[From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov]
A4L-Kew5, [email protected],ej APPENDIX F HABITAT ASSESSMENT MANUAL ANNE ARUNDEL COUNTY Office of Planning and Zoning Environmental and Special Projects Division QH 352 M38 1987 Nancy L. Matthews August 1987 Preparation of this report was partially funded by: The Office of Coastal Resources Management of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and The State of Maryland Chesapeake Bay ..Critical Area Cammission ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Janes Lighthizer, County Executive of Anne Arundel County. Office of Planning and Zoning Thcms L. Osborne, Planning and Zoning Officer James J. Cannelli, Assistant Planning and Zoning Officer Joseph J. Elbrich, Jr., Environmental and Special Projects Administrator Thcmas L. -Ervin, Environmental Planner, Critical Area Program Manager Robert Caffrey, Planner II, Illustrator W. Jams Torrington, Cartographer/Illustrator Nancy L. Matthews, Biologist/Planner, Author Joni Martinez, Secretarial Staff Susan ten Siethoff, Secretarial Staff Brenda Weeks, Secretarial Staff Anne Arundel Community College Prof. David H. Williams, Biology Department, Consultant Environmental Concern, Inc. Joanna L. Garbisch, Vice-President, permission to use pamphlets Towson State University Dr. Philip D. Creighton, Biology Department, Consultant Dr. Donald C. Forester, Biology Department, Consultant Dr. Richard L. Hilton, Biology Department, Consultant TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i Habitat Assessment Methodology Pre-field 'Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Field Investigations . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Office Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2 Inventory Forms Woodland Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Old Field Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Wetland Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Glossary . . . * * ' ' * ' * * * 37 Field Guides and Equlpr;ent* . . . . . . 40 'References . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . 41 3 Anne Arundel County Species Birds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Mannals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Reptiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Azphibians . . . . o . . . . . . . . . . . 92 References . . . . . . . . . . o o 99 4 Wildlife Plant Food Species Trees . . . . . . . . ;. . . . . . . . . . 100 Shrubs . o . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 106 Vines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Herbaceous Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Marsh and Aquatic Plants . . . . . . . . . 113 5 Miscellaneous Plant Lists Hedgerow Plants for Food and Cover . . . . 115 Winter Fruits and Seeds . . . . . . . . . . 116 Disturbance Indicators . . . . . . . . . . 117 Wetland indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 6 Rare and Endangered Species . . . . . . . . . . 122 7 Shrubs and Trees for Wildlife Habitat . . . . . 125 Developmnt (Envirormental Concern, Inc.) 8 Plants for Landscaping Shore, Ponds and Other Wet Areas (Environmental Concern, Inc.) 132 INTRODUCTION The Chesapeake Bay Critical Area Protection program was passed in 1984 because Of concern about the decline of the Chesapeake Bay. The Chesapeake Bay Critical Area Commission (CAQ was established to develop criteria to guide local jurisdictions in developing programs for their Critical Area (1000' zone around the Bay and its tributaries). The Critical Area Act requires that protection be given to wildlife and plant habitats "which are of particular significance . . . owing to their uniqueness, rarity, or likely diminution in the future, and which are not already protected or addressed by other existing programs." These habitats include: Colonial water bird nesting areas and historic waterfowl staging and concentration areas Riparian forests, i.e., forested areas of 300' in width along streams and the Bay's shoreline Relatively undisturbed, large forest patches (of 100 acres or more) which support breeding populations of forest interior dwelling birds, e.g., vireos, warblers, flycatchers, ut>odpeckers Nontidal wetlands Certain plant and animal commmities which are the best examples of their kind in Maryland Habitats for species that are threatened, endangered, or in need of conservation Other areas determined to be of local significance The purpose of this Habitat Assessment Manual is to aid the user in identifying and evaluating habitat areas including but not limited to those designated by the CAC as ones to be protected. The Manual contains a methodology which is designed to be used as a tool to inventory habitats both within the Critical Area and elsewhere. Evaluation of wildlife habitats will be included in project site reviews of areas scheduled for development. The inventory,and evaluation will be used to determine the minimum areas that must be maintained on a project site. The Habitat Assessment Manual is designed to provide information for both the evaluation and enhancement of wildlife habitats. The assessment methodology and field inventory forms are followed by lists of the County's wildlife species and their habitat requirements. The Manual also contains lists of County plant species and the wildlife that use them as food sources or cover, as well as other plant lists of value to developers, consultants, and property owners. CHAPTERI HABITAT ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY --------------- PRE-FIELD REVIEW FIELD INVESTIGATION OFFICE REVIEW Habitat Assessment Methodology The purpose of the Habitat Assessment Methodology is to provide a means for inventorying habitats in the Critical Area of the County, that is, to determine what types of plant and wildlife habitats exist in the county and which wildlife species are using specific habitats so that measures can be taken to protect the plants and wildlife and their habitats from development impacts. The assessment methodology will become part of the subdivision review process and will enable the County to keep track of what plant and wildlife habitats are being impacted, and possibly lost, due to development. The methodology is threefold: (1) Pre-field 'Review, (2) Field Investigation, (3) Office 'Review. Pre-field 'Review The pre-field review includes reviewing aerial photographs of the site to determine such items as what types of vegetation are expected to be found, sources of water for the area, percent of forest cover, etc. Notes on these findings should be kept with other site information. Appropriate maps, e.g., topographic, land-use, wetland, soils, forest type, rare and endangered species, should be checked and the information transferred to a base map to be used in the field work, for example, a 1"=200' scale topographic map. After the information from several maps has been transferred to the base map, specific areas for the field investigation can be designated, e.g., forested areas, wetlands, or rare and endangered species sites. The following list of information sources should be consulted. Existing treeline aerial photos - developer or Office of Planning and Zoning Floodplains (a) Coastal FEMA 6001 scale maps - Of fice of Planning and Zoning For individual maps call.897-5900 in Bethesda or 1-800-638-6620 (b) Nontidal FEMA 600' scale m aps - office of Planning and Zoning For individual maps call 897-5900 in Bethesda or 1-800-638-6620 Subdivision plats - Office of Planning and Zoning Tax maps Office of Planning and Zoning Maryland Department of Assessments and Taxation Wetlands (a) Tidal 2001 scale maps (photo base) Office of Planning and Zoning Anne Arundel County Courthouse Plat Rom, DNR (b) Nontidal 20001 scale maps (USGS quad base) Available at $23.00 per 15 sheet set fran Planning and Zoning, or $2.00 per sheet (c) Submerged.Aquatic Vegetation As above Bodies of water (a) Permanent 2001 scale topo maps Aerial photos USGS quad sheets (b) Intermittent As above (c) Tidal limit Wetlands maps as referenced earlier Vegetation (d) Mean high water line Field topo. Tide tables, East Coast of North & South America, NOS Aquatic habitat (a) Spawning area Aquatic Sensitive Areas Handbook DNR/Coastal Resources, 1977 DNR/Fisheries Division of Tidewater Administration, 269-3061 (b) Nursery areas As above (c) Shellfish beds DNR/Hydrographic Survey Maps Oyster bars and clam areas, 269-3436 DNR/Fisheries Division As above Soil types Soil Survey of Anne Arundel County Maryland, USDA and SCS, February, 1973 Borings by developer Steep slopes Topo maps, shaded if greater than 15% Upland Natural Areas Boundary 1" = 1 mile scale map Planning and Zoning Carputer printout Planning and Zoning and DNR Area of Critical State Concern Maryland Areas of Critical State Concern: Designation Report Maryland Department of State Planning, January 1981 Chesapeake Bay Critical Area (10001) Planning and Zoning Rare or endangered species habitat DNR/Natural Heritage and Environmental Review, 269-3656 Field Investigations The field investigation is an overall reconnaissance of the site for both inventorying purposes and project site review. Following this narrative are standard forms that can be used for doing site evaluations. Determining how many inventories to do per site is dependent upon the information collected in the office review. Typical areas, e.g., large forested areas and old fields, should be evaluated to get a general idea of the habitats at the site. Specific areas, such as wetlands or rare and endangered species locations, should be evaluated. Transition areas, e.g., along waterways or between fields and wxx)dlands, should be examined because they are often areas of great habitat diversity due to the fact they have some qualities of two habitat types. There are three sets of field sheets to use when doing an inventory of a site: Woodland, Old Field, and Wetland Site inventory forms. The Woodland Site Inventory is applicable for forested sites, even if the site is not completely forested. The Old Field Site Inventory is applicable not only to idle or abandoned fields, but also to utility right-of-ways and pastureland. Wetland Site Inventory forms are used in conjunction with either of the other two if necessary, or by themselves. The field sheets for all types of sites are designed to be filled out as the reviewer "walks through" the area (after the pre-field review has been done.) Many of the questions asked are for estimates only; others are to be answered in more detail. It is important that separate forms be filled out for each different-ccmmmity. Office Review The next step is a review of all the information gathered during the pre-field review and field investigations. The final task is to write an evaluation and narrative of the site, which should include the following information: 1. Rare and endangered plants, giving scientific and cammn name. 2. Rare and endangered animals, giving scientific and common name. 3. Description and extent of vegetation within the Critical Area boundary. Specify the vegetative communities present on the site and give their areas. Examples include: mature woodland, immture woodland, old field, pasture, cropland, orchard, and wetland. For each camiunity, please describe the vegetation in the following.manner: a) Canopy (highest layer of trees) i) Ccmmn species present, indicating approximate percentage of total, ii) Diameter at breast height give general range for each species listed, b) Understory (immature trees below canopy) i) Ccn=n species present, indicating approximate percentage of total, c) Shrub layer (woody plants below trees) i) Common species present, indicating approximate percentage of total, d) Herbaceous layer (non-woody plants below shrubs) i) Common species present, indicating approximate percentage of total. 4. Species of animals observed or expected to be present, based on habitat or other evidence. 5. Infiltration potential for stormwater, based on soil type and depth to ground water. 6. Pollutants expected to be generated by development and measures that will be taken to reduce their impact. 7. Proposed stormwater management plan to minimize degradation of water quality. 8. Shoreline condition and any proposed work at or beyond the natural shoreline. 9. Dates of field work. The purpose of this example is to explain the steps involved in doing a habitat assessment and applying the information to the subdivision process. Pages 8 through 10 show the type of information gathered during the Pre-Field Review. Notes can be made both on the topographic map and separately so the reviewer can start planning areas to inventory. The existing treeline indicates there are forested and nonforested areas; the intermittent stream indicates there ray be nontidal wetlands. Pages 11 through 20 are conpleted sets of field sheets and provide the bulk of the information gatbered during the Field Investigation. The following pages (21-24) are additional tables and notes compiled from the site visit. The Office Review is the beginning of the most difficult part of the assessment. First, generalized notes can be made indicting sensitive areas of the site or areas with building constraints (e.g., steep slopes). A sketch map (page 26) showing the sensitive areas can be drawn and buildable sections delineated. The final step, not shown in this example, is the completed assessmnt report and actual proposed development. in 690 145.0 159.0 /Za. 0 Pre-getj Revie'o SOILS Z 0.44.j [email protected] tow [email protected]" con 0.0.0m AA44AA.. -D z S( ITOJA ~0 W~qC~0qOD~qL~0qA~0qM SITEn~q;VEN~qI~qN~6qM SITE: OBSERVERS: P~8qR~8qOJE~2qCr NAME: S~qUBD I P~2qR~6qW~0qB~0q= N~6qU~2qKBER: ~q7~2q%~8qX ~6qM~8qP BLOM (S) ~2qP~8qA~8qF~2qC~2qM (S) 1. ~4q= overstory trees~,~.~q1ndicate ~8qM ~8qrost abundant ~qi~qipecies: ~6qy~0qr J~2q4 %at ~8qT~4qI V~0qA~4q&~qj6~I~- ~8qV~6qA~6qA~.~. ~2qw~0qe~0qa~q4~8qL~. ~6qO~6qV~-~q1~qc~.~q. ~8q4~2qU~6qL~0qf ~4q*~-~6qa~8qi~qs~6qs~' 0~2q"~q.~.~. 2. Approximate percent closed canopy (circle one) 10 - 39% closure 40 - 69% closure ~q0~.- 9% closure 3. Average diameter at breast height (4.5~1) of ~8qoverstory trees representative of the diversity (in inches) 4. Percent of ov~8qerstory trees in hard mast (i.e. oak, hickory, walnut, beech) . a ~6q9 ~4q%~qI~v ~q5. Percent of overstory trees in soft mast (ie. pines,, sweet gum, maple, tulip, black g~8qm) it) ~19~6q0 6. Percent of overst~0qory non-deciduous trees (i.e. pines, hollies, cedars). 7. Trees with cavities present (circle one) No 8. Standing dead wood (snags) or partially dead trees present (circle one) . NO DR ~qx~6qW ~8qS~2q: [email protected]~q(~6qS~ql ~0 9. Abundance of understory vegetation - high shrubs to tree growth of shade tolerant species (circle one). none sparse dense ~q10. List understory trees ~q(* most abundant species): j~4qa ~4qC~aAX ~4qS ~2qS 11. Estimate percent of understory non-deciduous trees. 12. Shrub layer species woody vegetation <6~' high (circle me). a. wide variety of species, LIST: ~q(~qI~qr~8qw three species daminate, IL~qTST: ~8qW~q'[email protected]~4qQ~0qz~6qw c. two species dminate, LIST: d. one species daninates: 13. Herbaceous layer - non-woody vegetation <3~1 high (c~qi~4qr~4qcl one) . a. grasses, sedges, and rushes d~qc~4qminate ~4q4~0q0 b. wide variety of grasses, sedges, rushes, and for~4qbs (broad-leaved herbaceous plants) , LIST: ~2qC~2q"~0qs~, grasses and for~6qbs daminate, LIST: ~P~qV~2qM~6qA~q4~.~8qf 14. Small animal dens (i.e. ~qi~qr~4qouse, snake) si~2qghted~0q<~6q5~8q) NO 15. Large animal dens (i.e. rabbit, fox) sighted. No 16~0 Bird or squirrel nests sighted. No 17. Animal trails (i.e. deer) sighted. No 18. Type of ground litter (circle one): a. bare ground, no litter b. mostly leaf litter thick leaf litter with <25% logs and sticks Of d. thick leaf litter with 25 ~2q-50% logs and sticks ~0 19. Texture of soil (circle one) a. sandy ~8qC. silty b loamy d. clayey 20. Soil ~8qv~4qoisture (circle one) ~2qG~8q? dry c. saturated (little or no surface water) b . ~qi~4qmist d. inundated (surface water present) 21. Birds, m~4qm~0qm~0qals, reptiles, and ~8qm~4qphibians sighted. ~2q6~2q0~8qr~q. ~6q4~j~4qu~4qA~8qV~2q"~q-~q-~-~- ~2qk~2qL~4qa.~q4A ~4qw~6q4~0qL~0qI~8q" 22. Miscellaneous ca~4qm~0qents (i.e. unique features, unique vegetation,, transition zones, etc.) ~0 CM F~qI~6qM SITEn~6qWEN~0qM~qRY SITE: DATE: CB~6qSE~2qRVERS: P~6qR~0qW~6q= NAME: SUBDI~2q=VISICN P~qR~2qD~qJB~qCT NUMBER: TAX MANS~q): ~qB~2q= (S) PAR~qC~6qM (S) ~q1 Dominant seral stage (developmental stage) of the cammxmity (circle me) a . native annuals b. perennials, annual grasses, forbs (broad-leaved herbaceous plants) herbaceous perennials, few annuals, up to 5% woody vegetation d. 25~q-50% briars, shrubs, small trees e. 51~q-75% woody f. >75% woody g. introduced species (~4qm~qonoculture) 2. Arrangement of plant su~0qb~2q=~0qm~0qm~4qmties; or seral stages (circle one) . I a. uniform - physically distinct ~0qc~c~qm~qmnities, no intrusion of one into another b. moderately uniform scattered - difficult to distinguish separat~qi~00qe communities, much intrusions of one into another 3. EstiT~00qmte n~04qCer of herbaceous species. List the common species. ~q,~6qC~q.~qe ~6q(~68qC~60q> ~24qV~16qO~20qW~24qM ~28qO~qL ~0 4. Estimate number ~2qof~'woody species. List the cam~2qan species. So ~y ~qb~l~8qu~qs 5. Percent of ground surface covered by vegetation >1 I high. ~8qS~q7 ~4q% 6. Height of da~qninant herbaceous vegetation ( in incbes) . If. ~4qZ~2qj~q:~qj 7. Ground dens present. (Circle one) . Yes Me- ~6qk~0qe~-~q#~,~qJ~8qL ~q$~4q4~6q4 ~qB. Texture of soil: ~8q0 sandy ~4qC. silty b. loamy d. clayey 9. Factors affecting soil moisture (circle one): a. recent rainfall( date: I b. drought conditions c. prox~qimity to water bodies 10,11,12. External edge is defined as a transition zone. if t~8qhe interface between two habitat types has no transition zone, do not evaluate characteristics 10~,~, 11, 12. 10. External edge between habitats (circle one): a. scarcely vegetated ~2qO~.