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COASTAL ZON INFORNIA-T1G1 CENTER Island En~vironments and Development SP 28 1977 A Case Study of the British Virgin Islands U. S . DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NOAA COASTAL SERVICES. CENTER 2234 SOUTH HOESOCN AVENUE Prepared by: CHARLESTON, SC 29405-2413 Christopher Howell, M. S. Edward Towle, Ph. D. For The Government of the British Virgin Islands with the assistance of the World Wildlife Fund and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature * ~ and Natural Resources 1976 r -1 Property of cSC Library Island Resources Foundation Box 4187, St. Thomas, U. S. Virgin Islands I~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ I ~~~~~~PREFACE Ar z In 1973 the Island Resources Foundation undertook to prepare a preliminary set of environmental standards for island-based development activity. This effort, which was partially supported by International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Re- sources (IUCN) based in Morges, Switzerland, resulted in the pub- lication by IUCN of a handbook entitled "Ecological Guidelines for Is- land Development", by John McEachern and Edward Towle. The "Guidelines" were published with the assistance of the Swedish Dev- elopment Authority (SIDA) and the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), organ- izations who shared IUCN's concern with improving approaches to en- vironmental management, habitat protection and endangered species conservation. The IUCN "Guidelines" were prepared as an experimental set of plan- ning constraints for all small island areas, sufficiently general to ap- ply to diverse types of islands and island groupings in different envir- onments. However, they suffered from a deficient data base drawn from case studies on practical legislative, administrative and ecolo- gical considerations for application by island governments concerned with both development planning and environmental quality for a spec- ific island community. Hence, this study, which constitutes both an intensive case study in the adaptation of the general "Guidelines" to localized insular circumstances and an attempt to narrow the gap be-U tween planning and policy, between theory and practice, and between standards and implementation. The focus of this study has been to collate references and material pertaining to existing legislation and activities that affect the envir- onment of the British Virgin Islands. Where sufficient information has allowed, future legislation and proposed development are dis- cussed also. As a framework for evaluating the different aspects of each activity area, its impact has been subdivided into aesthetic, ecologic, social and cultural, and economic considerations. Inevitably, the import-I ance of each group of considerations differs according to the activity area under discussion. With regard to the format of this study, the exploitation of non-re- newable natural resources (minerals) is discussed first. Next fol- lows the management of recent man-made resourcess, such as dev- elopment and construction, and the disposal of litter, waste and pa1- lutants. The latter group, on first sight, hardly appears to comprise a resource, but, as discussed in the report, it could and should be U ~~considered as such. Management practices concerning the Territory's exploitable natural renewable resources - water, soil, flora and fauna- U ~~are then evaluated. Lastly, the conservation of areas of outstanding aesthetic or scientific value, together with the preservation of hist- oric sites and other cultural property, are examined and evaluated. Recommendations for future action are included at the end of each section. It is self-evident to suggest that the development of a country is re- liant at least partially upon the mix of resources it has at its dispos- I ~~al. Equally as important, however, are the political, social and cul- tural values that characterise an economy, as well as governmental policy regarding future development modes. The structuring of guide- I ~~lines for development must necessarily account for all of these fac- tors -- in other words, tailored to suit the very individual needs of a country. Uses and abuses of resources accordingly will vary in I ~~relation to a country's specific requirements and -aspirations. In the British Virgin Islands, it is the present government's policy U ~~to utilize tourism as the major sector for general economic advance- ment, to be supported by the more traditional agricultural and fish- ing industries. An holistic overview would therefore suggest that conservation and preservation of resources are called for. Endemic to each of these sectors, however, lies the seed of disruption for its fellow sectors. A massive revival of agriculture, for example, may make drastic inroads into areas of natural vegetation, which may be so cherished by tourists. The encouragement of hotels and other tourist facilities may not only deny the agricultural and fishing sec- tors of their best labour force, but also occupy otherwise good farm- ing land. These considerations point most obviously to the need for a balanced, realistic and integrated development of resources, deny- ing the hegemony of any particular sector.3 Good management policy essentially entails the maximization of a re-I source use and the minimization of its abuse. In this context, abuse covers the wastage or underemployment of a resource, as well as de- literious pollution a'ffecting air, water, land - - or even society, inI the form of overcrowding and alienation. In small islands, where re- sources most commonly are severely limited, use/abuse problems must necessarily be considered carefully.I We make no apologies if at times the reader finds that he or she is reading a report of previous reports cited in the bibliography. Sev-H eral sound recommendations have been propounded in these previous studies, only for the latter to gather dust on shelves. Occasional spring cleaning can only be beneficial. Although, literally, several scores of people contributed to this re- port with their ideas and information', we especially wish to express our thanks to the following, in alphabetical order: Mr. Ove Anderson, Mr. Elton Georges, Mr. Tony Mack, Mr. J. R. O'Neal, Ms. Vera Penn, Mr. Arnold Persram, Mr. Elihu Rhymer, Mr. Clive Sears, and with our deep gratitutde, Ms. Eugenie Todman-Smith, residents or then residing in the British Virgin Islands. CONTENTS 0. Summary of General Recommendations 1. Exploitation of Minerals 1. 1. Quarrying 1.2. Offshore Dredging 1. 3. Removal of Sand from Beaches 1.4. Petroleum Mining 1.5. Other Activities 2. Development and Construction 3. Disposal of Litter, Waste and Pollutants 3. 1. Solid Waste Disposal on Land 3.2. Disposal of Waste and Pollutants at Sea 3.3. Sewage Disposal 4. Water Supply Management 5. Vegetation and Soil Protection 6. Wildlife Management 7. Conservation of Natural Areas and Historic Sites Appendices I. Mining Ordinance, 1972 II. Protected Beaches Legislation III. Schedule of Uses, Land Development Control Guidelines, 1972 IVa. Proposed Reorganization of Application Prodecures for Dev- elopment and Planning IVb. Proposed Application for Permission to Develop Land V. Wickham's Cay Marina Regulations VI. Wickham's Cay Requirements for Water Storage Cistern Capacities VII. Wild Birds Protection Legislation VIII. Protection of the Environment (Draft) Ordinance 0. 1. SUMMARY OF GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONSH 0. 1. 1. Many of the existing ordinances, and especially some of those pending, will substantially aid in the effective management of the Territory's resources. Individual ordinances alone, how- ever, no matter how relevant or practical, are insufficient with- out the existence of an efficient form of administrative process. 0.1.2. The present number of Ministries, Departments, and Author- ities responsible for environmental and planning matters in- evitably leads to some inefficiency and confusion. First, weI recommend, as has been suggested, that a central adminis- trative file be set up for all development applications, includ- ing those for mining and quarrying, beach removal, dredgingI and landfill, 'and construction and building. Hopefully the exis- tence of such a file would standardize the present system of application procedures and processing, as well as reduce bothI the time and cost involved. The file should be kept by the Town and Country Planning Department, which would act as a clear- ing house for application and information. 0. 1. 3. Secondly, we recommend that more centralization of respon- sibility be established between both the concerned Ministries and Authorities. The Building Authority and Land Control Dev- elopment Authority hopefully will soon be amalgamated. However, it is unfortunate that the responsibilities of 'natural resources' (including land) and the 'environment' (including its development) are divided between, respectively, the Ministry of Natural Re- sources and Public Health and the Chief Minister's Office. Id- eally, responsibilities should be reallocated so that both admin- istrative areas are placed under one Ministry. 0.1.4. In view of the number of reports that have recently been forth- coming, a review committee should be established to evaluate recommendations that the reports may offer. 0. 1.5. Some good groundwork has already been undertaken as far as Territorial planning is concerned. In order to prevent an ac- cumulation of ad hoc development however, an inventory of all resources and an integrated comprehensive resource manage- ment plan should be undertaken as soon as possible. 0.2. SUMMARY OF SPECIFIC RECOMMENDATIONS 0 . 2. 1. Exploitation of Minerals 0. 2. 1. 1. The Mining Ordinance (1972) should be amended to include all minerals exploited for the purpose of road making, building and/or construction, and the removal of all dredged or beach material. 0. 2. 1.2. Quarrying The owner or lessee of the land should be made liable for the restoration on quarried or mined land. Government revenue from quarrying should portray the loss to the Territory of a non-renewable resource. 0.2. 1. 3. Offshore Dredging A study should be conducted to determine the most viable areas for dredging activities within the Territory, with special re-I gard to minimizing environmental damage resulting from suchI activities. Based upon the above study's findings, regulations should beI introduced stipulating the type of dredging operations to be per- mitted, the areas where such operations may be undertaken, and the total amount of material to be removed from the desig-- nated sites. The existing Land Control Development Authority (LDCA) Guide- lines (1972) and any future regulations should be applied uniform- ly to all applications, and not on the present ad hoc basis. 0. 2. 1. 4. Removal of Sand from Beaches An inventory of the Territory's beaches should be undertaken1 in order to evaluate potential commercial deposits, their nor- mal rates of renewal, and possible reclamation measures - if any - that should be undertaken after beach removal activities. I ~~~~Removal of sand, gravel and/or pebbles should be licensed for * ~~~~only a few chosen beaches. The Beach Protection Ordinance (1960) should be amended to I ~~~~include all beaches, and not merely those listed under Orders. I ~0. 2. 1. S. Petroleum Mining In the eventuality that more than a few commercially viable oil I ~~~~sources are discovered, an analysis of the dispersal patterns of surface winds and currents should be made in order to det- ermine the potential pollution risk emanating from each site. A sliding royalty or 'site tax' could be imposed on each loca- tion according to the pollution hazards involved. 0. 2.2. Development and Construction 0. 2. 2. 1. A central administrative file should be established for each ap- plication for development and/or construction. 0. 2. 2.2. Administration over both 'land' and 'development' should be placed under one Ministry. I ~0.2. 3. Disposal of Litter, Waste and Pollutants 0. 2. 3. 1. The existing litter ordinances should be more stringently enforced. 0. 2. 3. 2. The more popular beaches should be served with litter recep- I ~~~tacles. Those already existing within Road Town should be made * ~~~~more visible by the application of paint. 0. 2. 3. 3. The present concrete litter containers should be replaced with I ~~~~removable steel containers. Litter on private property should be controlled by an amend- ment to the Abatement of Litter Ordinance (1970). 0. 2. 3. 5. A Customs charge should be imposed on all non-renewable drink containers brought into the Territory, reimbursed to the consumer upon returning the container to central collec- tions points. 0. 2. 3. 6. If the existing Derelict Motor Vehicle (Disposal) Ordinance proves ineffective, either a deposit or permit scheme could be introduced. 0. 2. 3. 7. A solid waste management study is needed for the Territory. 0. 2.3.8. Legislation is urgently needed that would prohibit littering and dumping within Territorial waters. 0.2.4. Sewage Very careful control needs to be exercised over the future location of septic'tanks, but ideally alternative sewage dis- posal methods should be introduced, especially in areas with underlying groundwater. Extension of the mains water system should be delayed until the intended recipient areas are served also by a mains sew- age system. In areas where neither mains water nor sewage systems are envisaged, large-scale development should be prohibited unless the developers themselves provide adequate facilities at their own cost. 0. 2.4. 3. A study should be undertaken to ascertain the extent of water reserves both in Virgin Gorda and Anegada. 0. 2. 4. 4. As a precaution against polluting these reserves, a general upgrading of sewage disposal facilities is recommended for Virgin Gorda. 0. 2. 4. 5. Suitable fittings for marina waste pumping dock facilities should be introduced as quickly as feasible. 0.2.5. Water Supply Management 0. 2.5.1. The location of any future desalinization plant should be care- fully studied in order to minimise thermal pollution. 0. 2.5.2. Control over the importation and useage of farming chemicals should be more stringent. 0. 2. 5. 3. The public wells in Tortola and Virgin Gorda should be more fully protected against pollutants (mosquitoes and cattle). The present charge of mains water for consumers should be increased by the introduction of a sliding scale structure, rising steeply the greater the amount used. Maintenance costs of a desalinization plant may be extremely high, but a fixed supply of water is assured, regardless of climatic conditions. 0. 2. 5. 6. The large brackish groundwater deposits could be utilized through the process of reverse osmosis, at a fraction of the cost of desalinization, and without the associated problems of thermal pollution. 0. 2. 5. 7. Some of the presently unharnessed stormwater runoff could be impounded at the bottom of a few chosen valleys and roads (e.g., Joe's Hill Road). 0. 2.5. 8. Rainwater catchment from building and paved roads could be increased greatly. 0. 2. 5. 9. Toilet flushing could be accommodated by the use of seawater, although pipe-laying would be expensive. 0. 2. 5. 10. Requirements for different size cisterns should be stipulated to serve different demands - not just requirements relating to the square footage of roof catchment areas. 0. 2.5.11. An overall water management programme is called for that would integrate the several sources of water available to the Territory. Install rain gauges in Virgin Gorda and Anegada. 0. 2.5. 12. Tortola promises little potential of supplying its future needs from additional shallow wells. Rather, emphasis should be placed on the impoundment of storm water tun-off; on the in- creased catchment of rainwater; and on the recycling of waste water. The present programme of earthen dam construction to serve hilltop Tortola should be pursued. 0. 2.5.13. Virgin Gordians will continue to rely upon shallow wells and roof catchment in the foreseeable future. Studies directed toward the potential of storm water catchment from the Peak, as well as runway catchment, are needed, however - espec- -ially with regard to agricultural expansion. A ground water survey is essential. 0. 2. 5.14. Anegadians would be served well by the undertaking of a groundwater survey. The potential use of reverse osmosis for the treatment of brackish water should be studied. 0. 2. 5. 15. Jost Van Dyke and the other smaller inhabited islands will continue to be served by roof catchment and springs. Plans for increasing the water supply should await further develop- ment. All of the above islands would benefit greatly from the active undertaking of reforestation programmes. Both stormwater runoff and loss through evaporation could be substantially re- duced. 0. 2. 6. Vegetation and Soil Protection 0. 2. 6. 1. Selection of land for afforestation or agriculture should not be based upon economic criteria alone, but also include con- sideration of environmental conservation and water needs. Long-term stabilization - or better, a reduction - of the small stock population is needed. In the short-term, the impound- ment of stray animals should be actively undertaken. If need be, stiffer penalties should be imposed on intransigent owners. As far as practicable, it should be ensured that farmers use erosion preventative measures on sloping land, such as terr- acing and multi-layered cropping. On very steep ground, crop farming should be actively discouraged. If Crown Land is leased for agriculture, a careful selection of applicants should be undertaken, so as to help ensure that sound conservation practices are used. The Extension Programme of the Department of Agriculture should be expanded not only within Tortola but other major islands. The construction of all private roads and driveways should be carefully considered before approval and approved storm- water channels be constructed at the applicant's cost. 0.2.7. Wildlife Management 0. 2. 7. 1. The traditional methods of fishing - traps, hand lines and small surface nets - are more practical and economically viable than rnechanised operations within B. V. I. waters. In order to help with the fishermens' needs, cooperatives should be established so as to reduce the cost of necessary materials to individuals. The more toxic farming chemicals should be banned from use within the Territory. 0. 2. 7. 3. A moratorium should be placed on the capture of ALL sea turtles. Until that occurs, as a courtesy to visitors, all shops offering hawksbill and other turtle products should be made to prominently display a notice stating the illegality of importing such products into the United States and its territories. 0. 2. 7. 4. A conservation area for the Anegada iguana (Cyclura pinguis) should be established. 