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A SURVEY OF WOODED -DUNE AND SWALE COMPLEXES IN. MICMGAN prepared by: Patrick Comer, Associate Ecologist Dennis Albert, Program Ecologist Michigan Natural Features Inventory Natural Heritage Program 5th Floor Mason Building Box 30028 - Lansing, Mi. 48909 for: Michigan Coastal Management Program Land md Water Management Division, MDNR (CZM Project 13C-4.0) Submitted May, 1993 TABLE OF CONTENTS iv Abstract ................................................................... . Introduction .......................... :*,*,**''***''**''****''*'***'*'''***''* 1 Methods ..................................................................... 4 Data Analysis ........................................................... 7 Results and Discussion .......................................................... 10 Occurrences in Michigan and the Great Lakes Region ............................. 10 Plant Communities ....................................................... 11 A Preliminary Classification of Michigan's Wooded Dune and Swa@e Complexes ......................................... 26 Protection Status and Priority Rankings ........................................ 36 The Upland/Wetland Ecotone ............................................... 39 Plant Species Frequencirs .................................................. 39 Conclusions .................................................................. 41 Acknowledgements ............................................................. 44 References ................................................................... 44 APPENDIX I: Site Summaries for Complexes Sampled during 1992 ......................... 46' APPENDIX II: Topographic/Natural Area Boundary Maps for Complexes Sampled during 1992 ..................................................... 84 APPENDIX III: Location Maps for Counties with Complexes Sampled during 1992 ........................................................... 108 APPENDIX IV: Summary Data for Three Representative Complexes ......................... 127 APPENDIX V: Mean Frequency Data for Vascular Plants and Mosses Found in Michigan's Wooded Dune and Swale Complexes ................................ 145 APPENDIX VI: Explanation of Element Ranking Criteria ................................. 157 H 16@2 LIST OF TABLES 1. Site Name, Location, Presettlment Vegetation, and Comments on Current Condition for 70 Historical Wooded Dune and Swale Complexes in Michigan ................... 11 2. Similarity Indices of Plant Species Erorn Representative Sites for each Wooded Dune and Swale Complex sub-type .................................... 30 3. Ranked Listing of Michigan Wooded Dune and Swale Complexes, by Sub-type ............... 37 4. Summary of Location, Acreage, Biological, Ownership, and Comments on Conservation for each complex sampled during 1992 ........................... 49 5. Special Plants, Special Animals, and High Quality Natural Communities Associated with Wooded Dune and Swale Complexes Sampled in 1992 ............... 51 LIST OF FIGURES 1. Wooded Dune and Swale Cornplexes in Michigan .................................... 4 2. Location of sample points for selected flagged swales for sampling the upland/wetland ecotone ......................................... 8 3. Aerial photograph of the Grand Traverse Bay complex ................................. 18 4. a-. Mevational transect and corresponding wedand coefficients for the Sturgeon Bay complex .................................................... 21 b: Illustration of the vegetation associated -with a 150 meter portion of the transect at Sturgeon Day ................................................ 22 5. a: Mevational transect and coiTesponding wetland coefficients for the Ogontz Bay complex ................................................ 23 b: Illustration of the vegetation associated with a 150 meter portion of the transect at Ogontz Bay ................................................. 24 6 -a: Elevational. transect and corresponding wetland coefficients for the Grand Traverse Bay Complex .......................................... 27 b: Illustration of the vegetation associated with a 150 meter portion of the transect at Grand Traverse Bay ........................................... 28 7. Elevational transect for the Point Aux Barques complex ................................ 31 8. Elevational transect for the Iron River complex ...................................... 35 9. Wooded Dune and Swale Complexes Sampled in 1992 ................................ 47 ABSTRACT In 1991, a two year project to survey the Wooded Dune and Swale Complexes along Michigan's Great Lakes shoreline was initiated by the Michigan Natural Features Inventory (MNFI) with funding through the Michigan Coastal Management Program. The primary objective of the survey was to inventory, classify, and characterize these oz)mplexes in Michigan using both biotic and abiotic factors. Additional objectives included 1) determining appropriate natural-area boundaries for protection planning, 2) ranking each complex by natural-area quality and priority for protection, and 3) to develop a plant species list from these complexes indicating the rrlative frequency of occurrence for each species in upland vs. wetland. Of the 90 to 95 Wooded Dune and Swale Complexes that once occurred within the Great Lakes Region, 70 were located in Michigan. Of these, 40 examples that retain significant undisturbed natural character were quantitatively sampled for this study. Elevations measured along numerous transects; indicated that, for the most part, water found within the wet swales of these complexes are of inland origin. In a few examples, the sandy bottoms of several swales was found to be below the current Great Lakes water levels. However, the hydrology of many Wooded Dune and Swale Complexes is directly tied to adjacent rivers which flow through, or immediately adjacent to, many complexes. A tremendous diversity ofplant species and communities within Michigan's Wooded Dune and Swale Complexes was documented by this study. The vegetation of blichigan's complexes was used to establish five complex sub-types, which reflect the north-south variation in plant distributions within Michigan, and the relative extent of wind- sorting vs. water-lain processes vid:iich formed each complex. In complexes where water-lain processes were predominant, wetland plant coramunities were more abundant than in complexes where wind-sorting processes were predominant. This report summarizes findings for the complexes throughout the state, describing distinguishing factors for the five complex sub-t,.rpes. A list of the 631 vascular plant, moss, and algae species, along with their relative frequencies in upland and wettand is included. Summaries and natural area boundary maps for complexes sampled during 1992 are also included. tv ilk INIRODUCTION The current pressure for development along Michigan's Great Lakes shorelines calls for careful resource planning based on thorough ecological analysis. There is a need for additional information to supplement our understanding of Great Lakes shoreline ecosystems and their dynamics. Detailed studies of Great Lakes ecosystems can provide the basis for shoreline conservation and protection as development proceeds. Wooded Dune and Swale Complexes, considered a distinctive natural community composed of upland and wedand features, are found in embayments and sand spits along the Great Lakes shorelines. Most were formed in two stages, with progressively dropping take water levels and post-glacial uplift beginning with the glacial Lake Algonquin levels approximately 12,000 years ago, and again with the Lake Nipissing water levels 3-4000 years ago. (Dorr and Eschman 1970). The receding take levels deposited a series of sandy beach ridges ranging from 0.5 to 4 meters high. From the air, these ridges appear as a series of arcs, extending intand up to 2 miles, generally parallel to the present shoreline. In several examples, beach ridges were also built up and re-sorted by wind, creating higher, somewhat irregular dune ridges. These complexes are often best developed where post-glacial streams entered an embayment. The flow of surface and ground water through these ridge complexes to the Great Lakes often results in the development of wet swales between each beach ridge. In a few of Michigan's complexes, the bottoms of the first few swales lie below current Great Lakes water levels. The water levels in these swales are therefore directly tied to Great Lakes water level fluctuations. With time, plant succession has proceeded to the point where the beach ridges are now forested while the wet swales are either forested or open wetlands. Using criteria established by the network of Conservation Data Centers established by The Nature Conservancy, these natural communities are not considered to be globally imperiled. But, they are considered globally rare, and are limited to the Great Lakes 0 region in North America. In Michigan, where they are characteristic shoreline communities, there are 410 examples with significant undisturbed natural character remaining. OBJECTIVES: The primary purpose of this study was to inventory, classify, and characterize the Wooded Dune and Sw@ale Complexes along Michigan's Great Lakes shoreline. Complexes of high natural-area quality were identified, and both biotic and abiotic data were collected. The study had seveml additional objectives, including 1) to rank each complex by natural quality and priority for protection, 2) to determine appropriate boundaries for all areas of high natural-area quality for the purpose of their eventual protection, and 3) to develop a plant species list from these complexes indicating the frequency of occurrence for each species in uplands vs. wetlands. FORMAT: This report first documents the methods used for identifying and sampling each 2 complex. This will be followed by a discussion of known historical distribution of these complexes in Michigan, and throughout the Great Lakes region. The preliminary classification of Wooded Duine and Swale Complexes will follow,with descriptions of the plant communities and species associated with each complex type, and ranked listings of complexes for developing protection priorities. This is followed by a brief analysis of plant species associated with the upland/wetland ecotone in these complexes. Appendices I, II, and III include site summaries, natural area boundary maps, and county location maps for each of the 22 sites of high natural-area quality sampled during 1992 (equivalent site summaries and maps for complexes sampled during 1991 are found in P. Comer and D. Albert 1991). Appendix IV includes floristic data from three representative complexes. Appendix V includes a complete listing of vascular plants and mosses found within the complexes state-wide, along with their relative frequencies in upland and wetland. And finally, Appendix VI provides a summary of criteria for r anking the natural-area qualities ofeach complex. 3 METHODS During 1991 and 1992, 70 Wooded Dune and Swale Complexes located along the Lake Huron, Lake Michigan, and Lake Superior shorelines were identified for this study based on aerial photograph interpretation and analysis of topographic maps. The field notes of the original land surveys of Michigan conducted by the General Land Office between 1816 and 1855 ivere analyzed to determine the dominant presettlement vegetation of each complex. Disturbance history was then determined using 1938, 1978, and 1986438 aerial photographs (Figure 1). Highly developed or recently disturbed sites were not sampled. For sites where little disturbance was apparent, potential natural-area boundaries were established using aerial photographs, and land ownership information was also gathered. Sites were visited during May of each year to collect qualitative data related to the amount of recent human disturbance and to determine optimal transect locations for quantitative sampling of natural-area quality sites. Of the 70 sites initially identified for the study, 20 were determined not to be of natural-area quality and 10 could not be sampled because permission to enter the property could not be obtained from the landowner. The remaining 40 sites were determined to be of natural.-area quality and were quantitatively sampled during July and August of 1991 and 1992. One sampling transect was taken at each site. Transects were located so as to cover a representative cross-section of ridges and swales and to minimize sampling within areas disturbed by human activities such as timber/wildlife management, road construction, etc. The exact location of the transect, within the above constraints was 4 Figure 1: Wooded Dune & Swale Complexes in Michigan 0 QUANTITATIVELY SAMPLED Kavi QUALITATIVELY SAMPLED Ontonagon Barage Gogewc Luos, Iron Alger Schoolcraft Chippam Mackinac Dickinson Defta anornin Ernrnet ChdxW Chart x Presquelsis Alpena Antrim Otsego ordincrei icy Ledanau 0 Grand Kftk-km Crawford 01 Alo,,n, Traverse Weedbird saukee Ogernaw 10BOO oscornrinc n Mason Lake Osceola Clare GladvAn Ajenao Huron Oceans Nemygo, Msocsta Isabella Midland Bay Tuscola Sanlac Mantolem Saginaw Muskegon - Gratlot Ot1WM Kent lords Clinton Shiams, Ganesse, LaP- St. Clair Allegan Barry Eaton Ingham Livingst Oakland Van Buren num Calhoun Jackson Washiteraw Wayne an Cass St. Joseph Branch Hillsdale Larawee Monroe established randomly. W@ere no constraints e--dsted, the starting point along the shoreline was chosen randomly. Transects were aligned perpendicular to the prevailing orientation of the beach ridges using aerial photographs and a magnetic compass.' At sites where roads e@dst parallel to the shoreline, the transect was begun from the first ridge inland from the road. A 30 meter POIY-ChLd Rope Chain was used to measure the distance between sample points to the closest meter. Alignment of the transect was maintained with a magnetic compass. The vvidth of each swale was measured and sample points were located at the center of each ridge and each swale along the transect. The number of sample points varied with the size of the compley, but 15-20 ridges and 15-20 swales were sampled for each transect. Vegetation was sampled using a 1 square meter ft-ame constructed with 3/4" diameter plastic (PVC) tubing. For each plant species within the sampling frame, coverage values were recorded. Coverage values of 1-5 were estimated, denoting 1-20%, 21-40%, 41-60%, 61-80% and 81-100% coverage classes, respectively. Plant species occurring outside of the sampling frame, but within 2 meters of the sample point were noted as present with a check mark. Plants not identified in the field were collected for later identification. Using the same coverage classes, plant groups classified as submerged. vegetation, emergent vegetation and moss cover were estimated within the sampling ft-ame and recorded. Overstory tree species (greater than 4.5" diameter at breast height) were sampled from each sample point using a Basal Area Factor 10 prism and recorded using a dot tally on the sampling form. 6 Sampling at each point also included determination of the wetland/upland type, 0 water depth of swales (both in May and in August where possible), depth of soil organic material (in centimeters) and soil texture. The determination that each sample point was' either upland or wettand was made using The Michigan Department of Natural Resources Wetland Determination Manual Draft for Field Testing. Samples of organic material and sub-soil were collected from 3 swales distributed along the transect. One sample of sub- soil from a ridge was also collected. Samples were stored under refrigeration and pH was measured using a digital Beckman pH meter within two weeks of collection. At 9 sites, 3 swales along the transect were flagged at the water's edge during May. During quantitative samplang in August, additional sample points were located on the high and the low side of the flags to sample vegetation along the upland/Wetland ecotone (Figure 2). Only plant species found within the sampling fi-ame were noted- and depths of organic material were measured. At 17 sites, where no shoreline road exists and transects were started at the lake 0 water's edge, elevations of each ridge and swale were estimated, using a Suunto clinometer and a 10 foot story pole. Elevations were later plotted using SYSTAT/SYGRAPH software. DATA ANALYSIS: The funding for this project prohibited the complete analysis of the data collected. However, a listing of all vascular plants and mosses found within these complexes, showing their relative frequency of occurrence in upland vs. wetland communities, was calculated. This was completed using Lotus spread-sheet software. 40 7 Figure 2. Location of sample points for selected flagged swales for sampling of upland/wetland ecotone. SAMPLE POINT SAMPLE POINT 0 MAY WATER LEVEL AUGUST WAM IEVEL 0 A preliminary classification of Wooded Dune and Swale Complexes in Michigan was completed using a similarity index program made available to MNFI by Dr. Gerould Wilhelm and Linda Weistein of the Morton Arboretum. This program utilizes presence/absence information to compare floristic data between complexes. A table was then generated showing the relative floristic similarity of each complex to all. others in Michigan. From this table, a preliminary clustering of sites can be determined for classification purposes. This same similarity index was used for analysis of the 0 upland/wedand ecotone. For this analysis, samples from all "high" -plots were pooled and compared with pooled samples from the "low" plots to establish a percentage of similarity in plant species on either side of the spring high-water line. 0 7Z- 8 A more complete analysis of three representative transects was completed using transect software also provided to MNFI by Dr. Wilhelm and Linda Wetstein. This software allows for rapid calculations of relative frequency, importance values, and cumulative wetland coefficients for each sample plot along the transect, as well as transect summary information. These sample analyses are provided in Appendix IV. 0 0 0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OCCURRENCES IN MICHIGAN AND THE GREAT LAKES REGION Because the processes responsible for the development of Wooded Dune and Swale Complexes are directly related to very large bodies of fresh water and post- Pleistocene geology, their occurrences are limited to the Great Lakes region in North America. Through communications with specialists from throughout the region it is estimated that 90 to 95 complexes once occurred throughout the Great Lakes basin. The vast majority were found in Michigan, with perhaps 10 or 12 along the Ontario shoreline. The remainder were found. in Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. From descriptions of extant examples of these complexes in Illinois and Indiana (Bacone 1979; Hedge, pers. com.; and Wilhelm, pers. com.) they appear to differ significantly from all Michigan complexes, both in species composition and abundance. Due to a lack of available information on the species composition of most complexes in Ontario, no direct comparisons could yet be made with Michigan complexes. As already noted, approximately 70 Wooded Dune and Swale Complexes once occurred in Michigan. They were located along Lake Huron, Lake Michigan, and Lake Superior. No complexes are known to have existed along Michigan's Lake Erie shoreline (see Figure 1, page 5). Unlike many other complexes throughout the Great Lakes basin which have been eliminated during heavy industrial development, very few of the original 70 complexes have been entirely destroyed. However, most complexes have been impacted by road cow;;truction, agricultural drainage, and intensive residential 10 development along the shoreline. One complex on the Mackinac and Schoolcraft County line was eliminated by strip mining for limestone and dolomite. Complexes which have been most seriously degraded by shoreline development occur along southern Lake Huron (Huron, Bay, Arenac, losco, and Alcona counties), along northern Lake Michigan (Mackinac and Schoolcraft counties), and along Lake Superior (Marquette County). All of the largest, least disturbed complexes in Michigan were quantitatively sampled for this study. High quality examples of these complexes are found in highest concentrations in Mackinac, Schoolcraft, and northern Marquette counties. Table 1 provides a brief su mmary of the location, presettlement vegetation, and current condition of all 70 complexes found in Michig-M. PLANT COMMUNIIUS Because they contain a unique assemblage of physiographic, soil, and vegetative components, and provide a. high quality habitat for numerous shoreline animal species, the Wooded Dune and Swale Complex is considered a distinct natural community in Michigan (MNFI 1990). However, it is illustrative to describe the various zones of plant communities encountered jin these complexes. The following descriptions can be applied to nearly all complexes in. the state. Distinctions between complex sub-types will be detailed under later discussions of community classification. The comparison of elevations along each transect with the mean wetland coefficients for species from corresponding ridges and swates helps to clarify the relationships between landforms and vegetation within these complexes (Herman et at. W J4 Table I : Site Name, Location, Presettlement Vegetation, and Comments on Current Condition for 70 Historical Wooded Dune and Swale Complex Occurrences In Michigan. SITE NAME COUNTY TOWNSHIP/RANGE PRESETTLEMENT VEGETA'110N CURRENT CONDITION Harbor Beach Huron T16N R15-16E Red/White pine fbrest@ Black ash swamp Mostly eliminated; homes, roads throughout. Pointe Aux BaNmes* Huron T19N R13E Hemlock, White pine, Cedar, Black ash swamp Private preserve. Port Crescent State Park* Huron T18N R13E Hemlock, White pine, Birch, Black ash, Tamarack Portion in State Park and County Park, roads and homes elsewhere, recent development. Steeper State Park* Huron 718N RIO-11E White pine, Oak/Pine barrens, Portion within State Park; Tamarack swamp, Black ash swamp Emergent marsh, roads and homes along shoreline. Lakes Wildfowl Bay Huron T17-ISN RIOE White pine, Lowland conifers, Great Lakes marsh, Lakes Many drains, roads, homes throughout. Tobico Marsh Bay T15N R4-5E Tamarack swamp, American elm, Black ash, Developed portion of State Park, Great Lakes marsh manipulated water levels. Au Gres* Arcnac T19N VE Red/white pine, Cedar swamp, Tamarack, US-23, many homes along shoreline, Yellow birch, Balsam fir recently established golf course. Whitestorte Point Arenac T20N R7E Black ash swamp, Tamarack, Hemlock, US-23, many smaller roads and Northern hardwoods along the shoreline homes throughout. Lake Solitude losco T22N RSE Oak-Pine Barrens, Conifer swamp, Lakes; White Pine, Red US-23 passes along back ridges, many roads, pine, Black oak Paper birch, Tamarack Cedar, Red homes along the shoreline. maple, Black ash, Aspen Spencer Lake losco T22-23N R9E Pine Barrens, Red pine, Black oak, Tamarack, Black US-23 passes through complex; many homes spruce, Cedar along the shoreline. Cedar Lake Alcona T25N R9E Cedar swamp; Red pine, Hemlock@ Black ash US-23, many smaller roads and homes throughout. Sturgeon Point Alcona T26-27N R9-10E Cedar swamp, Hemlock, Black spruce, Roads, drains, railroad tracks, Tamarack, Paper birch, Balsam fir several homes within complex. Black River* Alcona T28N R9E Cedar swamp, Tamarack, Hemlock, Road along shoreline, several homes; Balsam fir, Paper birch National Forest land included in complex. Negwegon State Park* Alcona T28N R9E Cedar swamp, White pine, Hemlock, Railroad tracks, park entrance road, Tamarack, Balsam fir, Paper birch roadside drains, timber harvest on State Forest land within complex. Thunder Bay* Alpena T29-31N RSE Cedar swamp, Great Lakes marsh, City of Alpena built on north end; Lakes, Tamarack, White pine, Red pine, US-23, many roads, homes, Black spruce, Paper birch ORV damage common. QUANTITATIVELY SAMPLED TABLE I: CONTINUED SITE NAME COUNTY TOWNSHIPMANGE FRESET'ILEMENT VEGETATION CURRENT CONDITION Long Point Alpena T31N R9E Hemlock, White pine, Cedar swamp, Road and several homes along the shoreline, otherwise undisturbed. Hammond Bay* Presque Isle T36-37N R2-3E Red pine, lack pine, Hardwood-Conifer swamp, US-23, sevei-al other roads, Cedar swamp homes along the shoreline. Evergreen Beach Presque Isle T36N R4E Red pine, White pine, Tamarack swamp Roads, homes long the shoreline. Grass Bay* Cheboygan T38N RIW White pine, Hemlock Cedar swamp Private preserve, homes along T38N RIE the shoreline to the east. . Horseshoe Bay* Mackinac T4i-42N R34W C-,d--- swamp, Tamn-mck, Ellack spruce. 