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Coastal Zone Informatio(i Center W P PAST AND PRESENTLY KNOWN [email protected] GROUNDS OF 'FISH IN THE MICHIGAN COASTAL WATERS OF THE GREAT LAKES October, 1979 QL 625.5 P37 1979 MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES Fisheries Division Technical Report: No. 79-1 October, 1979 PAST AND PRESENTLY KNOWN SPAWNING GROUNDS IL OF FISHES IN THE MICHIGAN COASTAL WATERS OF THE GREAT LAKES William L. Organ, Gary [email protected], Mark 0. Walter, R. Bruce Pelletier and Dennis A. Riege Aquatic Systems, Inc. 5693 West Third Street Ludington, Michigan 49431 US Department of Commerce NOAA Coastal Services Center Library 2234 South Hobson Avenue Chakleston, SC 29405-2413 This document was prepared with financial assistance provided by the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 administered by the Office of Coastal Zone Management, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and by the Michigan Coastal Management Program, Division of Land Resource Programs, Department of Natural Resources. DEDICATION Dedicated to the active and retired commercial fishermen of the Great Lakes, without whose help this study could not have been completed. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The field data for this report was collected largely by graduate and undergraduate students from Michigan Technological University, Central Michigan University, and Michigan State Univer- sity. We thank all persons and organi zations listed on page x and in Appendix I for their contributions to this report. We also thank Asa Wright and Ned Fogle of the Michigan Department of Nat- ural Resources, Fisheries Division, for [email protected] advice and direction in the acquisition of necessary data. We also greatly appreciate the assistance of Carol Goodyear (United States Fish and Wildlife Service) for supplying reference material. This study was sponsored and funded by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources and the Office of Costal Zone Management, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. ,40 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page TITLE PAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i DEDICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TABLE OF CONTENTS . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi PERSONNEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 MATERIALS AND METHODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 LAKE TROUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 CHUBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 LAKE HERRING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 LAKE WHITEFISH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 ROUND WHITEFISH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 PYGMY WHITEFISH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 BURBOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 YELLOW PERCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 SMELT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 ALEWIFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 WALLEYE, SAUGER AND BLUE PIKE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 SUCKERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 CARP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 GOLDFISH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 NORTHERN PIKE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 iv Page MUSKELLUNGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 LAKE STURGEON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 LARGEMOUTH AND SMALLMOUTH BASSES . . . . . . . . . . . 139 CHANNEL CATFISH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 BULLHEADS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 MISCELLANEOUS SPECIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 LITERATURE CITED . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 APPENDICES APPENDIX 1. Persons a.nd organizations that provided data included in this- report . . . . . . . 181 APPENDIX 2. State sectional [email protected] . . . ... . . . . . . 188 APPENDI.X 3. Lake chart sectional maps . . . . . . . . 199 APPENDIX 4. Lake Huron reduced sectional maps with special reference to chubs . . . . . . . . 557 APPENDIX 5. Locations of near shore fish spawning grounds referenced by county, township, range and section . . . . . . . . . . . . . 564 V LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page Figure 1. Example of spawning ground coding as used in Appendix 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Figure 2 Fishery Statistical Districts of Michigan's Coastal Waters of the Great Lakes . . . . . . . . . 14 Figure 3 @General spawning ground locations of lake trout, SaZveZinus n=aycush' in Michigan's coastal waters of the Great Lakes . . . . . . . . . 16 Figure 4 General spawning ground locations of chubs, Coregonus spp., in Michigan's coastal waters of the Great Lakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Figure 5 Overvidw of the Great Lakes showing Lake Huron chub spawning locations . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Figure 6 General spawning ground locations of lake herring, Coregonus artedii, in Michigan's coastal waters of the Great Lakes . . . . . . . . . 47 Figure 7 General spawning ground locations of lake whitefish, Coregonus cZupeaformis, in Michigan's coastal waters of the Great Lakes . . . 60 Figure 8 General spawning ground locations of round whitefish, Prosopiwn cyZindraceum, in Michigan's coastal waters of the Great Lakes . . . 74 Figure 9 General spawning ground locations of burbot, Lota Zota, in Michigan's coastal waters of the Great Lakes . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 82 Figure 10 General spawning-ground locations of yellow perch, Perca fZavescens, in Michigan's coastal waters of the Great,Lakes., . . . . . . . . 86 Figure 11 General spawning ground locations of smelt, osmerus mordax, in Michigan's coastal waters of the Great Lakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Figure 12 General spawning ground locations of Alewife, AZosa pseudoharengus, in Michigan's coastal waters of the Great Lakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-0 Figure 13 General spawning ground locations of walleye, sauger, and blue-pike, Sti2ostedion spp., in Michigan's coastal waters of the Great Lakes. 103 Figure 14 General spawning ground locations of suckers in Michigan's coastal waters of the Great Lakes. 111 Figure 15 General spawning ground locations of Carp, Cypmnus carpio, in Michigan's coastal waters of the Great Lakes . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 vi LIST OF FIGURES (Continued) Figure Page Figure 16 General spawning ground locations of goldfish, Crassius auratus, in Michigan's coastal wa,ters of the Great Lakes . . . . . . . . . . 122 Figure 17 General spawning ground locations of northern pike, Esox lucius, in Michigan's coastal waters of the Great Lakes . . . . . . . . . . 126 Figure 18 General spawning ground locations of muskellunge, Esox [email protected], in Michigan's coastal waters of the Great Lakes . . . . . . . . . . 131 Figure 19 General spawning ground locations of lake sturgeon, Acipenser fuLvescens, in Michigan's coastal waters of the Great Lakes . . . . 135 Figure 20 General spawning ground locations of largemouth and smallmouth bass, Micropterus spp., in Michigan's coastal waters of the Great Lakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Figure 21 General spawning ground locations of channel catfish, IctaZurus punctatus, in Michigan's coastal waters of the Great Lakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Figure 22 General spawning ground locations of bullheads, IctaZurus spp., in Michigan's coastal waters of the Great Lakes . . . . . . . . . . 1418 Figure 23 General spawning ground locations of emerald shiner, Notropis atherinoides, in Michigan's coastal waters of the Great Lakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . 151 Figure 24 General spawning ground locations of crappie, Pomoxis spp., in Michigan's coastal waters of the Great Lakes . ... . . . . . . . . . . . T56 Figure 25 General spawning ground locations of pumpkinseed, Lepomis gibbosus, in Michigan's coastal waters of the Great Lakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Figure 26 General spawning ground locations of bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus, in Michigan's coastal waters of the Great Lakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Figure 27 General spawning ground locations of rock bass, AmbZopZites rupestris, in Michigan's coastal waters of the Great Lakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 vii LIST OF FIGURES (Continued) Figure Page Figure 28 General spawning ground locations of white bass, Alorone chrysops, in Michigan's coastal waters of the Great Lakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Figure 29 General spawning ground locations of freshwater drum, Apodinotus grunniens, in Michigan's'coastal waters of the Great Lakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 Figure 30 General spawning ground locations of bowfin, Amia caZva, in Michigan's coastal waters of the Great Lakes . . . . . . . . . 167 Figure 31 General spawning ground locations of gar, Lepisosteus spp., in Michigan's coastal waters of the Great Lakes . . . . . . . . . . 169 Figure 32 General spawning ground locations of gizzard shad,Dorosoma cepedianum, in Michigan's coastal waters of the Great Lakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 viii LIST OF TABLES Table Table I Michigan Coastal Waters Spawning Ground Study- Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x Table 2 Symbols representing spawning ground bottom characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 8 Table 3 Letter designations of fish species as shown on spawning ground study maps . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Table 4 Chubs, Coregonus spp.: Spawning seasons, depths, and bottom'types reported from the literature . . . 34 ix TABLE 1. PERSONNEL MICHIGAN COASTAL WATERS SPAWNING GROUND STUDY Interviews Professional Assistance Michael Huntly Patricia Pilling Biology Department Wayne State Univ. Michigan Technological Univ. Archives of Labor & Urban Affairs Houghton, Michigan- 49931 Walter P. Reuther Library Detroit, Michigan 48202 Mary Mattson Biology Department Geneva Wiskemann Michigan Technological Univ. State Archivist, Retired Houghton, Michigan 49931 5580 West State Rd. Lansing, Michigan 48906 John Medema Biology Department Central Michigan Univ. Literature Search Mt. Pleasant, Michigan 48859 Glenn Klos 2301 Easy Street Interviews and Data Collation Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104 Lori Hough Biology Department Typing and Tape Transcription Michigan State Univ. East Lansing, Michigan 48824 Sue Milvert Aquatic Systems, Inc. Cindy Milligan Ludington, Michigan 49431 Fisheries & Wildlife Department Michigan State Univ. Jonellen Stacey East Lansing, Michigan 48824 Aquatic Systems, Inc. Jeff Organ - Ludington, Michigan 49431 Aquatic Systems, Inc. Ludington, Michigan 49431 Editing and Proofre ading Mike Revello Gloria Towns Biology Department 4737 Bristol Michigan Technological Univ. Lansing, Michigan 48910 Houghton, Michigan 49931 ABSTRACT In an attempt to summarize past and present knowledge relating specifically to the spawning grounds of fishes in the Michigan coastal waters of the-Great Lakes, two primary sources of material were used. Personal interviews were conducted with commercial fishermen, research- ers, Michigan Department of Natural Resources personnel, United States Fish and Wildlife Service personnel; and additional information was obtained from published and unpublished literature. Designated graph- ically, according to substrate composition, are approximately 900 spawn- ing grounds that have been or are being used in the Michigan coastal waters of the Great Lakes. This report includes information on 55 species of fishes and spawning ground utilization from the 1890's through 1978. Xi INTRODUCTION Michigan's coastal waters have in recent years undergone rapid changes brought about by a rapidly moving society. Dredging and filling projects have changed the face of.much of the coast- line. Agricultural modifications of the Great Lakes drainage and influences of urbanization and industrialization have caused major changes in the Great Lakes which have affected fish populations (Trautman, 1957). Knowledge concerning the locations of fish spawning areas may help in their preservation and thus the perpet- uation of species which might otherwise fall pray to human cultural expansion. Relatively little'information is available, in the literature, relating directly to fish spawning ground locations in Michigan's coastal waters of theGreat Lakes and their physical characterist- ics., Some literature of this type is available for individual species or families,(Peck, 1978; Koelz, 1929; Commercial Fisheries Material, 1927-28). Although many recent studies concerning ichthyoplankton have appeared in the literature, this information was generally concerned with the impingement and entrainment of the egg, fry and larval stages of fishes in the water cooling systems of large electrical generating power plants. These reports indicated locations of fish nursery grounds but rarely mentioned spawning ground locations orcharacteristics. It appears that fish spawning locations in Michigan's coastal waters and their characteristics; such as bottom types, depths, and other pertinent spawning data, have been rather neglected. "...The whole secret of fishing this lake (Lake Superior) is all based around the fish egg; the fish egg has been terribly neglected over the years...Fish life is a very uncertain thing. It doesn't follow an exact pattern; it changes from day to day..." Tom Brown A commercial fisherman for over 65 years The locations of many traditional spawning grounds have been known for well over 100 years by commercial fishermen and these locations have been passed on from generation to generation by word of mouth. Very few of these spawning locations have been documented, however; and the knowledge, gained by"the hard work of commercial fishermen in the past, is being lostas.the number of commercial fishermen diminishes. Many areas of Michigan's coastal waters were not identified as exhibiting any known fish spawning grounds during the course of this study. These areas should not be considered as non-fish spawning areas, but only as regions where there is no information available at the present time. In this report, an attempt was made to collect as much of this information yet available and couple it with the literature to map the past and presently known fish spawning grounds in Michigan's coastal waters of the Great Lakes. 2 MATERIALS AND METHODS Data on fish spawning,grounds were collected from two primary sources. Personal communication was used to collect data from. 'people who had knowledge of past or present spawning areas, and an extensive literature search was also utilized. Literature Search The literature search for data relating to fish spawning grounds included an extensive computer search, a search of the Mich- igan State Archives, and a search of various university libraries. Bibliographical sources that were searched by computer included; BIOSIS, DATRIX 11, National Technical Information Service (NTIS), Aquatic Science Abstracts, Denver Public Library Fish and Wildlife Reference Service, Smithsonian Science Information Exchange, Smith- sonian Science Information Exchange-Current Exchange, and the Mich- igan Technological University Lake Superior Basin Bibliography- Personal Communication Personal interviews were used to collect unpublished information from active and retired commercial fishermen, Michigan Department of Natural.Resources personnel, and other professional fisheries biolo- gists (Appendix 1). Before any interviews were conducted, the staff members of Aquatic Systems, Inc., were instructed by a professional oral historian as to the techniques of collecting information via interviews. Staff members were then assigned to the thirteen Michi- gan Department of Natural Resources' fisheries districts. A list of those fishermen who purchased 1978 Michigan Commercial Fishing Licences was used as an appropriate list from which to start the search, as was a suggested list, of professionals obtained through the Michigan Depart- 3 ment of Natural Resources. Retired commercial fishermen and retired professional biologists were also contacted. During each interview a list of prepared questions was used and the responses recorded., These questions concerned fish species, bottom characteristics of spawning grounds, depth of spawning, dura- tion of spawning, and other related information. Unless otherwise requested by the interviewee, the conversation was also recorded using a cassette tape recorder. United States Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminstration Great Lakes navigational charts were used in each interview as a map upon which to reference spawning areas. A sheet of 30 mil (.030 inch) clear acetate was used to cover the charts, and permanent marking pens were used to outline spawning loca.- tions on the acetate., Before any locations were drawn, however, three referencing points, usually compass rose centers, were marked on the overlying acetate to assure that the acetate could be removed from the chart and repositioned later with no loss of accuracy. The inter- viewee was encouraged to draw the locations of spawning grounds to further increase accuracy. At the completion of each interview, the acetate sheet(s) was indexed as to the name and address of the interviewee and was given ,an interview number.' The tape recording was referenced in a similar manner. Late r, with interview notes, acetates, a typed transcription of the interview, information from other interviews and the literature, spawning areas were located on photocopied sections of NOAA Great La'kes charts (Appendix 3). Other data from wh,ich the text could be written [email protected] also recorded. 4 Mapping-of Fish Spawning Grounds In an effort to best represent and map fish spawning areasS sections of NOAA Great Lake Charts (13th edition) were photocopied as closely to a one to one magnification as possible. This allows each figure (Appendix 3) to be extracted from the report and overlaid onto the corresponding lake chart for an accurate perspective view of spawning ground locations. Several maps are included which have no spawning grounds referenced as "grounds not defined", however, the authors included these figures to complete the mapping of the entire Mich- igan coastline. Some large, offshore, open water spawning areas were not entirely mapped, but their locations were discussed in the text. For ease of location identification, the general area covered by each figure has been further referenced as to the areas of Michigan and Mich- igan's coastal waters that it covers (Appendix 2). As an added refer- ence, the latitude and longitude of the approximate center of each lake chart sectional map have been included on each figure (Appendix 3). Spawning grounds in certain areas were too congested to include all spawning areas on a'single map; therefore, two o r more maps of the same area were used, identically numbered, and referenced alphabetically (A, B, C, etc.). Every spawning area referenced, either by personal interview or from the literature, was done so with symbols representing the bottom characteristics (Table 2) as indicated by the source of the information. Spawning grounds referenced by a mixture of symbols indicate a mixture of various bottom types. When described locations of spawning areas were rather vague, dashed lines were drawn around the area indicating that only an approximate'location was referenced.. 5 Spawning grounds were then coded for fi sh species with a one or two letter code (Table 3). In some cases, when sources were not specific as to the individual species or subs pecies within a group or family of fishes, a one or two letter code was used referencing the group or family. This situation arose several times with lake trout, for which there exists two subspecies and several races. When a source referred to a lake trout spawning ground with.no reference as to a particular race or subspecies, an "L" was used (Table 3), however, when a source specified a particular race or subspecies, a two letter code representing that particular group was used. The cumulative number of fishermen and other sources that referenced a particular species as spawning on each spawning ground was-also reported (Figure 1). Finally, the time span that each species was known to have utilized each area for spawning was indicated (Figure 1). If one source referred to a species as spawning on a particular reef in the 1920's and his knowledge of the area ended in 1956, but another source referred to spawning on the same reef by the same species from 1940 until 1978, the code would then include years of spawning for the species in question from the 1920's through 1978. If more than one species were referenced on a spawning,ground, and the years of spawning of each species were different, the spawning ground was labeled with more than one code. In all cases "00's" refer's to the 1900's or that span of time between 1900 and 1910. As an added reference, the locations of all near shore.fish spawning grounds were recorded by county, township, range and section (Appendix 5). 6 262 Numbers of individuals who 249 referred.to thisspecies as spawning in this area Species (Table 3) The span of years o known spawning for this spawning grounc 201 (WL,3,35-72 4 52 !58 69 39 Indicates bottoin.characteristicss 49 (Table 2) [email protected] 47 54 47 77 S C2 Figure 1. Example of @pawning groun 41 coding as used in.Appendix 3. /0- ,AY TABLE 2 Symbols representing spawning ground bottom character- istics. Bottom Characteristics Symbol ROCK GRAVEL (D ROCK AND GRAVEL SAND SAND AND ROCK SAND AND GRAVEL 0 CLAY 0 MUD AQUATIC VEGETATION HONEYCOMB (Limestone) OTHER: Referenced for specific figure e 8 TABLE I. Letter designations of fish species as shown on spawning ground maps FISH SPECIES DESIGNATIONS Alewife, AZosa pseudoharengus (Wilson) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A Bowfin, Amia caZva Linnaeus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AC Lake Sturgeon, Acipenser fuZvescens Rafinesque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AF Black bass (unspecified) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B Largemouth bass, Micropterus saZmoides (Lacepede) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BL Smallmouth bass, Micropterus,.doZomieui Lacepede . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BS White bass, Morone chrysops([email protected]) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BW Chubs, Coregonus spp .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. C a. Bloater, C. hoyi (Gill) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CB b. Blackfin cisco, C. nigripinnis '(Gill) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cc c. Kiyi, C. kiyi (Ko elz) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . CK Gizzard shad, Dorosoma cepedianum (Lesueur) . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . DC Emerald Shiner, Notropis atherinoides (Rafinesque) . . . . . . . . . . . . . ES Freshwater drum (Sheepshead), Aplodinotus grunniens (Rafinesque) . . . . . . FD Goldfish, Crassius auratus (Linnaeus) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... G Gar, Lepisosteus spp . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GP Lake herring (Cisco), Coregonus artedii (Lesueur) . . ... . . . . . . . . . . H TABLE 3. (Continued) FISH SPECIES DESIGNATIONS Bullhead, Ictalurus spp...................................................................I a. Brown, I. nebulosus (Lesueur)...................................................IN Channel catfish, Ictalurus punotatus (Rafinesque).........................................K Lake trout (unspecified), Salvelinus namayoush (Walbaum)..................................L a. Rock of Ages lake trout, S. namayoush namayoush (Walbaum).......................LA b. Channel salmon, S. namayoush namayoush (Walbaum)................................LC c. Humpers, paperbellies, humpies, bankers, S. namayoush namayoush (Walbaum)......................................................................LH d. Lean, S. namayoush namayoush (Walbaum)..........................................LL e. Moss trout, S. namayoush namayoush (Walbaum)....................................LM f. Native, Mackinaw, S. namayoush namayoush (Walbaum)..............................LN g. Planted (fin-clipped), S. namayoush namayoush (Walbaum).........................LP h. Redfin, s. namayoush namayoush (Walbaum)........................................LR i. Siscowet, fat, halfbreeds, S. namayoush siscowet (Agassiz)......................LS Splake, Salvelinua namayoush X fontinalis..........................................LV Smelt, Osmerus mordax (Nitchill)...................................................OM Blue Pike, Stisostedion vitreum glaucun (Hubbs)....................................PB TABLE3. (Continued) FISH SPECIES DESIGNATIONS Muskie, Esox masquinongy Mitchill .. . . . . . . . . . . . PM Northern Pike, Esox Zucius Linnaeus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PN Sauger, Stizostedion canadense (Smith) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PS Walleye, Stizostedion vitreum (Mitchill). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PW Rainbow trout (Steelhead) SaZmo gairdneri Richardson . . . . . . . . . . . . R Suckers, Moxostoma [email protected] Catostomus SPP . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... S Salmon (unspecified) Oncorhynchus spp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . SA Brown Trout, Salmo trutta Linnaeus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ST T Burbot (Lawyer), Lota Zota (Linnaeus) . . . . . . . . . . Minnows (unspecified) . . . . . ... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . UM Bigmouth Buffalo, Ictiobus cyprineZZus (Valenciennes) . .. . . . . . . . . . . v Whitefish (unspecified) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . W a. Lake whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis (Mitchill) . . . . . . . . . . . A b. Round Whi tef i sh (Menomi nee), Prosopium cyZindraceum Pa 11 a s ). . . . . WR Carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X 'Quillback, [email protected] cyprinus (Lesueur) . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . XQ Yellow Perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill) Y Sunfish (unspecified) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . ... . . . z TABLE 3. (Continued) FISH SPECIES a.Bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque b. Pumpkinseed, Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus) . . . . . . . . c. Rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris (Rafinesque) . . . . . . . . . . . . RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Relatively little information concerning locations of spawning grounds in Michigan's coastal waters was found in the literature. .-Some spawning locations. and bottom characteristics have been docu- mented for individual species, but on the whole very few spawning grounds of the Great Lake fishes have been charted in the past. In all, 151 personal interviews were conducted with commercial fishermen and other people who had knowledge of fish spawning grounds from a total of,221 contacted individuals. Some interviews were condu'cted with Wisconsin fishermen who has purchased licenses to fish in Michigan waters; however, the vast majority of information was provided by Michigan residents. The authors wish to note that some pertinent sources of infor- mation may have been overlooked in the preparation of this report. Any omission of material or information.was unintentional. as every attempt was made to assemble as much data as possible in'the time allotted. Each species for which pertinent spawning ground information could be obtained is dealt with separately in the following pages of this report. For each-species, general information concerning spawning in Michigan's coastal waters of the Great Lakes is discussed in the following sequence: Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, Lake St. Clair and Lake Erie. In turn, within each lake discussion,' spawning grounds are discussed following the numerical order of the, Michigan Department of Natural Resources-statistical districts,(Fig- ure 2) (Smith et al.$ 1961 13 ms I FIGURE 2. Fishery statisti MS3 districts of Michigan's ( waters of the Great Lakei INS 2 E MS4 MISS mon Trowt INAS Vi Fbint ritp Point r Fort tniad I MM3 #A ?A 2 Rogers City N. > r-ood MH2 MM4 Imms BlackRi-er ia N1143 IMFA 6 Au Sable Po' MH4 mms ittle Sable Fbint Fbrt Santlac N 61 MM7 Wland #AM 8 Lansing Detroi LAKE TROUT The lake trout is indigenous to the entire Great Lakes region and, in the past, has comprised an*important part of the Great Lakes' commercial fishing industry. The nomenclature currently in use by commercial fishermen for the lake trout is quite extensive. Pycha (1975) has indicated two forms with subspecific ranking, the lean or typical lake trout, SalveZinus namaycush namaycush (Walburn), and the siscowet o.r fat, SaZvelinus namaycush siscowet (Agassiz), and has suggested that many.races may exist withingthese groups. Information obtai.ned,from commercial.fishermen indicated that "distinguishable races" do indeed exist. For the purpose of this study, common names currently in use by commercial fishermen are used. Spawning seasons for lake trout vary by specific. location; however, the season may be considered to start generally in Sep- tember and [email protected] early December in the.Great Lakes' coastal waters of Michigan. Rahrer (1965) made reference to "humpers" near Isle Royale and Caribou Island that began their spawning run in.mid-September. Michigan DNR spawn records for Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron indicate the majority of spawning occurred between 20'September and 15.November M7, with the longest noted spawning period, 25 days, at Thunder Bay in Lake Huron (Van Oosten, 1927). Spawning by.lake trout throughout the Great Lakes is generallv considered to,take--p ve isting.of boulders, jAcei p_ _r rocky shoals cons cracked ro-ck.- a.nd.-c el- ___pth _jray @[email protected] ng'. de _may Yary 15 Figure General sp 3 locations of lake trout, nxnaycush.,'in Michigan's of the Great Lakes. Upper Peninsula Wisconsin Cn 0 MICHIGAN GROUNDS NOT DEFINED Lower Peninsula -j from .15 meters to over 30 meters (1 to 100 feet) with various 'races seeming to prefer specific depth and reef type. Lake Superior. Eschmeyer (1955) has reported the principal spawn- ing grounds, for lake trout, in the United States waters of Lake Superior to be rocky shoals of less than 1.8 meters (60 feet). The Lake Superior spawning runs.generally begin near the end of September at Isle Royale, fol.lowed by a run at the northern tip of Keweenaw County, followed by runs along the north.,eho6re of Mich- igan's upper peninsula (Cook, 1929). "Humpers" congregate,near reefs or "humps" on known spawning grounds southeast,of Isle Royale and west ofCaribou Island during late September (Eschmeyer, 1965). Rahrer (1965) has also indicated mid-September.s,pawning for "humpers"*living in the area of Isle Royale and Caribou Island. In thevicinity of the Caribou Islands, 'near the Michigan- Ontario border, numerous lake trout spawning areas were reported (Wright, 1978). Thistrea is composed of uplifted bedrock (banks) with "humpers4 spawning on the ridges and siscowet spawning in the valleys or trenches. Spawning depth varies somewhat with the bottom configuration. Wright (1978) reported-the sp .awning.runs to begin generally in August and that "halfbreeds." also spawn in this area. Two fi.shermen [email protected] grounds througho.ut the Caribou islands area with spawning beginning in late August for "humpers" and "halfbreeds'.' and September for others (Appendix 3, Figures 36.1 and 36.2). TheJollowing lake trout spawning areas were provided by 17 Michigan Department of [email protected] Biologists R. Schorfhaar and J. Peck and were originally supplied, to the.above., by commercial fishermen. The areas will not appear in Appendix 3 unless they were identified and geographically located during an interview. The material appears verbatim as it was received from the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, with the exception that the source of material has been deleted. MS-1 Lake Trout Spawing Areas 1. McCormick Reef 2. Hay Bay Reef 3. McCormick Rocks 4. Brandsford Reef 5. Harlem Reef 6. Domen and Doden.Reefs 7. Rock of Ages Reefs Isle Royale fishermen have a number of different names for lake trout they feel are different strains. Some of these strains used certain reefs for spawning. A few of the names ? iven the lake trout are: (1) Rock of Ages trout; (2) Redfin Also Redfin Mackinac);.(3) Silver-Greys; (4) Channel salmon (believe they sapwn in Malone Bay area); (5) Salmon-Trout.. MS-3 Lake Trout Spawning Areas 1. Shore Bank - loca,ted,west of North Portage Entry. Extends from 1 112 miles west of the "entry" for approximately 4-5'miles southwest toward Redridge. Depth_of spawning area approximately 15-40'. According to lake chart the bottom type is rock. 2. Located one mile northeast of North Portage Entry. This reef extends lakeward i.n a NNE direction for slightly over one mile. Depth is,8-40' and bottom type assumed to be rocky. 3. Hutchinson Shoal - five miles southwest of Eagle River. Top of shoal is 14' deep and approximately .6 mile offshore with the reef parallelinq shore for about 4'5 mile. North, end'- of s-ho'-a-l- Ts due -east of a tower located on shore. Bottom typeis rocky according to the lake chart. 4. Eagle River Shoals - west end ofthe shoals start approximately 1 1/2 miles SW of Eagle River .8 mile from shore and extends ENE for 5-5 112 miles across the mouth of Great Sand Bay to its eastpoint. Bottom type is assumed to be rock. 5. Little Grand Marais Harbor Reef - located off the mouth of Little Grand Marais Harbor approximately two miles east of Eagle Harbor. These reefs extend eastward from the 18 mouth of the harborfor an unknown distance (believed to be 1-2 miles) toward Agage Harbor. Bottom type is rock. 6. Devil's Wash Bowl - located four miles west.of the entrance to Copper Harbor. This is apparently a steep shore ,bank with rockbottom. 7. Copper Harbor Reef - forms the partial barrier to Copper Harbor. Bottom type is rock. Lake trout spawning occurred earlier than i.n most areas.. 8. Keweenaw Point - located at the tip of the'Keweenaw Peninsula. Extends lakeward in a southerly direction for approximately .4 mile. Bottom assumed'to be rock. 9. Manitou Island Reefs - located all around Manitou Island off Keweenaw Point., Lake trout were known to spawn all around the island. Spawning occurred early on a reef on the south side of the island. This reef extends eastward from..the southernmost extention of the-island for about one mile. Redfins-spawned late in the area north of the Gull Rock end of the island. This area encompasses about two square miles and was felt to be the best lake trout spawning ground-in MS-3. Bottom type is roc .ky in the entire area. 10. Point Isabelle- located on south side of Bete Grise. Spawning occurred.from approximately two mi-les northwest of the'point to two miles southwest of the point. Bottom type-As rocky. 11. Betsy Reefs -.extend from about 3.8 m iles northeast of the Betsy River to 1 112 miles southwest of the ri,ver. Bottom type is. rock. 12. Buffalo Reef - Grand Traverse Bay - located 1.2 miles NNE of the mouth of Traverse River. This reef extends lakeward due east for l..6 miles. Bottom type is rocky. This reef is known to have been used by lake trout as recently as 1969 when an estimated 3,000' of gil.1 net took 370 lake trout. 13. Traverse Point - spawning area extends from the north tip to the south tip-of the point. Bottom type is rock. 14. Red Rocks - off south point of Little Traverse. 15. Traverse Island - spawning area all around island but mostly off south side. for 4 1/2 miles. Bottom type is rock. This reef was used by Redfin with the best area from 10-50'. A plant of 85,000 lake trout was made on this.ree.f in 1973 with an adipose fin cli 'p 16. Point Abbaye Reef - extend.northeastw6rd from Point Abbaye for 1.7 miles and is .8-1 mile wide. This reef is marked by a Coast Guard bell buoy and by a red nun buoy. Bottom type is boulders and rock. 17. Huron River Point Reef --extend northeastward from Huron River Point for 1.6 miles.. Bottom type is rock. *Note: Reef Nos. 3, 4, 5, and 7 are formed by the upturned edges of the formations which form the Keweenaw Peninsula. The rock .which forms these reefs was more resistant to erosion than the rock shoreward of them. MS-4 Lake Trout Spawning Areas, 1. Big Bay Point Reef extend due north from Big Bay Point 19 for 1 112 miles with the outer end marked with a black can buoy. Bottom type is rock. 2. Unnamed Point on Lake Chart - located 2.8 miles SSE of Yellow Dog Point. Spawning area apparentlylocated for about one mile north of point to one mile south of point. Bottom type assumed to be rock. 3. Garlic Island Reef 4. Thoney Point - spawning area extends from the point south- ward to about the mouth of the Little Garlic River (1.4 miles). Bottom type is rocky. This reef was felt to be the best in the Marquettb-Big Bay area. 5. Partridge Island Reef - locate 1.3 miles north of Partridge Island, approximately one mile in diameter. Bottom type is rock. Netting in October, 1973, produced spawning lake trout. 6. Laughing Fish Point Reef - located from the point eastward for approximately two miles. Bottom type is'rock. Netting in October, 1973, produced few spawners. Depth is 10-40'. 7. AuTrain Island Reef - extends northward,from'Autrain Island Reef for 1.3 miles. Bottom type is rocky, depth 10-40'. 8. AuTrain Point to Five Mile Point Reefs - much of the shoal area between these points and the shoal areas. including Wood and William Islands was apparently good lake trout spawning area. Bottom type is mostly ledge rock with areas of rubble. 9. Grand Portal Shore Bank - most of area from Mosquito River to Chapel Creek reported to be good spawning area. Bottom type is ledge rock and rubble. 10. Beaver Hump - located due north of Beaver Lake, 2.6 miles from shore. Hump lies NE x SW and is about two miles long. Depth is 40-60''. 