0. 2.7.5. Research is needed into the population of the more important commercial fish species, their habitats and reproductive rates, and the numbers presently caught. 0 . 2. 7. 6. Spearfishing should be strictly prohibited in all reef areas except by a limited number of licensed local fishermen. The sale of spearguns to tourists within the Territory should be banned. Spearguns sold for local use should be licensed and eventually prohibited. 0. 2. 8. Preservation of Natural Areas and Historic Sites 0. 2.8.1. Clarification is needed over the administrative role of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Public Health (involving 'natural resources') and the Chief Minister's office (involv- ing the 'environment'). The National Parks Trust would greatly benefit from the ser- vices of a part-time - or preferably full-time - secretary. 0. 2.8.3. In order to best allocate what little funding may become avail- able, a list of renovation priorities should be drafted for his- toric sites and ruins. Consideration should be made of a site or building's historical and archaeological importance, its present condition and its rate of decay. With the above considerations in mind, we strongly urge that renovation be undertaken on the Copper Mine, Virgin Gorda, which we consider should be very high on any prior- ities list. Legislation should be passed ensuring that a developer does not purposely or accidentally destroy historic ruins. An Antiquities Act, similar to several now passed in the United States, would require any developer found to destroy histor- ical or archaeological evidence to contribute a small percen- tage of the construction budget towards salvage operations. Any renovation of historic ruins should be carefully supervised. 0. 2. 8. 6. The old sugar factory presently housing the Survey Department and Town Planner's Office should be reserved for future use as the B. V. I. Museum. Suggestions that the building utili- zed by the Tourist Board be converted into a small museum is an excellent initial step. We recommend that Marine National Parks encompass the following areas: Horse Shoe Reef, Anegada; Virgin Gorda Sound; Pelican Island Reef; Dead Chest; the Carval Rock - Fallen Jerusalem - Round Rock area; and the vicinity of the Wreck of the Rhone. 0. 2. 8. 8. Both terrestrial and future marine park areas serve as ideal sites for ongoing research, as well as offering potential for an educational programme for B. V. I. school children. 0.3. ELEMENTS NEEDING INVESTIGATION, CLARIFICATION, LEGISLATION OR POLICY DECISIONS 0. 3. 1. Royalties to Government for use, tenancy or extraction of a renewable or non-renewable resource. There is a need to carry out a comparative assessment of royalty payments as required by neighbouring governments in order to: (a) evaluate locally derived schedules; (bW establish a standardized B. V. I. schedule that serves the public interest properly; (c) reflect both regional "market" considerations and local interests; (d) properly develop a long term, flexible revenue projection and cost recovery monitoring plan to insure that the B. V. I. is recovering appropriate levels of income to cover both ad- ministrative and monitoring costs from the entity or corpor- ate body exploiting the resource in question; and (e) the above could apply to expatriate fishermen, quarrys, sand dredging, timber, minerals (including oil) wildlife, I ~~~~feral livestock, marinas, etc. 0. 3. 1.2. In all cases where a local resource is utilized a licensing and royalty (or use fee) should be evaluated and established. Ex- I ~~~~amples might include piers and docks, sea sand and marinas. 0. 3. 2. There is a need to regularize or standardize "Permit terms"~ including fee schedules and provide prospective applicants with such lists and schedules. 0. 3.3. There is a need to establish who is responsible for determin- ing when the terms of permits, especially in relation to en- vironmental constraints, have been met, violated or ignored or exceeded - in other words a. formal procedure to determine permittee standards for performance or non-compliance. 0. 3. 4. Lastly, there is the need for establishing within government an expanded, separately identified supervisory office for (1 environmental matters, (2) for park management and devel- opment, (3) for fish and wildlife, (4) and for long range plan- I ~~~~ning. T he first three to be situated within the Ministry of Natural Resources and the last, within the office of the Chief Minister. 1. EXPLOITATION OF MINERALS l. 1. Quarrying 1. 1. 1. Existing Legislation 1. 1. 1. 1. The only mining activity undertaken at present - other than that for sand - is the quarrying of material for road making, building and con- struction. This activity is not provided for under any existing ordin- ance. 1. 1. 1.2. The Minerals (Vesting) Ordinance (1962), places all minerals under the control of the Crown, with the exception of those minerals fused for road making, or for building or construction purposes". 1. 1. 1.3. The Mining Ordinance (1972) provides for the regulation of mining activities "in, under or upon any lands or under any waters within the Territory". Although pottery clay is included under this Ordin- ance, other non-metalliferous materials apparently are not. 1. 1. 2. Existing Conditions The only two quarries actively worked, are situated in Tortola, ad- jacent to Drake's Highway, at Cox Heath and Fish Bay. Several other small quarries lie abandoned,having served their usual purpose of providing road building materials. 1. 1.2.2. The two active quarries are modest in scale, and both are situated on privately owned land. No royalties are paid to the Government. At the Cox Heath quarry, construction blocks are made in situ. 1. 1. 3. Future Development 1. 1.3. 1. A further quarry is planned in Virgin Gorda, at Upper Soldier Bay, to start later this year. Unlike those in Tortola, the quarry will be on Crown land, and a royalty of $600 (US) will be paid per annum for the lease of the 5. 4 acres. In addition, a royalty of 50� (US) is to be paid for each cubic foot of crushed stone. Since the activity is viewed by the Government as a favourable development for Virgin Gorda, the lessee will not be required to apply for a licence. 1. 1. 3. 2. An obvious source for quarried limestone is Anegada, and it seems probable that some mining activity will occur on the island at a future date. 1. 1. 4. Aesthetic Considerations 1. 1.4. 1. Although the two existing quarries are situated adjacent to Drake's Channel, and thus are easily visible from the sea, neither are large in scale, and as such afford a limited aesthetic degradation to the landscape. 1. 1.4.2. The proposed quarry at Upper Soldier Bay will be situated on the opposite side of the island to the major resort areas, and located in the upper section of the valley. Little aesthetic damage is foreseen. 1. 1. 4. 3. If the quarrying of limestone for export occurs in Anegada, the extrem- ely flat topography will necessitate the alteration of a substantial sur- face area. Unless replanting of vegetation occurs after operations, a prolonged, if not permanent, scar will be inflicted upon the land- scape. 1. .5. Ecological Considerations 1. 1. Providing that quarrying is undertaken on a modest scale, ecological damage should be minimal. Where a form of strip mining may have to be practised, damage to the environment obviously will be more severe. In such instances, consideration should be given to the pro- tection of areas noted for their flora and/or fauna. I . 1. 6. Social and Cultural Considerations 1. 1.6. 1. Hindrance or damage to existing buildings and public areas should be minimised. The existing quarries, and the proposed quarry in Virgin Gorda, are well located in this respect. 1. 1.6. 2. If the occasion of large scale quarrying in Anegada arises, a study should be made of its impact on ground water. At present, Anegada is served by brackish water in the west, and a potable water supply in the central and eastern areas. Quarrying at too great a depth could adversely affect this supply. 1.1.7. Economic Considerations It appears doubtful whether public revenue obtained from quarrying will remain but slight in the immediate future, unless any large scale activity occurs in Anegada. Of far greater importance is the sector's contribution to the Territory's economy, both in the form of employ- ment and a local supply of material for the construction industry. It should be emphasized, however, that quarried stone is a completely non-renewable asset of the Islands; substantial exportation would be a one-time occurrence.and revenue appropriate to the loss of this asset should be derived. 1.1.8. Recommendations 1. 1.8. 1. The existing Mining Ordinance (1972) contains several provisions for the protection of the environment and social and cultural interests (see Appendix I). Although comprehensive within its present limits, it is recommended that the Ordinance be amended to include minerals exploited for the purposes of road making, building and construction. 1.1.8. 2. If any large-scale quarrying or mining is envisaged, the owner or * ~~~lessee of the land should be made liable for the restoration of the quarried or mined land. I~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~l 1. 2. Offshore Dredging 1. 2. 1. Existing Legislation 1. 2. 1. 1. Although no Ordinance exists with regard to dredging, this activity is regulated by the issuance of permits. Approval for a permit is at least partially dependent upon whether the proposed operation satisfies the guidelines pertaining to the section Shoreline Alterations or Modifications of Submerged Lands, within the Land Development Control Guidelines (1972). Except with the written permission of the Land Development Control Authority, applicants are to provide the following information: a) a written report of an investigation of the site and adjacent pro- perties, to be conducted by competent professional personnel (preferably with local expertise), covering ecological and hydro- logical conditions, and predicting probable effect of the operation; b) supporting material, such as maps, photographs and profiles, as required by the scope and complexity of the work and site; c) an in-depth description of resulting modifications and alterations to the seabed; d) a description of the methods and details of supervisory control procedures, and the credentials of the personnel involved in that capacity. 1. 2. 1. 2. Under the guidelines, the permitee is required to suspend operations if the permit terms are deviated from, or if associated environmental damage or water quality degradation is unacceptable to the Land Dev- elopment Control Authority. The permitee is fully liable for all dam- ages resulting from the operation. 1. 2. 1. 3.As a general rule, only land disposal of spoil from dredging opera- tions is permitted, and must be accomplished with adequate provision for the settling of suspended material and return to the sea of clear effluent. 1.2. 1.4. Special fees may be levied on the applicant for the evaluation of the application in the case where data and reports are inadequate or, in the opinion of the Authority, additional studies are required. 1. 2. 1. 5. A permit award is not regarded as a property right and may be -min- ated after a hearing in the public interest is held. 1. 2. 2. Existing Conditions 1. 2. 2. 1. Under the present system, the Ministry of Natural Resources and Public Healthis responsible for processing any application form. A permit is granted if the Chief Minister's Office, with advice from the Town and Country Planner, approves the application. Any large dredging operation is considered by the Governor in Council. I1 .2.2.2. In 1974, three concerns were permitted to begin feasibility studies for the dredging of sand, and one was granted a permit. 1.2. 2. 3. Royalties of 40� (US) per cubic yard of dredged sand are payable to the Government. In addition, a royalty for the use of the seabed is assessed. The formula used for assessment is held confidential. I i. 2.2. 4. Some of the largest dredging operations in the past have been assoc- iated with land fills, during the construction of Wickham's Cay, a total of 800, 000 cubic Yjards of coral sand was dredged from Road I ~~~Town Bay. Many other small operations occur, some apparently with- out Government permission, such as those occasionally undertaken by a few hoteliers in Virgin Gorda in an attempt to refurbish tourist *~~~~beaches. 1. 2. 3. Aesthetic Considerations The removal of seabed vegetation and its accompanying animal life may be regarded by scuba divers and snorkelers as aesthetic degradation. Of more importance, however, is the ecological im- pact. I . 2. 4. Ecological Considerations 1. 2.4. 1. Damage caused by dredging can be severe, and extend over a large area. Within the immediate site of the dredging operation, recovery by marine biota is dependent upon the type of operation utilized. Deep hole dredging more than often creates 'dead pockets', which are not reclaimed by biota, whereas shallow dredging appears to present less damaging consequences. 1. 2.4.2. Even some distance away from the dredging site, however, reef communities may be destroyed by a resulting reduction in photosyn- thesis, caused by the suspension of disturbed sand particles, and by the physical smothering of the reefs. The dredging of coral sand from Road Bay, for example, may well have created the impover- ished areas of marine flora and fauna in the Slaney area (Richards and Dumbleton, 1972, F10). 1. 2. 5. Social and Cultural Considerations 1. 2. 5. 1. Dredging operations in the vicinity of Road Town has led to the uncov- ering of an historical marine wreck and relics (the H. M. S. Nymph) It is quite possible that other wrecks will be found during future dredg- ing activities. 1. 2. 5. 2. Those reefs that may be damaged by dredging, however, are also part of the society's heritage, and as such should be protected as fully as is feasible. 1.2.6. Economic Considerations 1.2. 6. 1. The potential of dredged material as a valuable export commodity for the Territory is considerable, both in terms of Government roy- alties and overseas income. Also, a cheap and reliable source of sand can only benefit the domestic construction industry. 1. 2. 6. 2. The cost to the Government of enforcing any dredging regulations should be covered by the permitee. 1. 2. 7. Recommendations Although the guidelines pertaining to dredging activities in the Land Development Control Guidelines are thorough and extensive, these should be further enforced by a simple amendment to the existing Mining Ordinance (1972) to include dredged minerals. A provision against the polluting of water, so as to be "injurious to human, an- imal or vegetable life", exists already in the above Ordinance, and should be construed to include the protection of reef communities. Ii. ~2. 7. 2. No regulations exist pertaining to the types of dredging that should be allowed, nor in which areas within the Territory should dredging be permitted or prohibited. In the view that some dredged areas will I ~~~be able to renew themselves naturally, while others will not, that dredging operations in certain areas will be more detrimental to the surrounding marine environment than in others, and that certain types of dredging are more detrimental than others, there is a need for * ~~~such regulations. 1. 3. Removal of Sand from Beaches 1.3. 1. Existing Legislation 1.3. 1.1. Under the Beach Protection Ordinance (1960), the Governor in Coun- cil may declare any beach or seashore in the Territory to be protect- ed. Once protected, no sand, stones, shingle or gravel may be dug or removed without a written permit obtained from the Ministry of Nat- ural Resources and Public Health. The Protected Beaches Order (1961), under the provisions of the above Ordinance, declared 17 beaches to be protected in Tortola and Beef Island, 13 beaches in Virgin Gorda, 3 in Jost Van Dyke, and 1 on Cooper Island. In addition, all the beaches were declared protect- ed in Anegada, Little Jost Van Dyke and seven other smaller islands. 1. 3. 1. 3. By further Statutory Orders, the beaches of Guana Island and Peter Island were declared protected in 1962 and 1963 respectively. 1. 3. 2. Existing Conditions 1.3. 2.1. In the recent past, permits have been granted for the removal of beach material from Brandywine Bay, CareGarden Bay, Long Bay (Belmont), Brewer's Bay, and Cappoon's Bay - all in Tortola, and previously declared as protected beaches - and from one in Virgin Gorda near Spanish Town. 1. 3. 2.2. In practice, however, sand removal ('proggingt) occurs on both pro- tected and non-protected beaches, with or without permit. Brewer's U ~~~~Bay beach is rapidly deteriorating through its utilization for local construction activities. Other beaches, where no permits have been granted, display obvious signs of beach removal. One is Josiah's Bay, where in late 1974 the illegal removal of sand for export to St. Thomas was halted by Government action. Again in February 1975, however, reports were made of beach removal from the same location. Sand removal is also notable in the Little Apple Bay area. 1. 3. 2. 3. In Virgin Gorda, the 'Government has opened up a road to Copper I ~~~~Mine Bay to allow access for trucks to remove sand. The bay is * ~~~~situated on the eastern side of the valley (away from the popular beach areas on the western side), consists of relatively coarse sand, I ~~~~~is partly overgrown with vegetation, and cannot be considered an * ~~~~aesthetically outstanding beach. I 1. 3.2. 4. Sand purportedly is taken from Handsome Bay, one of the few other beaches in Virgin Gorda allowing easy access to heavy vehicles. I1.3. 3. Future Development I 1. 3. 3.1. Around 1970, an attempt originating within the Government was made to further protect beaches from sand removal. It was not fully agreed upon at the time, however, whether to protect all beaches in the Terr- itory, or whether to project listed beaches. This dichotomy of approach has still to be finally resolved., and until resolved could'hamper future * ~~~~legislation. 1. 3. 4. Aesthetic Considerations 1. 3. 4. 1. The Territory's beaches undoubtedly form one of its outstanding natural assets. The aesthetic impact of large-scale 'progging' is easily perceived, as is witnessed at Brewer's Bay. 1. 3. 4.2. Included amonggthose beaches for which permits have been issued are Cane Garden Bay and Long Bay (Belmont). Both are probably among the most beautiful beaches in the Territory and both should be Vpro- tected' in the fullest sense. i . 3. 5. Ecological Considerations 1. 3. 5. 1. The rate of renewal of beach material is far from uniform throughout the Territory and depends upon several factors - including the speed, intensity and direction of swell and currents, the marine bedrock configuration, and local headland topography. 