1-75 passes through complex; portion Balsam fir, White pine, Paper birch, east of highway USFSWilderness Area. I I Speckled alder Saint Martin's Bay Mackinac T42N R3W Cedar swamp, Black spruce, balsam fir, 1-75 passes through complex; White pine, Paper birch Hiawatha National Forest, timber management. Saint Vital B2y* Chippewa T41N R3E White spruce, Balsam fir, M-134 passes through, homes along the shoreline. Cedar swamp, Great Lakes marsh Platte River Point* Benzie T27N R15-16W Open dunes, White pine, Red pine, Nominated as National Natural Landmark, Tamarack swamp, Lakes USPS plans for marina development. Platte'Bay* Benzie T27N R15W Red pine, White pine, Jack pine, Also nominated for N.Natural landmark- Open dunes, Lakes, Speckled alder swamps USPS plans for marina development Crystal River* Leclanau T29N R14W Hemlock, White pine, Cedar swamp, Roads, homes along the shoreline, Tamarack swamp, Lakes, Crystal River and in Glen Arbor; recent plans for golf course at NW end. Good Harbor Bay* Leelanau T29-30N R12-13W Hemlock, White pine, Open dunes, Homes along shoreline, part of Balsam poplar swamp National Lakeshore. Bower's Harbor Grand Traverse T29N R11W Hemlock White pine, Cedar swamp Road, homes along shoreline; surrounded by agricultural land. Grand Traverse East Arm Grand Traverse T27N R10W White pine, Red pine, Cedar swamp Roads, urban development throughout. Sturgeon Bay* Emmet T38-39N R5W White pine, Red pine, Black spruce, Tamarack, Part of complex state designated Cedar swamp, Aspen, Birch, Emergent marsh, Bog Natural Area, remainder on pub .c Big Stone Bay* Emmet T38N R5W White pine, Red pine, Cedar swamp, Park road,. office, and parking lot Tamarack@ Pape, birch, Aspen located within complex. QUANTITATIVELY SAMPLED '.d TABLE 1 CON17NUED SITE NAME COUNTY TOWNSHIP/RANGE PRESETTIEMENT VEGETATION CURRENT CONDMON Trails End Bay* Emmet T39N 114W Cedar, Balsam fir, White pine, Hemlock, Road, many homes along shoreline, White pine forest on high, bark dune ridges. powerline corridor through complex. Pointe Aux Chenes* Mackinac T41-42N R4-6W Hemlock White pine, Open dunes, Cedar swamp, US-2 along shoreline, remainder within Tamarack swamp, Great Lakes marsh Hiawatha National Forest. Epoufette Bay Vest* Mackinac T42N R7-gW` White pine, Balsam fir, White spruce, Tamarack, US-2 passes through complex, Cedar swamp, Red maple, Paper birch clear-cuts on State Forest land. Naubinway Mackinac T43N R9-10W Jack pine, Red pine, White pine, US-2 passes through complex, Shrub swamps, small ponds many homes along the shoreline. Rock River Mackinac T42-43N R10W Tamarack swamp, Cedar swamp, Black spruce Undisturbed except for narrow road and homes along the shoreline. Big Knob Campground* Mackinac T42N RIOW Hemlock, White pine, Jack pine, Tamarack swa -p, Aspen, All State Forest with campground Black ash, ponds roads, some recent clear-cuts. Crow River Mouth* Mackinac T42N RIO-11W Tamarack, Black spruce, Red maple, One owner, one narrow road to shoreline, White pine, Paper birch, Aspen, Black ash recently proposed for state acquisition. Point Patterson Mackinac T41N RIIW Cedar swamp, Balsam fir, Black/White spruce, ORV scramble area along shoreline, White pine, Tamarack, Aspen otherwise intact. Scott Point* Mackinac T41N RIIW Balsam fir, Black spruce, Cedar swamp just two homes along shoreline, remainder part of proposed state designated Natural Area. Seiners Point* Mackinac T41-42N R12W Hemlock, Tamarack, Black spruce, Balsam fir, intact. Part of proposed state Aspen, Cedar swamp designated Natural Area. Seul Choix Bay Schoolcraft T41N R12-13W Tamarack swamp, Black spruce, White pine, Red pine on Mostly destroyed by limestone/dolomite ridges quarry. Gulliver Like Dunes* Schoolcraft T41N R13-15W Paper birch swamp, Cedar swamp, White pine, Homes, roads along shoreline, much potential for Hemlock, Black/White spruce future subdivisions. Thompson* Schoolcraft 741N R16W Cedar swamp, Black spruce, Balsam fir, Urban development from Manistique, Hemlock, Red pine US-2 along shoreline. Portage Bay* Delta T39N RISW Cedar swamp, Great Likes marsh, Lake Jntact; recent road construction along northern marg . Lns. Kregg Bay Delta T38N R19W Cedar swamp, American beech, Sugar maple Roads, homes along the shoreline. Gillnet Haven Delta T38N R19W Cedar swamp, Beech/maple forest intact, new owner plans to develop. QUAMTrATIVELY SAMPLED TABLE I: CONTINUED SITE NAME COUNTY TOWNSHIP/RANGE PRESETTLEMENT VEGETATION CURRENT CONDMON Big Bay de Noc* Delta T40N R18W White pine, Red pine, Hemlock, Roads, railroad tracks along Cedar swamp, Tamarack swamp the shoreline; mostly public land. Ogontz Bay* Delta T40N R20W Cedar swamp, Tamarack swamp Intact; roads, clear-cuts at north end. Tahquamenon Bay* Chippewa T47N R5-6W White pine, Hemlock, Whiteblack spruce, Road along shoreline, clear-cuts on private land at Tamarack swamp southwest end. Whitefish Point Chippewa T50-51N R5-7W Jack pine forest, Black spruce swamp, Roads along shore and on ridges, Tamarack Lakes cranberry &rming, fisheries impoundments, clear-cuts on State Forest. Two Hearted River Mouth Luce T49-50N R9-10W Mostly upland; Red pine, White pine on ridges; Black Several narrow roads, clear-cuts spruce, Balsam fir Red maple in few swales on State Forest land. Muskaltonge Lake West Luce T49-50N R11W Mostly upland; White pine/Red pine on ridges, White Several narrow roads, otherwise intact. spruce, Balsam ftr, Paper birch Trout Bay Alger T47N R19W Mostly Great Lakes marsh, Cedar, Black ash, Several narrow roads, otherwise intact. Red pine, White pine Christmas Alger T47N R19W Cedar, Tamarack, Black spruce, M-28 passes through complex along shoreline, Great Lakes marsh County Park/campground also along shoreline. Au Train* Alger T46-47N R20-21W White pine, Red pine, Jack pine, Cedar swamp, M-28, railroad tracks pass along shoreline, Town Great Lakes marsh along Au Train River of Au Train located within the complex. Sand River Marquette T47N R22-23W Mostly upland; Red pine, Jack pine, Hemlock M-28, many other roads pass though complex, homes along shoreline. Chocolay River Marquette T47N R23-24W Mostly upland; Red pinejack pine forest M-28, subdivisions, railroad tracks along shoreline. little Presque Isle Point* Marquette T49N R25-26W Mostly upland; Hemlock, Red pine, White pine, CO. 550 passes through complex; State Cedar, Balsam fir Forest campground, private part intact. I Iron River* Marquette T51N R26-27W Mostly upland; Red pine, White pine, Narrow road; otherwise intact; recent Great Lakes marsh along Iron River re-zoning for subdivision may cause threat to complex. Big Bay Marquette T51N R27W White pine, Tamarack, Cedar, Black spruce, Homes along the shoreline. Speckled alder, Great Lakes marsh QUANnTATIVELY SAMPLED TABLE 1 % CONTINUED SITE NAME COUNTY TOWNSHIP/RANGE PRESETIMEMENT VEGETATION CURRENT CONDITION Salmon Trout Bay* Marquette T51-52N R27-28W Cedar swamp, Speckled alder swamp, Black ash, Pristine; contained within the Huron Mountain White pine, Tamarack Club. Pine River* Marquette T52N R28W Mostly upland; Red pine, Jack pine Narrow roads, homes along the Pine River. Huron River Baraga T52N R29-20W Mostly upland; Jack pine, Red pine, Paper birch, Intact. Aspen, Balsam fir, Black spruce, Speckled alder L'Anse Bay Baraga 75ON R33-34W Black spruce, Balsam fir, Tamarack US-41, raih-oad tracks along I I the shoreline. Little Traverse Bay,* Houghton T55N R31W Tamarack swamp, Red pine, Black spruce, Shrub swamp, Narrow road, homes along the shoreline. Great Lakes marsh, Grand Traverse Bay* Houghton/ T55-56N R31W White pine on ridges, Tamarack swamp, Narrow road, homes along southern shoreline; Keweenaw Black spruce Town of Traverse Bay, mine tailings along northern shoreline. Oliver Day* Keweenaw T57N R29W White pine on ridges, Balsam fir, Black spruce, Homes, road along the shoreline; Cedar, Paper birch possible future subdivision of larW land holdings. Lac La Belle Keweenaw T58N R29W Great Lakes marsh, White pine, Cedar, Road along shoreline; possible Balsam fir, Speckled alder subdivision and resort development at north end. Eagle Harbor Keweenaw T58N R31W Tamarack, Black spruce, Cedar@ Balsam fir, Road along the shoreline. Great Lakes marsh, Speckled alder, V.7illow swamp, Lakes Flint Steel River* Ontonagon T52N R39W White pine, Hemlock Shrub swamp Narrow roads, homes along the shoreline. QUANTITATIVELY SAMPLED in press). Of the 17 sites where elevations were measured from the shoreline inland, only 3 sites contained swales where the sandy bottoms lay below the current Great Lakes water levels. This suggests that, except in a few examples, the influence of Great Lakes water level fluctuations is probably limited to the first few swales inland from the shoreline. Most of the water occupying the swales of these complexes is of inland lakes and streams. Because plant communities in these complexes were formed through primary succession from low, Open Dune and Interdunal Wetland communities, the transition from the open shoreline dunes to forested dune ridges is usually gradual (Figure 3). For this reason, where possible, transects were started at the water's edge. S p e c i e s common to the first swale along the shoreline include the rushes (funcus balticus, J. pelocarpus, J nodosus), spike rush, (Eleocbaris acicularis), and Threesquare (Scirpus americanus). This is a veiy unstable area most often impacted by short-term variation in lake levels. The foredunes of these sites are commonly 1-2 meters high, with Beach grass (Ammopbila breviligulata), Dune grass (Calamoviy'a longifolia), Autumn wiUow (Salix serissima), Dune willow (S. cordata), and Balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) most common. Within their ranges, federally threatened Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcberz) and state threatened Lake Huron Tansy (Tanacetum buronense) are also found on the foredunes. Immediately behind the foredune, where take-influenced, calcareous sands are most common, a shallow swale often contains Twig-rush (CWium mariscoides), Sweet gale (Mytica gale), Shrubby cinquefoil (Potentillaftuticosa), Blue joint grass (Calamagrostis, canadens4s), Kalm's lobefia (Lobelia kalmit), False asphodel 17 Air- 5C %: j z Z-- FIGURE 3: Aerial photograph of the Grand Traverse Bay Wooded Dune and Swale Complex Illustrating the transition from low, open dunes to regular, forested beach ridges. 18 (Tofteldia glutinosa), and Grass-of-Pamassus (Parnassia glauca). Less commonly, in the Straitsarea, federally threatened Houghton's goldenrod (Solidago houghtoniz) is found in these swales. A low dune field with more advanced plant succession often follows the first few swales. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana), White pine (P. strobus), and Red pine (P. resinosa) often form a scattered overstory canopy, while Ground juniper (funiperus communis), Creeping juniper (I. horizontalis), Bear berry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursz), Beach grass, and June grass (Koeleria macrantha) form a scattered ground layer. Following the dune field zone, swales are more often forested and soil organic material has often begun to accumulate. Northern white cedar (Ybuja occidentalis), Speckled alder (Alnus twgosa), willows (SaUx spp.), and Red maple (Acer rubtwm) dominate the partial overstory canopy and understory. Sedges (Carex aquatilis) and (C. stricta), Twigrush, Marsh marigold (Caltha palustris), Swamp candles (Lysimachia terrestris), and Swamp cinquefoil (Potentilla palustris) commonly dominate the ground layer where standing water is present through most of the year. in northern Lake Michigan and Lake Huron,, where these swales are better drained, and Northern white cedar forms the overstory, federally threatened Dwarf lake iris (It-is lacustris) may be found in Large non-flowering populations. Dwarf lake iris typically flowers only where windthrows have opened the forest canopy. Forested beach ridges, with soils of medium to course sand, tend to be dominated by species common to Dry-Mesic and Mesic Northern Forest (MNFI 1990). Soil moisture conditions appear to change dramatically with slight elevational. changes and are reflected in the development of soil organic material and plant species. On higher, drier ridges, 0 19 0 soils often have less than 3 cm of organic material. Red pine (Pinus resinosa), Wh ite pine (P. strobus) and Red oak (Quercus rubra) often are co-dominant, while Paper birch (Betula papyrifera), Bigtooth aspen (Populus grandidentata), Balsam fir (Abies balsamea), and Red maple are sub-dominant or understory species. Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum), Black huckleberry (Gaylussacia baccata), Blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilloides), Bunchberry (Cornus canadensis), and Wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens) often dominate the shrub and ground layers. Figures 4a and 4b illustrate this situation at Sturgeon Bay, where high, wind-sorted dune ridges support upland vegetation clearly distinguishable from adjacent swales. On lower ridges, moisture conditions may be markedly improved and soil organic material accumulation is greater (4-25 cm.). White pine may still dominate the overstory, but often White spruce, Black spruce, Red maple, Balsam fir, Northern white cedar, and occasionally Tamarack (Larix laricina) are co-dominant. Canada honeysuckle (Lonicera canadensis), Mountain holly (Nemopantbus mucronatus), Twinflower (Linnaea borealis), Dwarf blackberry (Rubus 40 pubescens), Canada mayflower (Maiantbemum canadensis), and Starflower (Ttlentalis borealis) dominate the shrub and ground layers. Complexes located in embayments protected from prevailing winds tended to be formed entirely by low, water-lain beach ridges. As a result, most beach ridges within these complexes would be considered wetland in character. Figures 5a and 5b fflustrate this situation at Ogontz Bay, where on most of the very low beach ridges, mean wedmd coefficients are mostly less than zero. Because of irregularities in shoreline configuration, sand source, wind strength and direction, and seasonal climatic variation that influenced the deposition of the beach 20 Sturgeon Bay 4- 5 - C_- (D 4 - -9 d - 4- 2 0 T T n C -2 0 :;-- -3- (D -4 - -5 - E C 12 - 8 - 4 - CO -i (D -4 CO 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 (D Distance from Lake Michigan (m) FIGURE 4a: Elevational transect and corresponding Wetland Coefficients for the Sturgeon Bay Wooded Dune and Swale Complex. irnpnn Rqv E CO 0) 10 9 8 CO 1 7 A. 6 0 5 -0 CO 525 550 575- 600 625 650 675 Distance from Lake Michigan (m) FIGURE 4b: Illustration of the vegetation associated with a 150 meter portion of the transect at Sturgeon Bay. Ogontz Bay 5 4 3 2 0 0 u _0 -1 - t Tit @11 li- I-L I -L I C: -2 4- -3 - (D -4 - 3: -5 - E C CO 0) 7:: 12 - 8 4 - CO _j 0 0 > 0 4 -0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 (D Distance from Lake Michigan (m) LIJ FIGURE 5a: Elevational transect and corresponding Wetland Coefficients for the Ogontz Bay Wooded dune and Swale Complex. nnnnt7 Bay IE CO 0) Fj 6 - 5 CD 3 CO -1 2 CD 1 0 CO 200 225 250- 275 300 325 350 LU Distance from Lake Michigan (m) FIGURE 5b: Mustration of the vegetation associated with a 150 portion of the transect at Ogontz Bay. ridges, no discernable pattern in the width and depth of the adjacent swales was apparentalong the transects from the shoreline inland. Swales ranged from 1-30 m wide and 0.5-3 m deep. Many narrow, shallow swales are forested, with Northern white cedar, Black spruce, and Red maple the most common dominants. Speckled alder and willows commonly dominate the understory and shrub layers. Sedges (Carex disperma), (C. trisperma), (C. leptalea), (C. interior), (C. cryptolepis), (C. flava), (C. intumescens), Blue joint grass, Fowl manna grass (Glyceria striata), Water horehound (Lycopus uniflorus), and Sphagnum mosses (Sphagnum spp.) dominate the ground layer. Wider, deeper swales are more often unforested, with Chokeberry (Aronia prunifolia), Red osier dogwood (Cornus stolonifiera), Bog birch (Betula pumila), and Speckled alder forming a shrubby ecotone and sedges (Carex lasiocarpa), (C. oligosperma), (C. aquatilis), (C. stricta), Woolgrass (Scirpus cyperinus), Marsh fern (Thelypteris palustris), and Horned bladderwort (Utricularia cornuta) dominate the sedge mat. Where sedge mats are not well developed, Bur-reed (Sparganium minimum), Pond-lily (Nupbar variegata), Pondweeds (Potamogeton berchtoldii) and (P. natans) are more commonly found. Reflecting the passage of time and plant succession, a steady, though irregular, increase in soil organic matter accumulation in swales from the shoreline inland was clearly noted along the transects. Often within 300 meters of the water's edge, organic material in swales reached a depth of 30-75 cm. Also, vegetation in swales tended to reflect more acid conditions and peat accumulation increases with distance from the shoreline. Leatherleaf (Chamaedaphne calyculata), Bog rosemary (Andromeda glaucophylla), Labrador tea (Ledum groenlandicum), Bog laurel (Kalmia polifolia), 25 Large cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon), Cottongrass (Eriopborum virginicum), Pitcher-plant (Sarracenia purpurea), Sphagnum mosses (Spbagnum centrale), (S. wuoianum), (S. warnstorjit), (S. magellanicum), and (S. squarrosum) were more commonly found in the swates farthest from the shoreline. A similar pattern of increased organic matter accumulation exists with complexes located further north along Lake Superior. Figures 6a and 6b illustrate the elevational cross-section of Grand Traverse Bay in Keweenaw County, where very low beach ridges and swales show high levels; of organic matter accumulation, moist, acid conditions, and support Bog-like vegetation within a short distance from the shoreline. A PRELIMINARY CLASSIFICA11ON OF MICHIGAN WOODED DUNE AND SWALE COMPLEXES General north-south trends in plant species occurrences were clearly reflected in the upland and wetland components Michigan's Wooded Dune and Swale Complexes. Extremes are in evidence between the complexes along Saginaw Bay, which contain species of southern character, and those of the Keweenaw Peninsula, with a distinctive Boreal character. Along this general north-south trend, complexes were broken into five sub-types based primarily on the processes of beach ridge formation which have resulted in significantly different assemblages of plant species. 0 A similarity index was utilized to compare all species (vascular plants and mosses) present within each complex with those of all other complexes. The formula used was: SIM (% similarity) = 2C/A+B, where C = the number of species in common, and A and 0 26 0 Grand Traverse 5 4 -U 0 T y 4- 2 Q) 0 0 0 -2 - :P- 3 - -4 - -5 - 4 E C: CO 0) :ff 12 8 -Y 4 - CO _j > 0 -0 CO 0 '100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 5 CD Distance from Lake Michigan (m) Lu FIGURE 6a: Elevational. transect and corresponding Wetland Coefficients for the Grand Traverse Bay Wooded Dune and Swale Complem (2r,qn(i TrqvPrnt E 0 CD 6 OL :3 5 CO 4 3 CO -1 2 CD 1 8 0 -0 625 650 675. 700 725 750 775 Distance from Lake Superior (m) w FIGURE 6b: Illustration of the vegetation associated with a 150 meter portion of the transect at Grand Traverse Bay. B are the number of species in the two compared lists. From the resulting table, a preliminary breakdown of complex sub-types was derived. The five sub-types were named using their general location and landform features responsible for their distinctive vegetation. They include the Southern Lake Huron sub-type, the Northern Lake Huron/Lake Michigan-Low Dune sub-type, the Northern Lake Michigan-High Dune sub- type, the Lake Superior-High Dune sub-type, and the Lake Superior-Low Dune sub-type. z Table 2 includes a sub-set of the larger table of similarity indices to illustrate the basic breakdown of Wooded Dune and Swale Complex sub-types. First, it should be noted that there were relatively low percentages of similar 0 species, even within complexes of each sub-type. This reflects the highly variable nature of these complexes, which is logical given that they are made up of numerous upland and 0 wetland plant communities. Based purely on the analysis of vegetation, it would not be difficult to argue that each one of these complexes is unique.' The general trend ot"decreasing similarity is clear when comparing the complexes 0 of the Southern Lake Huron sub-type to the other sub-types further north, where the Pointe Aux Barques compl4m shares 50% of the species with nearby Au Gres, but as little as 19% of plant species with Grand Traverse Bay. The Southern Lake Huron sub-type was not separated by landform type, primarily because few intact examples exist to be used for that comparison. Within this sub-type, elevations were only taken along the transect at Point Aux Barques. Figure 7 illustrates the change in elevation -,aong that 478 meter transect. Rather abrupt increases in elevations of several beach ridges indicates those that were re-worked by wind prior to 29 TABLE 2: Similarity Indices of Plant Species from Representative Sites for each Wooded Dune and Swale Complex sub-type using a sinifliarity index. SUB,-TYPE SIM NAME Sim S.Lake Huron (A) Pointe Aux Barques (A) S.Lake Huron (B) Au Gres 50 (B) 2A 21 114. michiganrliurun (C) Cfo-w River - -- I LOW Dune N. Huron/Mchigan (D) Ogontz Bay 35 39 48 (D) Low Dune N. Lake Michigan (E) Gulliver Dunes 26 28 41 43 (E) High Dune N. Lake Michigan (F) Platte River Point 27 35 42 41 43 (F) High Dune Lake Superior (G) Iron River 28 31 37 34 36 37 (G) High Dune Lake Superior (H) Presque Isle Point 28 41 38 38 36 39 41 (H) High Dune Lake Superior (I) Au Train Bay is 20 28 29 40 33 46 32 (1) Low Dune Lake Superior Grand Traverse Bay 19 21 3 40 39 48 35 58 Low Dune Pointe Aux Barques E C 0 12 M 8 - y 4 (D 0 0 -0 -4 CO 0 100 200 300 400 500 -600 700 800 900 1000 1100 (D LU Distance from Lake Huron (m) FIGURE 7: Elevationai transect. for the Pointe Aux Barques Wooded Dune and Swale Complex being stabilized by vegetation. This landform type may reflect a relatively slow decreasein lake water levels, when time for sand accumulation from long-shore winds, and dune formation could take place. Further inland, a series of very low, water-lain ridges lie at or just above the current Lake Huron water level. This probably reflects a period of relatively rapid decline in post-glacial lake water (levels, which left little time for large beach ridge deposition and wind-sorting. This sub-type is best distinguished by species of southern character, such as Cottonwood (Populus deftoides), Black walnut VugZans nigra), and Buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidental4s) which are inter-mixed with other tree and shrub species more common further north. Complexes within the Northern lake Huron/Lake Michigan-Low Dune sub-type are commonly found in ernbayments with little exposure to prevailing westerly winds. As a result, the low beach ridges (0.5-1m) of these complexes are almost entirely water- lain. They generally support wedand vegetati on in the swales and on many of the ridges. All complexes along the Northern Lake Huron shoreline fall into this category. Along the Northern Lake Michigan shoreline, complexes of this sub-type are found in portions of Mackinac, Schoolcraft, and Delta counties, where embayments are protected from westerly winds. Because the sandy soils along these shorelines are partly derived from limestones and dolomites of the underlying Niagran Escarpment, plant species associated with moist, calcareous conditions, including Great Lakes endemics such as Houghton's goldenrod and Dwarf lake iris, are most commonly found close to the shoreline. Figures 5a and 5b, in the previous section, illustrate the elevational. cross-section at Ogontz Bay, 32 and is representative of complexes within this sub-type. A detailed listing of vegetation found within the complex al: Ogontz Bay is found in Appendix IV. This can be consulted as a representative example of the species composition of the Wooded Dune and Swale Complexes within this sub-type. The Northern Lake Michigan-High Dune sub-type is distinguished by high, often irregular dune ridges formed as prevailing westerly winds added to and re-sorted the sands of the beach ridges. As a result, clear distinctions can be made between the upland vegetation of the relatively high dune ridges (2-5 m) and the wetland vegetation in the swales. The dune ridges of these complexes tend to be dominated by White pine, Red pine, Red oak, and Paper birch. The swales of these complexes contain the widest variety of plant communities Of MY of the sub-types. Wetland plant communities include 0 Emergent Marshes, Intermittent wetlands, Bogs, Northern Wet Meadows, as well as Specked