~0qQ~4qA4~6qA~O~0qO ~qV~qA~-~0qC~qF~q1~q% [email protected]~4qs ~8qQ~qt~-~-~4qt~4qu ~0q" b. moderately vegetated ~0qW~-~0qf~0qt c. densely vegetated 11. Shape of external edge between habitat types (circle one): a. straight b. slightly irregular c. highly irregular 12. Average width (in feet of external edge between habitat types. ~0 13. If managed, what is the species composition (circle one) a. grass b. 50% grass, 50% legume (bean, pea, or related plant bearing pods that split in two when mature) c. legume 14. Management (circle one): no manage~qn~0qent b. mowed regularly c. mowed annually d. lightly grazed pastureland e. moderately grazed pastureland f. severely grazed past~qureland 15. Birds, mammals, reptiles, and ~8qm~0qphibians sighted. ~4qC~6qM~0qA~8q^[email protected] 16. Miscellaneous comments (unique features, unique vegetation, etc.) ~4qS~8q1~qA~-~2qt~2q*~8qASS ~qt~4q&~0qV~% ~6qKA~8q" a~,[email protected] 6~q4~84q, ~0 ~qV~0qW~qr~6qL~qA~0qM ~0qS~0qr~qr~0qE ~0qn~qq~2qV~qE~6qNT~0qO~6qW SITE: DATE: OBSERVERS:. PRD~0qJ~6qE~6qCr NAME: SUBDIVISI P~2qR~0qW~0q= NUMBER:, TAX MANS)~: BLOM (S) PAR=, (S) 1. National Wetland Inventory quadrangle name and rapping unit (e.g., Deale quad, P~6qFo~ql~2qA~q) quad unit PF~0qQ ~6qi A 2. Soil survey sheet number and rapping unit (e.g., 17, ~8qR~quB2) rap ~q# unit C~6qa ~2qB -2~q. ~2qC~0qo~4qb~q-~4qZ I ~2qK~0q4 3. Wetland system (based on Cowardin, circle one): a. estuarine - tidal habitats and adjacent tidal wetlands b. riv~2qer~2qu~qie - ~4qw~8qetlarx~qis and deepwater habitats within a channel palustrine - nontidal wetlands, e.g., marsh, sw~u~4qm~0qp, bog 4. Wetland subsystem (circle one): a. tidal - water flow is 'under tidal influence b. perennial - no tidal influence, s~04qm~qv~q-~q- water flows throug~36qbout the year ~96q0 intermittent - nontidal, wate r flows only part of the year ~0 5. List oversto~2qry trees present, indicat most abundant species: [email protected]~2q"c~4qr~8qm~qo~-~- ~q4~qF~-~qt~2qd~q% ~qi6~qv~8q3 &A.- ~1~q5~q4~q1 ~6q~ I ~0qS~6qW~2qW~-~q*~'~q%~%~2qr ~6qW~2qC~-~4~-~q4~0~4qL ~0qf~0qt~8qu~4qh~q. ~0q* [email protected][email protected]~2qW~2qx ~O~6qv~qe~6qa~.~,~q% 6. List understory trees presents, indicate ~8qM ~8qf~8qf~8qost abundant species: ~q'k~8q%~8qV~0qU~0qM~qO~8qO~qA~8qJ ~0~ ~2q4 Ail ~4qW~q-~2q&~8qf LA.. 7. Shrub layer species - woody vegetation <6~' high (circle one): a. wide variety of species, LIST: ~8qS~2qw~8qt~qj~qL~2q+ ~2qf~0qc~8qf~4qr~'~8q" ~0q0 three species dominate, LIST: c. two species dominate, LIST: ~1p~~.AA ~0q&~8qW ~2qW~4q" d. one species dominates: 8. Herbaceous layer - nonwoody vegetation <3~' high (circle one) a. grasses, sedges, and rushes dominate ~4qS b. wide variety of grasses, sedges, rushes, and fo~qibs ~6qQ~8qroad~q-leav~4qed herbaceous plants) , LIST: ~2qs~6qu~6qk~0qs~'~ql ~q4~q1~"~4qVe c. grasses and forbs dominate,* LIST: ~6qS~6q6~q'~qJ6~1~qA~4qI 9. Wetland indicators when water is absent (circle all app~qr~qo~6qpr~qi~at water stains on tree trunks b. thin layer of se~4qd~8qmment on leaf litter deposited by flooding c. absence of herbaceous (and possibly shrub) layer d. water stained (gray to black) leaves in the ground cover e. swollen tree trunks at the bases (buttresses) ~2q0 ~04qwss/sedge hu~6qa~qr~6qocks (small elevated areas) g.~q' exposed tree roots h. patches of s~76qphagnum ~0qr~04qmss present 10. Position in the landscape (e.g. depression, swale, ditch, etc.) ~64q5~72qu~48qn~2qt~40q4 ~4qJ~64qY~48qc~52q*~q,~28q%~20q& ~92qc~68qk~56qa~q-4~qo~44qt ~48qP~0qj~52q&~56qL 11. Is there an organic layer Ii.e. peat) present on the soil surface? If so, how deep is it (in inches)? It S ev 4-(v 11 12. Soil profile information (circle appropriate letter in each column) . HoRizaN THICKNESS COLOR Tmam a. 0-5" gray a. sandy 05-10- b. gray,, mottled (IDsilty A 7% SOIL c. >10" c. vastly mottled c. clayey d. yellowish brown with sare mottles B SUBSOIL a. gray sandy I:V gray. mottled silty c. mostly mottled clayey d. yellowish brown with scme mottles C PAMW MATERJAL 13. Drainage class (see illustration, circle one) a. well-drained b. moderately well-drained scnewhat poorly drained d. poorly drained e. very poorly drained Moderately Somewhat Poorly Drain-ad Very HORIZON Well Drained Well Drained Poorly Drained Poorly Drained A -------------- 00" .10 mottles - irregular spots of different size and color indicative-of poor drainage greying - chemical reduction of anaerobic soils resulting in gray-green coloration The A horizon thickens as the soil has poorer drainage. N=: The proportions of the profiles are relative, not exact. CL KAS [email protected] s LAA-AA M 4 Lzvj %[email protected] SUJA.-- FtrwLkrk 6-PLA nout. C.&A. W(L-DLtFE:, ou Lu u WV4 4tAAAAL 04AIL - tTk MAAA sej&.%@aa, SC&MOur @Ak - Wr-C JUA - Lhkk VV..LZ 43 AN t:@ zz t [email protected] OW A 10*".4 Ll r%-.os IVI -*W" [email protected] r-TV at T)4 LT srwcv-" -Wsvo)s -F"S" [email protected]@ now S-Twam tworl. S-A I M5.0 ol 00 00 Aea. 0 IS, CHAPTER 2. INVENTORY FORMS WLTLAM SWE INVEMW srrE: DATE: OBSERVUS: AERIAL PWM PROJWr NAM SUBMISMU NEMER; TAX MAP (S) : MOMS) - pf 1. Natlonal Wetland InVentOry Tiadr-gle r 'i Deale quad, PFOLA) quad Chp unit 4P?b 2. Soil survey sheet nurber ard map unit -'00 to A0 pe "Vill, to % 3. Wetlard system (based 40 ego a. esttm im - tie 0 011-v b. riverine - vp [email protected] OCL S c. palustrine or 4. Wetlarxi subs, t1w [email protected] 2 [email protected]; [email protected] [email protected] a 0 [email protected], 0-10 b. pe7 the y, q V or > C. 0. 44 f4. 41. e. 10 A".t jb Ab pp WOODLAND SITE INVENTORY SITE: DATE: OBSERVERS: AERIAL PHOTO PROi= MM: SMDraS:ECN NUMER: PRO= NUMER: TAX MAP(S): BLOCK (S) PARCEL (S) 1. List overstory trees, indicate (*) most abundant species: 2: Approximate percent closed canopy (circle one): 70% + closure 10 - 39% closure 40 - 69% closure 0 - 9% closure 3. Average dianeter at breast height (4.59 of overstory trees representative of the diversity (in inches). 4. Percent of overstory trees 3-n hard mist (i.e. oak, hickory, walnut, beech) . 5. Percent of overstory trees in soft niast (i.e. pines, sweet gum, mple, tulip,-black gum). 6. Percent of overstory non-deciduous trees (i.e. pines, hollies, cedars). 7. Trees with cavities present (circle one). Yes No 8. Standing dead wood (snags) or partially dead trees present (circle one). Yes No 9. Abundance of understory vegetation - high shrubs to tree growth of shade tolerant species (circle one). none moderately abundant sparse dense 10. List understory trees (* most abundant species): 11. Estimate percent of understory non-deciduous trees. 12. Shrub layer species - woody vegetation <6' high (circle one). a. wide variety of species, LIST: b. three species daminate, LIST: c. two species dominate, LIST: d. one species dominates: 13. Herbaceous layer - non-doody vegetation <3' high (circle one). a. grasses, sedges, and rushes dcminate b. wide variety of grasses, sedges, rushes, and forbs; (broad-leaved herbaceous plants), LIST: c. grasses and forbs dcminate, LIST: 14. Small animal dens (i.e. mouse, snake) sighted. Yes No 15. large animal dens (i.e. rabbit, fox) sighted. Yes No 16. Bird or squirrel nests sighted. Yes WO 17. Anjiml trails (i.e. deer) sighted. Yes No 18. Type of ground litter (circle one): a. bare ground, no litter b. nostly leaf litter c. thick leaf litter with <25% logs and sticks d.* thick leaf litter with 25 -50% logs and sticks 19. Texture of soil (circle one): a. sandy C. silty b. loamy d. clayey 20. Soil moisture (circle one) a. dry c. saturated (little or no surface water) b. moist d. inundated (surface water present) 21. Birds, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians sighted. 22. Miscellaneous ccmnents (i.e. unique features, unique vegetation, transition zones, etc.) OLD FIET SITE INVENTORY SITE: DATE: OBSERVERS: AERIAL PHOTO FRD= NAME: SUBDIVISION NUMBER: PRO= NUMBER: TAX MAP(S): BLOM (S) PARCEL(S): I Donunant seral stage (developrental stage) of the ccmmxmity (circle me) a . native annuals b. perennials, annual grasses, forbs (broad-leaved herbaceous plants) c. herbaceous perennials, few annuals, ilp to 5% wt)ody vegetation d. 25-50% briars, shrubs, small trees e. 51-75%'wDody f. >75% woody g. introduced species (=x=lture) 2. Arrangement of plant subccuummities or seral stages (circle one) . a. uniform - physically distinct ccmmunities, no intrusion of one into another b. moderately uniform. c. scattered - difficult to distinguish separate cammnities, rmch intrusions of one into another 3. Estimate number of herbaceous species. List the common species. 4. Estimate number of woody species. List the cammn species. 5. Percent of ground surface covered by vegetation >1' high. 6. Height of daninant herbaceous vegetation ( in inches). 7. Ground dens present. (Circle one). Yes No 8. Texture of soil: a. sandy C. silty b. loamy d. clayey 9. Factors affecting soil wisture (circle one): a. recent rainfall( date: b. drought conditions C. proximity to water -bodies 10,11,12. External edge is defined as a transition zone. If the interface between two habitat types has no transition zone, do not evaluate characteristics 10, 11, 12. 10. External edge between habitats (circle one): a. scarcely vegetated b. moderately vegetated c. densely vegetated 11. Shape of external edge between habitat types (circle one): a. straight b. slightly irregular c. highly irregular 12. Average width (in feet of external edge between habitat types. 13. If managed, what is the-species composition (circle one): a. grass b. 50% grass, 50% legume (bean, pea, or related plant bearing pods that split in two when mature) c. legume 14. Management (circle one): a. no managemnt b. mowed regularly c. mowed annually d. lightly grazed pastureland e. moderately grazed pastureland f. severely grazed pastureland 15. Birds, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians sighted. 16. Miscellaneous [email protected] (unique features, unique vegetation, etc.) IAND S= INVENTORY SrTE: DATE: OBSERVERS: AERIAL PHOTO P`R0= NAME: SUBDIVISION NLI43ER: PRa= NUMBER: TAX MAP (S) BLOCK (S) PAPCEL(S): 1. National Wetland Inventory quadrangle name and mapping unit (e.g., Deale quad, PFolA) quad unit, 2. Soil survey sheet number and mapping unit (e.g., 17, RuB2) map unit 3. Wetland system (based on Cowardin, circle one): a. estuarine - tidal habitats and adjacent tidal wetlands b. riverine - wetlands and deepwater habitats within a channel c. palustrine - nontidal wetlands, e.g., marsh, swmp, bog 4. Wetland.subsystem (circle one): a. tidal - water flow is under tidal influence b. perennial - no tidal influence, some water flows throughout the year c. intermittent - nontidal, water flows only part of the year 5. List overstory trees present, indicate M most abundant species: 6. List understory trees present, indicate N most abundant species: 7. Shrub layer species - woody vegetation <6' high (circle one): a. wide variety of species, LIST: b. three species dcminate, LIST: c. two species dominate, LIST: d. one species dominates: 8. Herbaceous layer - nonwoody vegetation <3' high (circle me) a. grasses, sedges, and rushes dominate b. wide variety of grasses, sedges, rushes, and forbs (broad-leaved herbaceous plants), LIST: c. grasses and forbs dominate, LIST: 9. Wetland indicators when water is absent (circle all appropriate): a. water stains on tree trunks b. thin layer of sedirent on leaf litter deposited by flooding c. absence of herbaceous (and possibly shrub) layer d. water stained (gray to black) leaves in the ground cover e. swollen tree trunks at the bases (buttresses) f. moss/sedge hummocks (small elevated areas) g. exposed tree roots h. patches of sphagnum moss present 10. Position in the landscape (e.g. depression, swale, ditch, etc.) 11. Is there an organic layer (i.e. peat) present on the soil surface? If so, how deep is it (in inches)? 12. Soil profile information (circle appropriate letter in each column). HORIZON THICKNESS COIDR TEXTURE a. 0-5" a. gray a. sandy b. 5-10" b. gray, mottled b. silty A TOP SOIL c. >10" c. mostly mottled c. clayey d. yellowish brown with some mottles B SUBSOIL a. gray a. sandy b. (gray, mottled b. silty c. mostly mottled c. clayey d. yellowish brawn with sane mottles C PAIUM MATERIAL 13. Drainage class (see illustration, circle one): a. well-drained b. moderately well-drained c. som-vAiat poorly drained d. poorly drained e. very poorly drained Moderately Somewhat Poorly Drained Very HORIZON Wolf Drained Well Drained Poorly Drained Poorly Drained mottles irregular spots of different size and color indicative of poor drainage greying - chemical reduction of anaerobic soils resulting in gray-qreen coloration The A horizon thickens as the soil has poorer drainage. NOTE: The proportions of the profiles are relative, not exact. GLOSSAW Buffer - in the Critical Area a T.FeMeni'm naturally vegetated area or vegetated area established or managed to protect aquatic, wetiand, shoreline and terrestrial environments fran man-imde disturbances. Colonial nesting water birds - herons, egrets, tems, and glossy ibis. For purposes of nesting, these birds congregate (that is "colonize") in relatively few areas, at which ti.1re, the regional populations of these species are highly susceptible to local disturbances. Documented breeding bird areas - forested areas where the occurrence of interior dwelling birds, during the breeding season, has been demonstrated as a result of onsite surveys using standard biological survey techniques. Endangered species - species of fish, plants, or wildlife which have been designated as such-by regulation by the Secretary of Department of Natural Resources or the U.S. Department of the Tnterior. This designation implies the continued existence of these species as part of the State's or nation's resources is in jeopardy. Forest - a biological cmmunity damnated by trees and other woody plants covering a land area of one acre or more. This also includes forests that have been cut, but not cleared. Forest interior dwelling birds - species of birds which require relatively large forested tracts in order to breed successfully (for exmple, various species of flycatchers, warblers, vireos, and woodpeckers) . Habitat Protection Area - areas of State and local significance as identified using the Habitat Assessment Methodology found in the Habitat Assessment Manual. These areas include: - Buffers - Nontidal wetlands - Habitats of threatened, and endangered species, and species in need of conservation - Anadramous fish propagation waters - Plant and wildlife habitats, including * Colonial water bird nesting sites * Historic waterfowl staging and concentration areas * Riparian forests (of 300' or more in width) * Large forested areas (100 acres or more) * Natural Heritage Areas * Plant and wildlife habitats of local significance IZIMA IV Nil .. W_ * Areas identified in the future as one of the above Historic waterfowl staging and concentration area - an area of open water and adjacent marshes wtiere waterfowl gather during migration and throuc;hout the winter season. These areas are "historic" in the sense that their location is camion knowledge and because these areas have been used regularly during recent times. Hydric soil - soil that in its undrained condition is saturated, flooded, or ponded long enough during the growing season to develop anaerobic conditions that favor the growth and regeneration of hydrophytic vegetation. Hydrophytic vegetation - those plants cited in "Vascular Plant Species Occurring in Maryland Wetlands" (Dawson, F. et al., 1985) which are described as growing in water or on a substrate that is at least periodically deficient in oxygen as a result of excessive water content (plants typically found in water habitats). -Mean High Water Line - the average level of high tides at a given location. Natural Heritage Area - any ccuumity of plants or animals which are considered to be among the best Statewide examples of their kind, and are designated by regulation by the Secretary of the Department of Natural 'Resources. Natural vegetation - those plant cammities that develop in the absence of human activities. Nature-dcminated - a condition where landforms or biological ccmmmities, or both have developed by natural processes in the absence of human intervention. Natural features - cariponents and processes present or produced by nature, including but not limited to, soil types, geology, slopes, vegetation, surface water, drainage patters, aquifers, recharge areas, climate, floodplains, aquatic life, and wildlife. Riparian habitat - a habitat that is strongly influenced by water and which occurs adjacent to streams, shorelines, and wetlands. Species in need of conservation - species of fish, plant, or wildlife whose continued existence as part of the State's resources is questionable and which may be designated by regulation by the Secretary of the Department of Natural 'Resources as in need of conservation. Steep slopes - slopes of 15% or greater incline. ..0 30' MS1 [email protected] 100 9D 60 .0 200 60 Threatened species - those species of fish, plant, or wildlife so designated by the Department of Natural Resources as appearing lUkely to beccme endangered within the foreseeable future. Tribut,ary stremns - those perennial and intermittent streams in the Critical Area in the County that a so noted on the most recent U.S. Geological Survey 7 1/2 minute topographic quadrangle maps (Scale 1:24,000) or on more detailed naps or studies at the discretion of the Office of Planning and Zoning. Waterfowl - birds which frequent and often sw3n in water, nest and raise their young near water, and derive at least part of their food frcm aquatic plants and aninials. Wetlands - lands transitional between terrestrial and aquatic system where the water table is usually at or near the surface or the land is covered by shallow water. For purposes of this classification wetlands nust have two or more of the following three attributes: l)-at least periodically, the land supports predauinantly hydrophytic vegetation in one or more of the vegetative layers present on the site; 2) the substrate is predaninantly hydric Poil; and 3) the substrate is nonsoil and is saturated with water or covered by shallow water at same time during the growing season of each year. TERRESTRIAL SYSTEM AOUATIC SYSTEM WETLAND HIGH WATER LOW WATER Wildlife corridor - a strip of land having vegetation that provides habitat and a safe passageway for wildlife. EQUIPMENT Carpass Diameter at Breast Height Tape Binoculars Clipboard, paper, and pencils Field - Guides Field Fonns SUGGESTED FIE GUIDES Birds Robbins, C.S. et.al. 1966. Birds in North America. New Jersey: Golden Press. [email protected]/hmphibians Behler, J.L. and F.W. King. 1985. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. New York: Alfred A. Knopf . Trees Brown, R.G. and M.L. Brown. 1972. Woody Plants of Maryland. College Park, MD. Wetland Plants Fassett, N.C. 1975. A Manual of Aquatic Plants. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Animal Tracks Headstrcrn, R. 1971. Identifying Animal Tracks. New York: Dover Publications, Inc. Wildflowers Peterson, R.T. and M. McKenny. 1968. A Field guide to Wildflowers of Northeastern and Northcentral North America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Ccnipany. HABITAT ASSESSMENr Anne Arundel County Critical Areas Advisory Committee. ReccmTended Areas of Critical State Concern in Anne Arundel Cc;FrTt-y. 1978. Avery, T.E. Interpretation of Aerial Photographs. Minneapolis, Burgess Publishing Co. 1982. Baskett, T.S. et al. A Handbook for Terrestrial Habitat Evaluation in Central Missouri.. Washington, D.C. USFWS, Res. Pub. 133. 1980. Cowardin, L. M et al. Classification of Wetlands and [email protected]@ter Habitats of the United States. Washington, D. C.: USFEW/OBS - 79731. 1979. Cox, G.W. Laboratory Manual of General Ecology. Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Co. Publishers. 1980. de Vos, A. and H.S. - Mosby. -Evaluation of Habitat" in Wildlife Investigation Techniques.. (H. S. Mosby, ed.) pp. 52-88. Am Arbor: The Wildlife Society. 1963. Ellis, J. A. et al. Results of Testing Four Methods of Habitat Evaluation. Columbia University of Missouri, 1978. Flood, B.S. et al. A Handbook for Habitat Evaluation Procedures. Washington, D. C.:USFWS Res. Pub. 132. 1977. Hays, R. L., C. Summers, and W. Seitz. EstimtMig Wildlife Habitat Variables. Washington, D.C. USFWSICBS - 81/47. 1981. Kusher, J.A. Our National Wetland Heritage: A Protection Guidebook.- Washington, D.C.:The Environment Law Institute 1983. Maryland Department of Natural Resources: Coastal Zone Manageapent Prograrn. Maryland Upland Natural Areas Study: Field Notebook, Western Shore. 1976. Maryland Department of Natural Resources- Forest, Park, and Wildlife Service. Environmental Sensitivity Index Atlas of Maryland. 1983. Maryland Department of Natural Resources: Tidewater Administration. Survey and Inventory of Anadromous Fish Spawning Areas. 1980. Maryland Department of Natural Resources: Tidewater Administration/Coastal 'Resources Division. Introduction to Wetlands Identification and Classification. 1986. Maryland Department of State Planning, CA=pendium. of Natural Features Information. HUD Project No. P-1013-500. Baltimre. 1975. maryland Department of State Planning. Areas of Critical State Concern: Designation Report. 1981. Powell, D. S. and N.P. Kingsley. The Forest Resources of Maryland. Forest Service Resource Bulletin NE-61. Broamhall, PA: USDA Forest Service. 1980. Sheffield, P. R. Multiresource Inventorie5: Techniq22s for Evaluating Nongam Bird Habitats. USDA Forest Service Research Paper SE-218. Smith, R. L. Ecology and Field Biology. New York: Harper and Row Publishers. 1980. Smithsonian Institution, Center for Natural Areas. Natural Areas of the Chesapeake Bay Region: P=122ical Priorities. 1974. Stanford, J.A. Land-use and Wildlife Habitat Analysis in Missouri. Missouri Departnent of Conservation. 1980. Whitaker, G.A., E.P. Roach, and R. H. McCuen. Inventorying Habitats and [email protected] Their Value for Wildlife Species. US Fish and Wildlife Service Conference, October 24-27, 1970. CHAPTER 3 ANNE ARUNDEL COUNTY SPECIES BIRDS EPTILES fly AMPHIBIANS MAMMALS BIRDS' oa BIRDS Great Blue Heron Ardea herodias Green Heron Butorides virescens Little Blue Heron Egretta daerulea Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis Snowy Egret Egretta thu la Tea t Bittern Ixobrychus exilis Canada Goose Branta canadensis Mallard Anas platyrhynchos American Black Duck Anas rubripes Blue-winged Teal Anas discors Wood Duck Aix sponsa Common Merganser Mergus merganser Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura Black Vulture Coragyps atratus Cooper's Hawk Accipiter cooperii Red-tailed Hawk Buteo jamaicensis Red-shouldered Hawk Buteo lineatus Broad-winged Hawk Buteo platypterus Bald Eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus Osprey Pandion haliaetus Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus American Kestrel Falco sparverius Common Bobwhite Colinus virginianus King Rail Rallus elegans Clapper Rail Rallus longirostris Virginia 'Rail Rallus limicola, Killdeer Charadrius vociferus Spotted Sandpiper Actitis macularia American Woodcock Philohela minor Least Tern Sterna albifrons Rock Dave Columba livia Mourining Dove Zenaidura macroura Yellow-billed Cuckoo Coccyzus americanus Barn Owl Tyto alba Common Screech Owl Otus asio Great Horned Owl Bubo virginianus Barred Owl Strix varia Chuck-will's-widow Caprimulgus carolinensis Whip-poor-will Caprimulgus vociferus Common Nighthawk Chordeiles minor Chimney Swift Chaetura pelagica Ruby-throated Hummingbird Archilochus colubris Belted Kingfisher Ceryle alcyon Common Flicker Colaptes auratus Pileated. Woodpecker Dryocopus pileatus Red-bellied Woodpecker Melanerpes carolinus Red-headed Woodpecker Melanerpes erythrocephalus Hairy Woodpecker Picoides villosus Downy Woodpecker Picoides pubescens BIRDS (cont.) Eastern Kingbird Tyrarums tyrannus Great Crested Flycatcher Myiarchus crinitus Eastern Phoebe Sayornis Phoebe Acadian Flycatcher Empidonax virescens Willow Flycatcher Empidonax traillii Eastern Pewee Contopus virens Horned Lark Eremophila alpestris Tree Swallow Iridoprocne bicolor Bank Swallow Riparia riparia Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx ruficollis Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica Cliff Swallow Petrochelidon pyrrhonata. Purple Martin Progne subis Blue Jay Cyanocitta cristata American Crow Corvus- brachyrhynchos Fish Crow Corvus ossiflagus Carolina Chickadee Parus carolinensis Tufted Titmouse Parus bicolor White-breated Nuthatch Sitta carolinensis Brown-headed Nuthatch Sitta. pusilla Brown Creeper Certhia familiaris House Wren Troglodytes aedon Carolina Wren Thryothorus ludovicianus Marsh Wren Telmatodytes palustris Northern Mockingbird Mimus polyglottis Gray Catbird Dumetella carolinensis Brown Thrasher Toxostoma rufum American 'Robin Turdus migratorius Wood Thrush Hylocichla mustelina Eastern Bluebird Sialia sialis Blue-gray Gnatcatcher Polioptila. caerulea Cedar Waxwing Bambycilla cedrorum European Starling Sturnus vulgaris White-eyed Vireo Vireo griseus Yellow-throated Viero, Vireo flavifrons 'Red-eyed Vireo Vireo olivaceus Black-and-white Warbler Mniotilta. varia Prothonotary Warbler Protonotaria citrea Worm-eating Warbler Helmitheros vermivorus Blue-winged Warbler Vermivora pinus Northern Parula. Warbler Parula americana. Yellow Warbler Dendroica petechia Yellow-rumped Warbler Dendroica coronata Yellow-throated Warbler Dendroica dominica Pine Warbler Dendroica pinus Prairie Warbler Dendroica discolor Ovenbird Seiurus aurocapillus Louisiana Waterthrush Selurus motacilla BIRDS (cont.) Kentucky Warbler Oporonis formosus Common Yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas Yellow-breasted Chat Icteria virens Hooded Warbler Wilsonia citrina American Redstart Setophaga ruticilla House Sparrow Passer domesticus Eastern meadowlark Sturnella magna Red-winged Blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus Orchard Oriole Icterus spurius Northern Oriole Icterus galbu Boat-tailed Grackle Quiscalus major Common Grackle Quiscalus quiscular Brown-headed Cowbird Molthrus ater Scarlet Tanager Pirango olivacea Summer Tanager Piranga rubra Northern Cardinal Cardinalis cardinalis Blue Grosbeak Guiraca coerulea. Indigo Bunting Passerina cyanea House Finch Carpodacus mexicanus American Goldfinch Spinus tristis Dark-eyed Junco Junco hyemalis Rufous-sided Towhee Pipilo erythrophthalmus Grasshopper Sparrow Ammodramus savannarum Seaside Sparrow Ammospiza maritima Chipping Sparrow Spizella passerina Field Sparrow Spizel pusilla White-throated Sparrow Zonotrichia albicollis Song Sparrow Melospiza melodia BUDS Great Blue Heron Ardea herodias HABITAT PREFERENCES lakes , ponds rivers, marshes FOOD PREFERENCES fish mice snakes insects shrews turtles crayfish frogs Green Heron Butorides virescens HABITAT PREFERENCES woods near marshes or open water, swamps, creeks, tidal marshes FOOD PREFERENCES crayfish small fish aquatic insects Little Blue Heron Egretta caerulea HABITAT PREFERENCES freshwater swamps, coastal thickets FOOD PREFERENCES insects insect larvae Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis HABITAT PREFERENCES open fields near livestock, marshes for breeding FOOD REFERENCES insects Snowy Egret Egretta thula HABITAT PREFERENCES salt marshes, ponds, shallow bays FOOD PREFERENCES shrimp small fish Least Bittern Ixobrychus exilis HABITAT PREFERENCES fresh and brackish water marshes, swamps, with dense stands of .cattails FOOD PREFERENCES insects crayfish frogs Canada Goose Branta canadensis HABITAT PREFERENCES shallow water with aquatic vegetation in ponds, estuaries, tidal bays, tidal marshes, agricultural areas adjacent water FOOD PREFERENCES marsh plants spikerush widgeongrass cordgrass sea lettuce Mallard Anas platyrhynchos HABITAT PREFERENCES freshwater marshes, edges of ponds, streams with marsh vegetation FOOD PREFERENCES aquatic beetles caddisfly larvae spikerush beetle larvae wildrice arrowhead dragonfly nymphs pondweed buttonbush damselfly nymphs smartweed acorns mayfly larvae wild celery farm crops stonefly larvae bulrush duckweed American Black Duck Anas rubripes HAB PREFERENCES high ground near marshes,open water; tidal marshes, marsh meadows; inland ponds and streams with aquatic vegetation FOOD PREFERENCES mollusks pondweed widgeongrass crustaceans wildrice arrowhead insects cordgrass eelgrass fish bulrush sedges smartweed spikerush Blue-Winged Teal Anas discors HABITAT PREFERENCES marshes, ponds, shallow lakes, mud flats, wet fields HABITAT PREFERENCES aquatic insects aquatic vegetation Wood Duck Aix sponsa HABITAT PREFERENCES bottcmland hardwood forests with trees large enough to provide nesting cavities and water to provide food; wooded swamps, fresh marshes FOOD PREFERENCES insects burreed sedges spiders smartweed grape crustaceans arrow-arum arrowhead wild rice duckweed beach nuts pondweed wild celery acorns Common Merganser Mergus merganser HABITAT PREFERENCES ponds, wooded rivers FOOD PREFERENCES fish Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura HABITAT PREFERENCES woodland; deciduous forest, upland brush; prefers edges; preferred nest site is a hollow stump or crevice in a rock pile FOOD PREFERENCES carrion Black Vulture Coragyps atratus HABITAT PREFERENCES deciduous forest, wooded margins, crop or pastureland; preferred nest site is a hollow tree stump, broken-off tree trunk or under a log or fallen tree FOOD PREFERENCES carrion Cooper's Hawk Accipiter cooperii HABITAT PREFERENCES deciduous forests with scattered clearings FOOD PREFERENCES rodents small reptiles insects Red-tailed Hawk Buteo jamaicensis HABITAT PREFERENCES deciduous forest and adjacent old fields, marshes, other open areas; 25 acres for breeding FOOD PREFERENCES rodents lizards grasshoppers rabbits small birds beetles snakes frogs 'Red-shouldered Hawk Buteo lineatus HABITAT PREFERENCES wet mixed forests, swamps, floodplains; 250 acres required to sustain a breeding population FOOD PREFERENCES small birds lizards beetles rabbits snakes grasshoppers rodents frogs Broad-winged Hawk Buteo platypterus HABITAT PREFERENCES extensive deciduous forests or mixed forests FOOD PREFERENCES small rodents lizards rabbit small birds snakes insects Bald Eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus HABITAT PREFERENCES tidewater; bays and estuaries; deciduous forest near water FOOD PREFERENCES fish rodents small birds Osprey Pandion haliaetus HABITAT PREFERENCES marshes, tidal water bodies, bays, estuaries, rivers FOOD PREFERENCES fish Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus HABITAT PREFERENCES tidal marshes, bay shores,. open country birds ducks rodents American Kestrel Falco sparverius HABITAT PREFERENCES open country with scattered trees and along forest/field edges; home range averages 350 acres FOOD PREFERENCES insects small birds rodents Common Bobwhite Colinus virginianus HABITAT PREFERENCES farmland, old fields, especially edge areas; hedgerows beetles ragweed grape grasshoppers smartweed blackberry crickets lespedeza ash spiders beggarweed oak snails partridgepea pine centipedes poison ivy dogwood saw bugs sumac corn King Rail Rallus elegans HABITAT PREFERENCES freshwater marshes, brackish marshes FOOD PREFERENCES aquatic insects crayfish small fish crabs mollusks Clapper Rail Rallus longirostris HABITAT PREFERENCES salt and brackish marshes, tidal flats FOOD PREFERENCES shrimp mollusks clam worms crayfish small fish cordgrass crabs aquatic insects Virginia Rail Rallus limicola HABITAT PREFERENCES fresh and brackish marshes FOOD PREFERENCES beetles ants small fish snails grasshoppers wild rice spiders crickets bulrush dragonfly nymphs crustaceans spikerush damselfly nymphs bryozoans Killdeer Charadrius vociferus HABITAT PREFERENCES open sparse areas; pastures, sparsely vegetated agricultural and old fields; golf courses FOOD PREFERENCES beetles ants caterpillars grasshoppers Spatted Sandpiper Actitis macularia HABITAT PREFERENCES near water, wooded and open a as, freshwater FOOD PREFERENCES insects larvae American Woodcock Philohela minor HABITAT PREFERENCES swamps, wood margins, hedgerows, old fields, lowland woods FOOD PREFERENCES earthworms millipedes crustaceans centipedes insects spiders Least Tern Sterna albifrons HABITAT PREFERENCES sandy coastlines, river shorelines FOOD PREFERENCES minnows aquatic invertabrates Rock Dave Columba livia HABITAT PREFERENCES cities, towns, farms; farm yards, old fields FOOD PREFERENCES insects chickweed crabgrass Mourning Dave Zenaidura macroura HABITAT PREFERENCES agricultural areas and adjacent hedgeraws; residential areas, suburbs; farmland, wood lots, orchards FOOD PREFERENCES corn crabgrass ragweed panic grass pokeweed chickweed knotweed pine Yellow-billed Cuckoo Coccyzus americanus HABITAT PREFERENCES second growth woodlands, streamside thickets, hedgerows, scrub areas FOOD PREFERENCES caterpillars grasshoppers Barn Owl Tyto alba HABITAT PREFERENCES agricultural lands or marshes in the vicinity of buildings or other structures FOOD PREFERENCES rodents insects Common Screech Owl Otus asio HABITAT PREFERENCES open deciduous woods, orchards, lake shores; nests in tree cavities and. bird boxes; home range averages 130 acres FOOD PREFERENCES rodents crayfish rabbits frogs rats insect squirrels Great Horned Owl Bubo virginianus HABITAT PREFERENCES pine forests, upland deciduous forests and adjacent agricultural fields, marshes; home range averages 500 acres FOOD PREFERENCES rabbits insects rodents squirrels frogs crayfish Barred Owl Strix varia HABITAT PREFERENCES bottomlands, swamps, moist woods; sametimes oak forests, mixed hardwood - coniferous woods FOOD PREFERENCES rodents squirrels fish rabbits crayfish insects Churck-will's-widow Caprimulgus carolinensis HABITAT PREFERENCES open upland mixed forests, brushy areas, woodland margins FOOD PREFERENCES beetles flies moths flying ants grasshoppers mosquitos Whip-poor-will Caprimulgus vociferus BABITAT PREFERENCES upland deciduous forests near clearings or margins; eggs are laid on the ground among dead leaves FOOD PREFERENCES beetles flies moths flying ants grasshoppers mosquitos Common Nighthawk Chordeiles minor HABITAT PREFERENCES open woodlands or meadows, cities or towns FOOD PREFERENCES mosquitos flying ants Chimney Swift Chaetura pelagica HABITAT PREFERENCES towns, cities; need chimneys or other man-made structures for nesting FOOD PREFERENCES coddisfly wasps beetles mayfly ants cranefly bees Ruby-throated hummingbird Archilochus colubris HABITAT PREFERENCES moist forest, hedgerows, wood margins FOOD PREFERENCES jewelweed morning glory cardinal flower thistle Japanese honeysuckle evening primrose coralberry trumpet creeper black locust Belted Kingfisher Ceryle alcyon HABITAT PREFERENCES margins of streams, ponds, estuaries FOOD PREFERENCES fish crayfish frogs crabs mussels lizards Common Flicker Colaptes auratus HABITAT PREFERENCES rural areas, open woods, scattered trees, edges; old orchards, wood lots FOOD PREFERENCES ants caterpillars dogwood beetles Virginia creeper wild cherry grasshoppers poison ivy crickets hackberry cockroaches blackgum Pileated Woodpecker Dryocopus pileatus HABITAT PREFERENCES extensive forested areas, floodplain, swamp forest; nests in tree cavities; 125 acres contiguous forest needed for breeding FOOD PREFERENCES ants grape Virginia creeper beetles holly sassafras insect larvae blackgum Red-bellied Woodpecker Melanerpes carolinus HABITAT PREFERENCES bottomland woods, swamps, other woodlands; nest in tree cavities; 10-acre minimum needed for breeding population; 270-foot minimum width riparian forest needed for breeding FOOD PREFERENCES beetles oak mulberry ants pine Virginia creeper grasshoppers cherry poison ivy crickets grape bayberry caterpillars hickory' corn Red-headed woodpecker Melanerpes erythrocephalus HABITAT PREFERENCES open deciduous woodlands FOOD PREFERENCES beetles caterpillars cherry ants corn mulberry grasshoppers oak berries Hairy Woodpecker Picoides villosus HABITAT PREFERENCES extensive upland or bottomland forests; 120-foot minimum width riparian forest and 25 acres contiguous forest needed for breeding FOOD PREFERENCES beetles spiders poison ivy beetle larvae millipedes dogwood ants aphids pokewood caterpillars wild cherry Downy Woodpecker Picoides pubescens HABITAT PREFERENCES open woodland, orchards, woodland edges FOOD PREFERENCES ants caterpillars moths spiders adult beetles Poison ivy snails beetle larvae dogwood Eastern