1. 3. 5. 2. The best beaches within the Territory generally occur on the northern coasts, where beach renewal is the most rapid. Those beaches loc- ated along the southern shorelines, where swell activity is less pro- nounced, experience a far slower turnover - and hence renewal - of beach material. An example is Well Bay, to the South-West of Beef Island Airport. Its beach material was used for the construction of the submarine base in St. Thomas in 1942. Over thirty years later, it remains a coral beach, without having renewed itself. Similarly, it is doubtful whether sand renewal at Copper Mine Bay will occur read- ily. 1. 3. 6. Social and Cultural Considerations 1.3. 6. 1. At present, it is extremely difficult for the Beach Protection Ordinance to be upheld - not only because the Police are understaffed for the task, but also because public help generally is not readily forthcoming; an example is the Josiah's Bay incident in early 1975. As of yet, it would appear that the social long-term value of beaches is outweighed by their short term economic potential. 1. 3. 7. Economic Considerations 1.3. 7. 1. The removal of a small amount of sand, free of charge, by a permit holder, probably causes little damage - if any - to the beaches. The amount of illegal 'progging' would appear to be responsible for most of the present damage. Because beach removal is such a cheap and convenient way of obtaining sand, however, it is doubtful whether econ- omic inducements alone will curtail the practice. 1. 3. 7.2. Although, ecologically, authorized removal of sand from the northern shores would be better (if not desirable) than from others because of more rapid beach renewal, this could well have a serious impact on the tourism trade. I. 3. 8. Recommendations 1. 3.8. 1. Legislation prohibiting the removal of sand from all but a few chosen beaches such as Copper Mine Bay would simplify the present task of policing, where both legal and illegal 'progging' may occur on the same beach. Where no beach on a particular island meets the criteria of easy access, little aesthetic value, as well as little recreational use, then 'progging' should be severely limited, if not prohibited, on that island. 1. 3. 8. 2. The 1972 Mining Ordinance was cited by the Government in preventing sand removal from Josiah's Bay. Since it is of question whether in fact sand and other beach material are included under the existing Ord- inance, the latter should be amended to definitely stipulate such mater- ials. 1. 3.8.3. Policing alone will not prevent illegal beach removal. Public support is required, and could be increased by a publicity campaign through the existing media directed against the practice. 1. 4. 4. Aesthetic Considerations 1.4. 4. 1. If prospecting is successful, some of the oil rigs constructed would be visible from adjacent shorelines, especially those of Anegada. 1.4.5. Ecological Considerations An ever-increasing - if not large - risk is incurred over time with regard to oil spillage from offshore drilling operations. The risk of beach pollution would be greater if the rigs wre situated to the east of the main chain of islands, because of the prevailing winds and currents (see the section, 'Oil Pollution'). 1. 4. 5.2. It should be mentioned that oil slicks originating from accidental spillages are few in comparison with those caused by deliberate discharge from vessels at sea. Any landing and loading activities at Anegada or any other island would be a pollution risk, however. 1. 4. 5. 3. The Petroleum Mining Ordinance (as amended, 1973) already pro- vides for the establishment of a safety area around any pretroleum mining installation erected on the sea bed. 1. 4. 6. Social and Cultural Considerations I1.4.6.1. These are discussed indirectly under subsections IV and VIi. I 1. 4. 7. Economic Considerations I1. 4. 7. 1. Although little direct employment would result for British Virgin Islanders, general employment in the economy would certainly in- N ~~~crease with a major oil or gas find. I1. 4. 7. 2. Compensation for any damage to public or private property and wild- life, as well as for the cost of cleaning up operations that result from mining activities, should be provided for in the Petroleum Mining Regulations. 1. 4.8. Recommendations 1. 4. 8. 1. Because of the complex and violent geologic history of the region, oil reserves - if found - may be dispersed in several small pockets. Exploitation of these pockets should be tempered by the amound of risk of pollution from each location. In certain zones, the liability of dam- age to beaches and reefs, in the event of an oil spill, would be greater * ~~~than in others. I1. 4. 8.2. It is therefore suggested that if several oil pockets of exploitable size are discovered, an analysis of the dispersal patterns of surface currents I~ ~ ~~an d winds be made, in order to divide the territorial waters into zones of pollution hazard to the islands. Mining in a high hazard area could be burdened with a higher 'site tax' or royalty than in a low hazard I ~~~area. This procedure would not be particularly novel, in that the same principle of risk accounting is used in all private insurance schemes. In this case, however, the risk to public facilities would be accounted for. 1. 4. 8. 3. In the possibility that pollution emanating from the Territory's act- ivities may affect neighbouring islands, a Petroleum Mining (Oil Pollution Compensation) Bill - similar to the presently pending AMer- chant Shipping (Oil Pollution Compensation) Bill - could be introduced, setting up an international compensation fund. 1. 5. Other Activities I5. 1. Salt is still traditionally harvested from shallow ponds at Salt Island, and small quantities are sold in the other islands. 1. 5. 2. A more destructive activity that is undertaken on the larger islands is the stripping of topsoil for sale, primarily to the large hotels for horticultural use. In Virgin Gorda, the topsoil originates from the southern part of the Valley, and is sold for $16. 00 to $18. 00 per cub- ic yard. This practice not only destroys the protective vegetation, but also would appear to contravene the Government's policy of en- couraging agriculture. The Islands hardly have enough soil for it to be abused in this fashion. U ~~~2. DEVELOPMENT AND CONSTRUCTION I 2. 1. Existing Legislation 2. 1. 1. The Building Ordinance (1955) established the Building Authority, U ~~~to review proposed building plans and give permission for construe- tion. Amendments to the Ordinance (1967 and 1969) provide for re- gulations concerning the dimensions of a building, Jts proportion to plot area, and the methods and materials to be used. 2. 1. 2. The intention of the Land Development (Control) Ordinance (1969, 3 ~~~as renewed 1974) is to "1make provision for the orderly and progres- sive development of land, whether urban or rural, to preserve and improve the amenities thereof, for the grant of permission to sub- I ~~~divide or develop land and for other mattcrs connected therewith. ' I ~2. 1. 2. 1. Unde'r the Ordinance, the Land Development Control Authority is 3 ~~~established, from which approval is required for the development or sub-division of any land, other than that for agricultural purposes I ~~~~and forestry; for the display of any advertisement on a building or 3 ~~~~hoarding; and for certain types of development within stipulated dis- tances from any airfield. .2. 1. 3. In addition, the Land Development Control Guidelines (1972) outline I ~~~the requirements needed for development permission to be granted 3 ~~~by the Authority. Among others, these cover the height and density of buildings, parking spaces, sewage systems, and shoreline alter- ations or modifications of submerged lands. The Guidelines also establish a land use policy to help determine which types of develop- ment should be approved of in different types of areas. (Appendix III) 2. 1. 4. The Wickham's Cay Development Authority Ordinance (1975) provides for the establishment of an Authority to promote the control and dev- elopment of the Wickham's Cay Estate, whose assets were taken over by the Government in 1971. 2. 2. Existing Conditions 2. 2. 1. Physical development plans for the Territory have been drafted by the for- mer resident UNDP Town and Country Planner (Mr. Ove Anderson), and include a Draft Territorial Plan, a Master Plan for East End/Long Look, and the Road Town Master Plan, which has been approved by the Government. A Master Plan for the Valley, Virgin Gorda, as well as various 'action area' plans are underway. These plans present a rational and sound mode of development for the Territory, and should be adhered to as closely as possible. 2.2.2. The Land Development Control Guidelines are policy outlines only, and not regulations; to a certain extent, this is advantageous in allowing an amount of flexibility in considering applications. At the same time, they do provide justification for accepting or rejecting a vevelopment application. The Authority itself has legal jurisdiction to enforce its decisions, and recently upheld an order in court for the removal of a billboard from Wickham's Cay I. 2.2.3. Because of the recent inception of the Guidelines (1972), many of the larger development schemes - especially those involving land- fill - were completed without their control; these include Wickham's Cay, Slaney (Prospect) Reef, and Peter Island Yacht Club. The strict guidelines under the section, Shoreline Alterations or -Modifications of Submerged Lands (see 'Offshore Dredging') have since been imple- mented to prevent undesirable land fill schemes, including at least three in the Sea Cow Bay area. 2. 2. 4. The procedure for obtaining development permission has become more complex with the establishment of new departments in recent years. Previously, it was sufficient for an applicant to obtain an Alien Land Holding Licence (if he were a'hon-belonger'), together with a permit from the Building Authority if the proposed development was in Road Town, East End/Long Look, or within 30 feet of a public road. i) At present, in order to obtain an Alien Land Holding Licence, the following steps must be taken: a) the development scheme is to be submitted to the Town and Country Planning Office and approved by the Land Development Control Auth- ority; b) the land involved is to be registered with the Survey Department; c) clearance is to be given by the Ministry of Natural Resources and Public Health. Once the licence is issued: a) the land is to be surveyed by a licenses surveyor, and his plans checked by the Survey Department; b) if subdivision of a land plot is involved, approval must be obtained from the Land Development Control Authority; c) the ownership, location and size of the land is to be filed with the Registrar's Office. iii) In addition, approval for buildings and facilities must be obtained from the Building Authority, the Public Health Department, and - if on Wickham's Cay - from the Development Authority. 2. 3. Future Development 2. 3. I. Because of the multiple steps and departments involved for develop- ment approval, confusion often arises, especially with regard to the respective roles of the Building Authority and Land Development Con- trol Authority. For six months in 1970, the two were integrated, but then separated. Towards the end of 1975, it is anticipated that the two Authorities will again be incorporated into one. 2. 3. 2. At the end of August, 1974, a Land Policy (Lands) Committee was set up to advise the Government on the future use of Crown Land (includ- ing the sea bed), its methods of disposal and rental, and to advise on the prevention of alienation of Crown & private land. Altogether, some 39% of the Territory's land is still vested in the Crown, although the amount varies from island to island: 5% in Tortola, 9% in Jost Van Dyke, 61% in Virgin Gorda, 99. 9% (all but 9.5 acres) in Anegada and 100%7 in many of the smaller out-islands. A report to the Government is expected in the near future. 2. 3. 3. Pending legislation includes the Condominiums Ordinance and the Buildings Ordinance. 2. 4. Aesthetic Considerations 2. 4. 1. Most development schemes undertaken are relatively small in scale, and consideration is given to their aesthetic aspects by the concerned authorities. 2. 4. 2. The unsightly development of mobile home parks is prevented under the External Trade (Import Restriction) (Caravans) Order (1969), which prohibits importation into the Territory of any caravan (mobile home) except with a licence and subject to the conditions made. 2. 4. 3. In the industrial sector, some concentration is occurring on Wickham's Cay; these concerns, as well as the new dock facilities at Port Pur- cell, are generally well maintained. 2. 5. Ecological Considerations 2.5. -1. Of potentially major ecological importance is the practice of land fill ('reclamation') associated with coastal development schemes and garbage dumps. The several land fills in Road Bay - such as Slaney Reef, Drake's hgVay, Queen Elizabeth Park, Wickham's Cay (approximately 60 acres), the Port Purcell area and Caribbean Service Yachts ilar- ina - have resulted in the near complete removal of a once extensive mangrove area, and with it a sizeable bird nesting and fish breeding nursery area. The declining fish yields experienced by local fishermen must at least be partly contributable to the removal of these mangroves. The ecological importance of both mangroves and salt ponds is being increasingly realized by the Government, however, and strict enforce- ment of the already existing guidelines should minimize the adverse impact of future landfill schemes. 2. 6. Social and Cultural Considerations 2. 6. 1. A recent and encouraging trend in building has been the incorporation of some of the more traditional architectural styles of the region, such as the use of gable roofs and archways (although the latter are more reminiscent of Cruzan architecture than Tortolan). Some good examples are the newer buildings on Wickhames Cay I, which appear more in sympathy with their cultural surroundings than their predecessors. 2. 7. Economic Considerations 2. 7. 1. Although many of the construction materials for the generally high- cost buildings are necessarily imported, a conscious effort - both by Government and private concerns - is being made to produce or pro- cess at least some of the needed materials within the Territory. The local manufacture of concrete blocks and furniture is undertaken, and encouraged under legislation (The Encouragement of Industries Ord- inance). Almost all of the wooden fixtures used in the largest develop- ment presently under way (Prospect Reef) are being made on site by local craftsmen. This approach should be further encouraged for its obvious benefits to other sectors of the economy. 2. 7.2. Landfill operations are relatively low-cost, and produce land ideal for many types of development. They are commonly located central to urban areas and in regions where existing flat or gently sloping land is scarce, and hence expensive. On the other hand, mangrove and other wetland areas traditionally have been regarded as of low - or even negative - value in that they harbour mosquitoes. Although advantageous for construction, however, the gross (rather than net) costs of landfill should be considered, which may include reduced fish yields, damage to reef ecosystems, the destruction of rich wild- life habitats, and reduced access to the sea. 2. 8. Recommendations 2. 8. 1. In an attempt to prevent confusion and departmental overlapping, the Town and Country Planner has suggested procedural modifications for application approval ('Legislation and Administration', Draft Territorial Plan). The Town and Country Planning Department would act as a centre for application and information, and hold a single file for each applicant (instead of the present many files scattered in var- ious departments). The applicant's file would be given to, and returned by, each of the concerned departments. As Mr. Anderson points out, 2.8.1. (cont.) the use of one comprehensive file system would allow for a continu- ous check on the course of the application, and each department would be more aware of what the other was doing. We recommend these suggested procedural modifications. (See Appendices IVa and IVb. 3. DISPOSAL OF LITTER, WASTE AND POLLUTANTS E 3. 1. Solid Waste Disposal on Land 3. 1. 1. Existing Legislation Under the Public Health Ordinance (1969), the Central Board of Health was established, and may make regulations for preventing the accumulation of dust, filth, ashes and refuse on premises; for pre- scribing the type of dustbins or refuse collectors to be used; and for facilitating the removal of house refuse by scavengers. 3. 1. 1.2. Nuisances listed under the Ordinance include waste receptacles, ex- posed empty bottles, cans and other litter that may serve as a shel- ter or breeding place for insects or vermin that carry infectious dis- eases, and any collection of still water within inhabited areas that is not Sroperly covered or screened, stocked with fish, or covered with a continuous film of oil. 3. 1. 1. 3. It is unlawful under the Abatement of Litter Ordinance (1970) to litter in any public place, except by disposal in the receptacles to be pro- vided for under the Ordinance. Any person transporting litter must ensure that it is not scattered. Also, it is unlawful for a person to allow any accumulation of litter on his premises that may endanger the public health. 3.1. 1.4. Under the Derelict Motor Vehicles (Disposal) Ordinance (1970, as amended 1975), the owner of an abandoned or disused vehicle is liable for its removal. If the vehicle is not removed within a stipulated per- iod after the Public Transportation Commission serves notice, he may be fined, and forced to pay the cost of removal. The Commission has the power to dispose of the vehicle if not claimed. 3.1. 1.5. The section Garbage Disposal of the Land Development Control Guidelines (1972) states that all householders, tenants, or owners should provide a suitable garbage bin with cover, and ensure its pro- tection from being knocked over. W1herever feasible, a developer should provide a garbage collection and disposal service, and must provide for a disposal reservation area. 3. 1. 2. Existing Conditions 3. 1. 2. 1. Improvements in refuse collection have occurred since 1970, at which time onegarbage truck and team were responsible for the whole of Tortola with the exception of Cane Garden Bay and Carrot Bay, which contracted privately. In 1971, collection and disposal were under- taken by private contractors for almost all of Tortola and half of Virgin Gorda at a cost of $109, 369.00 to the Territory. Since 1972, the Public Health Department gradually has taken over full respon- sibility, and there are now weekly services for Virgin Gorda and rural Tortola, with daily collections in Road Town. The other is- lands have no public collection service. 