alder-dominated swamps and Northern white cedar-dominated swamps. Wooded Dune and Swale Complexes belonging to this sub-type are most common in Benzie, Leelanau, Emmet, Mackinac, and Schoolcraft counties. Figures 4a and 4b in the previous section illustrate a representative cross-section of elevations and wetland/upland vegetation as it occurs at Stargeon Bay. Appendix IV contains a detailed listing of species at Sturgeon Bay that can be consulted as a representative of this sub-type. The complexes along the Lake Superior shoreline are dominated by plant species of distinctly northern character. The Lake Superior-High Dune sub-type is represented by relatively few examples located in Marquette and Luce counties. Only 3 examples of this sub-type were quantitatively sampled for this project. The complexes of this sub-type 33 generally contain few swales which support wettand vegetation. This is due to well drained conditions resulting from relatively high, wind-sorted dune ridges (1-3 m), and by adjacent rivers that effectively drain off much of the complex. Figure 8 illustrates this situation at Iron River in Mw-quette County, where although the bottom of one of the first swales ties below current Lake Superior water levels (that swale is an abandoned stream channel), all other swales are high and well drained. These complexes are most often characterized by Dry Northern Forest with Jack pine and Red pine as dominants. Complexes of the Lake Superior-Low Dune sub-ty0e are generally found along the Lake Superior shoreline where the embayments are not directly exposed to prevailing westerly winds. The resulting low, water-lain beach ridges often support wetland vegetation dominated by White spruce, Black spruce, Tamarack, and Balsam fir. These complexes also contain numerous wet swales with highly acid peatlands and Bog-like vegetation. Figure 6 in the previous section illustrates the elevational. cross-section at Grand Traverse Bay, where: wettand vegetation dominates many beach ridges as well as the swales. A detailed listing of the vascular plant species found within this representative complex can be consulted in Appendix IV. In order to further refine this classification of Wooded Dune and Swale Complex sub-types, comparisons could be made between the specific upland and wetland plant communities associated with each complex. The use of the similarity index has significant weaknesses, especially when comparing complexes which vary considerably in the numbers of species present. Multi-variate approaches may also provide a more.efficient subdivision of sub-types by formally adding abiotic factors such as soil pH, average water 34 Iron River E 0 .L- 'D 12 0 :3 U) 8 (D 13f CO 4 -1 0 V\, (D V > 0 4 -Q CO 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 (D Uj Distance from Lake Superior (m) FIGURE 8: Elevational transect for the Iron River Wooded Dun*e and Swale Complex. depths, organic matter depths, and beach ridge height to the classification. PROTECTION STATUS AND PRIORITY MWKS Land ownership of the highest quality complexes in Michigan is split between federal, state, and private sectors. Four high quality complexes are found within the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore. Seven complexes are all or partly included within either the Huron-Manistee or Hiawatha National Forests. Eighteen complexes are all or partly included on State Forest and State Park lands. Three complexes, at Salmon Trout Bay (Marquette County), Pointe Aux Barques (Huron County), and Grass Bay (Cheboygan County) are maintained as private preserves. The eight remaining high quality complexes are found on private lands with no apparent plans for their long term protection. The following tables (3a through 3e) provide a listing of high quality sites within each Wooded Dune and Svmle Complex sub-type ranked in order of protection priority. The mechanism for establishing these ranking priorities does not take current protection plans into account. It does, however, attempt to incorporate significant biological factors and known disturbances into the ranking process. The three factors utilized in determining these priorities include the MNFI Element Occurrence Rank, the total size of the natural remnants ofthe complex, and the number of species encountered along the sampling transect. Tlie Element Occurrence Rank, whose criteria are detailed in Appendix VI, incorporates significant hydrological alterations and other human-caused disturbances, along with more general characteristics of complex size and species diversity. This is the primary ranking factor in determining the priority list. Second in 36 TABLE 3a: Ranked Listing of Michiggin Wooded Dune and Swale Complexes, Southern Lake Huron. SITE NANCE COUNTY RANK ACRES I I SPECIES I Pointe Aux Bairques Huron A 400 154 2 Au Gres Arenac BC 2600 100 3 Steeper State Park Huron BC 2100 129 4 Port Crescent Huron C 2200 126 TABLE 3b: Ranked Listing of Michigan Wooded Dune and Swale Complexes, Northern lakes Huron/?otichigan - Low Dunes. SrM NAME COUNTY RANK ACRES SPECIES 1 Ogontz Bay Delta A 2100 150 2 Crow River Mackinac A 1600 117 3 Portage Bay Delta A 1160 151 4 Epoufette Bay West Mackinac A 350 129 5 Thompson Schoolcraft AB 9500 165 6 Big Bay de Noc Delta AB 7900 Ill 7 Big Knob Campground Mackinac AB 2100 91 8 Seiners Point Mackinac AB 1850 94 9 Horseshoe: Bay Mackinac AB 1400 128 10 Scott Point Mackinac AB Soo 95 11 Saint Vital. Bay Chippewa B 960 101 12 Thunder Bay Alpena TIC 1450 7 13 Black River Alcona BC 8W 87 14 Crystal River Leelanau BC 580 87 15 Hanuncond Bay Presque Isle C 1300 62 16 Neg%regon State Park Alcona/Alpena C 1000 116 17 Trail's End Bay Enunet C 480 53 18 Grass Bay Cheboygan C 360 99 19 Bower's Harbor Grand Traverse CD 175 50 37 TABLE 3c: Ranked Listing of Michiggn Wooded Dune and Swale Complexes, Northern lake Michigan - High Dunes. SITE NAME COUNTY RANK ACRES SPECIES I Pointe Aux Chenes Mackinac A 4600 170 2 Plane Bay Benzie A 2600 114 3 Platte River Point Benzie A 2400 142 4 Sturgeon Bay Emmet A 1400 141 5 Gulliver Lake Dunes Schoolcraft AB 2300 138 6 Good Harbor Bay Leelanau BC 2100 94 7 Big Stone flay Emmet C 360 49 TABLE 3d: Ranked Listing of Michigan Wooded Dune and Swale Complexes, Lake Superior - High Dunes. SITE NAME COUNTY RANK ACRES SPECIES Iron River Marquette A 880 86 Little Presque ble Point Marquette B 75 3 Pine Rivrr Marquette BC 520 29 TABLE 3e- Ranked Listing of Michigan Wooded Dune and Swale Complexes, Lake Superior - Low Dunes. SrM NAME COUNTY RANK ACRES SPECIES I Salmon Trout Bay Marquette A 720 157 2 Grand Traverse Bay Houghton/Keweenaw AB 3500 96 3 TahquamenDn Bay Chippewa AB 2000 86 4 Oliver Bay Keweenaw AB 950 so 5 Little Traverse Bay Houghton AB 575 65 6 Flint Steel River Ontonagon AB 500 107 7 Au Train Alger BC 2800 102 38 importance for priority raniking is the complex size, which generally corresponds to thecomplexity and diversity of plant communities likely to be found. The third factor, species encountered along the sampling transect, is least significant of these three factors, but may help to identify species-rich complexes among the lower priority sites. Again, these priority rankings are primarily based on biological criteria, and are meant to provide a guide to state-wide priorities. Actions aimed at providing protection to any of these complexes would, of course, take into account the amount of protection already provided by current: ownership and management. THE UPIAND/WETLAND ECOTONE Data collected from 9 Wooded Dune and Swale Complexes scattered throughout the state was used to compare plant species located along the uplandAvetland ecotone. Presence/absence information from pooled samples taken above the May water levels ('high" samples) was compared using the similarity index with the pooled samples taken from between the May and August water levels (low" samples). 68% of the species were found in both the "higN' and the "low" samples. This shows the value of many plant species for indicating wedand conditions where irregular fluctuations in water levels appear to be the norm. Although 1991-1992 water levels and soil characteristics were not, in all cases, indicative Of true wetland conditions, the vegetation most often provided a clear indication of soil moisture content in the recent past. 39 PIANT SPECIES FREQUENCIES A total of 631 species of vascular plants, mosses, and algae were found along the transects taken within the Wooded Dune and Swale Complexes during 1991 and 1992. Based on analysis of data collected at 39 complexes, where 470 sample points were taken in areas designated as wethLnd and 488 sample points were taken in areas designated as upland, species found to be most frequent in the wetlands included: Northern white cedar (7buja occidentafts), Red maple (Acer rubrum), Balsam fir (Abies balsamea), Speckled alder (Alnus rugosa), Northern bugle weed (Lycopus uniflorus), Dwarf rasberry (Rubus pubescens), Starflower (Ttlentalis borealis), Blue flag (Iris versicolor), Fowl manna grass (Glyceria striata), Blue joint grass (Calamagrostis canadensis), Goldthread (Coptis trifolia), Paper birch (Betulapa"rifera), Marsh fern (Thelypterispalustris), Black spruce (Picea mariana), and Labrador tea (Ledum groenlandicum). A complete plant list with relative fi-equencies in both upland and wettand habitats, as well as a list of species ordered by their frequency of occurrence in wedand habitats, is found in Appendix V. 40 CONCLUSIONS This inventory helped to demonstrate the diverse nature of the 40 high quality Wooded Dune and Swale Complexes along Michigan's Great Lakes shoreline. The specific geological processes which formed each complex, along with the extent of north- south variation in vegetation patterns, combine to create a diverse array of plant and animal habitats within each complex. A preliminary classification of Michigan's Wooded Dune and Swale Complexes was established using presence/absence data for species of vascular plants and mosses from each complex. Distinguishing factors for the five complex sub-types include the general north-south trend in plant species distributions, from southern Lake Huron to western Lake Superior, along with the relative impact of wind-sorting vs. water-lain processes which formed the beach ridges of each complex. Complexes with predominantly water- lain beach ridges tended to support more wedand plant communities than complexes where wind-sorted ridges Nvere common. Elevational transects taken from the shoreline in a number of complexes indicated that, for the most part, thewater found in the wet swales of these complexes is of inland origin. In a few examples, the sandy bottoms of the first few swales was found to be at or below the current Great Lakes water level. The relative influence of Great Lakes water level fluctuations on the hydrology of these complexes therefore appears to be limited to these first few swales. However, in many cases, the hydrology of the complex is directly impacted by a river flowing through the complex and into one of the Great Lakes. 41 Recent human disturbances were found in nearly all of Michigan's complexes. These typically took the form of impacts from the logging era, roads (some major highways) along the shoreline, agricultural drainage, and varying degrees of urban and dispersed residential development. Roads located along individual beach ridges certainly have significant local impacts, but generally have minimal impacts on the vegetation of the entire complex. Impacts on vegetation composition were most apparent where large roads cross over large, wet swales. SmaUer roads, with culverts instaued, tended to have less of an impact on associated wedand vegetation. Priorities for actions to protect these complexes should be established by utilizing the preliminary classification as outlined in the previous section. The goals of state-wide protection efforts should be to address the long term threats to the highest quality complexes in each of the five sub-types. This approach attempts to gain protection for the full range of natural diversity found within the complexes of the state. These ranked listings represent the ecological values of each complex. Local considerations of land ownership and current protection efforts can then be taken into account with these ecologically-based priorities in hand. The protection of these distinctive Great Lakes shoreline features as natural areas helps to ensure for future generations the opportunity to experience, appreciate, and learn about the natural landscape and the ecological processes which maintain it and its inhabitants. As with all coastal wetlands, these complexes provide an important buffer for maintaining Great Lakes water quality. They provide wettand habitat for waterfowl and fur-bearers, and upland habitat for game and non-game birds and mammals. They 42 serve as scientific resources, for the study of Great Lakes system ftinctions, for baseline data on relatively undisturbed natural systems, and as monitoring sites for environmental degradation. Because of the natural events directly responsible for their formation, these complexes may also be a resource for the study of long-term patterns of climate change. The opportunities to protect the high natural-quality complexes continues to decline each year, especially because many complexes are not currently protected under wetland protection laws and pressure for development along Michigan's shoreline continues to increase. It is therefore imperative that we act now to protect this valuable natural resource for current and ftiture generations. 43 ACKNOWLIEDGEMENTS We would like to th'ank the Coastal Management Program of the Land and Water Management Division, Michigan Department of Natural Resources, for providing funding for this study. Dr. Kurt Pregitzer of the Forestry Department and the staff of the Remote Sensing Laboratory of Michigan State University provided access to their respective research facilities. Thanks to Dr. Gerould Wilhelm and Linda Wetstein of the Morton Arboretum in Chicago, and Kim Herman (MNFI) for their assistance in using the MICHDEX and SIMDEX software. Thanks also go to Laura Mattei (The Nature Conservancy, Michigan Chapter), Elaine Chittenden (MNFI), Michael Penskar (MNFI), and Judy Soule (N4NFI) for their enthusiastic participation in several rigorous ifield surveys during 1992. Numerous individuals provided indispensible help throughout the final stages of this project. They include Sue Ridge (MNFI) who provided many useful ideas and spent many long hours managing this. large data set. Leah Minc produced all transect cross- sections for this report. Lyn Scrimger (MNFI) generated the state-wide distribution maps. Several specialists from thrDughout the Great Lakes region provided useful information on the complexes in their state/province. They include Don Faber-Langendoen (Ibe Nature Conservancy, Midwest Heritage Task Force), John Riley (Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources), Dr. Jennifer Shay (University of Manitoba at Winnipeg), Eric Epstein (Wisconsin Natural Heritage Program), Dr. Gerould Wilhelm (Morton Arboretum), Roger Hedge (Indiana Natural Heritage Data Center), Allison Cusick (Ohio Natural Heritage Program), Charles Bier (Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory), and Kathleen Strakosh (New York Natural Heritage Program). REFERENCES Albert, D.A., S.R Denton, and B.V. Barnes. 1986. Regional Landscape Ecosystems of Michigan. School of Natural Resources, University of Michigan 48109-1115. 32 pp. Bacone, J.A. 1979. Shell Oil Dune and Swale, A report on a natural area. Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Nature Preserves. 72 pp. Comer, P.J. and D.A. Albert. 1991. A Survey of Wooded Dune and Swale Complexes in the Northern Lower and Eastern Upper Peninsulas of Michigan. A report by the Michigan Natural Features Inventory to the Coastal Management Program, Michigan Department of Natural Resources. 99 pp. Dorr, J.A. and D.F. Eschman. 1970. Geology of Michigan. The University of Michigan Press. Ann Arbor, Michigan 476 pp. 44 Herman, K. D., and M. R. Penskar, A. A. Reznicek, W. W. Brodowicz, G. Wilhelm, L. Wetstein. in prep. The Michigan Floristic Quality Assessment System With Wedand Categories. Homoya, M.A., D.B. Abrefl, J.R. Aldrich, and T.W. Post. 1985. The Natural Regions of Indiana. Indiana Academy of Science. (Vol. 94) pp. 245-268. Michigan Natural Features Inventory. 1990. Draft Description of Michigan Natural Community Types. (Unpublished manuscript revised April 2, 1990). Reed, P. 1988. National List Of Plant Species That Occur In Wetlands: Michigan. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Department of Interior Biological Report. Wilhelm, G. 1989. Wedand Vegetation & Quality Assessment of Wedand Areas at the Three Areas Along Michigan Roadsides in Berrien County. Unpublished Report to the Michigan Depariment of Transportation. Wilhelm, G. 1990. Special Vegetation of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore Research Program Report 90-02. 45 0 a 0 0 0 APPENDIX I SITE SUMMARIES FOR COMPLEXES SAMPLED DURING 1992 a - 0 0 0 0 46 0 WOODED DUNE & SWALE 0 ------ COMPLEXES SAMPLED IN 1992 ,ghlcr@l 9, Baraga Gogsb1c Marquette Luce Iran AJger Schooloraft Chippewa Dickinsori Delta iornin Emmet Cheb Cher1l 'x we Isle Alpena Antrim Otsego Montmo+y Leelanau Beraja Grand Alcona Traverse Kalkaska Crawtord 0900da Manistee Ws)dord 'ssaukee, loscomm Ogernew losco, Arenac Mason Lake Osceola Clare Gladwin Huron Oceans Mecosta, Isabella Midland Bay Newaygo Tuscola Sanilac, Muskegon - Montclam, Gratict Saginaw Ottawa Kam Ionia Clinton Shlawass Genesee Lap- St. otair Ma Allegan Barry Uvingst Oakland Van Buren Kalarnazoc Calhoun Jackson Washtenaw Wayne as St. Joseph Branch Hillsdale Lenawee Monroe Berrien SITE SUMMARIES A short discussion follows for each Wooded Dune and Swale Complex that was quantitatively sampled during the 1992 field season. Topographic maps indicating natural-area boundaries and transect locations for each site are found in Appendix IL Data collected for each site are summarized in Tables 4 and 5. Table 4 summarizes geographic, biological, ownership and protection information, while Table 5 fists the special plants, special animals, and high quality natural communities associated with each site. IJAXE HURON 1. Pointe Aux Barques (Huron Co.) The Pointe Aux Barques complex fies just west of the northem tip of Huron County along Lake Huron. Th e complex is bounded along the south side by a low ridge along Pointe Aux Barques Road, and to the west by the town of Port Austin. The complex comprises approximately 400 acres. Although this area has been logged in the past, no significant disturbances or hydrological alterations were observed. This complex is characterized by a series of low to moderately high ridges (0.54.0 m), with narrow, wet swales (4-20 in wide). Along the transect, the beach ridges reached a maximum elevation of 4.8 m above Lake Huron at a distance of 200 m inland from shore. Beyond this point, elevations steadily declined to only 9 cm above Lake Huron at a distance of 478 m inland from shore. The water source for the swales of this complex appear to be from groundwater flows from further inland. Organic matter depth 48 TABLE 4: Stmunary of Location, Acreage, Biological, Ownership, and Comments on Conservation for each complex sampled during 1992. SITE NAME COUNTY RANK ACRES RLE OWNERSHIP PROTECMON/MANAGEMENT SPECIES COMMENTS 1. Pointe Aux Barques Huron A 154 400 1EI Private Private preserve, no apparent threat. 2. Port Crescent Huron C 126 2200 IE1 State Park, County establishing preserve, further County, Private public acquisition between public tracts recommended. 3. Sleeper State Park Huron BC 129 2100 IE1 State Park, Acquisition of tracts west of state park Private recommended to limit degradation to complex. 4. Au Gres Arenac BC 100 2800 2GI Private Land use agreements to protect the core of the compLex recommenueu. 5. Platte Bay Benzie A 114 2600 2JI Sleeping Bear Nominated as National Natural Landmark; NPS has Dunes National plans to develop a marina in several swales. Lakeshore Proposal should be rejected. 6. Crystal River Leelanau BC 87 580 2JI Private, National Proposed golf course on one private tract; Lakeshore public acquisition of this tract recommended. 7. Bower's Harbor Grand CD 50 175 2K2 Private Land use agreements in and around complex Traverse recommended. 8. Pointe Aux Chenes Mackinac A 170 4600 3MI Hiawatha National USFS could consider expansion of current Forest Research Natural Area boundaries to include entire complex. 9. Gulliver Lake Dunes Schoolcraft AB 138 2300 3M1 State Forest, Public acquisition of additional tracts on east Private end of the complex strongly recommended. 10. Thompson Schoolcraft AB 165 9500 3M1 State Forest, Land use agreements along shoreline, limited Private timber harvest on state land recommended. 11. Portage Bay Delta A 151 1160 3M1 State Forest, State acquisitions of remaining private tracts within Private complex strongly recommended. 12. Big Bay de Noc Delta AB 111 7900 3M1 National Forest, Additional public acquisitions or land use State Forest, Private agreements along the shoreline should be considered. RANK = Natural Quality Rank (See Appendix VI) RLE = Subdistrict of Regional Landscape Ecosystems of Michigan (Albert, et al. 1986) cal, Ownership, and Comments on Conservation for each compl- -pled d 1992. TABLE 4: Summary of Location, Acreage, Biologi, uring SITE NAME COUNTY RANK ACRES RLE OWNERSHIP PROTECTION/MANAGEMENT SPECIES I COMMENTS 13. Ogontz Bay Delta A 150 2100 3MI National Forest, No apparent conflicts with current land Private management. 14. Au Train Bay Alger BC 102 2800 3N2 National Forest, Careful land use planning related to Town of Au Private Train, additional public acquisitions should be considered. 15. Little Presque Isle Point Marquette B 75 600 4P1 State Forest, Private Additional public acquisitions should be considered; timber/recreational management on public land should be maintained at low intensities. 16. Iron River Marquette A 86 880 4PI Private Recent zoning changes for residential development along the shoreline should be reviewed. 17. Salmon Trout Bay Marquette A 157 720 4P1 Private No apparent conflicts with current land management. ,.A 18. Pine River Marquette BC 29 520 4P1 Private No apparent conflicts with current land C management. 19. Little Traverse Bay Houghton AB 65 575 4T1 Private Public acquisition of large private tracts should be considered. 20. Grand Traverse Bay Houghton/ AB 96 3500 4T1 Private Public acquisitions along the shoreline Keweenaw recommended. 21. Oliver Bay Keweenaw AB 80 950 4T1 Private Public acquisitions along the shoreline I I I recommended. 22. Flint Steel River Ontonagon AB 107 500 4S2 Private Public acquisitions along the shoreline I I I I recommended. RANK = Natural Quality Rank (See Appendix VI) RLE = Subdistrict of Regional Landscape Ecosystems of Michigan (AlbeM et al. 1986) TABLE 5: Special Plants, Special Ambnals, and High Quality Natural Communities Associated with Wooded Dune and Swale Complexes Sampled Ink 1992. SITE NAME 3PECL4LL PLANTS SPECIAL ANIMALS NATURAL COMMUNITIES Pointe Aux Barques Haliaeetus leucocephalus Port Crescent cirsium pitcberi Sleeper State Park Cirsfum pitcberi Oak-Pine Barrens Au Gres Cirsium pitcberi Platte Bay Cirsium pitcberi Haliaeetus feucompbalus CyfiVaium arietinum Orobancbefasciculata Ptemspora andromedea Crystal River Acris crepilans blanebardii Pointe Aux Chenes Calypso bulbosa Great Lakes Marsh Cirsium pitcberi Patterned Peatland Lycopaium appressum Sofidago hougbtanii 5tellaria longipes Gulliver Lake Dunes Cirsium pitcberi Cbaradrius tnelodus Ptovspora andromedea Sofidago houghtonff Stellaria longipes Yanacetum buronense Thompson Calypso butbosa Carex albolutescms Cirsium pitcberi iris lacustris Sofidago bougbtonff Stellaria longipes Tanacetum buronense Portage Bay Iris lacustris Big Bay de Noc iwopodium selago Halfaeetus teucocepbalus Ogontz Bay Ranunculus laponkus Hafiaeetus leucocepbalus Pandion balfaetus Au Train Bay Cbaradrius nw1adus Great Lakes Marsh little Presque Isle Point Pterospora andromedea Iron River Haftaeetus kzwocepbalus Salmon Trout Bay Hafideetus letwocepbalus Pine River Armoracia aquatica Hahaeetus leucocepbalus Elymus mollis Martes americana Safixpellita Grand Traverse Bay Crafaegus douglasif Oliver Bay Epilobium palustre Flint Steel River Haliaeetus leucocepbalus 51 in the swales ranged from 3 cm to 52 cm. Significant fluctuations (up to 42 cm) in swale water depths were recorded between May and August visits. Soil PH, for both sandy substrate and organic soils ranged between 5.64 and 6.03. A mature, closed canopy of Red oak (Quercus rubra), Red maple (Acer rubrum), Paper birch (Betula papytifera), and Big tooth aspen (Populus grandidentata) dominated the ridges. Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) and American beech (Fagus grandifolia) were also common on the beach ridges. Prior to European settlement, the beach ridges of this complex contained more hemlock and White pine (Pinus strobus) than exist today. Black ash (Fraxinus nigra) and Cottonwood (Populus deltoides) dominated many of the swales. Red maple, Paper birch, Northern white cedar (ThuJa occidentafts), Red asl@ (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), Buttonbush (Cepbalantbus occidentalis), Blue flag (Iris virginica), and Reed canary grass (Pbalaris arundinacea) were also common in the @,;;wales. Many other swales, being shaded entirely by adjacent mature upland forest contained few herbaceous species. A total of 154 species of vascular plants and mosses were noted along the transect. A federally threatened Bald eagle (Haliaeetus _Ieucocepbalus) nest was discovered along the shoreline during this survey. A similar, albeit smaller, complex occurs just east of this area in section 22. Sandstone cliffs are located. just northeast of this complex along the shoreline. This area is managed as a natural area by Pointe Aux Barques Inc. 2. Port Crescent (Huron Co.) Located 5 miles west of Port Austin, the complex at Port Crescent contains the eastern half of a twelve mile-long series of complexes which 52 extend over to Caseville. The Pinnebog River forms much of the southern boundary of the 2200 acre complex, then cuts through to Lake Huron at the eastern end of the complex at Port Crescent State Park. M-25 cuts across this complex from east to west, as do several other unpaired roads. Many homes have been built throughout the shoreline area. The transect was taken in section 7, within the Wilderness Arboretum, owned by Huron County. teach ridges within this complex were generally low (0-5-1.0 m), with swales ranging from 7 to 40 m in width. Although elevations were not taken along this transect, it appears that the adjacent Pinnebog River is the source of water for the swales of this complex. organic matter depth in the swales varied considerably (10-90 cm) generally increasing with distance from the take shore. PH of organic matter and sandy substrate within the swales ranged from 5.94 to 6.28. Water depth in the swales, measured only in August, ranged from 2 tic) 38 cm. Prior to European settlement, this complex contained more White pine (Pinus strobus) and Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) than remain today. Beach ridges area now dominated by Red oak (Quercus rubra), Paper birch (Betula pqpj@Hfera), Red maple (Acer rubrum), and Black cherry (Prunus serotina). The swales are dominated by Red maple, Black ash (Fraxinus nigra), Cottonwood (Populus deltoides), Red-osier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera), Bunonbush (Cepbalantbus occidentalis), Michigan holly (Ilex verticillata), Blue joint grass (Calamagrostis canadensis), and Fowl manna grass (Glyceria striatia). Federally threatened Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium piticben) is found within this complex along the Pinnebog River near the Lake Huron shoreline. A total of 53 126 species of vascular plants and mosses were noted along the transect. Intensive shoreline development and road construction have significantly altered the character of much of this complex. Long term protection efforts should include acquisition of private tracts between the Huron County park and the Port Crescent State Park. Opportunities may still exist to establish a permanent fink between these two natural areas and maintain the overall natural integrity of this upland/wetland complex. 3. Albert E. Sleeper State Park (Huron Co.) This 2100 acre complex is located just west of the complex at Port Crescent, and is partially included within the Sleeper State Park. It is bounded to the southeast by glacial Lake Nipissing beach ridge and Rush Lake, and to the southwest by agricultural development. It is bisected by State Park Road and M-25 in several places. The transect was placed just west of the state park campground. The beach ridges of this complex are'low (0.5-1 m), with swales ranging from 3 to 48 m in width. Organic matter depth in the swales ranges from 5 to 117 cm deep, generally increasing with distance from the shore. PH of organic and and subsoils from the swales ranged from 5.19 to 5.94. Water depths in the swales varied from 2 to 55 cm deep when measured in Alagust. Prior to European settlement, more White pine (Pinus strobus) was probably present in this complex than appears today. There were also Oak-pine Barrens on a number of higher beach ridges along the shoreline, and along the glacial Lake Nipissing beach ridge. Today, Red oak (Quercus rubra), Black oak (Quercus velutina), and Big 0 54 tooth aspen (Populus grandidentata), dominate the beach ridges. Red pine (Pinus resinosa), Red maple (Acer rubrum) and Paper birch (Betula papj?rifera) also dominate the ridges. Swales are dominated by Black ash (Fraxinus nigra), Red maple, and Big tooth aspen. Speckled alder (Alnus rugosa), Red-osier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera), Lake sedge (Carex lacusttls), Blue joint grass (Calanzagrostis canadensis), Pond sedge (Dulichium arundinacimm), and Marsh fem (Thelyptrispalusttis). A total of 129 species of vascular plants and mosses were noted Along the transect. Federally threatened Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitchen) occurs along the shoreline of this complex. Observations along State Park Road indicated that, although culverts were not placed under the road at every swale, the impact of the road on the vegetation of the swales did not appear to extend a great distance from the road (10-15 m). This suggests that ground water flow under and through the beach ridges may play a more significant influence on vegetation than lateral, surface flow in each swale of this complex. As already noted, significant portions of this complex are included within the state park. State acquisition of additional tracts to the west in sections 19, 24 and 25 is recommended to stem further degradation of this complex. 4. Au Gres (Arenac. Co.) This 2800 acre complex is located in eastern Arenac County, three miles east of the town of Au Gres. It is bisected by US-23 and Delano Road. Much of the Lake Huron shoreline of this complex is intensively developed for residential housing. A goff course is now located at the northeast end of the complex. Cleared agricultural land forms the north and west boundaries I of the complex, above the 55 glacial Lake Nipissing beacli ridge. This complex is contained entirely on private land. The transect was taken north of US-23 in section 10. This complex is characterized by low beach ridges (0.5-1 m) and numerous wet swales. Swales average 16 im in width, varying from 3 to 119 rh. Organic matter depths in the swales ranged from 10 to 80 cm. August water depths in the swales varied from 2 to 10 cm, with many satuirated at the surface. Soil and organic matter pH in the swales ranged from 4.58 to 5.60. Prior to European settlement, this complex was dominated by Red pine (Pinus resinosa), White pine (Pinus strobus), Northern white cedar (Thuja occidentafts), and Yellow birch (Betula allegbeniensis). Red maple (Acer rubrum), Paper birch (Betula pqpj@Hfera), and Red oak Quercus rubra), Black cherry (Prunus serotina), and Red ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) dominate the ridges today. Swales are dominated by cedar, Paper birch, Black ash (Fraxinus nigra), Big tooth aspen (Populus grandidentata), and American elm (Ulmus americana). Other common species in the swales area Sensitive fern (Onoclea sensibilis), "Speckled alder (Alnus rugosa), Lake sedge (Carex lacusols), willow (Safix eriocepbala), False nettle (Boebmeria cylindtica), Fowl manna grass (Glyceria striata), and Lady fern (Athytium ftfix-femina). A total of 100 species of vascular plants and mosses were noted along the transect. Federally threatened Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcben) is found along the shoreline at Lookout Point, at the eastern edge of this complex. Shoreline development, highways, and agricultural drainage have all degraded this complex. However, the central core of the complex remains relatively intact. Easements, 56 land use agreements, or public acquisition should be considered for long term protection of this complex. IAIKE MICHIGAN 5. Platte Bay (Benzie Co.) This 2600 acre complex lies entirely within the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore. It is bounded on the east and south by high parabolic dunes and M-22. Peterson Road, Lasso Road, and a park campground represent the only disturbances in this complex. The transect was taken from the shoreline in section 23. Elevations were not taken along this transect, but the wind-sorted beach ridges and swales clearly lie above the Lake Michigan water levels. The beach ridges are generally quite high, ranging from 2 to 15 m high. Swale widths vary considerably, from 3 to 45 rn wide; averaging 19 rn in width. Organic matter depth in the swales ranged from 2 to 73 cm; averaging 24 cm in depth. Most swales were either dry or saturated at the surface during August. In wet swalles, water depths ranging from 2 to 5 cm. PH of organic and sub-soils from the swales ranged between 6.13 and 6.54. Prior to European settlement, this complex was dominated by more Red pine and White pine than occurs today. Wedand communities currently found in this complex probably reflect the presettlement condition. Today, Jack pine (Pinus banksiana), Red pine (Pinus resinosa), White pine (Pinus strobus), White oak (Quercus alba), Red oak Quercus rubra), and Big tooth aspen (Populus grandidentata) dominate the beach ridges. The swales tend to be open marshes with Northern manna grass (Glyceria borealis), Blue joint grass (Calanzagrostis canadensis), sedge (Carex pseudo-cyperus), 57 Water knotweed (Polygonum ampbibium), Marsh fern (Thelyptrispalusttis), and Water parsnip (Sium suave). A total of 114 species. of vascular plants and mosses were encountered along the transect. One federally threatened Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocepbalus) nest is located within this complex. Federally threatened Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcbetl) is also found along the shoreline, of this complex. State threatened Fascicled broom-rape (Orobancbefasciculata), Pine-drops (Pterospora andromedea), and state special co ncern Rams head lady's-slipper (CypHpedium atletinum) are all found within this complex. This complex has been proposed for designation as a National Natural Landmark, along with the adjacent complex to the southwest. More recently National Park Service proposals called for the development of a marina in the swales of this complex. This latter proposal would undoubtedly result in significant degradation to this portion of the National Lakeshore, and should be strongly discouraged. 6. Crystal River (Leetanau Co.) Located at Glen Arbor, this 580 acre complex ties between Glen Lake and Lake Michigan, with the Crystal River flowing through, and between the beach ridges. County road 875 cuts across the complex, and several other roads pass along several beach ridges. Intensive residential and commercial development occurs at Glen Arbor, along the north shore of Glen Lake, and on the Lake Michigan shoreline. Portions of the complex are part of the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore. A transect was taken on National Lakeshore property in section 23. The beach ridges of this complex are generally low, ranging from 0.5 to 1 m high. 58 Swales in this complex are somewhat wide, ranging from 9 to 59 m wide; averaging 39 m. Organic matter depth in the swales is quite variable, from 8 to 150 cm. The pH of the organic matter and sub-soils from the swales ranged from 5.91 to 6.31. Most swales in August were saturated, with standing water (5 cm deep) in just one Swale. Prior to European settlement, this complex probably contained more White pine (Pinus strobus) and Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) than it does today. Today, hemlock and White pine are still abundant on the low ridges and in the swales, but Northern white cedar (Thu us ameticana are .,fa occidentafts) and American ash (Fraxin dominant, along with Tamarack (Larix laticina), Balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and Red maple (Acer rubrum). Alder buckthorn (Rbamnus alnifolia), Swamp rose (Rosa palusttis), Northern bugle weed (Lycopus uniflorus), sedge (Carex leptalea), and Small bishop's cap (Mitella nuda) are all abundant in the swales. A total of 87 species of vascular plants and mosses were noted along the transect. State special concern Blanchard's cricket frog (Actis crepitans blancbardt) has been found in and around the Crystal River within this complex. Road construction and residential development have caused significant degradation to this complex. However, remaining undeveloped portions retain a high natural quality. Recent proposals to develop a golf course within this complex would clearly cause significant degradation to the complex as a whole. Other more suitable locations for the golf course can and should be found. 7. Bower's Harbor (Grand Traverse Co.) This 175 acre complex is located 59 9 miles north of Traverse City along the west side of the Mission Peninsula. The complex is bounded in the east and south by cleared agricultural land and Peninsula Drive. Neah- Ta-Wanta Road, and a number of homes are along the shoreline. This complex is contained entirely on private land. No transect was taken within this complex, but previous visits by MNFI staff were used for characterization purposes. The beach ridges of this complex are generally low (0-5-1 m high) with narrow swales most common. Organic matter within the swales varies in depth, reaching a maximum of 40 cm. PH ofthe organic matter from the swales was 6.70. Red pine (Pinus resinosa), Eastern hemlock (Ysuga canadensis), and White pine (Pinus strobus) are dominant on the ridges, similar to the presettlement condition. Northern white cedar (ThuJa occidentalis), Black ash (Fraxinus nigra), and Paper birch (Betulapapyrifera) are dominant in the forested swales. Northern manna grass (Glyceria borealis), sedge (Carex stricta), Buttonbush (Cepbalantbus occidentafts), sedge (Carex aquatilis), and Water knotweed (Polygonum ampbibium) are found in the swales. A total of 50 species of vascular plants was noted within this complex. Given the small size of this complex, additional adjacent parcels would need to be acquired in order to secure the long-term viability of the complex as a natural area. 8. Pointe Aux Chenes (Mackinac Co.) Located at Pointe Aux Chenes Bay, this area comprises 4600 acres when combined with the extensive adjacent complex north of the Pointe Aux Chenes marshes. It is bounded in the east by a series of high parabolic dunes, and in the north by, Round Lake and Brevoort Lake. The Brevoort River passes 60 through the complex, draining Brevoort Lake into Lake Michigan. US-2 runs along the shoreline of this area, and Brevoort Lake Road passes through the complex in several places. Several power line corridors and natural gas pipelines also pass through this complex. Nearly all of the complex is located within the Hiawatha National Forest. The transect was taken from US-2 in section 9 (T41N R5W). This complex is located behind several very high dunes running parallel to the shoreline. Behind this point, the beach ridges were moderate in height (1-3 in high). Swales varied from 3 to 43, in in width; averaging 22 in wide. Organic matter in the swales was deep, averaging; 61 cm. PH of the organic matter and sub-soils within the swales ranged from 4.81 to 5.31. In August, most swales were either saturated, o r contained standing water, which varied in depth from 5 to 30 cm. Presettlement vegetation of this complex was a combination of White pine (Pinus strobus), Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), and northern hardwoods on the ridges, with Emergent marsh, Northern white cedar (Thuja occidentafts), Tamarack (Larix laricina), and Black spruce (Picea mariana) in the swales. Today, these species remain abundant, with Paper birch (Betuld papyrifera), Big tooth aspen (Populus grandidentata), and Red ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) in addition. Also abundant in the swales are Speckled aldler (Alnus rugosa), Small bur reed (Sparganium minimum), Leatherleaf (Cbamaedapbne calyculata), Michigan holly (fiew verticillata), -sedges (Carex Zasiocarpa), (Carex trisperma), and Blue flag (his venicolor). Federally threatened Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcberi) is found throughout the open dunes along this shoreline. Within the complex, federally threatened Bald eagles (Halideetus 61 leucocepbalus), and state threatened Osprey (Pandoin baliaetus) nest. Also, state 0 threatened Calypso (Ca@@pso bulbosa), and Appressed clubmoss (Lycopodium appressum), along with state special concern Stichwort (StelZaria longipes) are known to occur within the complex. Several high quality natural communities, including Great Lakes marsh and Dry-Mesic Northern Forest are associated with this complex. A total of 170 vascular plants and mosses were noted along this transect. Much of the eastern end of this complex is within a designated Research Natural Area, as administered by the Hiawatha National Forest. Expansion of the RNA boundaries could be considered to provide for the long-term viability of this entire complex. 9. GuUlver Lake Ditnes (Schoolcraft Co.) This 2300 acre complex is located just south of Gulliver Lake, six miles east of Manistique. It is bounded to the north by the lake, US-2, and County Road P432. Homesite development has taken place along much of the shoreline in the western half of the complex. The eastern end.of the complex is included within the Lake Superior State Forest. The transect was taken on private land, just west of the State Forest land, in section 12. Because this stretch of shoreline faces a southwesterly direction, strong prevailing winds have re-sorted the sands of the beach ridges, forming somewhat high (3-4 m), irregular dune ridges. Parabolic dunes are common in the northeastern end of this complex. Swales in this complex vary considerably in width, from 3 to 76 m; averaging 15 m. Organic matter depths in the swales varied considerably from one Swale to another (3 to 98 cm); averaging 32 cm. PH of the Swale organic matter and sub-soils 62 .5.45 to 5.69. During August, most swales were dry or saturated at the surface. Several swales (at approximately 440 m from the shoreline) had up to 48 cm of standing water. Prior to European settlement, this complex contained White pine (Pinus strobus), Paper birch (Betula papyrifiera), and Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) on the high beach ridges, with Northern white cedar (ThuJa occidenialis), Black spruce (Picea mariana), and Balsam fir (Abies balsamea) dominant in the swales. Today, Red pine (Pinus resinosa), White pine, Red oak (Quercus rubra), Paper birch, and Red maple (Acer rubt-um) are dominant on the ridges. Cedar is the dominant tree species in the swales. Many of the swales of this complex contain Emergent Marshes and Intermittent Wetlands. Other common species in the swales include Aquatic bulrush (Scitpus subterminalis), Blue joint grass (Calamagrostis canadensis), Common marsh spikerush (Eleocbaris smalliz), Speckled alder (Alnus rugosa), Small bur reed (Sparganium minimum), Thin grass (Airostisperennans), and Swamp thistle (Cirsium muticum). A total of 138 species of vascular plants and mosses were noted along the transect. Federally endangered Piping plovers (Cbaradtius melodus) are known to nest along this stretch of shoreline. Federally threatened Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcberi), and Houghton's goldenrod (Solidago bougbtonii), state threatened Lake Huron tansy (Tanaceturn buronense) and Pine-drops (Pterospora andromedea), and state special concern Stichwort (Stellatia longipes) are all found along the shoreline of this complex. As already noted, much shoreline development has taken place in this rather large complex. Observations In the field during sampling indicated that much more development in the eastern half of the complex could be taking place in the near future. 63 Given the high quality nature of this complex, it should be considered of high priority for the state to acquire much inore of the eastern half of the complex. 10. Thompson (Schoolcraft Co.) This 9500 acre complex, clearly one of the largest in the state, is located just west of Manistique. It is bounded on the northwest by Indian Lake. The Indian River passes through the northeast end of the complex, and it is drained at the south end by Thompson Creek. US-2 passes along the shoreline, and railroad tracks and County Road P442 also bisect this complex. Urban development from the west side of Manistique extends into this complex. Approximately one third of the complex is contained within the Superior State Forest, where a State Fish Hatchery is located. The transect was itaken from the shoreline south of Stony Point. High beach ridges in this complex are limited to the shoreline area. Further inland, the beach ridges are generally 0.5 to 2 m high. Swales vary in width from 13 to 100 m; averaging 34 m. Organic matter depth in the swales varies from 2 to over 175 cm; averaging 25 cm. PH of the swale organic matter and sub-soils ranged between 4.17 and 5.05. In August, most swales were saturated at the surface. Maximum depths of standing water in the swales was 10 cm. Presettlement vegetation of this complex was predominantly spruce, (Picea spp.), Balsam fir (Abies balsamea'), and Northern white cedar (ThuJa occidentafts), White pine (Pinus strobus), and Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). Today, cedar, hemlock, White pine, Red pine (Pinus resinosa), Big tooth aspen (Populusgrandidentata), Black spruce (Picea mariana), and Red irnaple (Acer rubrum) dominate the low beach ridges. Cedar, 64 Paper birch (Betula pagwifera), Black ash (Fraxinus nigra), and Balsam fir (Abies balsamea) dominate the swales. Also common in the swales are Sweet bay (MyHca gale), Michigan holly (Wex verticillata), Downy yellow violet (Viola rostrata), Leatherleaf (Cbamaedapbne calyculala), False mayflower (Smilacina ttlfolia), and numerous Sphagnum mosses (Spbagnum spp.). A total of 165 species of vascular plants and mosses were encountered along the transect. Federally threatened Houghton's goldenrod (Solidago bougbtonit), Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcberi), Dwarf lake iris (Iris lacustHs), and state threatened Lake Huron tansy (Tanacetum buronense), and state special concern Stichwort (Stellaria longipes) occur along this shoreline. State threatened Calypso (Calypso bulbosa) and state special concern Greenish-white sedge (Carex albolutescens) are also found within this complex. Development along the shoreline appears to be accelerating to the west of Manistique. Several clearcuts were also encountered on both ridges and swales within the state forest lands. Care should be taken to avoid large clearcuts within this complex. consideration should also be given to state acquisition of additional tracts along US-2. 11. Portage Bay (Delta Co.) This 1160 acre complex is located 3 miles southeast of Garden along the east side of the Garden Peninsula. It is bounded on the north by Goldmine Road, and to the west by agricultural land. No development has taken place along this shoreline, as much of it being contained in the Lake Superior State Forest. The transect was taken from the shoreline in section 22. Elevations measured along this transect indicated a rapid rise to nearly 4 m above 65 Lake Michigan water levels within 23 m of the shoreline. By 138 m from shore, elevations had gradually declined t6 their lowest level of 49 cm above the lake levels. Elevations steadily increased from this point to just over 5 m at a distance of 448 m from the shoreline. Ridges were 0.5-1.0 in in height. Swales varied in width from 5 to 36 m; averaging 10 m. Organic matter depths in the swales varied from 10 to 41 cin in depth; averaging 22 cm. PH of swate organic .matter and sub-soil varied from 5.92 to 6.36. In August, most swales were saturated at the surface. Those with standing water measured from 15 to 25 cm in depth. Prior to European settlement, this complex was dominated by White pine (Pinus strobus), Northern white czedar (7buja occidentafts) and Tamarack (Larix laticina). Today, Balsam fir (Abies balsamea), White pine, Red pine (Pinus resinosa), and Paper birch (Betuld papyrifera) are dominant on the beach ridges. Northern white cedar, Balsam fir, Paper birch, White spruce (Picea glauca), and Black spruce (Picea mariana) dominate the swales. Also common in the swales are False mayflower (Smilacina trifolia), Alder buckthorn (Rbamnus alnifolia), Goldthread (Coptis tHfoliata), Speckled alder (Alnus rugosa), Labrador tea (Ledum groenlandicum), and sedge (Careax eburnea). � total of 151 species of vascular plants and mosses were encountered along the transect. � very large population of federaUy threatened Dwarf lake iris (Itis lacustHs) occurs throughout the shoreline portion of this complex. Recent road construction was observed on private land at the northeast end of this complex. Several recent clearcuts were also noted on State Forest land. Because of the high quality and sensitive nature of this complex, timber harvesting should be excluded 66 from state-owned portion. Additional state acquisitions along this extremely sensitive and high quality shoreline should be seriously considered. 