11. Others - There are a number of offshore reefs in the Munising area including Wood Island Reef, Trout Reef, East Bank, Grand Portal Reef and Big Reef. MS-6 Lake Trout Spawning Areas 1. Offshore Reef - located 2-3 miles of Tahquamenon Island. Extend in a north-south direction for about ten miles. Depths range from 35-100'. Bottom type mostly unknown but partially clay. 2. Salt Point Reef - extends from Salt Point southward to about 1 1/2 mile west of Pendills Creek. Bottom type is mostly rocky. 3. Iroquois -Island Shoals - extensive shoal area in approximately a two-mile radius of Iroquois Island. Bottom type is listed as rocky and b 'oulders on the lake chart. 4. Canadian Lake Trout Spawning Areas located in Whitefish Bay. a) Parisienne Shoal b) Maple Island C) Sandy Islands and Steamboat Island Shoals d) Pancake Shoals 20 In the vicinity of the North East end of,Isle Royale native lake Itrout were reported to have spawned,in near shore waters (Appendix 3, Figures.1 and 2). "Re'dfin" spawning took place in the vicinity of Passage Island and Gull.Island over rock bottom (Appendix 3, Figure 1), .and "Humpers" spawned over rock and clay near Middle Island Passage (Appendix 3, Figure 2). "Native" lake trout spawn-on the north shore of Isle Royale at four specific spawning locations ranging in depth from 2 to 9 meters (6 to 39 feet) of water (Appendix 3, Figure 4A)-. In the current study it was found that off the southwest end of Isle Royale [email protected] in 9 to 15 meters (30 to 50 feet)-of water have been used since the early 1900's by "native". and "redfin". trout as ,spawning grounds (Appendix 3,. Figures 5A and B). Just west of Isle Royale is "Rock-of-Ages Reef", a known spawning ground of the "Rock- of-Ages" lake trout (Appendix 3, Figure 5A.). The "Rock-of-Ages" lake trout began their spawning run near the end of September in this area. In Washington Harbor on the southwest end of Isle Royale and.just west of Beaver Island is a spawning ground utilized by the "channel salmon" lake trout (Appendix 3, Figure 5A). Other spawning areas [email protected] the "channel salmon' are on either side of Malone Bay adjacent to Wright.Island along the south shore of Isle Royale (Appendi.x 3, Figure 3). In these,areas-"channel salmon" -begin their spawni.ng run in mid70Ctober., '.'Native" and "redfin" lake trout spawn i,n 9 to 15 meters (30 to,50 feet) of water from near, Ra,inbow.Point to Siskiwit Island along the south shore of Isle Royale 40 (Appendix 3, Figures-4A.and 5B). The spawning season for lake trout 21 in the vicinity of Isle Royale, generally begins in mid-September for the "redfin" and mid-October for the "native" lake trout. Bottom composition in,this area is generally rock, and spawning depths range from 9 to 25 meters (30-to 90 feet) of water. In the vicinity of the Keweenaw Peninsula, e xtendi.ng from near Ontonagon on the west to near Grand Portal Point on,the east, are numerous lake trout spawning areas (Appendix 3, Figures 6 through 29). Spawning reefs in this area are generally rock y in composition, and water depths over the reefs range from 1 to over 30 meters (2 to over 100 feet). Spawni ng times are generally from the first part of October through mid-November. In one instance on the north side of the Keweenaw Peninsula 11siscowet" were reported to begin a spawning run in early July (Appendix 3, Figure 13). The west end of Manitou Island and an area near the end of Keweenaw Point were inciated as "native" and "redfin" spawning grounds (Appendix 3, Figure 17A). Two commercial fishermen indicated three locations in the Keweenaw Bay area where "planted" lake trout were spawning over rock, and rock and gravel (Appendix 3, Figure'21A). One reference was made to an isolated reef with rock and gravel bottom in the Keweenaw Bay where the spawning run began in the first partof October (Appendix.3, Figure 22). Spawning grounds in the vicinity of Point Abbaye, Huron Islands and Huron River Point ran generally from near shore to 27 meters (90 feetO of wateri and spawning was heaviest from mid-October to the end of November (Appendix 3. Figures 22 and 23). The area from near Big Bay Point on the west to near Grand Marias on the east is covered in current spawning ground survey 22 work by the Michigan DNR (Peck, 1975) (Appendix 3, Figures 25 through 30). Exchmeyer (1956 and 1965). has also provided evidence for spawning in this area. 9 The Stannard Rock area was reported as a spawning ground for both lean andInative lake trout,(Appendix 3, Figure 26.1). One fisherman reported native trout taken,in 6 meters of.water to be fatterand develop quicker than others. It was also reported that the lean trout feed extensively on fresh water shrimp in-this area. North of Crisp Point in 9 meters (30 feet) of water one isolated reef was indicated as an active spawning site from the early 1900's.until 1930 for "native" lake trout (Appendix 3, Figure 33). The Whitefish.Bay area was indicated to have "native" lake trout spawning'grounds of-rock and gravel with the spawning run beginning about, the first'of November (Appendix 3, Figures 35 and, 36). Lake Michigan. In Lake Michigan the number of races.of lake trout recognized by commercial fishermen is reduced from those recognized by commercial fishermen in Lake Superior; however, reference was made more often to the "moss trout" in Lake Michigan waters than in Lake Superior waters. The primary-distinction of this lake trout is that is spawns over rocks covered.with "moss, The "moss" reported by fishermen appears to be Dichotomosiphion tuberosus (Needham, et al, 1922). Needham reported that fishermen refer to this plant as "moss" in Lake George, New York. The depth. at which this plant.grows,.an.d descriptions of Great Lakes fishermen are similiar to other descriptions of Dichotomosiphilon tuberosus. 23 Generally, spawning in Lake Michigan takes place over rock, and rock and gravel shoals with the spawning run beginning slightly earlier on the north shore of the lake than along the eastern shore.. Commercial fishermen reported spawning dates of mid-October through the end of November in the waters of Northern Lake Michigan. Van Oosten (1935) reported the mean spawning time for lake trout in Lake Michigan to be 15 October to 15 November. Chiotti (1973) reported a peak spawning period near Ludington of 1 November to 15'November. In a 1927 condensed report on spawning seasons, the mean spawning season for Lake Michig an was from 15 October to 15 November (Van Oosten, 1935). Commercial fishermen reported spawning seasons in the lower peninsula to be from mid-November to mid-December. In the upper peninsula, spawning times were reported to be generally from the first of November to near the end of November. Lake trout,spawning grounds along the northwestern shore of Lake Michigan.are somewhat restricted to specific spawning sites. Van Oosten (1927), in a condensed report of Great Lakes spawning seasons, indicated only one spawning ground on the western shoreline of the upper peninsula near the north end of Big Bay de Noc, with a spawning 'run from 1 November to 1 December. Areas indicated by Peck (1975 and 1976) as traditional spawning grounds for lake trout are included in Appen dix 3, Figures 50 through 76. Lake trout spawning areas in the vicinity of Deadman's Point, Arthur Bay, and Whaleback Shoal are over rock, and rock and gravel shoals, and spawning runs extend from mid-October to the end of November (Appendix 3, Figures 51A, 52, and 53). In the area of 24 Cedar River in .15 meters (6 inches) of water "planted" lake trout spawn at unspecified dates (Appendix 3, Figure 53). Approximately-2.5 kilometers (1.5 miles) northeast-of Point DeTour, in 3 to 9 meters (12 to 30 feet) of water, Ts a lake trout spawning ground with spawning activity from mid-October through the first week in November (Appendix 3, Figure 61). An area 6 kilometers (4miles) 'south,of Portage Bay over [email protected] gravel shoals is used by lake'trout for spawning, also from mid-October through the first week in November. Spawning grounds at "Rock Reef" southeast of Point Aux Barques, in Parent Bay,'and Wiggins Point Shoal are all rock and gravel with a general spawning run beginning in mid-October and extending through mid-November (Appendix 3, Figures-66 and 67)., Just south of Manistique, "planted" lake trout have been noted spawning dur.ing-the month of November in .15 meters (6 inches') of water along the shoreline,(Appendix 3, ,Figure 68). From Seul,Choix Point on the west to Point La Barbe on the east,, numerous spawning grounds were indicated (Appendix 3, Figures 69 throuth 76). Spawning runs begin in,the above mentioned area near the end of,October and run into November. Peck (1975) indicated traditional spawning grounds.in this. general area for the lake trout. There are numerous specific.reefs and shoals.in the vicinity of Beaver Island that were ihdicated.as spawning locations for lake trout (Appendix 3, Figures 79A, B; 81B, 82A,,C; 84B, 85A, B; 86A, B; and 87A, B). Bottom type in-this spawning ground area was generally reported as,honeycomb, rock, and rock and gravel. On the. east shoreline are also well defined spawning reefs. Lake trout 25 spawn on or near Dahlia Shoal, the point just south of Big Rock Point, Northport Point, Bellow Island, north of New Mission Point,, Sutton's Point, and in Bowers Harbor.(Peck, 1978) (Appendix 3,, Figures 79A, 90, 94A, B; 96A, 97B, and 99 respectively). "Native" lake trout were reported spawning near shore i'n the vicinity of.Seven Mile Point (Appendix 3, Figure 88). Offshore, rocky shoals were indicated as spawning grounds with spawning runs beginning near the end of October (Appendix 3, Figures, 91A, B; 92, and 98B). Two other rocky areas were indicated in near shore waters for lake trout spawning and one offshore honeycomb shoal near the mouth of Guyer Creek (Appendix -3, Figures 93 and 95 respectively). Three locations imGrand.Traverse Bay for ".moss trout" spawning grounds were indicated (Appendix 3, Figures 96A, 97A, and 99). Bottom type in these areas was said to be "moss" and rock andspa wning depth was 9 to 18 meters (30 to 60 feet). In one case the "moss trout" no longer utilize this area for spawning,,however,, no specific dates were given .(Appendix 3, Figure 96). Material received from the Michigan Department ofNatural-Resources indicates these planted lake trout spawn along the shoreline from near the Penn-Dixie Cement Plant silos in Little Traverse Bay south to Norwood in outer Grand Traverse Bay (Kel-ler 1979). From North Fox Island south to Sleeping Bear Point, lake trout spawn over rock or rock and gravel shoals in water from 2 to 18 meters (6 to 60 feet) in depth (Appendix 3, Figures 101A. B; 103A, C-0. 104, 105, 106A,, B5 D; 108C, [email protected], B; 110A, B; and 111).' Reported spawning seasons for the above areas were mid-October to mid-November. 26 An isolated spawning shoal in Platte Bay over rock bottom was indicated to be utilized "years ago" by lake trout (Appendix 3, Figure 113). Three areas wer e indicated near Arcadia and south to just north of Manistee over a rock and honeycomb bottom (Appendix 3, Figures 114 and-115). "Burnham Reef" north of Arcadia was fished for lake trout in the 1800's', however no indication was given that the area was, still in use for spawning (Appendix .3, Figure 114). Planted lake trout were reported spawning from near shore to 2 kilometers 0 mile) off shore in water 15 meters (50 feet) or less, from south of Manistee to Little Sable Point (Appendix 3, Figures 115, 116, 117, and 118B). Bottom types in the spawning areas were rock, and stone and gravel. From Stony Lake south to the Indiana state line-are numerous near shore spawning grounds: (Appendix 3,'Figures 119, 120, 121A, 126B, 131B, 132A, and 134B). These spawning grounds were said to be generally.composed of rock, rock and gravel, and in some cases sand. Spawning dates were reported as mid-October to mid-November. Three commercial fishermen made reference to large open water areas with primarily-mud-,bottoms where lake trout.spawn..during October and November (Appe'ndiXL3, Figures 122A, 123A, 123B,.I125A, 127B, 129A, 130, 132A,and 133A). In this.one instance, some question'arose as to lake trout.spawning over-mud in over 107.meters (350 feet) of water. One ofl,the fishermen was re-contacted.,and confi med thearea as a spawning ground and not just.an area fished. The "Milwaukee Reef" in mid-Lake Michigan runs from Little Sable Point south to Port Sheldon (Appendix 3, Figures 135 and 136). "Lean" and "Siscowet" lake trout were reported to have spawned,. 27 over clay, rock and.clinkers (ie. burned coal from ships), from the early 1930's until the late 1940's. Spawning was indicated to begin in mid-October and continue until mid-November in this area. Lake Huron. The following lake trout spawning reefs were provided by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources Biologist R. Eschenroder and were originally identified by commercial fishermen in August 1968. These reefs will not appear in Appendix 3 unless they were identified a nd geographically located during and inter- view. St. Martin Reef; Pomeroy Reef; Goose Island Shoal; Channel between Round and Mackinac Islands; Majors Reef; North and South Graham Shoals Poe Reef; Spectacle Reef; Zela Shoal; Lafayette Point; Lighthouse Point; Lime Kiln Point 0ld Presq'ue Isle Lighthouse; Shorebank between'Stoneport and Rockport; Reef Southeast of Middle Island Lighthouse in 22' of water Six Fathom Bank; Yankee Reef; North Point (Thunder Bay); Shorebank off of Black River Sturgeon Point; Shorebank between Harrisville and Thunder Bay; Port Austin Reef; Harbor Beach South Graham Shoal and Major's Shoal, both in the S traits k ` a c' I k6--fr -Ut"' (Appendix 3, of Mac in were reporte as a 0 spawning areas Figure 77). Reported depths for these grounds were 2 to. 4 meters (6 to 12 feet with rock bottom. Goose Island and Goose Island Shoal were also reported as.lake trout spawning grounds over A rock bottom (Appendix 3, Figure 139C); no spawning dates were given for the above mentioned area, although it was indicated that Lake Huron lake trout spawn generally a week earlier than in Lake Michigan. 28 Native lake trout 5pawning.sites were reported from the east end of.Drummond Island. These areas were noted to. contain a rock bottom and spawning occured in 1 to 5 meters (3 to 15 feet).of water beginning in September (Appendix 3, Figures 145.1 and 145.2). From north of Round Island south to Hammond. Bay are a number of "native" lake trout spawning grounds (Appendix 3. Figures 141,, 146, 148B,'149 and 151A). Bottom type in this area is rock,and honeycomb, with October spawning runs reported most frequently. Planted lake.trout were reported-to,spawn over rock,bottom in.the near shore area around the [email protected] Biological Station,(Appendix 3, Figure 151B). From Adams Point south to Preenbush numerous lake trout spawn- ing sites were reported, generally over rock, gravel and honeycomb bottoms (Appendix 3, Figures 152, 153, 1:55 through 1,58 and 159B). Spawning seasons were reported only in one instance; from,late Octoberthrough early November. "Siscowets" were reported spawning northeast of Presque Isle Harbor in deep water but no specific spawning times were indicated (Appendix 3, Figure 154). Lake trout were reported spawning in the Saginaw Bay area. over rock, gravel, and sand bottoms [email protected] through mid- November .(Appendix.3, Figures: 160B,.162AS 163B9 163C, 164D., 168A, 169, .170% and 171). "Planted" lake trout were reported spawning in the fall of 1978 in near shore water west of,the mouth of the Rifle River (Appendix 3, Figure 165B). A November spawning period was indicatedfor lake trout in mid- Lake Huron'(Appendix 3, 'Figures 175 and 176). Spawning depth in this area was 40 meters (1130 feet)' and spawning reportedly occurred during ..29 November. No.spawn.ing activity was reported from the Lake St. Clair or the Lake Erie areas., CHUBS The term chubs, -Coregonus spp., as it [email protected] referred to in this report, represents a collection of seven different species that are distributed t hroughout the'.Great Lakes. This group includes the deepwater cisco, Coregonus,johanne; the blackfin cisco, Coregonus nigri'p-&*nni*s; the shortiaw cisco, Coregonus zenithicus; the longiaw cisco,Coregonus aLpenae; the shortnose cisco, Coregonus reighardi; the kiyi, Coregonus kiyi,; and the bloater, Coregonus hoyi. The' I-ast, five species mentioned are endemic to the Great Lakes (Scott and.,Crossman, 1973;,- Jobes, 1943); however, not.all seven species have, been found concurrently in all of the Great Lakes. All species of.chub,s have been reported from Lake Michigan, four'species from Lake Huron, and two species from Lake Erie (Koelz, 1929; Scott and Crossman, (1-974 with Lake Superior reported as being represented by six spec-ies,..all except the longjAw (Scott and Crossman, 1975). Binding the above chub species together into a single group is their common deep-water habitat which also aids in their sep - aration from the lake herring,,Coregonus,artedii, and the lakei whitefish, Coregonus cLupeaformis (Koelz, 1929) Both the lake herring and the lake whitefish were consider,ed,in separate sections of this study. All but.a few of the.Great. Lakes fishermen interviewed during the course of this study made no distinction between the various species of chubs. Koelz (1929) reported that,the commercial catch of deepwater coregonids containing,more than one [email protected] also grouped under the general category of "chubs". 31 Chub spawning in the Great Lakes has been documented as occurring over a wide time span, a [email protected] of bottom types, and over 6 wide range of depths. In Lake',Michigan, spawning has been documented in all months except June and July. The Lake Huron chub spawning duration has been reported to be somewhat shorter, occurring in the fall between themonths of August and January; and in Lake Superior, spawning took place between the months of Octo ber and January (Koelz, 1929). Little is known about the Lake Erie chub populations since .the collapse of the commercial fishery (exemplified by.a catch of 32 million pounds in 1924 to a catch of 3.5 million pounds in 1925 [VanOosten, 19291). Scott-and Smith (1962) showed-that the longiaw was present in Lake Erie sometime after 1947, and Scott and Crossman (1973) have reported the.presence of the deepwater cisco. Scott and Crossman and Scott and SmithAndi.cate that the spawning season for Lake Erie chubs takes place between mid-August and November. Generally, the bloater spawns from mid-winter to early spring, the shortnose from spring to mid-summer, the deepwater from late summer to ear-ly fall, the kiyi and longjaw ciscos in early fall, and the shortiaw and blackfin ciscos in late fall and early winter (Smith, 1969). Depth pref6rence.s.for. each of"the various spe.cies: of chubs are fairly constant. The bloater prefers the shallower areas; the shortiaw, shortnose and longjaw have been found in intermediate depths; the p deepwater and blackfin somewhat deeper; and, the kiyi is !considered to, be the deepest dwelling chuh (Smi.th,.1969).: Various bottom characteristics have been reported to be conducive to chub spawning (Koelz, 1929; Jobes, 1943),,@-'- Very little information is- available as to the temperature 32 preferences of spawning chubs. Scott and Crossman (1973) reported that spawning seems to take place during times of decreasing temp- erature. Jobes (1943) showed temperature for the spawning of the shortjaw in Lake Michigan to be from 3.8 to 4.7'C; however, reports that temperature seems to have little effect on chub spawning and distributfon. Because the spawning characteristics of chubs are so variable, specific information pertaining to each species was condensed for this report (Table 4 and Figure 4). Lake Superior. -Chub spawning has been reported to-occur in Lake Superior from September to January between the depths of 27 and 180 meters (90 and 600 feet) (Table 4 Bottom characteristics for the chub spawning grounds of Lake Superior cited from the lit- eratureare clays (Koelz, 1929); however, rock and mud character- istics have been reported by various commercial fishermen. Again, little information concerning the chub spawning areas for the Michigan coastal waters of Lake Superior appears to be available in the literature. All presently known spawning -grounds will be discussed in the following section. From the information available at this time, there were no ,known chub spawning areas from the Isle Royale region of Lake Superior or the Saxon Harbor to Redridge area,.-,,,, Between Redridge and Big Bay Point, the area of Michigan's Keweenaw Peninsula, there were a number of reported chub spawning grounds. Two known areas of spawning existed in Keweenaw Bay (Appendix 3, Figure 219) in depths exceeding,30 meters (100 feet);.- 33 TABLE 4 Chubs, Coregonus spp.,,Spawning Seasons, Dep+hs,and Bottom Types Reported from the Literature (Modified from Scott & Crossman,1975) SPECIES [email protected] DEPTHS(ft) BOTTOM MONTHS AUTHOR(S) C. alpenae, Erie 9-204 November Scott & Crossman,1975 Longjaw Erie --- --- November Scott & Smith,1962 Huron 84-480 --- November Scott & Crossman,1975 Huron 60-144 Mud w/r6ck November Koelz,1929 'gravel Michigan 30-540 November Stott &,Crossman,1975 Michigan 60-150 --- November -Koelz,1929 Michigan 150-546 November Jobes,1949a C. hoyi Huron 180-300 --- February-March Koelz,1929 ;Scott & Crossman,1975 Bloater Michigan --- February-March jobes,1949 Michigan 180-300 --- March Scott & Crossman,1975 [email protected] --- Sand March Koelz,1929 Michigan ... --- January-March Wells,19,-66 Superior 90-540 --- After December Scott & Crossman,,1975 [email protected] Huron 90-600+ August-September Scott & Crossman,1975 Deepwater Michigan 180-540 Mid-August to End Sept. Scott & Crossman,1975 C. kiyi Huron 360+ --- October-November Scott & Crossman,1975 Kiyi Huron --- October-November Koelz,1929 Michigan 345-558 End September-mmid-Nov. Hile & Deason,1947 Michigan --- --- End October-November Deason & Hile,1947 Michigan 300-540 --- October- Scott & Crossman,1975 October Koelz,1929 Michigan --- Superior 240+ --- Late November-Early Dec. Scott & Crossman,1975 Superior --- Clay Late.November-Early Dec. Koelz,1929 TABLE 4 (Continued) SPECIES LAKE DEPTHS(ft) BOTTOM MONTHS AUTHOR(S) C. nigripinnis Huron 210-600+ Late November-Early Dec.. Scott & Crossman,197 Blackfin Michigan 180+ Late December-Early Jan. Scott & Crossman,197 Michigan 360-540 Clay October-March Koelz,1929 Superior 90-600+ --- September-Early October Scott & Crossman 1975 Superior 360-600 Clay September Koelz,1929 reighardi Michigan. 12o-474 Sand,Silt May-June Jobes,1942 Shortnose Clay Michigan 36-540 --- May-Early June Scott & Crossman,197 Michigan 84-210 Mud,sand May-Early June Koelz,1929 Superior 60-180 --- November Scott & Crossman,197 Superior --- --- November Koelz,1929 C.zenithicus Huron 82-600 Mid-September-October Scott & Crossman,197 Shortjaw Huron 240-300 Clay Mid-September-October Koelz,1929 Michigan 72-540 October-November Scott & Crossman,197 Michigan 60-360 Sand,Clay Mid-October-Movember Koelz,1929 Michigan --- November Jobes,1943 Michigan --- --- November Jobes,1942 Superior 120-240 Clay Late November-Early Dec. Koelz,129 Superior 66-600 Late November-Early Dec. Scott.& Crossman,197 Figure General s ..locations of chubs, Cor in Michigan's coastal w Great Lakes: A Upper Peninsula a *RIO. Wisconsin Cm see Figure 5 MICHIGAN GROUNDS NOT DEFINED Lower Peninsula activity occurred in November over a mud bottom. Another area was reported off the Keweenaw Peninsula from.Grand Traverse Bay (Appendix 3, Figure 19).to Point Isabelle,(A ppendix 3, Figure 18), extending southward to Big Bay.(Appendix 3,.Figure 24), in all depths exceeding 30 meters (.-90 feet). Here the bottom was hard (probably hard cl,ay or rock) and activity occurred during the months of October"and November. Reported but undefined chub spawning occurred along the north shore of the Keweenaw Peninsul.a in depths of 150 to 180 meters (500 to 600 feet) again, on a mud bottom during October and November. Females seem to dominate the early spawning runs at this area, with the males moving in somewhat later.. Koelz (1929) also states that the females tend to dominate 'the early spawning ru:ns,.as well as the general chub populations of.Lake Superior. Koelz (1929) reported a spawning ground for the bloater in the Marquette area off Granite Island in 126 meters (420 feet) of water over a clay bottom; however, there is no information from the com- mercial fishermen of Michigan concerning this location., so it is not known whether or not it is still an active chub 'spawning area (Appendix 3, Figure 25). The 126 meter depth off Granite Island is not shown; however, this area can be located directly northeast of the island. Another area 16 kilometers (10 miles) N by W 1/4 W ofMarquette has been reported by Koelz (1929) to contain a spawning ground for the shortjaw cisco within the dpeths of.54 to 108 meters (180 to 360 feet) on a:clay bottom,(Appendix 3, Figure 26, unmapped). According to one fishermaN who stated that there are seven species of chubs involved, spawni.ng occurs year round outside of -Marquette Harbor in 70 to 80 meters of water (210 to 240 feet). 37 Extensive chub spawning,h as also been reported off Grand Marais, Michigan, over a rocky bottom in [email protected] 108 to 195.8 meters (300 to 656 feet) (Appendix 3, Figures 30 and 31). This area was described by Koelz (1929) as a spawning ground for the blackfin cisco in 1917, but at,that time the bottom structure was ,noted to be clay. At this time, there is no information available concerning chub spawning activity for the St. Mary's River system. Lake Michigan. As with Lake Superior, Lake Michigan chubs do not appear to have any specific spawning requirements. Chubs have been known to spawn over a wide range of depths and variety of bottom types (Jobes, 1943). In general, depending on the particular species, spawning has been reported to occur from mid-August to early June (Table 4). There are many general chub spawning locations that are dis- cussed later in this report, but have not been mapped becuase of the extent of information available. Many fishermen, for example, have described large areas of the lake as being conducive to chub spawning. These areas cover not only a large surface area but also a wide range,of depths, usually from 30 to 180 meters (180 to 600 feet). Those chub areas that have been mapped should not be taken as well-defined locations due to the general nature of chub spawning behavior. There was one'report of chub spawning from the Michigan waters of Upper Green Bay by the commercial fishemen contacted during this study. This area is just northeast of Ingallston and spawning occurred during late November., in 20 to 32 meters 38 (60 to 100 feet)* of.water,,,over mud.'Jobes (1949a), reported November spawning of the longjaw cisco in Green Bay, and has re-' ported the occurrence of minimal numbers of the-shortnose cisco in this general area, but did not indicate any spawning locations (Jobes, 1943). In the region of-Big and Little Bay de Noc of northern Lake Michigan, there were again no specific locatio,ns'.determined for chub spawning. One general area (unmapped) noted for chubs (the bloater) is located from 22 to 24 kilometers-(14 to 15 miles) @SE of Point Aux Barques in All waters 90 to 98 meters (300 to 360 feet) deep.' The bottomjat this location was reported to be mud, and spawning ..occurred in the spring. Following this general format, one other source.noted that chubs spawn wherever the waters are deep enough [54 to 90 meters (180 to 300 feet)], over pea sized gravel from mid- November to'early December. This-source did note that there seemed to be a greater predominance of females during the 1940's, which corroborates Jobes (1943) [email protected] a larger per centage of female chubs during.the early 1930's in Lake Michigan. The Fox Island region, in waters.of 108meters (360 feet) has a1so been reported for chub spawning but, no dates or bottom types were given. Between SeuT Cho1x Point and Waugoshance-Poi-nt, which includes the Beaver Island.group, there are two general chub. spawning locations. Just south of Simmons R.eef (Appendix 3, Figure 74B) has been reported for chub spawning and probably extends further south than is-,shown. Located,between.Gull, and High Islands, in waters of 36 to 72 meters (120 to 240 feet), is another chub spawning area. Again,.this.-area probably extends further south than 39 is shown (Appendix 3, Figures 85 and 86). Spawning reportedly took place here in November and December. From reports by the commercial fishermen, there do not appear to be any chub spawning locations in ithe Lake Michigan waters for the region of Waugoshance Point to Detour Passage until the Lake Huron waters commence, which will be discussed later. Lake Michigan's [email protected] Bay region has been reported to contain chub spawning grounds in nearly all of its waters. Most spawning in this area took place in 72 to 180 meters (240 to 600 feet) of water, over a mud bottom during November and December. Three general areas have been noted by the commercial.fishermen: off of Grand Traverse Li,ght (Appendix 3, Figure 92); in the West arm of Grand Traverse Bay (Appendix 3, Figures 96B, 97A, and 99); and in the East arm (Appendix 3, Figures 95, 98, 100). Koelz (1929) has also reported chub (longjaw cisco) spawning in-this general area over mud and stone in 18 to 45 meters (60 to 150 feet) of water, but it.is not known if this species of chub is still present in Grand Traverse Bay. Chub spawning has been reported from many areas for the .region of Leland to'Platte Bay. The majority of spawning is known to occur in this area-from November to February over substrates consisting of sand, mud, rock, or other various combinations. Var- ious depths for spawning have also been reported ranging from 37 to 157 meters (124 to.523 feet), depending on the area. Many of the chub s.pawning areas in this region are located around the Manitou Islands. South of-and between North and South Planitou Islands have been reported as chub spawning areas (Appendix 3, Figures 40 108A, 108C, 1.09A and 109B), as well as the area north of North Manitou (Appendix 3, Figure 104).; some of which is not entirely mapped, but spawning occurs from 63 to 108 meters (210 to 360 feet) over sand. Unmapped chub spawning also occurs due east of North Manitou, again in 63 to 108 meters over sand. Further chub.spawning areas have been reported west of North Manitou Island (Appendix 3,.Figu*re 106C). Chub spawning,was Also reported from the:area.northwest of, Leland (Appendix 3, Figures 102 through 105) and north of Pyramid Point (Appendix 3, Figure 1100. Fox Island Shoal area is also reported to show chub s awning',activity along the East shoal area and to the south of the shoals, part of which is not mapped, bUt extends south to forma 'Y' shaped region: (Appendix 3, Figure 103A).' The last chub.spawning areas from this region are located southwest of South Manitou Island (Appendix 3, Figure 111) a*nd due west of South Manitou ([email protected], Figure 107). The general chub.populat.ion� in this area have been reported to.have changed-to a bloater dominated population. It is also interesting to note that chub reproduction-has been reported by commercial fishermen.to occur with better reslults when.the ice is thickest on the lake. The entire area from Point,Bets'ie,to Benona, in all waters greater than 57 meters (190 feet)-deep,over mud, has. been reported to show active chub spawning duringthe period of January to mid- February (Appendix 3., Figures 113 through 118A). -Much of this region has not been mapped due to the expanse of area involved, but one'location directly west of Ludington, extending from Big Sable Point in,the north to Silver Lake in the south has been specifically 41 referenced (Appendix 3, Figures 117A a.nd 118A Koelz (1929) has also reported two chub spawning locations known in 1920 1: one for the blackfin cisco 8 to 13 kilometers (5.or 8 miles) west of Manistee in.depths of 72 to 144 meters (240 to 480 feet) over clay during December and January; and one for the kiyi (1920) at the 126 meter (420 foot).end of the."Northwest,shoal", 19 kilometers (12 miles) northwest of Frankfort, Michigan. Unspecified chub spawning occurs- along the entire coastline from Benona to South Haven in most waters greater than 54 meters (180 feet) deep over mud, silt, sand and clay, primarily during [email protected] and November (Appendix 3, Figures 1.19- through 130). Spawning of bloaters, which are-a deeper water chub and re- placed the longiaw as the dominant species during 195b's has also been reported from this area during the period of late December to March at depths from 36 to 108 meters (120 to 360 feet) with mud,- sand, and clay reported as the normal bottom characteristics. The general bloater spawning area runs from 6 kilometers O.A.miles) Yest of Mona Lake south, to 6 kilometers (3.5 miles) west of South Haven and is appr Ioximately 20 kilometers (12.5 miles) at its widest 'point and 80 kilometers (50 miles) long (Appendix 3, Figures 120 through 130). The.commercial fishermen from this region have also reported that durinj,the early 1970's, female bloaters dominated 9, the population at a ratio of approximately 97:3, with a shift back to a more balanced population occurringaround 1973-74. The same unspecified chub spawning situation appears to exist in the Lake.Michi.gan waters from South Haven to the Michigan-Indiana border. were again reported to spawn'throughout the middle of 42 Lake Michigan approximatel y 16 kilometers (10 miles),from*shore in waters. greater than 54 meters (180 feet) deep over mud, silt, and clay during October and November. One general area exists about 16 kilometers (10 miles) southwest of St. Joseph Harbor and extends about 32 kilometers (20 miles) southwest,.14 kilometers.(9 miles) further west than shown on the mapping (Appendix 3, Figures 132A, 132B, 133A and 133B). Chub spawning can be assumed to occur to the. west of all figures depicting this area (Appendix 3, Figures 131 through 134). The Milwaukee Reef area of Lake Michigan al-so contains chub spawning grounds (Appendix 3, Figures 135B and 136). Theseareas Are approximately.75.-to-144 meters (2.52 to 480 feet) deep and the bottom consists'of mud, clay, some rock, honeycomb, and "clinkers". -Chub spawning reportedly ended in this' area [email protected] Lake Huron. Chub spawning.in Lake Huron has'been known to occur from late August to March in deeper waters generally over,mud or clay (Table 4) (Koelz,.1929), and on the "steep banks" (Cross, 1978). In the Lake Huron.section of the Mackinac Straits, chub spawning has been reported to cocur,at depths of 36 to 90 meters (120 to 300 feet) on. deep banks of mud and clay (Appendix 3, Figures 141., 142, 148 through 151). Koelz (1929) also reported spawning for the shortjaw cisco. two miles northeast of Rogers.City in water 63 to 90 meters (210 to 3QO feet) deep (unmapped), both over a clay bottom. In the region of Oscoda to Forty Mile Point, light chub spawning was.reported to occur northwest of Black Point (Appendix 43 3, Figure 153), off the north point of.Six Fathom Bank (unmapped) and from the Black River to Sturgeon Point (Appendix 3, Figures 158A and 159A) during November in approximately 30 meters (100 feet) of water. "Shoal chubs". were also reported to-spawn in this area in water as shallow as 18 @eters (60 feet), but.were sup- posedly fished out i.n the 1940's (Cross, 1978). Only one chub spawning area that"used to be.good'.',was report-, ed for the Saginaw Bay region of Lake Huron.. Spawning was s .ai.d to have occurred during November and December on steep banks with a m.ud bottom, in 54 to 135-meters (180 to 450 feet) of water'(Appen- dix 3, Figure 171). November to December-chUb spawning over mud was reported to occur in thesteamboat.lines off Port Hope and south to Lexington (Appendix 39 Figures 17,2 through 174, 177j and 178).. The "Yankee Reef" was al-so mentioned at apossible.chub spawning area with a roc,k (honeycomb) bottom (Appendix 3, Figures 175 and 176). Cross (1978, and Unpublished data)-report.ed that chubs may spawn on the steep banks of the chub fishing areas of [email protected] Huron noting that spawning occurs in November and December over sand, clay, mud, and kiinkers in water 27 to 54 meters (90 to 180 feet) deep (Appendix 4,.Figures 2 through 6)(Figure 5). There were no chub spawning grounds reported for the St. Clair River,'Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, or Lake Erie, though Scott and Smith (1962) indicated that spawning of the longiaw cisco occurred in Lake Erie during November. 