Kingbird Tyrannus tyrannus HABITAT PREFERENCES open areas, farms, orchards, hedgerows, often by water FOOD PREFERENCES honeybees grasshoppers sassafras ants flies dogwood beetles wild-cherry Great Crested Flycatcher yiarchus crinitus HABITAT PREFERENCES mature deciduous or mixed deciduous-coniferous woodlands; 100-foot minumum width riparian forest and 10 acreas contiguous forest needed for breeding FOOD PREFERENCES moths caterpillars sassafras beetles grasshoppers Virginia creeper bees crickets flies Eastern Pboebe Sayornis phoebe HABITAT PREFERENCES edge habitats, wood and field margins, usually near water FOOD PREFERENCES bees grasshoppers flies wasps crickets spiders ants moths beetles caterpillars sumac Acadian Flycatcher Empidonax virescens HABITAT PREFERENCES mature deciduous woodlands near water; floodplain and swamp forest; 125 acres contiguous forest needed to maintain a breeding population FOOD PREFERENCES flies mosquitos moths flying ants beetles Willow Flycatcher Empidonax traillii HABITAT PREFERENCES upland pastures, orchards FOOD PREFERENCES flies small moths mosquitos flying ants Eastern Pewee Contopus virens HABITAT PREFERENCES mature deciduous forest,s woodland margins; 25 acres contiguous forest needed to maintain a breeding population FOM PREFERENCES insects Horned Lark Eremophila alpestris HABITAT PREFERENCES cultivated fields, pastures, golf courses, beach areas; habitats with sparse vegetation FOOD PREFERENCES adult beetles grasshoppers smartweed beetle larvae bristlegrass crabgrass caterpillars ragweed sedges Tree Swallow Iridoprocne bicolor HABITAT PREFERENCES open country near water, marshes with standing dead trees flies wasps grasshoppers beetles moths waxmyrtle ants spiders bayberry bees dragonflies Bank Swallow Riparia riparia HABITAT PREFERENCES near water with steep banks, in vicinity of open water - rivers, FOOD PREFERENCES beetles bees dragonflies winged ants flies spiders wasps moths grasshoppers Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx ruficollis HABITAT PREFERENCES near water with steep banks, i.e., ponds, estuaries, rivers FOOD PREFERENCES beetles bees winged ants wasps spiders dragonflies flies moths grasshoppers Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica HABITAT PREFERENCES open country near buildings; common in suburbs FOOD PREFERENCES beetles flies winged ants wasps moths dragonflies bees spiders grasshoppers Cliff Swallow Petrochelidon pyrrhonata HABITAT PREFERENCES open country near buildings, bridges FOOD PREFERENCES beetles moths winged ants wasps bees dragonflies flies spiders grasshoppers Purple Martin Progne subis HABITAT PREFERENCES open country, often near water; gardens, farmlands, open woodlands FOOD PREFERENCES grasshoppers beetles flies dragonflies spiders bees winged ants moths wasps Blue Jay Cyanocitta cristata HABITAT PREFERENCES woodlands, especially open oak/beech forests; also city parks, suburbs; 10 acres contiguous forest needed to maintain a breeding population caterpillars birds' eggs oak grasshoppers mice beech beetles frogs blackberry American Crow Corvus brachyrhynchos HABITAT PREFERENCES open areas, edges, agricultural lands, adjacent woodlands FOOD PREFERENCES grasshoppers crustaceans corn ground beetles. amphibians oak caterpillars reptiles mulberry carrion eggs wild cherry Fish Crow Corvus ossifragus HABITAT PREFERENCES wood edges, tidewater areas, marsh habitats along rivers, swamps, lakes FOOD PREFERENCES weevils fish blackberry beetles crayfish mulberry beetle larvae eggs hackberry carrion wild rice green briar Carolina Chickadee Parus carolinensis HABITAT PREFERENCES deciduous and coniferous forests and margins; suburbs, 25 acres contiguous forest needed for breeding populations FOOD PREFERENCES wasps caterpillars plant lice katydids spiders pine spiders beetles hemlock moths flies poison ivy Tufted Titmouse Parus bicolor HABITAT PREFERENCES deciduous woodlands, breeds in bottom woodlands and swamps; 25 acres contiguous forest needed for breeding populations FOOD PREFERENCES caterpillars beetles blackberry wasps spiders oak ants corn beech White-breasted Nuthatch Sitta. carolinensis HABITAT PREFERENCES upland and bottanland deciduous forests FOOD PREFERENCES beetles moths oak ants caterpillars pine spiders Brown-headed Nut hatch Sitta pusilla HABITAT PREFERENCES coniferous and mixed forests spiders caterpillars moths pine cones Brown Creeper Certhia familiaris HABITAT PREFERENCES deciduous and mixed woodlands FOOD PREFERENCES insects pine cones House Wren Troglodytes aedon HABITAT PREFERENCES wood/old field edges, hedgerows, orchards, suburbs FOOD PREFERENCES insects spiders Carolina Wren Thryothorus ludovicianus HABITAT PREFERENCES brushy lowlands, thickets; floodplain forests with thick underbrush; 25 acres needed to maintain breeding population FOOD PREFERENCES ants millipedes flies Marsh Wren Telmatodytes palustris HABITAT PREFERENCES marshes with tall vegetation, brackish cattail marshes FOOD PREFERENCES insects spiders Northern Mockingbird Mims polyglottis open areas with few trees; hedgerows; dense shrubbery, suburbs FOOD PREFERENCES beetles holly greenbriar ants grape pokeweed bees sumac Virginia creeper wasps blackgum blackberry grasshoppers mulberry hackberry Gray Catbird Dumetella carolinensis HABITAT PREFERENCES bottomland forest, wooded swamps; dense thickets, hedgerows, shrubby areas FOOD PREFERENCES ants blackberry grape beetles service berry persimmon caterpillars elderberry pokeweed grasshoppers blueberry sassafras greenbriar bayberry dogwood sumac Brown Thrasher Toxostoma rufum. HABITAT PREFERENCES brushy, upland thickets; hedgerows; crop and pastureland FOOD PREFERENCES beetles lizards blackgum blackberry grasshoppers salamanders sumac wild cherry crickets frogs pine blueberry ants oak grape Virginia creeper caterpillars dogwood bayberry spiders holly elderberry American 'Robin Turdus migratorius HABITAT PREFERENCES residential areas, agricultural lands, orchards FOOD PREFERENCES caterpillars flies Virginia creeper wild cherry beetles spiders grape blackberry earthworms millipedes sumac hackberry snails centipedes holly persimmon sowbugs greenbriar dogwood blackgum Wood Thrush Hylocichla mustelina HABITAT PREFERENCES bottomland deciduous forests with well-developed understory and shrub layers; 400-foot minimum width riparian forest needed for breeding beetles snails grape ants earthworms blackberry spiders spicebush blackgum grasshoppers dogwood mulberry caterpillars sumac blueberry centipedes hackberry Eastern Bluebird Sialia sialis HABITAT PREFERENCES open country, farmlands, field/forest edges FOOD PREFERENCES beetles sowbugs bayberry grasshoppers snails Virginia creeper crickets holly caterpillars dogwood blueberry centipedes sumac hackberry Blue-gray Gnatcatcher Polioptila. caerulea HABITAT PREFERENCES woodland stream edges With brushy growth; brushy., partially open floodplain forests; 450-foot minimum width riparian forest and 60 acres contigious forest needed for breeding FOOD PREFERENCES flies caddisflies gnats Cedar Waxwing Bombycilla cedrorum HABITAT PREFERENCES brushy woodland, agricultural /woodland margins, orchards FOOD PREFERENCES beetles caterpillars blackberry ants red cedar hackberry flies wild cherry chokeberry crickets dogwood persimmon mayflies wild privet mulberry grasshoppers pokeweed serviceberry European Starling Sturnus vulgaris HABITAT PREFERENCES suburbs, farmland, orchards, parks, cities FOOD PREFERENCES beetles cherry elderberry grasshoppers sumac poison ivy millipedes bayberry blackgum caterpillars mulberry Mute-eyed Vireo Vireo griseus HABITAT PREFERENCES swampy tickets, brushy areas near water, briar tangles in moist areas; nests three to six feet off the ground FOOD PREFERENCES caterpillars wasps waxmyrtles moths bees blackberry beetles flies holly ants spiders Yellow-throated Vireo Vireo flavifrons HABITAT PREFERENCES mature deciduous forests along stream, roadsides; orchards; floodplain forests; 250 acres needed to maintain a breeding population FOOD PREFERENCES flying insects beetles caterpillars spiders ants Red-eyed Vireo Vireo olivaceus HABITAT PREFERENCES deciduous forests open with a good stand of saplings; 250 acres needed to maintain a breeding population FOOD PREFERENCES caterpillars wasps dogwood moths bees Virginia creeper beetles flies -ants spiders Black-and-white Warbler Mniotilta varia HABITAT PREFERENCES deciduous and coniferous forests with a partly open canopy; 750 acres needed to maintain a breeding population FOOD PREFERENCES beetles flies caterpillars weevils spiders plant lice ants wasps moths harvestmen Prothonotary Warbler Protonotaria citrea HABITAT PREFERENCES wooded river swamps, bottcmland forests; periodically flooded woodlands; 250 acres needed to maintain a breeding population FOOD PREFERENCES ants beetles small snails insect larvae mayflies spiders caterpillars Worm-eating Warbler Helmitheros vermivorus HABITAT PREFERENCES upland deciduous forests with an understory of mountain laurel; 2500 acres contiguous forest needed to maintain a breading population FOOD PREFERENCES caterpillars beetles grasshoppers weevils spider Blue-winged Warbler Vermivora pinus HABITAT PREFERENCES old fields with young trees, swamp margins, stream borders FOOD PRERERENCES caterpillars spiders insect eggs grasshoppers insect larvae Northern Parula Warbler Parula americana, HABITAT PREFERENCES bottamland forests, swamps; 250 acres needed to-maintain a breeding population FOOD PREFERENCES beetles ants spiders flies insect larvae caterpillars moths insect eggs mayflies Yellow Warbler Dendroica petechia HABITAT PREFERENCES brushy lowlands with scattered small trees along streams and ponds beetles caterpillars weevils plant lice moths spiders flies grasshoppers Yellow-rumped Warbler Dendroica coronata HABITAT PREFERENCES coniferous and mixed forests FOOD PREFERENCES beetles moths spiders caterpillars flies grasshoppers Yellow-throated Warbler Dendroica daninica HABITAT PREFERENCES coniferous forests, wet brushy areas; swampy pine woods FOOD PREFERENCES beetles moths and larvae crickets grasshoppers spiders flies Pine Warbler Dendroica pinus HABITAT PREFERENCES coniferous forests; 80 acres needed to maintain a breedinq population FOOD P ants caterpillars pine beetles grasshoppers dogwood spiders grape Virginia creeper flies bayberry Sumac Prairie Warbler Dendroica discolor HABITAT PREFERENCES .brushy areas in coniferous or mixed stands; abandoned fields with young pines FOOD PREFERENCES spiders beetles plant lice f lies grasshoppers moths Ovenbird Seiurus aurocapillus HABITAT PREFERENCES open, mature mixed upland forests; dry woods with thin understory/shrub layers; 6500 acres needed to maintain a breeding population; 525-foot minimum width riparian forest needed for breeding FOOD PREFERENCES snails weevils crickets slugs beetles ants earthworms aphids spiders Louisiana Waterthrush Seiurus motacilla HABITAT PREFERENCES river swamps, along streams FOOD PREFERENCES snails ants beetles slugs worms caterpillars Kentucky Warbler Oporonis formosus HABITAT PREFERENCES bottomland forests; moist deciduous woods with thick, low vegetation; 125 acres contiguous FOOD REFERENCES spiders ants beetles moths caterpillars plant lice Cam= Yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas HABITAT PREFERENCES woodland edge, hedgerows, marshes, swamps, thick undergrowth along waterways FOOD PREFERENCES beetles moths grubs butterflies larvae Yellow-breasted Chat Icteria virens HABITAT PREFERENCES thickets, brushy fields, hedgerows; field/wood edges, overgrown pastures FOOD PREFERENCES ants caterpillars blackberry wasps grasshoppers blueberry beetles spiders elderberry Hooded Warbler Wilsonia. citrina HABITAT PREFERENCES moist bottcmland forests with dense understory; 250 acres contiguous forest needed to maintain a breeding population FOOD PREFERENCES grasshoppers ants caddisflies caterpillars wasps spiders plant lice beetles flies moths American Redstart Setophaga ruticilla. HABITAT PREFERENCES moist, deciduous forests; upland deciduous forests with good understory of shrubs and young trees; 600-foot minimum width riparian forest needed for breeding FOOD PREFERENCES flying insects caterpillars ants House Sparrow Passer domesticus HABITAT PREFERENCES rural, suburban, urban areas FOOD PREFERENCES beetles oats crabgrass grasshoppers corn knotweed caterpillars wheat bristlegrass moths ragweed Eastern Meadowlark Sturnella magna HABITAT PREFERENCES cropland, pasture FOOD PREFERENCES grasshoppers ants wheat crickets wasps bayberry beetles spiders pine caterpillars corn bristlegrass Red-winged Blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus HABITAT PREFERENCES coastal marshes, swamps, ponds, meadows FOOD PREFERENCES weevils ants corn beetles grasshoppers oats caterpillars ragweed wildrice grubs bristlegrass smar-tweed Orchard Oriole Icterus spurius HABITAT PREFERENCES cropland, hedgerows, orchards, fields with scattered trees MOD PREFERENCES caterpillars beetles cherry grasshoppers spiders blackberry ants mulberry blueberry Northern Oriole Icterus galbula HABITAT PREFERENCES edges of nature deciduous forests FOOD PREFERENCES caterpillars wasps mulberry beetles spiders blackberry ants grasshoppers Boat-tailed Grackle Quiscalus major HABITAT PREFERENCES marshes, farmland, along shorelines FOOD PREFERENCES caterpillars spiders ants Common Grackle Quiscalus quiscula HABITAT PREFERENCES agricultural fields, orchards, field borders suburbs FOOD PREFERENCES bees snails corn grasshoppers toads oats crickets salamanders wheat spiders mice blackberry earthworms oak ragweed Brown-headed Cowbird Molothrus ater HABITAT PREFERENCES deciduous and coniferous forests, agricultural areas FOOD PREFERENCES grasshoppers bristlegrass knotweeds beetles ragweed oats caterpillars crabgrass corn spiders panic grass Scarlet Tanager Pirango olivacea HABITAT PREFERENCES mature deciduous forests, floodplain forests; 250 acres or 600-foot minimum width riparian forest needed to maintain a breeding population FOOD PREFERENCES wasps beetles blackberry bees caterpillars dogwood ants moths Summer Tanager Piranga rubra HABITAT PREFERENCES dry upland pine-oak-hickory forests; 250 acres needed to maintain a breeding population FOOD PREFERENCES beetles bees blackberry ants caterpillars mulberry wasps Northern Cardinal Cardinalis cardinalis HABITAT PREFERENCES hedgerows, woodland margins, thickets in swamp forests; suburbs, parks FOOD PREFERENCES caterpillars grape mulberry grasshoppers smartweed sumac beetles dogwood blackberry corn sedges tulip poplar Blue Grosbeak Guiraca coerulea. HABITAT PREFERENCES thickets, hedgerows, edges, agricultural are FOOD PREFERENCES beetles bristlegrass caterpillars wheat grasshoppers panic grass ants Indigo Bunting Passerina cyanea. HABITAT PREFERENCES brushy areas, edges, old fields, woodland clearings FOOD PREFERENCES caterpillars ragweed blackberry beetles bristleweed elderberry grasshoppers farm grain House Finch Carpodacus mexicanus HABITAT PREFERENCES suburban-and urban areas, farm Yards FOOD PREFERENCES aphids knotweed thistle caterpillars chickweed pigweed American Goldfinch Spinus tristis HABITAT PREFERENCES old fields, hedgerows, woodland margins, orchards, shrub swamps FOOD PREFERENCES I aphids ragweed sunflowers caterpillars thistle goldenrod sweetgum dandelions Dark-eyed Junco Junco hyemalis HABITAT PREFERENCES brushy clearings, forest borders, weedy fields FOOD PREFERENCES caterpillars ragweed grasshoppers beetles bristlegrass panic grass *ants crabgrass wasps smartweed Rufous-sided Towhee Pipilo erythrophthalmus HABITAT PREFERENCES brushy upland forests, thickets, hedgerows, woodland margins; 600q-foot minimum width riparian forest needed for breeding FOOD PREFERENCES beetles bees ragweed moths wasps smartweed caterpillars spiders blackberry grasshoppers oak blueberry crickets waxmyrtle bristlegrass ants sedges panic grass Grasshopper Sparrow Ammodramus savannarum HABITAT PREFERENCES cropland, old fields, pastures FOOD PREFERENCES grasshoppers spiders bristlegrass pigweed caterpillars snails sheepsorral panic grass ants ragweed oats knotweed beetles plantains smartweed sunflowers Seaside Sparrow Ammospiza maritima HABITAT PREFERENCES grassy tidal marshes FOOD PREFERENCES young crabs snails Chipping Sparrow Spizella. passerina HABITAT PREFERENCES towns and suburbs, agricultural areas, open mixed woods FOOD PREFERENCES grasshoppers ants crabgrass caterpillars wasps bristlegrass beetles spiders panic grass leaf hoppers oats Field Sparrow Spizella. pusilla HABITAT MUERENCES old fields with scattered shrubs and trees, hedgerows, woodland margins FOOD MWERENCES beetles ants broamsedge grasshoppers spiders panic grass caterpillars bristlegrass leaf hoppers crabgrass %lute-throated Sparrow Zonotrichia. albicollis HABITAT FFUFERENCES dense undergrowth and brush FOOD PREFEMNCES ants caterpillars ragweed -beetles spiders smartweed bugs millipedes bristlegrass flies snails panicgrass Song Sparrow- Melospiza melodia HABITAT PRIMERENCES suburbs, old fields with shrubs and small trees, hedgerows, marsh edges FOM PREFERENCES beetles ants panicgrass grasshoppers smartweed crabgrass crickets bristlegrass pigweed caterpillars ragweed sedges MAMMALS I oil vi MAMMAIS Blarina brevicauda short-tailed shrew Castor canadensis beaver Condylura [email protected] star-nosed mole Crytotis parva least shrew Didelphis marsupialis opossum Eptesicus fuscus big brcwn bat Glaucomys volans southern flying squirrel Lasionycterius noctivaqans; silver-haired bat Lasiurus borealis red bat Lasiurus cinereus hoary bat Lutra canadensis river otter Mephitis mephitis striped skunk Microsorex Hoyi pygmy shrew Microtus pinetonin woodland vole Mustela frenata long-tailed weasel Mustela vison mink Myotis keenii Keen's myotis Myotis leibii small-footed myotis Myotis lucifungus little brown nr yotis Nycticeius humeralis evening bat Odocoileus virginianus white-tailed deer Ondatra zibethicus muskrat Peromyscus leucopus; Wbite-footed mouse Pipistrellus subf1a eastern pipistrelle Procyon lotor raccoon Scalopus aquaticus eastern mcle Sciurus; carolinensis gray squ irr el Sorex cinereus masked shrew Sorex longirostris southern shrew Sylvilagus floridanus