12. Big Bay de Noc (Delta Co.) This 7900 acre complex is located approximately 12 miles west of Manistique at the northeast end of the bay. Both Fishdam River and the Little Fishdam River drain this large complex. US-2 passes through the complex, then, along the shoreline. The Soo Line railroad tracks also cut across this area. Several homes are located close to the shOreline. Most of the land included within this area lies on either the Hiawatha National Forest or the Lake Superior State Forest. The transect was located in section 34. Beach ridges within this complex are generally low to moderate in height (1-2 m). Swales vary considerably, buit this complex includes the widest swales encountered during this study, ranging from 5 to 145 m wide. organic matter in the swales varied from 5 to 75 cm in depth. PH of the swale organic matter and sub-soils varied from 5.51 to 5.73. During August, water in the swales varied from saturated conditions to 7 cm of standing water. Prior to European settlement, White pine (Pinus strobus), Red pine (Pinus -resinosa), and Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) dominated the beach ridges. Northern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis), and Tamarack (Larix laticina) dominated the swales. Today, White pine,'Red pine, and White spruce (Piceaglauca) are dominate many of the ridges. The large swales contain shrub swamps and scattered Tamarack. Also common in the swales are Leatherleaf (Chantaedaphne calyculata), Bog birch (Betuld 67 pumila), Speckled alder Vk1nus rugosa), Labrador tea (Ledum groenlandicum), Small cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccos), Black chokeberry (Aronia prunifolia), and sedge (Care-v stricta). A total of 111 species of vascular plants and mosses were encountered along this transect. Federally threatened Bald eagle (HaUdeetus leucocepbalus) nests are located at. the southwest and southeast oaremes of the complex. A high quality Great Lakes marsh is located at the southwest end of the complex, at the mouth of the Fishdam River. State special concern Fir clubmoss (Lycopodium selago) is also found within this complex. As noted above, most of this complex is contained within public lands. Additional acquisitions along the shoreline could be considered to ensure the long-term viability of this complex. 13. Ogontz Bay (Delta Co.) This 2100 acre complex is located eight miles east of Rifle River. It is drained by the Ogontz River, which enters Lake Michigan at the west end of the bay. The area Is bounded in the north by US-2 and the Soo Line railroad tracks, and to the east by County Road 499. Nearly all of the complex falls within the lands managed by the Hiawatha National Forest. The transect was taken from the shoreline in section 10. The beach ridges of this complex are generally low (0.5-1.0 m). Measured elevations indicated that none of the swales were below Lake Michigan water levels, although several were feweir than 6 cm above lake level. Elevations gradually increased to 3.28 m at a distance of 000 m from the shoreline. Most of this complex, including 68 swales and ridges, is classified as wetland. organic matter varied from 8 to 107 cm in depth; averaging 36 cm. PH of swale organic matter and sub-soil varied between 5.58 and 5.92. Both in June, and again in August, most swales were saturated, with 45 cm of standing water in only one swale, 31 m from the shoreline. The presettlement vegetation of this complex appears to have been quite similar to what is found today, wilth Northern white cedar (7buja occidentalis), White spruce (Picea glauca), Black spruce (Picea nzariana), Paper birch (Betula papytifera), and Tamarack (Larix laricina) dominant. Also common are Goldthread (Coptis ttifoliata), Balsam fir (Abies balsamea), Three-seeded sedge (Carex trisperma), Creeping snowberry (Gaultberia bispidula), Small bishop's cap (Mitella nuda), Bunchberry (Comus canadensis), and Ground pine (Lycopodium annotinum). A total of 150 species vascular plants and mosses were encountered along the transect. Federally threatened Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocepbalus) and state threatened Osprey (Pandion baliaetu;) nest at the west end of this complex. State threatened Lapland buttercup (Ranunculus laponicus) is also found within this complex. As already noted, most of this complex is located within National Forest lands. Current management doesnot appear to be in conflict with the long-term viability of this complex. LAKE SUPERIOR 14. An Train Bay (Alger Co.) This 2800 acre complex is located 9 miles west of Munising. The Au Train River snakes through this complex from the southeast extreme, 69 entering Lake Superior at the along the northeast end. The town of Au Train is built on top of this complex about 1/4 mile inland from the shoreline. M-28 and the Soo line railroad pass across the complex from east to west, cutting across a number of wet swales. A Number of tracts, along the south and west sides of the complex are included within the Hiawatha National Forest. The transect was located on public land in section 32, between M-28 and the railroad tracks. The beach ridges of this complex are generally low to moderate in height (0.5-1.5 m). Swales vary in width from 2 to 32 m. Organic matter depth in the swales varied from 3 to 235 cm; averaging 68 cm. PH of swale organic matter and sub-soils ranged from 4.25 to 5.20. August water levels in the swales varied from saturated at the surface to 30 cm deep; averaging 5 cm. Prior to European settlement, White pine (Pinus strobus), Red pine (Pinus resinosa), and Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) dominated the ridges, with Northern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis), and spruce (Picea spp.) in the swales. The large Great Lakes marsh noted by surveyors along the banks of the Au Train River remains today. The dominant tree species noted by the original land surveys are also present today. Red pine, Jack pine, White pine, Red oak Quercus rubra), and White spruce (Picea glauca) dominate the beach ridges today. Black spruce (Picea mariana) and a number of shrubs dominate many of the Bog-like swales. Other species common in the swales are Leatherleaf (Cbantaedapbne calyculata), Sweet gate (Myrica gale), Bog laurel (Kalmia polifolia), Labrador tea i(Ledum groenlandicum), Mountain holly (Nemopantbus mucronata), Large cranberry (Vaccinium macrocatpon), Running bog sedge (Carem, 70 oligospernia), Slender woolly sedge (Carew lasiocarpa), and Flat-leaved bladderwort (Utticularia intertnedia). A total of 102 species of vascular plants and mosses were encountered along the transect. Federally endangered Piping plovers (Charadriu,s melodus) have been known to nest along shoreline of this complex. As noted earlier, a high quality Great Lakes marsh is located along the Au Train River within this complex. Many of the wet swales of this complex are directly connected to the river. current management of public and private lands, apart from the growth of the community of Au Train, does not appear to be in conflict with the long-term viability of this complex. However, additional public acquisitions should be considered, and careful land use planning is clearly called for within and around the town of Au Train. 15. ]Uttle Presque Isle Point (Marquette Co.) Ibis 600 acre complex is located five miles northwest of Main4uette, immediately west of Little Presque Isle. It is bounded along the south and east by Harlow Creek. County Road 550 passes through the complex along a beach ridge about 1/4 mile inland from the shoreline. Ownership of the complex is split between the state of Michigan (Escanaba River State Forest), and Clark properties. The transect was taken from the shoreline to the county road on the private tract in section 13. Elevations taken along this transect, indicated a rapid rise above Lake Superior water levels. A maximum elevation along the trangect of 5.25 m was reached at a distance of 201 m from the shoreline. The only moist swales along this transect, at 71 distances over 200 m fromshore, were between 2.50 and 3.00 m above take levels. Swale widths ranged from 3 to 151 M. Organic matter depth in the moist swales varied from 18 to 85 cm; averaging 39 cm deep. PH of swate organic matter and sub-soils ranged from 3.92 to 4.43. None of the swales held standing water, either in June or in August. Swales with organic matter accumulation and wetland vegetation had saturated soils at a average depth of 45 cm below the surface. Prior to European settlement, this complex was dominated by Red pine (Pinus resinosa), White pine (Pinus strobus), Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), Northern white cedar (Tbuja occidentalis), and Red maple (Acer rubt-um). Today, significantly less hemlock, and much more Paper birch (Betulapapjilfera), Red oak (Quercus twbra) are found within the complex. Red pine, White pine, and Balsam fir (4bies balsamea) remain as common species within the complex. Most swales within this complex are dry, containing upland vegetation. The few that contain wetlands are characterized as shrub swamps dominated by Speckled alder (Alnus rugosa), Leatherleaf (Cbamaedqpbne calyculata), Michigan holli@ (Ilex verticillata), Meadow sedge (Carex stricta), swollen sedge (Carex intumescens), sedge (Carex vesicaria), and Blue joint grass (Calamagrostis canadensis). A total of 75species were noted along the transect. State special concern Pine-drops (Pterospora a?ulromedea) was found within this complex. Current management of the private portion of this complex does not appear to be in conflict with it's long-term viability. On state forest lands, timber management and recreational activities, if maintained at low intensity levels, would also be compatible with the natural values of this complex. 72 16. Iron River (Marquette Co.) This 880 acre complex is located three miles east of Big Bay. It is bounded in the southwest by Independence Lake. The Iron River winds through the complex, entering Lake Superior at it's northeast end. The complex is almost entirely owned by one private landowner. The transcct was taken from the shoreline to the river in sections 18 and 13. The elevations measured along the transect indicated that the sandy bottom of the first large swale ties just over 2 m below current Lake Superior water levels. This is partly due to the fact that this s-wale is an abandoned the river bottom of the Iron River. Beyond this first swale, elevations steadily increase through a series of ridges and dry swales to an elevation of 61.67 m above Lake Superior at a distance of 648 m from the shoreline. The Iron River was reached along the transect 840 m from the shoreline at an elevation of 2.07 m above Lake Superior. Swale widths varied from 3 to 43 m. Organic matter depth in the first large swale was 205 cm. Only one other swale could be considered a wetland, with organic matter accumulated to 5 cm. PH of swale organic matter and sub-soils varied from 4.33 to 4.97. The two wet swales were saturated at the surface both in June and August. Prior to European settlement, this complex was dominated by Red pine (Pinus resinosa) and White pine (Pinus strobus), with an extensive Great Lakes marsh along the Iron River. Today, Jack pilne (Pinus banksiana) is much more prevalent than in the presettlement condition, although Red pine and White pine remain present. Red oak (Quercus rubra) and Big tooth aspen (Populus grandidentata), and Paper birch (Betula papjilfera) are also common in the overstory. The large, wet swale is predominantly a 73 shrub swamp, with portions very Bog-like in character, dominated by Speckled alder (41hus rugosa), Sweet gale (Myrica gale), Leatherleaf (Cbanzaedapbne calyculata), Michigan holly (Ilex verticillata), Bog laurel (kalmia polifolia), and willow (Safix pedicellaris). A total of 86species of vascular plants and mosses were encountered along the transect. Federally threatened Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocepbalus) have been known to nest within this complex. Recently local zoning authorities proposed zoning the shoreline of this complex for residential uses. The stability of the narrow first beach ridge is clearly unsuitable, for the construction of permanent structures. The fragmentation of this comolex for residential development would also cause severe degradation to the area, as habitat for Bald eagles. 17. Sahnon Trout River (Marquette Co.) This 720 acre complex is located approximately 35 miles northwest of Marquette, 3 miles north of Big Bay. Both the Salmon Trout River and Sullivan Creek pass through and drain this complex. The Salmon Trout River splits into a number of smaller streams as it passes through the complex in section 31. Although the upland portions of the complex may have experienced some logging at the turn of the century, the remainder is virtually pristine. This complex is entirely included within the Huron Mountain Club. The transect was taken from the shoreline in section 31. Elevations taken along the transect indicate that the sandy bottoms of most of the swales lie as much as 4.63 m below current Lake Superior water levels. Depths of the 74 Salmon Trout River close to its mouth were not taken, but it is apparently quite deep as it enters Lake Superior, to enable it to drain this low complex. Only the first beach ridge along the entire 600 m elevational transect was measured as being above the Lake Superior levels. Organic matter in the swales of this complex varied between 15 and 152 cm deep. PH of swale orgMiC matter ranged between 4.30 and 5.56. Water levels in the swales varied between 8 and 152 cm. Several swales were dry (presumably well above lake levels) near the end of the 900 m long vegetation transect. The vegetation of this complex reflects what was encountered by the land surveyors in the 1850's, with Red pine (Pinus resinosa), White pine (Pinus strobus), White spruce (Picea glauca), Red maple (Acer rubrum), and Paper birch (Betuld papjWfera) dominant on the ridges. Many of the swates are dominated by shrub swamps, with Speckled Ader (Alnus rugosa), Michigan Holly (Ilex verticillata), Leatherleaf (Cbamaedap&,,e calyculata), Sweet gate (Myrica gale), Red ash (Fraxinus pensylvanica), Black ash (Fraxinus nigra), Blue joint grass (Calantagrostis canadensis), Meadow sedge (Carex suicta), sedge (Carex rostrata), and Blue flag (Iris verwicolor). A total of 157 species of vascular plants and mosses were encountered along the vegetation transect. Two active Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocepbalus) nests are located within this complex. Current management of this complex appears to ensure its long term viability as a natural area. 18. Pine River (Marquette Co.) This 520 acre complex is located approximately 75 40 miles northwest of Marquette. It is bounded on the southwest by Pine Lake. The Pine River winds through the complex, emptying into Lake Superior. This tract is entirely included within the Huron Mountain Club. A number of unpaved roads and seasonal residences are located wittkin this complex. The transect was taken from the shoreline in section 22. The beach ridges of this complex are 1-3 m high, with swales ranging from 1 to 10 m wide. All swales along the transect were dry, with upland vegetation. Organic matter depths in the dry swales varied from 1 to 3 cm deep. The pH of the organic matter and sub-soil ranged from 3.73 to 3.82. Th e presettlement vegetation of this complex was similar to that found today, with Red pine (Pinus resinosa) and Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) dominating. other common species found along the transect included Huckleberry (Gay lussacia baccata), Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum), Low-bush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium), Cow wheat (Melampyrum fineare), Trailing arbutus (Epigaea' repens), Pennsylvania sedge (Carex pensylvanica), and Ground cedar (Lycopodium ttistachyum). Being the least species-rich complex sampled, only 29 species were encountered along the transect. Federally threatened Bald eagles (Haftaeetus leucocephalus) are known to nest within this complex. State threatened Lake cress (Armoracia aquatica) and state special concern Satiny willow (Salix pellita) are known to occur in or near Pine Lake. State special concern American dune wild-rye (Elymus mollis) is found along the shoreline of this complex. And finally, state threatened Marten (Martes ameHcana) has been seen within the complex. 76 Much of the housing for members of the Huron Mountain Club is concentrated along the Pine River near the shoreline. Given the limited nature of this residential development, no obvious threats to the long-term viability of this complex were observed. 19. Utdie Traverse Bay (Houghton Co.) This 575 acre complex is located 6 miles northeast of Portage Lake. It is bounded to the north by Rice Lake and several small county roads. Mud Lake is located just west of the complex, and Mud Lake Creek passes through the complex. Several homes are located along the county road which enters the complex on the southwest end, and passes along the shoreline. The transect was taken 0 in section 20. The beach ridges of this complex are generally low (0.5-1.0 m high), with wide, wet swales between (3 to 56 m wide). Organic matter depth in the swales ranged from 20 to 80 cm; averaging 38 cm. PH of swale organic matter and sub-soils varied from 3.72 to 4.20. In August, nearly Al swales were saturated at the surface, with 3 cm of standing water in just one sv.-ale. The presettlement vegetation of this complex appears to have been similar to what was noted along the transect, with a Great Lakes marsh and Northern Shrub Swamp at the confluence of Mud Lake Creek and the creek running from Little Rice Lake. Red pine (Pinus resinosa), Black spruce (Picea mariana), and Paper birch (Betula papIvIfera). Scattered Black spruce and. White pine (Pinus strobus) dominate many of the swales. Also common in the Bog-like swales are Leatherleaf (Cbamaedqpbne calyculata), Bog laurel (Kalmia polifolia), Black chokeberry (Aronia prunifolia), Labrador tea (Ledum 77 groenlandicum), Bog rosemary (4ndromedeaglaucophylla), Large cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon), Running bog sedge (Carex ofigosperma), sedge (Carex exilis), Blue joint grass (Calamagrostis canadensis), and numerous Sphagnum mosses (Spbagnum spp.). A total of 65 species of vascular plants and mosses were encountered along this transect. The subdivision and homesite development along this shoreline may create a long- term threat to the viabihi@r of this complex. State acquisition of parcels northeast of current homesites could be considered. 20. Grand Traverse Bay (Keweenaw Co.) Ibis 3500 acre complex is located 3 miles south of Gay. The town of Traverse Bay is located along the shoreline at the northern end of the complim. The Traverse River passes through the complex from the northwest. A small creek also flows through the complex between Deer Lake and Lake Superior. Rice Lake, and a county road form the western boundary of the complex. Another road extends along the shoreline at the south end of the complex, where numerous homesites are located. The transect was taken from the shoreline on a private tract in section 16. The beach ridges of ibis complex are generally low (0.5 to 1.0 m high). Elevation measurements from the shoreline indicated a rapid rise to 3 m above Lake Superior water levels at a distance of 26 m from the shoreline. At a distance of 400 m from the shoreline, elevations of the sandy swale bottoms declined to 10 cm below current Lake Superior water level. That particular swale was probably deepened as a stream bottom at some point in the past. From that point on, to a distance of 1084 m from the 78 shoreline, elevations steadily increase to 4 m above take water levels. Organic matter depth in the swales ranged, from 20 to 122 cm; averaging 42 cm. PH of swale organic matter and sub-soils varied between 4.61 to 5.49. Most swales were saturated during visits in both June and August. In August, 6 to 12 cm of standing water was measured in several swates. Prior to European settlement, both White pine (Pinus strobus) and Red pine (Pinus resinosa) were found on the beach ridges. Today, Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) is dominant on the beach ridges along the shoreline. White pine was not encountered along the transect as an overstory tree on the beach ridges. Scattered Black spruce (Picea mariana) and occasionally, Tamarack (Larix laricina) were dominant in Bog-like swales. Other species comnion in the swales include Sweet bay (Myrica gale), Leatherleaf (Cbamaedapbne calyculaut), Bog birch (Betulapumila), Speckled alder (41nus rugosa), Bog rosemary Ondromedoa glaucopbylla), Bog laurel (Kalmia polifolia), Labrador tea (Ledum groenlandicum), willow (Safix pedice&aris), Running bog sedge (Carew ofigospernta), Blue joint gnass (Calamagrostis canadensis), Blue flag (Iris versicolor), Pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea), and numerous species of Sphagnum mosses (Spbagnum spp.). A total of 96 species of vascular plants and mosses were encountered along the transect. State special concern Douglas's hawthorn (Crataegus douglasit) occurs along the shoreline just south of the town of Traverse Bay. Mine tailings dumped into Lake Superior at Gay extend along the shoreline at the northern end of this complex. Homesite development appears to be an increasing along the shoreline at the south end of the complex. A camp and firing range is located along 79 the county road near Rice Lake. State acquisition of shoreline parcels is recommended, given the size and quality of this complex. 21. Oliver Bay (Keweenaw Co.) This 950 acre complex is located just southeast of Lac LaBelle at Point Isabelle. A series of small, post-glacial embayments, extending inland up to 1100 m from the shoreline, formed around Point Isabelle, depositing an irregular series of beach ridges. A County road passes along the shoreline of this complex, along which seveml homes are located. The transect was taken from the road inland in section 15 at Oliver Bay. The beach ridges. of this complex are generally low (0-5-0.75 m high). Swales of this complex vary considerably in width, from 2 to 56 m wide; averaging 44 m. Measurements of organic matter in the swales ranged from 28 to 102 cm; averaging 63 cm deep. PH of swale organic matter and sub-soils varied between 4.11 and 4.58. In August, most swales were saturated at the surface. Those swales with standing water had between 2 and 6 cm in August. The original land surveys of this complex in the 1850's indicated tree species similar to those encountered today along the transect. Balsam fir (4bies balsamea), Black spruce (Picea mariana), and White pine (Pinus strobus) dominate the low beach ridges, while scattered Tamarack (Larix laricina) and Paper birch (Betula papj7-!@era) dominate the swales. Other species common in the Bog-like swales are Labrador tea (Ledum groenlandicum), Creeping snowberry (Gaultheria hispidula), Leatherleaf (Cham.aedaphne calyculatez), Bog laurel (Kalmia polifolia), False mayflower (Smilacina 80 ttifolia), Three-seeded sedge (Carex ttispet-Pn ), Goldthread (Coptis t foliata), Graceful a bog sedge (Carex fimoszei, and (Comus canadensis). A total of 80 specie were encountered along the transect. State special concern Marsh willow-herb (Epilobium palustre) is found within this complex. Although some logging activity has occurred historically throughout this tract, the extent of significant human caused disturbance to this complex is limited to the shoreline. However, numerous FOR SALE signs observed along this stretch of shoreline indicate the future subdivision of the larger private tracts. The vast majority of this area is clearly wetland, but there remains the possibility of homesite development on numerous beach ridges. Ilie long-term viability of this complex would be best secured through public acquisition of tracts within this complex. 