1.Tortola a) The salt pond at Duff's Bottom serves as the official garbage dump for the island. Although adjacent to Drake's Highway, the area is screened from view. Many unofficial dumps exist, especially in the ghuts and in wooded wetland areas (such as at Flamingo Pond, away from the road). b) Litter receptacles are provided along Main Street, Tortola, but few are located elsewhere in the island. These receptacles and private garbage bins occasionally are knocked over by wander- I ing animals, including nightly foraging donkeys However, the streets in Road Town are kept diligently clean by the employed sweeper. c) The haphazard abandonment of derelict vehicles has been a com- mon practice in the past. Useful work of clearing the vehicles has been undertaken both by the Rotary International and Lion's Club. In one area of Road Town (opposite Smith's Store), however, as soon as one derelict vehicle was removed another took its place. It remains to be seen how effective the amendment to the Dere- lict Mlotor Vehicles (Disposal) Ordinance will be. 3. 1.2. 1. 2.Virgin Gorda a) Two dumps are presently in use - one at Copper Mine Hill serv- ing the St. Thomas Bay area, and the other at The Bond, serving Gun Creek. 1 The Pound (Amendment) Ordinance (1972), prohibiting owners to allow their stock to stray in public places, is non-effective. b) The only litter receptacles existing are those that have been placed by public-minded groups, such as the Boys' Club, the B.V. I. Hotel and Tourist Association, and the Beautification Committee. Unless cleared regularly, however, litter builds up and eventually overflows. c) Virgin Gorda is probably the one island that suffers most from the littering of its beaches, especially by visiting yachtsmen, campers, and cruise ship passengers. The only cleaning up is undertaken by a group of concerned individuals at Spring Bay and the Baths. For a brief period before March, 1975, an agree- ment between the B. V. I. Hotel and Tourist Association and the Tourist Board existed for financing the removal of litter, but this was terminated after it became clear that the former organiza- tion was in effect, paying all of the expenses. d) The abandonment of derelict vehicles does not pose such a pro- blem as in Tortola, although a few can be seen, such as the one on the Virgin Gorda Peak Road. Derelict boats are found, but these generally are regarded as more "picturesque" than rusted- out automobiles. Anegada a) Garbage is of a small volume, and some is disposed of in a dump- ing site near the Settlement. The remainder is scattered haphaz- ardly, serving primarily as goat food, and consituting a health hazard. 3. 1. 2. 1.4. Other Islands a) Jost Van Dyke is served by a dumping site near Great Har- bour. Garbage on most of the other inhabited islands is either burned, buried or haphazardly dumped. 3. 1. 3. Future Development A Bill pending would regulate camping activities and associated litter. S3.1.3.2. Tentative planning permission has been granted by the LDCA for the establishment of an African kraal-type, permanent camp site in Virgin Gorda catering primarily to younger and/or less affluent tourists. If successful, this development may have a beneficial impact in controlling unregulated camping and litter- ing. 3. 1. 4. Aesthetic Considerations 3. 1. 4. 1. From comments made by visitors in Tortola and Virgin Gorda, it is apparent that the visual impact of litter is high. Many of the tourists visit the Territory because of its near pristine quality; a deserted but littered beach may be just as off-putting to these visitors as one which is heaving with people. 3. 1. 5. Ecological Considerations 3. 1.5. 1. Garbage disposal in a wetland area has the same impact as any other landfillprocess. See 'Development and Construction' (5.1). 3. 1. 6. Social and Cultural Considerations Untreated solid waste makes an excellent haven for disease-carrying rodents and insects. Discarded cans and broken bottles in particular are highly suited for harbouring mosquito larvae. 3. 1. 6.2. In an attempt to discourage littering, public service messages are broadcast over the local radio station. Simple but effective in approach, they are aimed at associating litter with the maintenance of public health, and may meet partial success. 3.1. 7. Economic Considerations The disposal of garbage in any small insular system is difficult and costly. Certain ad hoc measures may be taken in order to penalize the pockets of litterers, and these are discussed under 'Recommenda- tions 3. 1. 7.2. The only long-term and comprehensive policy is to regard solid waste as a potential resource of the Territory. A recycling plant, once established, would require little, if any, financial input from the Government. In Alexandria, Virginia, a large plant has been established by a private concern at a cost of $155, 000. 00; it can accommodate 100 tons of garbage a day, and make a profit for its owners of $11. 00 per ton of recycled glass, paper and metals. A plant serving the Territory need be far smaller, and hence less expensive to establish. 3. 1.8. Recommendations As a member of the Government remarked, legislation is littered with Ordinances that are not enforced. More stringent enforcement of the existing Ordinances is the obvious first step. More litter receptacles - that are regularly emptied - are needed, especially in the vicinity of the more popular beaches. Road side receptacles, to be used by motorists, would also be beneficial. Use of the existing receptacles in urban areas could be encouraged by the application of a bright coating of paint in order to make them more visible. 3. 1. 8. 3.When the Abatement of Litter Ordinance (1970) was being drafted, consideration was given to the control of unsightly waste on private property; unfortunately, this was omitted from the final draft. In order to enhance the beauty of particularly the urban areas, it is recommended that the Ordinance be amended to include a provision similar to that in the Amenities (Control of Dumps and Ruinous Structures) Act (1950) of Bermuda: "No person shall cause or allow a dump or ruinous struc- ture to be or to remain on any premises owned or occup- ied by him in any case where the dump or structure is unsightly and is conspicuous to a material degree in view of persons in any public place in the vicinity." 3. 1. 8.4. The discarding of drink containers could be reduced by making them returnable. A scheme could be devised whereby a deposit charge is imposed by Customs officers on the wholesaler, which is then passed on to the retailer, and in turn included in the price to the customer. The consumer would be reimbursed upon returning the containers to central collection points, or to a recycling plant if es- tablished. The scheme would also encourage the public to pick up already discarded containers. 3. 1. 8. 5. If the recent amendment to the Derelict Motor Vehicles (Disposal) Ordinance proves ineffective, other measures could be taken. One would be whereby the owner of a car pays a deposit at the time of it importation, to be returned only after the car is properly disposed of. If the owner sells the car, his deposit is returned, but the new owner has to pay a similar deposit. An even more effective measure, which would apply to those vehicles already in the Territory, would be to prohibit a person from purchasing a new car until his old one was properly disposed of. Upon disposal, a permit would be issued, to be shown to the Customs officials before the replacement vehicle was allowed entry. 3. 1. 8. 6. Many hotels and restaurants with a high garbage disposal demand would best be served by a private, rather than public, collection service, which would be financed by the businesses served. Not only would this alternative service lessen the burden placed upon its public counterpart, but also offer a more complete service to the businesses, especially those in Virgin Gorda. 3. 2. Disposal of Waste and Pollutants at Sea 3. 2. 1. Existing Legislation 3. 2. 1. 1. The Harbours and Wharves Ordinance (1955) regulates against "the discharge of refuse and other articles from, and the pumping of bilges by, vessels in harbours". It applies only to barbours that have been declared by the Governor in Council. 3. 2. 1. 2. Under the Petroleum Ordinance (1972), the Governor may make rules concerning the safe mooring of ships carrying petroleum in territor- ial waters; the lading and unlading of ships with petroleum; and the keeping of petroleum on board motor boats. 3. 2. 2. Existing Conditions 3.2.2. 1. Although a majority of the large number of bare-boat charterers and boat owners act in a responsible manner concerning waste dispos- al, a few instances of irresponsible action have been reported. The 'Flying Cloud', a Windjammerbarquentine, was twice reported in February, 1975 - once for dumping its garbage off Guana Island, and the other for pumping out its bilges between Salt and Cooper Islands. The schooner 'Yankee Clipper' (another Windjammer ship) has been photographed with its crew dumping garbage into the Bight, Norman Island. The 'Gorda Peak' (a locally owned landing barge) while retarring its decks early in 1975, apparently dumped all of the old tar into St. Thomas Bay, Virgin Gorda, as well as pump- ing out its bilges. 3. 2.2. 2. The yacht charter concerns have responded strongly to any littering by their clients. They enforce their own anti-litter regulations, are keen to report instances of irresponsible waste disposal, and on a few occasions have been known even to fine those clients who have dumped garbage. Oil pollution of beaches occurs mostly on Anegada, which is in the path of oil-bearing currents. A thick scattering of tar balls is found along the north-western beaches. 3. 2. 3. Future Development 3.2. 3. 1. Three Ordinances are pending with relation to oil pollution at sea: the Merchant Shipping (Oil Pollution) Ordinance, the Merchant Ship- ping (Oil Pollution Compensation) Ordinance, and the Prevention of Oil Pollution Ordinance. 3. 2. 4. Aesthetic Considerations 3. 2. 4. 1. Since most of the garbage and waste dumped at sea eventually is washed ashore, its impact on a beach may be just as severe as that dumped directly by beach users. A walk along the southern side of Wickham's Cay I is instructive in showing the type of litter, debris and tar that can accumulate. 3.2.5. Ecological Considerations 3. 2. 5. 1. Oil pollution is particularly hazardous to marine life and seabirds, often causing mortality. A build-up of pollutants in marinas and harbours may destroy fragile ecotone communities, which in turn may disrupt the food chain for other species. 3. 2. 6. Social and Cultural Considerations 3. 2. 6. 1. Of little impact, other than on aesthetic values, and the loss of lo- cal marine and other wildlife. 3.2. 7. Economic Considerations 3.2. 7. 1. Because of limited flushing action by the sea in Road Bay, oil poll- utants and other waste could increase to a level at which the still remaining mangroves no longer served as fish nursery areas. The impact on fish yields would be as severe as if the mangroves were destroyed. Disruption of the food chain would also cause a declining fish yield. 3. 2. 8. Recommendations 3. 2. 8. 1. The Government is hesitant to legislate for bays and coves other than declared harbours, in that by doing so it may obligate itself to provide extra services. However, further legislation is urgent- ly needed to prohibit littering and other dumping within Territorial waters. The pending oil pollution Ordinances should help to inhibit tanker cleaning on the open sea, as well as provide for compensation for oil slick damage. 3 .3. Sewage Disposal 3.3. 1. Existing Legislation 3.3. 1. 1. Under the Public Health Ordinance (1969), every local authority is to ensure the sanitory upkeep of all sewers, privies, urinals and other conveniences, as well as the maintainence of an efficient effluent removal service. Adequate provisions must be made for each building with relation to sewage disposal. Dwelling houses are to be provided with a "sufficient" privy, according to the regulations of the Central Board of Health. Provisions are made in the Ordinance for the filling up of cess pits. 3. 3. 1. 2. The Land Development Control Guidelines (1972) include regulations regarding sewage disposal, but these pertain primarily to planned rather than existing buildings. A waterborne sewage system linked to a septic tank, or a more sophisticated treatment facility, is to be used, except where a comprehensive sewage system already exists. Septic tanks must be located a stipulated distance away from a build- ing, and to be located so as to enable eventual connection to a main sewage system. Technical wastes may require special treatment before discharge. All new sewage disposal plans must be approved by the Land Development Control Authority. 3. 3. 2. Existing Conditions 3. 3. 2. 1. The prevailing sewage disposal conditions in the Territory can only be described as unsatisfactory, as has been mentioned previously in the Richards and Dumbleton Report (1972), and reflected by the data presented in the 1971 Medical Health Department Survey (see table below). TABLE I: SEWAGE FACILITIES, 1971 (% of buildings) Tortola Virgin Gorda Road East End/ Island Town Long Look Total Total Served by: main sewage system 4 0 1 0 septic tanks 72 44 47 18 sewage pits 13 34 24 49 no sanitary facilities 11 22 28 33 100 100 100 00 3.3.2. 2. Tortola 3. 3.2. 2. 1. The data suggests that a latrine programme, which was incorporat- ed in the Health Programme of 1968, met with limited success. In 1971, among the areas with the highest percentage of buildings served by no sanitary facilities were Carrot Bay (62%), Brewerts Bay (55o%) and Can Garden Bay (47%). In such coastal areas, many of the lat- rines existing discharge directly into the sea within a few feet of the shoreline. In areas aways from the coast, the bush and ghuts are most common in the absence of facilities, although the excrement is usually burned. Most of the excrement dumped into the ghuts eventually is flushed down by stormwater to the alluvial aquifers, and although percolation through the alluvium acts as a natural filter, some contamination of the groundwater is inevitable (see Mather, 1971, p. 19). Road Town i) As a result of provisions made at the time of construction of Wickham's Cay, the adjacent properties from Treasure Isle Hotel to the 'Poop Deck' (now renamed 'Friends') are served by the Cay's sewer system. A more comprehensive system was envisaged originally (Neervort, 1967), to extend from Slaney Point to Fort Hill, as well as serving Pasea Hall Estate, Long Bush and Huntum's Ghut. According to Richards and Dumbleton (1972, Fo 3), "only certain sewers have been laid, and the lines of these have departed considerably from those proposed in the Report". ii) The Wickham's Cay facilities have proved a mixed blessing. The large landfillprevented direct drainage to the sea, and some properties continued to discharge their raw effluent to the old shoreline, or what is now the stormwater ghut between Wickham's Cay I and Main Street. Until recently, waste was still dumped into the ghut, and its dredging to below the level of the outfall had resulted in a stagnant, odorous pond. This has now been rectified by the construction of a storm sewage system. iii) S ewage from the old Administration Building and Customs House is discharged directly into the harbour without treatment. Richards and Dumbleton found bacteria in samples from Road Harbour too numerous to count, and concluded that the area in time could become severely polluted. The report recommended chlorination of effluent prior to discharge, and this is presently undertaken. iv)Septic tanks in the H-untum's Ghut and Long Bush Ghut housing areas are situated directly above the alluvial aquifer. The danger of its contamination by septic tank overflows and crude sewage was increased in 1970, when the Road Town water supply system was extended to the HTuntum's Ghut area. Richards and Dumbleton (1972, F. 4) commented that: "typhoid has occurred in the past and on a number of occasions there have been major outbreaks of stomach disorders. Although these could not definitely be att- ributed to the lack of adequate sewage facilities, this could well have been a contributory factor if not the main cause.... With the provision of an improved and extended water supply system, the present unsatisfac- tory state of affairs will become critical. 3.3.2. 2.3. The near completed Prospect Reef Hotel at Slaney has its own sewage treatment plant and recycling of water. East End - Long Look i) Because as yet no piped water system exists, the danger of ground- water contamination from septic tank overflow is less than in Road Town, but nevertheless present. Virgin Gorda 3.3.2. 3. 1. As shown in Table 1, about half of the island's buildings in 1971 were served by sewage pits; one-third had no sanitary facilities whatsoever; and less than one-fifth were served by septic tanks. The hotels of Little Dix and Biras Creek are served by their own sewage treat- ment plants. 3. 3. 2. 4. Anegada Sewage is disposed of by septic tanks and pits. The small amount of effluent percolating into the soil causes minimal contamination to the groundwater. Because sand and porous limestone are poor fil- ters, however, and because of the high water-table, a future in- crease in the use of existing types of sewage facilities would pose a health hazard. Other Islands 1.With the exception of a sewage package plant serving Peter Island Yacht Club, a few septic tanks exist, but more common use is made of sewage pits, the bush and the sea. Marinas and Harbours I3.3.2. 6. 1.All of the marinas in the Territory have toilet facilities for yachts- men on shore, and the majority of people use these facilities rather than the heads on their boats. At Virgin Gorda Yacht Harbour, eff- luent from the toilets on shore is pumped to a treatment plant, and thence to a sewage farm. The treated water is used for irrigating ornamental plants. Similarly, Peter Island Yacht Club has a soph- isticated treatment facility, and grey water is used for flushing pur- poses. 3.3. 2. 6. 2. Some of the marinas have installed a sewage pump-out system for every berth, but as yet no efficient boat fittings are available. 3.3.2. 6.3. The effectiveness of natural sea flushing of a harbour depends upon its location with regard to prevailing winds and currents. In Virgin Gorda Yacht Harbour, wind action blows most of the floating effluent out to sea, whereas in Road IHarbour, the prevailing onshore winds tend to push effluent back into the bay. Reference already has been made to the high bacterial count found in 1972 (see 2. 23 iii) 3. 