eastern cottontail Synaptomys cooperi southern bog lemting Tamias striatus eastern chipmu* Vulpes vulpes red fox Zapus budsmius meadow juMing mouse MAMMALS Blarina. brevicauda short-tailed shrew HABITAT PREFERENCES forest, grasslands, marshes, brush areas; damp woods with a thick understory FOOD PREFERENCES insects worm snails Castor canadensis beaver HABITAT PREFERENCES mixed hardwood forests with a water source; hardwood and conifer sapings as building material for lodges in slow moving water; dens in high banks near running water; populations equal about two adults per square mile, lodges have 5-7 young FOOD PREFERENCES poplar maple willow alder birch ash hazelnut sweetgum serviceberry pine Condylura cristata star-nosed mole HABITAT PREFERENCE damp areas, tunnels frequently lead to streams or pools; low wet ground near leakes or streams FOOD PREFERENCE insects grubs earthworm Didelphis marsupialis oppossum. HABITAT PREFERENCES densely forested areas near water; reproduces in ground burrows, hollow trees and logs, and brush piles FOOD PREFERENCES carrion mice grape persimmon snakes frogs oak blackgum crayfish insects pokeweek mulberry strawberry blueberry Eptesicus fuscus big brown bat HABITAT PREFERENCES caves, crevices, hollow trees, wooded areas; building windowsills, eaves of roofs, under awnings FOOD PREFERENCES insects Glaucomys volans southern flying squirrel HABITAT PREFERENCES deciduous or mixed deciduous coniferous forests, close to water FOOD PREFERENCES insects birds' eggs beech hackberry moths beetles oak maple Lasionycterius noctivagans silver-haired bat HABITAT PREFERENCES forested areas; wooded areas near ponds and streams Flom REFERENCES insects Lasiurus borealis red bat HABITAT PREFERENCES deciduous woodlands, orchards, city parks with trees and tall shrubs FOOD PREFERENCES insects Lasiurus cinereus hoary bat HABITAT PREFERENCES wooded areas; coniferous forests; farmyards and city parks with coniferous trees FOOD PREFERENCES insects Lutra canadensis river otter HABITAT PREFERENCE wooded streams; coastal fresh and salt water marshes FOOD PREFERENCES fish snakes frogs toads crayfish ducks water beetles Marmota monax woodchuck HABITAT PREFERENCES open woods, edges of brushy woodlands, open fields along streams; dens are usually in gullies or stream beds adjacent to cultivated fields. FOOD PREFERENCES .clover honeysuckle grasses field crops Mephitis mephitis striped skunk HABITAT PREFERENCES cultivated areas, for est edges, brushland, brushy borders of streams, rock crevices, hollow logs, population equals one adult per three acres, reproduces in brush piles, culverts, stumps, crevices, often near waterways FOOD PREFERENCES insects spiders gray blueberry toads frogs cherry blackberry lizards mice persimmon eggs grubs carrion Microsorex hoyi pygmy shrew HABITAT PREFERENCES drier woodlands, grassy clearings, thickets; also moist sphagnum areas FOOD PREFERENCES insects other shrew mice Microtus pinetorum woodland vole HABITAT PREFERENCES forest floor with thick leafy litter; old fields, wood borders, cultivated fields FOOD PREFERENCES roots bulbs tubers seeds Mustela frenata long-tailed weasel HABITAT PREFERENCES fence rows, stone walls, deep grass, brushy field borders, open woodland; woodland bordering fields and pastures FOOD PREFERENCES rabbits mice rats shrews moles squirrels birds eggs snakes frogs fish Mustela vison mink HABITAT PREFERENCES along streams, rivers, marshes, wooded areas bordering water FOOD PREFERENCES rabbits mice squirrels birds snakes frogs fish crayfish Myotis keenii Keen's myotis HABITAT PREFERENCES caves, building, hollow trees, storm, sewers, forested areas FOOD PREFERENCES insects Myotis leibii small-footed myotis HABITAT PREFERENCES caves, rock crevices, in or near forested areas FOOD PREFERENCES insects is lucifungus little brown myotis HABITAT PREFERENCES house attics, hollow trees, caves FOOD FREE ERENCES insects Nycticeius humeralis evening bat HABITAT REFERENCES w6odlarxis,' hollow trees'. buildings, attics, belfries FOOD PREMERENCES insects Odocoileus Virginianus white-tailed deer HABITAT PREFERMCES hardwood mixed forest with a diversity of types and age classes and associated brushland; open brushy areas; wooded margins, glades, population of about 1 and 1/2 adults per acre; reproduction occurs within normal range limits along wood/field margins FOOD PREFERENCES browse fungi acorns grasses wild grapes berries maple oak sweet fern mt. laurel willow wild cherry wintergreen holly Ondatra zibethicus muskrat HABITAT PREFEREWMS marshes, banks along streams and ponds; borders of marshes with woody and herbaceous vegetation; population equals about 6-8 adults per acre; reproduction sites include stream and pond banks, scwetimes houses built of cattails and bulrushes. FOOD URENCES clams frogs cottonwood cattail fish crayfish pondweed arrowhead insects snails waterlily panicgrass Perartyscus leucopus white-footed muse HABITAT MMEERENCES woody, brushy areas, borders of dense woods, preferably deciduous EKM PREFERENCES oak wild cherry knotwee-d blueberry maple pine tulip poplar Pipistrellus subflavus eastern pipistrelle HABITAT PREF]ERMNCES wcoded areas near water FOOD PREM"ERENCES insects Procyon lotor raccoon HABITAT PREFERENCES hardwood forests along streams, lakes; wetlands;, grassy freshwater or brackish marshes, swamps; dens are within hollow trees or ground holes F= PREFERENCES imects frogs oak greenbriar snakes mice holly persinum crayfish bird eggs pokeweed hackberry grape hickory beech grains Scalopus aquati. eastern mole HABITAT PREFERENCES mist, sandy loam, lawns, gardens, fields, pastures, thin woods FOOD PREFERENCES grubs insect larvae vegetable matter earth worms Sciurus carolinensis gray squirrel HABITAT PREFERENCES hardwood forests, older stands preferred; mixed forests with nut-bearing trees and brushy undergrowth; nest in tree cavities or make leaf nests FOOD PREFERENCES oak pine hickory blackgum beech dogwood maple walnut mulberry sweetgum hornbeam Sylvilagus floridanus eastern cottontail rabbit HABITAT PREFERENCES variety of habitats including marshes and fields, open woods with underbrush and grassy areas; hedges, briar patches, forest edges; dens are in undisturbed grassy plots near protective cover (i.e. brushy fence row) FOOD PREFERENCES crabgrass goldenrod clover. red maple blackberry wild cherry plantain blueberry sheepsorrel panic grass Sorex cinereus masked shrew HABITAT PREFERENCES mist areas, forests, open areas, brushlands; under fallen logs; in leaf litter, under rock piles, along stream banks. FOOD PREFERENCES insects small manuals Sorex longirostris southeastern shrew HABITAT PREFERENCES open fields, wood lots, moist areas; bogs, damp woods FOOD PREFERENCES insects small manuals worms Synaptamys cooperi southern bog lemming HABITAT PREFERENCES bogs, meadows with heavy vegetation; lake margins, hillsides, open pastures FOOD PREFERENCES grass sedges clover buttercups mosses fleshy fungi Tamias striatus eastern chipmunk HABITAT REFERENCES deciduous forests and brushy areas; open woods, stone walls, half-ratted logs, usually in dry situations FOOD PREFERENCES insects mice maple hickory wild cherry snails eggs -oak hazelnut blackberry beech dogwood chinkapin Vulpes vulpes red fox HABITAT PREFERENCES mixture of open country and forest; sparsely wooded areas, marshes, and streams along farmlands; next in rock cavities, hollow logs, trees FOOD PREFERENCES mice birds wild cherry blackberry insects rabbits blueberry persimmon rats grasses Zapus hudsonius meadow jumping mouse HABITAT PREFERENCES meadow, grassy areas, wet grasslands FOOD PREFERENCES seeds vegetable matter REPTILES REPTUM igkistrodon contortrix northern copperhead Carphophis amoenus, eastern worm snake Cemopbora, coccinea. northern scarlet snake Coluber constrictor northern backer racer Diadophis punctatus; northern ringneck snake Elapbe guttata corn snake Elapbe obsoleta black rat snake Heterodon platyrhinos eastern hognose snake Lampropeltis getulus eastern kingsnake Lampropeltis rhcmbcmaculata mole snake Itis triangulum eastern milk snake Natrix septemavittata queen snake Natrix sipedon northern water snake Opheadrys aestivus rough green snake Storeria dekayi northern brown snake Storeria occipitcmaculata northern red-bellied snake Tbamnophis sauritus eastern ribbon snake Thamnophis sirtalis eastern garter snake Virginia valeriae eastern earth snake Chelydra serpentina ccmmn snapping turtle Chrysemys picta eastern painted turtle Chrysemys rubiventris red-bellied turtle Clennys guttata. spotted turtle Kinosternon subrubrum. eastern mud turtle Malaclemys terrapin diamondback terrapin Sternotherus odoratus stinkpot, turtle Terrapene Carolina eastern box turtle s sexlineatus six-lined racerunner Eumeces fasciatus, five-lined skink Eumeces laticeps broad-headed skink Leiolcpisma laterale ground skink Sceloporus undulatus northern fence lizard REPTILES Agkistrodon contortrix northern copperhead HABITAT PREFERENCES deciduous forests near swamps, ponds, streams FOOD PREFERENCES mice insects small birds salamanders lizards wall snakes frogs toads Carphophis amoenus eastern worm snake HABITAT PREFERENCES dry to mist forest, often near swamps or streams; needs loose soil for burrowing; under stones, boards, rotting logs FOOD PREFERENCES earthworms soft-bodies insects grubs slugs insect larvae Cemophora coccinea northern scarlet snake HABITAT PREFERENCES sandy, loamy soil, under logs; upland brush, crop and pastureland FOOD PREFERENCES Mice small snakes lizards snake eggs Coluber constrictor northern black racer HABITAT PREFERENCES variety, including: wooded areas, fields, cultivated areas; wet lowlands, dry uplands FOOD PREFERENCES small mammals insects frog toads small birds birds eggs snakes lizards Diadophis punctatus northern ringneck snake HABITAT PREFERENCE moist woodlands with abundant hiding material (i.e., rocks, logs, junk piles) FOOD PREFERENCES salamanders earthworms small snakes lizards frogs grubs Elaphe guttata corn snake HABITAT PREFERENCES pine forests, fields, wooded uplands FOOD PREFERENCES mice rats birds bats Elaphe obsoleta black rat snake HABITAT PREFERENCES woodlands, thickets, field edges, farmlands; oak and oak-hickory woods FOOD PREFERENCES small mammals small birds amphibians insects spiders young opossums weasels owls Heterodon platyrhinos eastern hognose snake HABITAT PREFERENCES sandy areas, dry open fields, pine or deciduous woods FOOD PREFERENCES toads frogs fish salamanders insects Worms Lampropeltis getulus eastern kingsnake HABITAT PREFERENCES dry areas but near streams or swamps; pine woods, brushy areas, upland pastures, lowland meadows. FOOD REFERENCES water snake eggs turtle eggs copperheads lizards mice birds Lampropeltis rhombomaculata mole snake HABITAT PREFERENCES thickets, woodlots, cultivated fields FOOD PREFERENCES small rodents birds frogs lizards other snakes Lampropeltis triangulum. eastern milk snake HABITAT PREFERENCES brushy or woody cover, pine forests, shores of ponds, streams; near farm buildings, poorly kept orchards and meadows FOOD PREFERENCES mice small mammals snakes lizards birds birds' eggs slugs other snakes Natrix septemavittata queen snake HABITAT PREFERENCES small stony creeks and rivers FOOD PREFERENCES newly molted crayfish butterfly larvae moth larvae Natrix sipedon northern water snake HABITAT PREFERENCES swamp, marsh, bog, borders of streams, ponds FOOD PREFERENCES frogs minnows salamanders small mammals juvenile turtles Orpheadrys aestivus rough green snake HABITAT PREFERENCES dense vegetation overhanging stream borders; open woods, unkept or weedy fields FOOD PREFERENCES crickets grasshoppers spiders caterpillars Storeria dekayi northern brown snake HABITAT PREFERENCES open fields, damp woods, swamps, clearings; also urban areas: vacant lots, parks, trash piles FOOD PREFERENCES slugs snails earthworms insects minnows small toads Storeria occipitomaculata northern red-bellied snake HABITAT PREFERENCES moist wooded areas, pine or oak-hickory; near or in sphagnum bogs FOOD PREFERENCES slugs earthworms soft insects insect larvae sowbugs small salamanders Thamnophis sauritus eastern ribbon snake HABITAT FKET!EPENCES stream edges, swmW areas, wet meadows, ponds, bogs, fields near S FOOD PMERENCES frogs toads salamanders mice spiders small fish insects Thamnophis sirtalis eastern garter snake HABITAT PREFERENCES forest edges, meadows, stream edges, marshes, woodlands, hillsides, vacant lots FOW REFERENCES earthworms amphibians rodents carrion fish slugs leeches caterpillars other snakes insects small birds crayfish Virginia valeriae eastern earth snake HABITAT PRETSIRIZICES abandoned fields, trails, back roads near deciduous forests FOOD REFERENCES earthworms termites ants Chelydra serpentina. comTon snapping turtle HABITAT PPMERENCES permanent or sempermanent boches of freshwater; marshes, swamps, bogs, pools, streams; areas with soft middy banks or bottom FOOD PREEERENCES fish small aquatic invertebrates reptiles birds nk-mmls carrion vegetation crayfish Chrysemys picta eastern painted turtle HABITAT PREFERENCES shallow water with aquatic vegetation, soft and middy bottom; woodland pools, wet meadows, ditches, slow-moving stream aquatic vegetation insects crayfish small fish tadpoles carrion Chrysemys rubiventris red-bellied turtle HABITAT PREFERENCES large bodies of waters with basking sites; streams, rivers, ponds, marshes, brackish water FOOD REFERENCES snail tadpoles crayfish aquatic vegetation Clemmys guttata spotted turtle HABITAT PREFERENCES woodland streams, wet meadows, marshes, swamps, roadside ditches, small ponds, bogs FOOD PREFERENCES crustaceans spiders eathworms aquatic insects frogs tadpoles small fish aquatic vegetation Kinosternon subrubrum eastern mud turtle HABITAT PREFERENCES semi-aquatic, slow-moving water with soft bottoms and abundant aquatic vegetation; ditches, wet meadows, small ponds, marshes FOOD PREFERENCES insects snails crayfish tadpoles Malaclemys terrapin diamondback terrapin HABITAT PREFRENCES coastal marshes, tidal flats, estuaries, unpolluted, sheltered brackish marshes FOOD REFERENCES marine snails clams WorMS Sternotherus odoratus. stinkpot turtle HABITAT PREFERENCES slow-moving water with soft bottom; fresh water; stream, ponds, swamps FOOD PREFERENCES snails clarns tadpoles aquatic insects insect larvae fish eggs minnows worms aquatic vegetation Terrapene carolina. common box turtle terrestrial, woodland, field edges, thickets, pastures, marshes, bogs, well-drained forest bottanland earthworms slugs leaves snails insects grass insect larvae crayfish berries frogs toads fruits snakes carrion fungi rus sex1ineatus six-lined racerunner HABITAT PREFERENCES open, well-drained areas fields, open woods, thicket margins with sandy or loose soils FOOD PREFERENCES insects Eumeces fasciatus five-lined skink HABITAT REFERENCES cut-over woodlots, with rotting stumps and logs; damp environment, open or moderately dense wooded areas FOOD PREFERENCES insects spiders snails grubs lizards small mammals Eumeces laticeps broad-headed skink HABITAT PREFERENCES woodlands to empty urban lots with debris FOOD PREFERENCES insects paper wasp pupae Leiolopisma laterale ground skink HABITAT PREFERENCES dry wooded areas, under dead leaves, decaying wood, and debris FOOD PREFERENCES insects spiders Sceloporus undulatus northern fence lizard HABITAT PREFERENCE$ pine woods, rotting logs, piles of logs, fences, brush heaps FOOD PREFERENCES insects centipedes spiders beetles snails AMPHIBIANS' 17 NN AMPHIBIANS Acris crepitans northern cricket frog Bufo americanus American toad -Bufo woodhousei Fowler's toad Hyla chrysoscelis southern gray treefrog Hyla cinerea green treefrog Hyla crucifer northern spring peeper Hyla veriscolor eastern gray treefrog Pseudacris triseriata, upland chorus frog Rana catesbe' bullfrog Rana clamitans green frog Pam palustris pickerel frog Pam spbenocepbala southern leopard frog Rana sylvatica wood frog Airtbystcma maculatum spotted salamander Ambystcma opact n marbled salamander Ambystcma tigrinin eastern tiger salamander Desmognathus fuscus northern, dusky salamander Mn-ycea bislineata no. two-lined salamander Hernidactylium scutatum four-toed salamander Notophthalmas viridescens red-spotted newt Plethodon, cinereus red-backed salamander Pseudotriton montanus eastern mud salamander Pseudotriton ruber northern red saLmnander AMPHIBIANS Acris crepitans northern cricket frog HABITAT PREFERENCES in or near permanent bodies of shallow water with emergent and shoreline vegetation FOOD PREFERENCES small adalt insects insect larvae Bufo americanus American toad HABITAT PREFERENCES almost any habitat gardens, woods, yards - with moisture and shallow water bodies for breeding FOOD PREFERENCES insects sowbugs spiders centipedes millipedes slugs Bufo woodhousi Fowler's - toad HABI lowland areas with sandy soils, pine and oak forests, fields, small marshy ponds FOOD PREFERENCES ants beetles earthworms spiders snails slugs Hyla chrysoscelis southern gray treefrog HABITAT PREFERENCES small trees or shrubs near or in shallow water bodies FOOD PREFERENCES insects spiders snails Hyla cinerea green treefrog HABITAT PREFERENCES swamps, lake and stream borders, floating vegetation FOOD PREFERENCES flying arboreal insects Hyla crucifer northern spring peeper HABITAT PREFERENCES marshy or wet woods, second-growth woodlots, spbagnum, bogs; breeds in permanent or temporary -water FOOD PREFERENCES ants - flying bugs flies springtails mites ticks beetles spiders small snails Hyla. versicolor eastern gray treefrog HABITAT PREFERENCES wooded bodies of water, small trees and shrubs in or near water; breeds in permanent or temporary water bodies FOOD PREFERENCES spiders small. insects plant lice mites snails Pseudacris triseriata upland chorus frog HABITAT PREFERENCES moist woodlands, swamps, near ponds, bogs, marshes; breeds in marshy areas or shallow pools FOOD PREFERENCES small adult insects insect larvae Rana catesbeiana bullfrog HABITAT PREFERENCES water's edge or within shoreline vegetation of large bodies o. water; breeds close to shoreline within shrubs FOOD PREFERENCES fish small animals newts salamanders mites snakes snails insects spiders other