22. Flint Steel Riveir (Ontonagon Co.) This 500 acre complex is located 4 miles northeast of the Ontonagon along a narrow stretch of shoreline, extending only 400-500 rn inland on average. The Flint Steel River and Fire Steel River cut through the complex at its north end. The Flint Steel River bends around, forming the east and southeast boundary of the complex. A road built on an old narrow-gage railway right-of-way extends the entire length of the complex along a beach ridge 225 m inland from the shoreline. This road provides access for a.number of shoreline cottages. Beach ridges in this complex are moderate in height, ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 m high. Elevations measured along the transect indicated a rise in elevation from the shoreline inland. The lowest point along the transect, at 135 meters from the shoreline, 81 the sandy bottom of a large swale ties 21 cm above current Lake Superior water level. Beyond that point elevations steadily increase to a maidmum of 11.89 m above take level at a distance of 463 rn fromi the shoreline. Wet swales were common along the transect up to a distance of 200 m from the shoreline. Swales ranged from 2 to 47 m in width; averaging 11 m wide. Organic matter in the swales varied in depth from 13 to 117 cm; averaging 38 cm deep. PH of swale organic matter and sub-soils ranged from 4.23 to 4.67. No standing water was recorded in the swales, either in June or in August. Most swales were moist or saturated at the surface in June. The vegetation, as noted in the original land surveys, is similar to that found today along the transect. The beach ridges are dominated by White pine (Pinus strobus), Red pine (Pinus resinosa), Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), Red maple (Acer rubt-um), Paper birch (Betula papyrifera), White spruce (Picea glauca), and Big tooth aspen (Abies balsamea). The swales, mostly Bog-like in character, are dominated by Leatherleaf (Cbanzaedapbne calyculata), Speckled alder (Alnus rugasa), Michigan holly (Ilex verticillata), and Bog rosemary @Wromedea gZaucopbylla). Other common species include Large cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon), Running bog sedge (Carex oligosperm,a), Round-leaved sundew (Drosera rotundifolia), Pond sedge (Dulicbium arundinaceum), beak rush (Rkyncbospora fusca), Rattlesnake grass (Glyceria canadensis), and Northern. manna grass (Gl@ceria borealis). A total of 107 species of vascular plants and mosses were encountered along the transect. Two federally threatened Bald eagle (Hafiaeetus leucocepbalus) nests are located within this complex. Although a number of cottages e--dst along this stretch of shoreline, the high quality 82 nature of this complex remains. Recent road improvements and related homesite 0 development is occurring along the Flint Steel River, just inland of this complex. Public acquisition of tracts within this complex is recommended for the maintenance of Bald eagle habitat, as well as to ensure the long-term viability of this complex as a whole. 0 83 0 0 0 0 0 APPENDEK H TOPOGRAPHICABOUNDARY MAPS OF HIGH NATURAL-QUALfIY 0 WOODED DUNE AND SWALE COMPLEXES SAMPLED DURING 1992 0 a w a 84 0 APPENDIX 11.1 POINTE AUX BARQUES HURON COUNTY T19NR13E Scale 1:40,000 A 120" V r7l I@Ij 4p - - - - - - - - - - - j clj c%1 10 1 oo 'it 0 1 -2- _T 85 APPENDIX U.2 PORT CRESCENT STATE PARK HURON COUNTY T18N R13E Scale 1:48,000 7-7 IOf 86 APPENDIX 11.3 ALBERT E. SLEEPER STATE PARK HURON COUNTY T18N R10-11E Scale 1:48,000 87 APPENDIX IIA AU GRES ARENAC COUNTY T19N IVE Scale 1:36,923 0 50 L3 i7Wi W4 7- -17 -,- 71@ Cn 88 APPENDIX 111.5 PIATI`E BAY BENZIE COUNTY T27N R15W Scale 1:34,285 89 4315 ---- ---- J14 T- sleeping BeaftBoy LP U 'No C) '@OUNTI@. G en Hve'n'. PU -2 ........ . ... 3 all sr, TRANSECT -DT n @2 ds 29\ 7 3 an G L E N L A K E GLEN LAKE W IM2 o APPENDIX H.7 BOWER'S HARBOR GRAND TRAVERSE T29N1 R11W Scale 1:36,923 CAM rA T I a B r IIf 7 ZD 4 0 r p 1/. @op ho@ers Harbor Cam 20 3 w-07 AND ja PUBLIC A(CESS d.6 T shipA Parkl__ I 9T Neah"Ta-Wanta pbint S, D SAND -An W-1 7 SAN D 91 APPENDIX H.8 POINTE ALUX CHENES (WEST PORTION) MACKINAC COUNTY T41-42N R4-6W Scale 1:48,000 @vo X. .:R,, T it -7,@. I x X 01 4v 7 TRANSECT 7@ 92 V, X27 ft ..4c APPENDIX H.8 POINTE ALUX CHENES (EAST PORTION) Scale 1: 48,000 E S T- ,Be ks 1 2 Round Lake. 31. fla zz-: 4 lfl. zt, -Z d1k 23 24 W-M@ m 4.4. 70. T-L, 93 APPENDIX 11.9 GULLIVER LAKIE DUNES SCHOOLCRAFT COUN1Y T41N R13-15W Scale 1:80,000 03. V, iA 114, 94 APPENDIX U.10 THOMPSON SCHOOLCRAFT COUNIT T41N R16W Scale 1:48,000 H I A w A H A T42N F...t 4, B-h anistique B.-h -.tj 15r WMAN @UU 12 2 V + + ? N"I 7R"SECT 7 Th-*j j2 95 APPENDIX 11.11 PORTAGE' BAY DELTA COUNTY T39N R18W Scale 1:34,285 17 14 ell x i ta r r io, ale)j- 4xck r U-27 I at, oon a e tt MANSEC MICHIGAN AAA- mc.E \3 4K Z5 96 APPENDIX 11.12 BIG BAY DE NOC DELTA COUNTY T40N FL18W Scale 1:36,923 .*ISI Ar 25 2 Mt 2q IWO. 710 L19t x 177T I V MST ----------- PLbile AGGM 17 am r L41 its& L te was MWA ow J?u BIG BAY DE NO C'. S U R I j4u L A K E @M I H I G A N:,,@ 4 T/1E -s AFM WMTF NEW "0 R"ATM 1 7.0 oT 97 APPENDIX 11-13 OGONTZ BAY DELTA COUNTY T40N B20W Scale 1:36,923 J11 34 6-S, 0 n. 7;@ ; @-15111 T4" rz41 N r", 140 N fast 'a ALI L4 13 ri @77 117T V-1 i0ft'stan r 7' 8 5.sfir -3 to Vf P& 97 C6 ozr FAJ n IV.. 181T 7.3 2- Ogontz Z3 KK SR vz) Bay 1)r 98 OVERLOOK SAND ROM $104' A40 29 SA GS ..?07 r r boot" 1 dp@@"dl I w flond I.. hAl IAI 1@,' jll@ M14, ..ep -Af?,S r srr -L ly Lak N A -T 86.0 19P.5A T APPENDIX 11-15 LITTLE PRESQUE ISLE POINT MARQUEM COUNTY TON R25-26W Scale 1:36,923 42 33 R 13 T"VsicT V pb Is Presque Isle 18 618 r t. POInt arl > 17 X - 23 M@;71 r 'o -7 4 F, "A T1 (r w 100 APPENDIX H.16 IRON IWIER mARQuETTE couNiy 'r51N R26-27W Scale 1:24,000 2067- G*u C 13 TRANSECT w 5AN @j r%j 5AIVD DAM --7 7 Ofi:L WA Y'iC?b =;=I? 7 r 'AP 1198 T OF As 1,v q2A 7' gh 101 TR A 'v@ APPENDIX H.17 SALMON TROUT BAY MARQUETTE couNTY ir5l-52N R27-28W Scale 1:24,000 25 Cm G,111-et LAKE SUPERM? Landing' IV 111? 3 15 ,rF-A' A?, C- TRANSECT Pei Salmon Trout Ba el, 17D -Afre d/ x 18 z? 3 Oil 74T \Y I 'If.k It \?C) V I T 51 W 5 f n Dutch _Jo4m 0 AT Po )@5@ T c, 174(r 102 111 lip "j, f, 52 f Huron Mountain IF 0 OT R I I-) CIE 5 VEX5 TR" SECT 5AND i5@, 2? T Pine -- - - - - - - - - e P La e W-46.0 P '2q 7 APPENDIX 11-19 LITIU TRAVERSE BAY HOUGHTON COUNTY T55N R31W Scale 1:36,923 0 18' 9 6,0, 13 17:. t-K 2- .. ........ Rice Lake 4 21 616 627 A L @SECT 30 26 2 v 633@-, 4t eNv 33 36 104 APPENDIX U.20 GRANDMAVERSE BAY HOUGHTON/KEWEENAW COUNIIES T55-56N R31W Scale 1:48,000 @35 '.3 3i I 'MViEENAW w Co I @,:,S - :- ' ' ' -Cd N @fVGHTON 0 at 'T-@ B. o 7. 04 .+ MANSECT 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 616 pNoi.t 22 ...... .. 105 APPENDICK 11.21 OLIVER BAY XIVEENAW COUNTY T577N R29W Scale 1:36,923 33 La, .0ta Light House Ile 602 r 4- 7j. @7 ------------- ----------- -------- 10. G A ----------- --------- :Point Isabelle 3, r ----------- \vi 7'- 16 15 nt"SECT -- -14 ------------ L ------- 0 106 APPENDIX H.22 FLINT SIMEL RIVER ONTONAGON COUNTY T52N R39W Scale 1:32,000 - - ------ ------ L L3 T -S2Q, L A 0 00 .7 TRAMSECT L @(7 F, % 13 ij .od -_Bloci 3 T 107 a 0 0 0 0 APPENDIX III LOCA11ON MAPS FOR WOODED DUNE AND SWALE COMPLEXES IN COUNIUS WIIERE COMPLEXES WERE SAMPLED DURING 1992 108 2 APPENDIX M.1 HURON COUNlY u IG .7. IT 7_7 7 7 '0@ 7- "77" Ef .7 -4, Z. S 7 7T Fi, 109 APPENDIX 111.2 BAY COUNlY x 7. 77 4 Noyanqui.9 P.W .-Widlif. Am S@E:, 77 A;, 4- rt, vy L-:, F TORICO MARSH 'SIAW(W.0 A.. u ";5f, 71-7 w, I I --A WON A.. TAY y 77 it, @4 k I ,kL 110 --A U., R CL 'I CN 6 N C 7 NE 7 Im AU GRES Iv Pt- @11 - - Bay W Area a rl 0 c A mar I I Ail TT F I E" N @L C RgS AU 1-4 SPENCER N" 0 al LAM SOLrrME - hl WL T, so q 'AI N@'j PLAM BAY Dell PLAMRMERpo,rNT P L A SOS rq @JL N ZVNIA N"D! FRA- IT 11@ HIO D -OL F klx s We .S L A.2 I N t L_@ APPENDIX M.6 LEELANAU COUNTY GRANG 7 R AV E R SE 6 A y 1z" r r 0 GOOD HA"OR B" LAKESHORE 64 iE -E sil DUNES LE CR YWA L i z invwM.R 10. V A E L tA;VQ or 114 p APPENDIX M.7 GRAND TRAVERSE COUNTY &RAND TRAVERSE OAY BOWERS HARBOR ftlb.PA&@ T SION G- Am A '..I 1IN T GRkVD TRA=SE EAST ARM z, PAR k t.:7z. p"r ANT 2! LTj J 115 APPENDIX 111.8 MACKINAC COUNTY (EAST) Aili Lot 116 APPENDIX HI.9 SCHOOLCRAFT COUNTY SEUL CHOM BAY GULLIVER LAKE DUNES THOMPSON 17 117 APPENDIX IH.10 DELTA C.OUNTY PaLx @4- BIG BAYDE NOC Y of, c 4 PORTAGE BAY IaZEGG BAY I., 7;n - GLUAMTHAVFdV 118 APPENDIX 111.11 LUCE COUNTY L TWO H E4R7W RMR MOUM AMSKALLONGE LAKE WEST i 7 -lee L= . ...... A T Fm I TN Z-. a L 7rk- 119 APPENDIX Ill. 12 ALGER C OUNTY (WESI) 0 R A s u p G N Q GRAND I "S L "D Esc Ri arl@ TROVT BAY sconaDa F? er AU TRAIN CHRISTMAS 4 SA x4om A Z4, In' A :,jL LAU MH j V 'S R =7 l Jr V4 4 P4711 A Ese r Riv L ra N E C) Ri4r m 74, Fare r1H 120 APPENDICK M-13 MARQUETTE COUNTY HURON RIVER PIAW RWER SALMON lliOUT BAY BIG )MY IRON RIVER "7t' 77( -WIN PRESQUE 0 -X 'r ISLE POINT 4XI SAND RIVER CHOCOL"RIVER 121 APPENDIX In. 14 BARAGA COUNTY 4:0. 74 j 7v tl 174,7- iz c rKi Vr@ Z 122 APPENDIX 111-15 HOUGHMN COUNlY @ IT GRAM) TRAVERSE BAY MME TRAVERSE BAY r-Al ff -C 171 L 123 APPENDIX M.16 KEWEENAW COUNTY 'IF All .pZ: C, low olo ell/ ,so 14 124 APPENDIX M.17 ONTONAGON COUNTY jk FLINT STFU MVER R, IT ET jAl J, -LAE 125 IM Lin*l 1- -1 APPENDIX TV DATA SUMMARIES FOR THREE RERESENTATIVE WOODED DUNE AND SWALE COMPLEXES STURGEON BAY: NORTHERN LAKE MICHIGAN-HIGH DUNE SUB-TYPE OGONTZ BAY: NORTIIERN LAKE HURON/MICHIGAN-LOW DUNE SUB-TYPE GRAND TRAVERSE BAY: LAKE SUPERIOR-LOW DUNE SUB-TYPE 126 REPRESENTAIIVE TRANSECT SUMMAREES The following inventory, compiled by the Michigan Natural Heritage Program, follows in part the nomenclature given in Voss, 1972 and 1985, Michigan Flora Part I & 11 and Gleason & Cronquist, 1963, Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canad2L. Each species is preceded by its Coefficient of Conservatism (Wilhelm and Ladd, 1988, Natural Area Assessment in the Chicago Region, Trans. 53rd N. A. Wildl. & Nat. Res. Conf.) (0 = weedy, 10 = conservative). Coefficients of Conservatism are followed by its wetness coefficient (-5 = wet, - 3 = facultative wet, 0 = faculative, 3 facultative upland, 5 = upland) and corresponding National Wetland Category (OBL obligate wetland species, FAC = facultative species, UPL = upland species. Native taxa (N) are those species believed to have been present in Michigan prior to European settlement. Adventives (A), shown in all ALL CAPS, INCLUDE those species which have entered Michigan since settlement and are therefore not integral to any natural community. The first page of each of the following transect summaries contains mean values from each quadrat taken allong the transect. Of particular interest for this study is the starred (*) column, indicating the mean for the wetland coefficients for all species found at that sample point. Values below zero indicate a wetland condition, while positive values indicate an upland condition. Wetland Indicator Categories by Reed (1988) in the National List ofPlant Species that Occur in Wetlands. Micbigan and those assigned by Anton Reznicek and Michael Penskar in The Michigan Floristic Quality Assessment System with Wetland Categories (Herman and Penskar, et al. in prep.) were used for identifying wetland communities in this study. The wetland indicator category for any plant species defines the estimated probability for which a species occurs in wetlands (Reed, 1988; Wilhelm, 1989). Positive (+) and negative (-) signs are attached to the three "Facultative" categories to express exaggerated tendencies for those species (Reed, 1988; Wilhelm, 1989). Coefficients of Wetness (CofW) have been assigned by Wilhelm (1989) to the eleven wetland indicator categories: OBL= -5, FACW+= -4, FACW= -3, FACW- -2, FAC+= -1, FAC= 0, FAC- +1, FACU+= +2, FACU= +3, FACU- +4, UPL= +5- Individual wetland indicator categories should not be equated to degrees of wetness (Reed, 1988 in Wilhelm, 1989 in Herman and Penskar et. al. in prep). If the Sum of all the Coefficients of Wetness assigned to a constellation of species recorded in a site inventory is averaged, the mean can be regarded as a Wetness Index (Wilhelm, 1989). If the Wetness Index is 0 or below, the constellation of species indicates the site is a wetland based on presence of a predominance of wetland species at a particular site (Wilhelm, 1989). Similarly, mean wetness coefficients can also be calculated for sampling points along a transect within a site. The mean wetness coefficients for each quadrat are shown in Figures 4a, 5a @md 6a (pages 21, 23 and 27), with the wetlands easily recognized by bars registering from -5 to 0. The Wetness index does not take into 127 account dominance as measured by percent cover of any one species (Herman and Penskar et. al., in prep). Definitions of Wettand Categories and Assigned Coefficients of Wetness after Reed, 1988 and Wilhelm, 1989. CoM Wedand Category Symbol Definition -5 Obligate Wetland OBL Occurs almost always in wetlands under natural conditions (estimated > 99% probability). -3 Facultative Wetland FACW Usually occurs in wetlands, but occasionally found in non-wetlands (estimated 67% - 99% probability). 0 Facultative FAC Equally likely to occur in wetlands or non-wedands (estimated 34% - 66% probability). +3 Facultative Upland FACU Occasionally occurs in wetlands, but usually occur in non-wetlands (estimated 1% - 33% probability). +5 Upland UPL Almost never occurs in wetlands under natural conditions (estimated < 1%). 128 STURGEON BAY SITE: Sturgeon Bay COUNTY: Emmet DATE- . July, 1991 BY: P.Comer, K.Herman, M.Mang FILE: QU_STURG TRANSECT DATA, QUADRAT QUAD NC W/Ad NI W/Ad NW W/Ad NS TS N SEQ 0 SEQ 1 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 3.0 3.0 1 1 3.0 3.0 2 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 3.0 3.0 1 1 2.8 2.8 3 9.8 9.8 1.9.5 19.5 2.5 2.5 4 4 0.7 0.7 4 8.1 8.1 26.8 26.8 -3.3 -3.3 11 11 0.3 0.3 5 7.9 7.9 23.7 23.7 1.8 1.8 9 9 -0.6 -0.6 6 6.1 6.1 25.0 25.0 -0.3 -0.3 17 17 0.3 0.3 7 6.9 6.9 21.8 21.8 -0.7 -0.7 10 10 -1.9 -1.9 8 8.5 8.5 28.3 28.3 -4.6 -4.6 11 11 -2.1 -2.1 9 6.8 6.8 26.3 26.3 -1.1 -1.1 15 15 -3.5 -3.5 10 8.2 8.2 24.7 24.7 -4.7 -4.7 9 9 -0.9 -0.9 11 7.1 7.1 1-8.9 18.9 3.1 3.1 7 7 -2.1 -2.1 12 6.7 6.7 1-6.3 16.3 -4.8 -4.8 6 6 0.2 0.2 13 5.0 5.0 8.7 8.7 2.3 2.3 3 3 -2.3 -2.3 14 8.3 8.3 1.6.5 16.5 -4.5 -4.5 4 4 -0.6 -0.6 15 7.1 7.1 .21.3 21.3 0.3 0.3 9 9 -3.1 -3.1 16 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 -5.0 -5.0 1 1 -1.1 -1.1 17 6.2 6.2 1.8.7 18.7 1.4 1.4 9 9 -1.9 -1.9 18 3.9 3.9 1-4.4 14.4 -2.3 -2.3 14 14 -0.5 -0.5 19 4.6 4.6 1.5.9 15.9 -0.8 -0.8 12 12 -2.4 -2.4 20 6.8 6.8 1.6.7 16.7 -4.2 -4.2 6 6 -1.4 -1.4 21 4.3 4.3 1-1.3 11.3 0.9 0.9 7 7 -2.1 -2.1 22 4.9 4.9 1.7.0 17.0 -3.0 -3.0 12 12 -0.1 -0.1 23 4.8 4.8 1-5.2 15.2 1.7 1.7 10 10 -0.8 -0.8 24 4.7 4.7 1.2.5 12.5 -1.0 -1.0 7 7 0.8 0.8 25 4.6 4.6 1.5.4 15.4 1.8 1.8 11 11 -1.4 -1.4 26 6.0 6.0 1.3.4 13.4 -5.0 -5.0 5 5 -0.9 -0.9 27 4.4 4.4 1.3.3 13.3 0.6 0.6 9 9 -3.1 -3.1 28 6.0 6.0 6.0 61.0 -5.0 -5.0 1 1 -1.1 -1.1 29 4.9 4.9 1.2.9 12.9 1.1 1.1 7 7 -2.4 -2.4 30 4.4 4.4 1.6.6 16.6 -3.4 -3.4 14 14 -0.2 -0.2 31 4.7 4.7 1.4.9 14.9 1.5 1.5 10 10 -1.5 -1.5 32 5.9 5.9 212.2 22.2 -2.8 -2.8 14 14 -0.9 -0.9 33 5.7 5.7 1.3.9 13.9 -1.5 -1.5 6 6 -2.5 -2.5 34 5.7 5.7 21.9 21.9 -3.1 -3.1 15 15 -2.1 -2.1 35 5.5 5.5 1.1.0 11.0 -1.8 -1.8 4 4 -2.7 -2.7 36 5.8 5.8 25.5 25.5 -3.3 -3.3 19 19 -1.7 -1.7 37 4.8 4.8 1.1.8 11.8 -0.2 -0.2 6 6 -2.4 -2.4 38 6.5 6.5 25.0 25.0 -3.7 -3.7 15 15 -2.0 -2.0 AVG 6.0 6.0 1.6.8 16.8 -1.2 -1.2 8.7 8.7 STD 1.4 1.4 6.3 6.3 2.7 2.7 4.6 4.6 TRANSECT DATA, AGGREGATE cc NUMBER 0 1 118 NATIVE SPECIES 1 2 118 TOTAL SPECIES 2 90 -to 3 6.4 NATIVE QUALITY 3 8 16.9% 6.4 W/Adventives 4 10 69.1 NATIVE INDEX ID 5 194 to 6 69.1 W/Adventives 6 15 :37.3% -1.7 NATIVE WETNESS 7 7 -1.7 W/Adventives 8 187 to 9 9 1 22.0% 10 28 10 23.7% PHYSIOGNOW.( PHYSIOGNOMIC RELATIVE IMPORTANCE VALUES NATIVE 118 100.0% PHYSIOG FQ COV RFQ RCOV RIV Tree 12 10.2% N Forb 112 65.5 33.8 25.7 29.8 Shrub 25 21.2% N Shrub 93 71.5 28.1 28.0 28.1 Vine 2 1.7% N Tree 51 28.25 15.4 11.1 13.2 Forb 51 43.2% N Sedge 32 31.75 9.7 12.5 11.1 Fern 6 5.1% N Fern 21 15 6.3 5.9 6.1 Sedge 15 1-2.7% N Grass 20 14.75 6.0 5.8 5.9 Grass 7 5.9% N Vine 2 1.25 0.6 0.5 0.5 ADVENTIVE 0 0.0% Tree 0 0.0% Shrub 0 0.0% Vine 0 0.0% Forb 0 0.0% Sedge 0 0.0% Grass 0 0.0% SPECIES RELATIVE IMPORTANCE VALUES SCIENTIFIC NAME CC WETNESS FQ COV RFQ RCOV RIV Gaylussacia baccata 7 FACU 11 16 1.6 3.5 2.5 Gaultheria procumbens 5 FACU 12 9.25 1.7 2.0 1.9 Vaccinium myrtilloides 4 FACW- 11 9 1.6 1.9 1.8 Picea mariana 6 FACW 9 10.25 1.3 2.2 1.8 Pteridium aquilinum 0 FACU 9 7.5 1.3 1.6 1.5 Carex aquatilis 7 OBL 6 7.25 0.9 1.6 1.2 Trientalis borealis 5 FAC+ 9 5.25 1.3 1.1 1.2 Carex interior 3 OBL 6 5.5 0.9 1.2 1.0 Lycopus uniflorus 2 OBL 7 4.75 1.0 1.0 1.0 Juniperus communis 7 facu 2 8 0.3 1.7 1.0 Vaccinium oxycoccos 8 OBL 8 3.5 1.1 0.8 1.0 Abies balsamea 3 FACW 8 3.5 1.1 0.8 1.0 Pinus strobus 3 FACU 7 4 1.0 0.9 0.9 Calamovilfa longifolia 10 UPL 6 3.75 0.9 0.8 0.8 Potentilla palustris 10 OBL 5 4.25 0.7 0.9 0.8 Quercus rubra 5 FACU 6 3 0.9 0.6 0.8 Cladium mariscoides 10 OBL 4 4.25 0.6 0.9 0.7 Potentilla fruticosa 10 FACW 5 3.5 0.7 0.8 0.7 Ammophila breviligulata 10 UPL 3 4.25 0.4 0.9 0.7 Thuja occidentalis 4 FACW 6 2.25 0.9 0.5 0.7 Arctostaphylos uva-ursi 8 upl 5 2.75 0.7 0.6 0.7 Dulichium arundinaceum 8 OBL 3 4 0.4 0.9 0.6 Epigaea repens 7 upl 4 2.5 0.6 0.5 0.6 Calamagrostis canadensis 3 OBL 4 2.5 0.6 0.5 0.6 Thelypteris palustris 2 FACW+ 4 2.5 0.6 0.5 0.6 Triglochin maritimum 8 OBL 4 2.5 0.6 0.5 0.6 Equisetum fluviatile 7 OBL 4 2.5 0.6 0.5 0.6 Juncus balticus 4 OBL 4 2.5 0.6 0.5 0.6 Salix cordata 10 FAC+ 4 2.5 0.6 0.5 0.6 Andropogon scoparius 5 FACU 3 2.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 Salix myricoides (S. glaucophyl.) 9 FACW 4 1.75 0.6 0.4 0.5 Acer pensylvanicum 5 FACU 4 1.75 0.6 0.4 0.5 Ledum groenlandicum 8 OBL 4 1.75 0.6 0.4 0.5 Melampyrum lineare 6 FAC- 4 1.75 0.6 0.4 0.5 Sparganium minimum 8 OBL 2 3 0.3 0.6 0.5 Claytonia caroliniana 6 FACU 3 2.25 0.4 0.5 0.5 Smilacina stellata 5 FAC- 3 2.25 0.4 0.5 0.5 Potamogeton natans 5 OBL 3 2.25 0.4 0.5 0.5 Carex lasiocarpa 10 OBL 1 3 0.1 0.6 0.4 Utricularia vulgaris 6 OBL 1 3 0.1 0.6 0.4 Lycopus americanus 2 OBL 3 1.5 0.4 0.3 0.4 Rubus pubescens 4 FACW+ 3 1.5 0.4 0.3 0.4 Tofieldia glutinosa 10 OBL 3 1.5 0.4 0.3 0.4 Artemisia campestris 5 fac 3 1.5 0.4 0.3 0.4 Linnaea borealis 6 FAC 3 1.5 0.4 0.3 0.4 Juniperus horizontalis 10 FAC- 2 2 0.3 0.4 0.4 Carex pseudo-cyperus 5 OBL 3 0.75 0.4 0.2 0.3 Myrica gale 6 OBL 3 0.75 0.4 0.2 0.3 Larix laricina 5 FACW 3 0.75 0.4 0.2 0.3 Betula papyrifera 2 FACU+ 3 0.75 0.4 0.2 0.3 Carex oligosperma 10 OBL 1 2 0.1 0.4 0.3 Glyceria striata 4 OBL 2 1.25 0.3 0.3 0.3 Asclepias syriaca 1 UPL 2 1.25 0.3 0.3 0.3 Lithospermum canescens 10 UPL 2 1.25 0.3 0.3 0.3 Euthamia graminifolia (Solidago) 3 FACW- 2 1.25 0.3 0.3 0.3 Lobelia kalmii 10 OBL 2 1.25 0.3 0.3 0.3 Moneses uniflora 8 FAC 2 1.25 0.3 0.3 0.3 Acer rubrum 1 FAC 2 1.25 0.3 0.3 0.3 Triadenum fraseri (Hypericum) 6 OBL 2 1.25 0.3 0.3 0.3 Ilex verticillata 5 FACW+ 2 1.25 0.3 0.3 0.3 Proserpinaca palustris 6 OBL 2 1.25 0.3 0.3 0.3 Gentianopsis crinita (Gentiana) 8 FACW+ 2 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.2 Sarracenia purpurea 10 OBL 2 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.2 Iris versicolor. 5 OBL 2 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.2 Solidago houghtonii 10 OBL 2 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.2 Utricularia cornuta 10 OBL 2 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.2 Solidago uliginosa 4 OBL 2 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.2 Gaultheria hispidula 8 FACW 2 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.2 Clintonia borealis 5 FAC+ 2 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.2 Andromeda glaucophylla 10 OBL 2 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.2 Cornus canadensis 6 FAC 2 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.2 Hypericum kalmianum 10 FACW- 2 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.2 Osmunda regalis 5 OBL 2 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.2 Campanula aparinoides 7 OBL 2 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.2 Cakile edentula 5 FACU 2 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.2 Maianthemum canadense 4 FAC 2 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.2 Cornus rugosa 6 UPI, 2 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.2 Kalmia polifolia 10 OBL 1 1 0.1 0.2 0.2 Scirpus acutus 5 OBL 1 1 0.1 0.2 0.2 Eleocharis smallii 5 OBL 1 1 0.1 0.2 0.2 Equisetum palustre 10 FACW 1 1 0.1 0.2 0.2 Epilobium angustifolium 3 FAC 1 1 0.1 0.2 0.2 Chimaphila umbellata 8 UP1 1 1 0.1 0.2 0.2 Fragaria virginiana 2 FAC- 1 1 0.1 0.2 0.2 'N Diervilla lonicera 4 UPL 1 1 0.1 0.2 0.2 Satureja arkansana 10 FACW 1 1 0.1 0.2 0.2 Drosera intermedia 8 OBL 1 1 0.1 0.2 0.2 Rosa palustris 5 OBL I 1 0.1 0.2 0.2 Drosera linearis 10 OBL 1 1 0.1 0.2 0.2 Eupatorium maculatum 4 OBL 1 1 0.1 0.2 0.2 Carex stricta 4 OBL 1 1 0.1 0.2 0.2 Eriophorum virginicum 8 OBL 1 1 0.1 0.2 0.2 Prunus pumila 8 UPL 1 1 0.1 0.2 0.2 Lonicera dioica 5 FACU 1 1 0.1 0.2 0.2 Zigadenus glaucus 10 FACW 1 1 0.1 0.2 0.2 Equisetum scirpoides 7 FAC+ 1 1 0.1 0.2 0.2 Pinus resinosa 6 FACU 1 0.25 0.1 0.1 0.1 Carex paupercula 8 OBL 1 0.25 0.1 0.1 0.1 Toxicodendron radicans 2 FAC+ 1 0.25 0.1 0.1 0.1 Picea glauca 3 FACU 1 0.25 0.1 0.1 0.1 Carex lacustris 6 OBL 1 0.25 0.1 0.1 0.1 Smilacina trifolia 10 OBL 1 0.25 0.1 0.1 0.1 Carex cryptolepis 10 OBL 1 0.25 0.1 0.1 0.1 Juncus effusus 3 OBL 1 0.25 0.1 0.1 0.1 Carex canescens 8 OBL 1 0.25 0.1 0.1 0.1 Tanacetum huronense 10 facu- 1 0.25 0.1 0.1 0.1 Cornus stolonifera 2 FACW 1 0.25 0.1 0.1 0.1 Oenothera biennis 2 FACU 1 0.25 0.1 0.1 0.1 Cirsium pitcheri 10 TJPL 1 0.25 0.1 0.1 0.1 Pyrola elliptica 6 UPL 1 0.25 0.1 0.1 0.1 Populus balsamifera 2 FACW 1 0.25 0.1 0.1 0.1 Lathyrus japonicus 10 FACU- 1 0.25 0.1 0.1 0.1 Calamagrostis inexpansa 8 FACW+ 1 0.25 0.1 0.1 0.1 Rhamnus alnifolia 8 OBL 1 0.25 0.1 0.1 0.1 Muhlenbergia glomerata 10 FACW+ 1 0.25 0.1 0.1 0.1 Pyrola chlorantha 8 FACU 1 0.25 0.1 0.1 0.1 Viola renifolia 6 FACW 1 0.25 0.1 0.1 0.1 Polygonum amphibium 6 OBL 1 0.25 0.1 0.1 0.1 369 228 TRANSECT INVENTORY ACRONYM SCIENTIFIC NAME COMMON NAME ABIBA Abies balsamea BALSAM FIR ACEPN Acer pensylvanicum STRIPED MAPLE; MOOSEWOOD ACERU Acer rubrum RED MAPLE AMMBR Ammophila breviligulata MARRAM GRASS; BEACH GRASS ANDGL Andromeda glaucophylla BOG ROSEMARY ANDSC Andropogon scoparius LITTLE BLUESTEM GRASS ARCUV Arctostaphylos uva-u.rsi BEARBERRY ARTCA Artemisia campestris WORMWOOD ASCSY Asclepias syriaca COMMON MILKWEED BETPA Betula papyrifera PAPER BIRCH CAKED Cakile edentula SEA ROCKET CALCA Calamagrostis canadensis BLUE-JOINT GRASS CALINB Calamagrostis inexpansa BOG REEDGRASS CALLO Calamovilfa longifolia SAND REED; DUNE REED CAMAP Campanula aparinoides MARSH BELLFLOWER CXAQUA Carex aquatilis SEDGE CXCANE Carex canescens SEDGE CXCRYP Carex cryptolepis SEDGE CXINTE Carex interior SEDGE CXLACU Carex lacustris SEDGE CXLASA Carex lasiocarpa SEDGE CXOLGS Carex oligosperma SEDGE CXPAUP Carex paupercula SEDGE CXPSEU Carex pseudo-cyperus SEDGE CXSTRI Carex stricta SEDGE CHIUM Chimaphila umbellata PRINCE'S PINE; PIPSPSSEWA CIRPI Cirsium pitcheri ** PITCHER'S THISTLE CLAMA Cladium mariscoides TWIG-RUSH CIACA Claytonia caroliniana CAROLINA SPRING-BEAUTY CLIBO Clintonia borealis BLUEBEAD-LILY; CORN-LILY CORCAD Cornus canadensis BUNCHBERRY; DWARF CORNELL CORRU Cornus rugosa ROUND-LEAVED DOGWOOD CORSTO Cornus stolonifera RED-OSIER DIELO Diervilla lonicera BUSH HONEYSUCKLE DROIN Drosera intermedia SUNDEW DROLI Drosera linearis LINEAR-LEAVED SUNDEW DULAR Dulichium arundinaceum THREE-WAY SEDGE ELESM Eleocharis smallii SPIKE-RUSH EPIRE Epigaea repens TRAILING ARBUTUS; MAYFLOWER EPIAN Epilobium angustifolium FIREWEED; GREAT WILLOW-HERB EQUFL Equisetum fluviatile WATER HORSETAIL EQUPA Equisetum palustre. MARSH-HORSETAIL EQUSC Equisetum scirpoides DWARF SCOURING RUSH ERIVIG Eriophorum virginicum TAWNY COTTON-GRASS EUPMAU Eupatorium maculatum JOE-PIE WEED EUTGR Euthamia gTaminifolia (Solidago) GRASS-LEAVED GOLDENROD FRAVI Fragaria virginiaria WILD STRAWBERRY GAUHI Gaultheria hispidula CREEPING SNOWBERRY GAUPR Gaultheria procumbens WINTERGREEN GAYBA Gaylussacia baccata HUCKLEBERRY GENCR Gentianopsis crinita (Gentiana) FRINGED GENTIAN GLYST Glyceria striata FOWL MANNA GRASS HYPKA Hypericum kalmianum KALM'S ST. JOHN'S WORT ILEVE