44 rigure Overview of t showing Lake Huron locations (Appendix A Upper Peninsula .......... A oc; 0 Wisconsin 10 Ln MICHIGAN Lower Peninsula LAKE HERRING The lake herring, Coregonus artedii, is reported to be the most widely distributed.member of its genus in the Great Lakes basin (Koelz, 1929) and the shallowest dwelling member of the corregonids, not being found generally deeper than 36 meters (120 feet) (Smith, 1969). The lake herring has been reported in all- of the.Great Lakes and probably has been one of the most important commercial species in past years (Koelz, 1929; Bails and Patria.rche, 1974; Scott and,.Crossman, 1973) (Figure 6). Despite the fact that many intraspecific variations of the lake herring have been-reported from the various Great Lakes (Koelz, 1929), spawning time and duration seem to have'remai'ned fairly constant. The period from the end of November to,mid-December has been reported to be the general range of.greatest spawning activity for lake herring in the Michigan-coastal waters of the Great Lakes (Koelz, 1929; Smith, 1956 and.1969; Dryerand Beil, 1964;'Balls and Patriarche, 1974; Scott and Crossman, 1973). Spawning dates have. been shown, however, to vary according to latitudes because of the specific temperature requirements necessary for ..the initiation of spawning-behavior (Koelz, 1929;. Smith, 1956). The.lake herring has been reported to'move into shallow waters during the fall, cor- responding to periods'of decreasing temperature, and to spawn when the water reaches a temperature of-3.9'C or I-ower (Smith, 1956; Dryer and Beil, 1964). .Smith (1956) and Dryer and Beil (1964) have shown the lake herring to be a pelagic spawner, moving in schools over the spawning 46 Figure 6 General sp lo.cations of lake herrin [email protected], in Michigan's c of the Great Lakes. Upper Peninsula. Wisconsin A [email protected] [email protected] MICHIGAN. GROUNDS NOT DEFINED Lower Peninsula grounds during the reproductive season, spawning in the mid-depth zone of waters Up to 63 meters (210 feet) deep and migrating ver- tically to the bottom at night where spawning may continue. Smith (1965), does, however,..report that shallower waters have been shown to be the preferred spawning areas. Due to the pelagic nature Of lake herring spawning activity, no distinct bottom.type has'been defined. Lake herring have been' known to spawn over boulders,.gravel,, sand, mud, and aquatic vegetation,release their eggs at mid-water depths and allow them to settle to the bottom (Smith,.1956;.Dryer and Beil,-1964). Lake Superior. Lake Superior lake herring spawning habits are. @probably slightly different from those of the more southernly lakes. Lake Superior herring have been reported to spend more time in the surface waters,,,apparently due to the colder tem-. peratures, than in,the-other Great Lakes (Koelz, 1929). Dryer and Beil (1964) have also reported the'phe'nbmenon that lake herring appeared to disappear in Lake Superior during the summer, possibly due to their pelagic nature;'how.ever, by mid-November (the beginning of the spawning season) turnover ha.soccurred.and temperature strat- ification has been eliminated (the water column, homothermous at approximately VC) supposedly causing theI lake herring to move into, shallower water to spawn (Dryer and Beil, 1964). The colder tem- peratures of Lake Superior were probably the cause of a few reports by the commercial fishermen of herring spawning in October, but Dryer and,Be,il (1964) have '.also reported the occurrence of*a spent female as early,as the-12th of November (1951) in Keweenaw Bay. 48 Depth requirements for [email protected] spawning-do not seem to be critical, having been reported by the commercial fishermen to occur from 1 to.64 meters (4 to 180 feet) and by Dryer and Beil to have occurred in depths,of 5 meters early in the season and. depths of 108 to 126 meters (36.0 to 420 feet) towardthe end of the spawning season (mid-December).. In general, Lake Superior lake herring are.reported to spawn: in depths ra.nging from 1 to 126 meters (3 to:420 feet) from mid- November to mid-December over various bottom:types and when-the water reaches temperatures of 4.40C or lower. The following lake herring spanwing areas.were.provided by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources Bio.logists R. Schorfhaar and J. Peck and were originally s,uppl'ied to the above, by.commercial fi-shermen.. The areas will not-appear In Appendix 3 unless they were-identified and geograph,ically.,lotated during an interview. The material appears verbatum as it was.,received from the Michigan Department of Natural Resources with the exception that. the source of the materi,al hasbeen deleted. MS-3 Herring Spawning Areas' 1. Eagle River.Grounds extends from Eagle River south- westward to about the Tamarack water intake (14 miles). 2 Manitou.1sland Grounds- herring reportedly spawned all around island. 3. Gay & Betsy Grounds probably extended from Gay north- eastward to about.Point Isabelle. There was a very intense beach fishery in this area, but it is.believed that the'h,erring moved 'off the beach to 15-20 fathoms to spawn. 4. Buffalo Reef Grand Traverse Bay. Reportedly a bluefin spawning areai .49 5. Traverse Island - expectally the south side was a bluefin herring spawning area. Bait Herring Areas 1. Gay Area extended.fro.m Gay to.the middle of Hermit Bay. MS-4 Herring.Spawntng Areas' 1. Partridge Island Reef - located 1.3 miles north of Partridge Island approximately one mile in diameter. Bottom type is rock. Bait Herring Areas 1. South Bay, Munising located from east of VanLandsc'hoot's dock northward for.l. 1/2 miles. MS-6 Herring Spawning Areas .1. Iroquois Island Shoals extensive shoal area in approximately a two-mile radius:.o'f I,roquois Island. Bottom type is listed as rocky and boulders on the lake chart. 2. Point Iroquoi's Shoals Area located along the Steamboat Channel 3. Canadian Areas..-'Parisienne Shoals, Maple Island and Sandy Island area. Bait Herring Areas 1. Big Two Hearted River Area located from the mouth ofthe river to about two miles east. Bait'herrin'g were seined. in., th.is area. 2. Whitefish Point Area.- located from about 1 1/2 miles west of the point to four miles west-of the point., Fish were @taken.in 1-3/8 1/3/4 inch gi'll net. 3. Paradise-td Tahquamenon.Area this area was f ished with Pomeroy's pound nets in June after bait herring were not avail- able in other areas.. 4. Point Iroquois Shoal's Area bait herring were fished with gill net along the"Steam boat Channel. ning frOm the -0-1-ake -,he_rdn_.q__._5PAw. 50 Isle Royale region of Lake Superior was reported to have occurred in all of.Si.skiwit Bay since the early 1900's. This activity took place in 18 to..24 meters (45 to 80 feet),of water over a sand bottom from mid-November to the end of December. Siskiwit Bay (Appendix 3, Figures 3 and 4) has not beemspecifically referenced for herring due to the general nature of the information. Bails and Parriarche (1974) have also reported the occurrence of herring in, this general area but.do not mention Siskiwit Bay or spawning activity; however, reports of the occurrence of herring have been assumed to contain. spawning grounds since many of these locations could be correlated to,information donated by the commercial-fishermen. Along the southern shore of Lake Superior, from Saxon Harbor to Redridge, there is.again only,one reported incidence of lake herring spawning (Appendix 3, Figure 10). This area is located from the Potato River to a point just west of Stoney Creek near Ontonagon. Spawning reportedly takes place in water 9 to 18 meters (30 to,60-feet) over rock gullies from mid-November until theend of December. Bails and Patriarche.(1974).have reported this general location, as well as Keweenaw Bay and the northwest portion [email protected] Keweenaw Peninsula, as areas of herring occurrence. Located along the north,shore of the Keweenaw.Peninsula are three areas.of rocky bottom where lake herring are reported to;. spawn in November. Onearea is located from Eagle.Harbor.to the east edge of Agate Harbor (Appendix 3, Figures 15 and 16A). The second location is from the Tamarack Waterworks along the shoreline to.a point northwest of Calumet and Tamarack (Appendix 3,.Figure 14) and the third area is just east of the Nor'th,Portage.Entry (Ap- 51 pendi x 3, Figure 13). Lake herring.spawning activity seems to be very heavy in Keweenaw Bay. At many of these locations (Appendix 3, Figures 17A, 18A, 19,20A, B, C, 21A,and 2-2A, B, and,238), s,pawning occurs from November to mid-December at depths ranging from 1 to 54 meters (4 to .18b feet) over sand, mud, and rock. One area, however, was reported to show spawning activity in mi.d-October (Appendix.3,,Figure 20). Dryer and Beil (1964) have also reported this location as an area of herring [email protected] One source of information for Keweenaw Bay made reference to a "deep-water" herring that spawned in a "deep trench" with a mud buttom (Appendix 3, Figure '20), but due to the,dpeth of water at this location and the.information.available concerning chubs, it is very probable that this.area is & spawning location for one of the smaller chub species (Author's note). Commercialfi-shermen have reported,lake herring spawning in the region of Big Bay Po-int to Grand.Marias. Spawning occurs.from early November to early December, with,one fisherman stating that the heaviestspawning occurred'around Than.ksgivi:ng. Spawning sub- strates were reported to be'either rock or rock and gravel with water depths ranging from 4 to 20 meters*(12 to 60 feet) (Appendix 3, Figures 25B, C; 26B,.27A9 B; and 28B). Bails and,Patriarche (1974) and. Dryer and Beil. (1964Y have also reported the occurrence of lake herring from this area.of Lake Superior. The last herring locati6n,for Lake Superior known at this time is-a well-defined area off Nodoway Point inthe southwest corner of Whitefish Bay (Appendix 3, Figure 36).. 'The herring were report- 52 ed to have disappeared from this area in 1963,.but when it was active, spawning occurred-durin g October and November over rock and gravel. Very little information is available concerning lake herring spawning sites in the St. Mary's River system. Eschenroder (1979) has reported the occurence of herring spawning activity for an area north of Grape Island in Potagannissing Bay (Appendix 3, Fig- ure 49), where the-bottom consists of marsh, mud, and rock. Gleason (1979) has also reported that potential herring spawning sites,exist in the St. Mary's River between Lake Nicolet and Munuscong Lake which correspond to potential whitefish spawning sites. Westerman and Van.Oosten .(1937) reported the occurence of small num bers of herri,ng,in Potagannissing Bay, but did not report any spawning activity. It.is possibl'e,.however, that the St. Mary's River system is anextremely import-ant region for lake herring spawning (Eschenroder, 1979). Lake Michigan. Lake Michigan lake herring seem to prefer long stretches of sandy shore for spawning. Although rock has been noted in a few.instances, a majority of the data available referred primarily,to sand as the preferred s Iubstrate (Koelz, 1929). Smith (1956), however, reports that lake herring, in general, show no preference for bottom types in Green Bay. Spawning activity has been reported to occur from l4te November in northern Lake Michigan to early.December in southern Lake Michigan (Koelz, 1929). This is probably.due to the fairly critical spawning temperature re- quirements (,below, 4'C) of lake herring (Smith, 1956). Depth preferences for lake herring seem to be much shallower 53 in Lake Michigan than in Lak e Superior, and the fish do not appear to pelagic (Koelz, 1929).. Spawning was reported to occur in depths between I and 9 meters (3 to 30 feet) (Koelz, 1929; Smith,1956). It is interesting to note that a few of the commercial fish- ermen have reported the disappearance (or greatly reduced numbers) of the lake herring. This coincides with the onset of the smelt and alewife populations which reportedly (one source) caused the herring to resort to cannibalism because of the lack of prey or- ganisms. There are no present herring spawning grounds in the Michigan waters of Green Bay from Bailey's Harbor to Point Detour. Spawn- ing reportedly ended in this area during the,1950-'s after having been quite pronounced along the entire.Michigan shore of Green Bay for many years.. Again this was, reportedly due to the increased numbers of smelt and alewife. Smith (1956), however, noted lake herring spawning in Green Bay proper as late as 1952. When spawning did occur in this area, it was reported to be -in. depths of 3 to 18 meters (10 to 60 feet) during early November over sand (Appendix 3, Figure 51A). The Big and Little Bay de Noc region of northern Lake Michigan seemed to have been an area fairly heavy with lake herring spawning activity during November and December over a sand and rock substrate (Appendix 3, Figures 55 and 59 through 61). The water depths in this region were reported as being 9 meters (30 feet) where herring spawning took place. As in the previous section, the herring were reported to have d.isappeared sometime during the 1940's and 1950's. Herring were reported to spawn from the Seul Choix Point to 54 Waugoshance Point area near Mille Coquins Point, during late No- vember as recently as 1972. Rock and gravel were reported to be the preferred substrates at these lcoations; and depths, to be .1 to 9'meters (5 to 30 feet) (Appendix 3, Figures 59, 6 18, 71A, 72A and B and 73B). Remnant populations of lake herring are known to occur at the head of Little Traverse Bay and also at the head-of the East Arm of, Grand Traverse Bay where spawning is thought to still occur (Keller, 1979). There are only afew instances of lake herring spawning along theleastern shoreline of Lake Michigan, and all of these are lo- cated within the area of Benona to South H aven, Michigan. Between Mona Lake and Muskegon (Appendix 3, Figure 121B) lake herring are reported to spawn from March to May, over sand, in 1 to 3 meters (I to 10 feet) of water. The last lake herring spawning areas reported for Lake Michigan concern what the fishermen call the "Greenback herring". (half- breed chub or bay chub), and the information available is 'confli"cting. One greenback herring spawning area is reported to run 8 or 9 kilo- meters (5 or 6 miles,) along,the. shoreline from Muskegon (Appendix 3, Figure 120), where spawning reportedly occurred in 1 to 3meters (1 to 1.0 feet) of water over sand from March to.May. The [email protected] area, 5 kilometers (3 miles) offshore and south of Holland (Appendix 3, Figure 126B),- however, was reported to show greenback herring spawning activity in 18 to 32 meters (90 to 108 feet) over mud from November to January. The re 'are no further lake herring spawning locations known for, 55 southern Lake Michigan at this time. Lake Huron. The lake herring of Lake Huron has been reported to spawn during November, after an inshore migration (Koelz,.1929). Preferred substrates appear to be gravel or sand (Koelz, 1929). Koelz (1929) also reports that Saginaw Bay contained immense areas that were suitable for lake herring spawning, but the commercial fishermen interviewed during the course of this study did not re- port any recent lake herring spawning for the bay region. An. extensive area of lake herring spawning grounds showing acti.0ty from mid-November to December extends from St. Ignace to Brulee Poi.nt including Goose Island and the.Goose Island Shoals (Appendix.3. Figures 137 through 139). All the waters in this area used by the herring for.spawning were reported to be from 1 to 7 meters (5 to 25, feet) deep over a varied bottom consisting of sand, mud,'and honeycomb rock. Also included in this general region and spawning conditions are Pomeroy Reef, Tobin Reef, the shoreline from Marquette Island to Surveyor's Reef along.the Les Chenbaux Islands (Appendix 3, Figure 140). Marquette Bay, (Ap- pendix 3, Figure 139C), Martin.Reef 6-nd St. Vital Bay (Appendix 3, Figures 141 and 142). Eschenroder (1,979).has reported lake herring spawning activity over marsh-and clay for the Government Bay area (Appendix 3, Figure 140B). Spawning reportedly occurred in Government-Bay as late as @1972. Herring spawning'sites were also reported for the Scammon X Point area where spawning occurred during November in approximately 3 to 8 meters (10 to 25 feet) of water. Herring in this area were 56 noted to have spawned over a sandy substrate (Appendix 3, Figure 145B). Middle Island and the shoreline opposite.South Manitou Island (Appendix 3, Figure 155) as well as the south shore of North Point (Appendix 3, Figures,156 and 157) in waters approximately three meters (10 feet) deep have also been noted as areas showing herring spawning activity. The lake herring has been.reported by many commercial fishermen. to have disappeared from Saginaw Bay in the late 1940's and early 1950's, but at one time all of Saginaw Bay contained actively utilized lake herring spawning grounds. Eschenroder (1979) ha s however, reported herring spawning as late as 1973 at the tip of North Point (Appendix 3, Figure 157B), but 'also feels that this population might now be extinct, Other commercial fishermen reported that herring spawned all over Saginaw Bay from Pt. Au Gr es South, where there was a sand bottom, these fishermen also reported that due to the deterioration of the bottom structure, the herring dissappeared from Saginaw Bay around 1958. Lake herring spawning generally occurred in waters up to 7 meters (25. feet,) deep from late October to December, depending on the temperature, Activity occurred primarily over a sand and gravel bottom, which, according to one commercial fisheman, has now changed to a 11muck" bottom (Appendix 3, Figures 160 through 170), Lake St. Clair. Lake herring have been reported as making sub- stantial spawning runs into Lake St. Clai-r during the late 1.800's to early 1900's (Haas, 1979). No further information concerning lake herring is available at this time. Lake Erie. Koelz (1929) reports that herring used to spawn out of virtually every port on the lake. The only reported spawning requirements for lake herring in Western Lake Erie were depths of approximately 18 meters (60 feet) over clay, and in those cases, activity occurred during November and December (Koelz, 1929). No data concerning lake herring spawning were gathered during this study for Lake Erie. Reports.from the commercial fishermen, however, did show that lake herring were pelntiful in Lake Erie duri.6g the period of 1892 to 1905. LAKE WHITEFISH The lake whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis, has long,been an important commercial species. Koelz (1929) reported that this species was the.largest and'most valuable of the Coregonids and that it was distributed general'ly throughout the Great Lakes. Over the.past century, references have been made to several different strains or forms of the lake whitefish. Although-their forms may differ only slightly morphometrically, significant dif- ferences do exist between growth rates and size at maturity (Scott andl.trossman, 1973; Koe1z, 1929).' River spawning populations were reported to have been eliminated over 10O.years ago when wastes from sawmills covered the bottom of rivers where whitefish spawned .(Smith, 1969Y. River spawning runs were greatly reduced near the turn of the century in the Detroit and Maumee Rivers and were later totally eliminated by enrichment from domestic, industrial and agricultural water (Smith, 1969). During the current study no references were made to river spawning whitefish. In Michigan's coastal waters (Figure 7), it has been found that lake whitefish spawn in the fall, usually in November and December. The exact date of spawning has varied from year to year even in the same lake (Scott a,nd Crossman, 1973), and there was some evidence that water temperature may be the factor which has triggered spawn- ing activity. Spawning has usually occurred over rocky reefs or shoals, but sometimes-over sand, gravel or honeypomb- rock in 1 to 18 meters (4 to 60 feet) of water (Smith, 1969; Scott and Crossman, 1973; Van Oosten, 1939). The eggs were reportedly:deposited.more or less randomly 59 .00 .5* Figure 7 Genera lo-qations of lake white cZupeaformis, in Michig waters of the Great Lak Upper Peninsula Wisconsin C:) MICHIGAN GROUNDS NOT DEFINED Lower Peninsula (Scott and Crossman., 1973) near the surface of the water, and the eggs settle slowly to the bottom (Smith, 1969). When referring to whitefish spawning grounds on the lake charts (Appendix 3),a 11W11 was used whenever a fisherman or other source of information did not specify between lake whitefish and round whitefish or menonimee; however, it may-be assumed that the vast majority, if not all, of the reefs designated with a "W" represent lake whitefish spawning areas. When specific reference was made to lake whitefish a "-WL" was used to code spawning grounds, and when round whitefish were specifiedtheir spawning grounds were desi-dnated with a "WR"'(Table A). Lake Superior. The average time of spawning for lake.whitefish in Lake Superior was during the month of, December; however, the spawning season was not uniform for every locality on the lake (Koe1z, 1929). It appeared that whitefish along the north shore in Canadian, waters spawned ear.lier.than those alond,thelsouthern shore of Lake Superior. koelz (1929) suggested that lowered tem- perature may induce spawning and that this would follow as the bays which are more northerly and shallower probably cool more rapidly than the main lake. The principal bottom types in Lake Superior which were used for spawning.were sand, gravel, or small stones at depths 2--to,22--me-ters (6 to 72- feet.) _.(.Koel,z,, .11,929). In the current study it was found that spawning ground loca- tions, depths, and.bottom types of lake.whitefish in Lake Superior coincided, to a great extent, with those of lake trout,.1- 61 Along the shores-of Isle Royale, references were made to thi s species as spawning i.n the last week of'October until the middle of November. Spawning-grounds were located off the south- western end, along the eastern shore, and off the nortfieastern end of the-island. Most spawning occurred over rock, and rock and gravel mixed in 2 meters (6 to 8 feet) of water (Appendix 3, Fig- ures 2, 3, 4A, and 5B).. There were also two small sandy areas referred to as whitefish spawning grounds (Appendix 3, Figure 3). Sources of information concerningthe time of lake whitefish spawning.along the Keweeniaw Peninsula seem to coincide somewhat with a phenomenon of earlier*spawning in more northern waters. One fisherman referenced lake whitefish along the north side of Bete Grise Bay over rocky bottom (Appendix 3, Figure 18A) starting the first of November and running through December. Another source told of spawning on sand in Pequaming and Sand Bays during December (Appendix 3', Figure 21B).' Yet another source expressed that whitefish spawned from Great Sand Bay on the northwest side of the Keweenaw Peninsula, ea-st to ManitoLk Island and south to Big Bay Point over rock in the months of November and December (Appen- dix 3, Figures 15, 17A, 1.91 20, 23, and 24). Spawning generally took place in 3 to 6 meters (10 to 20 feet) of water, but there were re- ports of spawning in waters up to 27,meters (90 feet) deep. Very few whitefish spawning areas were reported for the Marquette area of the Upper Peninsula. Whitefish spawning report- edly occurred at Shot Point during November over gravel in I to 24 meters (2 to 72 feet') of water (Appendix 3, Figure 26B). It is also thought by commercial fishermen that whitefish spawning occurs 62 around Partri dge Isl.and, but they have not fished this area during the spawning season due to weather conditions. Another whitefish spawning area occurs left of Shot Point, where spawning was reported to occur over gravel in 8 to.10 meters (24 to 30 feet)'of water during December (Appendix 3, Figure 2.6B). The following lake whitefish spawning areas were provided by Michigan Department of Natural Resources Biologists R. Schorfhaar and J. Peck and were originally suppl'ied, to the above, by, commercial fishermen.. The areas will not appear in Appendix 3 unless-they were identified'and geographically located during an interview. The material appears verbatum as it was received from the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, with the exception thatthe source of the material has been deleted.. MS-3 [email protected] Areas 1. Shore Bank located west of North Portage Entry.' Extends.' from 1 1/@ [email protected] west of the "entry" for approximately 4-5 miles southwest toward Redridge. According to lake chart the bottom type is rock,. 2. Shore Bank located off Gratiot River, extending NE for 2 112 m.iles and SW 4 112 miles. 3. Great Sand Bay -.between Eagle River and Eagle Harbor. May be whitefish spawning area. 4. Buffalo Reef -.1.2 miles NNE of mouth of Traverse River. Reef extend lakeward due east for 1.6 miles. Bottom type is rocky. MS-4 Whitefish Spawning Areas 1. Partridge Island Area located on shoal area around Partridge, Larus and Middle Island with a rocky-bottom type. 2.. Presque Isle Harbor Area much, of the area from Marquette ..63 Coast Guard Station to 1/2 mile north of the Presque Isle breakwall is reported to be spawning area. Depth is 10-50'. 3. Shot Point shoal area in a 1/2-1 mile radius of Shot Point may be spawning area. MS-6 Whitefish Spawning Areas 1. Tahquamenon Island Area the area from about one mile north of the island, in approximately a twQ-mile wide band, to Nabmiko.ng and Menekaunee Points is reported to be the best whitefish spawning'area in Whitefish Bay. Most of this area is listed as being rocky on the lake chart. 2. Salt Point Area - extends from Salt Point southward to about 1 1/2--miles west of Pendills Creek. Bottom type is ,mostly rocky. 3. Canadian Areas Parisienne Shoals, Maple Island and Sandy [email protected] Area. A population of wh,itefish in Mun'ising Bay, was shown to exhibit an extremely slow growth rate (Edsall, 1960). Although no reference was made directly to spawning in that study, the popula- tion was reported as rather nonmigrativp, and depths were described which appear conducive to whitefish spawning. This population was later briefly referred to as a separate spawning population from other whitefis,h in Lake'Superior (Roeloffs, 1978). Lake whitefish have also been reported as spawning along the east shore of Grand Isle from 15 November throug h 30 November 1927 (Van Oosten, 1927). Other spawning areas for lake whitefish in the Munising area are near Au Train Bay and the thumb region of,Grand Island (Appendix 3, Figures 27B and 28B). Spawning occur s.Ifrom mid-November to the first week of December in shallow water over rock. One fisherman indicated that the actual time of spawning is dependent on the water 64 temperature and weather conditions. In Southeastern Lake Superior lake whitefish were reported to. use gravel in I to 6 meters (2 to 20 feet) of water along the shore from Au Sable Point east to Whitefish Point (Appendix 3, Figures 31 through 34). Spawning was said:to occur along that shore from about 8 November to mid-December; however, another source reported that whitefish spawned in October and November in the-same general area over sand, sand and rock mixed, and rock and gravel mixed. Several fishermen reported the locations of whitefish spawning grounds in Whitefish Bay near Taquamenon Island (Appendix 3, Figures 35A, 35B and 36). Bottom types were descri,bed generally as. rocky from boulders to gravel. One source emphasized that whitefish spawned on smaller rocks than did lake trout. Most fishermen concurred that the duration of the spawning season was-from late October through mid-December in that area., A more specific spawning season, in Whitefish Bay was documented,in-1927 as occurring from the first of November through November 20 (Van Oosten, 1927). Little information,is- available concerning whitefish spawning sites in the St. Mary's River or Potagannissing Bay. One study in which extensive netting was conducted in these areas during the whitefish spawning season produced no spawning whitefish (Westerman and Van Oosten, 1937). The authors of that study indicated that whitefish must:spawn in the more sheltered areas of the St. Mary's River'and Potagannissing Bay. Other research conducted on the St. Mary's River indicates the possible,locations of nine potential whitefish spawning sites between Six -Mile Point of Lake Nicolet and Munuscong Lake 65 (Gleason, 19'79). Spawning was reported by fishermen to occur in these areas from late October to early November (Gleason, 1979). Only two whitefish spawning areas for the Potagan.nissing.Bay* region have been reported; Bacon Island Shoals and Harbor Island. Reef. Spawning has been known to occur in this region during November in 2. to 5 meters (6 to 30 feet) 'of water over a rock bottom. (Appendix 3, Figure.48)-. One fisherman.indicated, as did Van Oosten (1937), that whitefish should spawn at all shoals of this type in Potagannissing Bay. Eschenroder (1979) has also stressed theimportance of the St. Mary's-River system as a whitefish habitat, even though most of the spawning ground's are unknown. Very little information is available concerning.the Canadian waters of the St. Mary's River system. Possible whitefish spaw6in� has been reported from Mark's and Leigh Bays, in the upper reaches of the river, where coarse sediments occur. (Dames and Moore, 1978). Lake Michigan. In the upper Green Bay region of Northwestern Lake Michigan, lake whitefish were reported to spawn on sandy areas between Menominee and Escanaba in water depths from.5 to 9 meters (15 to 30 feet); however, only one specific location was indicated (Appendix 3, Figure 51A). One fisherman specualted that large new populations of smelt and alewives in the area during the late 1930's outcompeted the whitefish which reportedly disappeared during the 1940's Other fishermen.reported that whitefish spawn all along the pound net.fishing area which extends from Menominee to Cedar River. Whitefish were reported to-spawn in this Area around mid-November* 66 over honeycomb rock shoals between 10 and 13 meters (40 to 45 feet) of water at night. (Unmapped) The area from Escanaba to Manistique along'the northern shores of Lake.Michigan, inclusive of Big Bay de Noc, has been an important whitefish spawning area for many years. All referenced spawning grounds included rock as.a bottom type, and combinations of rock and gravel, rock and sand, and rock, sand, and grave.l.were also reported (.Appendix 3, Figures.58 through 68). The vast majority of sources referenced very shallow:water, some as shallow as I me,ter (2 to 3 feet), as the depth *in which spaawning,occurred; however, the depths commonly mentioned were 2 to 3 meters (8 to 10 feet). Some' spawning grounds referenced several times by dirrerent fishermen were Wiggins Point Shoal (Appendix 3, Figure 67), Big Bay de Noc Shoal (Appendix 3, Figure 63A), and Parent.Bay (Appendix 3, Figure 66). Nearly all' fishermen referring to these areas reported.that whitefish spawned in mid-November; however,,other reported spawning times in this area ranged from the end of October to the first of December. Van Oosten (1927) reported. that spawning in the area of Northern Big Bay de Noc occurred,from the first of,November to the first of December in 1927; yet, that report.also listed spawning on Boulders Reef.in the first two weeks in December. One fisherman from,the:Beaver Island area noted that white- fish spawning continues into the first two weeks of December at Boulders Reef (Appendix 3, Figure 87), and-available fisheries data from 192.7 and 1928 showed that spawning took place at Boulders Reef during December, while.outside of the Boulder Reef area spawning had ended by late November (Commercial Fish Mater*ial, 1927-1928). 67 The region of Northern Lake Michi-gan from Seul Choix Point to Waugoshance Point, inclusive of the Beaver Island group, has also been extensively referenced as a whitefish spawning area. Most reports from this.area indicated that whitefish [email protected] occurs during November; however, spawning may start as early as late October, and continue into mid-December. The most commonly reported bottom type was rock and gravel, but:sand, sand and gravel, and honeycomb, rock were also said to be.suitable spawning substrates. Depths for whitefish spawning most often reported were from 2 to 6 meters (7 to 20 feet), but depths of 9 to 12 meters (30 to 40 feet) were not uncommon. The areas referenced most often by'the commercial jishermen in this region were the shoals around Hog and Garden Islands (Appendix 3, Fi gures 81A, B, C and D and 82A and-B) and Sandy Bay of Beaver Island (Appendix 3, Figures 81A and 84). it appears that most shallow areas, w ith a rocky to sandy bottom are suitable whitefish spawning locations (Appendix 3, Figures 70, 71 through 76, 78 through 84, and 87). Whitefish spawning in the Grand Traverse Bay region of Lake Michigan has been reported to occur primarily during November and appeared to continue slightly longer than otherregions of Northern Lake Michigan, ending in mid-December. Rock-land sand were again the most commonly reported bottom types, along with occasional references to rock, mud, clay, mo ss, and gravel.. Spawning depths were.reported to range from 3 to 9 meters (10 to 30 feet) but depths up to 60 meters (200 feet) were also noted in certain areas. Many fishermen interviewed from the Grand Traverse Bay [email protected] indicated Bellow Island (Appendix 3, Figures 96A and B) as well as, 68 the Old Mission Point-Sutton's Point Area (Appendix 3, Figures 97A, 97B, and 98)-to be excellent,whitefish spawning grounds. A few other areas in the Grand Traverse Bay region were also mentioned as being utilized by whitefish for.spaw.ning (Appendix 3,,Figures 93. through 95, 99 and 100). Keller (1979) has.also reported whitefish spawning in the area of South Point during late November to early December in waters of less than 9 meters (30 feet) (Appendix 3, Figure 90). Most whitefish spawning activity in the Leland to Platte Bay region was reported around the South Fox Island and Shoal area .(Appendix 3, Figures 101A, B, and 103A). Spawning was stated to occur during November, at depths ranging from 1 to 7 meters (3 to 25 feet) and over a bottom primarily-composed of,rock. Van Oosten (1937c) has also reported that a late-spawning race of whitefish existed on the Fox Island Shoals., but the information obtained.during this study did not indicate any discrepencies in spawning dates for this area. Lake whitefish also spawn along the western.shore of North Fox Island during late-November to early December. Spawning occurs in less than 9 meters (30 feet) of water over Irock (Keller, 1979) (Appendix 3, Figure 101B). Around North and South Manitou Lslands, whitefish spawning has been reported to occur in slightly deeper water, from 3 to 18 meters, (10 to 60 feet), primarily over rock (Appendix 3, Figures 106D, E and 108A, and B). Pyramid Point was alsospecifically referenced as a whitefish spawning area (Appendix 3, Figures 109A and B and 110). A few areas in the region of Point Betsie to Benona, inclusi,ve 69 of Big and Little Sable Points, have been noted for Whitefish spawn- ing. Spawning was said to occur during November over rock or sand and gravel, and at depths, from 4 to 21 meters (18 to 70 feet) (Ap- pendix 3, Figures 113 through 118). Whitefish spawning in the region of S6uth-Central Lake Michigan from Benona to South Haven has been reported to occur from mid-October to late November. Rock, sand and occasionally clay were referenced as bottom substrates over which spawning generally occurred. Depths from 3,to 18 meters (10 to 60 feet),,extending along the shoreline, were'reported by commercial fishermen as being typical for whitefish spawning in this region (Appendix 3, Figures 1.19 through 121, 124A, 124B, 126A, 126C; and 129B). Only two' areas in Southern Lake Michigan were identified as whitefish.spawning grounds (Appendix 3, Figures 133A and 134A). In both instances, spawning was reported to occur [email protected], gravel and clay in water 12 to 23,meters.(40 to 72 feet) deep. Lake Huron. Van Oosten (1939) has reported that lake whitefish spawn in Lake Huron during November and part of December over sand, gravel, stone or honeycomb rock, usually at depths of 2 to 18 meters (6 to 60 feet). Most of the reports for whitefish spawning in Northern Lake Huron, however, have shown spawning to occur most,often in waters less than 8 meters (less than 25 feet). The.most heavily utilized whitefish spawning zone appears to be the area from St. Ignace to Detour Passage where spawning has been reported to occur. over sand and honey comb rock (Appendix 3, Figures 137 through 142). Hammond Bay was often referenced for whitefish spawning (Appendix 3,* Figures 150 and 151A, B).1 SpaOning has been reported to occur at 70 this area from late October to.mid-November over sand, gravel and rock at depths of 2 to 9 meters (6 to 30 feet). Bois Blanc Island has also been shown to contain suitable whitefish spawning grounds (Ap- pendix 3, Figures 146, 148A, and 148B). Various other whitefish spawning grounds were also referenced by the commercial fishermen (Appendix 3, Figures 96A, 96B, 143 through 145 and 147 through 149). R. Eschenroder of the Michigan Department of Natural Resources has also noted whitefish spawning between Cheboygan Point and Cordwood Point over clay and rock (Appendix 3, Figure 148C). Sand and gravel have been reported as the general bottom charac- teristi.cs for whitefish spawning from the area of Oscoda, Michigan, to Forty Mile Point Light. The majority of whitefish.spawning in this area has been noted from Middle Island Reef to Sturgeon Point, which includes North Point and.Thunder Bay (Appendix 3, Figures 155 through 159). Depths for whitefish spawning for this region are reported to be less than 4 meters (12 feet), and that spawning occurs during November., Spawning also occurs in the North Bay of Presque Isle according to reports from thecommercial fishermen (Appendix 3, Figure 153). Whitefish-spawning in the Saginaw Bay region of L ake Huron has been reported as beginning from early in November to as late as 20 November (Van Oosten, 19,27). Information gathered dur,ing this study indicated that spawning may, however, begin as early as late October. Spawning was reported to occur over sand, rock, and gravel in less [email protected] meters (26 feet) of water. Many of the commercial fishermen have referenced the Charity Islands (Appendix 3, Figures 163B and.C) as well as Sand Point (Ap- 71 pendix 3, Figure 169A and B) and the area from Tawas Bay to Point Lookout (Appendix 3, Figures 162A and B) as being the primary whitefish spawning grounds for Saginaw'Bay. Other whitefish spawning locations were also reported which basically encompass the entire Saginaw Bay, shoreline and island areas (Appendix 3, Figures 160A, 160B, 161A, 161B, 164 through 171). There were no concise whitefish spawning locations reported for the Point Aux Barques.to the Saint Clair River region of Southern Lake Huron. Whitefish were noted, hoWever,.to spawn along the shoreline near Port Huron at depths-of 9 to 15 meters (30 to 50 feet), and along the shoreline in depths Of up to 80 feet from Harbor Beach to Port Huron (Appendix 3, Figure 174C and 177B). Lake St. Clair. No whitefish.spawning areas were reported by sport fishing guides or professional fisheries biologists in Lake St. Clair. It was reported, however, by B. Haas of the Michigan Department of Natural Resour ces that lake whitefish made substantial spawning runs into lake St. Clair'during the late 1800's and early 1900's. Lake Erie. Lake whitefish in Lake Erie have been reported to spawn from mid-November to early December, and it appears that males are more abundant and remain on the spanwi.ng grounds longer during the spawning season than the females (Van Oosten and Hile, 1947). Very few whitefish spawni-ng locations have been reported, and most of these were located in the Point Aux Peaux region (Appendix 3, Fig- ures-201A and B). Most of the whitefish spawning was noted to occur in water less than 6 meters deep (20 feet) over a hard clay bottom (Appendix.3, Figures 202C and 203C). 