ocean, Oh, bring back my bonnic to me. Bring back-, bring back, Bring back my Bonnie to nie, to me; Bring back, bring back, 0h, bring back my Bonnie-to me. Last night as I lay on my pillow, Last ni-lit a as I slept on my bcd. Last night as I lay on my pillow, I dreamed that my Bonnie was wed. Bring. back, etc. i,IV6 [email protected] A -Courtin, Al'oderately last J=112 F C7 F Frog went a -court-in' and he did ride,- M- hm, 71? F i x -_ -_ -I a 1 i F: C7 ......... Frog went a in'and he did ride, IA - hm, 7: F 6wmai F 7F Pt f 6m--C= Frog went a court - in' and he did ride,- L...j 6." ZTF F; 6wmi [email protected] C7 ..................... @QMW [email protected] Sword and pis. - tol by his side,- M - hni. A =S F-I @a -46 ------------ 71 116 2. Bode right up to Miss 'Mouse's door, M-hm, Rode right up to Miss MousC's door, M-hm, Rode right up to Miss Mouse's door, *@ i Gave-Ahree xaps,andl., a- very loud roar, N.1-hin. il 3. Said he, "Miss Mouse, are you within?" M-lim, etc. "Yes, kind sir, I sit and spin, M-hm." 4. lie took Miss Mousie Oil his knee, 5. @'Without my Uncle Rat's consent, Said, "Miss Mouse, will you marry me?" I wouldn't marry the President." 6. Uncle Rat he laughed and shook his fat sides, To think- his niece would be a bride. 7. Uncle Rat went a-running down to town 8. "Where shall the wedding supper be?" To buy'bis niece a wed-ding"gown. "'Way down yonder in the hollow tree." 9. "What shall the wedding supper be?" "A fried mosquito and a black-eyed pea."' 10. First to come in was a flying moth, 11. Next to come in a Juney @ug, She laid out the table cloth. Carrying a water jug. 12. Next to come in was a bumberly bee, Set his fiddle on his knee. 18. 'Next to come in was a broken-backed flea, Danced a jig with the bumberly bee. 14. Next to come in was Missus Cow, 15. Next to come in was a little black tick, Tried to dance but didn't know how. Ate so much it made him sick. 16. Next to come in was Doctor Fly. .17. Next to come in was a big black snake, Said Mister Tick would surely die. Ate up A the wedding cake. 1& Next to come in was an, old gray cat, She swallowed the mouse and ate up the rat. 19. IvIister Frog went a-hopping over the [email protected] A lily-white duck came and swallowed him up. 20. Little piece of cornbrcad lying on the shelf, If you want any more you can sing it yourself. 117 RED IRON ORE Ballards and Songs of the Sahnty Boys. Virginia, Wisconsin JI) -7- Conte %U ye bold sail-ors that fololow the lakes.. On an Or. t,!-n ren rr% i-ron ore ves-sel your liv-in- to make, I shipped in CA4.:- PfK r NF .-ca--o bid a-dieu to the @,hore, Bound a-way to Es-can-a-bavar A A doru ir Jo W io red i-ron ore. Derfy do%vn, down,, down derry down. Laura T. Woodworth - [email protected]_E [email protected] Ik44 RED IRON ORE (continued) 4W Come all ye bold sailors that follow the lakes On an iron ore vessel your living to make I shipped in Chicago bid adieu to the shore Bound away to Escanaba for red iron ore Derry Down, down, down, derry down. Next morning we hove up along the Exile And soon was made fast to an iron ore pile They lowered their chutes and like thunder did roar They spouted into us that red iron ore Some sailors took shovels, while others got spades And some took wheelbarrows, each man to his trade Ve - looked Uke: red.,dev'ils, our fingers got sore We cursed Escanaba and that damned iron ore. The tug Escanaba towed up out of the Minch The Roberts, she thought she'd left us in a pinch And as she passed by us, she bid us goodbye Saying we'll meet you in Cleveland next 4th of July. Through Old Louise Island it blew fresh breeze, We made the Foxes, the Beavers,.the Skilligalees, We [email protected] by the Minch for to show her the way And she never hove in sight till we.were off Thunder Bay Across @aginaw Bay the Roberts did ride With dark and deep water rolling over her side We went through North Passage - 0 Lord how it blew And all round the Dummy the fleet followed too Now the Robert's in Cleveland, made fast stem and stern And over the bottle we'll spin a big yarn But Captain Harvey Shannon had ought to stand treat For getting to Cleveland ahead of the fleet. Frog Round FOUR-rART ROUND Hear the live ljr song of the frogs In yon - dur pond, c D KrIk. Krik, Krik. Krik, Krik, Krik, Brrr-r-r ruml Copyright by C- C- Btamtao & Co6 Lovely Evening TURFE-PART ROUND A Oh, ho%w love ly is the eve ning. is the eve ning. N%lien the bells are Sweet ly. ring ing, c sweet ly ring iog, Ding, dong. ding. dong, ding. doog. i., t. 7' v C, 11011111011101 3 6668 14109 5911