3. 3. Future Development 3. 3. 3. 1. The Richards and Dumbleton recommendations have been accepted by the Government for both Road Town and East End-Long Look. The proposed sewage systems are expected to be adequate for de- mands until at least the early 1980's. 3. 3. 3. 2. The report finds no justification for the expense that would be in- curred in building a sewage treatment plant for either urban area at present. Instead, it recommends the use of chlorination and disintegrator pumps. According to the Public Works Department, however, a package plant is planned to be installed for the treatment of effluent carried by sewers in the John's Hole area. Road Town 3.3. 3.3. 1.The report advocates three phases for development; i) Phase I will extend the existing sewage system to include Long Bush and Huntum's Ghut. The existing outfall to the south of Wickham's Cay I, discharging 300 feet out at a depth of 30 feet, will remain in use. ii) Phase II will extend the sewage system to Slaney, and the old outfall will be replaced by one at Slaney, to discharge 600 feet away from the shoreline at a depth of 55 feet below mean sea level. iii)Phase III will extend the system from Treasure Isle Hotel east- wards to include Fort Hill and Baugher's Bay. 3.3.3. 3.2. Combined tenders for Phase I and Wickham's Cay remedial works were submitted in April, 1975, but even the lowest bid was substan- tially higher than the funds allotted by the Government. Unless more funds become available, both the sewage improvement scheme and the remedial works may be subject to modification. 3. 3.3.4. East End - Long Look 1.The report proposes a mains sewage system for the area. After passing through disintegrator pumps, the sewage will be discharged through a new outfall 1200 feet north of IHlawks Nest at a depth of 30 feet. 3.3.4. Aesthetic Considerations 3. 3. 4. 1. Untreated sewage has an unpleasant visual and olfactory impact, especially in the instance of floating effluent in harbours. 3.3.5. Ecological Considerations 3. 3. 5. 1. Although chlorination of sewage undoubtedly is required under the present system, it does have a harmful impact on marine biota. 3.3.5. 2. In making their recommendations for the proposed sewage outfalls, it would appear that the Richards and Dumbleton team gave careful consideration to their ecological impact. l.The outfall serving Road Town will be located in an area of already impoverished marine biota. Moreover, sewage generally will be carried away from the shoreline. A possible site at DuffIs Bottom was rejected because of the "potential high entrophic conditions on Sea Cow Bay and Nanny Cay reefs and in the mangrove communities of these bays, with concurrent effects of reduced biotic diversity, lowered fish yields, loss of highly productive Thalassia-algal ass- emblages and reduced water quality" (F. 8) 3. 3. 5. 2. 2.Similarly, the Hawks Nest outfall for the East End-Long Look area was selected as "the least likely to cause damage to shore-side or marine biotic communities" (F. 15). 3. 3.6. Social and Cultural Considerations 3.3. 6.1. It must be accepted that an epidemic risk is associated with the present sewage facilities, which will increase if a water mains system is installed in areas without the concurrent installation of a foul water drainage system. This has occurred already in the H-untum's Ghut area and is particularly dangerous because of its situation above the alluvial aquifer. 3.3. B. 2.A polluted harbour or bay has social as well as aesthetic ramific- ations. Although Road Harbour is by no means as polluted as was Long Bay, St. Thomas, before the installation of a sewage treat- ment plant, lesser levels of pollution can be a health hazard to bathers. 3.3. 7. Economic Considerations 3.3. 7.1. The high cost of installing a mains sewage system and treatment plant poses a considerable problem for a small Territory receiving limited outside aid. The sole mains sewage system that exists was constructed by a private developer, but in all probability future dev- elopment costs will have to be borne by the public sector alone. 3.3. 7. 3.As mentioned in connection with solid waste, sewage can be con- ceived of as a potential resource of the Territory. In St. Croix, a small experimental station has been established to process sew- age: nitrogen and phosphorous compounds are extracted for use as farm fertilizer, and nutrients to support deep water algae, which in turn support clams to be used for animal feed. After chior- ination, the processed water is placed in ponds and allowed to per- colate into the ground to recharge the aquifer. Although this scheme is still in the experimental stage, it shows promise for transforming sewage from a harmful nuisance into a positive asset. 3. 3. 7. 3. As mentioned in the Richards and Dumbleton report, the cost to the property owner for connection to a mains sewage system will be appreciable, and legal action will be required to ensure that such connection occurs. .3. 37. 4.It is possible to successfully treat effluent at the source. In St. Lucia, the building codes have been altered to include 'destructor toilets', which use no water, but instead employ 'flash heat' destruc- tion, reducing effluent to harmless ashes. Installation costs are re- latively high (from US $400 upwards), but operation is cheap (2� to 4� per flush). Although perhaps too expensive for many property owners, the toilet's use would benefit the community as a whole if employed as an intermediate measure in conditions similar to those of Long Bush and Huntum's Ghut. 3. 3. 7. 5. Another solution for the above areas would be to provide toilets with a holding tank, which could be pumped out at intervals and the sludge transported to a sewage treatment plant. 3. 3. 8. Recommendations 3. 3. 8. 1. As noted in the Town Planner's Territorial Plan Draft (1973, p. 5), careful control is necessary over the future location of septic tanks for residences. In areas that are planned to be served by a mains sewage system, it would be wise to delay the introduction of a mains water system until the former is completed. In areas for which neither water nor sewage facilities are planned, large-scale devel- opments should be discouraged, unless the developers concerned provide adequate facilities at their own cost, 3. 3. 8. 2. In view of the possible existence of a largely untapped freshwater lens underlying part of Virgin Gorda, a general upgrading of sewage disposal facilities is needed if this potentially valuable resource is to be exploited in the future. 3.3. 8.3. The early introduction of suitable fittings for waste punmping dock facilities is needed especially in Road Town, where in addition to the existing marinas one more is being constructed and one other en- visaged. 4. WATER SUPPLY MANAGEMENT I4. 1. Existing Legislation 4. 1. 1. By authority given under the Protection of Trees and Conservation of Soil and Water Ordinance (1954), the Governor in Council may declare any land to be a protected water area. Land may be de- clared as such in order to maintain water supplies within the area or on adjacent land; to maintain supplies in ghuts, springs, streams, watercourses, or reservoirs; to prevent the silting of sources of water supply; or to prevent or reduce the pollution of any water sup- ply. The Water Areas Order (1963) lists six declared water areas, all of which are in Tortola. 4. 1. 2. The Road Town Water Supply Area Order (1958) delimits the area to be served within Road Town. 4. 1.3. The Water (Market Square Supply) (Control) Regulations (1960) stip- ulates that no vehicle may be washed with use of the market square water supply. 4. 1. 4. Under the Public Health Ordinance (1969), it is the duty of each local authority to keep all mains water-pipes, sinks, syphons, taps and fittings in a sanitary condition and in good repair. Included as nui- sances are houses not sufficiently supplied with fresh water; collec- tion and storage receptacles that are injurious to health; waterworks that are not constructed, protected, placed, cleansed or disinfected in accordance with the Ordinance; and eaves gutters or downpipes that allow a collection of water. 4. 1.5. The Land Development Control Guidelines (1972) state that every building intended for human habitation is to be supplied with a stor- age capacity of 1, 000 gallons per 100 square feet of roof catchment area. The developer is required to submit proposals acceptable to the L. D. C. A. for a complete supply and distribution water system, whether or not a treated supply is available, and must bear the costs of such proposals. 4.2. Existing Conditions 4. 2. A. Rainfall - never copious - has diminished over the last few decades: during the period 1901 to 1950, average annual precipitation was ap- proximately 53", whereas over the longer period 1901 to 1974 the fig- ure dropped to 48". 4. 2. 2. The concept of mean average rainfall is of limited value in the Brit- ish Virgin Islands, however, since wide fluctuations occur from year to year (94. 2" in 1933, and 30. 91' in 1973). In addition, monthly dis- tribution is uneven: in 1974, of a total rainfall of 53", 832 fell in the last five months of the year. As a consequence, large fluctuations in ground water reserves occur. 4.2.3. Ground water is held in the Cretaceous and Eocene bedrock as well within superficial deposits (Mather, 1971). Within the stratified metamorphised volcanic rocks, ground water occurs only in the frac- tures and joints. Research undertaken by Jordan (1966) in St. Thomas suggests that water recharge to the bedrock may occur only once or twice each year as the result of a downfall of over 2 or 3 inches with- in a 24-hour period. Less heavy rainfall is dissipated by run-off, evaporation and soil intake, although alluvial aquifers are partially recharged. 4.2.4. There are no rivers in the Territory, but pe-:sennial springs occur in the upper reaches of many of the ghuts. 4.2.5. Apart from the Road Town area with its piped water system and a private desalinization plant in Virgin Gorda, the Territory is dep- endent for water upon shallow wells, and roof catchment and stor- age tanks. The Public Health Department tests the quality of water in all wells not connected to the mains system, as well as private cisterns upon request. Wells used for the Road Town mains supply are the responsibility of the P. W. D. 4. 2. 6. The danger of contamination to the water supply by present sewage disposal practices has been mentioned previously, as well as the risk of extending a mains water system into an area not served by a mains sewage system (see Sewage Disposal). Another source of water contamination emanates from the high saline content of the bedrock, which can result in brackish water during times of drought. The normal salinity level of the water is permissible, however, averaging 380 parts per million; although this is 130 parts higher than the preferred standard, it is still 120 parts lower than the maximum allowable limit set by the World Health Organization. 4.2.7. Tortola 4. 2. 7. 1. Approximately 65% of the population relies upon cistern wfater, with the average capacity of the cisterns being about 10, 000 gallons. Other residents rely upon wells or water delivered from Road Town. (Draft Territorial Plan, 1973) 4. 2. 7. 2. Richards and Dumbleton found no instance where cisterns were loc- ated in close prominity to septic tanks, and generally the cisterns were well protected from external sources of pollution. They con- cluded from sample testings in Road Town and East End, however, that the water "generally would be unacceptable by international standards" (L. 4-5). 4. 2. 7. 3. The Draft Territorial Plan considers West End, East End-Long Look, Beef Island and 'hilltop' Tortola to be in immediate need of an ex- panded water supply. i) West End a) Local potable water has to be augmented by trucked supplies from Road Town. Although some distance away, a well has been sunk at both Abbey and Harrigan's Ghuts, but each supplies no (cont.) more than 10 gallons per minute. Vanterpool and Obie Ghuts are nearer the vicinity of West End, but neither promises much pot- ential as a source of water. ii) Hilltop Tortola a) Situated along the ridge from Long Look to Sage Mlountain, the area presently relies upon rainwater catchments and springs. An expanded supply of water is needed for both human consump- tion and agricultural - especially cattle - production. The water requirement of cattle are not insubstantial: at least twenty gallons should be available for each head per day (Anegada Report: Tech- nical Studies, 6-11.8). A small earthen dam has been constructed in the Fahie district for agricultural purposes, and more are planned by the Department of Agriculture. b) Although the Great Mountain - Long Trench - Manchester enum- eration district declined in population over the decade previous to 1970, and perhaps is indicative of the ridge area in general, the latter increasingly is becoming the site for luxury houses, using modern, and water-thirsty, facilities. iii)East End-Long Look a) The area expanded its population base by 42% between 1960 and 1970 (from 1, 300 residents to 1,850), and as a result the water supply is becoming increasingly deficient. Roof catchments, 4. 2. 7.3. (cont.) wells and trucked water from Road Town presently supply the demand. b) In the immediate vicinity, Long Swamp has some potable water reserves, but these are not sufficient to be of significance. Three boreholes have been made at Spring Ghut, one of which yields brackish water, while the other two supply a combined total of 12 gallons of potable water per minute. Since ground water in this region apparently is in hydraulic continuity with the adjacent sea water, overpumping could cause saline water intru- sion. Two wells have been sunk at Grey Ghut (Josiah's Bay), but both provide water of poor quality. With regard to all of the existing wells, only an upper layer of two to three feet can be tapped, below which is brackish water. c) Richards and Dumbleton advised the construction of a 200, 000 gallon reservoir, but this recommendation has been discarded because of insufficient water in the area to fully utilize such a reservoir. iv)Beef Island a) Ground water is brackish in nature, and no reserves of potable water have yet been discovered. The situation is not serious at present, but will become so if planned tourism and housing developments actually occur. (cont.) v) Road Town a) The area from Slaney to Baugher's Bay is served by the sole mains water supply system of the Territory. Water is extract- ed from four wells in the Long Bush/Huntum's Ghut area, pro- ducing a safe maximum of 200, 000 gallons per day (based on a 40" annual rainfall). Rainwater catchments supplement the mains supply. b) In 1970, the Road Town water supply system was extended to in- clude Treasure Isle Hotel and Huntum's Ghut. In the same year, a new 125, 000 gallon reservoir was completed in the Long Bush area, to augment the already existing 100, 000 gallon reservoir to the rear of Peeble's Hospital. By 1972, of the then 536 houses in Road Town, 325 were connected to the public mains. In 1973, the distribution system was again extended to serve Purcell, Free Bottom and Baugher's Bay Public Works Department depot. At the same time, non-return valves were installed on all water connections in order to prevent feed-back of cistern water to the mains water. c) It has been proven doubtful whether the water supply from the aquifer can be increased to any great extent, owing to the total reserves available and the danger of saline contamination. Of the initial eight wells supplying the mains water in the late 1960's, two were abandoned because of increasing salinity. In 1972, new construction of Wickham's Cay, and replaced by artificial channels following an altered course. These have proved inadequate for carrying the stormwater discharge flowing down the recently paved Joe's Hill Road. Since the flooding, remedial drainage work on the road has been accomplished. The existing storm- water ghut is to be replaced in Phase I of the sewage scheme. 4. 2. 8. Virgin Gorda 4. 2. 8. 1. With the exception of a small desalinization plant serving Little Dix Bay Hotel and the Yacht Harbour, shallow wells and cisterns are relied upon. Most of the wells produce less than one gallon per minute. In 1971, of the 297 buildings inspected, 587o possessed cis- terns. 4. 2. 8. 2. The water supply of the island is generally regarded as insufficient. In addition, there is the risk of contamination from effluent discharge, the practice of burying bodies on private ground (there is no public burial ground), and from the use of wells by both humans and cattle. 4. 2. 9. Anegada and other Islands 4. 2. 9.1. Although brackish ground water is found in the western part of Anegada, the Settlement and eastern portions are served by a potable water supply. It is doubtful whether demand has increased since 1972, when Richards and Dumbleton estimated that no more than 6, 000 gallons per day were being used. On the Territory's other islands, water is gained from catchment facilities and a few shallow wells. 4. 3. Future Development 4. 3. 1. A Ground Water Ordinance is presently pending, which would vest ground water in the Crown. No person would be able to sink a well below ground water level, or to a depth greater than 20 feet below ground level, without first obtaining a licence from the Water Board. A licence would be needed to extract water, and would be issued only if the water source was not contaminated, and did not affect exist- ing users of the water source. Natural drains or ghuts could not be diverted without written approval of the Board. Also, the Governor in Council could declare any area to be a catchment area, and thus be afforded protection. 4. 3. 2. In their report, Richards and Dumbleton recommended the construc- tion of an additional 125,000 gallon reservoir at Johnson's Ghut, and onf of 10, 000 gallons to serve Port Purcell. The Government hopes to construct a new reservoir at Fort Hill to support an extension of the distribution system to Baughers Bay and beyond. Two future wells - one in Baughers Bay and the other in Road Town - are hoped to supply the reservoir. 4. 3. 3. The repoiot considered that sufficient potable water existed for the needs of Road Town and East End-Long Look up to 1975, after which time a further source of water might be needed. This prediction has proven to be correct, especially in light of the opening of the Prospect Reef complex later this year, which will increase demand perhaps as much as 15, 000 gallons a day when fully utilized, unless full recycling of waste water is achieved. This amount, when added to the 1975 first quarter consumption level, would place demand above the danger level of 200, 000 gallons per day. 4. 3. 