72 ROUND WHITEFISH The round whitefish or menominee, Prosopium cyZindraceum (Pallas), has been found in all the Great Lakes but Lake Erie (Bailey, 1963). This whitefish has had some commercial importance; however, it is rarely found in abundance and seems to be one of the least studied of the coregonids (Bailey, 1963; Marz, 1964). Males have been reported to arrive on spawning grounds before the females of the species; and, as with other whitefish, no parental care is given to the eggs or young. ,./In the Great Lakes region, spawning has been reported to take place in the fall of the year, usually November, over the gravelly shallows of lakes, at river mouths or, on occasion, in rivers (Scott and Crossman, 1973). Sources which referred to spawning in this study seemed to concur, to a large extent, with these earlier reports (Figure.8).. Lake Superior. Experimental fishing in Lake Superior in 1960 indi- cated that round whitefish spawned in late November and early Decem- ber over a gravel and rock bottom at a depth of 6 meters (21 feet) and at a temperature of 4.5-C (Scott and Crossman, 1973). In the present study, spawning in Lake Superior was.reported to have occurred over rock, sand,'and gravel. Times of spawning ranged from October through December and spawning ground depths were said to be from 3 to over 54 meters (10 to-over 180 feet). Only one round whitefish spawning ground was referenced on the northern shor.e.of -the-Kew-een-aw Pe-n.in-s.ula (Appendix 3. Fiaures 16B, 17 and. 73 Figure 8. General spaw locations of round whit Prosopium cyZindracewn, coastal waters of the G Up per Peninsula 0 Wisconsin Ivill CHI GAN GROUNDS NOT DEFINED Lower Peninsula 18). The bottom compositions of these spawning areas were referenced as rock. One fisherman reported spawning in water as shallow as 3 meters (10 feet) deep and:that menominee followed spawning laketrout and ate [email protected]@spawn. Spawning times of menominee were, for the most part, referenced as being'from mid- November to mid-December. Some spawning was also reported in Southern Keweenaw Bay over sand, but more references referred to rock, with depths ranging from.18 to over 54 meters (60 to over 180 feet). One fisherman reported that there had been a gradual decline of the species in this area in recent years (Appendix 3, Figures 19, 21A and B). Only two other areas in Lake Superior were referenced as spawn.ing sites during the course of this-study (Appendix 3, Figure 32).. Menominee were reported to spawn during the months of October and November over sand,near the Two Hea.rted Rivers. Lake Michigan. Koelz (1929) reported that, according-to fisher.- men,.menominees spawned in Lake Michigan on gravel and honeycomb rock in 4 to 11 meters (12 to 36 feet) of water. Fish movements in that study indi-cated that spawning times were in November. Although.age and growth studies of this species do exist in the literature (Armstrong et al., 1977; Marz, 1964), no references have been made to spawning grounds. In the present [email protected] all spawning ground compositions referred to in Northwestern Lake.Michigan included rock or com- binations of rock and.gravel and sand (Appendix 3, Figures 67 and 68). Spawnihg:depths ranged from 3 to 9 meters (10 to 30 feet) and spawning seasons,,from November through December. One fisher- 75 man reported that "heavy" spawning occurred along the shore from Manistique south to Wiggin's Point in 1975. Another source reported that the round whitefish population seemed to be increasing in recent years near Wiggin's Point Shoal .(Appendix 3, Figure 67). In Northern Lake Michigan, spawning grounds referenced were from 1.5 to 9 meters (5 to 30 feet) deep but averaged about 3 meters (10 feet). An exception to these depths occurred at St. Helena Shoal and along the south side of St. Helena Island where spawning was reported at 12 to 15 meters (40 to 50 feet) (Appendix 3, Figures 76A and 77). The spawning season.was reported by most fishermen to be November; however, some-sources were quite specific, referring to 25,November until 10'December and 11 November until the end of Novem- ber (Appendix 3, Figures 71 through 75). Along the Northeastern shore of.Lake Michigan'.,.menominee were referenced as spawning in Bowers Harbor, Grand Traverse Bay, over, rock and gravel (Appendix 3, Fi'gure 99) and along the shoreline west of Northport (Appendix 3,.Figure 96C). The shores of both North and South Manitou I.slands were referred to as spawning grounds by many sources'along with other areas near the northwestern shores of Michigan's lower peninsula (Appendix 3, Figures 1018, 103B, 105, 106B, 106C, 106D, 108A, 108C, 109A and 110). Although data on bottom types were not given in most cases, depth 'Where spawning.occurred was approximately 3 to 6 meters (10 to 20 feet). Spawning times reported were the th-ird week of November through the first week of December. Menominee are also known to spawn along the north and south side of South Fox Island (Keller, 1979). 76 Liston (1978) reported that menominee spawn.in late November and early December on the rock Jetties of the Ludington Pumped Storage Reservoir (Appendix 3, Figures 117B and C). Depths given were to, 9 meters (30 feet) of water. Tack (1978) reported menominee spawning grounds located from near Big Sable Point south to Luding- ton. Spawning in that area,was reported over gravel in a depth of approximately 5 meters (15 to 18 feet) (Appendix 3, Figure 116B). Lake Huron. Fishermen reported to Koelz (1929) that round white- fish in Lake Huron spawn at depths,of 7 to 15 meters (24 to 48 feetY on honeycomb, rock, and gravel. Koelz (1929) indicated that spawning probably occurred in,November. Few references-to spawning menominee in Lake Huron occurred during the course of the present study. Round whitefish were re- ported to spawn in the Big Shoal Cove area of the southern Drummond island shbre.line and'in two areas of the southeastern shoreline (Appendix 3, Figures 145B, 145.1, and 145'.2), where spawning occurred during November over sand and gravel. Menominee spawning-has also been reported for the.North Point region (Appendix 3, Fi,gure 157B) (Eschenroder, 1979). Onearea was referenced northeast of Gull Island (Appendix 3,, Figure 156); however, no other data were given on that spawning area. Another area,, between Blac-k River and Sturgeon Point, was reported as a menominee spawning ground (Appendix 3, Fig- ures 158A and 150A). Spawning was said to occur.in 3 meters (10 feet) of water over gravel in late October and early November.,.. Saginaw Bay Area. Menominee reportedly have spawned.over rock,, gravel, and rock and gravel mixtures in many areas of Saqinaw Bay. 77 Appendix 3. Figures 160 through 170). Physical description of bottom types suggested that much mud and silt has recently covered some of the previously used spawning areas. Spawning was said to occur in from 2 to 9 meters (5 to @30 feet),,of'water, but averaged approximately 4 meters (12 feet) of water. One fisherman reported that the round whitefish populations have been increasing in recent years, again spawning generally occurred during November, but one fisherman reported that eggs begin to develop around the end of August. 78 PYGMY WHITEFISH Little is known of the spawning habits or locations of the pygmy whitefish, Prosopiwn coulteri. In the Great Lakes this -species resides only in Lake Superior, with highest population concentrations in semiprotected bays such as Kew eenaw Bay (Eschmeyer and, Bailey, 1954). Available evidence suggests that spawni.ng.takes place in November or December and that the eggs of this species are probably scattered over coarse gravel (Scott and Crossmah, '1973). ,The spawning grounds of the pygmy whitefish are.not known, @however, the capture of young fish-in relatively shallow water, 23 to 32 meters (78 to 1,08 feet) deep, at Keweenaw Bay, Point Abbaye, and Siskiwit Bay, as well as the'tendency.of yearling fish to inhabit shallow water, indicates that spawning occurs in shallow water (Eschmeyor and Bailey, 1954). No references to this species were made by any of those inter- viewed during the course of this study, however, pygmy whitefish have been reported from Munising Bay (Keller, 1979). 79 BURBOT The burbot, Lota Iota, has been a very important member of the deepwater fish community of.the Great Lakes, being basically equal in rank to the lake trout as a preda,tor species until the onset of the sea lamprey population (Moffett, 1957; Wells, 1972). Very, little information is available in the literature, however, concern- -i'ng the spawning habits of the Great Lakes' burbot (Cahn, 1936), and the rep.orts.that are available do not seem to reach any definite conclusions.(Clemens, 1951). /The burbot supposedly spawned in deep and shallow water during March and early April in LakeErie (Clemens, 1951), and during mid-February in Lake Superior (Bailey, 1972). Unpublished data suggests the [email protected] [email protected] spawning populations for burbot in Michigan's Keweena Peninsula region-' w one which spawns in the open waters of Lake Superior, and.one which migrates up the Sturgeon River to spawn under the ice, both cases of'activity occurring in early January (Klos, 1978). Dates for burbot spawning for waters outside of the Great Lakes,have been repor .ted to be from mid-January to late February (Hewson, 1955; McCrimmon, 195.9; Lawler, 1963). Depths of spawning for the burbot are generally agreed to be shallow, from I to 3.meters (1 to 10 feet) (Scott and Crossman, 1973); but deepwater spawni.ng activity has'also been reported (Cahn, 1936). The burbot is reportedto require sand or gravel bottoms with,condi.tions of high oxygen saturation for successful spawning (Scott and Crossman, 1973; Volodin, 1968). 80 Burbot were referenced by the Great Lakes commercial fishermen to have spawned in Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, and Lake Huron (Figure 9). Lake Superior. Very little is known of the Lake Superior burbot spawning habits. Generally, spawning occurs from November to early January, either.in rivers (under the ice), or in the shallower waters of-the lake (Bailey, 1972). There were no burbot spawning areas reported from the Isle Royale region or the southern Lake Superior coastline from Saxon Harbor to Redridge. Burbot have been reported in the Apostle Islands region of the Wisconsin waters, but no spawning behavior was noted (Dryer, 1966). Burbot spawning activity has.been.noted for three areas of the Keweenaw Peninsula. Burbot spawning has been reported from the Sturgeon River, which empties.into Chassell Bay on Portage Lake (of the Portage Lake Canal,connecting waters) in November (unmapped). The bottom at this location was reported to be mud, sand, and gravel. Klos (1578) has also reported this area for burbot spawning, but noted that the.peak spawning run is in late December andearly January under the ice. Burbot spawning has also been reported off the South Portage Entry in November (Appendix 3, Figure 21B), from the middle of Keweenaw Bay in 1.08 to 144 meters (360 to 480 feet) of water and the deep water areas from Traverse Point to Big Bay during April or May (unmapped). No b urbot spawning areas were reported for the area from Big Bay Point to the St. Mary's River, where burbot spawning may 81 ..Figure 9. General spawn locations of burbot, Lot Michigan's coastal water Great Lakes. XX Upper Peninsul'a wisconsin co > MICHIGAN GROUNDS NOT DEFINED Lower Peninsula occur in the rapi-ds area. Lakq Michigan. Burbot spawning in Lake Michigan is not well under- stood, but has been reported to occur in shallow waters during February and March over a rock bottom. Burbot spawning has.not been specifically noted for the region of Point Detour to Bailey's Harbor (Northern Bay de Noc areas); however, burbot have been reported to spawn wherever lake trout and whitefish spawn, but no specific spawning requirements for the burbot were noted by this source. /The Manitou Paymen Shoal (Appendix 3, Figure.75B) and Simmon's Reef (Appendix 3, Figure,'74A) are reported to-show burbot spawning activity duri-ng February and March in I to 10 meters (6 to 36 feet) of water over rock. No locations have.been reported for burbot spawning from the Mackinac Straits section of Lake Michigan. The last reported,burbot.spawning location for Lake Michigan Was in.the Ludington area, off the Consumers Power Pumped Storage Project, during winter,'under the ice (Liston, 1978).. Lake Huron. Burbot spawning does not appear to be very prevalent in Lake Huron according to reports from the commercial fishermen. Spawning generally occurred during February in shallow waters. Data concerning bottom.characteristics were not available. One burbot spawning area was reported from Scamm.on Cove near Johnswood on Drummond I,sland.. :Spawning reportedly occurs in this area during March (Appendix 3, Figure 145.1). All reported Lake Hpron burbot spawning activity is included 83, within the boundries of Saginaw Bay, and ha-s not occurred with any great significance since the 1940's. Burbot are still reported to spawn occasionally in the. area,from Point Au-Gres to Saganing Oar .(Appendix 3, Figures 164A and 165C), from Tawas Bay south to Poi nt Lookout (Appendix 3, Figures 162A and 163C), and along the shoreline. from Sand Point to Flat Rock Point (Appendix 3, Figure 169A and 170). St. Clair River. One larval.fish study conducted in the St. Clair River shows the presence of burbot larva in,the river which in- dica,ees that spawning might,occur (Wapora, 1978), but no burbot spawning sites weredefined during this study-for the St. Clair River. Lake Erie. Burbot in Lakefrie are reported to spawn during the last week,of March and the first week of April in either shallow or deep water (Clemens, 1951)[email protected] No data is available concerning any recent burbot spawning in Lake Erie. 84 YELLOW PERCH The yellow perch, Perca fZavescens (Mitchill), spawn in the spring, generally from mid-April to early May (Scott and Crossman, 1973). Smith (1969) reported that yellow perch spawn over sand. bars or sub- merged vegetation in the s.pring when the water temperature ranges between 4 to 10O.C. Brazo et al (1975) reported yellow perch spawning in the shallow littoral waters of Lake Michigan, near Ludington,', to have taken place from mid-May through the end of June in 197.2. Spawning depths for the yellow perch range from near shore to over/15 meters (50 feet). The most commonly used spawning substrate in the Great Lakes water has been rock, sand, and sand and rock bottom. Available information indicates that the most concentrated perch spawning activities occurred in Saginaw Bay (Figure 10). Lake Superior. Material relating to yellow perch spawning in Lake Superior is sparse, at best. Two areas in the Keweenaw Bay where yellow perch spawn in June are near Baraga in L'Anse Bay and in Pequaming-Bay (Appendix 3, Figure 21B). In Whitefish Bay, yellow perch spawn over "grass" and rock. areas in 3 -to 4 meters (10 to 14, feet) of water during thespring and early,summer (Appendix 3, Figure .35A)o St. Mary's River. Yellow perch were reported to spawn around the Ashman Island region of Potagannissing Bay. Spawning-was noted to have taken place in,approximately I meter (3 to 4 feet) of water duri.ng late'April and early May (Appendix..3, Figure 49). This individual. al'so noted that perch fishing is getting worse by the day and attributes this decline to an overabundance of suckers. Figure 10. General spaw 'NN locations of perch, Perc in"Michigan's caastal wa Great Lakes. Upper Peninsula co Cn Wisconsin V MICHIGAN GROUNDS NOT DEFINED Lower Peninsula Eschenroder (1979) has also reported that the lower St. Mary,'.s River system, south of Munuscong Bay is an important yellow perch habilat. It has also been.reported that yellow perch definately spawn in the near shore areas of Mark's and Leigh Bays of the Canadian St. Mary's River near Sault Ste. Marie (Dames and Moore, 1978). Lake Michigan. Wells (1977) indicated that yellow perch had been an important commercial species since 1880 in Lake Michigan. Much of the past commercial output of yellow perch had come.from Green Bay; however, the current study has turned up few spawning areas in Michigan waters of Green Bay. Spawning reportedly occurred in Green Bay over.rock in approximately 1.5 meters (5 feet) of water during the period of mid-May to ea.rly,June (Appendix 3, Figures 50,' 51B, and 53). In a sand and rock area off Arthur Bay, yellow perch spawn during the month of May (Appendix 3, Figure 51B),.. Water depth on these spawning grounds average 2 meters (6 feet); the ratio of females to males was reported as.,2:1.by one commercial fisherman. On the east'side of Little.Bay de Noc, in about 4 meters 02 feet) of water, yellow perch begin a spawning run the first part of May Appendix 3, Figures 57 And 58). This' area extends.into.Big Bay de Noc along shoreline.areas of sand, gravel and rock to near Valentine on the east shore of Big Bay de Noc (Appendix 3,,Figures 57, 58, 63B, and 64A). On both sides of Point Epoufette yellow perch spawn in mid' May over mud and weed bottom. Further east in shallow water with sand and gravel bottom, yellow perch spawn in mid-May through June, this area. extends from.near Waugashance Point to Good Hart (Appendix 3, Figures' 74B$ 78B. and 79),. 87 Gray's Reef east of Hog Islqnd was reported as a yellow perch spawning ground. The reef is 19 k:ilometers long by 6 kilometers wide (12 by 4 miles); depths range from less than 2 meters to over 10 meters (6 to 33 feet), and bottom composition is generally rock (Ap- pendix 3, Figures 80 and 81C). On Beaver Island in, St. James Harbor yellow perch spawn over rock and gravel and were reported spawning in mid-June (Appendix 3, Figure 83A and 830, and was reportedly an, excellent area at one time (KeTler,-1979). Keller also reported that the Garden Island s,horeline used to be a good perch spawning area (Appendix 3, Figure 82C). Four spawning areas for yellow perch were indicated in.*Grand Traverse Bay.(Appendix 3, Figures @94, 9,68,' 97A.,and B, and 99). All ...Of these areas were indicated to have rock and gravel 'bottom and spawning was.reported to have taken place in the shallows. *kell.er (19.79) has reported two perch spawning areasfor the Grand Traverse. r rock in 2 to ..Bay region. 'Spawning was noted to have occurred ove 5. meters (8 to 15 feet) of water (Appendix 3, Figures 89 and 93). Additional shallow, rock and.gravel areas,. were reported from the west.shore of the Leelanau Peninsula south to near Empire (Appendix 3, Figures 105, 108A, 110, and 112). Spawning dates for the above mentioned areas were reported as mid-wMay to mid-June. Near the mouth of the Platte River is a yeflow perc'h spawning reef, over rock bottom, reported.as "once a tremendous spawning ground" (Appendix 3, Figure*113). The Frankfort breakwater area was also reported as a.yellow perch spawning area; however, no dates or depths were.given for either of these areas (Appendix 3,' Figu re 113). Spawning grounds over stone, qravel, and rock were reported from 88 Manistee to south of Ludington (Appendix 3, Figures 1.15 through 118). Spawning depths-for these area were generally less than 15 meters (50 feet). Liston (1978) reported perch spawning from mid-May to the first week in June, near Ludington's pumped storage reservoir; the spawning.areas were reported as rock bottom in 9 meters (30 feet) [email protected], although no specific sites were indicated (Appendik 3, Figure 117). The shoreline area from Stony Lake south to South Haven was re- ported as a yellow perch spawning area (Appendix 3,.Figures 119, 120, .121, 124, 126, and 129). .The area is primarily sand with some iso-. lated rock and gravel areas. General spawning dates.were reported from mid-May through mid-Junefor this area, Wells (1967) reported spawning to take,place over rocky bottom in less.than 15 meters (50 feet) of.water near Grand Haven,.Michigan. Spawning depths were generally reported as less than 18 meters (60 feet) of-water. Possible extensive spawning grounds were reported south of Saugatuck for the yellow perch with variations in spawning times for 1972 and 1973 (G.L. Fish Lab Report). A triangular shaped-area south of Saugatuck was indicated by a number of fishermen as a rock reef extending from shore to depths of 27 meters (90 feet) of water and utilized by the yellow perch for spawning (Appendix-3, Figure 126). Shoreline areas'from South Haven to the Indiana,Sto'te border over sand and [email protected] were indicated,as yellow perch spawning grounds (Appendix 3, Figures 131, through,134Vand C). Spawning times in this area were generally reported.as early May and occasional.ly late April. Lake Huron. OGorman (1975) reported that yellow perch do not spawn 89 before early summer in Northern Lake Huron. In the Hammond Bay area, yellow perch are reported to begin spawning in early June, although no specific locations are given (O'Gorman, '1978). During this study, spawning locati6ns'along Michigan's Upper Peninsula-Lake Huron sh oreline were reported generally as mud and weed (Appendix 3, Figures 138B, 139C,*and 140-)[email protected] Other information indicated that yellow perch also spawn over rock in approximately.1 meter (3,to 4 feet) of water (Appendix 3, Figure 145.1').. The Maxton Bay area of Drummond Island was reported by Carlson (1979) to be a.spawning area for jumbo yellow perch. Spawning in this area occurred during the spring over sand, and rock (unmapped). Spawningtimes,for these areas were indicated as l.ate April" dependi ng on water temperature. In Squaw Bay and on area off Harrisvi,lle Sta :te-.Park, yellow perch were reported spawning over sand bottom; water depth in the spawning. f to .20 feet area range rom less,than I meter to 6 meters 0 of water ..and spawning'occurs,during April and early May (Appendix 3, Figures. 157 and 159A). Other known yellow perch,spawning areas in the vicinity of Alpena, Michigan, were reported by -Eschenroder (1979) (.Appendix 3, Figures' 157B and 157C). In the Saginaw, Bay area numerous spawning areas were indicated (Appendix 3,-Figures-1648 through.170).. Generally, spawning, areas in Saginaw Bay were reported as shal,low and over a-sand bottom. Spawning times throughout Saginaw..Bay were'reported as April, and May. Hile and Jobes (1:941) reported yellow perch spawning grounds in Saginaw Bay-as [email protected] productive in the Michigan waters of the Great Lakes. Spawning.season collection of yellow-perch in Saginaw Bay is reported for the years 194 3 through 1955 by El Zarka'(1959). 90 Other fishermen indicated that perch spawn in the rivers of Saginaw Bay, including the Greyand Rifle Rivers, The Black River was reported to have been a good perch spawning area years ago. Tawas Bay was also indicated as a perch spawning area in 1970 where spawning occurred over clay and mud (Appendix 3, Figure 162B) (Eschenroder, 1979). From near Huron City south to near Lakeport, perch were reported to spawn in near shore waters in the spring ([email protected], Figures 172 through 174A and 177 through 179). Two areas near Port Sanilac were reported to exhibit yellow perch spawning activity during late May to [email protected] June, where.spawning occurred over [email protected] gravel from the shoreline out to a 6 meter depth,(18 feet). (Appendix 3, Figure 177C.). Lake St. Clair. Y611ow perch were reported spawning in two locations (Appendix 3, Figures 186A.and 187). Spawning runs were reported to begin in April. over sand, gravel, and marshy bottoms. In the Detroit, River, yellow perch spawn ovee sand and gravel, and mud and gravel'. (Appendix 3. Fi.giures 198B and 198C). Early to mid-April.is reported as the spawning season; and, in one [email protected], southeast of Celeron Island in 3 to 5 meters (10 to 15 feet) of water, yellow perch were reported to spawn during early fall (Appendix 3, Figure 159A). Lake Erie. Spawning of yellow perch.in Lake Erie was reported as generally occurring during the early part of May as the'water tem- perature reaches 7 to 100C.(Van Meter, 1960). Fishermen in the Lake Erie area-reported a number of yellow perch spawning locations, over a,variety of bottom types (Appendix 3, Figures 201A, 202, 203A, and 203C). Spawning times were reported as being April to May with three exceptions.: 6. 5 ki .lometers (4 miles) south of La Plaisance 91 Creek, south to Turtle Islan d; near Muddy Creek; and southeast.of Brest Bay, where spawning was reported to.begin in mid-March (Ap- pendix 3, Figure 202). 92 SMELT The smelt, Osmerus mordax (Mitchill), was introduced into Crystal Lake Michigan, on 6, ADril 1912, with a plant of 16,400,000 eggs (Van Oosten, 1937),. and by 1918 the first specimen was taken in Lake Michigan near Frankfort, Michigan (Commercial Fish Material, 1929-1955). By 1936, the smelt had reached the Keweenaw Bay region of Lake Superior, presumably through the St. Mary's River system (Van Oosten, 1937b), and had become established in all of the Great Lakes (Commercial Fish Material, 1929 through 1955). Since smelt are widely distributed throughout the Great Lakes, it is interesting to note that very few precise spawning locations were reported (Figure 11). The smelt is known,to be an anandromous fish, entering small streams to spawn soon after the ice is out, generally in late March or early April (Scott and Crossman, 1973). The smelt spawning season may begin as early as 17 March, depending basically-on the locality and the temperature, and continue until mid-May (Commercial Fish Material, 1929 through 1955). Spawning is reported to start when temperatures reach 8.9'C (Scott and Crossman, 1973). The smelt have also been reported to spawn first in the southern most areas and pro- ceed, with the temperature, to the most northern areas (Commercial Fish Material, 1929 through 1955). Smelt have also been known . to spawn over sand or gravel shoals in the major lakes, especially if there is a current or wave action (Commercial Fish Material, 1929 through*1955). Smelt have been shown to be extremely sensitive to light (Creaser, 1925) and have been reported to spawn at night in the 93 Figure 11 General spawr locations of smelt, osme in Michigan's coastal wa Great Lakes. Upper Peninsula Wisconsin MICHIGAN x..4 GROUNDS, NOT DEFINED Lower Peninsula SEE TEXT FOR SPAWNING LOCATION streams and move (drift) back to the lake before day light (Com- mercial Fish Material, 1929 through 1955; Scott and Crossman, 1973). Lake Superior. Smelt have been reported to spawnin the Apostle -Island region of Lake Superior from mid-April to early May (Bailey, 1964) and in all of the small streams with a sand bottom in Keweenaw Bay where spawning occurs approximately I kilometer (less than 1 mile) inland from the bay. Smelt spawning has also been reported for many of the small rivers and streams for various counties in Michigan's Upper Peninsula, the runs beginning in late April and continuing into early May ("Smelt", 1951). The Carp River and Three Mile River along the south side of Lake Superior are also said to contain smelt spawn- ing runs at-their mouths over gravel (Appendix 3, Figure 33). The east side of Little Lake Harbor is reported as a site of spawning, where activity occurs over cobble, rock and gravel (Appendix 3, Figure 32). It is known that lake populations of smelt make spawning runs into the lower St. Mary's River system (Eschenroder, 1979); however, only one spawning location was identified for this region (Appendix 3, Figure 49), Lake Michigan. An interesting smelt spawning area has been reported from the Michigan waters of Green Bay near Menominee., where smelt were reported to spawn in approximately 20 meters (60 to 65 feet) of water during the spring (Appendix 3, Figure 50). Smelt were also reported to spawn along the beaches and in many streams tributary to Green Bay. Available records concerning smelt spawning runs in the'Big Bay de Noc area show that spawning has occurred from mid- April to early May in many of the smelt streams as well as along 95 the-shores of Green Bay and Big Bay de Noc ("Smelt", 1951). In- format ion gathered during this study also showed that smelt spawn in most of the small rivers of this area; however, the runs were noted to be from later April to I May. Only one smelt spawning location was noted for the Beaver Is- land area where spawning reportedly occurred over rock, sand, and mud during April and May (Appendix 3, Figure 80). .Smelt are reported to spawn in streams along the Northeastern Lake Michigan shoreline from April to early May ("Smelt", 1951), with some activity having.been reported [email protected] shoreline over gravel near Ludington, Michigan (Liston and Tack, 1975). Smelt spawning appears to have occurred mostly along the beaches of Southeastern Lake Michigan, with activity having been reported along sandy beaches in 1 meter (2 to 3 feet) of water at night immediately after the ice.has left the shoreline (Appendix 3, Figures 120 and 121B). Lake Huron. No precise smelt spawning locations were reported for Northern Lake Huron. O'Gorman (1976), however, reports that smelt fry are abundant in these waters and that the littoral areaiifrom the Les Cheneaux Islands to St. Martin Bay is possibly a major nursery ground for smelt. Other data available for the northwestern shore of Lake Huron reported that spawning occurred in many of the smaller streams from mid-April to early May ("Smelt", 1951). All of the reports for smelt spawning within Saginaw Bay were from the area of Wigwam Bay and Point Au Gres (Appendix 3, Figures 164A and B and 165C) where spawning occurred in shallow water over mud and stone during the spring (just after ice-out). O'Gorman 96 (1975) has also reported the Point Au Gres region as an area where smelt fry are abundant but notes that these fry may be migrating from the inner portions of the bay. There were no specific smelt spawning sites located for the southwestern shore of Lake Huron. O'Gorman (1975 and 1976) has reported the presence of small numbers of smelt fry in thes e waters, and one other source noted that there used to be @'lots" of smelt on the beaches during spring. Detroit River. The only smelt spawning activity reported for the Detroit River occurred at night around Sugar Island (Appendix 3, Figure 198C) during mid to late April over rock and sand from shore to 2 meters (0 to 5 feet) of water. Lake Erie. The Michgian waters of Lake Erie have been reported to contain few smelt spawning.locations, and most of Lake Erie smelt spawning occur's in Ohio and Canadian waters. A few smelt have been reported to spawn in the Raisin River and Stony Creek during April over sand and rocks. 97 ALEWIFE The alewife, AZosa pseudoharengus (Wilson), was first reported for the State of Michigan from the Lake Huron waters in 1935 (Van Oosten, 1935). Competition by the alewife has since helped to reduce the numbers of more valuable commercial species (Smith, 1968a; Wells and McClain, 1972). Spawning of the alewife is reported to start in the late spring when these fish begin a migration into rivers, streams and shallow waters of the Great Lakes (Smith, 1968b). Active spawning behavior has been reported to begin in late June or early July and continue [email protected] (Joeris and Karvelis, 1962; Administrative Records, 1966-1968; Smith, 1968b). Eggs,are not released, however, unt'il the water temperatures reach 14 to 22% (Administrative Records, 1966- 1968). Spawning has been known to occur over various bottom types consisting of mud, sand, rock, boulders, and organic debris, in waters of 1 to 12 meters (2 to 39 feet) deep Ooeris and Karvelis, 1962). Alewife spawning activity has been reported to exhibit a diurnal periodicity, with the greatest activity occurring at night, peaking after midnight, and ending by early morning (Administrative Reports, 1966-1968). Lake Michigan. Alewives have been reported to spawn in the north- western parts of Lake Michigan from late spring to late July in 2 to 6 meters (6 to 20 feet) of water over sand and rock (Appendix 3, Figures 51B and 57). Alewife spawning has also been noted for Northeastern Lake Michigan, occurring anywhere along the shoreline 98 in 4 to 9 meters (15 to 30 feet) of water, wherever there is sand (Figure 12). Reports of alewife spawning from Central and Southeastern Michigan indicated that spawning occurs earlier in the season, from April to late May, possibly due to temperature dependence. These areas have not been mapped due to the generalities of the information, most sources concurring that alewife spawning took place anywhere al-ong the shoreline over sand, rock and gravel in waters 1 to 9 ,meters (2 to 30 feet) deep. Wells (1973 and 1974) also supports this general consensus, reporting that "the entire nearshore area from New Buffalo to Frankfort obviously is used by alewives as a nursery ground". One area that was mapped was located off Muskegon Lake (Appendix 3, Figure 121A). Lake Huron. There were very few reports by the commercial fishermen of alewife spawning in the Michigan waters of Lake Huron, and all sources indicated that the alewife were disappearing or that there have been no specific alewife spawning locations mapped for Lake Huron. O'Gorman (1975 and 1976) has indicated that alewife spawning for.Northern Lake Huron occurs in early July, and that spawning for inner Saginaw Bay probably starts a few weeks earlier. O'Gorman (1975 and 1976.) also reports that the alewife is the dominant species of fry collected during mid-June and July, which suggests that spawning does occur in these areas. The collection of alewife fry in Southern Lake Huron again indicates the presence of an adult spawning stock in that area (O'Gorman, 1976). 99 Figure 1.2. General spa locations of alewife, A harengus,in Michigan's of the Great Lakes. Upper Peninsula Njisconsin 0 CD C) MICHIGAN Lower Peninsula Lake Erie. There was only one report of'alewife spawning for Lake Erie. This area is located at the mouth of the River Raisin and an early spring spawning date was indicated (Appendix 3, Figure 202A). 101 WALLEYE, SAUGER and BLUE PIKE The walleye, Stizostedion vitreum vitreum (Mitchell), has been reported to spawn in the early spring just after the ice breaks up (Smith, 1969; Jovanovic, 1970) when the water tempera- ture reaches 6.7 to 8.91C (Scott and Crossman, 1973). Peak spawn- ing activity has be en reporte'd to occur in mid-April (Wolfert.et al., 1975). Walleye have been noted to spawn in rivers and cre'eks with gravel, rubble, and rock bottoms, after they undertake an.up-. stream migration. The shorelines of lakes and shallow offshore reef areas have also been reported as suitable walleye spawning grounds. Both of the latter habitats again consis ted of rock, rubble or gravel bottoms (Regier et al., 1969; Jovanovic, 1970). Males reportedly predominate the earliest portion of the spawning run (Hile, 1954; Jovanovic, 1970; Scott and Crossman, 1973). The walleye.does not spawn indiscriminately, but has been reported to return to a specific spawning site (Crowe et al., 1963; Smith, 1969). The Great Lakes probably contain discrete spawning stocks which generally remain spatially isolated, even during the non-spawning season (Crowe et al., 1963; Regier et al., 1969; Smith, 1969), but mixing of various spawning stocks may occur in more confined waters such as Green Bay (Crowe et al., 1963) (Figure 13). The sauger, Stizostedion canadense (Smith), is reported to share the same basic spawning habitats and conditions as the walleye;.however,[email protected] probably occurs over a two week period in the spring just after that of the walleye (Scott and Crossman, 1973). 102 Figure 13. General spaw locations of walleye, sa blue-Pike, Stizostedion Michigan's coastal water Lakes. Upper Peninsula IZ- 0 iVisconsin MICHIGAN Lower Peninsula All of the reported instances of spawning sites of blue pike, Stizostedeon vitreum glaucum Hubbs, were referenced by Lake Erie commercial fishermen. The general spawning conditions and areas reported were again very much the same as those reported for the walleye, but blue pike spawning probably occurs later in the spring. St. Marys. River. Eschenroder (1979), has reported the lower St. Marys River system to be one of the most important fisheries habitats in Michigan's waters of northern Lake Huron, and that walleye are likely to spawn in this region. Due to the closing of the St. Marys River fishery years ago, virtually no commercial fishermen are left in this region, and only one walleye spawning area could be identified. It was noted that a walleye spawning migration occurs in the Potagannissing River of Drummond Island (Appendix 3, Figure 49). Scott's Bay,on Drummond.1sland has also been indicated as a walleye spawning area by the local conservation officer. This individual indicated that there is a congregation of walleye in the west end of Munuscong Bay after a migration from Lake Huron; and reported the occurrence of a peculiar fall run of walleye from the North Channel of the St. Mary's River and the Georgian Bay, towards the main shipping channel, but could not identify the final destination of these fish. Lake Michigan. Reports of walleye spawning in Lake Michigan are [email protected] confined to the Big Bay de Noc region of Northern Lake Michigan. Spawning generally occurred during April in shallow waters along shoreline with sand and rock bottoms. Walleye were reported to spawn, as were the sauger, near Val- 104 entine on East Bay de Noc, with walleye also spawning along the shoreline in I meter (3 to 4 feet) of water around the rest of the bay (Appendix 3, Fi-gure 64A). The other reported walleye spawning areas for this region, where spawning took place in water less than 9 meters (30 feet) deep over rock and sand during April, were a 13 kilometer (8 mile) stretch southwest of.Chippewa Point (Appendix 3, Figures 57 and 58) off the mouth of the Fisherdam River, and two locations in Ogantz Bay (Appendix 3, Figures 63A and B). Only a few areas outside of Big Bay de Noc were noted for walleye spawning activity. The Cedar and Menominee Rivers of Northern Lake Michi,gan were reported to show walleye spawning activity during May and June over gravel. In Southern Lake Michigan, walleye were said to. spawn west of the Portage Lake Channel in 12 to 18 meters,(39 to 60 feet) of water (Appendix 3, Figure 115), about 6 kilometers (3 to 4 miles) north of South Haven in shallow waters (Appendix 3, Figure 129A and B); and from the end of April to early June off St. Joseph in 2 to 6 meters (7 to 20 feet) of water over gravel (Appendix 3, Figure 132A). At this last location, the female walleye was reported to be larger than the male, and spawning occurred closer to shore if the lake currents were strong. Lake Huron, Virtually all reports of walleye spawning for Lake Huron were from Saginaw Bay. Most of the spawning grounds were reported to be from 2 to 7 meters (7 to 22 feet) (Commercial Fish Material, 1926-1946; Commercial Spawn, 1936 and 1939), with a depth of 2 meters (5 to 6 feet) probably being the average (Metzelaar, 1929). The bottom characteristics reported varied from mud and clay to hard sand 105 and fine gravel (Metzelaar, 1929), with most spawning reported to occur for approximately four weeks after ice-out (April). Metzelaar (1929) did note that the-males arrived on the spawning grounds first, followed by the largest females, but one source stated that it was "hard to find a male walleye in the 1900's All of the shoreline and most of the shallow areas of Saginaw Bay have been reported to contain walleye spawning grounds (Appendix 3, Figures 163 through 169). No sources referenced the Saginaw R'i-ver as a walleye spawning area; however, Schneider and Crowe (1977) have reported that the Saginaw River was once an important walleye spawning area and that offshore reefs had to sustain the entire walleye spawning stock due to environmental changes within the river. Other reasons, from ."chemical problems" to the closing of the hatchery in the 1930's, have been mentioned by the commercial fishermen to have caused the decline of the walleyein Saginaw Bay, and one commercial fisherman actually began raising and planting his own fry in 1923. Walleye production was noted to be poor (11,00 pounds) as late as 1968 from the Bay region (Subject Files, 1968-1969). Very few walleye spawning areas have been reported for southern Lake Huron (Appendix 3, Figure 177C). Sauger were reported to spawn during the spring in the early 1920's and during the summers of 1934 and 1935 from Point Au Gres to Point Lookout (Appendix 3, Figure 164A).