frogs small birds young turtles Rana clamitans green frog HABITAT PREFERENCES near shallow fresh water, woodland streams, springs, vernal pools, mist wcodlarxis near water FOOD RMUNCES insects insect larvae spiders small fish flies small frogs newts grasshoppers beetles caterpillars worms crayfish Rana palu stris pickerel frog HABITAT sphagnum, bogs, meadow streams, springs, water with thick vegetation at the edges FOOD PREFERENCES arthropods aquatic aWhipods iscpods wall crayfish snails Rana sphenocepbala southern leopard frog HABITAT REFERENCES shallow, freshwater areas, ponds, swamps, slightly brackish marshes FOOD S insects small snakes worms small frogs Rana. sylvatica. wood frog HABITAT I 'ERENCES in or near mist wooded areas, needs shallow water for breeding FOOD PREEERENCES insects beetles flies spiders snails slugs Scaphiopus holbrooki eastern spadefoot toad HABITAT open forested areas with sandy or loose soils; needs temporary pools for breeding FOOD PREFERENCES flies spiders crickets caterpillars moths earthworms snails true bugs Ambystcma maculatum. spotted salamander HABITAT PREFERENCES shallow woodland ponds or marshy pools; mist deciduous or mixed forest with slow-moving water for breeding FOOD -ERENCES snails earthworms insects spiders slugs beetles Ambystana opacurn marbled salamander HABITAT PRET. sandy areas of mixed deciduous woods, especially oak-maple and oak-hickory forests; breeds in low areas near ponds, swamps and stream FWD P earthworms larval insects mollusks crustaceans adult insects Azrbystcma tigrinum eastern tiger salamander HABITAT PRETEREENCES ponds in depressions close to hardwood forests with dense understoryand loose soil for burrowing FOOD PREFERENCES insects earthworms amphibians small mice Desmognathus fuscus northern dusky salamander HABITAT KUSMUMS woodland margins of stream and springs with stones, leaves, debris, etc. for cover. FOOD PRIMSMNCES insects grubs warms crustaceans spiders larval salamanders Eurycea bislineata two-lined salamander HAB= PREFERCENCES mist forest floors, along streams, bogs, near springs and seeps FOOD PREE 014CES insects stonefly nymphs mayflies earthworms spiders millipedes mites beetle larvae sowbugs Hemidactylium scutatum f our-toed salamander HAB17M RETERENCES associated with sphagnum bogs; shaded shallow woodland pools, preferably acidic FOOD PREFERENCES insects small invertabrates spiders earthworms Notcphthal:mus viridescens red-spotted newt BAB= s, marshes, quiet stream with submerged vegetation and located within deciduous or mixed forests FOCD PREFERENCES mayflies caddishflies midges springtails tadpoles mosquito larvae worms frog eggs leeches spiders mites snails Plethodon cinereus red-backed salamander HABMAT REFERENCES forested areas, mixed deciduous or coniferous; abundant beneath old logs, bark, moss, stones FOOD PREFERENCES snails small insects slugs earthworms spiders sowbugs mites millipedes Pseudotriton montanus eastern mud salamander HABITAT PREEERENCES muddy seeps along streams, springs; hides under logs, bark, etc. FOM PREFERENCES insects other salamanders insect larvae dusky salamanders Pseudotriton ruber northern red salamander HABITAT P - SRENCES wooded stream as well as stream in open fields and meadows; stream bottcms of sand, gravel, rocks preferred FOOD REFERENCES earthworms SPECIES AND HABITAT KEM-ERENCES Audubon Naturalist Society. A Field List of Birds of the District of Columbia Region. 1968. Baskett, T. S., et al. A Handbook for Terrestrial Habitat Evaluation in Central Missouri. Washington, C: USEW Res. Pub. 133. 1980. Bentr A. C. Life Histories of North Azerican Wood Warblers, Vols. 1 and 2. New Y-oW.:- Dover Publications, Inc. 1963. Burt, W. H.. and R. P. Grossenheider, A Field Guide to the Mammls. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin Co. 1964. Conant, R. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin Co. 1977. DeGraff, R. M and D. D. -Rudis, Amphibians and Reptiles of New England. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press. 1983. Flood, B. S. et al. A Handbook for Habitat Evaluation Procedures. Washington, D.C.: USEVIS Res. Pub. 132. 1977. Forester,. D. Towson State University. (personal ommxiication). 1987. Kahl. R. B. . et al. Characteristics of Summer Habitats of Selected Birds in Missouri. Columbia: Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station. 1985. Martin, A. C., H. S. Zim, and A. L. Nelson, American Wildlife and Plants. New York: Dover Publications, Inc. 1957. Maryland and DC Breeding Bird Atlas Project Handbook. MaryL-And Department of Natural Resources, Maryland Wildlife Resources Information Retrieval System: Species Habitat Information Accounts. Annapolis: MD Wildlife Administration. 1979. Robbins, C. S. "Effect of Forest Fragmentation on Bird Populations" in Management of North Central And Northeastern Forests for Nongame Birds. (R. M. DeGraff and K. E. Evans, eds.) St. Paul, MN: U.S. Forest Service, Gen. Tech Rpt. VC-51. 1979. Robbins, C. S. "Effect of Forest Fragmentation on Breeding Bird Populations in the Piedmont of the Mid-Atlantic Region." Atlantic Naturalist.30:31-36. 1980. Schoener, T. W. "Sizes of Feeding Territories Among Birds." Ecol. 49:123-141. 1968. Trippensee, R. E. Wildlife Management: Furbearers, Waterfowl, and Fish,. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co.. 1953. CHAPTER 4 WILDLIFE PLANT FOOD SPECIES TREES SHRUBS AOUATIC him HERBACEOU WILDLIFE PLANT FOOD SPECIES TREES Acer maple Alnus alder Betula birch Carpinus carolinensis ironwood Carya hickory Celtis hackberry Cornus dogwood Crataegus hawthorn Diospyros persimmon Fagus grandifolia American beech Fraxinus ash Ilex holly Juglans walnut Juniperus cedar, juniper Liquidambar styraciflua sweetgum Liriodendron tulipifera tulip poplar Magnolia magnolia MOMS mulberry Nyssa sylvatica blackgum Ostrya virginiana hornbeam Pinus pine Platanus sycamore Populus aspen, poplar Prunus cherry, plum Quercus oak Salix willow Sassafras albidum. sassafras Ulmus elm Acer maple bobwhite quail raccoon Carolina chickadee flying squirrel purple finch gray squirrel goldfinch chipmunk beaver white-footed muse cottontail rabbit white-tailed deer Alms adler goldfinch beaver white-tailed deer Betula birch purple finch cottontail rabbit beaver chipmunk white-tailed deer Carpixrus caroliniana ironwood purple finch white-footed mouse downy woodpecker white-tailed deer Carya hickory wmd duck cmay fox crow cottontail rabbit bluejay gray squ = el. white-breasted nuthatch chipmz& red-bellied woodpecker white-footed mouse white-tailed deer Celtis hackberry bobwhite quail brown thrasher eastern bluebird tufted titmouse cardinal towhee catbird cedar waxwing cCVMM crow beaver fish crow opossum yellow-shafted flicker skmk mockingbird flying squirrel eastern phoedbe white-tailed deer robin raccoon starling gray fox Cornus dogwood wood duck wood thrush bobwhite quail red-eyed vireo bluebird cedar wamdnq cardinal downy woodpecker crow red-bellied woodpecker catbird pileated woodpecker purple finch pine warbler flicker hairy woodpecker crested flycatcher beaver kingbird, cottontail rabbit mockingbird raccoon robin gray squirrel starling skunk scarlet tanager chipm:Lnk brown thrasher white-footed mouse whib-,tailed deer Crataegus hawthorn robin raccoon cedar waxwing gray squirrel beaver white-tailed deer gray fox cottontail rabbit Diospyros; persinimn catbird opossum mockingbird raccoon cedar vanwing white-tailed deer gray fox red fox Fagus grarxiifolia American beech wood duck red-bellied woodpecker chickadee hairy woodpecker purple finch beaver grackle gray fox bluejay red fox white-breasted. rmthatch raccoon tufted titmouse flying squirrel downy woodpecker gray squirrel hairy woodpecker chipmunk white-footed mouse white-tailed deer Fraxinus ash wood duck beaver bobwhite quail white-footed mouse cardinal white-tailed deer purple finch cedar waxwing Ilex holly mourning dove brown thrasher bobwhite quail towhee bluebird white-eyed vireo catbird cedar waxwing common flicker pileated. woodpecker bluejay raccoon mockingbird skunk phoebe gray squirrel robin white-footed mouse wood thrush white-tailed deer Juglans walnut red-bellied woodpecker gray squirrel beaver Juniperus cedars, junipers bobwhite quail thrush bluebird myrtle warbler catbird cedar waxwing purple finch beaver yellow-shafted flicker gray fox mockingbird opossum robin chipmmk starling meadow mouse brown thrasher white-footed nx)use tree swallow white-tailed deer [email protected] styraciflua sweetgum mallard duck Carolina wren bobwhite quail towhee Carolina chickadee beaver purple finch gray squirrel goldfinch chipmn* Liriodendron tulipifera tulip poplar redwinged blackbird ruby-throated humningbird cardinal beaver Carolina chickadee gray squirrel purple finch white-footed urn2se goldfinch white-tailed deer Magnolia magnolia towhee white-footed mouse red-eyed vireo white-tailed deer gray squirrel Morus mulberry cardinal scarlet tanager catbird sumner tanager camnon crow brown thrasher fish crow mood thrush crested flycatcher tufted titmouse grackle cedar wamwing bluejay red-bellied woodpecker mockingbird red fox Baltimore oriole opossum orchard oriole raccoon robin skunk starling gray squ irr el Nyssa sylvatica blackgum wood duck tufted titmouse bobwhite quail red-eyed vireo bluebird cedar waxwing crow hairy woodpecker purple.finch red-bellied woodpecker flicker pileated woodpecker mockingbird beaver robin gray fox starling opossum scarlet tanager gray squirrel brown thrasher white-tailed deer wood thrush raccoon Ostrya virginiana hornbearn wDod duck red fox bobwhite quail gray fox beaver cottontail rabbit wbite-tailed deer Pinus pine mouxTLing dove towhee bobwhite quail red-bellied woodpecker Carolina chickadee Carolina wren house finch beaver goldfinch cottontail rabbit meadowlark gray squirrel nuthatch red squirrel English sparrow chipmunk brown thrasher white-footed mouse tufted titmouse white-tailed deer Platanus sycamore purple finch beaver goldfinch Populus aspen, poplar purple finch beaver .muskrat cottontail rabbit white-tailed deer Prunus wild cherry, plum bobwhite quail towhee bluebird red-eyed vireo cardinal cedar waxwing catbird pileated woodpecker crow hairy woodpecker flicker red-bellied woodpecker crested flycatcher beaver cmackle gray fox bluejay red fox kingJArd Opossm mockingbird cottontail rabbit Baltimore oriole raccoon robin skunk starling gray squirrel sunimr tanager chiFmink scarlet tanager rezdow mouse brown thrasher white-footed mouse wood thrush white-tailed deer Quercuis oak mallard duck red-bellied woodpecker wood duck Carolina wren clapper rail beaver bobwhite quall red fox ccaum crow gray fox yellow-shafted flicker muskrat purple grackle opossum bluejay cottontail rabbit homed lark raccoon meadowlark flying squirrel Quercus(continued) white-breasted nuthatch chipmink. starling meadow mouse brown thrasher white-footed mouse tufted titmouse white-tailed deer downy woodpecker gray squirrel Salix willow beaver white-tailed deer cottontail rabbit gray squirrel meadow mouse Sassafras albichn sassafras bobwhite quail towhee catbird red-eyed vireo, flicker white-eyed vireo crested flycatcher pileated. woodpecker kingbird yellow-throated warbler mockingbird beaver eastern pboebe white-tailed deer brown thrasher u1mus elm wood duck beaver English sparrow muskrat Carolina chickadee cottontail rabbit purple finch gray squirrel eastern goldfinch yellow-bellied sapsucker SHRUBS Amelanchier serviceberry, juneberry Aralia devil's walking stick Aronia chokeberry Cephalanthus occidentalis buttonbush Comptonia peregina sweet fern Forestiera wild privet* Gaylussacia huckleberry Kalmia latifolia mountain laurel Lindera spicebush Myrica waxmyrtle, bayberry Rhododendron rhododendron RIMS sumac Rosa wild rose Rubus blackberry, raspberry Sambucus elderberry Toxicodendron poison ivy, poison oak Vaccinium. blueberry Viburnum blackhaw, arrowwood Amelanchier serviceberry bluebird tufted titmouse cardinal cedar waxwing- catbird- downy woodpecker crow. hairy woodpecker common flicker beaver bluejay red fox mockingbird skunk Baltimore oriole flying squirrel scarlet tanager chipmunk brown thrasher white-footed mouse brown thrush white-tailed deer wood thrush Aralia devil's walking stick wood thrush skunk red fox chipmunk Aronia chokeberry meadowlark cottontail rabbit cedar waxwing white-footed mouse red fox white-tailed deer Cephalanthus occidentalis buttonbush mallard duck beaver wood duck white-tailed deer Virginia rail Comptonia peregrina sweetfern cottontail rabbit white-tailed deer Forestiera. wild privet mallard Mck. robin wood duck white-tailed deer [email protected] huckleberry .Ylussacia YAUte quail scarlet tanager catbird gray fox orchard oriole white-tailed deer Kalmia latifolia mountain laurel white-tailed deer Lindera spicebush bobwhite quail robin catbird wood thrush crested flycatcher red-eyed vireo eastern kingbird Myrica. wax myrtle, bayberry bobwhite quail pboebe bluebird starling catbird scarlet tanager Carolina chickadee brown thrasher canmon crow tufted titmouse fish crow towhee yellow shafted flicker white-eyed vireo grackle red-bellied woodpecker meadowlark Carolina wren mockingbird gray fox tree swallow- white-tailed deer Miododendron white-footed mouse white-tailed deer MMS sumac bobwhite quail mockingbird bluebird robin cardinal scarlet tanager catbird brown thrasher ccarm crow red-eyed vireo fish crow pine warbler purple finch cottontail rabbit cmmn flicker white-tailed deer Rosa wild rose bobwhite quail skunk beaver white-footed mouse cottontail rabbit white-tailed deer Rubus blackberry, raspberry bobwhite quail scarlet tanager redwinged blackbird summr tanager VMM Gaultheria procubens wintergreen @@ra japonica Japanese honeysuckle Mitcbella repens partridgeberry Parthenocissus Virginia creeper Mla-x greenbriar Vitis grape Gaultheria procumbens wintergreen white-footed mouse white-tailed deer Lonicera japonica Japanese honeysuckle- bobwhite quail robin bluebird cottontail rabbit purple finch white-tailed deer goldfinch Mitchella repens partridgeberry bobwhite quail skunk red fox white-footed mouse Parthenocissus Virginia creeper bluebird wood thrush catbird tufted titmouse chickadee red-eyed vireo crow white-eyed %rireo flicker downy woodpecker crested flycatcher hairy woodpecker mockingbird pileated woodpecker robin red-bellied woodpecker tree swallow red fox starling skunk brown thrasher Smilax greenbriar wood duck brown thrasher cardinal cedar waxwing catbird pileated woodpecker 00DIUM crow beaver fish crow opossum yellow-shafted flicker cottontail rabbit mockingbird raccoon robin gray squirrel sparrow white-tailed deer Vitis grapevine wood auck starling bobwhite quail scarlet tanager bluebird sumer tanager HERBACEOUS PLANTS Amaranthus pigweeds Ambrosia ragweeds [email protected][email protected] broansedge, bluestem Carex sedges Camp-lina dayflawers Desmondium beggarweeds Euphorbia spurges Fragaria strawberries Helianthus sunflowers Impatiens jewelweeds Lespedeza lespedeza Melilotus sweet clover Panictzn panic grass Phytolacca americana pokeweed Polygmum knotweeds; Panunculus buttercups Rumex sheepsorrel, dock Solanum nightshades Solidago goldenrods Stellaria media chickweed Taraxacum dandelions Trifolium clovers Amaranthus pigweed mourning dove field sparr ow, bobwhite quail grasshopper sparrow house finch song sparrow horned lark cottontail rabbit chipping sparrow Ambrosia ragweed mourning dave chipping sparrow bohdhite quail field sparrow woodcock grasshopper sparrow redwinged blackbird song sparrow indigo bunting starling cardinal tufted titmouse goldfinch cedar waxwing grackle cottontail rabbit horned lark chipmmk neadowlark. white-tailed deer robin Andropogon brocmsedge, bluestem chipping sparrow white-tailed deer field sparrow Carex sedges black duck horned lark mallard duck grasshopper sparrow Carex (continued) wood duck song sparrow clapper rail gray squirrel Virginia rail cauttm role woodcock chipwnk cardinal white-tailed deer house finch Camwe-lina. dayf lower mourning dove cardinal bobwhite quail white-tailed deer redwinged blackbird Desmodium beggarweeds bobwhite quail white-tailed deer white-footed mouse Euphorbia spurges mourning dove chipping.sparrow bobwhite Wail horned lark Fragaria strawberry crow cottontail rabbit catbird skunk brown thrasher chipmn* cedar waxwing white-footed rouse opossum white-tailed deer Helianthus sunflower mc;urning dove meadowlark bobwhite quail grasshopper sparrow redwinged blackbird tufted titmouse cowbird muskrat crow chipmink house finch white-footed mouse goldfinch white-tailed deer horned lark Inpatiens jewelweed bobwhite quail white-footed mouse hunmingbird Tespedeza bush clover mourning dove white-tailed deer bobwhite quail Melilotus sweet clover Muskrat white-tailed deer cottontail rabbit Panicum panic grass Canada goose meadowlark mourning dove chipping sparrow Panicurn (continued) bobwhite quail field sparrow woodcock grasshopper sparrow re&finged blackbird song sparrow cardinal pine warbler cowbird muskrat dicksissel cottontail rabbit blue grosbeak white-tailed deer horned lark Phytolacca americana pokeweed mourning dove robin bluebird starling cardinal brown thrasher catbird cedar waxwing fish crow hairy woodpecker yellaw-breasted chat gray fox kingbird red fox mockingbird opossum crested flycatcher raccoon phoebe white-footed mouse Polygongn knotweed, smartweed mourning dove horned lark bobwhite gjail grasshopper sparrow woodcock song sparrow re&inged blackbird chiFM3nk cowbird white-footed muse house f inch Ranunculus buttercup wood duck skunk muskrat gray squirrel cottontail rabbit chipmn* sheepsorrel, dock Canada goose field sparrow bobwhite quail grasshopper spaxrow woodcock song sparrow redwinged blackbird cottontail rabbit cowbird white-footed mouse Solanum nightshades wood duck mockingbird bobwhite quail song sparrow cardinal raccoon catbird skunk meadowlark Solidago goldenrod goldfinch cottontail rabbit beaver white-tailed deer Stellaria media chickweed mourning dove horned lark bobwhite quail song sparrow house finch chipping sparrow goldfinch cottontail rabbit Taraxacum dandelion bobwhite quail cottontail rabbit goldfinch chipm2nk chipping sparrow white-tailed deer Trifolium, clover