4. The report further predicts that by 1980, as much as 825, 000 gallons will be needed for Road Town, and 433, 000 gallons for East End- Long Look - a fourfold increase over the present demand. The figures are based on a daily per capita consumption of 75 gallons; this amount would appear to have been already surpassed. 4. 4. Aesthetic Considerations 4. 4. 1. Of little impact, apart from the future siting of desalinization plants and other facilities. 4. 5. Ecological Considerations 4. 5. 1. In the eventuality that desalinization plants are constructed, care- ful consideration should be given to their location. The thermal pollution and increased salinity level associated with such plants can severely upset the ecological balance of the surrounding marine and coastal area. 4. 5. 2. As with sewage, chlorinated water, when discharged into the sea, can adversely affect marine biota. 4.5.3. Apart from posing a danger to plant pollinators (bees, butterflies, etc. ), certain farming chemicals are potential water pollutants. A build-up of nitrites in the soil, for example, can be transmitted by run-off to the water supply. With the encouragement of agricul- ture in the Territory, steps should be taken to improve control over the importation and usage of fertilizers, fungicides and pesticides presently used, which include malathion, sevin, methaldehyde and aldrin. 4. 5. 3. 1. In Bermuda, since 1972, only those pesticides that are specified in the Gazette may be imported. All chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides, such as D. D. T. and Dieldin Chlordane, have been banned, as well as some of the more potent Isoft' pesticides such as Parathion. A similar scheme could be introduced in the British Virgin Islands, preferably relating to all farming chemicals, and not merely pesti- cides. 4. 6. Social and Cultural Considerations 4. 6. 1. Many of the public wells recently inspected in Tortola and Virgin Gorda had no protective covering (as provided for under the Public Health Ordinance, 1969), nor were they stocked with larvivorous fish or coated with a film of oil (as required under the Mosquito Control Regulations, 1960). Also, cattle were often found cluster- ed around the wells. None of these factors is conducive to public health. 4. 6. 2. The danger of contamination by sewage of the water reserves is discussed under the section Sewage Disposal. 4. 7. Economic Considerations 4. 7. 1. The cost to the Territory of increasing the potable water supply in the future will vary according to the type of scheme undertaken. Some of the alternatives are mentioned below. Of more immediate concern, however, are measures that could be taken to reduce the present demand. 4. 7. 2. 1. The periodic distribution of water prevents wastage through leaky faucets but, unless voluntary restraint is shown, does not greatly reduce consumption. (It is a simple matter to fill up water containers during hours of distribution.) 4. 7. 2.2. Fiscal measures would be far more effective in reducing demand. The present charge of 15� per 100 gallons of mains water for domes- tic users appears to be too low, especially when compared with the up to 2. 5� per gallon charged in the U.S. Virgin Islands. The low cost of water is reflected in the amount used. No industry exists within Road Town uses an appreciable amount of water; thus, almost all of the 190, 000 gallons per day is consumed by private households. Even if all cistern water is discounted, and a number of 2, 500 consumers served by the Road Town mains system is used, this necessitates each person using 76 gallons per day - an amount that is greater than the one Richards and Dumbleton evisaged for 1980. 4. 7. 2. 3. An increased price for water, steeply rising the greater the amount used, would not only reduce water consumption, but also provide the Government with much needed finance to improve water facil- ities. 4.7. 3. Considerable attention has been given to the possibilities of desal- inization. When requesting funding from the Foreign and Common- wealth Office in May, 1974, for a major plant to serve the Road Town area, the Chief Minister was advised to wait until further technolo- gical advance had been made in the field. It is certainly true that maintenance costs may be exceedingly high: in St. Thomas, after the first two years, these were equivalent to half the original cost. of the plant. Richards and Dumrbleton estimated that a 750, 000 gal- lons day plant for Tortola would cost about $1 million (at 1972 prices). The cost per gallon, using the Virgin Gorda plant as an example, would approximate 2�. Desalinization is an expensive process, but it does offer the advantage of producing a fixed amount of water irres- pective of climatic conditions. 4. 7. 4. Treatment by reverse osmosis could remove most of the undesirable mineral content found in the large amounts of exploitable brackish water. Similarly, storm water could be treated for potable consump- tion and waste water reclaimed - at least for the purposes of flushing, laundry, and industrial and agricultural use, and possibly for potable use as well. It should be noted that the reclamation of waste water often costs a fraction of the amount needed for desalinization, and has the additional advantage of negating pollution damage caused by untreated or chlorinated discharge, as well as by discharged heated water. 4. 7. 5. Untreated storm water could be harnessed to serve many of the pur- poses mentioned above, although some problems are associated with its collection. In the steep valleys of the more rugged islands, as Mather (1971, p. 8) has pointed out, even high dams would contain a comparatively small amount of water. Also, the near vertical dis- position of the bedrock might result in major leakage. Because of these reasons, Mather did not consider storm water dams to be pra- cticable for serving coastal settlements. 4. 7.5. 1.It should be feasible, however, to construct impoundment dams at the foot of a few chosen valleys or roads. In Road Town, for example, the construction of a dam near the vicinity of Joe's Hill Road would serve the dual purpose of controlling floodwater from the road, as well as preventing its waste. Although initial costs for the purchase of land and construction would be relatively high, maintenance costs would be low. Treatment to upgrade the water to potable standards would prevent the cost of introducing a secondary grey water distri- bution system. 4. 7. 6. Much cheap, potable water could be obtained by increasing rainwater catchment from buildings and paved areas. Studies undertaken by Mr. Persram of the Public Works Department indicate that with a 40" annual rainfall and 100% run-off, about 324, 000 gallons could be collected from the Port Purcell building, discounting the surr- ounding paved area; 516, 000 gallons could be collected from the High School; and 6. 6 million gallons (over 18, 000 gallons per day) from the Beef Island airstrip. 4. 7. 7. The use of sea water for flushing is practical and cheap, and occurs in three major urban areas of St. Thomas and St. Croix. Some difficulty has been experienced on these islands because of the cor- rosion of pipes; this may be prevented, however, if plastic piping and neoprene fittings are used. 4. 8. Recommendations 4. 8. 1. The provision of a rainwater catchment and storage tank for planned inhabited buildings is mandatory under the existing Land Development Control Guidelines (1972). It is recommended that the Guidelines are amended to include commercial and industrial buildings as well. Secondly, measures should be taken to tap the rainwater run-off from the existing larger buildings. 4.8. 1. I. The Guidelines stipulate that a planned building for inhabitation must be provided with a storage tank having a capacity of T0 gallons per square foot of roof catchment area. Under this provision, a two- or three- story apartment block need be served with the same size storage tank as a single family unit of the same ground dimensions. Since the former will obviously require a large supply of water, some consideration should be given to the occupancy rate of a building in determining the storage tank capacity to be provided. 4. 8. 2. At the time of both the Wickham's Cay landfill and the paving of Joe's Hill Road, local expertise and advice concerning the inadequate drainage facilities went largely unheeded. In all probability, had this advice been acted upon, the frequent flooding of certain areas in Road Town would not have occurred. It is strongly recommended that local advice be solicited and carefully considered before future schemes of a similar nature are embarked upon. 4.8. 3. For water supply to be sufficient for the Territory's future demands, the successful implementation of an integrated, overall management programme is called for, that will both save on water consumption as well as increase supply. Reliance should not be placed upon one means of procuring water, but rather on a combination of several sources, which would differ in each island according to local conditions. 4. 8. 4. In Tortola, expansion of the potable water supply by additional shallow wells promises little potential, unless the large reserves of brack- ish water are treated. The impounding of stormwater and increased catchment of rainwater would substantially increase the water supply, albeit on a seasonal basis. In Road Town, the need for a treatment plant to recycle waster water would appear to be of more value at the present time than a desalinization plant, which could well be more expensive as well as adding to the pollution in Road Harbour. In hill- top Tortola, the start of an earthen dam construction programme is a promising development and should be pursued. 4. 8. 5. In Virgin Gorda, an increased water supply could be forthcoming from shallow wells, and a study to evaluate the potential of this source should be undertaken. 4. 8. 6. Water supply in the eastern portion of Anegada appears to be ade- quate for the present demand. Should tourism or large-scale agri- cultural development occur, the brackish reserves of the western part of the island could be treated for use or a carefully located desalinization plant constructed. Since the limestone bedrock is porous and fractured, it acts as a poor filter, and the disposal of waste water and sewage will have to be disposed of carefully, or better, recycled. 4. 8. 7. In Jost Van Dyke and, other small hilly islands, the water supply - although limited - appears to be adequate for the present. Increased rainwater catchment should be able to accommodate any small dev- opment that occurs. I. U 4. 8. 8. Reforestation programmes and conservation of natural vegetation are an important part of good water management, and prevent ex- cessive run-off.. (See Vegetation and Soil Protection). I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 5. VEGETATION AND SOIL PROTECTION Preliminary Considerations Because vegetation, soil and water conservation are so closely in- terelated, this section may be regarded as an extension of the one concerning water supply management. The process of increased aridity described below has reached its ultimate stage in many parts of the world, where deserts have repl- aced previously existing forests. Major climatic changes are not always the sole reason for this transition; rather, the creation of certain of the world's arid areas are attributable to man and his short-sighted, resource, mis-management practices. Within a natural forest ecosystem, water resources are protected in several ways; the multi-layered canopy of trees prevents excess- ive evaporation by the sun and desiccation by the wind; gmo und leaf litter acts as a natural mulch, maintaining soil moisture,; and rapid run-off of water is prevented by natural vegetative barriers, allow- ing gradual percolation into the soil. The soil itself is maintained by a recycling of its nutrients through the decay of leaf litter and wood. When man clears a forest area for cropping or pasture, this nutr- ient cycle is broken down. The soil becomes exhausted after a few crops, and must be turned over to fallow. Overcropping or over- grazing (by either cattle or small stock) seriously damages the soil Preliminary Considerations (cont.) structure and vegetative ground cover becomes minimal. Because of the lack of shade and natural mulch and desiccation by the wind, evaporation increases. Water percolation into the soil becomes less as run-off increases. On sloping land, the soil layer is removed, and gulleying occurs, making it extremely difficult - if not imposs- ible - for future cropping. The resulting exposed rock and dried-out leached soils support only the hardier thornbushes and scrub. Continued overgrazing by goats- generally considered to be the most destructive of domesticated an- imals- will prevent the renewal of even these hardy plants. At this stage, the local rainfall amount may decrease, as the cooling effect on moisture-bearing winds being forced to rise over a land mass (resulting in precipitation) is offset by the effect of warm air currents ris- ing from the heated, barren ground. (In this sense, it is partially true that forests, acting as an effective insulator between the sun's rays and the ground, can 'attract', or 'make', rain. Even if the natural renewal of vegetation is permitted by the preven- tion of small stock grazing in the area, an appreciable length of time is required for a natural vegetation climax to derive. The original climax vegetation of an island system may never recur; if it did, it would take centuries. With adequate remedial action by man, however, reclamation of the land for useful purposes may be accomplished in Preliminary Considerations (cont.) a relatively short period. 5. 1. Existing Legislation 5. 1. 1. The Protection of Trees and Conservation of Soil and Vater Ordinance (1954) provides for the Governor in Council to declare any area to be a forestry, protected, or water area. Water areas discussed in the proceding section (1. 1). 5. 1.1. 1. In a protected area or forestry area, injury to trees is prohibited, as well as fires and livestock in the latter area. 5. . 1. 1.2. A forestry area of approximately 90 acres in the Sage -Iountain dis- trict was declared in 1955. This area approximates to the boundar- ies of the present National Park. 5. 1. 2. Although the Mlining Ordinance (1972) provides regulations for the felling of timber and disturbance of cultivated land, it applies only to certain mining activities which presently are not undertaken in the Territory. 5.2. Existing Conditions 5. 2. 1. A detailed soils study of the Territory has never been undertaken. With the exception of Anegada, the soils have generally been described as shallow, friable and permeable brown loams, with frequent out- crops of bare rock. Anegada is endowed with very little soil but with extensive limestone outcrops and sand deposits. The Territorial Report (1973, p. 54) describes the soils as "young, immature and probably the rockiest and stoniest in the world." 5. 2. 2. The poor soils now existing, however, once supported large xero- phytic forests that covered most of the islands. Indiscriminate felling for charcoal, clearing for pastures and exploitation for tim- ber have resulted in the almost complete removal of the original forests, with onily a very small remnant at Sage Mountain, and isolated Bursera, Pisonia and Lonchocarpus trees remaining. 5. 2. 3. Forest removal even in the recent past has been rapid. In 1954, less than 100 acres of the original xerophytic forest (only a small part of which was virgin) remained in the RMount Sage area, wAhereas less than a decade previously apparently 300 acres were reported to have existed (Wadsworth, 1954). In 1968, only about 13 acres of virgin forest remained, although there were also a number of patches of thicket regrowth (Nobles, 1972?). Because of its protection, the forest area since then has stabilized, and thicket regrowths are possibly expanding. 5. 2. 4. In the drier rocky areas of the Territory, scrub and cactus occur. When cultivated land is abandoned, croton bushes (Croton rigidus) initially form; in moisture areas, the exotic Leucaena glauca gen- erally appears (Territorial Reports). 5. 2. 5. The Government's policy towards soil, water and vegetation protect- tion has been to: 5. 2. 5. lsupervise previously declared water areas along water courses and springs; 5. 2. 5. 2. establish orchards adjacent to water areas; 5. 2. 5. 3. encourage tree planting on steep slopes or land suitable for general agriculture; seedlings of mahoganey and red and white cedar have been made available to the public, and over 14, 000 mahoganies have been planted in the Mount Sage National }Park; 5. 2. 5. 4.in addition, a programme of agricultural terrace construction has been under way since the 1960's, but its results do not appear to have been widespread. 5. 2. 6. In recent years, these has been a trend for cattle production to give way to small stock production, because of increased returns for the farmer in terms of time and money. The number of cattle decreased from approximately 6, 000 in 1962 to 2, 000 in 1973, while sheep in-- creased from 2, 500 to 6, 900, and goats from 10, 000 to 10, 500 during the same period. There is reason to believe that the increasing num- bers of small stock in combination with the declining rainfall of the Territory could cause damage to the environment. 5.2. 6..1.Tortola i) Untended goats and sheep have successfully thwarted an ornamen- tal planting programme on Wickham's Cay I. The Pound (Amend- ment) Ordinance (1972), making it "lawful for a designated or auth- orized person to shoot or otherwise destroy any goat, sheep or swine which may be left untended in any public place Within Road Town" or within a perimeter of 1- miles of the town, has been ineffective. A stern notice addressed to farmers in May, 1975, warned that untended stock on Wickham's Cay would in the future be impounded or shot. ii) Small stock, however, are not the only culprits in the island, since many of the smaller mahoganies planted at Sage Mountain have been badly injured by cattle. 5. 2.6.2. Virgin Gorda i) Although private pens exist, many goats and sheep roam freely on the island. During a dry spell, when ground forage is exhausted, the owners cut down branches from certain trees and taller bushes. In moderation, this practice inflicts no long-lasting damage to the plants. With an increasing small stock population, however, and especially with less rainfall over the past few decades, the island's carrying capacity for small stock may soon be reached, if it has not already been surpassed. Any upgrading of the rather sparse vegetation in the Valley area would require a large reduction in present number, as well as the prohibition of small stock in pub- lic areas. 5.2. 