- Lake St. Clair and St. Clair River. The primary spawning grounds for walleye in Lake St. Clair were reported to be on the Ontario side of the lake (Subject Files, 1968-1969), with the Thames River 106 in Ontario having been reported as the main Lake St. Clair walleye spawning region (Regier et al., 1969; Haas, 1978). The only rep*orted walleye spawning area for the St. Clair River was from the junction of the north and south canals north for approximately 5 kilometers (3 miles); it is not known if spawning still occurs in this stretch of the river (Appendix,3, Figure 185). It should be noted, however, that the St. Clair River was probably a very important walleye spawning area at one time. Downing (1905) reported that 17,500,000 eggs were taken from the St. Clair River near Robert's Landing, and indicated that ihe St. Clair River water was much clearer than tha.t of_Saginaw Bay., Individuals contacted during this study, indicated the presence of walleye migration through the St. Clair River, but did not report any spawning areas. Texas Instruments-Ecological Services (1975) has also stated -that, even though several walleye larvae were collected during a larval fish survey, there is only limited evidence to indicate that walleye spawn in the study area (St. Clair River near-Detroit Edison Company, St. Clair Power Plant). Detroit River. Walleye spawning in the Detroit River has been said to occur from March to May, over rock and gravel, in 2 to 6 meters (6 to 20 feet) of water (Appendix 3, Figures 197 through 200). Only one occurrence of sauger spawning was reported for the Detroi-t River, where spawning occurred in the Hidden Lake Bay, east of the Livingstone Channel in 4 meters (14 to 15 feet) of water during late March and early April (Appendix 3, Figure 198C). Lake Erie. The walleye has been reported to have always been an 107 important commercial species in Lake Erie (Hartman, 1972), one that had supported a commercial fishery for 140 years (Regier et al., 1969). The decline of the.walleye in Lake Erie during the 1950's has been attributed to overfishing and a degradation of the environ- ment (Hartman, 1972). By 1968, only 842,000 pounds of walleye were taken from Lake Erie (Subject Files 1968-1969). The walleyes of Lake Erie have been composed of a number of separate spawning stocks, those of Western Lake Erie basically being segregated from the walleye population of Eastern Lake Erie (Regi.er et al., 1969). Spawning reportedly occurs over a hard, clean bottom, rocky reefs, hard pan, or clean sandat the edge of weed beds (Regier,et al., 1969) during the second or third week in April whe n the water temperature reaches 7.20C (Parsons,, 1972). Walleye spawning in Lake Erie has been reported to occur in April, over hard clay or rock and clay, in less than 5 meters. (18 feet) of water (Appendix 3, Figures 201 through 203). Many walleye spawning areas have also been reported for the Ohio [email protected] Western Lake Erie near Kelly Islands, Bass Islands, Checker Island group, and'the Maumee River (.Wolfert et al., 1975); and many of the commercial fishermen feel that most of the walleye production in Lake Erie is from these areas.- The sauger has been reported to spawn during April in shallow waters over hard clay and rock (Appendix 3, Figures 202A and C). The Bass and Sister Islands in Ohio have also been rated as areas with a [email protected] incidence of sauger spawning. The sauger was also reported to have "disappeared entirely in 1965" but supposedly, is increasing in numbers, along with th e walleye, since the elimi- 108 nation of commercial exploitation and pol-lution sources. The blue pike was reported to still be spawning off Point Aux Peaux (Appendix 3, Figure 201C) in late June when the water tem- perature is approximately 130C. Most of the reports of blue pike spawning, however, were from Ohio waters where spawning report- edly occurred after the walleye, in April and May, over a gravel or hard bottom in 5 to 24 meters (18 to 80 feet)-of water. 109 SUCKERS The group of fishes commonly referred to as the suckers includes ten genera of the family Catostomidae. The spawning characteristics are very similar among all species as they spawn in early spring, usually after the ice breaks up or before the water starts to warm. Four species of this family, the white sucker, Catostoraus cormnersoni (Lacepede); longnose surker, Catostomus catostomus (Forster); quillback carpsucker, Carpiodes cyprinus (Lesueur);and bigmouth buffalo, -Tctiobus cyprineZZus (Valenciennes), have been found to be capable of spawning within the coastal waters of the Great Lakes. White suckers and bigmouth buffalo are referenced in the literature as spawning from mid-May,to early June when tempera- tures reach 10 to 15'C (Scott and Crossman, 1973) Longnose suckers and quillback carpsuckers spawn earlier in the spring, from April to May, when temperatures exceed 5'C (Scott and Crossman, 1973). Many small egg!f are broadcast over t,he bottom during spawning, with the number deposited by white suckers ranging from 30,000 to 140, 000 (-Smith, 1969). Suckers in the Great Lakes were generally reported to spawn in shallow waters having a sand or gravel bottom (Figure 14). Baily (1969) stated that suckers are commonly referred to as "mullet" by the Great Lakes commercial fishermen. This term, however, was used by only one fisherman interviewed during this sur,vey, and few made any distinction between the various species they observed. 110 Figure 14. General spav locations of suckers.in coastal waters of the G Upper Peninsula Wis consin MICHIGAN Wr Lower Peninsula Lake [email protected] There was. very little available information con- cerning the spawning characteristics of suckers in Lake Superior. Bailey (1969) reported white suckers to be in great abudance in these waters. Large numbers of white suckers were also found in the St. Marys River (Westerman and Van Oosten, 1937). Unfortu natley, these authors made no reference as to-, the exact locations of this spawning or to the spawning characteristics of these fish. The Potagannissing River of Drummond Island has been noted as, exhibiting sucker spawning activity (Appendix 3, Figure 49) and Eschenroder (1979), has.stated that the lower St. Marys. River system is an important sucker habitat. Lake Michigan. The stretch of shoreline extending from the mouth of the Cut River southeast to Brevort River was reported to be a spawning area for suckers in the northernmost waters of Lake Michigan (Appendix 3, Figures 74A, 75A and B)'. Spawning occurred here from late June to early July in water having a depth of approximately 1.5 meters (4 to 5 feet). The bottom in this area was reportedly composed of sand and rock. White suckers have also been reported to spawn in Springers Creek, a tributary to Green Bay, as well as other streams in this general area, around mid- May. The shallow water areas to the north and south of Waugoshance Point, inclusive of Sturgeon Bay, and extending south to Good Hart were reported to,be well-utilized sucker spawning grounds (Appen- dix 3, Figures 78 through 80). The bottom substrate in the region surrounding Waugoshance Island and Waugoshance Point was reportedly composed of rock and silt while that extending from Waugoshance 112 Point to Cross Village was primarily composed of sand and gravel. One source, however, stated that boulders composed the major bottom type along the northern edge of Waugoshance Point. Spawning was reported in these areas from May to mid-June at depths of 12 meters (40 feet) or less. Spawning by suckers was reported to occur 8 kilometers (5 miles) south of Ludington in a circular region having an @pproxi- mate 1.6 kilometer (1 mile) radius. This area was specifically' located offshore from the southwest corner of the.Ludington Pumped Storage Reservoir (Appendix 3, Figure 117C). Spawning occurred in water ranging from near shore to 30 meters (0 to 100 feet) deep over abottom composed of hard clay.and rock. No dates were given for the occurrence of this activity. One commercial fisherman referenced the existence of a small, sucker spawning ground offshore from St. Joseph (Appendix 3, Figure 1328) in shallow water having a sand bottom. Females were noted to occupy the spawning grounds first wi th males arriving 4 days after the females. Even though little data concerning sucker spawning in Lake Michigan is available-from the commercial fishermen, it should be noted that suckers utilize most streams tributary to Lake Mich- igan for spawning (Keller, 1979). Lake Huron. -Information provided by commercial fishermen indicated that sucker spawning activity, in Lake Huron was.confined to the Saginaw Bay area. As a general overview, spawning appeared to be quite extensive in this.region (Appendix 3, Figures 162 through 165, and 167 through 170). In all cases, spawning activity was 113 noted to occur during spring, usually in [email protected], May, or early June, depending on water temperatures. Suckers generally spawned at depths ranging from 1 to 5 meters (3 to 17 feet) over a bottom com- posed of clay, sand, gravel, stone, or a combination of these. One sucker spawning area was noted north of.Saginaw Bay near Middle Island (Appendix 3, Figure 155B) (Eschenroder, 1979). It should be noted that two areas were referenced as heavily- utilized spawning grounds by three or more commercial fishermen. These areas included the shallows from Point Au Gres to Saganing Bay and from Sand Point along the shore to Fish Point. One fisherman reported spawning by the quillback carpsucker at four locations: in the bay just south of Sebewaing Delta, at the i mediate north side of Sebpwaing Delta, at a point begin- ning 2 kilometers (1 to 2 miles) north of the del-ta and extending 3 kilometers (2 to 3 miles) north along the shore, and from Fish Point south for 3 kilometers (2 to 3 miles) along the shore (Appen- dix 3, Figures 168A and B). This species spawned at a depth ranging from 0 to 2 meters (0 to 6 feet) over a bottom generally consisting of sand, silt or stone. It was"further reported that quillback suckers spawned during the spring in these areas. Lake Erie. Suckers spawned at two Lake Erie locations (Appendix 3, Figures 202B and C). The first area was reported to extend along the shoreline at Bolles Harbor and ocntained a gravel bottom. No depths for spawning were reported. The oiher Lake Erie spawning ground, a pond formed by Otter Creek prior to its conjunction with Lake Erie, was characterized as being shallow with a mud bottom. Spawning in this pond occurred 114 during early April. Several commercial fishermen reported bigmouth buffalo spawning in Lake Erie. This species has been reported only from the southern areas of the Great Lakes, in Lake Michigan and Lake Erie (Smith, 1969). Smith (1969) further stated that the only commercial fishery for this species is in Lake Erie. Spawning generally occurs in shallow bays,.and the eggs are broadcast over mud bottoms or vegetation. The region extending along the coast from North Cape just past Whitewood Creek was indicated as one of three spawning grounds for bigmouth buffalo in Lake Erie (Appendix 3, Figure 203C). Spawning activity occurred here during May in shallow water abundant with cattails, marsh grass, and submerged aquatic plants. The marshy area beg inni ng north of Indian I-sland, at the mouth of Ottawa River, was also mentioned as being a spawning ground for bigmouth buffalo (Appendix 3, Figure 203B). Spawning occurred here during May and June over a bottom of weeds and mud. One commercial fisherman referenced spawning by bigmouth buffalo to occur in an open-water region. This spawning ground, located approximately 6 kilometers (4 miles) east of Swan Creek (Appendix 3, Figure 201A), was characterized as having a water depth of from 2 to 3 meters (6 to 10 feet) and a bottom composed of hard rock and clay. Spawning occurred during May in this area. 115 CARP The carp, ryprinus carpio (Linnaeus), was_indigenous to Asia and parts of Europe but was introduced into the United States from Germany in 1876. Therefore, many people still refer to it as the German or European carp. Other common names applied to this species include mirror and leather carp. The term "carp" has been accepted as being the correct synonym for this species and will be used for this study. Scott and Crossman (1973) reported that spawning does not occur extensively until temperatures reach 17'C and begins to decline when temperature reaches 26'C. Spawning ceases altogether at 28'C. If temperatures remain optimum, spawning may continue for several weeks. In the Great Lakes region, spawning may extend from May to August if temperatures permit (Swee and McCrimmon, 1966). Bottom requirements for spawning are generally those which .are conducive to plant growth. Spawning is accomplished by vigor- ous splashing when eggs are deposited in small patches and adhere to the weeds and other solid objects (Smith, 1969). Therefore, carp spawning -activities would be expected to occur over a bottom type composed of silt, mud, or sand containing ample organic material and nutrients to sustain plant growth. Spawning was usually referenced by interviewed commercial fishermen to occur in shallow weedy areas and protected bays where carp gathered in numbers (Figure 15). Lake Michigan. There was very limited information'concerning carp spawning grounds in Lake Michigan.as only two such sites could be 116 Figure 15. General sp locations of carp, Cyp in Michigan's coastal Great Lakes. Upper Peninsula 0 10 Wisconsin MICHIGAN I Lower Peninsula .identified. One area, reported to be rather small in size, was located offshore from the southwest corner of Muskegon Lake (Appendix 3, Figure 121B). Carp spawned at the surface in waters ranging in depth from 6 to 12 meters (20 to 40 feet). The bottom in this region consisted of sand and there was no indication of aquatic vegetation in the area. The observer noted spawning to occur in June and that "schools of carp knocked and bumped to- gether to facilitate the release of spawn". A small region offshore from lakeside was also referenced for carp spawning in Southern Lake Michigan. Additional infor- mation supplied by the fishermen precisely located the spawning grounds to be 9 kilometers (5 miles) north of New Buffalo (Appen- dix 3, Figure j34A), in waters ranging in depth from 3 to 6 meters (10 to 20 feet). Carp spawning activity occurred during May and over a bottom consisting of sand. Lake Huron. The Saginaw Bay region of Lake Huron was cited by a number of commercial fishermen to be extensively utilized by spawn- ing carp populations. Spawning grounds occurred mostly along the extensive Saginaw Bay shoreline; however, several fishermen indi- cated spawning to occur in open water areas or shall.ows around various islands (Appendix 3, Figures 163 through 170). Carp were generally observed to spawn during May, June, and July, depending on water temperatures, and over a variety of bottom substances. Most often referenced were bottom types consisting of sand, mud, stone, aquatic vegetation, or a combination of these. Depths for spawning were most often reported to be from near shore to 2 meters (I to 6 feet). Two areas were referenced by as many,as eight,commercial fishermen to be utilized for carp spawning grounds. These areas included the shallow waters extending from Point Au Gres to Saga- ning Bay, which encompasses Wigwam Bay (Appendix 3, Figures 164A and.C, and 165A through C), and the waters east of a line extending from Sand Point to Fish Point (Appendix -3, Figures 168A through D). A small, open water area, termed "the Black Hole", was reported to be located 7.2 kilometers (4 miles) northeast of Nayanquing Point. Carp were reported to spawn in this area; however, neither spawning depth nor bottom characteristics-were mentioned. Detroit River. Information currently available concerning carp spawning grounds in the Detroit River indicates that carp spawning activity has,been confined to a few regions., Two areas that were referenced by commercial fishermen are; the shallow waters around [email protected] and bays at the south end of Grosse Ile (Appendix 3, Figures 197A and 198A and C). and along the Detroit shoreline near Gibraltar (Appendix 3, Figures 199A and 200). All observa- tions reported.carp spawning in very.shall.ow waters, less than I .meter (3.feet) deep, and.in weedy areas where mud and silt pre- vailed. Late May, June, and July were given as the dates during which most spawning activity was observed. One commercial fisherman stated that the number of carp spawning at the Frenchman's Creek, Celeron Island, and Gibraltar Bay locations has decreased by approximately 50 percent from that which was observed during the 1920's. 119 ..Lake Erie. Many areas along the Lake Erie shoreli.ne, extending from the mouth of the Detroit River to the Ohio border, were reported as carp spawning grounds (Appendix 3, Figures 201 through 203). Generallyspawning occurred from May to June at water depths less than I.meter (3 feet) and in close proxtmity to shore- .lines or islands., One fisherm an, however, noted spawning to occur during late April in these areas. Bottom compositions consisting of weeds and mud we,re.reported in nearly all cases with only one individual indicating the presence of gravel. Of special interest was the region extending from the mouth of the Huron River to Point Mouillee. Six Lake Erie commercial fishermen referred to this region as being utilized by spawning carp populations. The bottom in this area was marshy, and water depths were reporte d to be less than 3 meters (6 to 8 feet). 120 GOLDFISH In Michigan's coastal waters, goldfish, Carassius auratus (Linnaeus), have been reported from various sections of Lake Huron, ...the,Detroit River, and Lake Erie (Figure 16). Goldfish and c arp have similar spawning characteristics; both spawn in shallow,@ weedy areas during May and June; however, Battle (Scott and C ross- man, 1973) found,developing goldfish eggs as late as 17 August in Lake Erie.* The eggs are adhesive -and are released over submerged aquatic vegetation, usually during bright, sunny mornings (Scott and Crossman, 1973). Lake Huron. Goldfish were reported to spawn at.only one location in Lake Huron. This activity occurred in the area of Saginaw Bay, extending south from Wigwam Bay (Appendix 3, Figure 165B). Spawn- ing depths were reported to range near shore to 3 meters (0 to 9 feet), and the bottom was marshy with some intermixed sandy areas. Detroit River. Goldfish spawned at three locations in the Detroit River. Two areas along the southwest shoreline of Grosse Ile were. specifically located, the bay south of Alba Island and the bay northwest of Meso'Island (Appendix 3, Figure-198A). Aquatic vege- tation and organic detritus were reported to compose the bottom sub- strate of these areas. The bay area near Sturgeon Island was referenced by another commercial fisherman as being utilized by spawning goldfish (Appen- dix 3, Figure 199A). Spawning occurred here in shallow water and over a bottom composed of mud and gravel. 121 Figure 16.. General sp locations of goldfish, in Michigan's coastal Great Lakes. Upper Peninsula N., Wisconsin MICHIGAN I Lower Peninsula Lake Erie. Goldfish in Lake Erie have spawned around Point Mouil- lee and in the shallow coastal waters extending from La Plaisance Bay southward for approximately 6.4 kilometers (4 miles) (Appen- dix 3, Figures 201B and 202B). Carp and goldfish were reported to spawn at the same time in these areas, during late June and early July, depending mainly on water temperature, Oth the opti- mum being 21*C. Spawning occurred in.shallow water areas over a mud bottom. 123 NORTHERN PIKE The northern pike, Esox tucius Linnaeus, is known to be a spring spawner with spawning taking place immediately after the ice _Its (Scott.and Crossman,.1973). Spawning is reported to occur' during daylight hours on heavily vegetated flood plains (Scott and Crossman, 1973). Breeder and Rosen (1966) also reported spawning to take place in early spring-just as the ice leaves. In Ohio waters of Lake Erie, large numbers of northern pike'spawn in late March or early April in marshes adjacent to the lake (Brown and Clar, 1965). It is of"interest to note that the early attitude of the "Michigan Fish Commission" toward the northern.pike favored total extermination (Williams, 1951). Williams (1951) also noted that in 1921 it was legal to take pike with spears.and dip nets during the spawning season. Few spawning areas were reported for Lakes Michigan and Superior waters'with the majority of spawning reported for Lakes Huron and Erie (Fi,gure 17). Lake Superior. In Chassell Bay from near shore to.a depth of 5 meters (16 feet) northern Pike have been reported 'spawning from late April to mid-May. The northern pike in this area spawn on a sandy bottom with heavy growths of bulrush ([email protected] app.).. Also in the Keweenaw Bay area, northern pike spawn in L'Anse Bay near Barage (Appendix.3,.Figure 21B). Spawning in this area takes place in May over a "weed" bottom in areas commencing 18 to 24 meters (60 to 80 feet) from shore. Spring spawning of northern pike has been reported from the Potagannissing River, and the bays near Paw Point, on Drummond Island where spawning was noted to 124 occur during April (Appendix 3, Figure 49). The Potagannissing Bay area, as well as the lower St. Mary's River system is most likely an important northern pike habitat (Eschenroder, 1979). Lake Michigan. The only information on northern pike spawning along the north shore of Lake Michigan came from MDNR spawn-taking records.. Excerpts from a report on "Collection of Northern Pike Spawn in Little Bay de.Noc during the Spring of-1960" follows: April 14: Open water just beginning to appear near river mouths at end of Little Bay de Noc. April 16:. Enough open water to permit setting test net. Set one shallow trap net in water from 2 to 4 feet. Floating ice in area of open water and all the rest of the Bay ice covered. Water temperature 39'F. April 17: Heavy snowstorm. Unable to check net. 49 April 18: Checked trap net. Found northern pike, walleyes, suckers, bullheads,, and perch., Male northerns nearly all ripe but females green. Left fish-in net and set one, more. Water 40'F. Called Thompson Hatchery to send one man to assist the next morning. W. Crowe and I.F.H. crew arrived in evening. April 19: Spear fishermen were observed in marsh on April 18 and several arrested with northern pike today. Checked nets with W. Crowe and N. Westers. Found some ripe females. 'Placed all back in nets And arranged for spawn taking equipment to be on hand for next day, also one extra.man from Thompson. Water temperature 400F. April 20: Assisted by N Westers and N. Brady. Handled about 75 pike of which 1/3 were females. Two ripe females yielded about a quart of eggs. Water tem- perature 42*F in.lake. Water temperature'at Thompson Hatchery 450F. Demonstrated spawn taking technique to Westeri and Brady. crew set two nets in same area today. Aprii 21: Handled about 75 northern pike again and to .ok 5 quarts of eggs. Male and female ratio about the same but more females ripe. Water temperature 430F and air in sixties. Used ice from a vending machine to keep transportation tank cool. Suspected ice made from [email protected] Figure 17. General spa locations of northern p Lucius, in Michigan's c of the Great Lakes. Upper Peninsula Wisconsin MICHIGAN GROUNDS NOT DEFINED Lower Peninsula @hlorinated water but no other available. Arranged for ice from well water for future. Ripe walleye females also appeared in nets. Delivered six green northern pike.females and 10 males to Thompson Hatchery tanks to see if they would ripen there. Demonstrated spawn taking technique again and then let N. Westers and N. Brady take over. All the rest of the spawn taken by Westers and Brady from this date forward. April 22: Water 440F, air in 50's. Handled about 90 pike and took 7 quarts of spawn. Males still predominant but females increasing. Nearly half ofIthe females ripe. Had to release some ripe females because transportation tanks not large enough to handle more eggs. April 23: Water 46'F, air in low 50"s. Handled about 70 northern pike. Males and females about equal in number and half the females ripe. Took slightly more than 8 quarts of spawn. Some ripe females again re- leased. Drifting ice in the bay. First smelt taken in Escanaba River and No-See-Um Creek * Commercial nets taking a few and net setting just getting under way. April 24: Water 46*F and air in high 40's to low 50's. Handled 46 northern pike and took 5 quarts of spawn. Net catches down and spent females begin to appear. Male and female ratio about one to one.- April 25: Water 420F and air 39*F. Handled about 60 -northern pike and took about 4 quarts of eggs. Only a few green females, the rest spent or partially spent.. Slightly more females than males and average size of both down. Also took 2.5 quarts of eggs from fish brought to the hatchery of April 21. April 26: Water 420F and air down to 35'F. Handled 40 northern pike and took 2.5 quarts of spawn. Slightly more males than females and females nearly all spent. Weather cold and water high in bay and all streams. Ripe walleyesabundant in area. Yellow perch moving in,.in numbers and spawn deposited on net twine. Pulled out all nets and closed the operation. Along.the east shore of Lake Michigan, one*spawning location @north of Manistee in near-shore waters was reported (Appendix 3, Figure 115) over a rock bottom. Northern pike are known to spawn 127 in shallow bays around Garden Island and'Hog Island of the Beaver Island Group. (Keller, 1979). Lake Huron. Northern pike were reported spawning in Northern Lake Huron from the Pine River east to Dudley Bay (Appendix 3, Figures 138 through 141). Spawning depth was reported as 2 meters (6 feet) or less, over a mud and weed bottom. The northern pike in this area make the spawning run in May. Along Rogers City Ha.rbor, northern pike' were reported spawning in open gaps in rocks in the spring (Appendix 3, Figure 152). In Saginaw Bay a number of shallow wa-ter spawning locations were indicated where spawning takes place just after ice-out (Appendix 3, Figures 165A and C, and 167 through 170). The shore areas to a 6 meter (20 feet) depth were indicated as northern pike spawning grounds from inear Huron City, south to about 8 kilometers (5 miles) south of Port Huron (Appendix 3, Figures 172 through 174 and 177 thro"ugh 179). Bottom composition in this area was not reported. It is also thought that pike spawning occurrs in most rivers or drainage ditches entering Saginaw Bay (Keller, 1979). Lake St. Clair - Detroit River. On the east s1de of Anchor Bay (Goose Bay, Fisher Bay and Bouvier Bay) northern pike were reported to spawn in April over marsh area with.sand and gravel bottom (Ap- pendix 3, Figure 186). In the Detroit River, northern pike were re- ported spawning in a number of locations (Appendix 3, Figures 197 through 199). Spawning areas were generally indicated as sand and marshy near-shore areas. Lake Erie. Northern pike were reported spawning in Lake Erie 128 proper in 4 locations (Appendix 3, Figures 201 through 203). These areas were reported. as shallow marshy areas with spawning taking place at ice-out and sooner. The following feeder streams were also reported as spawning areas for norther pike along Lake Erie: Plum Creek, Stony Creek, Sandy Creek, Sulfur Creek, Otter Creek, Woodchuck Creek, LaPlaisance Creek, Muddy Creek, Pleasant Creek, and named and unnamed county drains. In one case it was reported that Woodchuck and Pleasant Creeks were only active spawning areas during the 1940's. In Another case it was reported that most of the above mentioned areas were no longer active spawning areas. 129 MUSKELLUNGE' The muskellunge, Esox masqui'[email protected] (Mitchill), is endemic to the fresh waters of Eastern,,North America. Scott and Crossman (1973) reported that the muskel 1 unge spawns-'shortly after the ice has melted, usually in late April or early May when water temperatures reach 9 to 150C, the optimum being 12.80C. Spawning takes place in water 38 to 51 centimeters (15 to 20 inches) deep in heavily veg- etated and flooded areas (Scott and Crossma'n, 1973.). During the spawning period, one female may be accompanied by one or sometimes two smaller males. The eggs are adhesive and are scattered in submerged vegetation. Scott and Crossman (1973) reported that both males and females reach sexual maturity between 3 and 5 years; mature males are smaller in size than the females. Information obtained from the interViews,indicated that spawning by muskellunge .was confined to areas in Lake St. Clair and the'Detroit River (Fig- ure 18). ..Lake St. Clair. In 1951,, Lake St. Clair was reported to contain the largest concentration of muskellunge in Michigan (Tri-State Fisheries Conference, 1951). Williams "(1961) reported that during the spawn- ing season of 1954-1956.both green and partly spent muskellunge were captured from weed-bed areas of Big Bay and off themouths of tribu- tary streams. Williams also reported that these areas were mostly 1.5 to 3 meters (5 to 10.feet) in depth. Great Lakes muskellunge were reported by Williams (1961) to prefer a lotic environment for spawning, in contrast to the quiet,, stumpy bayous used by northern muskellunge-, [email protected] Williams' three years of observation, muskellunge 130 77- Figure 18. General spav locations of muskellung( quinongy, in Michigan's of the Great Lakes. Upper Wisconsin M I CH I [email protected] Lower Peninsula spawning was completed by May 14 during the warm spring of 1955, but was delayed by cooler weather in 1954 and 1956 until the first week of June. Individuals interviewed during this study, indicated the locations of several important muskellunge spawning grounds for Lake St. Clair. An extensive spawning ground was said to be located in the north half of the St. Clair River Delta and included Fisher and Bouvier Bays as well as Big and Lit tle Muscamoot Bays (Appendix 3, Figures 186A and B). Spawning occurre'd from early to mid-June in shallow, marshy areas.. In addition to aquatic vegetation, sand and gravel were reported to compose the bottom substrate of this region. Two references indicated muskellunge to spawn in a portion of Anchor Bay locate d approximately 2.5 kilometers (212 miles) north of the Clinton River mouth (Appendix 3, Figure 187). This area was 2.4 kilometers (1.5 miles) in diameter and was said to have a bottom consisting of mud, clay, and sand., Spawning activities occurred from mid-May to early June at a depth of 1 to 4 meters (3 to 12 feet). Water temperature was noted to be the major factor controll'ing the exact time of spawning. Temperatures ranging between 12.7% and 13.30C were reported to be optimum at this location (Haas, 1978). The shallow water region extending from St.. Clair Shores to Grosse Point was referenced,by one sport fishing guide to be util- ized for spawning by muskellunge (Appendix 3, Figure 191A). Spawning occurred during the middle part of June at depths ranging from near shore to 4.meters (0 to 12 feet). The bottom composition was noted to'be of sand, mud, and clay. 132' Detroit'River. There were only two reports of muskellunge spawning grounds in the Detroit River. One reference indicated the existence of two spawning areas along the northern shore of Belle Isle (Appen- dix 3, Figure 193). Spawning was referenced at depths from near shore to 2 meters (l,to 6 feet) over a bottom composed of clay. Spawning by muskellunge was also reported in a small area located near the south shore of Stoney Island (Appendix 3, Figure 198A). This spawning activity was observed during the period from 1973 to 1978 in water depth ranging between 1.5 and,3 meters (5 to 10 feet). The bottom in this area was characterized as being marshy. 133 LAKE STURGEON' Habitat destruction, overexploitation, and pollution have caused many temporary and permanent changes throughout the waters of the Great Lakes; however, few.populations have been so devastated as the Great Lakes sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens (Raffnesque). 'Once considered to be an abundant species in the Great Lakes, the lake sturgeon population has become severely depleted (Van Oosten, 1956). Efforts to restore-the sturgeon population in the Great Lakes have been unsuccessful mostly due to the above-mentioned factors and the reproductive characteristics of the species, specifically their maturation period. 'Sturgeons.mature very slowly and few spawn before they reach twenty years of age (Hartman, 1972). Spawning is reported to occur from early-May to June when optimum temperatures range between 13% and 18'C'-(Scott and Crossman, 1973). Spawning usually occurs at depths ranging from I to 5 meters (2 to 15 feet) in areas of swift- moving water or.rapids. Scott and Crossman (1973) reported that, Great Lakes sturgeon are k.nown to spawn in wave action over rocky ledges or around rocky islands. Males'generally teach the spawning ground s prior to the arrival of the females and, during* spawning, one female may be accompanied,by two or more males. Magnin (Scott and Crossman, 1973) reported-that, depending on locality north to south, females spawned every 4 to 6 years and males every I to 3 years. Information gathered from commercial fishermen indicated that sturgeon have spawned or are spawning in parts of Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, and Lake Erie (Figure 19).. 134 Figure 19. General spav locations of lake sturgE fuZvescens, in Michigan' of the Great Lakes. Upper Peninsula Wisconsin MICHIGAN Lower Peninsula Lake Michigan. Lake Sturgeon were reported to spawn in only two isolated locations within the coastal waters of Lake Michigan. One area occurred along the Lake Michigan shoreline at Ganges (Appendix 3, Figures 126B and 1,29B). This spawning ground-extends for 3 kilometers (2 miles) in very shallow waters'(stated as being "on shore"). Spawning occurred during June of 1978 over a gravel bottom. Another offshore area located approximately 1.6 to 3 kilometers (I to 2 miles) north of New Buffalo was referenced by one commercial fisherman as being utilized by spawning lake sturgeon (Appendix 3, Figure 134B), Spawning activity was said to occur in shallow depths, ranging from the surface to 2 meters (0 to 6 feet), over a sandy bot- tom inter-mixed with rock. Sturgeon are present in small numbers in Grand Traverse Bay, however, spawning areas are unknown (Keller, 1979). Although not considered a part of the coastal waters of the Great Lakes, one commercial fisherman noted lake,sturgeon to spawn in both the Galien and-St. Joseph Rivers (not referenced on map). This activity was-said to occur upriver as far as was possible during the months of June and July over a gravel bottom. Lake Huron. Reports of lake sturgeon spawning grounds in Lake Huron were confined exclusively to the Saginaw Bay region, and only one location was cited as currently being in use. This area, located in ..the shallow waters east of a line extending from Sand Point to Fish Point (Appendix 3, Figure 168C), was reported to have a mud and sand bottom. No information was provided to indicate the years during whichthis activity was observed; however, it was mentioned that many more sturgeon spawned at thi s location during the early 1900's than do today. 136 Lake St. Clair. An area of the North Canal, north of Algonac, was cited by one individual to be utilized by spawning lake sturgeon (Appendix 3, Figure 185). Spawning.activity occurred during mid- to late May over a bottom composed of hard clinkers (burned coal from ships). No indication was made as to the depths at which sturgeon spawned in this region. Detroit River. Spawning by lake sturgeon occurred at several Detroit River locations, generally in the vicinity of Grosse Ile and Fighting Island. One commercial f.i.sherman referenced two Detroit River locations as spawning grounds for lake sturgeon; the northwest corner of Fight- ing Island and the northeast corner of Grassy Island (Appendix 3, Figures 195 and 196). Spawning occurred at these areas in water having a depth of 9 meters (30 feet) over a gravel river bottom. Three small areas along the eastern side of Grosse Ile were also indicated as lake sturgeon spawning grounds (Appendix 3, Figures 197 through 199),. Spawning was stated.to occur at a depth ranging from 3 to 6 meters (10 to 20'feet) over a rocky bottom. Information provided by one individual referenced the existence of lake sturgeon spawning grounds that were said to be very productive until the 1930's (Appendix 3, Figure 199A). Sturgeon once existed in large numbers here and were fished as a source of caviar. No indi- cation was made as to common depths of spawning, bottom compostion, or the mQnths during which spawning occurred. 