bobwhite quail raccoon homed lark skunk beaver woodchuck muskrat white-tailed deer cottontail rabbit MAFSH AND AQMIC PIANTS (not submerged) Cyperus sedges Distichlis salt grass Echinochloa wild millet Eleocharis, spikerushes Peltarx1ra virginica arrow-arm Polygonm smartweeds Ponterderia cordata pickerelweed Sagittaria arrowheads Scirpus, buUmshes Sparganium burreeds Spartina cordgrass Typha cattails Zizania aquatica wild rice Cyperus sedge mallard duck redwinged blackbird woodcock grackle Distichlis salt grass black duck white-tailed deer Canada goose Echinochloa wild millet black duck Virginia rail mallard duck cottontail rabbit Canada goose muskrat Peltandra virginica arrow-arm wood duck Polygonum, smartweed, krx:)tweed black duck redwinged blackbird mallard duck cardinal wood duck horned lark Canada goose meadowlark bobwhite quail maskrat chipping sparrow raccoon grasshopper sparrow chipmunk song sparrow Pontederia cordata pickerelweed black duck muskrat wood duck Sagittaria arrowhead black duck wood duck mallard duck muskrat Scirpus bulrush black duck Virginia rail mallard duck redwinged blackbird Canada goose song sparrow clapper rail muskrat Sparcianium. burreed black duck Virginia rail mallard duck muskrat wood duck Spartina cordgrass black duck Virginia rail mallard duck muskrat Canada goose white-tailed deer clapper rail Typha cattail Canada goose m2skrat Zizania, aquatica wild rice black duck re&,ringed blackbird mallard duck fish crow wood duck song sparrow Virginia rail CHAPTER 5 MISCELLANEOUS PLANT LISTS HEDGEROW LANTS WiNTER F D SPECIES WETLA ND INDICATORS DISTURBANCE INDICATORS COMMON HEDGEROW PLANTS THAT PROVIDE WILDLIFE COVER AND FOOD TREES Cornus florida flowering dogwood Crataegus hawthorn Diospyros virginiana persimon Juniperus Virginiana red cedar Liquidambar styraciflua sweet gum Nyssa sylvatica. blackgum Prunus wild cherry, plum Quercus oak Rhus sumac Sassafras albidum sassafras Ulmus americana elm SHRUM AND VINES Aronia chokeberry Corylus hazelnut Lonicera japonica Japanese honeysuckle Parthenocissus; Virginia creeper Rosa wild rose Rubus blackberry, raspberry Sassafras albidum elderberry Viburnm blackhaw, arrowwood Vitis wildgrape HERBACEOUS PLANTS Achillea millefolium yarrow Andropogon. virginicus broomsedge Arctium burdock Asclepias asters Daucus carota wild carrot Leonurus cardiaca motherwort Phytolacca americana pokeweed. Solidago goldenrod Veronia ironweed FRUITS AND SEEDS AVAILABLE TO WILDLIFE OVER WINTER Amaranthus pigweed Ambrosia ragweed Andropogon virginicus broomsedge Celtis hackberry Diospyros virginiana persimmon Ilex opaca American bolly Juniperus virginiana red cedar lonicera japonica Japanese boneysuckle Pinus pine trees Rhus sumac Symphorocarphos snowberry, coralberry PLANTS INDICATIVE OF DISTURBED SOILS IN ANNE ARUNDEL COUNTY WOODY (TREES AND SHRUBS) Acer negundo box elder Ailanthis altissima tree-of-heaven Albizzia julibrissin pink powder puff Bamboo Campsis radicans trumpet creeper Lonicera japonica Japanese honeysuckle Morus alba white mulberry Parthenocissus quinquefolia Virginia creeper Paulownia tomentosa empress tree Pinus virginiana scrub pine Prunus serotina wild black cherry Rhus capallina shining sumac Rhus glabra smooth sumac Rhus typhina poison ivy Robinia pseudo-acacia staghorn sumac Sassafra albidum black.locust Vitis spp grapevine HERBACEOUS PLANTS Acalpha rhamboidea three-sided mercury Achillea millefolium. yarrow Allium vineale wild garlic Amaranthus retroflexus pigweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia common ragweed Ambrosia trifida giant ragweed Andropogon virginicus broomsedge Anthemis cotula mayweed Arernaria serpylifolia thyme-leaved sandwort. Asclepias syriaca common milkweed Aster vimeneus, small white aster Barbarea. verna early wintercress Barbarea vulgaris common wintercress Bidens bipinnata Spanish needles Bidens frondosa beggarticks Bidens polyepsis tickseed. sunflower Capsella bursa-pastoris shepbard's purse Cardamine hirsuta hairy bittercress Cerastium spp. mouseear chickweed Chemapodium album lamb's quarters Chrysanthemum leucanthemum ox-eye daisy Cichorium intybus chicory Commelina communis Asiatic dayflower Convolvullussepium hedge bindweed Coronilla varia crown vetch Dacus carofa Queen Anne's lace DISTURBANCE INDICATORS (con I t.) Datura. stramanium jimson weed Digitaria spp. crabgrass Diodea. teres buttonweed. Draba verna whitlow grass Duchesnea indica indian strawberry Erigeron annuus daisy fleabane Erigeron canadensis horseweed Erodium circutarium stork's bill Eupatorium hyssopifolium hyssop-leaved eupatorium Euphorbia maculata milk purslane Froelichia. floridana. cottonweed Galium aparine cleavers Geranium carolinianum. Carolina crane's bill Hemerocallis fulva, day lilly Holosteum umbellatum jagged chickweed Hypochaeris radicata. cat's ear Latuca canadensis wild lettuce Lamium amplexicaule henbit. Lamium purpureum. purple head nettle Lathyrus; latifolius everlasting pea lepidium compestra field cress Lepidium virginicum peppergrass Lespedeza spp. bush clover Melilotus alba white sweet clover Melilotus; officinalis yellow sweet clover Mollugo verticillata. carpet-weed Oenothera biennis cammon evening primrose Oenothera laciniata cut-leaved evening primrose Oxalis strica wood sorrel Panicum spp. panic grass Perilla frutescens. beef steak plant Phragmites australis common reed Phytolacca americana pokeweed Potentilla canadensis common cinquefoil Potentilla recta rough-fruited cinquefoil Prunella vulgaris heal-all Ranunculus bulbosus. bulbous buttercup Rudbeckia hirta black-eyed susan Rumex acetocella sheep sorrel Rumex crispus curled dock Scleranthus ammms knawel Setaria spp. foxtail Solidago sPP goldenrod Solanum carolinensis horse nettle Stellaria media common chickweed Taraxacum officinale dandelion Thlaspi arvense field pennycress Trifolium agraricum hop clover DISTURBANCE INDICATORS (con't.) Trifolium arvense rabbitfoot clover Trifolium campestre hop clover Trifolium pratense red clover Trifolium repens white clover Vergascum tbapsus common mullein Veronica spp. speedwell Vicia spp. vetch WETLAND INDICATOR PLANTS WOODY (TREES AND SHRUBS) Acer rubum red maple Alnus serrulata smooth alder Baccharis halimifolia groundsel tree Betula nigra river birch Cephalanthus occidentalis button bush Clethra alnifolia sweet pepperbush Cornus amonum silky dogwood Ilex verticillata, black alder Iva frutescens marsh elder Leucothoe racemosa fetterbush Lindera benzoin spicebush Magnolia virginiana sweet bay magnolia Nyssa sylvatica. black gum Rhododendron viscosum swamp honeys Rosa palustris swamp rose Salix nigra black willow Sambucus; canadensis; elder HERBACEOUS PLANTS Acnida cannabina water-heap Arisaema triphyllum jack-in-the-pulpit, Asclepias incarnata. swamp milkweed. Bidens frondosa beggarticks; Bidens polyepsis tickseed sunflower Boebmeria cylindrica false nettle Cardamine pennsylvanica. Pennsylvania bittercress, Cyperus esculentus nutsedge Decodon verticillatus swamp-loosestrife Eupatorium dubium joe-pye weed Hibiscus palustris rose mallow Hydrocotyle verticillata whorled water pennywort, Impatiens capensis, jewelweed Ludwigia alternifolia seedbox Lycopus; americanus water-horehound Mikania scandens climbing hempweed Nuphar advena, spatterdock Onoclea sensibilis sensitive fern Osmunda cinnamcmea. cinnamon fern Osmunda regalis royal fern Panicum virgatum switch grass Peltandra virginica arrow-arum Phragmites australis common reed Pilea pumila clearweed. Pluchea purpurascens salt-marsh fleabane Polygonum arifolum halberd-leaved tearthumb WETLAND INDICALTOR PLANTS (con't) P0lygonum perfoliatum Japanese tearthumb Polygonum Punctatum water smartweed Polygonum sagittatam a row-leaved tearthumb Pontederia. cordata pickerelweed Sagitarria. latifolia broad-leaved arrowhead Saururus cernuus lizard's-tail Scirpus americanus. three-square- Solidago sempervirens seaside goldenrod Spartina alterniflora salt marsh cordgrass Spartina patens salt meadow cordgrass Symplocarpus Foetidus skunk cabbage Thelypteris palustris marsh fern Typhia latifolia broad-leaved cattail Woodwardia. arreolata netted chain fern 'CHAPTER 6 ND ENDANGERED SPECIES PATE AND ENDANGERED SPECIES OF ANNE ARUNDEL COUNTY ANIMALS Etheostoma vitreum glassy darter Fundulus luciae spotfin killifish Haliaeetus leucocephalus bald eagle Laterallus jamaicensis black rail Percina notogramma stripeback darter Pituophis melanoleucus, pine snake Reithrodontomys humulis harvest mouse Sorex longirostris southeastern shrew Stema antillarm least tern PLANTS Agalinis, setacea thread-leaved gerardia Agrimonia microcarpa small-fruited agrimony Agrimonia Striata woodland agrimony Arabis shortii Short's rockcress Arlocaulon septangulare seven-angled pipewort Aronia, prunifolia. purple chokeberry Arundinaria gigantea. giant cane Aster praeltus willow aster Athyrium pyncnocarpon glade fern Calpogon tuberosus; grass pink Cardamine douglassii purple cress Carex aggregata Cares garrattii Barratt. s sedge Carex bullata. button sedge Carex Collinsii Collin's sedge Carex exilis coast sedge Carex Hyalinolpis Carex louisianica Carex tonsa Chamaedaphne calyculata leathleaf Corallorhiza wisteriana. Wister's coralroot Cuscuta coryi hazel dodder Cyperus retrofactus rough cypress Desmodium laevigatum smooth tick-trefoil Desmodium strictum stiff tick-trefoil Eleocharis, albida. Elecocharis flavenscens pale spike-rush Eleocharis halophila matted spike-rush Eleocharis intermedia Eleocharis tortillis twisted spike-rush Festuca paradoxa Fraxinus profunda. pumpkin ash Galactia. voluilis downy milk pea RARE AND ENDANGERED SPECIES (con't.) Galium hispidulum coast bedstraw Gaylussacia brachycera box huckleberry Gentiana villosa striped gentian Gymnocladus dioicus Kentucky coffee tree Habenaria blephariglottis white-fringed orchid Habenaria flava pale green orchid Helianthemum bicknellii hoary frostweek Helonias bullata swamp pink Hepatica acutiloba sharplobe hepatica Hexalectris spicata crested coralroot, Hydrocotyl verticillata whorled water-pennywort Iris verna dwarf iris Juncus caesaariensis New Jersey rush Juncus pelocarpus brown-fruited. rush Kirgia. dandelion potato dandelion Leptochloa fascicularis long-awned diplachne Leptolcma cognatum fall witch-grass Lespedeza angustifolia narrow-leaved bush clover Lespedeza Nuttallii Nuttall's bushclover Limonium nashii Nash's sea lavender Listera australis southern twayblade- Lygodium palmatum climbing fern Matelea. carolinenSIS anglepod Matelea obliqua Monotropis odorata sweet pinesap Panicum commonianum Common's panic grass Pluchea camphorata marsh fleabane Polygonum ramossissimum bushy knotweed Polygonum robustius Porzana carolina sora Potamogeton perfoliatus clasping-leaved pondweed Potamogeton richardsonii redhead grass Potamogeton spirillus spiral pondweed Puccinellia pallida pale mannagrass Pyrola secunda one-sided pyrola Rhynchospora cephalantha capitate beakrush Rhynchospora chalrocephala northern pitcherplant. Schwalbea americana. chaffseed Scirpus smithii Smith's clubrush. Scirprus subterminalis water clubrush Senecio anonymus Small's ragwort Smilax pseudo-China halberd-leaved greenbriar Solidago hispida hairy goldenrod Solidago rigida hard-leaved goldenrod Solidago speciosa showy goldenrod Sporobolus asper long-leaved rushrgrass Stenanthium gramineum featherbells Thalictrum dasycarpum purple meadowrue RARE AND ENDANGERED SPECIES (Con' t.) Thelpyteris simulata. bog fern Trachelospermum difforme climbing dogbane Triadenum tubulosum Trichostema. setaceum narrow-leaved bluecurls Triosteum, angustifolium, narrow-leaved horse gentian Utricularia, biflora two-flowered bladderwort Utricularia cornuta horned bladderwort, Utricularia. fibrosa fibrous bladderwort. Utricularia geminiscarpa hidden-fruit bladderwort Viola septenionalis northern blue violet Vitis cinerea graybark CHAPTER 7 .SHRUBS AND TREES FOR WILDLIFE HABITAT- Mp fc gy 0.1-1 -4-. fir 16 ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN, INC. SHRUBS ARONIA ARBUTIFOLIA RED CHOKEBERRY Height: 2.8ft. landscaping: Will grow in wet or dry soils and in sun to partial shade. Purple or white flowers spring to early summer. Fall color rich red to orange. Some salt tolerance. Wildlife use : Because berries persist into winter. it provides good emergency food for birds Fruits preferred by bobwhite. brown thrasher, cedar waxwing. and eastern meadowlark. Cephalanthus occidentalis BUTTONBUSH HEIGHT: 6-12 FT. Landscaping: Will grow in freshwater to 3 ft. in depth which makes it especially suited for pond planting. Under cultivation it can tolerate drier conditions and can be used as an upland shrub. Grows in full sun to partial shade. White pompom-like flowers in July-August. Wildlife use: Nutlet produces seed favored by mallard wigeon. SHoveller. wood duck and teals Used for nesting by Virginia rail and red-winged blackbird nectaris used by ruby-throated hummingbird. Cornus amomum SILKY DOGWOOD Cornus Racemosa GRAYSTEM DOGWOOD Height: Silky 4-10 ft. Graystem 8-12 ft. Landscaping: Both species have fair drought tolerance and will tolerate partial shade. While silky will tolerate poorly drained conditions better than graystem, both adapt to a wide range of soil condistions. Silky grows as a many- stemmed shrub. autumn color is purple to red berries Bluish autumn color of graystem is dull red. berries white both can be used in hedgerows or as single or- namental shrubs. Wildlife use: Over 15 species of birds use the fruit. it is a preferred fruit of the downy woodpecker, cedar waxwing, com- mon flicker and eastern bluebird. for the gray catbird. it also provides cover and preferred nesting CORNUS STOLONIFERA RED-OSIER DOGWOOD Height: 4-8 ft. Landscaping Commonly found in wet areas so it is ideal for planting around ponds or in low areas of lawns. it can also tolerate drier conditions. Will grow in partial shade. Bright red stems in fall winger distinguish it from other shrubs. Autumn color of leaves dark red. berries white drupes. Wildlife use: Favored as a food by 15 species of songbirds it is preferred nesting site for goldfinch. Elaeagnus umbellata AUTUMN OLIVE Height: 10- 12 ft. Landscaping: Prefers well-drained soil and full sun. Since roots fix nitrogen, its good for infertile soil. Attractive as single shrub but is particularly good for hedgerow since it grows rapidly. Autumn color: silver-green: berries reddish-brown. Wildlife use: Over 25 species of songbirds love its fruit including car- dinal, eastern bluebird, cedar waxwing, hermit thrush, mockingbird, and catbird. 11 is also popular with upland game for food and cover. Hex verticillata WINTERBERRY1 Height: 8- 10 ft. Landscaping: Grows well near ponds or in low wet areas; has some drought tolerance. Prefers sun to partial shade. it will grow better if not used in hedgerow with aggressive competitors. Male and female plants are necessary for berry production. Wildlife use: Because it holds 'its berries long into winter, it is an ex- cellent source of food for birds late into the year. Although not as popular as some berry shrubs, it is used by mockingbird, catbird, brown thrasher, and hermit thrush. Lindera benzoin COMMON SPICEBUSH Height: 12-25 ft. Landscaping: Prefers fertile, moist soil. Will grow, well in sun or shade. Clusters of small greenish-yellow, flowers bloom early in spring before shrub leafs out. Can be used in borders, as understory planting, or singly in a garden Male and female plants are needed for berry produc- lion. Wildlife use: Fruit is enjoyed by many songbirds including eastern kingbird, wood thrush, hermit thrush, veery, *and red- eyed vireo. Lonicera maacki RED AMUR HONEYSUCKLE Lonicera tatarica TATARIAN HONEYSUCKLE Height: Red Amur 8-12 it., Tatarian 6-9 ft. Landscaping: Both species tolerate drought, however. Red Amur does better in moist conditions and can also tolerate partial shade. Tatarian has some salt tolerance. Both species are excellent in hedgerows. wildlife use: Tatarian produces fruit before the Red Armur and pro- vides summer feeding for over 20 species of birds. Red Amur is an especially especially valuable late season plant since it holds its berries through the tall. it is a preferred fruit of catbird. robin, and goldfinch. Many species use honeysuckle for cover and nesting including mock- ingbird, catbird. and brown thrasher. Fazio Myrica pensylvanica BAYBERRY Height: 3-8 ft. Landscaping: A very versatile shrub which will grow in moist, dry or sandy soil. Roots fix nitrogen so it is good for infertile soil. Has some salt tolerance, which makes it a desirable plant for seaside landscaping. Male and female plants are necessary for berry production. Autumn color: dark green to bronze: berries waxy gray. Wildlife use: Persistant berries last well into winter. It is used by red- winged blackbird for nesting and cover. Fruit is eaten by over 25 species of songbirds including eastern meadowlark, white-eyed vireo, yellow-rumped warbler, and tree swallow. Sambucus canadensis ELDERBERRY Height: 8-12 ft. Landscaping: Will tolerate both moist and dry conditions. Has some salt tolerance. Although it reaches its best growth in full sunlight, it can tolerate partial shade. Can be used as hedgerow, background, or as a single shrub. Flowers in s ng are white, Autumn color: green i sh-yel low; ber- pri ries purple. Annual pruning of canes improves fruit pro- cluction. Wildlife use: Fruit disappears by early fall, it is eaten by over 30 species of songbirds. It is a preferred fruit of the red- bellied woodpecker, several species of thrushes, cedar waxwing, eastern bluebird, veery, rose-breasted grosbeak, and rufous-sided towhee. 