6.3. Anegada i) At the beginning of 1974, it was estimated that there existed as many as 2, 000 goats on the island, as well as about 900 sheep and 250 head of cattle. ii) Few of the goats are under control, and "most are as wild as deer". Many of the cattle also are more or less wild, and roam at will. The sheep are better controlled and remain close to the Settlement (Bond, '-tschnical Studies, 1974). iii)According to the Technical Studies report (1974), much damage to the vegetation has been inflicted by cattle and goats, the latter having had a concentrated impact on the eastern third of the island. The sheep population inflicts damage only in the vicinity of the Settlement. In addition, wide-ranging donkeys have contributed -to the destruction of vegetation. iv)The stretch between Loblolly Bay and East End was singled out in the Technical Studies report (6. 26), where the dune crests appear to be under stress from grazing and trampling by animals. 5. 2. 6.4. Other Islands i) In Jost Van Dyke, vegetation comprises mostly shrub thickets, intermixed with open grassland pastures and scattered small trees. The shrub thickets probably have formed because of over- grazing by goats, or shifting cultivation (Little, 1969). ii) A few goats and cattle exist on Peter Island and the other smaller inhabited islands, but damage to the vegetation appears to be relatively minimal. 5. 2. 7. Well constructed agricultural terraces occur in some parts of the Territory, particularly in upper Tortola, but with some of the more recent clearings no erosion protective measures have been taken, even for those located on steep slopes. 5. 2. 8. No regulations exist pertaining to private road construction. Apart from the aesthetic impact of a scarred landscape, concrete roads often act as impermeable water courses in times of rain, allowing very rapid run-off but not allowing percolation of water into the ground. 5. 3. Future Development 5. 3. 1. A Plant Protection Bill is presently pending. 5. 3. 2. In the 1960's, several animal pounds were in use, run by authorized private citizens. Because of the small financial return to these peo- ple, all but one (situated in Tortola) have closed down. The Pound (Amendment) Ordinance (1974) is intended to encourage the reopening of the animal pounds, by increasing the amount payable by the offend- ing stock owner to the pound keeper. The stock owner is also liable on conviction to a fine of $10. 00 for each animal impounded. 5. 4. Aesthetic Considerations 5. 4. 1. Tree protection and reafforestation programmes should not be consid- ered for their environmental value alone. Some of the more esta- blished forest areas in St. John, for example, have an extremely high aesthetic value. The establishment of similar areas would do much to enhance the beauty of the Territory. 5. 5. Ecological Considerations 5. 5. 1. Many of these have been discussed previously under the sub-section Preliminary Considerations. An example of the adverse effects aris- ing from the felling of timber in Tortola is cited by Frampton and Biggs (1955): A good spring visited in 1952 was found to be drying up in 1957. The reason was clear - the trees around the natural catchment area were being cut down quite indis- criminately and rain water which used to penetrate the soil and replenish the spring now runs over the eroded surface of the land into the ghut and so out to sea. " 5. 5. 2. It thus appears that subsurface water has declined not only because of a declining rainfall in recent decades, but also because an increas- ing proportion of the potentially available water is being lost to the Territory as a result of haphazard vegetation removal. In a Lime of increasing demand for water, this development is extremely unfor- tunate. 5. 5. 3. The greater quantity and velocity of run-off water not only increases soil removal, but also may be detrimental to offshore reefs because an interruption in polyp photosynthesis caused by suspended soil particles. 5. B. Social and Cultural Considerations 5. 6. 1. If the Government is to encourage the expansion of agriculture, it should also ensure that farmers are at least aware of the importance of erosion preventative practices. Although admittedly hard work, terracing is the most effective way of building up a good soil depth on stony slopes. The only possible beneficiary of a cleared, unter- raced slope is the lowland farmer below, who gains washed down soil deposits. Equally likely, however, his crops may be ruined by the inundation of sediment-laden storm water. Both prospective and practising farmers should be made aware of the implications of their actions on the society in general. 5. 6. 2. The Sage Mountain forest represents a living cultural heritage of the Territory. Forests that are now planted in turn will play a sim- ilar role for the benefit of future generations of British Virgin Islanders. 5.7. Economic Considerations 5. 7. 1. Any widespread reafforestation programme inevitably will result in some contention between the Government and owners of affected marginal lands, primarily over reduced agricultural income. The difference in the return between vegetable and tree cropping is not as great as is commonly supposed, for an estimate of the true annual productivity of the former must take into account the fallow periods, when no crops are harvested (Wadsworth, 1954). In contrast, tree crops may be harvested every year. Some com- pensation may be needed, however, during the initial period of tree growth. 5. 7. 2. For purely conservation purposes, natural forest growth is complet- ely adequate. To ensure a greater financial return, either fruit trees or lumber trees could be planted. The former probably wrould be more popular with landowners, as mentioned by Wadsworth (1954), because of their earlier and often greater financial return. Almost all of the following fruit trees, which have been suggested as suit- able, are presently grown in the Territory: mango (MIagifera indica), mamey (Mammea americana), avocado pear (Persea americana), soursop (Anona muricata), guava (Psidium sp. ), pawpaw (Carica papaya), Barbados cherry (Malpagia glabra), breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) and sugar apple (Annona squamosa). In addition, citrus fruits are grown on Peter Island; with careful management, they may have potential in other islands. The existing local demand for tree fruits is nowhere near satiated by domestic produce, and much profitable expansion could occur in this sector. 5. 7. 3. Lumber trees, with careful harvesting, could also be exploited successfully for use in the domestic building industry and for furniture and local crafts. Among the trees suggested by Wadsworth (1954) that produce high-quality cabinet woods are broadleaf mah- oganey (Swietenia macrophylla) and Spanish elm (Cordia alliodora), suited to the ghuts and more humid slopes; small-leafed mahoganey (Swietenia mahogani), for use in the drier coastal and rocky exposed areas; and teak (Tectona grandisY and petitia (P1etitia domingensis) on bare lands. Also mentioned have been the blue mahoe (T-ibiscus elatus) and a fast-growing pine, (Pinus patula). Because of the rel- atively long-term investment involved and of the careful lumbering required, Crown lands would be most suitable for the growing of these trees. 5. 8. Recommendations 5. 8. 1. The Government deserves much credit for its programme of afforest- ation. An active publicity and education campaign has and is being undertaken, which includes the celebration of Arbor Day, and the distribution of seedlings through the school system. The nursery at the Old Agricultural Station is serving a useful purpose in supply- ing fruit tree seedlings. In addition, the National Parks Trust has done much valuable work in the Sage Mountain area, and will be aided by the approval of a grant in late 1974, allowing - among other things - for the fencing of the area (see 'National Parks'). 5. 8. 2. Much is still to be done, however. In his excellent report, Wadsworth recommends that the types of land best suited for trees are the ghut areas and steep slopes, dry areas along the coasts, stony areas inland, and farm boundaries and yards. If these recommendations are followed, however, or the guidelines he cites that are used in Puerto Rico (all slopes steeper than 50%o should be planted with trees, and any areas receiving less than 40" should be utilized for trees or pasture), they would necessitate afforestation of the great majority of the Territory's land. Whether or not this is desirable, it obvious- ly will not occur with the present active encouragement of agriculture. The selection of land for afforestation or agriculture should not be based upon economic criteria alone, however, but should also include consideration of environmental conservation and water needs. 5. S. 3. Livestock are commonly regarded by their owners as a form of walk- ing bank, to be used when the necessity arises. This is a wise pol- icy, but as for any bank, it should be locked up. The Pound (Amend- ment) Ordinance (1974), in providing for heavier penalties, may be successful in reducing the number of untended animals, providing that the scheduled sixteen pounds come into existence. If they do not, then stiffer legal action may be necessary. In the long-term, the small stock population should be stabilized, or better reduced. 5. 8. 4. An attempt should be made to ensure that erosion preventative mea- sures are taken by farmers, especially on steep slopes. Apart from terracing, a multi-layered system of intercropping is also advocated, where the taller plants afford shade for lower-level and ground crops. Not only is productivity increased per surface area, but protection of the soil from the elements is maximized. 5. 8. 5. If, in the opinion of the Lands Commit:tee, certain Croxwn Lands are to be leased for agricultural purposes in the future, then careful selection of the lessees should be made in order to safeguard against unwise agricultural practices. 5. 8. 6. The extension programme of the Department of Agriculture is in need of expansion, since the present number of three field workers is not sufficient to adequately serve the Territory as a whole. 5. 8. 7. Some control over the construction of private roads and driveways is required, especially in the probability of an increasing number of these being built in the future; amendment to tue existing Land Development Control Guidelines should suffice. As a long-term measure, the possible eventual construction of a mid-altitute road, serving clustered developments, would prevent the need for indivi- dual roads and driveways. 6. WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT I 6. 1. Existing Legislation 6. 1. 1. Wild Birds 6. 1. 1.2. The Wild Birds Protection Ordinance (1959) provides for the year- round protection of 22 species, together with their nests and eggs, as listed under Schedule 1. 6. 1. 1. 3. Nine species under Schedule 2 are protected during a close season, lasting from February 1 to July 15. 6. 1. 1.4. Certain methods of killing or taking wild birds are prohibited, unless in the interests of public health, agricultural practices or the pre- servation of other creatures. 6. 1. 1. 5. The Wild Birds (Bag Limit) Order (1953), limits the number of birds to be killed each day during the open season. 6.1. 1. 6. Eighteen areas within the Territory are designated as bird sanctuar- ies under the Bird Sanctuaries Order (1959), as listed in Appendix VII. Stiff penalties are imposed on any person caught damaging a bird, nest or egg within these areas. 6. 1. 2. Turtles 6. 1. 2. 1. All turtles, with the exception of the 'trunk' (leatherback), are part- ially protected under the Turtles Ordinance, 1959. It is illegal to catch turtles weighing less than 20 pounds or to take or be in possess- ion of turtles or their eggs during the close season (July 1 to August 31). The taking of 'trunk' eggs is also prohibited during this period. Upon conviction, an offender is liable to a fine and forfeiture of the nets and other equipment used in the offence. 6. 1. 3. Marine Wildlife 6. 1.3.1. No legislation presently exists pertaining to the harvesting of fish, lobsters and other marine biota, 6. 2. Existing Conditions 6.2. 1. Wild Birds 6. 2.1. 2. The hunting of wild birds, mainly by off-islanders, wvas prolific until late into the 1950's. In such fly-over areas as Devil's Bay, Virgin Gorda, hundreds of birds were senselessly shot and allowed to lie - so much so, that a morotorium on bird shooting was declared for five years. In addition, a common local practice was the collection of brown booby eggs for consumption and sale. 6.2. 1.3. Both of these practices have now abated. It is doubtful whether the ensuing legislation was the cause of the decline; rather, it appears that both bird shooting and egg collecting merely have gone out of style. 6. 2. 2. Turtles 6. 2. 2. 1. Little heed is paid to existing regulations. Turtles weighing less than 20 pounds are caught, and the collection of eggs during the close season occurs. 6. 2. 2. 2. Both the green and hawksbill turtles are listed in the IUCN Red Data Book of endangered wildlife species. In respect to the conservation of the hawksbill, it is unfortunate that a Handicraft Centre, initiated under the auspices of the International Labour Organization and fund- ed by the United Nations Development Programme, has taught local aspiring artisans to manufacture ornaments from hawksbill cara- paces. These ornaments presently are sold in at least two Tortolan establishments. Although the Endangered Species Act of the United States prohibits the importation of hawksbill products into the coun- try, few American visitors are aware of the potential illegality of their purchase. S. 2. 2. 3. Although reliable statistics are non-existent, it is generally accepted that the number of turtles found in the Territory's waters have de- clined over recent decades. The killing of females before they can lay their eggs has been cited as one reason for the decline. 6. 2. 3. Fish and Other Marine Biota 6. 2. 3. 1. The 1960 Census recorded that 163 persons were employed in fishing, but this number undoubtedly has decreased over the interim period. At present, only a small number may be regarded as full-time fish- ermen, although as many as fifty or sixty are engaged part-time. The usual method of fishing is by pots, which are checked every two or three days after being placed. IVIost of the local boats are small and open, and suited only for near-shore fishing. Only about five or six boats in the Territory are used for full-time, offshore fishing. 6. 2. 3. 2. In addition, deep-sea sports fishing and reef spear fishing are under- taken. 6. 2. 3. 3. As with the case of turtles, little reliable data exists on the popula- tions of fish, lobsters and conch, but yields of all these species appear to have diminished. With regard to pelagic species, such as benito and hardnose, these may have been reduced to a partial ex- tent by modernly equipped, commercial fishing operations based in neighbouring islands, such as the Japanese fleet that worked from St. Martin. Long-line fishing used by these fleets can also adver- sely affect deep-sea sports fishing. In the instance of lobster, conch and reef fish, local over-exploitation would appear to be the main reason for their decline. The removal of mangroves can also be partially blamed for the reduction in lobster and several fish species. Some of the Territory's reef purportedly have suffered from excess- ive spear fishing. The hard stand of the B. V. I. Hotel and Tourist Association against this practice, (except when undertaken by comm- ercially licensed fishermen), has been successful in dissuading many shops from selling spearguns. Only one establishment - Little Den- mark in Road Town - presently sells this equipment. 6. 3. Future Development 6. 3. 1.A Fisheries Ordinance, drafted in 1964, is still pending. Under the Ordinance, the Governor in Council may make regulations for pre- scribing a close season for any fish (including cetacea, crustacea and mollusca), for controlling the size, condition and quantity of any species caught,for regulating the method, apparatus and appliances used in taking fish, and providing for the inspection of any ship, yes- sel or aircraft suspected of carrying fish. 6. 3. 2.A Marine Advisory Committee was established early in 1973, to ad- vise the Government on all matters relating to marine conservation. A Marine National Parks Ordinance was drafted, but this subsequent- ly has been incorporated into the Protection of the Environment (draft) Ordinance, and is discussed under the section 'C.onser,-vation of Natur- al Areas and Historic Sites'. The above Ordinance, if passed, will have particular bearing on reef fishing. I 6. 4. Aesthetic, Social and Cultural Considerations 6. 4. 1. The diversity and richness of both avian and marine wildlife are of high aesthetic value, and comprise an important, living,cultural heritage of the Territory. The reef areas especially are considered by experts to be among the most outstanding in the world. As mention- ed previously, however, spear fishing by visitors already has impov- erished several of these areas. I 6. 5. Ecological Considerations 6. 5. 1. The importance of preserving mangrove areas as rich wildlife hab- itats is discussed elsewhere ('Development and Construction', 5. 1 and 7.2). 6. 5. 2. Ecological niches of island species are more fragile and less ex:ten- sive than their continental counterpart, and are thus more suscep- tible to disturbance and damage. Because of their insular character, islands frequently possess rare species that do not exist elsewhere; an example in the British Virgin Islands is the Anegada iguana (Cyclura pinguis). In addition, the isolation of oceanic islands may inhibit the replenishing of a species by natural migration fromn other sources outside of the area. 6.6. Economic Considerations 6.6. 1. In contrast with the fish populations of the more northerly latitudes, those of the Caribbean are more diverse in nature but smaller in number. This, together with the prevailing uneven and reef-pocked nature of the seabed, generally precludes mechanised bottom fishing operations. Rather, the traditional method of using traps, handlines and small surface nets appear to be more practical and economic- ally viable. 6. 6. 2. Large pelagic fish are sparsely distributed. They are of sufficient quantity to provide the basis of a sports fishery in shelf-edge areas, but overexploitation by a growing industry should be prevented. 6. 6. 3. Any commercial fishing industry is plagued with the problem of ciguatera. Among the areas least prone to ciguatoxic fish is Anegada, but even here fish poisoning has occurred. No cheap, reliable meth- od has yet been established to test freshly caught fish, and this short- coming has obvious implications for the economic success of any commercial concern. 