Ilex verticillata WINTERBERRY; MICHIGAN HOLLY IRIVE Iris versicolor WILD BLUE FLAG JUNBA Juncus balticus R13SH JUNEF Juncus effusus SOFT-STEMMED RUSH JUNCOM Juniperus communis COMMON or GROUND JUNIPER JUNHO Juniperus horizontalis CREEPING JUNIPER KALPO Kalmia polifolia SWAMP-LAUREL LARLA Larix laricina TAMARACK; LARCH LATJAG Lathyrus japonicus BEACH PEA LEDGR Ledum groenlandicum LABRADOR TEA LINBO Linnaea borealis TWINFLOWER LITCAN Lithospermum canescens HOARY PUCCOON LOBKA Lobelia kalmii BOG LOBELIA LONDI Lonicera dioica RED HONEYSUCKLE LYCAM Lycopus americanus COMMON WATER HOREHOUND LYCUN Lycopus uniflorus NORTHERN BUGLE WEED MAICA Maianthemum canadense CANADA MAYFLOWER; WILD OR FALS MELLI Melampyrum lineare COW-WHEAT MONUNI Moneses uniflora ONE-FLOWERED PYROLA MUHGL Muhlenbergia glomerata MARSH WILD-TIMOTHY MYRGA Myrica gale SWEET GALE OENBI Oenothera biennis COMMON EVENING-PRIMROSE OSMRE Osmunda regalis ROYAL FERN PICGL Picea glauca WHITE SPRUCE PICMA Picea mariana BLACK SPRUCE PINRE Pinus resinosa RED PINE PINST Pinus strobus WHITE PINE POLAME Polygonum amphibiwn WATER SMARTWEED POPBA Populus balsamifera BALSAM POPLAR; HACKMATACK POTNA Potamogeton natans PONDWEED POTFRU Potentilla fruticosa SHRUBBY CINQUEFOIL POTPAL Potentilla palustris MARSH CINQUEFOIL PROPA Proserpinaca palustris MERMAID-WEED PRUPU Prunus pumila SAND CHERRY PTEAQ Pteridium aquilinun BRACKEN FERN PYRCH Pyrola chlorantha SHINLEAF PYREL Pyrola elliptica LARGE-LEAVED SHINLEAF QUERU Quercus rubra RED OAK RHAAL Rhamnus alnifolia ALDER-LEAVED BUCKTHORN ROSPA Rosa palustris SWAMP ROSE RUBPU Rubus pubescens DWARF RASPBERRY SALCO Salix cordata SAND-DUNE or FURRY WILLOW SALMY Salix myricoides (S. glaucophylloides) BLUELEAF WILLOW SARPU Sarracenia purpurea PITCHER-PLANT SATAR Satureja arkansan,a LOW CALAMINT SCIAC Scirpus acutus HARDSTEM BULRUSH SMIST Smilacina stellata STARRY FALSE SOLOMON SEAL SMITR Smilacina trifolia FALSE MAYFLOWER SOLHO Solidago houghtonii HOUGHTON'S GOLDENROD SOLULI Solidago uliginosa BOG GOLDENROD SPAMI Sparganium minimum SMALL BUR-REED TANHU Tanacetum huroner.se LAKE HURON TANSY THEPA Thelypteris palustris MARSH FERN THUOC Thuia occidentalis ARBOR VITAE TOFOL Tofieldia glutinosa FALSE ASPHODEL TOXRA Toxicodendron radicans POISON-IVY TRIFR Triadenum fraseri (Hypericum) MARSH ST. JOHN'S-WORT TRIBO Trientalis borealis STARFLOWER TRIMA Triglochin maritimum COMMON BOG ARROW-GRASS UTRCO Utricularia cornuta HORNED BLADDERWORT UTRVU Utricularia vulgaris GREAT BLADDERWORT VACMY Vaccinium myrtilloides CANADA BLUEBERRY VACOX Vaccinium oxycoccos SMALL CRANBERRY VIORE Viola renifolia KIDNEY-LEAVED VIOLET ZIGGL Zigadenus glaucus WHITE CAMAS OGONTZ BAY SITE: Ogontz Bay. COUNTY: Delta DATE: August, 1992 BY: P.Comer, L.Mattei FILE: qu,_ogon TRANSECT DATA, QUADRAT QUAD NC W/Ad NI W/Ad NW W/Ad NS TS N SEQ 0 SEQ 1 5.7 5.3 21.4 20.7 -2.5 -2.0 14 15 -3.3 -2.3 2 4.4 3.7 9.8 9.0 -4.0 -2.5 5 6 -3.8 -3.2 3 5.3 5.3 9.2 9.2 -5.0 -5.0 3 3 -3.6 -3.1 4 4.3 4.3 13.0 13.0 -1.7 -1.7 9 9 -3.5 -3.5 5 5.3 5.3 23.5 23.5 -3.7 -3.7 20 20 -1.9 -1.9 6 5.2 5.2 22.5 22.5 -0.5 -0.5 19 19 -2.1 -2.1 7 4.6 4.6 18.5 18.5 -2.2 -2.2 16 16 -1.3 -1.3 8 5.2 5.2 22.2 22.2 -1.2 -1.2 18 18 -1.4 -1.4 9 5.3 5.3 24.2 24.2 -0.9 -0,9 21 21 -1.2 -1.2 10 5.0 5.0 22.9 22.9 -1.4 -1.4 21 21 -1.2 -1.2 11 5.1 5.1 22.8 22.8 -1.3 -1.3 20 20 -1.5 -1.5 12 5.6 5.6 210.8 20.8 -1.9 -1.9 14 14 -1.5 -1.5 13 5.3 5.3 1-9.1 19.1 -1.3 -1.3 13 13 -1.0 -1.0 14 4.3 4.3 12.0 12.0 0.3 0.3 8 8 -1.3 -1.3 15 4.6 4.6 17.4 17.4 -2.7 -2.7 14 14 -1.1 -1.1 16 5.7 5.7 21.9 21.9 -0.9 -0.9 15 15 -1.8 -1.8 17 5.0 5.0 20.0 20.0 -1.8 -1.8 16 16 -1.1 -1.1 18 4.7 4.7 17.6 17.6 -0.7 -0.7 14 14 -1.3 -1.3 19 5.1 5.1 @20.3 20.3 -1.5 -1.5 16 16 -0.8 -0.8 20 4.2 4.2 14.4 14.4 -0.3 -o.3 12 12 -1.2 -1.2 21 5.1 5.1 19.6 19.6 -1.7 -1.7 15 15 -0.8 -0.8 22 4.5 4.5 15.1 15.1 -0.5 -0.5 11 11 -1.2 -1.1 23 5.4 5.1 22.3 21.7 -1.2 -1.2 17 18 -0.7 -0.7 24 4.8 4.8 15.2 15.2 -0.4 -0.4 10 10 -1.0 -1.0 25 4.8 4.8 17.2 17.2 -1.3 -1.3 13 13 -1.0 -1.0 26 5.5 5.5 20.6 20.6 -1.2 -1.2 14 14 -1.8 -1.8 27 5.3 5.3 21.3 21.3 -3.0 -3.0 16 16 -2.2 -2.2 28 5.0 5.0 21.8 21.8 -2.3 -2.3 19 19 -2.5 -2.5 29 5.0 5.0 15.8 15.8 -2.1 -2.1 10 10 -1.6 -1.6 30 5.4 5.4 20.0 20.0 -0.4 -0.4 14 14 -1.4 -1.4 31 4.8 4.8 21.1 21.1 -1.6 -1.6 19 19 -1.0 -1.0 32 5.5 5.5 19.7 19.7 -1.2 -1.2 13 13 -2.1 -2.1 33 6.6 6.6 25.6 25.6 -3.5 -3.5 15 15 -2.3 -2.3 AVG 5.1 5.0 19.1 19.0 -1.7 -1.6 14.4 14.5 STD 0.5 0.5 4.0 4.0 1.2 1.1 4.2 4.2 TRANSECT DATA, AGGREGATE cc NUMBER 0 4 104 NATIVE SPECIES 1 3 107 TOTAL SPECIES 2 8 0 to 3 5.3 NATIVE QUALITY 3 9 22.4% 5.2 W/Adventives 4 15 54.2 NATIVE INDEX 5 25 4 to 6 53.5 W/Adventives 6 16 52.3% -1.9 NATIVE WETNESS 7 6 -1.8 W/Adventives 8 11 7 to 9 9 4 19.6% 10 6 10 5.6% PHYSIOGNOMY PHYSIOGNOMIC RELATIVE IMPORTANCE VALUES NATIVE 104 97.2% PHYSIOG FQ Cov RFQ RCOV RIV Tree 10 9.3% N Forb 187 148.75 39.2 34.4 36.8 Shrub 17 15.9% N Tree 115 73 24.1 16.9 20.5 Vine 0 0.0% N Shrub 78 55.25 16.4 12.8 14.6 Forb 47 43.9% N Sedge 45 40.25 9.4 9.3 9.4 Fern 12 11.2% N Fern 37 24 7.8 5.5 6.6 Sedge 12 11.2% N Grass 12 7.5 2.5 1.7 2.1 Grass 6 5.6% A Forb 3 2.25 0.6 0.5 0.6 ADVENTIVE 3 2.8% Tree 0 0.0% Shrub 0 0.0% Vine 0 0.0% Forb 3 2.8% Sedge 0 0.0% Grass 0 0.0% SPECIES RELATIVE IMPORTANCE VALUES SCIENTIFIC NAME CC WETNESS FQ cov RFQ RCOV RIV Abies balsamea 3 FACW 27 24.25 2.7 3.4 3.1 Coptis trifoliata (C. groenland 5 FACW 23 23.75 2.3 3.3 2.8 Thuja occidentalis 4 FACW 29 15.25 2.9 2.1 2.5 Trientalis borealis 5 FAC+ 20 17.75 2.0 2.5 2.3 Gaultheria hispidula 8 FACW 19 14.75 1.9 2.1 2.0 Carex trisperma 9 OBL 17 14.75 1.7 2.1 1.9 Viola rostrata 6 FACU 14 15 1 * '4 2.1 1.8 Acer rubrum 1 FAC 17 12.5 1.7 1.8 1.7 Linnaea borealis 6 FAC 15 13.75 1.5 1.9 1.7 Betula papyrifera 2 FACU+ 17 11 1.7 1.5 1.6 Cornus canadensis 6 FAC 15 10.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 Mitella nuda 8 FACW 13 10.75 1,3 1.5 1.4 Maianthemum canadense 4 FAC 13 8.5 1.3 1.2 1.3 Rubus pubescens 4 FACW+ 12 8.25 1.2 1.2 1.2 Alnus rugosa 5 OBL 6 8.5 0.6 1.2 0.9 Aralia nudicaulis 5 FACU 10 5.5 1.0 0.8 0.9 Lycopodium annotinum 5 FAC 6 8 0.6 1.1 0.9 Carex disperma 10 OBL 6 8 0.6 1.1 0.9 Polygala paucifolia 7 FACU 8 5.75 0.8 0.8 0.8 Dryopteris spinulosa (D. carthu.) 5 FACW- 10 4 1.0 0.6 0.8 Carex leptalea 5 OBL 6 5.5 0.6 0.8 0.7 Ledum groenlandicum 8 OBL 7 4.75 0.7 0.7 0.7 Picea mariana 6 FACW 10 2.5 1.0 0.4 0.7 Picea glauca 3 FACU 7 3.25 0.7 0.5 0.6 Galium circaezans 4 FACU- 6 3.75 0.6 0.5 0.6 Clintonia borealis 5 FAC+ 6 3 0.6 0.4 0.5 Calamagrostis canadensis 3 OBL 5 2.75 0.5 0.4 0.4 Rhamnus alnifolia 8 OBL 4 2.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 Solidago canadensis 1 FACU 4 2.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 Fraxinus nigra 6 FACW+ 4 2.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 Gymnocarpium dryopteris 5 FAC 4 2.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 Lycopus uniflorus 2 OBL 3 3 0.3 0.4 0.4 Thelypteris palustris 2 FACW+ 3 3 0.3 0.4 0.4 Goodyera repens ophioides 9 FACU 4 1.75 0.4 0.2 0.3 Cirsium muticum 6 OBL 4 1.75 0.4 0.2 0.3 Viola renifolia 6 FACW 3 2.25 0.3 0.3 0.3 -N Amelanchier spicata 4 FACU 3 2.25 0.3 0.3 0.3 Carex arctata 3 UPL 3 2.25 0.3 0.3 0.3 Carex interior 3 OBL 4 1 0.4 0.1 0.3 Carex stricta 4 OBL 1 3 0.1 0.4 0.3 Glyceria striata 4 OBL 3 1.5 0.3 0.2 0.3 Lycopodium clavatum 4 FAC 3 1.5 0.3 0.2 0.3 Smilacina trifolia 10 OBL 2 2 0.2 0.3 0.2 J Potentilla anserina 5 FACW+ 2 2 0.2 0.3 0.2 Moneses uniflora 8 FAC 2 2 0.2 0.3 0.2 Platanthera clavellata (Habenar.) 6 facw+ 3 0.75 0.3 0.1 0.2 Botrychium virginianum 5 FACU 3 0.75 0.3 0.1 0.2 Vaccinium angustifolium 4 FACU 3 0.75 0.3 0.1 0.2 Utricularia intermedia 10 OBL 1 2 0.1 0.3 0.2 Cornus stolonifera 2 FACW 2 1.25 0.2 0.2 0.2 Equisetum palustre 10 FACW 2 1.25 0.2 0.2 0.2 Larix laricina 5 FACW 2 1.25 0.2 0.2 0.2 Euthamia graminifolia (Solidago) 3 FACW- 2 1.25 0.2 0.2 0.2 Carex paupercula 8 OBL 2 1.25 0.2 0.2 0.2 Carex canescens 8 OBL 2 1.25 0.2 0.2 0.2 Caltha palustris 6 OBL 2 1.25 0.2 0.2 0.2 Athyrium filix-femina 4 FAC 2 1.25 0.2 0.2 0.2 Diervilla lonicera 4 UPL 2 0.5 0.2 0.1 0.1 Impatiens capensis 2 FACW 1 1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Carex lacustris 6 OBL 1 1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Drosera rotundifolia 6 OBL 1 1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Listera cordata 10 FACW 1 1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Osmunda regalis 5 OBL 1 1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Bromus ciliatus 6 FACW 1 1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Eupatorium perfoliatum 4 FACW+ 1 1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Juncus balticus 4 OBL 1 1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Scirpus americanus 5 OBL 1 1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Campanula aparinoides 7 OBL 1 1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Scirpus acutus 5 OBL 1 1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Triadenum fraseri (Hypericum) 6 OBL 1 1 0.1 1 0.1 0.1 Epigaea repens 7 UPI 1 1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Cicuta bulbifera 5 OBL 1 1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Sagittaria latifolia 1 OBL 1 1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Lobelia kalmii 10 OBL 1 1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Elymus canadensis 7 FAC- 1 1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Vaccinium myrtilloides 4 FACW- 1 1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Prunus pumila 8 UPI. 1 1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Fragaria virginiana 2 FAC- 1 1 0.1 0.1 0.1 PRUNELLA VULGARIS 0 FAC 1 1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Calamagrostis inexpansa 8 FACW+ 1 1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Juncus pelocarpus 8 OBL 1 1 0.1 0.1 0.1 CHONDRILLA JUNCEA 0 UPI 1 1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Epilobium angustifolium 3 FAC 1 1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Pyrola rotundifolia 7 FAC- 1 0.25 0.1 0.0 0.1 Osmunda cinnamomea 5 FACW 1 0.25 0.1 0.0 0.1 Onoclea sensibilis 2 FACW 1 0.25 0.1 0.0 0.1 Pyrola elliptica 6 UPI, 1 0.25 0.1 0.0 0.1 Carex intumescens 3 FACW+ 1 0.25 0.1 0.0 0.1 Rumex orbiculatus 9 OBL 1 0.25 0.1 0.0 0.1 Cinna latifolia 5 FACW+ 1 0.25 0.1 0.0 0.1 Salix candida 9 OBL 1 0.25 0.1 0.0 0.1 Myrica gale 6 OBL 1 0.25 0.1 0.1 Eupatorium maculatum 4 OBL 1 0.25 0.1 0.0 0.1 Galium aparine 0 FACU 1 0.25 0.1 0.0 0.1 Smilacina racemosa 5 FACU 1 0.25 0.1 0.0 0.1 Galium labradoricum 8 OBL 1 0.25 0.1 0.0 0.1 Quercus rubra 5 FACU 1 0.25 0.1 0.0 0.1 Lysimachia thyrsiflora 6 OBL 1 0.25 0.1 0.0 0.1 Populus balsamifera 2 FACW 1 0.25 @0.1 0.0 0.1 Gaultheria procumbens 5 FACU 1 0.25 0.1 0.0 0.1 Scutellaria galericulata 5 OBL 1 0.25 0.1 0.0 0.1 VERBENA CANADENSIS 0 upl 1 0.25 0.1 0.0 0.1 Epilobium ciliatum 3 FACU 1 0.25 0.1 0.0 0.1 Smilacina stellata 5 FAC- 1 0.25 0.1 0.0 0.1 Equisetum fluviatile 7 OBL 1 0.25 0.1 0.0 0.1 Juncus nodosus 5 OBL 1 0.25 0.1 0.0 0.1 Lonicera canadensis 5 FACU -1 0.25 0.1 0.0 0.1 510 351 TRANSECT INVENTORY ACRONYM SCIENTIFIC NAME COMMON NAME ABIBA Abies balsamea BALSAM FIR ACERU Acer rubrum RED MAPLE ALNRU Alnus rugosa SPECKLED ALDER; TAG ALDER AMESP Amelanchier spicata SHADBUSH SERVICEBERRY ARANU Aralia nudicaulis WILD SARSAPARILLA ATHFI Athyrium filix-femina LADY FERN BETPA Betula papyrifera PAPER BIRCH BOTVI Botrychium virginianum RATTLESNAKE FERN BROCI Bromus ciliatus FRINGED BROME CALCA Calamagrostis canadensis BLUE-JOINT GRASS CALINB Calamagrostis inexpansa BOG REEDGRASS CALTPA Caltha palustris MARSH MARIGOLD; COWSLIP CAMAP Campanula aparinoides MARSH BELLFLOWER CXARTT Carex arctata SEDGE CXCANE Carex canescens SEDGE CXDISP Carex disperma SEDGE CXINTE Carex interior SEDGE CXINTU Carex intumescens SEDGE CXLACU Carex lacustris SEDGE CXLEPL Carex leptalea SEDGE CXPAUP Carex paupercula SEDGE CXSTRI Carex stricta SEDGE CXTRIS Carex trisperma SEDGE CHOJU CHONDRILLA JUNCEA SKELETON-WEED CICBU Cicuta bulbifera WATER HEMLOCK CINLA Cinna latifolia WOOD WEEDGRASS CIRMU Cirsium muticum SWAMP-THISTLE CLIBO Clintonia borealis BLUEBEAD-LILY; CORN-LILY COPTRG Coptis trifoliata (C. groenlandica) GOLDTHREAD CORCAD Cornus canadensis BUNCHBERRY; DWARF CORNELL CORSTO Cornus stolonifera RED-bsIER DIELO Diervilla lonicera BUSH HONEYSUCKLE DRORO Drosera rotundifolia ROUND-LEAVED SUNDEW DRYSP Dryopteris spinulosa (D. carthusiana) SPINULOSE WOODFERN ELYCA Elymus canidensis CANADA WILD-RYE EPIRE Epigaea repens TRAILING ARBUTUS; MAYFLOWER EPIAN Epilobium angustifclium FIREWEED; GREAT WILLOW-HERB EPICI Epilobium ciliatum WILLOW-HERB EQUFL Equisetum fluviatil.e WATER HORSETAIL EQUPA Equisetum palustre MARSH-HORSETAIL EUPMAU Eupatorium maculatuan JOE-PIE WEED EUPPER Eupatorium perfolLELtUM COMMON BONESET EUTGR Euthamia graminifolia (Solidago) GRASS-LEAVED GOLDENROD FRAVI Fragaria virginiana WILD STRAWBERRY FRANI Fraxinus nigra BLACK ASH GAIAP Galium aparine ANNUAL BEDSTRAW GALCIR Galium circaezans WHITE WILD LICORICE GALIAB Galium labradoricum BOG BEDSTRAW GAUHI Gaultheria hispidula CREEPING SNOWBERRY GAUPR Gaultheria procumbens WINTERGREEN GLYST Glyceria striata FOWL MANNA GRASS GOOREO Goodyera repens ophioides CREEPING or LESSER RATTLESNAKE PIA GYMDR Gymnocarpium dryopteris OAK FERN IMPCA Impatiens capensis SPOTTED TOUCH-ME-NOT JUNBA Juncus balticus RUSH JUNNO Juncus nodosus JOINT RUSH JUNPE Juncus pelocarpus BROWN-FRUITED RUSH LARLA Larix laricina TAMARACK; LARCH LEDOR Ledum groenlandicum LABRADOR TEA LINBO Linnaea borealis TWINFLOWER LISCOR Listera cordata HEARTLEAF TWAYBIADE LOBKA Lobelia kalmii BOG LOBELIA LONCAN Lonicera canadensis AMERICAN FLY HONEYSUCKLE LYCAN Lycopodium annotinum STIFF CLUBMOSS LYCCL Lycopodium clavatum RUNNING GROUND PINE LYCUN Lycopus uniflorus NORTHERN BUGLE WEED LYSTH Lysimachia thyrsiflora TUFTED LOOSESTRIFE MAICA Maianthemum canadense CANADA MAYFLOWER; WILD OR FALSE LI MITNU Mitella nuda NAKED MITERWORT MONUNI Moneses uniflora ONE-FLOWERED PYROLA MYRGA Myrica gale SWEET GALE ONOSE Onoclea sensibilis SENSITIVE FERN OSMCI Osmunda cinnamomea CINNAMON FERN OSMRE Osmunda regalis. ROYAL FERN PICGL Picea glauca WHITE SPRUCE PICMA Picea mariana BLACK SPRUCE PLACL Platanthera clavellata (Habenaria) CLUB-SPUR ORCHID; SM. GREEN WOOD-OR POLPA Polygala paucifolia FLOWERING-WINTERGREEN; FRINGED POL POPBA Populus balsamifera BALSAM POPLAR; HACKMATACK POTAN Potentilla anserina SILVERWEED PRUVU PRUNELIA VULGARIS LAWN PRUNELLA PRUPU Prunus pumila SAND CHERRY PYREL Pyrola elliptica LARGE-LEAVED SHINLEAF PYRRO Pyrola rotundifolia ROUND-LEAVED PYROLA QUERU Quercus rubra RED OAK RHAAL Rhamnus alnifolia ALDER-LEAVED BUCKTHORN RUBPU Rubus pubescens DWARF RASPBERRY RUMOR Rumex orbiculatus GREAT WATER DOCK SAGLA Sagittaria latifolia COMMON ARROWHEAD SALCA Salix candida SAGE or HOARY WILLOW SCIAC Scirpus acutus HARDSTEM BULRUSH SCIAM Scirpus americanus THREE-SQUARE; BULRUSH SCUCA Scutellaria galericulata COMMON SKULLCAP SMIRA Smilacina racemosa FALSE SPIKENARD SMIST Smilacina stellata STARRY FALSE SOLOMON SEAL SMITR Smilacina trifolia FALSE MAYFLOWER SOLCAN Solidago canadensis CANADA GOLDENROD THEPA Thelypteris palustris MARSH FERN THUOC Thuja occidentalis ARBOR VITAE TRIFR Triadenum fraseri (Hypericum) MARSH ST. JOHN'S-WORT TRIBO Trientalis borealis STARFLOWER UTRINT Utricularia interMedia FLAT-LEAVED BLADDERWORT VACAN Vaccinium angustifolium BLUEBERRY VACMY Vaccinium myrtilloides CANADA BLUEBERRY VERCA VERBENA CANADENSIS CANADIAN VERVAIN ft VIORE Viola renifolia KIDNEY-LEAVED VIOLET VIORO Viola rostrata LONG-SPURRED VIOLET GRAND TRAVERSE BAY SITE: Grand Traverse Bay COUNTY: Houghton DATE: August, 1992 BY: P.Comer, D.Albert FILE: QU_GTRAV TRANSECT DATA, QUADRAT QUAD NC W/Ad NI W/Ad NW W/Ad NS TS N SEQ 0 SEQ 1 7.6 7.6 17.0 17.0 4.6 4.6 5 5 3.8 3.7 2 5.1 4.3 16.9 15.5 2.9 2.8 11 13 3.6 3.5 3 5.1 5.1 16.9 16.9 3.2 3.2 11 11 2.5 2.5 4 3.9 3.9 11.7 11.7 1.6 1.6 9 9 0.9 0.9 5 4.2 4.2 14.4 14.4 -1.9 -1.9 12 12 -1.4 -1.4 6 5.6 5.6 16.7 16.7 -3.9 -3.9 9 9 -3.2 -3.0 7 7.1 6.3 20.2 19.0 -3.8 -3.1 8 9 -3.6 -3.4 8 6.8 6.8 16.7 16.7 -3.2 -3.2 6 6 -4.0 -3.8 9 6.6 6.6 18.7 18.7 -5.0 -5.0 8 8 -4.1 -3.9 10 8.2 7.5 27.1 26.0 -4.1 -3.6 11 12 -4.7 -4.5 11 7.7 7.7 20.4 20.4 -5.0 -5.0 7 7 -4.7 -4.5 12 7.7- 7.7 25.6 25.6 -5.0 -5.0 11 11 -4.9 -4.9 13 7.8 7.8 21.9 21.9 -4.8 -4.8 8 8 -4.8 -4.8 14 8.3 8.3 26.2 26.2 -4.6 -4.6 10 10 -4.3 -4.3 15 6.6 6.6 24.9 24.9 -3.6 -3.6 14 14 -3.5 -3.5 16 5.8 5.8 21.1 21.1 -2.3 -2.3 13 13 -3.1 -3.1 17 6.6 6.6 18.7 18.7 -3.5 -3.5 8 8 -1.6 -1.6 18 5.0 5.0 15.0 15.0 1.1 1.1 9 9 -2.1 -2.1 19 8.6 8.6 27.2 27.2 -4.0 -4.0 10 10 -0.8 -0.8 20 5.1 5.1 15.3 15.3 0.6 0.6 9 9 -2.7 -2.7 21 7.8 7.8 30.2 30.2 -4.5 -4.5 15 15 -0.3 -0.3 22 4.7 4.7 12.5 12.5 3.0 3.0 7 7 -0.7 -0.7 23 8.0 8.0 16.0 16.0 -.0.5 -0.5 4 4 -0.2 -0.2 24 7.5 7.5 18.4 18.4 -3.0 -3.0 6 6 -0.2 -0.2 25 4.4 4.4 9.8 9.8 2.8 2.8 5 5 -0.1 -0.1 26 8.0 8.0 11.3 11.3 0.0 0.0 2 2 0.2 0.2 27 5.5 5.5 18.1 18.1 -2.2 -2.2 11 11 -0.5 -0.5 28 5.0 5.0 15.8 15.8 0.8 0.8 10 10 -1.7 -1.7 29 6.5 6.5 18.4 18.4 -3.6 -3.6 8 8 -1.8 -1.8 30 7.3 7.3 14.5 14.5 -2.5 -2.5 4 4 -1.9 -1.9 31 5.3 5.3 1.6.0 16.0 0.3 0.3 9 9 -2.4 -2.4 32 7.0 7.0 1.8.5 18.5 -5.0 -5.0 7 7 -2.2 -2.2 33 6.1 6.1 1.6.3 16.3 -2.0 -2.0 7 7 -1.6 -1.6 34 5.0 5.0 1.5.0 15.0 2.3 2.3 9 9 -0.7 -0.7 35 7.3 7.3 1.4.5 14.5 -2.5 -2.5 4 4 -1.2 -1.2 36 8.5 8.5 20.8 20.8 -3.3 -3.3 6 -1.7 -1.7 37 5.7 5.7 1.8.0 18.0 0.8 0.8 10 10 -2.0 -2.0 38 8.0 8.0 1.9.6 19.6 -3.3 -3.3 6 6 -2.0 -2.0 39 6.6 6.6 1.7.4 17.4 -3.4 -3.4 7 7 -1.8 -1.8 40 5.2 5.2 1.5.7 15.7 1.3 1.3 9 9 -1.7 -1,7 41 8.2 8.2 24.7 24.7 -3.0 -3.0 9 9 -0.3 -0.3 42 5.0 5.0 1.4.1 14.1 0.9 0.9 8 8 -1.1 -1.1 AVG 6.5 6.4 1.8.3 18.2 -1.6 -1.6 8.4 8.5 STD 1.3 1.3 4.5 4.5 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.8 TRANSECT DATA, AGGREGATE cc NUMBER 0 4 66 NATIVE SPECIES 1 2 69 TOTAL SPECIES 2 0 0 to 3 6.3 NATIVE QUALITY 3 5 15.9% 6.0 W/Adventives 4 9 51.2 NATIVE INDEX 5 11 4 to 6 50.1 W/Adventives 6 10 43.5% -2.0 NATIVE WETNESS 7 4 -1.8 W/Adventives 8 10 7 to 9 9 0 20.3% 10 14 10 20.3% PHYSIOGNOMY PHYSIOGNOMIC RELATIVE IMPORTANCE VALUES NATIVE 66 95.7% PHYSIOG FQ COV RFQ RCOV RIV Tree 6 8.7% N Shrub 145 143.75 40.7 42.5 41.6 Shrub 20 29.0% N Forb 71 47 19.9 13.9 16.9 Vine 0 0.0% N Sedge 51 59.75 14.3 17.7 16.0 Forb 20 29.0% N Tree 49 17.5 13.8 5.2 9.5 Fern 3 4.3% N Grass 22 18 6.2 5.3 5.8 Sedge 13 18.8% N Fern 14 18.5 3.9 5.5 4.7 Grass 4 5.8% A Forb 2 1.25 0.6 0.4 0.5 ADVENTIVE 3 4.3% A Grass 2 1.25 0.6 0.4 0.5 Tree 0 0.0% Shrub 0 0.0% Vine 0 0.0% Forb 2 2.9% Sedge 0 0.0% Grass 1 1.4% SPECIES RELATIVE IMPORTANCE VALUES SCIENTIFIC NAME CC WETNESS FQ Cov RFQ RCOV RIV Chamaedaphne calyculata 8 OBL 22 25.25 2.9 4.1 3.5 Carex oligocarpa * 8 UPI, 16 27.25 2.1 4.4 3.3 Vaccinium angustifolium 4 FACU 14 25.25 1.9 4.1 3.0 Ledum groenlandicum 8 OBL 14 15 1.9 2.4 2.1 Pteridium aquilinum 0 FACU 11 16.25 1.5 2.6 2.0 Calamagrostis canadensis 3 OBL 14 11.25 1.9 1.8 1.8 Myrica gale 6 OBL 12 12.25 1.6 2.0 1.8 Betula pumila 10 OBL 15 9.25 2.0 1.5 1.7 Melampyrum lineare 6 FAC- 12 10.5 1.6 1.7 1.6 Gaultheria procumbens 5 FACU 9 9 1.2 1.4 1.3 Iris versicolor 5 OBL 11 7.25 1.5 1.2 1.3 Pinus banksiana 5 facu 15 3.75 2.0 0.6 1.3 Pinus resinosa 6 FACU 13 3.25 1.7 0.5 1.1 Carex exilis 10 OBL 6 9 0.8 1.4 1.1 Picea mariana 6 FACW 11 4.25 1.5 0.7 1.1 Andromeda glaucophylla 10 OBL 7 7 0.9 1.1 1.0 Alnus rugosa 5 OBL 8 6 1.1 1.0 1.0 Kalmia polifolia 10 OBL 8 5.75 1.1 0.9 1.0 Rubus pubescens 4 FACW+ 8 5.75 1.1 0.9 1.0 Cornus canadensis 6 FAC 7 5.5 0.9 0.9 0.9 Epigaea repens 7 upl 8 4.25 1.1 0.7 0.9 Aster nemoralis 10 OBL 6 4.5 0.8 0.7 0.8 Aronia prunifolia (A. melanocar.) 5 FACW 6 4.5 0.8 0.7 0.8 Maianthemum canadense 4 FAC 5 5 0.7 0.8 0.7 Sarracenia purpurea 10 OBL 7 3.25 0.9 0.5 0.7 Salix pedicellaris 8 UPL,OBL 6 3.75 0.8 0.6 0.7 Arctostaphylos uva-ursi 8 UP1 2 7 0.3 1.1 0.7 Amelanchier interior 4 UPL 5 4.25 0.7 0.7 0.7 Carex lasiocarpa 10 OBL 4 4.25 0.5 0.7 0.6 Carex stricta 4 OBL 3 4 0.4 0.6 0.5 Deschampsia flexuosa 6 upl 3 4 0.4 0.6 0.5 Rhynchospora alba 6 OBL 4 2.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 Carex interior 3 OBL 3 3 0.4 0.5 0.4 Carex michauxiana 10 OBL 4 1.75 0.5 0.3 0.4 Carex pensylvanica 4 UPI, 3 2.25 0.4 0.4 0.4 Larix laricina 5 FACW 4 1 0.5 0.2 0.3 Danthonia spicata 4 UPI, 3 1.5 0.4 0.2 0.3 Solidago uliginosa 4 OBL 3 1.5 0.4 0.2 0.3 Carex chordorrhiza 10 OBL 3 1.5 0.4 0.2 0.3 Carex retrorsa 3 OBL 2 2 0.3 0.3 0.3 Drosera rotundifolia 6 OBL 2 2 0.3 0.3 0.3 Trientalis borealis 5 FAC+ 2 2 0.3 0.3 0.3 Potentilla palustris 10 OBL 3 0.75 0.4 0.1 0.3 Menyanthes trifoliata 8 OBL 2 1.25 0.3 0.2 0.2 POA COMPRESSA 0 FACTJ+ 2 1.25 0.3 0.2 0.2 Ammophila breviligulata 10 UPL 2 1.25 0.3 0.2 0..2 Equisetum fluviatile 7 OBL 2 1.25 0.3 0.2 0.2 Spiraea alba 4 FACW+ 2 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.2 Smilacina trifolia 10 OBL 2 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.2 Vaccinium macrocarpon 8 OBL 1 1 0.1 0.2 0.1 Lycopodium obscurum 5 FACU 1 1 0.1 0.2 0.1 RUMEX ACETOSELIA 0 FAC 1 1 0.1 0.2 0.1 Carex limosa 10 OBL 1 1 0.1 0.2 0.1 Coptis trifoliata (C. groen.land.) 5 FACW 1 1 0.1 0.2 0.1 Rubus allegheniensis 1 FACU+ 1 1 0.1 0.2 0.1 Vaccinium oxycoccos 8 OBL 1 1 0.1 0.2 0.1 Populus tremuloides 1 FAC 1 1 0.1 0.2 0.1 Carex aquatilis 7 OBL 1 1 0.1 0.2 0.1 Juncus articulatus 3 OBL 1 0.25 0.1 0.0 0.1 HIERACIUM AURANTIACUM 0 UPL 1 0.25 0.1 0.0 0.1 Scirpus cespitosus 10 OBL 1 0.25 0.1 0.0 0.1 Triadenum fraseri (Hypericum) 6 OBL 1 0.25 0.1 0.0 0.1 Solidago rugosa 3 FAC+ 1 0.25 0.1 0.0 0.1 Comandra umbellata 5 FACU 1 0.25 0.1 0.0 0.1 Lysimachia thyrsiflora 6 OBL 1 0.25 0.1 0.0 0.1 Prunus pumila 8 UPL 1 0.25 0.1 0.0 0.1 Salix pyrifolia 8 FACW+ 1 0.25 0.1 0.0 0.1 Campanula aparinoides 7 OBL 1 0.25 0.1 0.0 0.1 Artemisia campestris 5 fac 1 0.25 0.1 0.0 0.1 398 307 TRANSECT INVENTORY ACRONYM SCIENTIFIC NAME COMMON NAME ALNRU Alnus rugosa SPECKLED ALDER; TAG ALDER AMEIN Amelanchier interior SERVICEBERRY AMMBR Ammophila breviligulata MARRAM CRASS; BEACH GRASS ANDGL Andromeda glaucophylla BOG ROSEMARY ARCUV Arctostaphylos uva-ursi BEARBERRY AROPR Aronia prunifolia (A. melanocarpa) BLACK CHOKEBERRY ARTCA Artemisia campestris WORMWOOD ASTNEM Aster nemoralis BOG ASTER BETPU Betula pumila BOG BIRCH CALCA Calamagrostis canadensis BLUE-JOINT GRASS CAMAP Campanula aparinoides MARSH BELLFLOWER F4 CXAQUA Carex aquatilis SEDGE CXCHOR Carex chordorrhiza SEDGE CkEXIL Carex exilis SEDGE CXINTE Carex interior SEDGE CXLASA Carex lasiocarpa SEDGE CXLIMO Carex limosa BOG SEDGE CXMICH Carex michauxiana SEDGE CXOLGC Carex oligocarpa SEDGE CXPENS Carex pensylvanica SEDGE CXRETS Carex retrorsa SEDGE CXSTRI Carex stricta SEDGE CHACA Chamaedaphne calyculata LEATHERLEAF COMUM Comandra umbellata BASTARD-TOADFLAX; STAR-TOAD FLAX COPTRG Coptis trifoliata (C. groenlandica) GOLDTHREAD CORCAD Cornus canadensis BUNCHBERRY; DWARF CORNELL DANSP Danthonia spicata POVERTY GRASS, OATGRASS DESFL Deschampsia flexuosa HAIR GRASS DRORO Drosera rotundifolia ROUND-LEAVED SUNDEW EPIRE Epigaea repens TRAILING ARBUTUS; MAYFLOWER EQUFL Equisetum fluviatile WATER HORSETAIL GAUPR Gaultheria procumbens WINTERGREEN HIEAU HIERACIUM AURANTIACUM ORANGE HAWKWEED IRIVE Iris versicolor WILD BLUE FLAG JUNAR Juncus articulatus JOINTED RUSH KALPO Kalmia polifolia SWAMP-LAUREL LARIA Larix laricina TAMARACK; LARCH LEDGR Ledum groenlandicum LABRADOR TEA LYCOB Lycopodium obscurum GROUND-PINE LYSTH Lysimachia thyrsiflora TUFTED LOOSESTRIFE MAICA Maianthemum canadense CANADA MAYFLOWER; WILD OR FALSE LI MELLI Melampyrum lineare COW-WHEAT MENTR Menyanthes trifoliata BUCKBEAN MYRGA Myrica gale SWEET GALE PICMA Picea mariana BLACK SPRUCE PINBA Pinus banksiana JACK PINE PINRE Pinus resinosa RED PINE POACO POA COMPRESSA CANADA BLUEGRASS POPTR Populus tremuloides QUAKING ASPEN POTPAL Potentilla palustris MARSH CINQUEFOIL PRUPU Prunus pumila SAND CHERRY PTEAQ Pteridium aquilinum BRACKEN FERN RHYAL Rhynchospora alba BEAK-RUSH RUBAL Rubus allegheniensis COMMON BLACKBERRY RUBPU Rubus pubescens DWARF RASPBERRY RURACL RUMEX ACETOSELLA SHEEP or RED SORREL SALPED Salix pedicellaris BOG WILLOW SALPY Salix pyrifolia BALSAM WILLOW SARPU Sarracenia purpurea PITCHER-PLANT SCICE Scirpus cespitosus BULRUSH SMITR Smilacina trifolia FALSE MAYFLOWER SOLRU Solidago rugosa ROUGH GOLDENROD SOLULI Solidago uliginosa BOG GOLDENROD SPIAL Spiraea alba READOWSWEET TRIFR Triadenum fraseri (Hypericum) MARSH ST. JOHN'S-WORT TRIBO Trientalis borealis STARFLOWER VACAN Vaccinium angustifolium BLUEBERRY VACMA Vaccinium macrocarpon LARGE CRANBERRY VACOX Vaccinium oxycoccos SMALL CRANBERRY b 10 k p 5 APPENDICK V MEAN FREQUENCY DATA FOR VASCULAR PLANTS AND MOSSES .01 FOUND IN MICHIGAN'S WOODED DUNE AND SWALE COMPLEXES j 147 1 RELATIVE FREMENCY FOR VASCULAR PLANTS AM MOSSES IN WETLAND AND UPLAND The following List includes all vasuLar plants, bryophytes, and algae found within Michigan's Wooded Dune and Swale Complexes, along with their reLative frequency in wetLand and upland sample points. State-wide, a