25 species of upland game, gamebirds, and songbirds use it for cover. The goldfinch and yellow warbler use it for nesting - Vacantum corymbosurn HIGHBUSH BLUEBERRY Height: 6-15 ft. Landscaping: Will grow in wet areas but has some drought tolerance. Prefers sun to partial shade and slightly acid soil. A [email protected]% 'A growing compact shrub that is attractive as border plant or single ornamental. Flowers small pink bell shape in spring. Autumn color: bronze to crimson: berries bluish-white. Wildlife use: One of the most popular berry shrubs for birds. Berries are quickly eaten as developed in summer months. It is preferred food of eastern bluebird, orchard oriole, rufous-sided towhee, brown thrasher, tufted titmouse. and several upland gamebirds. Plant parts are eaten by red fox, skunk, deer, chipmunk and mice. Viburnum dentatum ARROWWOOD Viburnum lentago NANNYBERRY Height: Arrowwood 10- 15 ft.. Nannyberry 10-20 ft. Landscaping: Both species grow in vvet, low areas in sun to partial shade. Nannyberry can also tolerate full shade. Ar- 4- rowwood's upright stems form an inpenetrable hedgerow. Nannyberry can be treated as a small tree in a garden setting. Wildlife use: Dark blue fruits of both are eaten in fall by many I4t__ species of songbirds including cedar 6vax%ving. eastern bluebird, brown thrasher, and rose-breasted grosbeak. Berries are also eaten by small mammals. M n' [email protected] 'Mill, "a.. Viburnum opulus EUROPEAN CRANBERRYBUSH Viburnum trilobum AMERICAN CRANBERRYBUSH Height: Both species 6-12 ft. Landscaping: Prefers full sun to partial shade. Both do well in poor)y drained soil. An attractive year-round shrub excellent for hedgerows, in clumps, or singly. White flowers in spring form beautiful large flat clusters, Autumn color: reddi5h-brown; berries reddish-orange. Wildlife use: Not a preferred fruit of any one species, but berries per- sist through the winter and provide emergency food for over 25 species of birds, and several small mammals. TREES Acer rubrum RED MAPLE Acer saccharinum SILVER MAPLE Height: Both species 60-70 ft. Landscaping: Both trees are fairly rapid growers and can adapt to wet or dry areas.Silver maple is subject to wind'damage and is best kept away from building structures. Red maple is the hardier of the two species. Both have good fall color but the red maple is outstanding. Wildlife use: Seeds are eaten by bobwhite, cardinal, and pine siskin. Evening grosbeak likes the buds as well as seeds. American goldfinch uses both species for cover and nesting. Silver maple is used by northern oriole for nesting and red maple by yellow-bellied sapsucker for sap. Amelanchier canadensis SHADBUSH/SERVICEBERRY Height: 15-20 ft. Landscaping: Grows in moist conditions. Prefers partial shade. An ex. cellent shrub/small tree to plant in naturalistic setting with other trees. Beautiful early spring white flowers. Autumn color: deep orange to rusty red; berries dark purple. Wildlife use: Over 25 species of songbirds use the small applelike purple fruit. Tree also used for nesting and cover [email protected] robin, wood thrush, hermit thrush, and eastern kingbird. Cornus florida FLOWERING DOGWOOD Height: 15-25 ft. Landscaping: Prefers rich. moist sites but will grow in well drained [email protected] fair drought tolerance. Can tolerate partial shade,_ One of the finest ornamentals for providing aest het ic qualities in all seasons. Wildlife use: Although not popular for cover or nesting. it is used as food source by over 35 species of birds. It is preferred fruit of woodpeckers: red-bellied, pileated, hairy, and yellow-bellfed 5apsucker; 4 species of thrush, eastern bluebird, cardinal, summer tanager, and evening grosbeak. lp [email protected] Crataegus spp. HAWTHORN Height: 10-30 ft. Landscaping: Prefers well-drained soil but can tolerate some moisture. Prefers sun to partial shade. Because of its thorny nature, it should not be planted in areas fre- quented by people. It also should not be planted near eastern red cedar which is an alternate host of two destructive rusts. Some salt tolerance. Wildlife use: Thorniness, dense branching, and heavy foliage make it a favorite nesting site of many birds including mock- ingbird, cardinal, willow flycatcher, and brown thrash - er . Although the appeal of its fruit is limited, it is preferred food of ruffed grouse, cedar waxwing, and fox sparrow. Since the fruit lasts well into winter, it of- fers emergency food to other birds including wood duck, bobwhite, and evening grosbeak. Diospyros virginiana COMMON PERSIMMON Height: 30-50 ft. Landscaping: Pre:fers sun to partial shade. Useful as an ornamental tree in a garden setting. Can tolerate moist conditions and also has some salt tolerance. Wildlife use: Fruit is-preferred by mockingbird, catbird, and cedar waxwing , as well as deer, fox, raccoon, skunk, and op- posum. Fraxinus pennsylvanica GREEN ASH Height: 30-50 ft. Landscaping: Prefers full sun. Is adaptable to both wet and dry condi- tions. A rapid growing tree with attractive shape and dense foliage. Male and female flowers on separate trees. Wildhie use: Seeds are preferred food of wood duck, bobwhite, car- dinal, evening grosbeak. purple finch, and pine grosbeak. Tree provides cover and nesting for mourn- ing dove and evening grosbeak. flex opaca AMERICAN HOLLY Height: 30-40 ft. Landscaping: This holly does well in poorly drained soil: it also has some drought tolerance. Although it will grow in sun, it prefers partial shade. A highly ornamental tree, good for both naturalistic and formal landscaping. Has some salt tolerance. Male and female plants are necessary for berry production, Wildlife use: it is 'used by over 10 species of songbirds for food and cover, and 4 species for nesting: cardinal, robin, mock- ingbird, and catbird. Its berry is a preferred fruit of eastern bluebird and cedar [email protected] r Liquidambar styraciflua SWEETGUM Height: 50- 100 ft. Landscaping: Upright, straight ornamental tree, good for producing shade. Prefers moist, rich soil but can tolerate drier con- clitions. Has some sall tolerance. Easily transpl nted, moderate growth rate. Autumn color: brilliant y: I lo w. Wildlife use: Seeds are not readily accessible to all birds but is prefer- red food of the sparrow, purple finch, goldfinch, junco, redpoll, and pine siskin. Malus spp- CRABAPPLE Height: 15-25 ft Landscaping: Can tolerate some moist conditions but also has good drought tolerance. Prefers sun to partial shade. An ex- tremely ornamental tree good for both formal and naturalistic landscaping. Fruits vary in size from 1/4-2 in. and color from red to yellows. Attractive white, pink and red flowers in May. Wildlife use: A wide variety of uses by many birds makes crabapple an extremely valuable source of fruit, buds, seeds, sap, and nectar for food,while providing cover and nesting both open and cavity, for over 13 species of bird ruby-throated hummingbird uses crabapple for nectar, cover and nesting. while orchard and northern oriole eat the fruit in addition to nesting and cover. Nyssa sylvatica BLACKGUM Height: 30-60 ft. V, Landscaping: Crows best in moist, rich soil but can tolerate drier con- ditions. Prefers sun to partial shade. Crowth rate moderate. Transplants best as a small tree. Very effec- ti\e as an [email protected] single straight trunk with horizontal branches becomes gnarled with age. Autumn color: shade,, of brilliant red. male and female flowers on separate plants. Wildlife use: Fruits preferred by many birds. especially thrushes and woodpeckers. In wetland areas trees are perching site for egrets, herons: [email protected], and owls live in hollow trunks. Pinus taeda LOBLOLLY PINE Height: 90 ft. inland, 15-50 fl. along seacoast Parn(ularly good for moist areas and along coastal Landscaping: area,, %%hert- it can withstand sall spray. Prefers sun to partial shade. Wildlife use: Used by great blue and bla( k -c rowned night herons as rookerit-, and roosting siles. Seeds eaten by squirrels and some birds. in Prunus virginiana CHOKECHERRY Height: 6-20 ft. Landscaping: Tolerates many kinds of soil conditions, but does best in well drained, moist soils. Prefers full sun. ft is good for naturalistic plantings where dropped fruit is not a problem. Flowers while, fragrant clusters in early.spr- ing. Autumn color: deep bronze to yellow; fruits purplish-black. Frequently inhabited by webworms. Wildlife use: Although not popular for nesting or cover, fruit is preferred food of 19 species of songbirds including rose-breasted and evening grosbeak, cedar waxwing, eastern bluebird, yellow-bellied sapsucker, pileated woodpecker, and 4 species of thrushes. Also cherry is eaten by fox, raccoon. squirrel, and chipmunk. Quercus palustris PIN OAK Quercus phellos WILLOW OAK Height: Pin oak 50-70 ft., willow oak 70-90 ft. Landscaping: Both species tolerate wet conditions. Pin oak is sym- metrical and relatively fast-growing for an oak, a good tree for small spaces. Willow is more asymmetrical and better suited for more open spaces. Both prefer sun to partial shade, Wildlife use: The comparatively smali acorns of pin and willow oaks make them a favorite food of ducks, especially wood ducks and mallards. They are also eaten by quail and wild turkey. Both are a source of food for 6 species of woodpecker and used for nesting and cover by nor- thern oriole, scarlet tanager, and rose-breasted grosbeak. Supplementary food for deer, fox, opossum, and raccoon. Taxodium distichum BALD CYPRESS Height: 100- 120 ft. Landscaping: Especially good for wet areas. Prefers full sun. A deciduous conifer which looses its needles in winter. Wildlife use: Very little food value, but it is a good perching site for herons, egrets, and other water birds. Wood dutks nest in hollo,,%, trunks. Environmental Concern Inc. P.O. Box P 210 West Chew Avenue St. Michaels, Maryland21663 (301) 745-9620 (301) 745-2082 Other plants are available upon request. CHAPTER 8 PLANTS FOR LANDSCAPING SHORE, PONDS AND OTHER WET AREAS, fe. ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN, INC. Acorus calamus SWEET FLAG Height: 2-3 ft. Habitat: Freshwater up to 3 in. and near mean high tide. Landscaping: Prefers sun; can tolerate partial shade. A clumping plant which does not spread rapidly. Leaves similar in appearance to iris but flower inconspicuous spadix along stem. Can tolerate pedods of dryness. Good for pond edges. Wildlife use: Limited. Andropogon virginicus BROOM SEDGE Height: 2-3 ft. Habitat: An upland grass which tolerates seasonally flooded areas. Landscaping: Not a true sedge but a clumping grass which tolerates moderate salinity and partial shade. Flowers are tucked inside leaves, seeds appear feathery. Of particular interest for naturalistic landscaping and plantings around wildlife ponds. Wildlife use: During winter months'when other food is not available, seeds are source of nourishment for. upland game and many songbirds. Stems remain upright in winter and provide ex- cellent cover. [email protected] occidentafis BUTTONBUSH -12 ft. Height: 6 Habitat: Freshwater up to 3 ft. and near mean high tide. Landscaping: Although this shrub is usually found in wet areas, under cultivation it can tolerate drier conditions. Grows in full sun to partial shade. Extremely attractive white pompom-like flowers in July and August. Wildlife use: Nutlet produces seed favored by mallard, wigeon, shoveller, wood duck, and teals. Used for nesting by Virginia rail and red-winged blackbird. Nectar is a preferred food of ruby- throated hummingbird. HNSCUS moscheutos MARSH HIBISCUS Height: 4-7 ft. Habitat: Fresh to brackish water up to 3 in. and near mean high tide. Undscaping: Requires, full sun for good flowers. Will grow on upland areas as well as low, wet places. Can tolerate periods of drvne-s. An upright plant with large showy flowers (pink orwhite with red centers) blooming in late July-Augusl. Wildlife use: Limited. Nectar used by ruby-throated hummingbird. t6 r N AM @'4. A *T' V 0 n E Iris pseudacorus YELLOW WATER IRIS1 Iris vetsicolor BLUE FLAG Height: 2-3 ft. Habitat: Freshwater up to 3 in. Landscaping. Requires full sun for good flowers but tolerates partial shade. A clumping plant which does not spread rapidly. Used primarily for ornamental pond display. Flowers in late spring. Wildlife use: Limited. LeerSia oryzoideS RICE CUTGRASS Height: 1-3 ft. Habitat: Freshwater up to 3 in. and near mean high tide. Landscaping: Prefers full sun. Will tolerate periods of dryness. it's flowering seed heads create a delicate pond edging. During the flower. ing season, late July-September, panicles are noticeable yello-w-green. This grass is of particular value for shore erosion control in freshwater areas. Wildlife use: The rice-like seeds are a tavonte of at least 14 species of wildlife including 6 species of ducks, also marshbird5, shorebirds, and-some songbirds. Although grass does not re- main upright during winter months, it provides cover and nesting for birds and small mammals during summer months. Panicum virgatum SWITCHGRASS Height: 2-4 ft. Habitat: Fresh to brackish water in areas that are periodically wet, and above mean high tide. Landscaping: Prefers full sun. Planted near pond's edge, it can tolerate both wet and dry conditions. A clumping grass which does not spread rapidly. Particularly attractive in winter when its brown stems remain upright. Flowers are inconspicuous but form delicately branched panicles. Wildlife use: Seeds are an important source of food for many ground feeding songbirds and gamebirds (over 30 species) as well as waterfowl, marshbirds, shorebirds, and small mammals. Because of upright stems and leaves throughout the winter, it provides excellent cover year around. Peftandra virginica ARROW ARUM Height: 2-3 ft. Habitat: Freshwater up to I ft. and near mid-tide. Landscaping: Full sun to partial shade. A heari-shaped broadleaf clumping plant which does not spread rapidly. Flower is unsho%%@, and green found beneath the leaf. Because of plant's statuesque appearance it is an atiranve accent plant in a pond. Wildlife use: The berry-like seed is relished by wood [email protected],. PICKERELWEED Pontederia cordata Height: 2-3 ft. Habitat: Freshwater up to I ft. and near mid-tide. Landscaping: Full sun to partial shade. A slow spreading heart-shaped broadleaf plant. Flowers are bright blue spires blooming May to October. Recommended for color accent in pond plantings. Wildlife use: Seeds of some interest to black and wood ducks. Sagittaria latifolia D UCK POTATO Height: 1-3 ft. Habitat: Freshwater up to 1 ft. and near mid-tide.. Landscaping: Full sun to partial shade. A rapid spreading arrow-shaped broadleafed plant. Flower, mid-summer, single stalk of attrac- tive white flowers with yellow centers. Wildlife use: Although seeds are eaten by ducks and shore birds, the most valuable part to waterfowl is the underground tuber (potato) which is favored by 15 species including canvasback. Saururus cemuus LIZARUS TAIL Height: 2-3 ft. Habitat: Freshwater up to I ft. and near mid-tide. Landscaping: Especially adaptable to shade; flowers in full sun to full shade. A rapid spreading heart-shaped broadleafed plant. Flowers mid-summer with attractive nodding white spikes resembling a lizard's tail. Wildlife use: Seeds of some value to wood ducks but overall value not great. Scirpus amencanus COMMON TH RE ESQUARE Height: 2-4 ft. Habitat: Fresh to brackish water up to I ft. and between mid-tide to mean high tide. Landscaping: Prefers full sun. A rapid spreading sedge with triangular siems and inconspicuous basal leaves. Tolerates periods of dryness. Flowers create seed-head near end of stem. Attractive edging for pond. Of value for shore erosion control in freshwater areas. Wildlife use: The hard-coated seeds are one of the most important and commonly used foods of over 30 species of ducks, mar- shbird5, and songbirds. The5tems and rhizome, are eaten [email protected] muskrau, and gee*. During the summer the upright slems provide cover and nesting for waterfowl, marsh wrens, and red-winged blackbirds. Scirpus validus SOFT STEM BULRUSH Height: &10 ft. Habitat: Fresh to brackish water up to I ft. and near mid-tide. Landscaping: Requires full sun for dense growth. A rapid spreading rush Vvith cylindrical stems and no apparent leaves. Seed heads in drooping clusters near end of stem. A good edging for water- fowl ponds. Wildlife use: Seeds eaten by some marsh and shorebirds. Plants provide good cover and nesting for marsh wren and red-winged blackbird. Spartina alterniflora CORDGRASS Height: 4-7 ft. Habitat: Interticlal zone of saltwater and brackish water tidal areas. Mean high tide to mid-tide. Landscaping: Requires full sun for dense growth. Spreads rapidly by rhizome, Of particular value in shore erosion control for saltwater areas. Flowers in August are inconspicuous. Wildlife use: Seeds are eaten by marshbirds and 2 species of songbird5: seaside and sharp-tailed sparrows; also by black duck. Rhizomes are important for muskrats and geese. Spartina patens SALTMARSH HAY Height: 1-3 ft. Habitat: Zone just above mean high tide in saltwater and brackish water areas. Landscaping: Requires full sun for dense growth. Spreads Slowly b rhizome. Good for shore erosion control in salNvater areas. Wildlife use: Not significant. Zizania aquatica WILD RICE Height: 6-10 ft. Habitat: Freshwater up to I ft. and near mid-tide. spicuous. Landscaping: An annual grass. Prefers full sun. Flowers are incon An excellent plant for waterfowl ponds. Wildlife use: A highly valued food for ducks and g also favored by red- winged blackbird. rail, and bobolink. W__ ;, k-M ADDITIONAL PLANTS The following plants although not high in wildlife value do offer diversity and color for landscaping in and around we( areas. Bidens connata - BEGGAR'S TICK, an annual, blooming late in summer with yellow daisy-like flower. Eu'patorium maculatum - JOE-PYE-WEED, blooms late in summer with purple flat- topped clusters of small flowers. Lo&afia cardinalis - RED CARDINAL FLOWER, blooms in July and August. Scarlet flowers in long spikes attracts ruby-throated humming- bird. *ittaria falcata - BULTONGUE, similar to Sagittaria latifolia in flower, leaves more elongated. Solidago, seempervirens - SEASIDE GOLDENROD, golden flowers in late summer. One of the few flowering plants that does well in seashore areas. Spartina cynosuroides - BIG CORDGRASS, can be used for shore erosion control in freshwater to brackish water areas. Typha angustifolia -NARROW-LEAVED CATTAIL, brackish to freshwater. Typha latifolia - BROAD-LEAVED CATTAIL for use in freshwater areas. Environmental Concern Inc. P.O. Box P 210 West Chew Avenue St. Michaels, Maryland 21663 (301) 745-9620 (301) 745-2082 Other plants are available upon request. 1; @@ -, vr.4 e n %I I .I I I I I I I I I i I I i I I I 11,11, . .'I I . i 3 6668 14101 2155 4 1 1