40* 137' Lake Eri.e. Scott and Crossman (1973) reported that Lake Erie has sustained heavy commercial fishing pressure for lake sturgeon since 1860. Only one lake sturgion spawning ground, located off Stony Point in waters ranging in depth from 3 to 6 meters (10 to 20 feet),' was identified in the lake-(Appendix 3, Figure 201B). Spawning in this area usually occurred during May over a bottom consisting of rock. 138 LARGEMOUTH AND SMALLMOUTH BASSES There is little published literature relating to the spawning grounds of the smallmouth bass, Wcropterus doZontieui Lacepiede or the largemouth bass, Wcropterus salmoides(Lacepede), in Michigan',s coastal waters. Scott and Crossman (1973) reported spawning in late spring and early summer over sand, gravel, and rocky bottoms. The highest reported incidence of spawning was in Saginaw Bay and Lake St. Clair (Figure 20). Lake Michigan. Both largemouth and smallmouth basses (commonly termed black basses) were reported to spawn from mid-May through mid-June in the vicinity of Arthur Bay (Appendix 3, Figure 51B). The above mentioned areas were indicated to have rock bottoms with spawning taking.place in 1 to 5 meters (3 to 15 feet) of1water.. Largemouth.. bass were reported to spawn in mid-May, over mud and weeds, on either, side of"Poi-nt Epoufette (Appendix 3, Figure 74B). Smallmouth bass have utilized rock and silt spawning grounds' on both the north and,south side of Waugoshance Point and Waugoshance Island (Appendix 3, Figures 78C, 78D, and 80). The spawning sleason. for this area was reported as late June and early July with spawning taking place in 1meter (3 to 4 feet) of water. The vicinity of Hog-Island was-reported as having smallmouth beds on a primarily gravelbottom during the month of July (Appendix 3, Figures 81B, 81C and D). Lenojn (1978) reported smallmouth spawning in Beaver Harbor and along the shoreline at the southwest side of Garden Is'lAnd (Appendix 3, Figures 82A, 82C and 83B). Spawning in these.areas,took place 139- Figure 20., General spa locations of largemouth bass, Micropterus spp., coastal waters of the G Upper Peninsula Wisconsin CD OG MICHIGAN GROUNDS NOT DEFINED Lower Peninsula during the last two wee ks of June in shal-low depressions in coarse, gravel (Lenon, 1978). One commercial fisherman reported spawning smallmouth in early June on the southeast shoreline of Garden Island (Appendix 3, Figure 82A). Keller (1979), reports that smallmouth bass spawn over rocky shoreline areas along the entire shoreline of Grand Traverse Bay (unmapped). Lake Huron. The only black bass spawning areas for Lake Huron were reported in the Saginaw Bay and Thunder Bay areas. Reported spawning took place in the spring and generally in near.shore waters (Appendix 3, Figures 157B,@ 157CII, 165A, B, C, 167C, 168, and 169B)., In one off- shore location, black bass were reported spawning over the shallow shoal areas near.Charity and, Little,,Charity Islands (Appendix 3, Fig- ure.163B). Lake St. Clair. Smallmouth.and largemouth bass were reported spawn- ing throughout Michigan waters of Lake St. Clair (Appendix 3, Figures 186 through 188, and 191B)., Bottom types in the.spaw,ning areas were primarily composed of,rock. Spawning dates were generally reported as-11spring" with the largomouth spawning earlier. All spawning depths were reported as shallow with no anomalous spawning reported for Lake St. Clair. Detroit River. Smallmouth'bass were reported to spawn in four loca- tions in the Detroft River (Appendix 3, Figures 198A and 199B). Spawning grounds. we.re rock and gravel or sand and gravel with'the exception of one largemouth and..smallmouth:spawning area composed of mud and 'Weeds (Appendix-3, Figure 198B). Reported spawning dates in these areas were from late.April through June. 141 Lake Erie. Spawning was reported for black bass in Monroe Harbor and near the mouth of Stony and Plum Creeks (Appendix 3, Figure 202C). Stone and sand were reported as bottom types in this area with spawning occurring during April and May. The following information was.received from fishermen i.n the. Lake Erie area; however, spawning locations were not specifically identified. Largemouth bass spawn from 1 June to 15 June over sand, clay, and mud bottoms in the Raisin River and along the shoreline of Lake Erie. Smallmouth.bass spawn over weed and rock bottoms from 1 June to 15.June in the Raisin River. Black bass spawn over weedy bottoms, in one meter (3 to 4 feet) of water during May in .the Raisin River. 142 CHANNEL CATFISH Smith (1969) reported that channel catfish, lctaZurus punctatus (Rafinesque), usually spawn during June or July when the water tem- perature is about 240C. Scott and Crossman (1973) also stated that spawning occurs in late spring or summer.at a, water temperature of 24 to 300C, with 27% the apparent optimum. In this study, channel catfish spawning was reported from May through August, though the majority of sources referenced the June-July period. No differences in season of spawning were distinguished among the various Great Lakes locations. Almost all catfish spawning was noticed in shallow waters of three meters (10.feet) or less, with mud the most commonly listed bot- tom type. Marsh, sand, gravel, and clay were also referenced.. Scott and Crossman (1973) stated that hol,es, undercut banks, log jams, or rocks were prime spawning-loc.ales for channel catfish. References for channel catfish spawning grounds were confined to the Saginaw Bay of Lake Huron, Lake St.,Clair, the Detroit River, and Lake Erie; none were given for Lakes Superior and Michigan (Figure 21). Lake Huron. All channel catfish spawning grounds referenced in Lake Huron were within Saginaw*Bay. Many sources noted spawning along the west shore of Saginaw Bay between Point AuGres and Nayanquing Point (Appendix 3, Figures 164 through 166) in shallow water, less than 2 meters (7 feet) deep, over various bottom types, including sand, clay, mud, gravel, rockand.marsh. The Last shore of Saginaw Bay 143 Figure 21. General spi locations of channel cz punctatus, in Michigan of the Great Lakes. -,Upper Peninsula -Wisconsin 4::b, MICHIGAN GROUNDS NOT DEFINED Lower Peninsula between Sand Point and Fish Point was als'o well documented for catfish spawning (Appendix 3, Figure 168A [email protected]). Activity usually occurred in shallow depths, less than 2 meters (7 feet), Over mud or sand. One source stated that,-in a mud and marsh area of the east shore, catfish look for a shallow spot with a stone or gravel bottom upon which to spawn. 'Three isolated spawning locations were noted in the southern area of Saginaw Bay (Appendix. 3, Fig- ures 166B and C and,167B),,-and one location was given around the Charity Islands (Appendix 3, Figure 1_63.0. Four commercial fish- ermen remarked that the numbers of catfish in Saginaw Bay have been increasing over the past.3 to 10 years. One fisherman noted that catfish first appeared around Saganing Bar on the west shore (Appen- dix 3, Figure 165) in 1924, when large numbers of catfish were noticed. Lake St. Cla,ir and Detroit River. Spawning locations for channel catfish were referenced in Lake St. Clair near New Baltimore and Point Huron (Appendix .3, Figures 187 -and 188A) over.clay, sand and muck. Catfish spawning grounds weregiven in the lower part of the Detroit River around Stony Island, 'along the southeastern shores of Grosse Ile, near Sturgeon Barand off Pointe Mouillee (Appendix 3, Figures 198B,199C, 200). These spawning grounds generally occurred over mudbottoms at a depth.of I to 3 meters (3 to 10 feet). One commercial fisherman remarked that channel catfish and bullhead spawned in [email protected] Sturgeon Bar area in the 1940's and 1970's,-- - ------ . ..... 145 but disappeared in.the 1950's and 1960's., He attributed their period of absence to high water, temperature changes, and pollution. Lake Erie. Several channel catfish spawning grounds were documented along the shore of Lake Erie, mostly in shallow muddy or marshy areas (Appendix 3, Figures 201 through 203). One source noted an offshore spawning bed, a discontinued dumping ground nine kilometers north of Cedar Point (Appendix 3, Figure 203), wi'th a muck bottom and an average depth of five meters. .146 BULLHEADS Great Lakes bullhead species include the brown bullhead, Ictalurus nebulosus (Lesueur), the black bullhead, I. melas (Rafinesque), and the yellow bullhead, I. natalis (Lesueur). Commercial fishermen did not distinguish among bullhead species in all cases but one, brown bullhead identified in Saginaw Bay. Smith (1969) reported that bullheads usually spawn from April to June in nests excavated in shallow depths'. less than 2.5 meters (8 feet), usually over mud. bottoms although marsh ,sand, clay, and rock bottom types were also referenced. Bullhead spawning grounds were given in the Saginaw Bay of Lake Huron, the Detroit River, and Lake Erie (figure 22) No locations 'were referenced in Lakes Superior or Michigan., Many of the regions reported for bullhead spawning were also referenced for catfish, Ictalurus punctatus spawning. Lake Huron. 'All references for bullhead spawnig in Lake Huron were. limited to Saginaw Bay. Spawning grounds were documented along the shore of the Bay from Point AU Gres south to Nayanquing Point (Appen- dix 3, Figures 164 through 166) in shallow waters over sand, clay-, mud, or rock On the east shore of Saginaw Bay ,spawning was noted, between Sand Point and Fish Point (Appendix 3 Figures 168A, B, and C) in a predominantly mud and marsh area. .Here, one fisherman pointed out three spawnin g -beds for the brown bullhead the only identifica- tion of ,bullheads at a_species level in this study. Three commercial 147 Figure 22. General spa locations of bullheads, in Michigan's_coastal w Great Lakes. Upper Peninsula Wisconsin MICHIGAN Lower Peninsula fishermen noted that the bullhead population in Saginaw Bay had decreased in the past 2 to 10,years. Detroit River. Bullhead spawning was reported in the lower Detroit .River along the southeastern shores of Grosse Ile and around Stony Island (Appendix 3, 198B), and in themarshy areas around Sturgeon Bar (Appendix 3, 199C). 'One commercial fisherman noted spawning as early as March near Stony Island and Elba -Island (Appendix 3, Figure 198B). Another source reported that bullheads, and catfish spawned in the Sturgeon Bar area in the 1940's and 1970's, but were absent during the 1950's And 1960's He attributed their disappear- ance to high Water, temperature changes, and pollution during that period. Lake Erie. Several near,shore locations along Lake Erie were cited as bullhead pawning grounds These were mostly shallow mud or muck areas in bays or river mouths (Appendix 3,_Figures 201 through 203 One fisherman, commented that bul1head: number's have decreased in Brest Bay near Monroe since 1956 due to pollution destroying,their food sources. Another fisherman noted that bullheads used to spawn in an area in La Plaisance Bay until a power plant was constructed nearby. 149 MISCELLANEOUS SPECIES Emerald Shiner. The-emerald shiner, Notropis atherinoides [email protected] nesque, is a pelagic schooling species. In recent.years the large a.ggregations of this specieswhich formerly were observed in the shallows of the Great Lakes, occur with less frequency (Scott and Crossman, 1,973). In most Canadian waters,emerald shiners Ispawn in the late spring or early summer; however, in 1954, Langlois (Scott and Crossman, 1973) [email protected] spawning in Lake E rie continued until at least mid-August. In the present study, mention was made of large numbers of "silver shiners" which used to be "thick" along the beaches in Saginaw Bay in one meter (4 feet) of.water during the 1940's and. 1950's. This source-alsoreported that bait dealers currently can- not find these shiners. These "silver shiners" may well.have been emerald shiners, but no specifi.c reference was offered. Another'fishem'an reported that emerald shiners used to con- centrate just off*the.shore.of Port Sanilac during thespawning season (Appendix 3, Figure 177) but Also notedthat these concen- trations have not.appeared in recent years.. A large area [email protected] asan emerald shiner spawning ground south of Celeron-Island in Northern Lake Erie (Appendix 3, .Figures 199'A and 200), Other 11minnow" spawning sites referred to in this area and in the Detroit River 'May possibly be emerald 0 shiner spawning.grounds (Appendix Figures 198B and 199C). Generally,'these locations have.muddy bottoms and.are located in to 3 meters (2 to.10 feet) of water. 1,50- Figure.23. General sp locationsof emerald s atherinoides, in Michi waters of the.Great La pper Pen*,nsula Wisconsin > MICHIGAN Lower Peninsula f Emerald shiners were reported as spawning from the 1950's to the present in La Plaisance Bay near Monroe (Appendix 3, Figure 202A). Bottom types were r eferred to as "hard" and spawning was said to occur in late June when the water temperature reached 210C. Spottail Shiner and Other Shiners. The spottail shiner, Notropis [email protected] (Clinton), is usually regarded as an inhabitant of rela- tively large lakes and rivers and is of considerable importance as a forage species (Scott and Crossman, 1973). This species usually spawns over sandy shoals, although spawning has been observed over algae, in depths from "near shore" to 9 meters (30 feet)(Wells and House, 1974). The spawning season in the Great Lakes region has. taken pl-ace from June through August, the precise date depending upon latitude and seasonal weather (Scott and Crossman, 1973; Wells and House,. 1974). The capture of many ripe fish indicated spawning in Canadian waters of Eastern Lake Superior in mid-June to mid-July in 1967 (Wells and House, 1974). One Southeastern Lake Michigan spawning occurred in the first week of July in 1964 and continued until mid.-August.(Wells.and House,1974). The same authors reported that in 1972 spottail spawning in Southeastern Lake Michigan peaked in late July or early August and ended in late August or early Septem- .ber. In that study, evidence suggested that the majority of spot- tail shiners spawned in water less than 9 meters (30 feet) deep over sand. One Aservation recorded by Door, Bottrell and Williams (Wel Is and House, 1974 revealed spottails spawning in 5 meters 152 05 feet) of water in "patches" -of Cladophora, a fi.lamentous algae in Southeastern Lake Michigan. The spottail-spawning season in Lake Erie has been either prolonged or the time of'spawning Varies greatly from year to year as spawning times have been reported from mid-May to mid-July 1974). Scott and Cross- and Crossman, 1973; Wells. and House,--- man (1973) also stated that in one area of Lake Erie spawning occurred in one meter (3 to 4 feet) of water over a sand bottom. Although n.o,references,were made in the present study to spottail spawning grounds, some references were made to "minnows" which are designated as Unidentified minnows (Appendix 3, Figures -1,96.,-1988 and 199C). Some of these spawning grounds may have been .,Used by golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas Mitchill; black- chin shiners, Notropis heterodon (Cope); blacknose shiners, Notro- pis heterolepis Eigenmann and Eigenmann; spotfin.'shiners,,Notropis spiZ.opterus (Cope),or any of a,number of other shiners or minnows. No specific @eferences.were made'during the.course of thts study to any spawning by,these species in Michigan's coastal waters and, therefore, they will not be individually considered in this report. Brown Trout, Brook,Trout, Splake and Rainbow Trout. In 1960, Eddy and Surber (Scott and Crossman, 19,73) stated that although many brown trout, SaZmo truttaLinnaeus, entered Lake Superior streams in October and November to spawn, some spawned on, rocky.ree.fs along the thore.. In the current s-tudy,one reference was made to brown trout spawning hear the mouth.of'Norwegian Creek in Lake 153 Huron (Appendix 3, Figure 157). These fi'sh were said to have just started to spawn on 10 November. One other source referred to an area north of Whitestone Point in Lake Huron (Appendix 3, Figure 163B) as a brown trout spawning ground. Brook trout, Sal.velinus fontinalis Mitchill, have been known to spawn most often over gravel beds in the shallow headwaters of streams;-however', spawning may be successful. in the shallows of lakes on gravel if there is spring upwelling and a moderate current (Scott and Crossman, 1973). A fertile hybrid of lake trout and brook trout, the "splake", SaZveZinus namaycus h. X_f to have spawned during October for the last three to four years on a small'reef, 2 to 3 meters (6 to 10 feet) deep, located offshore of Rockport (Appendix 3, Figure 155). Scott and Crossman (1973) reported that splake tend to spawn during both night and day, whereas lake trout spawn at night and brook trout during'the day.. No data was,given on spawning ground depths or characteristics. The rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson, is considered' to be a stream spawner; however, one fisherman indicated that this species has spawned in Lake Michigan over two,small rocky areas near White Lake Channel. 'Spawning was.said to occur in 4 meters (12 feet) of water or less. In Lake Huron, rainbow trout were noted as spawning in an area just i4orth of'Whitestone Point (Appendix 3, Figure 163B). This source also reported that the area was a salmon spawning 154 ground; -however, no specific data as to species, bottom type or depth were given. Another source noted that rainbow trout spawned in Lake Erie, in May, near the mouth of the Ottawa River (Appendix .3, Figure 203A) over a hard bottom. Black Crappie and White Crappie. Both black crappie, Pomoxis-nigro- maculatus,(Lesueur), and white.crappie, Pomoxis crnnutaris Rafi- nesque spawn in late arly summer (Scott and Crossman, spring or e 1973). Crappie spawning was referenced from late April through August in this.study, however. Species of crappie were not dif- ferentiated by the'fishermen except for two,cases of black crappie in Saginaw Bay and one case of white crappie i,n Lake Erie.. Black crappie are much more abundant than white.crappie in the Great Lakes area (Scott and Crossman, 1973). Numerous fishermen-referenced cra ppie spawning in the Saginaw Bay of Lake Huron. (Figure 24) especially along the east shore from Flat Rock'Point to'9. k.-ilometers (5.7 miles) south of Fish Point. .(Appendix 3j Figures 167 through 170) where'spawning was,noted May to July over a diversity of'bottom types including mud, sand, weed, clay, and rock. @wo fishermen identified the species in this area, to be black crappie.. C,rappie spawning was, also. noted on the east shore of.Saginaw Bay,,from.Point Au Gres to Sanganing Bar (Appen- dix 3, Fi.gures 165A and C),where August spawning.was cited, and by Nayanquing Point (Appendix 3, Figure 166C).. In Lake St..Clair, trappie were found to spawn in Belvidere Bay ([email protected] Figure 187)' in.m.id-June. In the lower Detroit River, crappie spawning was referenced in Sturgeon Bay in late April and May over,muck, sand, and [email protected](Appendix 3, Figure 199B) 155 Figure 24. General spaw locations of crappie, Po in Michigan's coastal wa Great Lakes. Upper Penin sula Wisconsin, Ln MICHIGAN k 11 Lower Peninsula 0 and also off Milleville Beach (Appendix 3., Figure 200)In Lake Erie, white crappie were noted spawning off Sterling.State Park by Monroe in the spring(Appendix 3, Fiure 202A and B). Another fisherman mentioned that,crappie spawn in the canals and channels of the Lake Erie coast in grassy waters in May and June. Pumpkinseed, Green,Sunfish, and Longer Sunfish. Sunfish species of Michigan include the pumpkinseed, Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus), the green sunfish, L. cyanellus, Rafinesue and-the longear sunfish, Lepomis megalotis (Rafine-sUe). Sunfish were not identified as to species level. in this survey,except for one reference to the pump- kinseed in Lake St.Clair. Bluegills. Lepomis,macrochirus Rafinesue were distinguished from other sunfish and are discussed a separate section. Sunfish spawn in. late spring or summer.. Scott and Crossman' (1973) stated that-pumpkinseeds begin building nests when the water temperature reaches 20C at 15 to 30 centimeter (6 to12 inches) depth in area's of submerged auatic vegetation.. Hubbs,(1927) noted that pumpkinsedsspan in June in-Southern Michicgan and as late as mid-August-in the northern lower peninsula. In a Wisconsin study in 1965, HunterScott and Crossman, 1973) found that green sunfish underwent multiple spawnings every 8 to 9 days from mid- May through early August, with peak activity at 20 to 28C. These green sunfish nested in sunlitwater at depths of 4 to 35 centimeters 8 to 14 inches) in areas sheltered by rocks, logs, or clumps of grass. Hubbs (1927) reported that longear sunfish spawned from June through August in Southern Michigan. 2T57 In this study, sunfish spawning was-referenced in Lake Huron's Saginaw Bay and in Lake St. Clair (Figure 25). Sunfish spawning areas were indicated along the coast of Saginaw Bay from Wigwam Bay on the west shore to Heisterman Island on the east-S'hore (Appen- dix 3, Figures 165 through 168) over bottom types of weed, sand, gravel, and clay. Sunfish were noted spawnihg'in the Bouvier Bay- Goose Bay area of Lake St. Clair in summer over 'lorganic matter", sand, and gravel (Appendix,3, Figure 186). Pumpkinseed sunfish were identified spawning.in Belvidere Bay, north of the mouth of the Clinton River (Appendix 3, Figure 187) over 11organic matter". Bluegill. Bluegill, Lepoirds macrochirus Rafinesque generally spawn in Michigan duri,ng June or early July (Hubbs, 1927). Blue- gill nest in,colonies,"in water& about .7 meters (2.5 feet) deep, making shallow depressions in gravel, sand, or mud (Scott and 1973). Crossman,, Little information was gathered on bluegill spawning in,this study, though a few sources referenced Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, and Lake Erie.as areas, of activity (Figure 26). In'Lake St. Clair, the bluegill spawn ed on marsh, sand, and gravel in the St. Clair River deltaarea (Appendix 3, Figure 186A and B) and on organic matter" fn Belvidere Bay (Appendix 3, Figure 187). Spawn- ing bluegill were cited,.in three locations. in the lower Detroit, Ri.ver (Appendix.*3, F'i,gures 198B, 199B, and 200). In.the Sturgeon Bay location (Append'ix 3, Figure 199B), bluegill were said to spawn from the end of May through June over'muck, sand, and gravel. In Lake Erie, one fisherman recalled that bluegill used to 159 Figure 25. General spaw locations of pumpkinseed gibbosus, in Michigan's waters of the Great Lake Upper Peninsula Wisconsin A MICHI,GA.N,., Low6r Peninsula A Figure 26. General 8paw locations of bluegill, L NIN chirus, in Michigan's co of the Great Lakes. NX Upper, Peninsula !Wisconsin CY) MICHIGAN 'Lower Peninsula spawn inthe mouth of the Ottawa River (Appendix 3, Figure 203C), but are no longer present due to increased water depth. Rock Bass. Hubbs (1927) reported that the rock bass, AmbZopZites rupestris (Rafinesque), spawned in Michigan during June and early July. Scott and Crossman (1973) stated that rock bass spawn in a diversity of areas, from swamps to gravel shoal.s. In this study, rock bass spawning was referenced in four scat- tered areas (Figure 27): (1) in shallow, protected waters of Beaver Harbor, Beaver Island, and nearby Garden Island in Northern Lake Michigan (Appendix 3, Figures 82 and 83) during late June over gravel and rock, s.'pawning at the same time and place as smallmouth bass; (2) near Sebewaing on the east shore of the Saginaw Bay of Lake Huron on a sand and muck bottom (Appendix 3, Figure 168B): (3) in a marshy area west of Meso Island in the Detroit River (Appendix 3. Figure 198B); and (4) on a rocky shoreline of Lake Erie's Brest Bay (Appendix 3. Figure 202A), where spawning was noted at the end of September. White Bass. White bass,'Morone chrysops (Rafinesque), support a small but important commercial fishery in Lake Erie (Scott and Crossman, 1973). White bass generally spawn in May or June, when they move into estuaries, upstreams, or onto gravel shoals (Smith, 1969). All spawning grounds of white ba,ss noted in this study were in Lake Erie and the lower Detroit River (Figure 28). White bass .161 Figure 27. General spaw locations of rock bass, rupestris, in Michigan's of the Great Lakes. IZ Upper Peninsula Wisconsin MICHIGAN Lower Peninsula Figure 28. General spa locations of white bass sops, in MichigaWs.coa the Great Lakes.. SI 'Upper Pen'i n-.su 1 a. 90 Wisconsin -mi CHIGAN Lower Peninsula spawned along channel shorelines and islands off the southern half of Grosse Ile in the Detroit River (Appendix 3, Figures 197B, 198A, and 198B) in late May, June, and July. Spawning was indicated along the Lake Erie coast offshore from Swan Creek to the Ohio border (Appendix 3, Figures 201 through 203). Activity occurs reportedly from late April to July,first, in depths of 1 to 4 meters (3 to 12 feet) over rock, gravel, clay, or sand. One fisherman noted that white bass spawned on a stony shelf running from Swan Creek [email protected] Turtle Island (Appendix 3, 201A, 202D, and 203C) at'a 3 to 4 meter (10 to 12 feet) depth, during late April and early May. 'Freshwater Drum! Spawning characteristics of the freshwater druin, ApZodinotus grunniens Rafinesque :,are little known .([email protected] and Cross- man, 1973), although the drum,has become.an important species in Lake Erie where it is fished commercially, primarily for animal food. Edsall (1967-) found freshwater drum to be the second-most abundant fish species taken in bottom trawl studies made in western Lake Erie during 1958, comprising 21 percent by.weight of the total catch (yellow perch comprised [email protected] percent). In this study, spawning areas of freshwater drum were re- corded only in Lake Erie, the lower Detroit River, and in one location in Saginaw Bay (Figure 29). Depths of these areas were generally shallow, 1 to 6 meters (3 to 20 feet), and bottom types included mud, grave 1, and marsh. Late April to August were given as spawn,ing dates for the drum, with June being most referenced. Edsall (1967) reported finding drum with ripe spawn between 24 June and 4 August in Western Lake Erie. 164 Figure 29. General sp locations of freshwate notus grunniens, in Mi waters of the Great La Upper Peninsula 0 Wisconsin MICRIGAN Lower Peninsula Within Lake Huron, one fisherman noted freshwater drum spawn- ing on the west shore of Saginaw Bay from Wigwam Bay to Saganing Bar (Appendix 3, Figure 165Cj in a marshy, sandy area. He remarked that freshwater drum populations have always been low in this region. In the Detro,it River, freshwater drum were noted spawning along the west side of the Livingstone Channel from above Stony Island to off Point Mouillee (Appendix 3, Figures 197A, 197B, 198A, and 200) in an area 13 kilometers (B miles) long. Spawning occurred in depths less than 4 meters*(13 feet) over a mud and gravel bottom. Another spawning ground was referenced west of Grosse Ile along the west shore of the river from the Detroit, Edison Company south for 5 kilometers (3 miles) (Appendix 3, Figures 198A and B and 200). Walleye were also found to spawn on both of these Detroit River freshwater drum grounds. The Lake Erie coast from Stony Point to the Ohio border Was referenced for freshwater drum spawning sites, during late May through June, in,@hallow depth s less than 5 meters (18,feet) (Appendix 3, Figures 202B and D and 203A). Spawning was said to occur in late April in an'area about 3 kilometers (2 miles) south- east of Point Mouillee (Appendix 3, Figure 201A). Bowfin. Bowfin, Amica calva Linnaeus2 generally spawn in the spring in shallow, vegetated water (Scott and Crossman, 1973). Only' four reports of bowfin spawning were referenced in this study (Figure 30). One area was Scammon Cove on Drummond Island (Appendix 3, Fig- ure 145.1) Bowfin were noted to spawn on the west shore of Saginaw Bay between Point Au Gres and Saganing Bar in 5 meters (1 to 2-feet) @of water over mud, at the end of May; and on the east shore of Saginaw Bay. 166 Figure 30. General [email protected] locations of bowfin, Am! Michigan's coastal water Great'Lakes. Upper Peninsula Wisconsin A MICHIGAN Lower Peninsula from Fish Point to Sebewaing over sand and:muck (Appendix 3, Figures 165A and 168B). One fisherman referenced bowfin spawning during July and August in a marshy area,in La Plaisance Bay of Lake Erie (Appendix 3, Figure 202D) in 1 to 2 meters (4 to 6 feet), where he commented there were "still a few left". Longnose Gar and Spotted Gar. The spotted gar, Lepisosteus oculatus (Winchell), and the more abundant longnose.gar, Lepisosteus osseus (Linnaeus), inhabit southern waters of the Great Lakes, where they spawn in warm, Weedy shallows (Scott and Crossman, 1973). Gar were noted spawning in Western Saginaw Bay from Point Au.Gres to Saganing Bar in .5 meters (1 to 2 feet) of waterover mud, at the end of May (Appendix 3, Figure 165C). In the Detroit River, spawning was cited eastof Sugar Island'in.July in.weedy waters 2 to 3.meters (7 to 10 feet) deep (Appendix 3, Figure 199B), and also off Milleville Beach (Appendix 3,,Figure,200). One fisherman stated that gar spawned in streams and canalg near Lake Erie in late May and early June (not ,mapped in Appendix 3). Referenced gar sites are shown in Figure 31. Gizzard Shad. Bodala (1966) reported gizzard shad, Dorosoma cepedi- anum (Lesueur), spawning at a Western Lake Erie location in Ohio, on a shallow bar of sand, gravel, and rock, 60 meters.(200 feet) long and covered by .6 to .1.2 meters (2 to 4 feet) of water, during June. In this study, the spawning of gizzard shad was reported along the coast of Lake Erie (Appendix 3, Figures 201 through 203), and in a marshy area-near Sturgeon Island in the Detroit River (Appen- dix 3, Figure 199C). One source noted that shad spawned in the 168 Figure 31. General sp locations of gar, Lepi in Michigan's coastal Great Lakes. Up'per Peninsula v Wisconsin MICHIGAN j Lower Peninsula Figure 32. General spa locations of gizzard sh cepedianum, in Michigan waters of the Great Lak Upper Penin sula Wisconsin [email protected] N MICHIGAN A Lower Peninsula warm discharge of power plants at the Enrico Fermi, Monroe Power, and Consumers Power site on the Erie coast Wpendix 3, Figures 201 through 203), during May and June. Shad locations are shown in Figure 32. Trout-perch. House and Wells (1973) found trout-perch, Percopsis ontiscomaycus (Walbaum), spawn ing from late'June or early July until late September in Lake Michigan, with younger fish tending to spawn earlier than older ones. Scott and Crossman (1973),reported spawn- ing had occurred over a sand and gravel bottom less than one meter (3 feet) feep on t .he Lake Erie shore, during May to August, 1946. Charles Liston (1978) noticed that,trout-perch spawned from.mid- May to late July, in studies ofthe waters off the Consumers Power Pumped Storage Reservoir south of,Ludington, Michigan. No specific sites were given. Sculpin. Charles Liston (1978) reported slimy sculpin, Cottus cognatua Richardson, and mottled sculpin, Cottus bairdi Girard, spawning mid-April to mid-May over gravel pebbles. in Lake Michigan shore waters-off the-Consumers, Power Pumped Storage Reservoir, south of Ludington. No specific locations were referenced. In,North- western Lake Huron samples, O'Gorman (1978) caught larval fourhorn sculpin, Ajoxocephalus quadricornus (Linnaeus), in Hammond Bay during late April and'near Alpena in May. 40 171 LITERATURE CITED Administrative Records, Great Lakes Fisheries, Lake Michigan, 1966- 1968. 75-50 B13 F6. in- State Archives, Lansing, Michigan. Bailey, Merryll M.-1964. Age, growth, maturity, and sex composition of the American smelt, Osmerus mordax (Mitchill), of Western Lake Superior. Trans, Am. Fish. Soc. 93 (4): 382-395. 1969. Age, growth, and maturity of the longnose sucker, Catostomus catostomus, of Western Lake Superior. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc.. 93 (4): 382-395. 1972. Age, growth, reproduction, and food of the burbot, Lota Zota (Linnaeus), in Southwestern Lake Superior. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 101(4):667-674. Bails, J.D. and M.H. Patriarche. 1974. Status of selected fish stocks in Michigan's Great Lakes waters and recommendations for commercial harvest. Mich. Dept. Nat. Res. Fish. Div. Tech. Repts. 78-10% 11, 32, and 33. Badola, Anthony. 1966. Life history of the gizzard shad, D6rosoma cepedianwn (LeSueur), in Western Lake Erie. U.S. Fish. Wildl. Serv., Fish. Bull 65(2): 391-425. Brazo, Dan C., P.I. Tack, and @.R. Liston. 1975.. Age, growth, and fecundity of yellow perch, Perca fZavescens.,.in Lake Michigan near Ludington, Michigan. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 104 (4): 726-730 Breeder, Charles M, Jr., and D.E. Rosen. 1966. modes of Repro- duction in Fishes. Natural History Press, Garden City, N.Y.:941pp. Brown, E.H. and C.F. Clark. 1965. Length-weight relationships of northern pike, Esox lucius, from East Harbor, Ohio. Trans. Am. Ftsh. Soc. 94(4): 404-405. Cahn, Alvin R. 1936. Observations on the breeding of the lawyer, ,Lota maculosa. Copeia 1936(3): 163-165. Carlson, Elton. 1979. Personal Communication. Chiotte, Thomas L. 1973. Food habits, reproductive biology, and lamprey scarring of planted lake trout (Satvelinus namaycush) in the inshore waters of Lake Mi 'chigan at Ludington, Michigan. Mich. State Univ. Masters Thesis. Clemens, Howard P. 1951. The growth of the burbot, Lota Zota macuZosa (LeSueur) in Lake.Erie. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 800950): 163-173. 172 0 LITERATURE CITED (Continued) Commercial Fish Material. Spawn Taking Records--Lake trout and, whitefish. 1927-1928. 75-34-1313 F8. in: State Archives, Lansing, Michigan. Commercial Fish Material.. Spawn Taking Records--Yellow pike.. 1926-1946 75-34B13 F6. in: State Archives, Lansing, Michigan. Commercial Fish Material, Species catch--Smelt. 1929-1955. 75w-34 B12 F16. in: State Arch1ves, Lansing, Michigan. Commercial Spawn. 1936. 60-12-A B17 F15. in: State Archives, Lansing, Michigan. Commercial Spawn. 1939. 60-12-A B33 FlO in: State Archi0yes, Lansing, Michigan. Cook, W.A. 1929. A'.brief summary of work of the bureau of fisheries in the Lake Superior region. Trans. Am. Fish, Soc. 59: 57-62. Creaser, Charles W., 1925. The establishment of the Atlantic smelt in the upper waters of the Great Lakes. Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci. Arts and Lett. 5: 405-424. Crowe, Walter R, E.- Karveli.s, and L.S. Joeris. 1963. The move- ment, heterogene8f8ty, and rate of'exploitation of wall2eyes in-northern.Green Bay, Lake Michigan, as determined by [email protected] -International Comm. forthe Northwest Atlantic. Fisheries, Spec. Pub. 00.4: 38-41. Dames and Moore. 1978. Assessment of fisheries resource and impacts. for [email protected] Ste. Marie deep water harbor project.. Prepared1for.Canada Department of Public Works:. 64pp. Deason, H.J. and R. Hile. 01947 Age.and'growth 'of the'kiyi, Leuchichthys kiyl . Koelz, In Lake Michigan.- Trans.- Am., Fish Soc. 7460944): 88-142. Downing, S.W. 1905. Collecting, Hatching and Distribution of pike-perch:.Why the-great loss of eggs. Trans. Am. Fish Soc. 34:.239-2525. Dryer, W.R. 1966. Bathyme2tric distribution of fish i6n the Apostle Islands region, Lake Superior., Trans. Am_ Rish. Soc. 0952(3.2):82487259, and'J. Beil. :1964 Lifehistory of lake herringlin Lake Superior. Fishery Bulletin .63.: @493?-529. 173' LITERATURE CITED (continued) Edsall, Thomas A.1960. Age and growth of the whitefish, Coregonus cZupeaformis, of Munising Bay, Lake Superior. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 89(4): 323-332. 1964. Feeding by three species of fishes on the eggs of spawningalewives. Copeia 1964(l): 226-227. 1967. Biology-of the freshwater drum in Western Lake Erie. Ohio, J. Sci. 67(6): 321-340. El-Zarka, S.E. 1-959. Fluctuationsinthe populations of yellow perch in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron. Fish. Bull. U.S. Fish. Wildl. Serv. Vol . 59.(Bull. 151): 365-451. Eschenroder,.R. 1979. Personal communication. Eschmeyer, P.H. 1955. The reproduction of the lake trout in southern Lake Superior. Trans. Am. Fish.,. Soc. 84: 47-74. 1956. The 6ar-ly life history of the lake trout in Lake Superior. Mich. Dept. Conservation. Inst. Fish. Res., Misc. Publ. 10: 31pp., a,nd Reeve M. Bailey. 1955. The pygmy whitefish, Coregonus coutteri, in Lake.Superior. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 84:162-199. and AM. Phillips JR. 1965. Fat content of the flesh of, and lake trout from Lake Superior. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 940): 62-74. Gleason, Gale R. David J. Behmer, and Richard Hook. 1979. The environmental -evaluation work group FY1979-studies of the ,winter navigation dem'onstration-program: Evaluation-of .'lake whitefish and Kerring spawning grpun ds as they may be affected by excessive sedimentation induced by vessel entrapment.due to the ice environment within.the St. Marys Rliver system. Army Corps Engineers, Detro.it District, Contract #DACW-35-79.M-0561: 37pp.-. Hass, Robert. 1979. Personal communication. Haa-s, Robert, 1978. Person.al Communication.' Hartman, W.L. 1972, Lake Erie: effects of exploitation, environ- mental,changes, and new species on the fisheries resources. J. Fish. ROsi Bd. tan. 29: 899-912. Hewson, L.C. 1955. Age, maturity, spawning and food of burbot, 'Lota Zota,,in Lake Winnipeg. J. Fish.. Res. Bd. Can 12(6): 930-940. 114 LITERATURE CITED.(continued) Hile R.W. 1954. Fluctuations in growth.and year-class strength of the walleye in Saginaw Bay. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Se.rv., Fish.. Bull. 56: 7-59. and H.J. Deason. 1947. Distribution,,abundance, and spawning season and grounds of the kiyi., Leucichthys kiyi, in Lake Michigan. Trans. Am.' Fish. Soc. 74:(1944): 143-165. House, Robert and LaRue Wells. 1973. Age, growth. spawning season, and [email protected] (Percopsis omscomaycus) in southeastern..Lake Michigan. J. Fish. Res.,Bd. Canada 30: 1221-1225. Hubbs, Carl. 1,927., Observations on the breeding of bass and sunfish. in: Spawning Seasons, 1927-32. 60-12-A B7 Fll. in: State Archives, Lansing, Michigan. International Lake Superior Board of Control. 1974. Feasability study,of remedial works in the St. Marys-Rapids at Sault Ste. Marie. Report to the International Joint Commission. Jobes, F.W. 1943. The age, growth, and bathymetric' distribution of Reighards chub, Leucichthys Rei h.aridi.Koelz, in Lake Michigan. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 7211942Y-: 108-135. 1949. The age,,,'growth, and bathymetric distribution of the, bloater, Leucidhthys hoyi (Gill), in-Lake Michigan. Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci. Arts, and Lett. 33: 125-172. 