total of 470 sample points were designated as wettand, white 488 sample points were designated as upland. species which contain no vaLues for either category were recorded as present within a complex, but were not encountered within a specific sample point. WETLAND UPLAND VASCULM PLANTS-. Abies baLsamea 0.170517322 0.293959678 Acer pensyLvanicum 0.0132104737 0.0239455879 Acer rubrLmn 0.2101164212 0.3980279994 Acer saccharLin 0.0023310023 0.0023310023 Acer spicatum 0.0066391941 0.0020066294 Achillea miLLefoLium 0.0004930966 0.0009157509 Actsea rubra 0 0 Actaea spp. 0.0010683761 0 Adiantum pedatum 0.0010683761 0 AgaLinis purpurea 0.0010683761 0 Agrimonia gryposepata 0 0 .Agropyron dasystachyum 0.0026298488 0.0019723866 Agropyron trachycauLLin 0 0.0028693529 Agropyron repens 0 0.0002374169 Agrostis gigantea 0 0.0042735043 Agrostis hyemaLis 0 0.0032051282 Agrostis perennans 0.0139374514 0.0005827506 Atisima pLantago-aquatica 0.0018243615 0 ALnus rugosa 0.3638709155 0.0590467113 ALopercurus sequaLis 0 0 Ambrosia arternisiifoLia 0.0009157509 0.000400641 AmeLanchier arborea 0.0032288699 0.0231707965 AmeLanchier interior 0.0040750916 0.035952554 Ametanchier taevis 0 0.0004930966 AneLanchier spicata 0.0072140039 0.0223836105 AmeLanchier spp. 0.000534188 0.0118587058 AmmophiLa brevitiguLata 0.001215131 0.0242676068 Anaphatis margaritacea 0 0 Andromeda gLaucophytta 0.0371835998 0.002014652 Andropogon gerardii 0 0 Andropogon scoparius 0 0.0007777149 Andropogon virginica 0 O.OD42735043 Anemone canadensis 0 0.0002374169 Apocynum cannabinum 0 0.0005426672 Aquitegia canadensis 0 0.0003770739 Arabis Lyrata 0.0019723866 0.0028425571 AraLia nudicauLis 0.0574338125 0.1727481548 ArctostaphyLos uva-ursi 0.0029996713 0.0376669772 Arethusa buLbosa 0 0 Arisaema triphyLLum 0.0036630037 0 Aronia meLano 0.0107174989 0.0074786325 Aronia prunifoLia 0.0211775878 0.0067460317 Artemisia campestris 0.0019723866 0.0087950244 Asclepias incarnata 0 0 AscLepias syriaca 0 0 Aster borealis 0 0 Aster ericoides 0.0082417582 0 Aster taevis 0 0 Aster LongifoLius 0.0019723866 0 Aster macrophyLlus 0.0145792242 0.0559689629 Aster nemoratis 0.0074946983 0 Aster pitosus 0.002374169 0.0006410256 Aster puniceus 0.0042900164 0.0003373819 Aster umbeLLatus 0.0040084185 0.0048076923 Aster spo. 0.0137342287 0 Athyrfum fiLix-femina 0.0436409935 0.0017806268 148 Athyriun theLypteroides 0.000534188 0 Berberis thunbergii 0 0 Betuta alleghaniansis 0.0020242915 0.0036130536 Betuta papyrifera 0.0450811008 0.0528067931 Betula pumiLa 0.03204259 0 Sidens cernua 0.0207961554 0.0008012821 Bidens spp. 0.0026709402 0 Boehmeria cyLindrica 0.0114678531 0 Rotrychiksn dissectum 0.0005827506 0 Botrychium muLtificlum 0.0027472527 0 Botrychitzn virginianun 0.0129212454 0.002107075 BrachyeLytrLmn erectum 0.0005827506 0 Brasenia schreberi 0 0 Bromus ciLiatus 0.0015598291 0 Bromus inermus 0 0 Cakile edentuLa 0 0.0007058913 CaLamagrostis canadensis 0.2087808003 0.0402372528 Calamagrostis inexpansa 0.0041971917 0 CaLamoviLfa Longifolia 0.0004930966 0.0053003324 Catta patustris 0.0108736942 0.0026362526 Cattitriche verna 0.0002374169 0 Caltha paLustris 0.0196865575 0 Campanula aparinoides 0.0312857952 0 CamparviLa rotundifoLia 0.003944M2 0.0071225071 Cardamine pensyLvanica 0.0009157509 0 Carex aLata 0.0011870845 0 Carex aquatitis 0.0480157129 0.0071807199 Carex arctata 0.0057988166 0.03"966762 Carex attantica 0.0009861933 0 Carex aurea 0.0042324129 0 Carex bebbii 0.0112942613 0 Carex bromides 0 0 Carex brunnescens 0.0064853641 0.0006410256 Carex buxbaumii 0.00087157 0 Carex canescens 0.0198662093 0.0026362526 Carex chordorrhiza 0.0067592414 0 Carex communis 0 0 Carex comosa 0.0079183103 0.0008012821 Carex crinita 0.0068659411 0 Carex cristateLLa 0.0014792899 0 Carex cryptolepis 0.0298640462 0.004040404 Carex cuputina 0 0 Carex debitis rudgei 0.0009496676 0 Carex deweyana 0.0014792899 0.0004930966 Carex diindra 0.0044871795 0.0046620047 Carex disperma 0.0463253208 0.0081908832 Carex eburnea 0.0064102564 0 Carex exitis 0.0179246192 0 Carex f(ava 0.0048076923 0 Carex foLlicuLata 0.0023D97685 0 Carex grasiLLima 0.0028846154 0 Carex gynandra 0.0106357967 0 Carex gynocrates 0.0025641026 0.0003052503 Carex howei 0.0009861933 0 Carex hystericina 0 0 Carex interior 0.057128531 0.008974359 Carex intumescens 0.0201994201 0.0069383833 Carex Lacustris 0.0633335254 0.0007122507 Carex lasiocarpa 0.0823T73021 0 Carex LeptaLea 0.0780648431 0.004985755 Carex Leptonervia 0.0042735043 0.0019723866 Carex Limosa 0.0155881156 0 Carex lupiLina 0.0015689439 0 Carex michauxiana 0.0016025641 0 Carex normatis 0.0016619183 0.0003052503 Carex oLigosperma 0.1267119901 0.0023310023 Carex paupercuta 0.0186506083 0 Carex peclunculate 0.0192307692 0.0036309844 Carex pensylvanica 0.0106567578 0.0600481488 149 Carex pseudo-cyperus 0.0325316659 0 Car" retrorsa 0.0330205289 0.0003052503 Carex rostrata 0.0171341005 0 Carex spp. 0.0068490537 0.0014245014 Carex sprengelii 0.0009157509 0.0004273504 Carex steritis 0 0 Carex stipata 0.0069338781 0.0003052503 Carex stricta 0.1065647456 0.0255393167 Carex tenera 0.0029083571 0 Carex tenuiftora 0 0 Carex trisperme 0.1096289598 0.0213043901 Carex tuckermanii 0.0045234168 0 Carex vesicaria 0.0258784425 0 Carex viridula 0 0.001405758 Carex vuLpinoidea 0.0014985015 0 CeLastrus scandens 0 0 Centauria macutosa 0 0 Centaurea spp. 0 0 Cephatenthus.occidentatis 0.0066343912 0 Cerastium arvense 0.0019723866 0 Chamaedaphne calyculata 0.2312781401 0.006990232 Chelone giabra 0.0002374169 0 Chimaphila umbeltata 0.0021367521 0.0140726648 ChondrMa juncea 0 0 Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum 0 0 Cicuta butbifera 0.0230754217 0.0005827506 Cicuta macutata 0.0022435897 0 Cinna tatifoLis 0.0032370716 0 Circaea atpina 0.0079178538 0 Cirsium arvense 0.0003373819 0 Cirsium muticum 0.0100620676 0 Cirsjum pitcheri 0 0 CLadium mariscoides 0.0252095661 0.0048076923 Ciematis virginiana 0.0021367521 0 CLintonia boreaLis O.D481724463 0.0623051981 Comandra umbeLtata 0 0.0166825277 ConophoLis americana 0 0 Coptis trifolia 0.1011482812 0.1258524735 CoraLlorhiza maculata 0.0028490028 0 Corallorhiza trifida 0 0 Coreopsis Lanceolata 0 0.0010683761 Coreopsis patmata 0 0.0019723866 Cornus amomum 0.0007122507 0.0021367521 Cornus canadensis 0.1051167081 0.2458971617 Cornus rugosa 0.0040701019 0.0119391026 Cornus stotonifera 0.0505887394 0.0077382494 CoryLus americana 0.000493D966 0 Corylus; cornuta 0 0 Cypripedjum acauLe 0 0.0107577183 Cypripedium calceotus, pubescens; 0 0.0032051282 Cystopteris bulbifera 0.002518315 0 Danthonia spicata 0 0.0181516667 Deschampsia cespitosa 0.002374169 0.0120332883 Deschampsia ftexuosa 0 0.0402548738 Dierville tonicera 0.0050152625 0.0123411133 Drosera intermedia 0.0025641026 0 Drosera Linearis 0 0 Drosera rotuhdifolia 0.0169525144 0.0042735043 Dryopteris spinuLosa (carthusiana) 0.0211896588 0.0058346624 Dryopteris cristata 0.0056668118 0 Dryopteris intermedia 0.0041561003 0 Dutichium arundinacium 0.0554197346 0 ELeocharis acicutaris 0.0003373819 0 Eleocharis elliptice 0.0103692604 0.0008012821 Eleocharis equisetoides 0.0023310023 0.000400641 Eteocharis obtusa 0 0 Eteocharis pauciftora 0 0 Eteacharis smaLM 0.0128510379 0.0058760684 ELodea canadensis 0.0040064103 0.0017094017 150 Elymus canadensis 0.0002374169 0.0016244172 Etymus mottus 0 0 Epifagus virginiana 0 0.0009496676 Epigea repens 0.0135291631 0.1295553916 Epitobfum angustifotium 0.001025641 0 Epitobium ci I iattsn 0.0002564103 0 Ep! tobitxn colorattin 0.0042311084 0 Epi tobiLmn teptophyttum 0.000534188 0 Epitobium paLustre 0.004T720798 0 Equisetum arvense 0.0046620047 0.0052231719 Equisetun ftuviatite 0.0111832433 0.0010683T61 Equisetum hymate 0.0009496676 0.0030864198 Equisetum palustre 0.0281601124 0.0007122507 Equisetum pratense 0.002302944 0.0006410256 Equisetum scirpoidea 0.0047666009 @0.0138176638 Equisetun sylvaticum 0.0124764883 0.0261118511 Eragrostis spp. 1 0 0 Erigeron spp. 0.0010683761 0 EriocauLon septangutare 0 0 Eriophorum tenetium 0 0 Eriophorum virginicum 0.0030364372 0 Eriophorm viridi-carinatum 0.0025641026 0 Erucastrum gatticum 0 0.000400641 Eupatorium macutattin 0.0169659637 0.0008012821 Eupatorium perforatum 0.002785409 0 Fagus grandifotia 0 0.006118MIl Festuca saximontana 0 0.0032496439 Fragaria virginiana 0.022512947 0.026033623 Fraxinus americana 0.0311355311 0.0071499014 Fraxinus nigra 0.05008879 0.0027128554 Fraxinus pennsytvanica 0.0180396764 0.0016025641 Galium aparine 0.0164533306 0.0175688509 Gatium circaezans 0.0059081944 0.0031594711 Galium tabradoricum 0.0451672769 0.004888701 Gatiun trifidum 0.0247210351 0.0003052503 Galium triflorum 0.0183566434 0.0056706114 Gauttheria hispiduta 0.0607239307 0.0670562545 Gauttheria procumbens 0.055592044 0.3851107177 Gaylussacia baccata 0.0230310875 0.2738210519 Gentiana crinfta 0.0009496676 0.0030364372 Gentianopsis procura 0 0 Geocauton tividum 0.0025684192 0.0244584087 Geum canadense 0 0 Geum rivate 0 0 Otyceria boreatis 0.0594828011 0 Glyceria canadensis 0.0131578947 0.0008880009 Glyceria grandis 0 0 GLyceria septentrionatis 0.0021367521 0 Giyceria striata 0.079663834 0.0077797203 Goodyera obtongifolfa 0.003"55128 0.000798347 Goodyera ilepens 0.0015384615 0.0030226658 Goodyera tesselata 0 0.0031542532 Gymnocarpium dryopteris 0.0207556922 0 Gypsophita muratis 0 0 Gypsophita peniculata 0 0 Hamamelis virginiana 0.0048994216 0.0036268556 Hatenia de *ftexa 0.000534188 0.005519943 Hieracium aurantiacum 0.0023730276 0.0076077768 Hieracium maximun 0 0 Hieracium spp. 0.0009157509 0.0047666009 Hieracium vutgatum 0 0 Hudsonia tomentosa 0 0.000400641 Hypericum spp. 0.0004578755 0 Hypericum katmiantin 0.0034281957 0.0057425214 Hypericum majus 0.0006410256 0 Hypericum perforatum 0 0 Hypericum punctatum 0 0 Hystrix patuLs 0 0 Ilex verticitista 0.078937068 0.0217769622 151 impatiens capensis 0.0133735495 0 Iris tacustris 0.0056891026 0.0188746439 Iris versicoLor 0.1051536302 0.0038600289 Iris virginica 0.000534188 0 Juglans nigra 0.0004930966 0 Juncus acuminatus 0.0023310023. 0 Juncus articulatus 0.0002289377 0 Juncus batticus 0.0032125994 0.0071170283 Juncus brevicaudatus 0.0136021386 0 Juncus canadensis 0.0064620565 0 Juncus effusus 0.0036630037 0.0024420024 Juncus fiLiformis 0 0 Juncus greenei 0.0004578755 0 Juncus nodosus 0.0091575092 0 Juncus pelocarpus 0 0 Juniperus communis 0.0010272B47 0.0577213237 Juniperis horizontalis 0 0.0220704258 Kalmia angustifotia 0.0175002348 0 Katmia poLifoLia 0.0530965398 0.0010989011 Koelerie macrantha 0.0009861933 0.0015082956 Lactuca spp. 0.0007122507 0 Laportea 'canadensis 0.0018993352 0 Larix (aricina 0.0137914967 0.0003052503 Lathyrus japonicus gtab. 0.0065581854 0.0051775148 Lathyrus palustris 0.0025641026 0 Ledum groenLandicum 0.1143621121 0.1135150345 Leersia oryzoides 0.0015324182 0 Lemna minor 0.0192469567 0 Lemna trisutca 0.0026709402 0 Littium phiLadelphicum 0.000534188 0.0008012821 Linnaea boreaLis 0.0762124036 0.1298715492 Listera cordata 0.001025641 0 Lithospermum canescens 0 0.0004930966 Lithospermum carolinien. 0 0 Lobetia cardinaLis 0 0 LobeLia kalmii 0.0041163004 0.0014690171 Lonicera canadensis 0.0154829319 0.0160119657 1-0 Lonicera dioica 0.0027472527 0.0027512429 Lonicera tatarica 0 0.0011870845 Lotus cornicuLatus 0.0005827506 0 Lycopodiun annotinum 0.0171167842 0.0382687825 Lycopodium clavatum 0.0076023392 0.0453922858 Lycopodiun dendroideum 0.0025641026 0.0006410256 Lycopodium inundatum 0.0011341223 0 Lycopodium luciduLum 0.0036199268 0.003715035 Lycopodium obscurum 0.0003373819 0.0103558479 Lycopodium tristachyum 0 0.0041885198 Lycopus americanus 0.0331991879 0 Lycopus unifLorus 0.193010998 0.0106976357 Lysimachia terrestris 0.04242373 0.0031322844 Lysimachia thyrsiftora 0.0451289463 0.0003052503 Maianthemum, canadense 0.1489012208 0.41246BB543 Matricaria matricarioid, 0 0 Matteuccia struthiopteris 0.0047483381 0 MedeoLa virginiana 0.0005827506 0.0003373819 Metampyrum Lineare 0.018162494 0.1772393024 Mentha arvensis 0.0187506479 0.0019723866 Menyanthes trifoliata 0.030260391 0.0003052503 MimuLus ringens a 0 Mitchetta repens 0.0094627595 0.0162356637 Mitetta diphyLla 0.0179525336 0 hiteLka nuda 0.0530316051 0.0068554131 Monarda punctata 0 0 Moneses uniftora 0.0053344187 0.0228378103 Monotropa hypopithys 0 0 Monotropa unifLora 0.0053817977 0.0020542548 MuhLenbergia gLomerata 0.0004578755 0 Myrica gate 0.121807697 0.013616683 Nasturtium officinaLe 0.006333173 0 152 Nemopanthes mucronata 0.0224118324 0.0165399322 Nuphar spp 0.0044261294 0 Nuphar variegate 0.0035131535 0 Nymphaea odorata 0.0036477411 0 Oenothera biennis 0.0019723866 0 Oenothera oakesiana 0 o.ooon58913 OnocLea sensibitis 0.0586482849 0.0032763533 Oph i og I ossum pus i L L un 0 0 Orobanche unifLora 0 0.0003052503 OrthiLia secunda (Pyrota) 0.0051282051 0.0008012821 Oryzopsis asperifolia 0.0072982573 0.0238288446 Oryzopsis pungens 0.0016025641 0.0185404339 Osmorhize cLaytonii 0.0003205128 0.014861136 Osmunda cinnamomea 0.0144228188 0.0090980657 Osmunda regatis 0.0750094532 0.001410742 OxaLis montane 0.0009861933 0.0012820513 Panicum coLumbianum 0.0028490028 0.0085556594 Panicum virgatum 0.0005827506 0.0007305136 Parnassia gLauca 0.0051481638 0 Parthenocissus inserta 0.0018819855 0.0007122507 PedicuLaris canadensis 0 0.0019723866 Petisites patmatus 0.0011752137 0.0008012821 PhaLaris arundinacea 0.006189027 0.0035612536 PhLeum pretense 0 0.0002374169 PhLeum spp. 0 0 Phragmites austraLis 0.0057997558 0.0053418803 Physocarptis opuLifoLius 0 0.0053418803 Picee gLauca 0.0051340468 0.0107261062 Picea mariana 0.0328624142 0.0936299236 Pirvus banksiana 0.00062957BB 0.0068343782 Pinus resinosa 0.000534188 0.0096939062 Pinus strobus 0.0171528907 0.1039664401 PLantago rugetii 0.0005827506 0 PLatanthera cLavellata 0.0020512821 0.0008012821 PLatanthera diLitata 0.0022321429 0 ,PLatanthera hookeri 0 0.0025065746 PLatanthera hyperborea 0.0012820513 0.0009157509 Platenthera obtusata 0.0013495277 0 PLatanthera orbicuLata 0 0.0032051282 Platanthera psycodes 0 0 Poe compressa 0.0032255108 0.014199261 Poe gLauca 0 0.0028490028 Poe paLustris 0.0005827506 0 Poe saltuensis 0 0.0006410256 Poe spP. 0.000534188 0 PodophylLum peLtatum 0 0 Pogonia ophiogLossoides 0.0006410256 0 PoLygaLa paucifoLie 0.0225448483 0.0518104996 Potygonatum pubescens 0.0004930966 0.0148266857 PoLygonum amphibium 0.019211107 0.00368053 PoLygonun sagittattsn 0.0009496676 0 PoLygonum scandens 0 0.0003052503 POPULus baLsamifere 0.0027014652 0.0032051282 Populus deLtoides 0.0008201675 0 PopuLus grandidentata 0.0002374169 0.006B84129 PopuLus tremuLoides 0.0196608947 0.0118543434 Potamogeton berchtoldii 0.0017094017 0 .Potamogeton gramineus 0.0091880342 0 Potamogeton natans 0.0129376559 0.0005827506 Potamogeton oakesianum 0.0033653846 0 Potamogeton pusMus 0 0 Potamogeton richardsonii 0 0 Potentitta anserina 0.0081307581 0 PotentiLta fruticosa 0.0188071366 0.0132211538 PotentiLLa norvegica 0 0 Potentilla patustris 0.0485679918 0.0003052503 PotentiLLa recta 0.0018315018 0 Prenanthes atba 0 0.0124843805 Prenanthes spp. 0 0.0015082956 153 Primuta mistassinica 0 0 Proserpinaca palustris 0.0082417582 0 PruneLLa vutgaris 0.0162905044 0.0042735043 Prunus pensylvanica 0 0 Prunus ptxni L a 0 0.0006952924 Prunus serotina 0.002374169 0.0234038279 Prunus virginiana 0.0043773742 0.0158927885 Pteridiun aquiL!nLsn 0.0806599644 0.7796134993 Pterospora andromedea 0 0.0021367521 PyroLa ettiptica 0.0335048439 0.0088035184 PyroLa obtusa 0 0 PyroLa rotundifoLia 0.0081810473 0.0081634889 PyroLa chLorantha (P. virens) 0.0281364469 0.020630399 Pyrola spp. 0.000534188 0 Quercus atba 0.0007305136 0.0127090699 Quercus eMpsoidatis 0 0.0164365549 Quercus rubra 0.0241357598 0.1556700176 Quercus veLutina 0.0019723866 0.0039136302 RanuncuLus abortinus 0 0.0028490028 RanuncuLus flabettaris 0.0014838557 0 RanuncuLus gmetini 0.006993007 0 RanuncuLus sceteratus 0.0064441731 0 RanuncuLus recurvatus 0.0005827506 0 RanuncuLus reptans 0 0 Rhamnus atnifoLia 0.0471005134 0.0010683761 Rhamnus cathartica 0.0009157509 0 Rhamnus franguLa 0.0023504274 0.0021367521 Rhynchospora aLba 0.0067765568 0.000400641 Rhynchospora fusca 0.0051282051 0 Ribes americantin 0 0.0003052503 Ribes cynosbati 0.0032955293 0 Ribes (acustre 0 0 Ribes triste 0.0104099159 0 Rorippa paLustris 0 0 Rosa acicuLaris 0 0.0032051282 Rosa blanda 0 0.0008012821 Rosa caroLina 0 0.0027316434 Rosa paLustris 0.0180108798 0.0033577534 Rosa spp. 0 0.0015082956 Rubtis atLeghaniensis 0.0012531328 0.015877712 Rubus fLagettaris 0.0023310023 0 Rubus hispidus 0.004502442 0.0007305136 Rubus occidentaLis 0.00OT716049 0.0219673114 Rubus parviflorus 0 0 Rubus pubescens 0.1832725717 0.0381236759 Rubus setosus 0 0 Rubus strigosus 0.0069444444 0.0122628" Rudbeckia hirta 0 0.0015614727 Rumex acetosella 0 0.0018315018 Rumex orbicuLatus 0.0062080204 0 Rumex verticiLLatus 0 0 Sagittaria LatifoLia 0.001025641 0 Sagittaria spp. 0.0039173789 0 SaLix bebbiana 0.0050213675 0.0039215171 SaLix candida O.OD48213894 0 SaLix cordata 0.0004578755 0 SaLix discoLor 0.0060897436 0 SaLix eriocephaLa 0.0019230769 0 Satix exigua 0.0011870845 0 SaLix Lucida 0 0 SaLix myricoides 0.0023310023 0.0002374169 Salix pediceLLaris 0.0311321395 0 Satix petioLaris 0 0 Salix pyrifoLia 0.008820249 0 Satix serissima 0.0037393162 0 Salix spp. 0.000400641 0 Sambucus pubens 0.0009496676 a SanicuLa mariLandica 0.000534188 0 Saponaria officinatis 0 0.0037986705 154 Sarracenia purpurea 0.0252514916 0 Satureja acinos 0 0 Satureja arkansana 0 0 Scheuchzeria pLaustris 0.0076923077 0 Schizachne spp. 0 0 Scirpus acutus 0.0318355718 0 Scirpus americanus 0.0044677545 0.0032051282 Sc i rpus cespitosus 0.0002289377 0 Scirpus cyperinus 0.0204405874 0.0003052503 Scirpus hudsonianus 0.0022652786 0 Scirpus subterinaLis 0.0151098901 0 Scirpus spp. 0.0004578755 0 Scutettaria gaLericutata 0.0245962442 0.0032051282 ScutelLaria incana 0 0 ScuteLlaria taterifLora 0.0072199387 0 Sedum acre 0 0 SeLaginelta seLaginoides 0.0009157509 0 Senecio paupercutus 0 0 Shepherdia canadensis 0 0.0008012821 Sitene vuLgaris 0 0 S i Lin suave 0.0430741327 0 Smilacina rac 0.0002564103 0.0019230769 SmiLacina stellata 0.0063244015 0.0215475408 SmiLacina trifoLia 0.103701715 0.0036706349 Smilax tamnoides hispida 0.0004930966 0.0013532764 Solanum duLcamara 0.0083104099 0.0025641026 SoLidego caesia 0.0041625042 0.004985755 SoLidago canadensis 0.0073352526 0.0244355101 Sotidago gigantea . 0 0 Solidago graminifolia 0.0046652422 0.0016619183 Solidago houghtonii 0.0019723866 0 SoLidago juncea 0 0 Solidago ohioensis 0.0016511267 0.0050747863 SoLidago rugosa ' 0.0110969707 0.0023760961 Solidago spathutata 0 0 Sotidago uLiginosa 0.0077209584 0.0018315018 Sonchus arvensis 0.0023310023 0 Sonchus uiiginosus 0 0 Sorbus americana 0.001138664 0.0068681319 Sorbus decora 0.0031476003 0.0017751479 Sparganium chLorocarpum 0.0028490028 0 Sparganium eurycarpum 0.0009496676 0 Spa rgan i Lon minimum 0.0623869957 0 Spiranthes cernua 0 0.0004930966 Spiranthes tacera 0 0.0010893246 Spiranthes lucida 0 0 Spiranthes romanzoffiana 0 0 Spiraea atba 0.0072666531 0 Stettaria tongifotia 0.0029137529 0 Stettaria tongpipes 0 0 Streptopus roseus 0.0030864198 0.0003373819 Symphoricarpos atbus 0 0.0023095777 Tanacetum huronense 0 0.0008012821 Tanacetum vuLgare 0 0 Tarexacum officinate 0 0.0002374169 Texus canadensis 0 0.006993007 Thatictrum dasycarpum 0.0047666009 0.0003052503 TheLyptris patustris 0.1202008156 0.0042360174 TiareLLa cordifoLia 0.0003205128 0.0028490028 Thuja occidentaLis 0.1039358074 0.0862822953 TiLia americana 0 0 Tofieldia gLutinosa 0.0035866911 0.0085470085 Toxicodendron 0.0021853147 0.0103282969 Toxicodendron radicans 0.0067155067 0.0023310023 Triadenum fraseri 0.0313014994 0.0032190032 Triadenum spp. 0.0023310023 0 Trientatis boreaLis 0.1163627817 0.3413286027 Trigtochin maritima 0.0030525031 0.000400641 TrigLochin patustris 0.004985755 0 155 Trillium cernuum 0.0010683761 0.0007122507 Trillium grandifLorum 0 0 Tsuga canadensis 0.0051053114 0.016064786 Typha angustifolia 0.0054131054 0.0042735043 Typha tatifolia 0.0222642327 0.0066045066 Typha X glauca 0.0007122507 0 Ulmus americans 0.0032790927 0 Utica dioica procera 0 0 Utricutaria spp. 0.0018315018 0.0016025641 UtricuLaria cornuta 0.0037698413 0.0032496439 UtricuLaria intermedia 0.0312569529 0 Utricuteria minor 0.0021367521 0 Utricutaria vulgaris 0.0165140415 0 Vaccinium angustifotium 0.034966432 0.293458207 Vaccinium macrocarpon 0.0360140434 0.0032772783 Vaccinium membranaceum 0.0004930966 0.0025641026 Vaccinium myr@tittoides 0.0694451345 0.3522365892 Vaccinium ovalifoLium 0.0023730276 0.0051282051 Vaccinium oxycoccos 0.0227467689 0.0069711538 VaLLisneria americans 0 0.0003373819 Verbascum thapsus 0 0 Verbena canadensis 0 0 Veronica americans 0 0 Viburnum acerifoLium 0.0004930966 0.0013495277 Viburnum cassinoides 0.0038176979 0.0039335664 Viburnum tentago 0.0050607287 0.0032051282 Viburnum tritobum 0 0 Viola btanda paLustriformis 0.0211606888 0.021300613 Viola conspersa 0.0044705295 0.0008012821 Viola pubescens 0 0 Viola renifoLia 0.0353243284 0.0207547083 Viola rostrata 0.0338868539 0.0183998101 Viola sororia 0 0 Viola spp. 0.0442270959 0.0140439082 Vitis riparia 0.0128501247 0.0013267415 Xyris montana 0.0006410256 0 Zigadenus glaucus 0 0.0026.709402 BRYOPHYTES and ALGRE: AuLacomnium palustris 0.0085192585 0 Bazzania triLobata 0.0092185592 0.0071872572 Bazzania spp. 0.0026990553 0.0043016194 Brachythecium spp. 0.0203570504 0.1048389382 Brotherella recurvans 0 0 BrotherelLa spp. 0.0236850138 0.0053432861 Catectedium spp. 0 0.0009496676 Catiergon spp. 0.0078895464 0 Chars aspera 0.0051282051 0 Chars gtobutaris 0.0331959707 0.000400641 Chars vulgaris 0.0108404558 0.0048076923 Climacium dendroides 0.0021367521 0 Climacium spp. 0.0250581627 0.0205783495 Conocephalum con. 0 0 Cratoneuron spp. 0.032967033 0 Dicranum flag. 0 0.0005827506 Dicranum scoparium 0.0214861049 0.2426862396 Dicranum viride 0.0039"7732 0.0019723866 Dicranum spp. 0.0061240842 0.0443603782 Fissidens spp. 0.0079365079 0 HyLocomnium spLendens 0.0235042735 0 Leucobryum gLaucum 0.0028146055 0.0110127553 Mnium cuspidatum 0.0350926503 0.0032051282 Mnium punctatum 0.0293592555 0.0023310023 Mnium spp. 0.0681229027 0 Pleurosium schreberi 0.0338663473 0.0794055757 Polytrichum com : 0.0023310023 0 Potytrichum juniperinum 0.0221440241 0.0225690976 Polytrichum pitiforum 0.000534188 0, Potytrichum spp. 0.0003373819 0.0042735043 156 Ptitia crista-castr. 0 0 Ptilium spp. 0.0276602564 0.0066150954 Sphagnum f imbreatun 0.0057109557 0 Sphagnun centrate 0.062234457 0.0120332883 Sphagnum cuspidatum 0-0426352494 0 Sphagnum compactum 0.004048583 0 Sphagntxn deLicado 0.0019723866 0 Sphagntin f uscun 0.025171466 0.0010683761 Sphagntxn girghensonii 0.2320118209 0.0320360195 Sphagntxn mage ( t ani ctzn 0.0823009346 0.0051282051 Sphagnum papillosum 0.0104612493 0 Sphagnum squarrostxn 0.0392319227 0.0058404558 Sphagnum subsecundLEn 0.0025641026 0.0003052503 Sphagnun warnstorfii 0.1011381163 0.0233974359 Sphagnum wu t f i antxn 0.0225022382 0.0285409035 157 0 0 0 0 APPENDIX VI EXPLANATION OF ELEMENT RANIMG CRITERIA USED FOR MICHIGAN WOODED DUNE AND SWALE COMPLEXES a I 0 0 0 0 158 0 ELEMENT RANKING CRITERIA Wooded Dune and Swale Complex: The majority of degrading impacts to these complexes are related to significant alterations in hyrdrology. Un- obstructed flow of surface and ground water from the upland to the adjacent take is essential to the maintenance of their natural character. Flow is sometimes maintained with roads placed along the beach ridge, depending on local conditions. Plant community zonation from Open Dunes inland, if present, raises species/habitat diversity and rank. Benchmark QugU!3L5;tandard: The entire complex must be intact with little or no significant human-caused alterations in hydrology. No minimum size, although most well developed complexes are no smaller than 150 acres in size. Species diversity is quite variable among complexes; (i.e. intact, well drained complexes may have lower diversity than other manipulated, but poorly drained complexes). Species diversity should be considered after hydrology in ranking. Element Occurrenc Size-Classes: Large: 3000 or more acres; Moderate: 1000-3000 acres; Small 300-1000 acres; Very small: less than 300 acres. Boundary Mappin : Portions of the complex below the Nipissing beach ridge typically contain wet swales. Portions above the Nipissing ridge and below. the Algonquin beach ridge should be included if they include distinct ridges and swales. Exemplagy Occurrences: Pointe Aux Chenes, Hiawatha National Forest, Mackinac County; Sturgeon Bay, Wilderness State Park, Emmet County; Platte River Point, Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, Benzie County; Pointe Aux Barques, Huron County; Ogontz Bay, Hiawatha National Forest, Delta County; Iron River, Marquette County; Salmon Trout Bay, Marquette County; Grand Traverse Bay, Houghton/Keweenaw counties. 159 NOAA COASTAL SERVICES CTR LIBRAR 3 6668 14111611