1949a. The age,@,growth and distribution of the lonjaw Cisco, Leucichthys aZpenae Koelz, in Lake.Michigan. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 76(1946): 215-247. Joeris,. Leonard S.,'and Ernest G. Karvalis. 1962. The present status of our knowledge of the biology'of the alewife in northwestern.Lake,Michigan and Green Bay. Unpublished Report: 9 pp.' -Jovanovic, Manjlo. 1970. Comparative life histories of the North American and European walleyes. Mich. Dept. Nat. Res., [email protected] Devp. Report No. 201: 62 pp. Keller, Myrl. 1979.-Personal communication. Klos, Glenn. 1978. Personal communication. Koelz, Walter. 1929'. Coregonid fishes of the Great Lakes. U.S. Bur. Fish. Bull.- 43(Part 2): 297-643.' 175 0 LITERATURE [email protected] (conti:nued) Lawler, G.H. 1963.. The biology and taxonoriof the burbot, Lota Iota, in Heming LakeiManitoba. J.,:fish.:Res." Bd. Canada. 20(2): 417-433. Lenon, Herb.. 1971 Personal, communication.12 Liston, Charles. and Peter I Tack. 1915. A. study of the effects of installing and operating a large pumped storage project on the shores of Lake Michgan near Ludington,Michigan .Mich. State University., Dept. Fish. Wildl. 1974 Ann. Rept to Consumers-Power Co., Vol. 1: 166 pp. 1978. Personal Communication spawn.lng of burbot in McCrimmon, Hugh. R. 1959 @.t,Observations on Lake Simcoe,'[email protected] j. Wildl. Mgt 23;(4):'@:447-449. Metzelur, [email protected] 1929. Reports, 1929, 60-1244 B5 F6. in: State Archives,.Lanlong,ichigan. Michigan Departmentof Conservation, Fish. Division.' 1951. Report of the EigthAnhual;2p-State fishortes co6fdrence:6pp. Moffett, J.W. 1957. Recen'tthanges in the deep-water fish populations of Lak66Michigan. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 86 (1956): 393-408. Mraz, Donald.' 1'964. Age and growth of the-roun8&"Whitefish in Lake Michigan. [email protected] Fish. Soc. 93(l): 46-52. O'Gorman, Robert.01005. Distribution of fish fry in. the nearshore waters of.western Lake Huron, May-June 1973-.reat Lakes Fish. Lab.', U.S. Fish', & Wildl. Serv. Unpublished administrative report. 1976. Distribution of fish fry i8mthe nearsore waters of western Lake Huron, June-July 1974. Great Lakes Fish. Lab., U.S., Fish. &Wild. Serv. Unpublished Administrative Report. 1978. Distribution of larval fish in,the nearshore waters of western Lake Huron, April-August-'l6975,.:and'.an overview of [email protected] of sampling..Administrative Report. Great Lakes Fish. [email protected],, ULSL Fishlt & W2f4ldl. Serv. 23pp. Parsons, John [email protected] Contributions of Year-classes of blue pike to the commercial fishery of Lake Eri2e,.1943-59. J. Fish. Res.* Bd..Canada''6244(5): 1035-1061.6. 176 LITERATURE CITED (continued) 1970. Walleye fishery of Lake Erie in 1943-62 with emphasis on contributions of the 1942-61 year classes. J. Fish. Res.. Bd. Canada 27: 1475-1489. 1972. Life History and production,of walleyes of the 1959 year class in Western'Lake Erie, 1959-62. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 101(4): 655-661. Peck, James W. 1975. Location of I ,ake.trout spawning in Lake Superior and Lake Michigan, July 1, 1975 to June 30, 1976. Dingell-Johnson:.Annual Progress Report F-35-R-1. 1976. Location of lake trout spawning in Lake Superior and Lake Michigna. July 1, 1975 to June 30, 1976. Dingell- Johnson Study Performance Report F-35-R-2. 1978..Personal communication. Pycha, R.L. and G.R. King. 1975. Changes in the lake trout population of southern Lake Superior in relation to the fishery, the sea lamprey, and stocking, 1950-70. Tech Rept. No. 28. Great Lakes Fishery Commission, 1451 Green Rd., Ann Arbor, Mich. , 48107 : 33 pp. Rahrer, Jerold F. 1965. Age, growth, maturity and fecundity of "humper" lake trout 2 Isle Royale, Lake Superior.- Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 940): 75-83. Regrer, Henry A., V.C. Applegate, & R.A. Ryder, 1969 * The ecology and management of the walleye in western Lake Erie. Great Lake Fishery Commission, Tech. Rept. No. 15: 101 pp. Roelofs,. Eugene W. 1978. Personal Communication. Schorfhaar, Richard. 1978.,Unpublished Data" 1978. Personal communication. Schneider, James C. 1977. History of the walleye fisheries of Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron. Mich. Dept. Nat. Res., Fish. Res, Rept. No. 1850. and Walter R. Crowe. 1977. A synopsis of wa.1leye tagging experiments in Michigan., 1922-1965.. Mich. Dept. Nat. Res., Fish. Res. Rept. No. 1844: 29 pp. 10 177 0 LITERATURE CITED (continued) Scott, W.B. and S.H. Smith. 1962. The occurrence of the longjaw ciscb,-Leucichthys alpenae, in Lake Erie. J.ish. Res. Bd. Canada 19: 1013-1023. and E.J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. j. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada Bull.'184: 966 pp. Smelt. 1928. 60-12-A B7 FlO. in: State Archives, Lansing, Michigan. 1951. RG 57-33 B6. in: State Archives, Lansing , Michigan Smith. S6'!H. 1956. Life history of Take herring of Green Bay, Lake MiC higan. U.S. Fis.h. & Wildl. Serv., Fish. Bull. 57:87-138. 1961..Fihsery statistical distri cts of the Great Lakes. Great Lakes Fish. Comm. Tech. Rept. 2: 24 pp. 1968a. Species succession and fishery exploitation in the Great Lakes. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada 25(4): 667-693. 1968b.- The Alewife. Limnos 1(2): 12-20. 1969. Important food fishes of inland waters: Administrative Report., Great Lakes Fishery Laboratory,.W.S. Fish & Wildl. Service. 1970. Trends in fi,shery management of the Great Lakes. in: A Century of Fishes in North America (N.G. Benson, ed.). Am. Fish. Soc.-Spec. Pu-7-6 TO-7-114. Subject Files-Great Lakes Fisheries. Great Lakes Fishery Commission. Lake Erie Committee. 75-34034 F6. in: State Archives, Lansing Michigan. Subject Files-Great.Lake Fisheries-Public Hearings 1968-1969. 75-34 B4 Fl. in.: State Archives,Lansing, Michigan. Swee, U.B. & H.R. McCrimmon. 1966. Reproductivepoy of the carp, Cyprinus carpio Linneaus,in Lawrence, Ontario. C inn Trans. Am Fish. Soc. 95(4): 372-380. -Texas Instruments Inc. Ecological Services. 1975. Report of fish and [email protected] on the St. Clair River in the vicinity of the proposed Belle River power plant Prepared for: The Detroit Edison Co., 2000 Second Ave., Detroit, M4I, 48226: 86pp. 178 LITERATURE CITED (continued) Trautman, Milton B. 1957. The Fishes of Ohio.. Ohio State Univ., Press. Columbus, Ohio.:683 pp. VanMeter, Harry D.1960. The yellow perch of Lake Erie. Ohio Conserv. Bull. 24(11): 22-23. VanOosten, John. 1927. Condensed report of spawning seasons at various great lake points - Michigan Waters. 1929. Some fisheries problems on the Great Lakes. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 59: 63-85. 1935a. Firstrecordof the alewife, P6maZobus pseudoharengus, for the State of Michigan. Copeia 1935(4): 194-195. 1935b. The value of questionnaires in commercial fisheries regulations and surveys. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 64: 107-117. 1937a. The dispersal of smelt, osmerus mordax (Mitchell), in the Great Lakes region. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 66(1936): 160-171. 1937b. The age, growth, sexual.maturi-ty and sex ratio of the common*whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis (Mitchell), of Lake Huron. Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci. Arts, and Lett. 24(Part 2): 195-221. 1937c. A preliminary study of the whitefish, Core&nus cZupeaformis (Mitchell),.of the Fox Islands i.n Northern Lake Michigan. Unpublished draft. 1956. The lake sturqeon. In: Our Endanqered Wildlife. National' 'Wi ld.liIfe F.edera.t-ion Was.hIingto.nD.-C. 91-10 and Ralph Hile. 1949. Age andl3rowth of the lake wh,itefish, Coregonus clupeaformis (Mitchel in Lake Erie., Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 77(1947): 178-249., Verduin, Jacob. 1,969. Man's influence on Lake..-Erie. The Ohio J. Sci. 69(2): 65-70. Volodin, V.M. 19,68. Fertility of the burbot, rota Zota L, in the Rybinsk Reservoir. Trudy Instituta Biologii Vnutrennikh vod Akademiya Nauk SSSR 17(20): 222-229. WAPORA, Inc. 1978. Ichthyoplankton of the St. Clair River in the vicinity of the St. Clair and proposed Belle River power plants. Submitted to: The Detroit Edison Co., NOD Second Ave., Detroit, MI, 48226. 179 LITERATURE CITED (continued) Wells, LaRue. 1966. Seasonal and depth distribution of larval bloaters (Coregonu3 hoyi) in southeastern Lake Michiga'n. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 95(4): 388-396. 1973. Distribution of fish fry in nearshore waters of southeastern and south-central Lake Michigan, May- August 1972. Unpublished Administrative Report. Great Lakes Fish. Lab., U.S. Fish. Wildl. Serv. and Robert House. 1977. Changes in yellow perch, Perca ftavescens, populations of Lake Michigan, 1954-1975. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada 34(7): 1821-1829. and Robert House. 1974. Life history of the spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius) in southeastern Lake Michigan, the Kalamazoo River, and western Lake Erie. Bur. Sport Fish. Wildl., Res. Rept. No. 78: 10 pp. and A.L. McLain. 1972. Lake Michigan:.effects of exploitation, introductions, and'eutrophication on the,salmonid community. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada 29: 889-898.. Westerman, F.A. and J. VanOosten. 1937. Report to the Michigan State Senate on the fisheries of Potagonnissing Bay, Michigan. Dept. of Cons., Lansing, MI: 82pp. Williams., John E. 1961. The muskellunge in Lake St. Clair. Mich. Dept. Cons., Inst. Fish. Res. Rept. No. 1625. and B.L. Jacob. 197l...Natural marshes,vs. managed marshes. Mich. Dept..Nat. Res.,,.Res. & Devp. Rept. No. 242: l4pp. Wolfert, David R. 1969. Maturity and fecundity of walleyes from from the eastern western-basins of Lake Erie. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada. 26: 1877-1888. Wolf-Dieter N. Busch and Carl T. Baker. 1975. Predation on walleye eggs on a spawning reef in western Lake Erie. 1969-1971. Ohio. J. Sci. 75(3): 118-125. Wright, Asa T. 1978. Personal communication. 180 APPENDICES APPENDIX 1 Persons and Organizations that.Provided Data Included in this Report Ray Adair Clarence Brooks Munising, MI Cheboygan, MI Virgil Allgeyer Aewis Brooks SR 117 Cheboygan, MI Menominee., MI Thomas Brown, Sr. Charles Anderson Brown Fisheries P.O. Box 147 Whitefish Po int Frankfort, MI Paradise, Mi Edward Anderson Roy Buckler 125 E. Park Leland, MI Marquette, MI James Cardinal Fred Baginske @Old US 41 2949 Washington B.araga,, MI St. Joseph, MI Lester Carlson Tom R. Barbee'' Lelandj MI East Road Lakeside, MI L. William Carlson Carlson Fisheries Robert Barber Leland, MI Central Lake, MI Don Carpenter George Barfoot 6153.US 23 North Whitehall, MI Alpena, MI Kenneth Beardsley Phi,llip.Centala Standish, MI Rogers.city, MI, David Behrend Murray Chambers Star Route 2064 S. Shore Dr. Menoninee, MI Hol.land, MI .James A. Benton Omer Charron Beulah, MI Lindwood, MI Clifford Bigelow ..,Clarence Chosa Naubinway, MI Baraga, MI. Richard Bjorkquist Henry Christensen Manistee, MI 1060 Lake St. Marquette,*- MI Robert Biorkquist Manistee, MI Leo Cloutier 713 N. Delia Ludington, MI 181 APPENDIX 1 (Continued) Louis Cloutier Charles Dutcher 403 S. Emily 710 Davis St. Ludington, MI Sebewaing, MI Donald Cole Kenneth Dutcher St. James 555 Union St. Beaver Island, MI Sebewaing, MI W. Landen Cooke Leonard Dutcher 404 N. Macomb Leonard Dutcher Fishery Monroe, MI DeTour Village, MI Clarence Cross John Erkkila Alpena, MI Big Traverse Bay Lake Linden, MI Ralph Cross, Jr. Charlevoix, MI Kenneth C. Fisher 27722 Red Rd. William Cross Grosse Ile, MI Alpena, MI Carl Frazier Hy Dahlka Naubinway, MI 29291 Lowell Gibralter, MI Sam Gay 14834 Huron River Dr. Horatio Davis Rockwood, MI .1354 Horatio Dr. Au Gres, MI- Chester A. Giddings Forester Rd. Merico DePetro Carsonville, MI Eckerman, MI Ernest Gronha Leslie DeVet 27176 E. River Rd. Fayette, MI Gross, Ile, MI Gary Diepenhorst Floyd Grover 6313 Gleason Rd. Whitehall, MI Saugatuck, MI. Carl Grow John Duffy Indian Bay Road Midland, MI Montague, MI Ken Duncan- Emil Theodore Gustafson 1526 Colorado Blue Horizon Motel Marysville, MI Brevort, MI Ronald Dusseau Carl Halberg 7408 Suder St. Ignace, MI Erie, MI 182 APPENDIX 1 (Continued) James Hamel Emil Kallianen Cedarville Fish Co. S. Portage Entry, MI Cedarville, MI John Karr Henry Hanrath 407 Lake St. Frankfort, MI Ontonagon, MI Cliff Hawes Willard Kauppi 4987 Main 1106 Minnesota St. Applegate, MI Hancock, MI Russell Herrick Francis Klienke Port Sanilac, MI Star Route, Menominee, MI Louie Hoiland Cheboygan, MI Howard Killoran 620.Walnut St. Clarence Jahr Ontonagon, M1 297 Tenth St. Sebewaing, MI Gary Lamb Rogers City, MI Walfred Jamsen Copper Harbor, MI Ross Lang Leland, MI Tenho Jarvinen Drummond Island, MI Arthur Lasenen, Sr. Big Traverse Bay -Russell Jensen Lake Linden, MI 700 Michigan Manistique, MI Lasenen, Jr. Big Traverse Bay Paul C. Jarve Lake Linden, MI 813 N. Rockland Calumet, MI Albert LeBlanc, Sr. Brimley, MI Charles Jensen Dyckman Ave. Harold Lentz South Haven, MI 4944 Center Ave. Au Gres, MI Milford Johnson 424 Sixth Ave. William Lentz Two Harbors, MI 1325 Pineriver Rd. Standish, M11 Ernest Jones 705 Scovia Victor Leppanen Ontonagon, MI Black River Harbor Bessemer, M1 Fuller Judycki Bridgeman, MI Don Lixey Lixey Fish Co. E. Tawas, MI 183 APPENDIX 1 (Continued) Richter Lixey Gerald Moore Lixey Fish Co. Grand Marais, MI E. Tawas, MI Bud Olson Richard MacNab Frankfort, MI 3040 Lakeshore' Muskegon, MI Wasyl Opensankp 514 2n-d Street Richard Manor Bayport, MI Au Gres, MI Robert Peel Charlie Martin Hoffman St. St. James Saugatuck, MI Beaver Island, MI Fred Petersen John Martin, Sr. Fayette, MI Alpena, MI Howard Peterson Frank Marutz 15453 Parkwood 827 Mohawk Monroe, MI St. Joseph, MI Jerome Peterson Melvin R. Matthews 303 Potter .2315 Tobar Rd. Manistique, MI Carleton, MI Alvie Reaume Lloyd McCash .7136 Reaume Rd. South Haven, MI Newport, M! Ken McCord Carl Remall 7225 Murray Rd.. Calumet, MI Jackson, MI Waino Remali Charles McGathy Calumet, MI 2284 N. Unionville Sebewaing, MI Glenn Richter .500 Washington Richard Micka South Haven, MI 47 E. Elm Monroe, MI Paul Schmiedenknecht Stoney Lake, MI Bruce Milkins 28300 Elba Dr. Bob Sellman Gross-I 710 Arbutus Je --ML Manistique, MI Casper Miller 451 S. 5th St. Jerry Serafin SebewaiP9, MI 4647 Shore Rd. Pinconning, MI 184 APPENDIX 1 (Continued). Earl Shermak Paul Van Landshoots @Sawyer, MI Munising, MI George Shirkey Claude.VerDuin 881 Stover Grand Haven, MI Omer, MI Louis C. Wasserman Charles Singleton 3081 Idlewild Newberry, MI Muskegon, MI Stanley Silvertson Ben Weier 366 Lake Ave., S. 1028 Smith Duluth, MN Monroe, MI Nigay'Sprague James Wiita 9794 Hemlock 1004 Calumet St. Baypprt,.Ml Lake Linden, MI Russell Sprague Tod.& Forrest Williams Hemlock Bayport Fish Co. Bayport, MI 1008 lst St. Bayport, MI Francis Thill Thill Fish Co. Charlie Wootke E. Main St. 6153 US 23 N. Marquette, MI Alpena, MI Ronald Tornovish Joe Woo.tke 16885 Lake Road Alpena, MI Spring Lake, MI Leo Yeck Ben Tripp Ludington, MI 1661 Edgewater Muskegon, MI Ray Trombley 33134 N. River St. Mt. Clemens, MI. William Tyosh L'Anse, MI Jerome Van Landshoots,'Jr. Munising, MI Jerome Van Landshoots,.Sr. Munising, MI 185 APPENDIX I (Continued) Contributing Organizations Environmental Protection Agency U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 9311 Groh Road Fisheries Division Grosse Ile, MI 1451 Green Road .Ann Arbor, MI Michigan Department of Natural.Resources Fisheries Division Steven T. Mason Building Lansing, MI 186 APPENDIX 1 (Continued.) .Professional Contributors Elton Carlson. Eugene Roeloffs MDNR Fish and Wildlife Department DeTour, MI Michigan State University Leo T. Erkkila E. Lansing, MI P.O. Box 161 Richard Schorfhaar Redwood Valley, CA MDNR Fisheries Division Gale Gleason Marquette, MI Lake Superior State College Sault Ste. Marie, MI Dav'id W. Smith MDNR Randy Eschenroder 350 Ottawa MDNR Grand Rapids, MI Alpena, MI Ray Shepherd Bob Haas MDNR MDNR Imlay City, MI 33135 S. River Road Mt. Clemens, III Stanford H. Smith U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Dave Johnson Ann Arbor, MI MDNR District 12 Tom Stauffer 621 N.- Tenth St. MDNR Plainwell,-MI Fisheries Division Marquette, MI Myrl Keller MDNR Peter Tack Charlevoix, MI 2390 Kewanee Way Okemos, MI Herb Lenon Central Michigan University Nelson Thomas Bio'logy Department Environmental Protection Agency Mt. Pleasant, MI 9311 Groh Road Grosse Charles Liston Fish and Wildl'ife Department E. John 'Trimber ger Michigan State University MDNR E. Lansing, MI 350 Ottawa Grand Rapids, III James Peck MDNR Marquette, MI 187 APPENDIX 2 STATE SECTIONAL MAPS 188 2 5 .4 3 "j, 15 14 13 12 20 6 9 22 21 8 ke 7 nil P N PW'A & jj, FIGURE 1 Western Lake Superior showing the loca- tions of Figures 1-15 an d 20-22 (Appendix 3). 5 .4", iN 189 IN, 15 16 17 FIGURE 2. Wes tCentral 14 Lake Superior 'showing the locations-of Figures 1 2, d 14-29 (A'pendix 3),. an P 19 2 26.1 23 2 %1 .. . 24 21 25 J. 21 26 28 27 All C J, J: A i "A" 190 36k 30.2 L FIGURE 3.. East Central Lake Superior showing the'locations of Figures 29-36, 66-78, and 137, 138, 146. (Appendix 3). 33 30 31 32 34 29 J"T W H I T [email protected] r I S H B A Y % 35 1? 1C. E, 1-111P P, "Ir" 1W: C R AV J- N 'E- IA I. mj. 72 73 71 176' 68 70 167 78 14 66 t S H 1 P.7 191 T- FIGURE 4. St. Mary's-River and Northern Lake Huron showing the locations of Figures-35-49, 77 and 35 6 137-159 (Appendix 3). I P A A C ,139 .2 A 4 137 44 141 4 6- 48 149 147- 5 V 152 154 IN" C. H U B, [email protected],11 . ...... 153 155 e4 1w 0 Ai L E-- 157 A- 158 J4 159 [email protected] '-b El @164 67 N\ oKw. 66 60 55 A, \6 54 52 51 FIGURE 5. North Western Lake Michigan showing the. locations of Figures 50-67 I(Appendix 3). A 193 7:71 71, Figure 6. Northern Central Lake Michigan showing the ,.82 81 tio locations of Figures'78-117 86 (Appendix 3). 78 3 1485 79 CHAR LEVOIX 101 8 91 F-I @1`102 2 N11" 103 IML 0-+1 94 IV EI W-d . ..... Im 1,07 AU 10 BA Y 4 T ji 112 [email protected]@j Ciry ;G A N D 113 J\ VE [email protected] a N Z I E ,Ik 114 115" -r E. E 116 A ......... . 11 7p '6 n103 194 117 135 118 cc) C A"N 119 120 122 1361 -A [email protected]@,.D -B @Pi b&- 124 -1) T T, A W 125, 126, 127 G A N B A :.,R j 129 --!, , . ..... 14- 130 U R EN A N: FIGURE 7. South Central Lake s Michigan showing th\e location ofFigures 117-130, 135 and 136 (Appendix 3). LI 20 f 195 ------- ------- L N B A CR 129 A 130 A "I 131 N 13 REN At- 132 on 114,Wr;. SI FIGURE 8. Southern Lake 133 B E R R I Michigan showing the'locations of Figures 129-134 (Appendix 3). 134 T1 @D -I I zL-, 196, ....... FIGURE 9. Central Lake Huron -7- 158 showing the locations of Figure s 157 181 (Appendix 3). t AJ- C 0 j N-, A 159 7- .'0 160 jo 161 162 171 170 172 AC 169- 164 [email protected] 165 S A G fA 0! 173 ';0 1,175 0 167 .166 174 13 I") x, ..... .. 176 177 A'N @i c 79/ .S 11C I 180 r,[email protected] 7 5 0 Lt11-j 197 177 A Ck 178 Q-y . ..... - 179 It C 1. S T 80 181 < 182 V 183 [email protected] o, A k' i- N ...... 184 /13 71A; < :ST V--y" 4 T ON ORr K F P.,k < -dale C; L A R te H'ahl-d. k -,v [email protected] A-y"'N" -E:" 2 Rol Rouce 9 PARK d.Itt, i n FIGURE 10. Southern Lake q- ke St. Clair and Huron, La Lake Erie showing the locations 0 f Figures 177-203 (Appendix 3.), (p" E R I E 0 198 APPENDIX 3 LAKE CHART SECTIONAL MAPS 199 485 575 4 F16 530 539 511 473 469 531 594 471 487 501 488 509 481 (LR,1,ND) 499 374 -31 489 1013 (D(j) , ky @ * * 413 471 459 401 129 261 253 000 230 2650 141 IULL If N 532 411 292 469 146 99 358 k.Y 4101D) 35 266 471 117 490 420 600 131 PtL134age Island 612 375 1041/ 4 056 447 261 05 .175 ISO 357 336 - 397 33 (L,LR,2,ND-) (L,1,ND) 279 32 584 218 rky 19S 24901 288 223 N" '153 17, 232 4F 1,)6 631 X; 0 109 A 306 dp 14 415 245 306 332 341 298 306 V36 234 0 315 222 241 Fig. I Section of NOAA Great Lakes 431 chart no. 14966 - Isle Royale 48012'N-88022'w Soundings in feet. Not for navigation; miles meters 0 2500 200 497 453 600 612 513 521 350 N 578 S7S t8o 357 588 576 705 277 5 6 C, 685 CANOE POCKS (LJ ND) 727 ((( @- t` ell 217 1:710 240 0 R125 64.3 481 189 193 0 ':[email protected] 745 745 Rk 7 "8 1840 691 649 329 0 691 7. x-, :313 0 W, 52D kniygdnloid kland 036 C09 (L J ND) Ao 319 298 0 RE [email protected] K. R 0 239 32 337 X. /T Ok Priv Mal MwA E' [email protected] 221 329 0 4e a 141 mai"ki 259 0 -7 @ - - , 341 (W'j fw RA ISZAVD S PA S S -4 203 0 @r. 459 20 A,@ (LH, I ND) 0 333 263 R77 0 227 254 731 340 Fig- 2 Section of NOAA Great Lakes chart no. 14968 Isle Royale 0 48 07'N-88032'W 4 G 7 Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. miles meters 0 2 0 2500 4 G 201 Row"i I (W,2,00's-78) 4fO.") R 227 5 r kv [email protected] VA.W'1C 301 299 K ")35 @70 4 242 271 230 265 108 Fig 3A. Section of NOAA Great Lak s 464 Royale chart no. 14968 Isle 333 3 06,; 48002'N-88045'w 4'. A Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. A4 miles meters 0 2 0 2500 rock & MOSS,,--- 356 486 Hyd" 101 T IL 5 351 (W,1,00's-78) (LC,1,00 S-78); 4 387 435 414 W 352 (W'1,001s-78 414 159 173 4 3? 341 382 185 [email protected] 312 4,5 @66 1,2, 0 s-78) -78) 534 (W,2,00's 167 89 192 Long I 'q, (LN;2,00's-78) 545 176 509 161 AX 7 13, 4 575 143 3 3 558 E) 677 Mi 6 G '*0i1k?r1.iw Reef (U1,23 D E) 4 t.-. All 202 Roland I 36 27 5 276 32 "'Y 227 61 41 rkY MLOjib 149 s' TIAWIC TSLIAF 3")f 235 299 "Pille Nil, .0 271 173+ ef 230 265, 2 C 9 108 Fig. .3B Section of NOAA Great Lakes rk. chart no. 14968 - Isle Royale 3.33 48002'N-88045'W %Qun I C, Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. 2 M I [email protected] miles meters x 5"_ 0 2 0 2500 IT k hippowa 356 Jod 486 -_745 47 '5 351 _100- (L,1,ND) 435 po' 352 6 562 410 414 159 JJ3 4 5? 341 382 W 45 266 0 2 0 A 0 [email protected] 1;;Wjj 3' ale 1A or* 1.33 236 534 167 8 9': - 1AY [email protected] 233 3 122 192 V Sb*:*- 176 541 i6l 509 131 q. 5 lip 0 0 143 (W AD) 558 .41 I'll Aver oil 203 t, r r 33: C,41 250. 167 659 569 590 281 $54 (LN,1,00's-78) 239 (LN,1,00's-78) 101 .(LN,1,00's-78) 530 31:2 515 M 500 Fig. 4A section of NOAA Great Lakes chart no. 14968 - Isle Royale 20q 0 0 rky 47 571N-89 59'W IC40 Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. q miles meters L N , I , 00' s - 7 8 0 2 0 2500 01 (LN!)Wf0 It z @@ - I-.. - -- . -_- S&( ky 164 ('23 123 233 A -T7 Nit'. 0 7 176 C/ -7 119 @2 77 131 45 (W,2,00's-78) 27 4 I N D 71 V ?6 0 0 M1,00's 0 0 -4V 4W 0 .0 0 0, 0 0 0 414 4:1 O'er 0 0 0 Xv 10 0 0 [email protected]_ 0 0 533 0 041 0 626 X" 0 w 0 0, V 0 0C _1 0,41 (LN,LR,2,00's-78) 0 (L.1,ND) 471& .0 0 332 0, 437 0 22 204 ------------------ 641 bit 3X Fig. 4B Section of NOAA Great Lakes 254- chart no. 14968 Isle Royale A4 0 0 281 167 47 57'N-89 59'W Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. 170 miles meters 239 T0,111 [email protected] 1 1 63 2' 0 2500 101. 7- 431 236 530 fly 3 515 A4 56 R TO P,Zv .674 rky 1 7 OR i6 'DIES C::@, dzz E 26 Y 3w. (M,00'S-78) 32 luta (@N,2,00's 164 -78 :71Z. -'Litde Siskiwit Island 68 233 "Y 126 176 13 7 -//77 N 119 2 77 107 131 N" 45 89 101 119 1 27 92 56 9 71 35 SIt 26 Vt. [email protected] *41A 27 (LN,1 ND) 77 71 414 33 533 's (W,1,00 -78) (LN,1 ND) 48 45 iy (LR,1,00'S-78), 74 557 .0 56 35 @10 (LN,1 ND) @61- vF) 04 4-0 -------- (LR,1,00's-78) [email protected]) 437 839 205 530 603 641 500 659 (U1,1 00's-78) 65 533 $75 311 566 527 RA C;82 308 533 509 533 1 So 539 539 *C C,@,, 93 365 R M, Qir P;,9 AST--- 593 -C 506 74 ey (L,l ND) k L C "M 00's-78 (LA,1,00's-78) 03- 787 jk3l C2 --62 Q FIRE LOOK 14 AG rk C, 359; ft". @@e Ctimberland oint 150 00 (LR,LN,l 00's-78) Ve 60 3 45 ninbow C/ 5 I.ong Point 7 66 277 105 SIS 74 3.31 259 e- rock .A moss 7 6 (L,LN,2,00-S-78) so 209 Fig. 5A . Section of NCAA Great Lakes 211 a4:1 chart no. 14968- Isle Royale 47053'N-89059'W 371 Soundings in feet. Not,for navigation. miles raeters 1.07 r 2 0 2500 T 647 206 603 530 Fig. 5B Section of NOAA Great Lakes chart no. 14968 - Isle Royale 500 47053'N-89059-W Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. 516 rky 65 miles I metprs 311 0 2 2500 566 e-rock & moss 371 Rk 308 533 509 Iky 916. k 533 539 539 LP, 93 DO 365 (W,1,00's-78) all 1193 Q+ 365 506 47 (w,1,00's-78 191 (W,1,00's--78) -787 (LN,1 ND) 359 8C, -62 34C, FIRE LOOK 3 .0 359 S6 6 Curnb<,fland nt 0i (LR,LN,1,00 S-78) C, 01,060 ky 199 117- 45 nIinbow oint -78) jz 41 1,1-1-.ong P" G U 35 0 277 98 e e 105 e G e e e e 67 9 e e 331 259 162 123 0 e e 9 (9 9 9 9 449 N 373 263 149 e 211 (LR,LN,1,00's-78 371 105 3811 371 40*@ 4 -'1 647 207 J I r 192 17/ 397 73 49 37, 241 36,7 I't 2 83 )3 6 457 73 37 73 170 58 133 456 91 145 37 65 N 444 'X 385 457 97 "n 12 ASLANI 103 270 295 3 65 29 43 343 469 ,V f 468 31 69 31 445 505 481 205 372 439 -- 132 223 409 131 169 402 186 73 379 385 127 73 91 142 55 402 307 163 @85 301 195 656.2 79 91 f08 2iO 301 36 73 43 62 156 331 385 (L,1,[email protected]) 55 81 79 115 144 182 331 49 0000 atilt Isian 73 147 139 55 105 361 00- . . 241 a 00 55 49 00 115 256 367 289 43 12 91 132 355 55 73 128 31q 2()5 37 43 85 91 115 142 144 235 )1' 79 331 169 109 3 9 79 174 91 55 73 91 at 67 97 Fig. 6 Section of NOAA Great Lakes Redridge to Saxon 73 chart no. 14965 S 121 Harbor. 0 0 46 581-90 221W 67 Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. 193 miles meters 2 0 2 00 24'! ;A4 7 208 127 157 26 175 173 145 NO 125 W3 05 N 97 125 133 139 158 13! 117 131 125 97 127 122 409 127 74 - 97 87 3 S as (LP,1 , 74) 55 so 72 39 79 73 C) 61 3. 73 X, 110' 49 71 67 49 44 37 55 61 49 [email protected]' [email protected]' .1 1240 0 A, r o 7 s4r @A 6 1' T Ur b 72 Fig. 7 Section of NOAA C,C k"', 0 chart no. 14965 - Redridg Harbor. L 0 46038'N-90 201 Yk" Soundings in feet. Not f miles 0 2 0 IY [email protected] AT 37" 49 0 304 .462 0,1,20's-50's) 74- 278 @A,3,30'S-54) 6 4-32 258 66 452 5S 232 197 '31 30 3SO 237 161 37 N) 316 162 246 74 161 .Y 239 162 158 3' so 4, 411 Blach River a r Fig. 8 Section of NOAA 56 chart no. 14965 Redridg Harbor. 44 46043'N-90001'W Soundings in feet. Not f miles 0 0 LOO 612 61 444 31,2 568 570 347 ,@(L,3, 30's-56's 232 40 553 462 239 189 328 ;so 474 i45 263 2S2 24 119 4E6 143 149 1 6-6 71 k"k,[email protected] rky 317 143 3S 38 UNION BA [email protected]: 113 68 [email protected] 41 2S3 Ic7 [email protected] V 6! 7 [email protected] [email protected] of 6 77 Al ;67 Fig. 9 Section of NOAA Z.: (LN.1 . 20's-50's)- chart no. 14965 Redrid Z Harbor. 0 N 46(52'N-89 43' L )U Soundings in feet. Not fe miles 'Ns rnic,@-"r T:T,/ IQ 0 2 0 3 @,.Cd - 263 270 342 1112 233 310 190 20 252 I [email protected] 136 305 72 n3 i 70 57 231 61 t16 (LP, 1 74 230 2f* 131 (L,l 36- NO lei 101 N) ;[email protected] t5o .4* 0 "T 4'@ 36-54) 62 56 3 iC7 44 rkl --I 57 f0 Fig. 10 Section of NOAA Redridg chart no. 14965 ;U"i City Harbor. 46054'N-89024' (L,1, 3 54) 0, 1 Soundings in feet. Not miles J 0 2 0 I v 2 0 234 242 117 .64 2ii 253 236 .!Sb 107 200 K 15 3 98 .148 201 72 62 1 77 53 1,58 (L,I, 36-54 S2 200 -9 04F "Ll-SLEEPINGPAY BA Y 0 Willar pt. 79 Is 162 LT HO 86 Fourteen We pimint 162 so 491 91 47 93 54 47 77 S ij 50 Fig. 11 Section of NOAA Gr F-2 chart no. 14965 - Redridge 41 Harbor. -7- (8"0 460581N-890051W 50 3 Soundings in feet. Not for miles 21 0 2 0 Iky '950 j 200 116 225 110 87 94 2 J 2 130 90 83 86 49 .105 140 96 45 if) 98 214 Rk 91 42 142 ..-T 3e t47 95 F mh 152 46 95 58 44 158 92 53 106 53 68 Rk 116 52 65 58 56 68 GROUNDS NOT DEFINED Fig. 12 Section of NOAA Great Lakes 50 chart no. 14965 - Redtidge to Saxon Harbor. -880521W 47008'N Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. miles meters 0 2500 -IV KTZI J- 553 Fig. 13 Section of NOAA Great Lakes $52 chart no. 14964 - Big Bay Point to Redridge. 47017'N-88044'W 511 Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. miles meters 6 1 414 4 3 -'A 2 2500 "4 372 00 432 (LS,1,00's-72) 000 w w w 0 0 .00 *goo 374 goo 90 0*goo* 00 330 000000 420 308 348 292 00000 217 000 N o 0 149 278 396 122 330 152 91 80 64 86 632 (L,3,00's-72) 94 179 62 64 0 0 145 (L,LP,1,00's-72) S8 0 S 66 2 06000 60 0 0 86 0 0! 0 0 4' Rk 143 83 0 0 o 16, @[email protected],RM-S On 312'- 0 0. 25 68 203 N 140 128 41 100 0 0 go (L,2217-60's) 0 0 110 (H,1,68-1) ---84 -0 0 1000 0 S 0 131 83 go 7 110, 1 igh Poi I 96 4 R Rk A rm- 215 7 Fig. 14 Section of NOAA Gr.eat Lakes 726 chart no. 14964 Big Bay Point to Redridge; 47022'N-88032'W 699 780 Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. miles meters 1 0 2 0 .2500 726 ;4,8 672 594 550 639 642 702 690 374 600 617 (L 1 75 623 406 575 f/Ld-chinson S 558 336 171 3 Rk 541 552 552 50 149 511 594 269 87 4 558 294 239 433 293 182 S 3 0 0 (LS,1,00's-72) 85 4 16 og 0 9 0 191 Gratto 0 113 0 0 7j 35 0 258 0 0 116 420 252 69 Mee 396 h (H,1,68-78) 011 uez .100 26 64 59 A a do pe- (L,2,00's-72) 0 o 3 M .6 k Uentenni 0 S 33 0 CAL 9 @Z-03 r> R. TOWE A IUM UR 216 Fig. 15 . Section of NOAA Great Lakes 811 chart no. 14964 - Big Bay Point to 876 8 Redridge. 47030'N-88022'W Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. miles meters 0 0 2500 7 822 834 85 840 876 859 864 799 810 829 810 828 817 786 804 816 798 786 798 721 N 780 792 762 793 746 742 771 (L,H,1,63-78) (L,2,16-75) 822 731 (W,1,16-70's) Rk 36 493 -5. 26 174 360 S EVIORM AT 594 335 44 72 374 115 52 26 'k TR Five Mile Pt., 114 1 1 lux 13 0 1300 7627 217 726 Fig. 16 A. Section of NOAA Great Lakes 732 chart no. 14964 - Big Bay Point to Redridge. 762 47033'N-87058'W 676 Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. 708 miles meters 2 2500 726 798 712 732 N 732 660 834 804 654 786 557 828 690 624 828 696 619 475 522 468 300 7654 658 615 t, 503 468 415 301 672 277 630 355 354 (L,1,17 54 Rk 55 70 252 Rk 329 [email protected] 5 0 Opp Fanny (L H,I 63-78 ron Z: 900 Us -950 L,1 75) CD 726 Fig. 16B. Section of NOAA Great Lakes 732 chart no. 14964 - Big Bay -Point to Redridge. 762 47033N-87058'W 676 708 Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. miles meters 0 2 2500 726 798 7t2 M 732 660 r 934 N 804 654 786 557 828 690 624 828 696 619 475 45 300 522 468 764 Me 615 X 468 301 503 (WR,I 30's-78 N 672 11 630 355- 354 (LN,LR,1,ND) 276 54 Rk 55 70 Rk [email protected] Rk F3 329 119 65U '@,5 - [email protected] 42 0 54 LN , LRI, 1 , ND 191. If 41 1334 Fig.16C Section of NOAA Great Lakes chart no. 14964 Big Bay,Point to N 726 Redri dge. 732 47'33-N-87058-W Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. 76.2 676 miles meters 2 2500 888 840 726 798 712 732 660 834 804 654 786 828 690 NO 624 C:> 828 696 475 619 522 300 764 658 615 t 503 460 415 301 k 672 1 IV 630 (LN,l 30's-70's) A. 355 A., 276 54 Rk 55 252 Rk 3 Rk 329 119 5 44 9 4 ----------- Rk 54 N,I , [email protected] 30's-70's) Rge Lte 240 272 437 10,1,30's-70's) 312 243 218 (LN LR,l ND) 288 W6 295 274, Rk 58 43 157 289 3P.3 7 - 363 259 ge L 64 231 1 1 (L,4,17-78) i S 6 62 (W,I 16-70's) 164 (L,N,LR,1,N 253 9DO Z (H,1,63-78) 46 Q) 102 77 qj 49 i3 0 00 MAirMU 1. 50 Rk 1000 zA4 61 650 110 Ho" 50 0 0 64 0 416 'Ve 46 - 5 58 ZO 35 :(LN,LR,1_,ND) (W,1,74-78) 41 0 38 R k Rk 120 (L,2,16-70's) . V*[email protected] 213 2 147 (LN,LR, I ND) 84 Rk C1 1'(W,1,74-78) 185 228 289 Fig. 17A. Section of NOAA Great Lakes 229 232 chart 'no. 14964 Big Bay Point to Redridge. ..162 189 273 47026'N-87042'W Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. 230 139 160 377 miles meters [email protected] 0 2 0 2500 240 272 Fig 17B. Section of NOAA Great Lakes W2 chart no. 14964 Big Bay Point to 274 Redridge. 47026'N-87042'W 289 3P3 Soundings in feet. Not for navigation.- 363 miles meters 0 2 0 2500 231 303 S 164 ell (WR,1,30'S-78) .6 0- 102 -77 43 35 or N) 49 49 b 73 31 Y MANITOLT 1. 50 R k61 38 34 5 650 56 110 00 HbarL. 46 64 37 031 go*000 50 * 58 77 (WR,2,30's-78) ju R 2 go 0 60 * go k 120 191 143 0 09 00 00 ? 0 0 147 83 Rk C/ 0 4 185 17% 196 228 171, 171 : (WR,l 144 289 88 N 229 232 Cl 170 C/ 134 189 273 ISO 188 C/ C1 C/ 230 139 160 377 i6S 168 177 C/ 161 178 Fig 17C Section of NOAA Great Lakes 2 chart no.14964 - Big Bay Point to 312 Redridge. 271. 2 47026,jq.-87o42'W Soundinc Not for navigation. js in feet 289 3R3 miles meters 363 0 2 0 2500 231 LAKE SUPERIOR S 303 62 164 (LN,1 07-67) too, (LR,1,30's-70's) 41 102 43 5 Iz NJ 49 73 49 60 1`110 M I C H I 'A 31 r 6. w G A -mAgrr6u 'r -aso 900 ft 38 35 34 (UI,I 30's-70's) 12 - 9 37 35 C1 35 510 4.6 6. 64 "1 39 &e -42, 51 JV n4aw 46 66 35 5 58 -Nr7 7 54 Rk 120 52 27A 143 32 41 38 Rk 191 .213 B3 Rk 41 84 147 185 179 C/ S 196 M 158 126' S 171 289 as 229 132 C/ Cl 170 C/ 162 134 189 273 180 lea C/ C/ C/ 230 139 160 377 168 168 177 C/ 161 178 C 850 nough(04 (@@ZAA. .900 44 1150 C::) .(k C) (W,l 74-78) ;ILI 86 35 10 380 FI 4sK 4 St 31 47 0 D_wTH 50 83 143 goo f-IC LA BE Rk Ali- (W,1,74-78) sok '0 66 52 S 000 0 5 57 74 Cl 170 [email protected] 6 (L,2,16-70's), 134 La" 3 5 (LN,LR,1,ND) C/ Is elle 0C/ - I-66 168 1 140 171 00 136 5 40 R* 3-0. S - 7 8 194 170 8 0 39 65 ISO 192 000 0 189 4000 0 86 216 236 0 0 000 195 213 (,LN,I,?-50's) 192 G (-H , 136-73) 186 167 182 2 294 174 228 184 lie 188 147 183 193 141 191 307 119 so 288 168 Fig. 18A. Section of NOAA Great Lakes chart no. 14964 Big Bay Point to 263 Redridge. 384 47018-N-87058-W Soundings in feet.. Not for navigation. 374 miles meters 306 0- 2 0- 2.. 5;.0 t 224 WhA L 0 0 Monir 95 ough 0 ZAkd .900 %Do-_/ 05U jtj .3a 10 3 0- 000001 FI R 49K 4 St 31 143 47 83 r 50 --goo LAC LA DA4U .7 RA C/ 2, 0 0 0 52 S 171 34 0 5 33 5,7 74 C/ 170 Door 6 41 134 a Laks 3 Pwt Is elle 5 (WR, 1 73) 166 6 47 140 136 5 0 0 44 126 194 170 lop ISO 192 39 40 41 86 189 216 236 Ruins 195 213 54 143 G 98 95 182 166 167 2 294 174 228 184 lie ISO 147 183 193 141 191 307 119 so 168 288 Fig..18B Section of NOAA Great Lakes chart no. 14,964 - Big Bay Point to 263 Redridge. 10 394 47 18'N-87058-W Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. miles meters 374 306 225. Dzeaklkq L Ing 0 C:> 9L)O-/ MOO C) b R B6 35 V- 38 35 32 [email protected] F1 8 4seC 4 St M31S 47 50 83 143 -9 "C LA BELLB uu BETE GArSz Rk C/ (usemser) 171 t 66 52 S 34 6 33 55 57 74 Cl 170 C 131. Door 0 ki 41 La" 30 [email protected] 0,1,30's-70's) C/ PL.JS,9)eue - 168 1 47 140 171 43 136 5 Rk 40 44 126 194 170 a 180 192 39 65 40 41 86 189 195 216 236 213 54 192 143 G 98 95 182 186 167 2 294 174 228 184 118 lee 147 183 193 141 191 307 1119 2 Fig. 18C Section of NOAA Great Lakes 283 chart no. 14964 - Big Bay Point to Redridge. 47018;N-87058,W .Sound:Lngs in feet. Not for navigation. 261 31 miles meters 1 1 314 6 12 6 2500 926 Fig. 19A. Section of NOAA Great Lakes chart no. 14964 Big Bay Point to Redridge. 47014'N-88008'W Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. miles meters - --------- 2 0' 2500 tvpr -rob(I 41 L e e 44 54 0 G 98 N 48 95 5 6 LR. I 10 6 65 (WR,1,30's-78) Ga IY 39 Rk TAC 198 80 7 66 286 5 152 263 (LN,LR,l N 3 14. 74 C3 41 056 (W,1,16 285 -70's) 8ft 36 0 374 34: Rk (L,3,16-75) 222 0 56 86 309 35 49 176 308 282 32 142 288 42 270 _Q 209 302 174 284 Q 243 Go 228 0 go 36 (L,H,1,00 s-69) 6000 264 [email protected] 0000 f 71 226 0 Q, Ital oV [email protected]@ BAY 291 QQQ (L,W,1,16-70's) 0 114 92 60 \[email protected] 228 160 188 283 [email protected] 258 275 20 227 F; g. 19B Section of NOAA Great Lakes chart no. 14964 Big Bay Point to Redridge. 47014'N-88008'W Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. miles meters 0 2 25100 jr-ob(A IV 411 40 uIns 44 54 0 G 98 48 95 5 C6 184 ,-A 10 le .33 lie 3 99 65 141 39 Rk (LN,2,30's-70's) 198 so R 288 D) 66 2t 05 IS2 263 71 0 119 *so 111 265 3t6 @7 374 092 RAO 222 36 218 0 56 309 221 (LN,I 46-79) 176 262 2 142 a N U266 42 a a 0 270 209 Rk lot : a :41 ai3o 0 M 174 284 a 243 a .M a 228 73F "a a 0 264 a 71 a 240 248 291w 92 a 0 aa a, 220 A (H,1,46-79) 275 lot s a M 258 160 .188 . a 213 228 Fig. 20A. Section of NOAA Great Lakes @Fl jS 4, chart no. 14964 - Big Bay Point to Redridge. 47006-N-88000-W Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. miles meters I I 1 35 0 2 0 2500 1 RICE (L,H,1,00's-69) 78 33 (H,1,00's-60's) STACK Drearnlond (L,1,75 -(L,1,00'S-69) 59 132 TO A C 31 A-M-w, rs e Island (H,1,63-78) (W,1 16-70- S Rh 56 44 140 19 6-01 S _ [email protected]') > 141 72 76 0 39 (L11 75) 128 214 64k 183 151 00 1 137 1 J 7-60's) 0 19 ft"o-io 0 'D 276 153 56 112 0 0 M 0 3)4 57 Rk 191 76 X6 236 66 82 (H,2,65-78) J ob e 50 84 T Hg -9 195 09 (H 1,?-45 9 9 9 12%.-.- 9 41 : i, 106 46 426 6,73, 141 229 Fig. 20B. Section of NOAA Great Lakes F1 chart no. 14964 Big Bay Point to Redridge. St 470 06'N-88000'W 3 Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. miles me%ers 2 2500 d- 32 At- 78 fiso LN -1 4 750 0 36 33 9 71 44 -SAY 41 92 0 STACK JLN91 46-79) (H91,46-79) 33 r o it 110 132 37 RA spa 161 6 3110 0 148 .41 3 3 2C 38 96 t72 a Island A 56 50 311 140 Rh 141 258 l(LN,1,46-79) 39 13 214 #28 64 163 46 p 306 32 D 276 40 153 58 102 269 'A 195 314 57 Rk 191 76 36 4 306" jud 84 129 260 50 189 as 332 44 S 06 295 1296--. -69 31 154 96 295 41 12a 4n 141 138 ICA I 230 Fig- 20C- Section of NOAA Great Lakes chart no. 14964 Big Bay Point to Redridge. 47006'N-88000'W Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. 3 miles meters 1 35 2 0 25 0 "n 'ARE 32 78 7-: 750 3 V' J6 42 3 71 41 92 0 TACK D nd 181 160 59 33 T 0 RC 161 110 132 37 Rk 98 4.0 38 41 38 36 20 38 96 172 Mraverse IsUnd 4t 38 38 56 bo 111 319 44 RA 140 Rh 00 so 00 76 258 39 90 214 13 64 Wei 0 46 32 137 306 011 0 -... .I* D 276 0 (H,1,07-67) 56 51- 2a 112 269 3 195 314 57 Rk 191 76 1 36 66 306 Jaco 84 82 129 260 so foe 295 - 332 41 164 296., & 9 1 C 11 295 41 [email protected]@ 14 106 12a 46 426 141 61 - 138 1001 231 Fig. 21 A. Section of NOAA Great Lakes 31 0 0 141 chart no. 14964 - Big Bay Point to 0 Redridge. 44 4 00192 46052'N-88031'W C1 00 79 Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. 42 36 5"' (H.,l,?-45) miles meters 37 48 0 2 0 2500 52 499 S 09 ( L 1 75) -26 34 "19 9 Unknown 31 33 35 360 126 85 29 tr C C, 36 108 372 108 75) 156 134 319 (LP,l ND) frr 7-60's) (H,1,40's) r 300 36 336 4 W Bay 27 32 WR, 1 63- 7 St" - (H, I -uaming 36 @08 21 A 92 35j V 18 (WR,1,,63-78) 51 (H,1 ,40-'s--?),.. 40 Aad92 (LP,l 70-78) A A (LP,1 70- 8 A4A A276 A ?19 B_ A [email protected] A A .. @ter R A (WR,1,63-78) RA r 1"[email protected] ANK 0 1, 10 S 43 C, 45 -L AN S 54 ST I N S L'O R A, Vert Up F RO AF 41 %7 ap 232 Fig. 21B. Section of NOAA Great Lakes 0a chart no.14964 - Big Bay Point to ja a 138 Redridge. 46 0 52'N-88 0 31'W a..O 46 192 79 Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. T-2IND 75 54 mil .es met .ers 1 37 48 91 52 0 2 0 2500 S 34 154 --J, 36 70 31 33 126 (W,l 29-78) 05 29 - -- 72 108 36 (LN,WR,1$40'S) 39 134 650 j (L,1,30's-78) 06 6 fk 72 (WR,1,63-78) A 0 C/ ee jw Y S) (C,1,29-50- on 1, -MIM , ' rpe/l - 31 'quaming 36R* 308 2/ 21 IV, 4 IS 36 (W'Y 1 29-78) 8L 40 @6 0 192 (C,1,29-50's) @16 4 219 240 R A (WR,l 63- ERR 38 '60 ANK 5 (PN,Y,1,ND S, ST GN) Soo L,..,)4 R. R. 3 VOM Lis F R .'?./ 41 In 233 44 Rk M 462 141 72 76 179 13 152 390 64 183 46 137 151 476 32 w 0 0 [email protected] 276 10 (H,1,63-78) 40 153 --- --- 314 551 260 77 3.3 57 Rk 191 76 a, 306 504 77 153 66 260 82 129 332 302 34 17-60's) 89 189 195 --- 106 156 a a am 35 31 106 181 Rk 141 102 3S 105 432 222 414 14 79 88 438 190 35 75 S 54 451 32 153 52 317 274 62 (L,1,17-60's) 338 216 152 .360 432 31 31 116 2 257 C/ 37 5 59 222 128 lit 16 372 121 166 fir. 94 M 3 94 339 134 99 105 69 97 125 ' 90 3 esl 70 1 WIZ allne ar,p 306 A 74 iaLne 72 RA ;@ It [email protected] 70 ibc 70 27 4-7 Fig. 22A. Section of NOAA Great Lakes chart [email protected] 14964 - Big Bay Point to Redridge. 46058'N-88014'W .Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. miles meters 0 0 2500 234 44 Rk (W,1,16-70's) ;2 39 141 72 (L, I J 6- 70's) 0,001P0 P9 13 i 128 64 183 46 306 a M 93W 32 A M 0 a 276 10 40 153 56 58 112 269 0 0 w M i95 314 W510 a 260 77 33 - : a M M 0 S7 R k 191 66 76 260 306 M4M (H,1,46-79) 153 M, 82 129 302 332 189 195 89 139 100 Rk 96 31 156 105 12a 295 426 lei 35 141 151 102 35 105 222 432 414 4 79 ISO 43a 190 35 75 S 1 54 153' 451 32 Rk 31 52 317 274 62 4 338 74 215 152 432 3 31 360 116 2 257 C/ 37 5 59 222 128 117 372 166 116 M 339 134 94 11 99 105 97 125 90 3 81 70 pa,p 306 4p f 74 Sk 72 RA 70 39 7C 27 SIP 4.7 11p N Fig. 22B. Section of NOAA Great Lakes chart no. 14964 Big Bay Point-to Redridge. 0 0 46 581N-88 14'w Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. miles meters 2 0 2500 @3 2 ,7 0 "o 235 M1,16-70's) 129 166 (L,2,16-70's) 276 267 93 (L,3,16-7 ) M1,16-70's) 31 009 00 0 410 9 0 54 258 250 00000 0 0 176 155 Rk 0: * 0 Rk Opp 0; 0 203 154 0 Rk 116 0 0 00' 131 2 2 Q 4 0 0121- Xi 0 40 0 0 143 * e.0 go* 0 0 0 04 41 a 95 202 o 41 00-( 040 0 s 180 oilo 12g. 128 6 . *-, - 00 0 0 0 150 167 R k 160 103 a 7 f;1 163 138 R k 4. 74 [email protected] 151 31 49 49 73 64 58 152 67 70 LJ G 32 31 31 G 31 Z 31 - 28 32 34 .9 23 32 26 20 17 10- @So loweL (fj N10111 F?3n r Lj N [email protected] Section of NOAA Great Lakes K chart no. 14964 - Big Bay Point to C4)" Redridge. 46056'N-88000!W L_3 Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. 6 miles meters - I [email protected] I 0 2 0 2500 Nw 2 ED C 125 156 23, 153 166 218 276 267 .(H,1,07-67) 230 86 191 CO @3 0 *C-3'0 0 0 @(LN 1 07,67) 3v Of 0 0 801 414 0 258 250 176 155 0 154 203 Rk Lu320 01 116 143 019# IS St M131 61 121 71 0 iel MDS -10, #p 202 41 95 5 180 [email protected] 129 128 97 S 150 167 87 103 160 88 Rk as 163 (LN, 49 49 73 64 58 N) 31 0 w 70 32 67 3' 31 G31 3 32 29 31 32 34 200 26 700- To"Vie 750 10 IM, Fig. 23B Section of NOAA Great Lakes 01, chart no. 14964 - Big Bay Point to Redridge. 46056'N-88000'W Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. miles meters 0 2 0 2500 xv/ 2 26C-1 77 125 t56 231 7 2SI 158 153 166 218 276 267 (LN 1 07r67) 98 230 208 19f i3 L, J- 4L Bak 54 3! @ ItXV 0 0 76 258 250 re 4" A,--* @ , 155 59 A R k 65 203 R k R k MORN F1 IOWC 197ft 18 si M 131 143 6 [email protected] 1#6 121 -HU N 181-"DS A71 - 44 ji @[email protected]#3 2 41 a 20 85 95 71, -12 180 5 129 128 59 97 3; 150 M7 S 87 92 0 103 k 160 163 Be Rk as 151 49 49 73 64 58 M) 74 ,A" 31 32 67 70 W G 3 1 a 31 2 33 31 31 3 28 32 32 34 00 23 219 20 26 -61.0 IV 100- 0 Fig. 2 3C . Section of NOAA Great Lakes . chart no. 14964 - Big Bay Point to Redridge. 46056-N-880001W Soundings in feet Not for navigation. miles meters 0 2 0 2500 INk\1 14-, 8 266 276 (L,2,16-70's) (W,1,16-70's) 'Ji (LP 1 74) 213 292 277 00 00 2 Rk (L,3,16-70's) 9 00 0 0* 00 0 00 (W, 1 16- 70's) 236 277 0 (L, 1 j 7-60s) 00 0 a0 q .00 162 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 00 0 53 151 0 0 0 0 0 167 At 00 0 0 - 0 145 j5 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 197 75 [email protected] [email protected] 0 105 9 6p 0 01 3- 0 0 5 0 0 83 36 159 0 0 0 4, 0 000 0 a 0 32 0 S -60's) o (L,3,17 6 0 Leg LAKE 00 00 YND-1pleNDIENCE - \ 0 84 0 0 0 0 84 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 C -S 00 72 0 98 U, 0 54 0 0 Fig. 24A. section of NOAA Great Lakes A- chart no. 14964 Big Bay Point to Redridge. 46049'N-87041'W 4, @,7 Soundings in feet. Not for navigatio' n . miles meters 2 0 2500 0 239 149 148 219 218 286 276 99 107 13 347 116 159 B9 183 218 292 277 32 45 132 Rk 170 R4 33 99 101 32 72 177 277 236 277 33 45 48 84 CO S 38 162 198 33 74 102 Rk 53 151 C, 132 so 32 75 197--, 30 89 06 105 861M 32 DI Ov J14t 10 S 36 3 38 59 RUM (LN,1 07-67) S\ @50 F1 R 4sw 25h 47 000 0 98 3 3 [email protected],00 Bit BV 4t2 S 'C4- 129 84 84 0 C) 700 Rk 72 90 35 54 38 Fig. 24B. Section of-NOAA Great Lakes 18 chart no..14964 Big Bay Point to 35 Redridge. 46049'N-87041'W Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. miles meters I I I Garls 2 0 2500 240 42 S 290 104 26 3 15 @3 1. 192 V 3 84 157 473 013 42 X 125 188 I d-, 354 137 22:3 R k 72 170 237 98 113 297 120 222 35 197 135 217 54 38 140 42 252 215 245 (LN, I , 7 4) 227 143 S (@,1, NO 2Q 3 65 5 120 6,Vrpnite Island k T-1 114 73 42 152 77 50 40 162 C [email protected],,Garlic Island 165 T .Xnintl (L,2, ND) 140 53 137 77 101 @82 V 90 19. 42 33 108 V 'e 37 (LP,1, 74) Granite point 37 401 73) 63 60 Rk 11C A 33 OV 61 96 68 Fig. 2 5 A. Section of NOAA Great Lake rus Island chart no. 14963 - Grand Marais to B 59 Bay Point. ParAridge lale 0 46 43'N-87030'W Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. miles meters 'IFIF 0 2 0 2500 241" .............. 33 101. IT) 137 72 110 (LN,1 33-54) 291 N 120 222 197 :35 5! 217 H9 140 2S2 2t5 0 245 95 0 0 0 0 227 0 0 14,31 0 212 56 0 0 120 6,Vranitle Island 0 114 0 102 0 0 73 0 0 0 0 152 0 0 77 0 140 'Garlit A. [email protected] w W. [email protected] ... .... 165 62 '0 65 T b"ji qpxe (o) i I I t ky 140 65 36 (H,1,33-54) -b 77 39 101 182 42 90 19 33 O")c 13 -, [email protected], 35 37 11 113 S 36 0 101 -0. 60 [email protected] 6k E3 43 I0 33 13 (U1,1 33-54) .Fig.25B Section of NOAA Great Lakes 61 @, ", 55,)1, @ ., - chart no. 14963 - Grand Marais to Big 4 3,- Bay Point. 59 0 @-)!t ky() 46 43'N-87030'W @,I- .,,Prtridge Isla 4.0 Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. miles- meters -.7 0 2 0 2500 242 33 1.2 13 ZO, 3t)z. 223 2", 110 31 9d 11:3 120 222 3b U.. 197 135 20 38 89 ;152 215 42 245 95 95 227 143 N S 35 2Q 65 56 120 610+i-auhe Wand 114 73 (LNJ 58-69) 62 50 140 Garlic, M1 Varlic Island 162 59 Q,(H,LN, 1 58-69) 65 1.0 jJQ 1 S3 07 (LN,1,40-66) jQ (H,LN,1,40-66) [email protected] 3 106 .35 .3 1 Granite 37 's-69) (LM,H,2,40 63 Q Q 60 9 - Unknown Pk Q, 16 110 Fig. 25C . section of NOAA Great Lakes (LN,l 1.953),,00 68 96 chart no. 14963 - Grand marais to Big [email protected],!Larus Islaud 43, - 11-.- @"\ 59 Bay Point. 0 @'..,;.riridge lain "n 46 43-N-87'30'W Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. miles meters 0 2 0 2500 1 (LN,1 1950 'e 1" 9 5 @O 243 -'Oiat 101 (L,2,73-74) 309 000 146 3 1 349 '124 0 * 0 4ip 25: 1271 110 Fig. 26A. Section of NOAA Great 69 96 chart no. 14963 - Grand Marais rus Island 127 270 255 Bay Point. 4 108 233 379, 59 46034'N-87015'W 135 kI @s-ridv island [email protected]@ :40 Soundings in feet. Not for na 58 257 ky 13 miles mete Do), [email protected] 5 249 0 2 0 168 A (LP,l, 7 272 j37 262 260 qUOISLd 170 160 31 103 Rk 165 224 .23 so [email protected] 230 %'i\ 32 122 86 104 B3 203 ;62 158 2jO 74 123 188 166 98 94 125 55 62 140 lifARQUETrE BAY so 98 94 Ito 5 ,43 116 '9 61 104 32 PIPE 89 47 36 65 69 61 66 32 59 32-, 33 S 33 34 32 ,17 R R -at & S 113 309 Fig. 26B Section of NOAA fi(H,1,33-54) 146 141 314 324: chart no. 14963 - Grand :3 13 3 Big Bay Point. Do 50 110 348 46 0 34'N-87'15'W I Soundings infeet. Not @(LN,1,33-54) 127 miles 270 255 379 qD Ios f 3 233, '.''12' 59 j 0 2 0 135 0 Partridge 1,@J..d 3 0 0 6 @tDl !t76. , _4 [email protected] EJ850 249 56 0 257 355 2e8 252 0 FO 273 02 Is I r] 0 168 P 41P El 272 'El' 0 - 262 260 'a (H 2 1 33-54) 224 3 31 13 230 122 jr Cr 30 158 203 M 162 0 C) 0 0 .0 a (WL,1,40- 7 188 Ise EY 125 0 0 94 (LN,3,33- 140 C1 94 7 80 116 98 1 104 k20 0 13 890 0 0 0 0 0 A 1, , 0 (D C 0 47 C) 0 (D 36/ 0 t' 610 0 465 (1) * 0 15 13 0 (D 660 ib 0 0 0 0 p is 32 Ti pz" 3 (WL,l 33-54) 3 2- SW L-e R [email protected] S, (LN,1,33-54) /E,j L L ?---7 0" s (LN,1,33-54) (LL,1,?-70's) 46-, N 5 /1 560 5(j 397 62 301 49-1 433 66 Ah 4T3 19 Fig. 26. 1. Section of NOAA Great Lakes chart no. 14963 Grand Marais to Big Bay Point. 47010'N-87010'W Soundings in feet. Not for navigats"on. miles meters I I I 4bI 0 2 0 2500 1 246 2f9 290 N 304 203 350 203 147 257 149 -443 305 173 fig 110 120 239 119 133 so 102 1 7 95 48 Rk (LP, I , 74) 366 149 185 (LN,H,1,58-69) I 10 02 k '411 Q5 V - 0 SO 9)@.O ?4 42 107 113 261 'V-'32 32 R-p 41 95 107 287 If 71 0 (L,l, ND) 8 04 2221 4, 72 131 9 7 --,Au rain d I VM StwIter T Islan 95 72 24 i8\ 32 23 2-0 76 27A. .8.. 21 \\J. -, so -133 .Fig. Section of NOAA Great Lakes -- 26 99 chart no. 14963 - Grand Marais to Big Bay Point. Q,32 3 2! 46032'N-86054'W 49 soundings in feet. Not for navigation. 35 AU TRAIN BIAY miles meters S 29 3 2 0 2500 32 33 219 263 290 2 203 350 203 257 147 443 149 305 173 119 131 239 119 9s, (LN, 1 21-66) 102 Rk 113 98 Ott 3 32 125 149 42, 32 1 so 56 ..24 16 (LN,1,20's-63) .13 261 32 it , 33 [email protected]:b 103 00 Zp @i . ........ 41 95 (LN,1 33-54) f . 107 287 1 (LN,2,20's-Ic-N 8 U01 2221 5 2 fj 174!!/ 72 32 38 32 Tmin Wand 3 I T (H,2,20 s-68) 3:',) 23 J, 23 76 'Fig.27B Section of NOAA Great Lakes 26 link so chart.no. 14963 Grand Marais to Big Bay Point. i [email protected]@ 0 i.; 46 32'N-a6o54'W 49 \% 35 Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. \[email protected]\ AU TRAIN BA Y miles i ,@ meters -1 29 3 2 0 2500 33 454 655 42 Fig. 28 A. Section of NOAA Great Lakes chart no. 14963 Grand Marais to Big Bay Point., 46 034'N-860 37'W 430 Soundin 'gs in feet. Not for navigation. miles meters 589 0 2500 502 442 370 466 42B 328 340 220 262 208 290 298 192 576 208 442 560 53 38, 136 142 21'0 67 406 31 41 5 418 5 256 205 )G 210 JIJX I 1\ 82 442 252 3 56 N 37, 210 115 82 268 320 250 [email protected] 210 70 110 O\ (L,I, 74) 73 227 53 76 210 (L,2, ND) "pp. I` - - t73 211 31 -- 49k, 1 - I 40 96 0 A- N- 58 0,'.-. 720 4 431 @4 137 178 41(MA Island [email protected] 47 1 65 112 61 -A, 55, 181 43 [email protected] liners Casda'Point -C' A N-- D" S @3 70 7 79 F, (L-112:o ND)j! 0 4 4 A 7 40 3 `3 3314 -w 4- ;@i '114 '1 3 7 17 46 'o F 3 1 S. A P. 249 454 655 Fig. 28B Section of NOAA Great Lakes chart no. 14963 - Grand Marais to Big Bay Point. 46 034'N-86037'w 430 Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. 589 miles meters 502 2 0 2500 442 370 466 428 328 340 262 208 290 220 298 576 208 192 442 560 S 3 38 136 142 M 67 406 14 31 44 418 10, 61 55 256 205 76 31 [email protected]@ 210 82 316 442 252 371/1 31 210 56 136 X 82 268 320 250 37 388 R k 210 110 70 73 227 210 173 2H 76 -68) (1j,2,2W s A- 5 720 A,% (H 1 20's-68) 176 43 @Ood ISIE)nd 7 178 65 41, V., 112 Rk Z 55 181 43 3 'Puint Rk N, f, S I 'A N-D"' 'let ust o 27 31 4, 581 V LNJ 20'S-68)[email protected]@ (H, WL, 1 20 S -68) 04 33);@j 4 37 -04L 2,20's-68) (H,1,20's <1 ?NV -60's) (LNJ 20's-68)'-' 17 4 46 V 0 U T Hz,' F A-' r 250 76 485 307 [email protected] 7-_4 71 134 65 168 419 67 233 90 80 133 202 509 476 56 65 ISO 127 143 77 S 65 35 115 133 501 133 $04 71 207 32 120. 299 431 150 66 51 63 2W 32 (L,l N e'9 '. _ . 'i, 9 72 14 eee 63 32 466 2 271 0 e ee U1 395. 140 G @ 33 42 60 380 383 7S 103 Rk 642 98 33 t- C, 175 64 - 59 3 (L,2, NO 132 83 32 10, 32 3,- 00 00 252 00 00 000 33 9-Unknown its 69 Gr2hd Fig. 29A, Section of NOAA Great Lakes -!Point chart no. 14963 - Grand Marais to Big 0 Bay Point. 0 53 46 36!N-86021'w 'Ov Soundings in feet. Not r navigation. fo miles metprs 720 T I I "I 0. 2 0 2500 485 307 124 79 71 1681 134 419 65 67 133 '202 233 476 5E 509 65 150 f27 143 91 77 S 65 35 115 133 Sol 133 104 71 61 207 32 299 431 66 208 120 150 51 63 66 32 I i Xk 58 13a 72 72 32 466 142 63 b_ 0 271 140 V N3 10,2,20'S 68) Ln - 380 383 103 75 ObU 6 e e f.4? 98. (O'ec'N . 64 3 59 119 132 83 -32 l(LN,2,20's-6 [email protected]) 8) 61 32 32 252 33 4. 2 r 7,0 63 OFMI A It"ek Fig. 29B . Section of NOAA Great Lakes chart no. 14963 - Grand Marais to Big Bay Point. 0 5 3 46 36'N-86 0 211w Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. (LR,1,20 s-60's) miles meters 720 2 0 2500 1 4 1108 to 1, Fig. 30 Section of NOAA Great Lakes chart no. 14963 Grand Marais to Big Bay Point. 46044-N-86004'W' Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. (41 0 miles meters 0 1 r- 638 0 0 0 0 4 0 2 0 2500 t22 .(C, 1 74-78.) 9 564 0 0 531, 0 0 0 501. 616 558 [email protected] 0 0 00 542 0 570 4 @414 -0 5 277 522 N 474 534 260 0 0 0 510 0 426 492 214 474 24 3 162 298 233 360 334 380 294 78 265 Its 97 G 90 68 305 65 168 84 58 59 85 66 60 5 [email protected] 327 99 70 56 46 P k 71 70 s 64 56 102 94 66 64 60 54 46 114 69 62 .59 61 51 85 S 61 61 56 56 46 51, G 52 2 78 (LP,1,74) 53 59 53 69 3 59 (LP,1, 74) 44 3 54 47 3 0 Rk 37 JW 1 58-78) 7. 32 GRAND MARAIS 0? [email protected] 253 0 420 *-10 'o-o #p 0 2JO0 .0"42 422 0 4p* 3510 0 0 V V V, 0 W, 0 0 40 40 40 0 (Ll 74-78) & . 0 320 '0 0 9 0 0 40 0 0 0 @0 0 0 GD800 0 0 w "0 0, 34 0 0 qb 0 0 0 352 0 64 0 4; 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 io 4100 0 0 0 0 0000 *30 0' 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0-* *2 0,* 0,01 00 Fig. 31 Section of NOAA 0 9 ASO 0 30. 0 0, _0 ;1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0' 0 0 0 chart no. 14962 - St. 0 0 0 248 to Au Sable Point. 0 VII 41 [email protected] 0 46046'N-85c'47 4!:- 0 4VdV 49 6 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 Souhdinqs in [email protected] IVot 0 0 164 0 00 0 luiles 00 0 0 ;34 109 67 0 )90 0 2 5 54 48 64 85 98 203 171 1 74. 52 56 61 ss 77 246 47 C's 47 64 41 34_ 57 59 4) 313 @@[email protected] 45 59 56 32 321 35 29 33 (!tLLIND) '@4 33 -3- 36 P-e (W,1,58-78) Bjj,d Sucker River 566 548 @52 [email protected],3 536 362 560 260 492 512 560 52e. 131, 486 530 526 386 272 201' Fig. 3 2 Section of NOAA Great Lakes chart no. .14962- St. Marys River .5qI to Au Sable Point. 3SO 268 402 46046'N-85031'W 175 Soundings in feet. -Not for navigation. 298 214 rdiles meters tic 0 2 0 2500 41, 183 125 446 428 298 90 384 328 3160 201 103 Ln 353 378 281 27 307 302 t57 82 0 M 262 325 238 70 45-78) 245 252 @92 ([email protected], S 221 199 71 51- 36 166 190 262 89 3 39 37 74 64 48 45 i 65 42 "V# 59 99 4,6 38 39 39 J'7 54' 47 42 ([email protected]) 43 41 S 35 (W,I 58 36 - - ------- _38 42 @(WR, 1 45- 11-10 Deer Par 423 Musk4nonge La" 44 M1.7 410 546 536, 159 93 94 84 155 98 Fig. 3 3. Section of NOAA Great Lakes chart no. 14962- St. Marys River 66 53 to Au Sable Point. 57 46049'N-85013'W 82 55 52 133 Soundings in feet. Not for'navigation.. t39 r miles meters 77 61 55 i 0, 2500 52 1 7 3 ------ - -- -- - 1 69 -1 78 66 48 108 263 24 q Unknown 99 66S 59 1 90 93 123 12l' 56 181 67 55 234 248 14r 92 87 61 208 185 4.6 216 223 128 10.5 5b 49 49 1 179 74 203 201 108 48 5 i so 47 52 170 65 174 168 55 44 45 45 .42 47 5 72 61 51 51 59 124 62 0,1,00's-30's) 98 38 (WL,l 20's-30's) 3 G, ----------- 31 14;@ @- (WL 1., ND G 73 A W 1, , N D) 54 55 A 35 58 48 48 4 9 (OM,1 ND) 54 1'2 181, 201. H4 223 13C, 131, 2 K) [email protected] 164 92 164 218 56 118 4 1 219 131 42 30 46 41, 148 180 165 76 55 0 S el 7 43 103 ?22 116 209 106 46 0 46 37 35 (W,1,58-78) 216 129 74 205 190 224 37 32 31 227 236 32 30 .203 162 HORN 0 Whimfl&h Puine .191 276 11aarbor 225 1,1/ 1; 166 89 33 199 272 293 QO 214 33 275 101 163 302 232 196 32 257 102 162 219 259 290 285 231, 192' 327 129 194, IN 32 2t6 235 277 327 N 177 167 182 215 117 J 32 15.4- 183 252 308 270 184 f82 52 114 144 171 272 283 ShOldrake.. 51 6 34 143 176 252 ----333 23t. t 0 110 318 4 [is 140 193 300 235 15 76 334 42 99 122 140 194 303 341 16 15 66 Fig. 34 . Section of NOAA Great Lakes 17 932 chart no. 14962 - St.. Marys River to Au Sable Point. 46 43'N-84057'W @21 38 Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. 19 63 miles meters Paradise is 22 31 2 0 2500 32" 21 74 79 82 96 199 14 32 48 11 1 18 60 101 69 76 265 314 20 73 115 39 257- 8 9 60 101 69 76 265 314 222 20 - 73 Is 39 88 164 5 [email protected] 28 S9 65 77 132- 313, 322 25f 20 39 64 9-Unknown 1 31 58 37 195 2 33 60 80 3 14 21 -2 30 52 Fig. 3 5 A.. Section of NOAA G 16 50 chart , no.14962- St. Mar 6 3 to Au Sable Point. 26 34 S 6 3 5 15 1 1 33 CS34 51 @46032-N-840541 20 1 27 31 54 Soundings in feet. Not fo 1 24 35 miles 2 2 51 2 0 1(y 1 1b 21 13' C/ 54 -206 - 212 r : I* %4.1.1d Ln Cr. 6 1 (W, 1 '20 S--78) 66 198 00 N 27 Is 51 200 9 14 3 33 TAHVUA NO A 72 169 43 6 12( 2( 2 - 19 21 36 5 :9C, 16 7 14 rky 16 17 20 17 6' : 39 63. 192 186 14- 16. 4(-Yl ND) - ISO 181 (W,1, ND @21 '35 11.9 [email protected] @[email protected] 103 /31 S 1.181 16 3.-, 3-2 170 r,r. 1 92 1'21 @'22 136 35 *)/14 ky 1 2S 4 !71 :C,7 (to 17 22' e" N. 29, 18 creek 20 5 (LN, I ND d 110 6 1 3 [email protected] 1 S 32 r2 - 51 e Unknown F @2 69 76 265 222 20 3 is 39 86 164 1 23 51 59 65 77 Q2 28 0 q 5 20 00 84 Fig. 3 5B Section of NOAA 3909 58 chart no. 14962 -- St. M 31 0 37 to Au Sable Point. 400321N-840541 3 14 21 a01 (LN,2,20 s-?) 80 16 3 Soundings in feet. Not 2so miles 22 20 34 10a 5 15 1 330 3 2 0 20 18 27 514 156 35 17 290 2D8 2 12 0 51 21o: 26 71 162 54 C/ 5 Is [email protected] J22 206 Lrv 31 3 9 j 20T uanienon 1420,11 6 15 1715 66 6 2 198 12 197 [email protected] ( W., -2 ND) 71 51 9 14' 3 200 f9a \\TA H QjU MENOAI(r 'B AYO (3 43 72 16S 2 '21 189 12 14 18([email protected] 14 18 36 77 rk @21 y J6 17 20 1,7. J*@ .23 27 26' 37 13 14 16 17 rkY 24 9 14 24 21 19 35 :Z.9 -&;,"/ 1-71' '@ 2 31 103 :18! iK, \-A, @7 2 3\1 12 22, 1 @30 6--- to, . 1 1 170 'N 16 32 92 14 )7 @22 35 :67 25 41 /[email protected],-" 31, 16 \20 Cr rk 14 ;52 I 2,tPE 2VD IL L S I M'\31 [email protected] jr 10, North bros Lap 187 Fig. 3 6 Section of NOAA M 101 187 125 chart no. 14962 - St. D 121 99 [email protected]! to Au Sable Point. 153 1380 106, 46029'N-8403; W5 t47 80 Soiindings in feet. Not los Jackson Islan miles Ito 123 13o 76 84 90 0 2 4 93 (LN,1,20's) 55 Unknown 92 87 [email protected] ee -2'XI-3f 31 3", .A 4 7 Z33 [email protected] e 3 40 41* &00 r5 (3-0 2 1 it .0 2 db I n, (H,1 47-63)- A @@, 5 21 2 1 33 m 3 to C? 12 NO, S 16 77 ,A21. kNK 12 AERZ 14117 2, M. froquu 9 S 23 19 Yonode 5* I'ma [email protected] on H Lake 17 is\ 19 '\1 IP Pi P9 fraquois 6. 5 o"j. A @4 4 7 6 Brush Point 14 SAoaLm 5 (LN,W,1,40's-?) S Lake - ,, 7 8 3 75 5 5 [email protected](LN,1,20-s-?) Mission 5 61 Q 10 36 a 27 10, n. 4 4 - 1 22 15 Mill 14 20 17 20 A BA Y (@7(4j 19\j [email protected]@Ir3 3_ 12 3 29 CARIBOU 30 j41 25 aN ISLAND 2, 1 19- 141 31* 23 21 2211 211, 3 13 104 37 82 14 24 [email protected] 19 1t?,4,42 R C 13 Li'h thous 10 VY.51 8 ' 128 11 -: 1 26 IS , 7 .6 I"o GPFJ([email protected] 21 t .I,, ,I I 9 "a7 44 111 V-637 112. F09 SO 60 see 24 1 ".1 t, I : .-- .,.. A 44 43 17 1 7-2 61?9 103 40 29 1 8 64 18 871 17 98 9 38 ;'4 20 8 60 21 28 A,1 12 10 91 [email protected] 16 33 36 "%%28 -2i 109 0 0 0 37 0 0 4848 0 (LH,LS,I,ND) 73 0 00. 40 Q 26, 44 0 0 00 o 310 0 0 50 57 00 9 41 0 69 0 O'd0 0 2 0 *3 0 !18 97 03000 4?20 0 89 94 000 0 024 0 4PO 51 49 0C1 0 36 06 N, 0020,00 0 7200'05,0 0, 028 90 00, 406 1 00 9 (LL,LH,LS,2,46-6()) 000 2002 100 00- 79 0 SDU 60BA91b 0 00 000 000o.6!7 000 00019000 97 0000 52 000320d,002 000 000 00- 00 ego 0000 76 00 0029 '00 (LL,1,ND) 00 0 0 0 00 001.0 0000 0 04000 000 0*00 0 0 000 -0 o O'p (LH,1,46-60) 0 00 79 001300 000 51 0 0000-0 0*0 00000064 410o 0 000 70 000 00000 000. 0 0 Fig.36.1. Section of CHS Great LakeSL chart no. 2310 - Caribou Island to Micbipicoten0Island. 47 16-N-85050'W Soundings in feet. Not for naviqation. miles mete rs 0 2 0 3000 CA L A U R 21 261 Fig. 36.2.. Section of CHS Great Lakes 14 chart no. 2310 - Caribou Island to 30 [email protected] a Michipicoten 0 Island. It 9'. 47 16-N-86000-W E9 - t,514 23 t 22 1 22 Soundings in feet. Not for naviqation. miles meters I I I I o0 2C 0 2 0 30 0 t -, W-t ba,,k, 2, 0 o oW-0 1 26 o 0 0 0 0 0,,,@ 28 17 .0 0 0 0 62, 0,6 o 0- 0''- 0 -*- o- 0 0 @26 [email protected] 0-4V--6 2 . - - --.- . - - I--- I- 0 41 -o 0 41, 0 0 0 0 0 0 [email protected] 0 0 0 IJ29 0 0 -0 0 0 oa o 0 0 to o o o 40 2 0 o o - -0,, 29 0 "oo.8 0 0 0 0 'lip 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0"w 4o 0 0 Oati 0 0 45* 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * 0 0 0 46206 0 0 27 9 9 9 f4 ja 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0. [email protected] 0 113 0 0 0 0 0 0 39 * (LL,LS, I ND) Ito 0 0 (LH, LS, I ND) 'a 0 0 63 156 * 46 40 0 71 41 0 78 50 0 Ob 61 102 411 95 76 69 62 123 0 0 0 49 0 09 0 30 0 oIS 0 a 0 0 09 3 Oi -0 0 0 41 0 1* 0 70 0 "0 59 0 24 0 o 03V 0, it, 0 O'i 6.' 0 0,2 to 0 00 0 0 4 [email protected] 1 '9 [email protected] is, , 78 0 0 0 o 0.0 05110 940 08 0 00 I o * " 1 .9 2 , 0 0, 0 0 [email protected]% 411 64 b I oto 0, 0 o 0 0 28 0,30., 0 0 0 0 0,0 a *.A 0 0 o' 0 o 09 @. 1 .9 0, ."I 1-0 -010 0 38 0 0 0 13 i. o 0 CIO 13 0 0 0 0 61 41 0 0, [email protected] 0 0 9. nib 0 4v go.o 0 0 0 0. 14 o qw "W, (LL,1,ND) 7A 0 0 01 0, 0 4, 0, -0 0o 0 0 0.'0 0 .0 0 (LH,1,46-60) 00 o [email protected] o 41- 0 0 0 0 0 0 A 5 00 04" o0 0 0 0 0 0 016: 4 o 99 262 7 s Fig. 37 Section'of NOAA Great Lake chart no. 14883- St. Mary River 3 Munuscong Lake to Sault Ste. Marie. Ail DaleL 46030'N-84015'W Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. miles meters WcFar Point Lx? f/I 0 1 0 1000 r -A/ -j RI lu Ba Min,srry of the GROUNDS NOT DEFINED ent f Environm ra ssa r0 sl P!in 3, L S J a -j loin A j ;PIRE 2 2 15 21 J119 ro 2' 2 r\) [email protected]: 4 Cn 3 (15 3 -p (3 4 14 0. i? - - @ [email protected] 3 2 Black t- SA 17 LT @7 Point 'T 2 2 0; 2 6 !0 IR A CHY '99 F G 32-19 S, M'99 Mission [email protected] Aertai Cable'@ 4 C.k St. Mjy, R Nev. Reg. 92,[email protected] AOM A) j;,Q 2 4 L: \3 uRSE 2 Fig. 38 . Section of NOAA Great Lakes chart no. 14883 - St Mary's River Muncscong Lake to Sault Ste. Marie 46030'N-84009'W Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. miles meters 0 1 0 1000 1 5e; GROUNDS NOT DEFINED (2 _20 2 (261 :A 3 6 13 16 10-16 16 t271 14 SPIRE 21 e, (28) P [email protected] Ch hville Poin I 7 5 7 15 20 I 12 17 25 30 33 29 39 41 2 19 26 43 5 12 28 45 43 . 46 47 4 3 50 2 7 0 2 .745 52 49 (bN 25 42 52 49 4 6 50 52 ------- 26 40 49 2 1r) 49 51 28 41 4 47 L 3 M 49 19 29 48 38 7 44 -t '24 30 44 11 43 0 5,, /.0 ..... ji2l 4 42 /39 36 26 [email protected] 1.0 34 21 "Ant 264 Fig. 39 Section of NOAA Great Lakes chart no. 14883 - St. Mary's River Munuscong Lake to Sault Ste. Marie. 46027'N-84013'W Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. miles meters 1 0 1 0 1000 F [email protected] - 2 A 140 !GROUNDS NOT DEFINED r ue 41, 1 2 2 6 T [email protected] 4He iloz,nl 2 J 2 [email protected] lAan VN o 21 740-1) 2 J, S 7 -3 2: 1.3 WwpPIe Poi 700-/ 21 2 2 '@7 2 2 2 Fig.40 Section of NOAA Great Lakes S.b- C,,b 3 chart no. 14883 St. Mary's River 2 2 2 2 Munuscong Lake to Sault Ste. Marie. 0 2 46 23'N-84011'W 3 Soundings in feet. Not r navigation. fo 4 miles meters 4 0 1 0 1000 1 2 4 4 Q7 5 3 GROUNDS NOT DEFINED 2 9 6 6 Ninemile Point 2 7 4 2 4 N) 4 Rat 7 2 12./ 1 3 2 2- 3 14 3 Ad 9 \2 [email protected] .6 Af (53 2 5 .3 3 16 4. 6 [email protected] 4 2 S011% 05 5 5 4 CIP 12 4 6 3 31 3 7 . 3 4 6 Al 4 0 3 6 4 C/ 3C1.1 4. A2 - _ 4\ 10 4 5 2 C' .3.\E Fig-41 Section of NOAA Great Lakes Nands .5 3 18 14883 - St. Mary's River chart no. Munuscong Lake to Sault Ste. Marie.. 46 017'N-84011'W Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. 3 miles meters r- I I I I --I COUR'E 0 1 0 1000 N Field Point Oak Ridge GROUNDS NOT DEFINED 2 :8 :tt @6 S LIM, 3 r 3 13 F1 R 45ec 32ft 5 St W30' [email protected] c. BSIM, 9 DO SE JD) I S H 3 10 i5 F1 R 4sec 24ft [email protected] 5 I G 4sec 241ft 4 M*2r ? 'I ---F CHANNCL Point of Woods Rande 02 F 26tt,, 2 Kirre Point 0 4 CF1 G 4sec 32ft 4 1 M'2 Dark H Ranaes \j N\ F ti 7 Cn 8 St. Mary$ R Nav. Rey. Part 92 (see,7ofe A) [email protected] 60 adind 1A F 46ft obric I I :N Nj Saw Mk1l Point I Y U Fig-42 Section of NOAA Great Lakes chart no. 14883 - St. Mary's River Munuscong Lake to Sault Ste. Marie. 0 46 201N-840101W lnduiin oin Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. miles i 1: meters C .9 0 1000 GROUNDS NOT DEFINED @4 10 9 Hom 2 2 3 (71) L/ 2' doll, 00 2 2 eeblh 3 @0 5 5 rky 5 2 2', 2 7 - COURSE 6 'S 6 2 4 3 Herwuod P 4 F 53ft 2 4 2 Lower Nicole Ranges Sand 4 F10 2 Island ,-660 3 680 SY Marys Rwer [email protected] P&rt 92 (s" note A) 2;b Hen 0 2 700 3 2 3 Cw 2 2 Won 3 12 Fig. 43 Section of NOAA Great Lakes chart no. 14883 - St. Mary's River Munuscong Lake to Sault Ste. Marie. F1 0 46 13'N-84014'w 2 Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. M miles meters 2 2 0 1 0 1000 3 2 GROUNDS NOT DEFINED 3 5 6 6 5 3 6 wwa. 3 6 2 4 2 C/ 8 4-u n ng lsland,:[email protected] !on- 44A4 2 3 4 7 2 7 2 2 4 2 36 '2 2 2 3 6 3 2 4 2 2 3 3 2 35 3 3 3 7 2 f 2 2 4 4 2 4 5 2 3 4 3 4 5 2 7 4 3 C/ 34 2 2 3 6 2 2 2 2 5 4 2 2 -2 2 2 3 3 3 4 3 2 3 2 3 3 Stmmboat Wand 2 2 2 3 3 % 3 3 3 1 3 2 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 3 23 3 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 Pine Islandq- 2 2 2 2 2 2 22 Gulk Istant 2 3 600 20 2 1 2 2 A4 2 2 pawp Dan's Cab,ns 269 Fig. 44 Section,of NOAA Great Lakes chart no. 14883 - St. Mary's River Munuscong Lake to Sault Ste. Marie. 45013'N-86011" -3 Soundings in feet. Not Yor navigation. miles meters 0 0 1000 36) 21 2 6 D 6 GROUNDS NOT DEFINE 2- 4 39 4 @' @3 [email protected] 56 3 2 2 F 45fl 2 16 717 (@ -- C/ .3 2 34 2 20. 6/ 13- ) 3 7 4 2 2 6 7 34 4 2 2 24/ 12! 2 6 7 Moon ]at- nid 55 10 10 4 3 5 8 9 12 8 8 912 4 2 24 P 34 5 15 I Ii3 3 2 4 4 6 2 17 10 10 5 6 15 13 2 6 2 1 J r7 10 11 13 2 1(89 9 14 [email protected] 7 310C i4 7 6 6 711 11 10 13 7 6 11 10610 13 16 '13 90 11 [email protected] 13 15 @5 12 14 10 11 14 19 22 028 216 24 23 [email protected]'l 3 12 13 6 3 17 ___40 230 38 712 -- --8 37 @@-2-5122 23\ I.- @10 10 1 13 1,2 8 9d27 43 14 7 78 14 417 17 26-- [email protected], 21 r2-6 5 512 1 18 8 \6 3 3) 13 6 . I - C I ., [email protected], 6 10 10 8 --" 12 12 9 15 17\ 21 5 9 2 7 21 4 12 4, 10 8 \2 - 6 18 5 7 8 a 9 13 18 rky4 19 5 6 5-03 77 7 12 6 6__" 6 @-- 8 3 6 6 5 5 3 03 4 2 5 46 5 2 4 6 4 @6k Y 6 3Roach Point Birch 5 4 4 4 3 4 3 .3 [email protected]@ 344. 5 2 4 Pilot islando 2 2 \'o" 2 4 3 "J6 4 6 ) 12 13 @12 7 @6 Bi P. 270 Fig.45 Section of NOAA Great Lakes chart no. 14883 - St. Mary's River Munuscong Lake to Sault Ste. Marie. 46011'N-84004"W Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. miles meters 1 1000 2L, 4% 3f1 2. INED 12 GROUNDS NOT DEF [email protected]: ' 4,\ 3 0 20, 2D 3 2 lot, 4 4. (13) 14 2 5 4 \2 4 17 S0 22. 39 5 2 3 5 -, 9 1- N 6 2 \@@ 23 14 1, 29' \3 \22 2113 6 23 15 760 195 31,,\ 6 13 40,N, 4 25 21823 0 i202 A) 0163 31) 25 1-1 20 2 \13 2 11 4'. C4 2 4 1 N 'I, 2 14 2 3 3 302 4 6 @6\ 128 \ 18 2 30 2 2 4 12 29 22 5 29 6 7 13 \20 2042 2 2 4 5 2 3 2 9 [email protected] 25 1 3 5 14 1201, 26 27 24 18 12 3 5 16 [email protected], 19 26 20 13 17 1 3 [email protected] Mary's F. 2 2 6 'Pa,'92(see, fe 13 - IE 20 2 26 1 24 20 1 16 C 4 9 14 19 3 2 27 27 3 3 7 12 f6 20 \19 @3 23 2 18 14 2 15 24 2 ftwer 5 6 7 12 16 20 28 24 24 23 18 1 9 3 14 20 [email protected] S It 1618 22 25 @30- 2 5 12 20 31 A4 17 .3 \5 23 3 Twin [email protected] 5 K 10 81 18 20 34 26 2 0 29 --- 4 2 3 \4 2 23 17 2 4 7 9 Ro6nd Islana 10 ` @Q , I /', 11 20/;6 9 is 24 \@@ 2 2 1 [email protected] @ 13 @4 _,X7 9 10 It 10 , ?: 4 17 1 2, 6 IE 201, I-S 15 22 17 , [email protected] 6 '14 9 10 7 C51, 1 13 18 [email protected] 2-1,, 6 11, Iz 3 9 9 H 12 1 11 13 1/741") E 4 0319 5 :7 AY [email protected] 28 19/ 17 14 2 0 17 141// iRABER B 4 + 1 7 8 16 13 3 [email protected] 9 @S) 10 [email protected] 17 M 9 12 13 15 17 25 31 26 22 Is 18 3 P;, i 4 5 9 14 13 18 14 20 -b 7 :7 C- ,I f, " i i 24 17 a 35 34 27 24 2-- 2 14 p. 112 16 Raber.`@, 9 12 19 22 Hart 2 6 22 22 21 600 i 6 3V' 1, [email protected] 3 38 24 23 lkt CO 3 29 2 28 26 25 1,e Coa 0-11 3 [email protected] 40 25n C oaf 38 25 \10 r 25 52 Af 118 026 35 8 2. 1 36 29 521 38 36 08 2 2i 24 30 20 1 5 46 8 43 @\22 22 19 4 30 3 GROUNDS NOT DEFINED 21 40 7 21 5 24 19 2 -:f 26 24- 23 2 Fig. 46 Section of NOAA Great Lakes 42 25 chart no. 14882 - St. Mary's River 50. 28 4 20 2 '-\42 28 46005'N-84003-W 2,3 50 58 Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. 20 25 46 miles meters 22 46 65 11 13 3 1 0 1000 24 56 68 63 1\7- 818(- 0 57 Fig.47 . Section of NOAA Great Lakes. 48 so 5 chart no.14882 - St. Mary's River 16 25 21 1 817 46 0 06'N-83 0 491W 1940/ 2 22 --, 17 47 30 27, 2 Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. 5 @/x 15 ,3 miles me ers 2 2C 13 2C 9 2 19 10 1 0 110 5 1) 3 2 39 54 9 37 38 35 45 54 BURST ISLAND 4' 48 .9 48 4 2/88 42 51 Norris [email protected] 9 %', i %V 10 39 48 4; 9 'k, 40 30 3a Sponce Lsl"[email protected] 2 @74 2W L SON 0 Q 45 32 2 [email protected] 12 51 30 k /6 -, 1 /7 4 ISLAND 9f2 51 51 V7 1 [email protected] Is] @.d J9 49 \,, 2 47 19 0 37 48 16 Harri .5 K'-- @ - I 23 if (\Xf 42 37 42 3 7 2 115 1 *2 2 39 51 21 0 45 f5 14 16 @15 9) 10 13 11 48 2 39 47 39. 27 21 17 0 42 @X, @q 30 27 19 13 37 _, 24 31 39 19 13 14 39 60 42 1 17 15 17 12 19 2 16 32 45 24 39 33 2, 18 54 27 13 Twin Sister Island 39 30 20 21 16 51 0 73 43 36 , 1.) 27 23 23 21 1 22 23 S.6d I m 57 41 45 1 30 Not 230 " &YC' 24 1 \30 3 28 Macomb 22 !2 @2 ong Wand 27 [email protected] J24 11-: Sf'*' 23 Island 39 - 27 45 45 W5 - SJ6M-Y.d 33 57 7 30 2; jo stake'.P 25 28 27 J\, 69 29 23 739 48 subm ed, 30 Not S 5 7 21. 45 37 24 Maple 4 14 11 39 45 [email protected] 19 5 54 27 221 18 16 Island C, 11 26 d*trson 2: 99 43T 39 2 'r*= 5 24 3-8p 14956 42 40 47 - 39 ST., 27215 [email protected] I Isf, 3hoal 39 214 2 5 43 19 17 P 157 20 18 (1/1,1 09-'67) 37 24 14 21 17 ff A 11 C1 r__ 27 16 21 31, 13 acon 1,1,nd ,[email protected] Inland 2- @ 30 29r 24 43 26 102 2 041 40 27 If 4 (W,1,09-67) CD 36 33 45 4 44 38 35 29 39 0q22 43 38 33 32 282 [email protected] 12 38 39 39 35 92 27 A 44 15 29 30 36 31 41 313 @@033" 0 1 117 45 33 42 [email protected] 29 24 39 45 r 43.3 38 43 [email protected]"219 2' Z4 2 19 (V271 334 33 / 57 3' 43 A 1-J), 39 21 .4 42 39 32 30 33 28 26 -44 \ Rog Islam 39 All 6 - 25 2 4 V(33 45 [email protected],Gull Island chertey hoal 57 45 36 36 '3 2-1 24 21 ///40 [email protected]_dq.d 40 40 3 7 L 29 27 W., st.Adj 46 30 Ilowurd 0 42 36 .3 .3 .3 IsLa" 77 46M 37 25 17 -) 69 39 -3 - 24 22 /28 .19 3C 33 4 41 45 39 Wreck lial 1 21 138 36 42 38 33 I su-Yora lbhum:1 24 2 22 45 40 20 41 4 42 43 42 39 38 -3 15 ia 16. 39 43 14 14' 78 45 45 42 43 33 31 27 39 M 2 5 4 rrow w ani 3 38R 10 a--/ I Cable 1 1 38 39 35 39 erle 36 1V121 42 11 6R21 5 3*4 '36 36 32 ua,,y 16 42 27 21 '@[email protected] 2ky 42 36 '32 2 @@l0 @,Z, 3) Pos, Oil. 33 41 23 16 32 Aj Y", @3, 2STURGE 0N 17/ @26 35 033 [email protected], 00 40 @30 .213 [email protected] ghby Is 0 30 38 34 ]oullhby, 1. .Xi 30 '.'1- -5 227 2H6640 32 30 30 [email protected],,Y 333 27 2' Strickland Poin BA Y 27 19 24 21225 29 3 i3 30 12 26 32VOP t Island 20 delaido Wand 273 22 0)@ [email protected] 'uirbank Wand 27 24 ,6 -' . " @,,, I 114 23 29 29 24 p4- 19 T5 .3 236 18 24 21 26 26 RA 24 .3 19 17 25 25 g 1 10 18 222 _!,11Qz) 22 22 @2 321, "1 21 1. 10 22 17 22 PIGEON 16 !'3 19 C 0 V, PY) 12 Cove 1ADnd Fig. 48 Section of NOAA Great Lakes. 20 20 19) chart no. 14882 - St. Mary's River N 0 0 q 46 01'N-83 47'W 0 14 Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. miles meters 0 0 1000 !,@70 @01 30 274 62 at 75 51 [email protected],r,ky 1 74 75 7 1 63 N 75 Ch"PlIew(I Bank 63 63 M 69 57 63 51 so 63 63 38 48 52 57 53 (LN,1,09-67) 33 77 39 + 0 39 + 5 5144 Ppewa Grand Mar - 5,4. 36 37 4e% Fig. 49 Section of NOAA Great Lakes. 48 lk P chart no. 14882 - St. Mary's River. 46 0 04'N-83 0 43 1W ---, Al 2S-'\: 4 22 @@int Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. Tni I P-,; ers r M9 27 22 14 24 20 I'S 20-L2 n 1 no() 3 [email protected] 1 2 D 1, 6 Ij @-2\1 16 12 6 6 12 817 \\-5- 7 !/1 17 5(D8 10 22 13 14 1 4 16 16 16 7 2 (V,1,1971 5 14 15 19 IT 16 12 10 Is Ciall 4 18 169 to to 4 18 Jolla, It a 17 (YP, to\ I*1 110 1a110 1,09-67) 7 (PN,1,09-67) 11121 4- Is I Islam= Ml 101 1 011 19 19 9 90111,1416 Ro 11 4 so 1 18 S 5 at 19 9 e will 04 H I^ d 6 20 0169. 1 9 . SCOrT DA If 13 110 20 16 Ib 0 G I in 4 17 19 17 3 16 19 Is to 16 E) Jim I.Ind 19 20 17 11 e , e e 16 is Ashman land L d @2O 8 U) 1; 24 Grupe 8 CIO 1 9 3 23 169 00 18 (22 22 161.3 e (- 1 10 () 1? 91 18 2 [email protected] 14 9 9 11 13 9 17' to ULPoome lsluM 13 + 6 e 7 15 we 10 9 9 3, 7/ 18 7 gg + 18 \& N,0M,I1 (P 18 U10 '0 14 0 PW,1,09- 275 Fig. 50 . Section of NOAA Great Lakes chart no. 14909 - Upper Green Bay 10 45 0 091N-870351W 6 21 Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. 416 miles meters 11 17 22 1 612 7 3 0 2 2000 13 2 14 29 C/ 16 9 - Unknown 16 15 24 34 15 IS 20 2 29 63 16 18 22 24 26 28 - 2 /Ic (61) 17 - 24 36 / r/z- 9 01 ' 114M1002 rky 26 262 4 5 18 24 27335 41 Is 23 29 32 23 47 17 0 :23 6 495 18 '44 35 e- , q3221 729 31 e9to 4524 26 30 389 6 19G 32 9 2 E) Is126 E)9 23 �e5l. .69 34 9 q9ee (YP,1 9 ..'Q R .e 9 09ee 3 21 e 9F4 -69)2 24 31 99q TA' K is. 16 22 99 Menomine FR 30 410 19, a9e 200 99 9e County S.TA K 22 36 69 2 S Q Airport AERO De 28 40 19 e r MINEE 14 35- 9 91 .13 17 19 23 29 32 9 0a 60 71 72 17 43 (OM,1,35-69) 34 75 51 62 69 2? 06 S C 4 28 54 65 74 77 231 IAMW % 71 OC 2 4 3614234 47 64 76 M A INETTE 2 434 44 71 C/ 2 9 74 39 3R 71 3 VicIN`61 59 71 00 S Meneka"nee Shoat 65 51 60 C/ -N J 0 276 Fig. 51A. Section of 'NOAA Great Lakes 2 17 11 21 chart no. 14909 - Upper Green Bay 45 017'N-87 0 25'W 17 14 18 213 32 Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. 21 21 miles meters 16-, 2 0 2 2000 18 41 & 18 32 69 40D) (BL,BS,1,50's-78) 1 0 63 77 (L,1, 20 S-50,S) 4 6 0 9 - 12 20 62 83 7 14 %lb. 2 16 18 7V, (WL,1,20's-40's) 87 Arthur Bay. 10 v 5-0's)_ v Rocharee,, 44 68 81 91 36 95 11 13 14 44 69 so 6 12 14 1 83 92 99 12 Is 16 47 17 6 12 14 16 26 45 83 91 so too 5 is 24 it 21 44 74 90 92 98 102 30 2 17 21 1 17 1 20 71 82 95 99 104 105 16 4 21 2 15 35 63 75 e6 97 98 104 104 12 16 28 2 It 16 19 227 62 71 so 94 lot 105 404 107 17 18 32 5 (L,l, N 71 87 go 102 104 109 104 .10 4 616 2118 44 42 52 S 71 80 92 100 104 109 96 100 11 22 89 , 17 7 34 101 3 1 277 Fig. 51B . Section Qf NOAA Great Lakes 2 17 ti 21 chart no. 14909 - Upper Green Bay 45 0 17'N-87 0 251W 14 23 1rky 17 18 32 Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. 21 2,I- miles meters f 2 0 2 0 0 18 18 32 41 29 69 (BL,BS,I, 50's'78) 17 13njjO 50 63 77 9 J, 12 62 83 ;0 71 67 Arthur Bay. 1 4 (Y,1,50's-78) 17 @(A,1,63-78) ei 91 eat) P04,1 -- - I 1 17 7% so 95 190 69 13 6 12 Ik C/ 83 92 99 4 12 Is 16 47 17 1 6 12S 14 16 26 45 83 91 96 100 35 2 Is 24 .21 74 qO 92 98. 102 2 17 21 30 -(C,1 35-69) - 1 17 1 20 7,6 M of 99 104 IM 4 16 a " 2 21S n Is 35 630 A11799 a at 98 104 104 12 28 16 5 2 11 22 6, a 101 105 A4 104 f07 I is 7 17 .32 15 2 5 5 36 192a M MM No 102 104 109 104 19 w M M, a M 10 21 2 6 Is 42 1 12 @Ib 100 100 4 16 44 104 109 96 22 17 89 34 M 101 278 Fig. 52 Section of NOAA 55 69 82 chart no 14909 - Upper Cedl& River qL 4 22 42 45022'N-87 0 21' 307 5 G) 2 51 65 74 go Soundings in feet.. Not fo 5 miles 3 17 1 35 g 23 0 .1. 56 74 N 94 95 101 107 15 20 13 36 J.W.Wel 1 0 23 so 64 75 92 93 98 100 104 114 Stifle PiLrk U 5 14 41fky Q27 At 4 56 33 74 79 [email protected], 91 9S 98 04 103 107 5 17 40 60 63 68 72 to 91 is 97 Ilof .102 107 125 Q04 S a V S If 21 045 107 0 '2?)11' 41 ' 23 so 70 78 80 87 93 99 104 106 100 181 ky Whabback Shoal 32 C1 21 21 64 74 82 90 95 99 103 103 104 (L,3,15-50's) 32 69 as 86 87 9S so 102 103 103 102 122 10 4P7191 0 16. 28 4 C/ 33 63 77 85 89 93 93 402 103 103 C/ 116 51 104 104 CIF 83 99 93 97 1011 103 103 103 104 128 SI 74 Cr @//[email protected] 2117 2 73 Fig. 53 . Section of NOAA Great Lakes 2 chart no. 14909 Upper Green Bay 1.0 0 58 7 45 24-N-87'20'W 15 Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. miles meters --" 17 S, 015 35 62 73 79 2000 0 9-Un known (YP,l 35-69) 66 "o 80 2 3 68 72 so 4 Deadmans Poin 2 22 44 57 76 83 21 38 2 55 69 82 86 22 Ceder 4 -River (LN,I, 20's-50's) 420c 3aft 7 A 65 74 80 85 Q (4) 51 (LP.1.?-7 -17 46 21 23 35 1 15 56 74 so. 84 89 36 26 23 so 64 75 84 92 9-1 JAV. Weils State Park 0 5 14 41 a2 56 33 74 79 89 91 95 4 4 12 17 40 60 63 69 72 so 91 96 97 21 2 17 11 14 23 50 Be 70 78 80 87 93 99 1 17 18' '32 5 21 21 66 71 73 82 90 95 99 103 1 20 is 41 9 18 32 69 86 86 87 95 98 102 103 10 - 17 to 50 63 77 05 89 93 98 102 103 103 Ic 103 103 10" to 62 83 89 93 97 101 a 20 20 @41 35 280 3 41 30 S U 35 20 0 r kv (DO 36 a 2 -35 19 36 37 36 35 40 38S 42 2 15 1 2 44 41 45 45 292 39 /6 2 30 44 44 47 48 5( 12 26 36 10 r, 47. 49 50 54 54 15 ' 36 2 1 38 51 50 55 59 60 59 35 91 56 55 62 62 62 63 1 35 3 56 57 59 62 65 68 71 18 36 28 38 60 48 63 68 69 78. 73 27 30 25 56 62 GROUNDS NOT DEFINED 82 85 115 24 5 Fig. 54 Section of NOAA Great Lakes 11 27 chart no. 14909, - Upper Green Bay Fox 3 S 42 45 0 33''N-87015'W 1 21 29 Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. Is miles meters 38 58 0 2 0 2000 2 4 6 2 58 75 S 76 81 82 82 88 95 91 15 16 17S Is 35 62 73 79 78 85 85 90 97 99 20 20 15 14 40 66 so 89 82 83 94 97 103 C 194 9 21 18 211 24 54 L 0 6,k-vl @2 9 235Z 281 [email protected] 13 14 12 I Q is 2l 5 to 14 3 2,, \4 AA A.A 13 1 9 12 & A 10 64// A A i2A I A A '1 14 11 14J A 4, AA A A A A, A A A A A IL -A AAA' 6\ A A -A A A A A A A A A A A, I A it A A &AA A A A AAAAAA A [email protected] 4y:2 A A A 1 @ A" A A A A A A A AA [email protected],, A A A A A A A A AAag A A L 5 A A A A A'& A A.AA A . A A A A A' A A A A A AA A A A " A A A A A 3 A A A A AA & A A is A I ,A A A A A-AA A A A6 41L N) 12 A A A A A, CO A A A AA k A 3--) A A JL A A- A A A 4 A AA A A A 4, A 31 A A. AA A [email protected] 33 A [email protected]@ A 35 31 t S - A 32 A (A 32 38 A 33 A' 36 36 (H, 1 ?-40) 32 123 :37 36 300 31 32 123 35 38 S 24. Fig. 55 Section of NOAA Great Lakes chart no. 14908 - Dutch Johns Point to 124 44 4! 45 39 Fishery Point 45037'N-87008'W Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. .' 16 47 36 44 its miles meters I r 0 @2 0 20bO Fig 56 Section of NOAA Great Lakes RELAY MAST chart no. 14908 - Dutch Johns Point to M Fishery Point North Escawnab 2 45043'N-87008'W Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. miles meters I I --I ---------- 0 2 2000 1k TANKC) R-, OT DEFINED GROUNDS N Delta coutr Co A-p- 6 5 r7Z: @,6 9 Fishery oint .11 f4,\99 Fo Ve 35 010 1 94 ([email protected] 4 12 12 14 14 1 12 11 ,y to rky 12 13 14 rky [email protected] "N", ([email protected] 4 C.,_7 I 1(5 10 14 17 3 Fig. 57 Section of NOAA Great Lakes chart no. 14908 - Dutch Johns Point to Fishery Point 45051'N-87000'W 6 Soundings in feet. Not for navigation. 4 miles meters 0 A 6 0 A e Unknown A- .A 19 A 2 20 21 22 25 M 26 3 29 24, 2 Kiplin 31 1113 41A" 50 2 33 MASTO 25 2 2 29 23 23- -3 36 3(PW,PS,Y,l ? -40) 0 - 46 Ch 0 fitinte Point 0 LADSTON E 35 4r2q) A, 50 s-78) U.-W Point LL A/ 27 [email protected] 4 35 2 27 1'. 40 [email protected] 29 -.AA. A 2 2 d j&AA 26 4 44 30 2 3 36 36 4 R U451, 40 A A 38 38 A 4 43 A A 2 39 A A Ik -A 37 AAA 4 A A