6. 6. 4. The cost of materials for the manufacture of fishermens' pots has risen substantially in recent years. The setting up of a cooperative to buy such materials in bulk has often been advocated, and should be proceeded with. 6. 6. 5. With the growth of snorkeling activities, the diversity and richness of the Territory's reefs are becoming an increasingly important economic asset and should be maintained in as pristine a state as feasible. 6. 7. Recommendations 6. 7. i1. Owing to the decline in bird shooting and the creation of bird sanc- tuaries, the avian population would appear to be safeguarded from excessive predatory activities. With the increase in agriculture, however, certain bird species could become threatened by residues of the more potent insecticides and pesticides, such as aldrin, which arepresently used in the Territory. As previously noted ('\VTater Supply Alanagement'), the more toxic chemicals should be barred from use in the Territory. 6. 7. 2. A moratorium should be declared on the capture of all turtles. However, enforcement would be a major difficulty. Although it is illegal to catch turtles in the TU. S. Virgin Islands, f irm evidence points to the fact that poaching still continues. It is hoped, howvever, that legally barring such practices would disccurage turtle catching to some extent. It should also be mentioned that turtle poaching in the U. S. Virgin Islands can only be encouraged by the exisi:ence of a legal market for such items as hawksbill carapaces in the British Virgin Islands. 6. 7. 3. A conservation area for the Anegada iguana should be established before any development on that island occurs. 6. 7. 4. Research is needed into the population of the fish species, their hab- itats and reproductive rates, and the numbers presently caught, before any sound legislation can be passed. It is always tempting to introduce ad hoc legislation from other countries; this may not be the most beneficial approach in the long-term, however, and any such legislation should be modified to suit local conditions. In Bermuda, for example, a close season on the harvesting of lobster is strictly enforced, but in the warmer waters of the British Virgin Islands the seasonality of breeding is not as marked. 6. 7. 5. Spear fishing should be prohibited in all reef areas, except by licensed fishermen. The licences granted should be limited for any particular area. Not only is haphazard spear fishing wasteful and destructive to a valuable resource, but it may also pose a danger to nearby swimmers and snorkelers. 7. CONSERVATION OF NATURAL AREAS AND HISTORIC SITES 7. 1. Existing Legislation 7. 1. 1. The National Parks Ordinance (1961) established a Trust, whose duty it is to preserve any historic buildings and plant life of designated National Parks. In addition, it is to encourage and control the pro- visions of facilities for persons visiting the Parks. 7. 1. 2. In 1964, three areas donated to the Government by Laurance Rocke- feller were proclaimed as National Parks: Spring Blay and Devil's Bay of Virgin Gorda (55 and 20 acres respec'tiely) and Sage MIoun- tain (89 acres). The old Cholera Burial Ground in Road Town became a National Park in 1966, and presently is used as a forest nursery. Virgin Gorda Peak (450 acres), Fallen Jerusalemn (52 acres) and West Dog (31 acres) were declared as National Parks in 1974. In the same year, a small area (0. 7 acres) adjacent to Road Bay below v-\"acNanaara became Queen Elizabeth Park. Sandy Cay is maintained as a private protected area. 7. 1. 3. Under the Receiver of Wrecks (Amendment) Ordinance (1968), any wreck in Territorial waters that is not less than 25 years old is deemed to be an historic wreck and vested in the Crown, together with any of its contents. . Unless he obtains permission from the Receiver of Wrecks, no person may dive within the vicinity of an historic wreck, nor interfere with it in any way. 7. 2. Existing Conditions 7. 2. 1. With both limited manpower resources and capital, the accomplish- ments of the National Parks Trust are noteworthy, especially with regard to the Sage Mountain area. Although a body corporate, the Trust was provided with no administrative branch, and the time al- loted by its private citizen members has necessarily been limited. The money constraint has been major; funding for the first two years of the reafforestation programme on Sage MIountain amounted to $4, 500. In normal years, the Trust has received an annual Government sub- vention of $3, 000. This year, however, a development aid grant from the British Development Division of $42, 000 has been given for the maintenance and improvement of National Parks. In addition, a further $3, 000 is allotted for a Parks Ranger, if and when the post is filled. The major part of the grant is to be spent on the Sage Moun- tain area, Queen Elizabeth Park, Spring Bay and Devil's Bay. 7. 2. 2. At present, the Trust is able to afford little manpower for the up- keep of the Parks, but has been helped to some extent in the past by private bodies and individuals. In the Virgin Gorda Peak area, Laurance Rockefeller donated funds for the clearing of five nature tt'ails by IU. S. Park Rangers. Concerned individuals employ a man to clear up at both Spring Bay and the Baths. 7. 2. 3. Because of the limitations of funding, the Trust as yet has been unable to protect and restore any historic building. It is keen to aquire a well-preserved windmill tower in the M\ount Healthy area, but must await for sufficient funding in order to purchase the priv- ately owned land. The same problem arises in relation to buying the Baths area, which is one of the outstanding aesthetic and geo- logic areas of the Territory. 7. 2. 4. An Historic Association, composed of private individuals residing in the Territory, was established with the aim of studying his- toric aspects of ruins of the Islands, and perhaps perserving a few structures, but it presently is dormant. An Association con- cerned with conservation and perservation is presently planned. 7. 2. 5. Several Amerindian archaeological sites have been discovered and partly excavated in Virgin Gorda. In Tortola, a site has been found and twice excavated across the bay from Road Town; another has been found at Cane Garden Bay, as well as a potential site on Sage Mountain, but no excavation has yet been undertaken. In Anegada, apart from the known Amnerindian site at East End, several other areas are worth investigation. In addition, artifacts have been dis- covered on Peter and Guana Islands, and a site excavated on both Great Camanoe and Mosquito Island. Archaeological excavation reportedly has occurred on Beef Island and Thatch Cay. 7. 2. 6. An area of major concern is the protection of the Territory's historic wrecks. Although persons intending to dive within the vicinity of wrecks are legally required to apply for a licence from the Receiver of Wrecks, none have been requested, even though frequent trips are made to such areas as the Wreck of the Rhone by scuba diving concerns from both the British and American Vir- gin Islands. It is known that some of the Territory's artifacts have been removed and sold in the United States. The problem confronting the Government is one of enforcement, as the one exist- ing customs boat is woefully inadequate to regulate scuba diving activities. 7. 3. Future Development 7. 3. 1. As discussed under subsection 3.2 of 'Wildlife Conservation', a Marine National Parks Ordinance was drafted, but has subseq- ently been incorporated into the pending Protection of the Envir- onment Ordinance. 7.3. 1.2. The latter Ordinance provides for the establishment of a Parks and Cul- tural Properties Trust, to administer the designation and mainten- ance of historic buildings and Marine Parks. The National Parks Trust is to remain in existence and be responsible for terrestrial national parks. The Advisory Committee of the nevwly formed Trust is to comprise a member of the Legislative Council, an architect, the Town Planner, and two members of the public. 7. 3. 1. 3. The Trust is to prepare a list of special buildings worthy of pre- servation and conservation, and suggest areas of special control ('control districts'), to be approved or rejected by the Governor in Council. Right of appeal by the building's owner is provided for within the Ordinance. Once a structure is declared a special building, it is an offence to alter its exterior appearance without approval from the Trust, as well as from the Building Authority and Public Works Department. Permission to develop a listed building may be given, albeit with conditions, unless the Legis- lative Council buys the land or provides funding for the mrnainten- ance and repair of the building. If a special building, which is not listed, is threatened by demolition or alteration, the Trust may serve a "building preservation notice", to be valid for six months, during which time the Governor may decide whether or not to include the building on the list. 7. 3. 1.4. Any person who discovers cultural property (see Appendix NIII for definition) and has not been issued a licence is to give notice to the Secretary of the Trust. After the date of commencement of the Ordinance, the Governor is to have the right by warrant to acquire any cultural property discovered in the Territory. Compensation is to be paid to the finder, unless the latter was acting in contravention of any provision of the Ordinance, or the Trust is of the opinion that the cultural property should remain in situ. No search for cultural property may be undertaken ex- cept as provided for under licence, which will be granted only to persons possessing adequate scientific competence and having sufficient funding to secure satisfactory results on archaeological grounds. 7. 3. 1. 5. The Trust may recommend areas to the Governor to be declared Marine Parks. These areas may include any adjoining land or swamp which together with the submarine area form a 'single ecological entity'. No person shall dive or swim in the sea forming any part of a Marine Park, nor remove any object or damage flora or fauna except in accordance with any Regulations to be made. 7. 3. 1. 6. The duties of the Advisory Committee will be to preserve and enhance the natural beauty of Marine Parks; to protect all of their flora, fauna and wrecks; to provide and control public fac- ilities; to promote scientific study and research in M\arine Parks; and to employ such persons as may be necessary. 7. 3. 1. 7. Regulations pertaining to Marine Parks are to provide for the pro- hibition or restriction of entry; the charge for entry; the control and management of the Parks; the licensing of vessels and guides working within the Parks; and the recovery of compensation. 7.3. 1. 8. Under the Ordinance, the Governor is to establish a Government Preservation Fund. 7. 3. 2. Other pending legislation includes National Parks Regulations, National Parks Trust Rcgulations, and a Plant Protection Ordin- ance. 7. 3. 3. It is hoped by the Government that additional Customs boats will be acquired in the near future, thus allowing - among other things - the greater surveillance of historic wrecks. 7. 3. 4. The Government hopes to establish an omnibus committee that would draw its members from all bodies concerned with conser- vation and preservation in the Territory. 7. 4. Aesthetic Considerations 7. 4. 1. With the eventual inclusion of selected coastal sites and adjacent waters for protection, the Territory will have achieved a fairly comprehensive programme ensuring that areas of natural beauty will be preserved for the enjoyment of future generations. It is commendable that the Government is acting, and has acted, pro- pitiously before irreversible damage has been inflicted on areas of outstanding beauty. 7. 5. Ecological Considerations 7. 5. 1. Many of these considerations have been discussed previously under the sections 'Wildlife nManagement' and 'Vegetation and Soil P'ro- tection'. The Sage Mlountain Forest is unique in certair respects; the development and grant will. allow sufficient fencing of the area to protect not only the newly planted trees but also the few sapl- ings of the rarer bullet wood (Manilkara bidentata) and bastard gri gri (Buchenavia capitata (Vahl. ) Hichl. ), 7. 6. Social and Cultural Considerations 7. 6. 1. The establishment of a 'control district' (similar to that in Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas, which has existed since :1968) will greatly help in maintaining the architectural style and integrity of certain urban districts. Main Street in Road Town, with its distinct character and individuality, would be an obvious choice. M'Iajor development of this area is unnecessary, since ample - albeit expensive - building space is afforded on neighbouring Wi.ckham's Cay. The scheme for a pedestrian mall along the southern part of Main Street is a sound one, and should be implemented. As far as the physical appearance of the buildings is concerned, a carefully applied new coating of paint would be a great improvement, and need not wait until some of the buildings are declared of cul- tural value. 7. 6. 2. Several historic ruins have been altered and incorporated into modern private dwellings and hotels. Although somne developments, such as Sugar Mill Hotel, are in empathy with the ruins, others have displayed a total disregard in this respect. An unfortunate example of the latter is the fairly extensive and sound ruin at Long Bay Hotel, which has been added onto with raw concrete blocks. 7. 6. 3. Some of the 'preservation' measures undertaken have been del- eterious rather than beneficial. Expansion of the mortar used in filling Up the cracks of the Fort Recovery guntower is causing severe structural stress. In contrast, a good example of private maintenance of an historic building is Little M1Iountain House on Beef Island. It is also gratifying to note that the ruins of St. Philipts Church, in the Kingstown area of Tortola, although not maintained nor renovated still serve their original purpose as a religious meeting place. 7. 7. Economic Considerations 7. 7. 1. The costs to the Government of purchasing private land for use as a National Park and of maintaining any historic ruins that may be situated on the land are not insignificant. With a limited budget at its disposal, the Government may be forced to rely upon exter- nal funding in order to create some of the Parks that are advocated. What limited local funding that exists, however, should be channelled according to some type of priority listing. The latter should be drawn up with regard not to the intrinsic beauty of an area; the possibility of development as well as the rate of deterioration of historic buildings should be considered also. 7. 7. 2.' Admittance fees to National Parks and historic monuments will at least offset some of the costs of their maintenance. If need be, such fees could be waived for belongers, and visitors charged only; it is doubtful, however, whether any person would he ser- iously handicapped by paying a small fee. With regard to Mlarine Parks, especially those surrounding offshore wvrecks, fee collect- ing may be a major problem. 7. 8. Recommendations 7. 8. 1. Althoughthe National Parks Trust falls under the general juris- diction of the -Ministry of Natural Resources and Public Health some clarification is needed over what constitutes 'natural re- sources' and what constitutes the 'environment', which falls under the responsibility of the Chief Minister's Office. Secondly, if funds become available, the duties of the National Parks Trust would be greatly facilitated by the hiring of a full-time secretary. 7. 8. 2. It would appear to be a good opportunity for the existing Lands Commission, which presently is considerin- the disposal and use of Crown Lands, to recommend areas -and historic ruins within those areas -for incorporation into the National Parks' or the fu- ture Parks and Cultural Properties' system. 7. 8. 3. Although such sites as the Baths and Mount Healthy Tower are privately owned, other potentially ideal sites for National Parks are situated on Crown Land. An obvious example is the famous Copper Mine in Virgin Gorda, which remains unprotected under law. Restoration work is urgently needed, since rapid deterior- ation of the buildings has occurred in recent years. The buildings should be stabilized as soon as possible to prevent further decay, and an archaeological investigation undertaken to map the whole site. A long term aim should be to reconstruct the buildings to their past state utilizing the materials that were originally employed. The area is one of great geologic interest, with copper and molyb- denum nodulesstill found in abundance. It would be inexcusable to allow this site, already a tourist attraction, to deteriorate fur- ther. Wisely, the Government has so far turned down proposals from private concerns to mine the molybdenum deposits. 7. 8. 4. Other historic ruins worthy of consideration include those of a two-storied sugar mill and distillery at Lormer Bay, the small distilleries near the Fahie settlemerJt and Brewers Bay, the Quaker cemetry at Fat Ilogs Bay, the Dungeon at both Pockwood Pond and Long Bush Ghut, Fort Charlotte, the gun platform and walls overlooking both Buck Island and I-Hodges Creek, the picturesque ruins in upper Huntum's Ghut, the sugar mill at both Smuggler's Cove and Green Bank, and the Lettsome House on Jost VTan Dyke. Other ruins are in a very poor state of disrepair, such as St. Ilich- ael's Church above Cane Garden Bay and Fort George overlooking Port Purcell, but are still noteworthy. 7. 8. 5. Unfortunately, many of the sites mentioned above are on private land, and it is extremely doubtful whether sufficient funding will allow for the purchase of even some of the more important ruins in the near future. Measures can be taken by the Government, however, to ensure that development does not destroy these ruins: careful consideration should be given to any proposals, such as that for the development of the Dungeon area at Pockwood Pond, before approval is granted. In the United States, an Antiquities Act requires that any construction which would destroy or is found to destrcyhistorical or archaeological evidence must contribute approximately 1% of its construction budget toward salvage oper- ations by recognized professional persons, societies or organiza- tions. A similar Act for the British Virgin Islands is recommended. 7. 8. 6. Renovation of historic ruins should be carefullYv superv-sed, and preferably professional advice from such boc:es as the U. S. Virgins Archaeological Society sought after. 7. 8. 7. At present, no publicly owned museum evicsts;. alth;ougfh a fet in(div- iduals have established small museums to which the public is w-el- come. An ideal site for a future public museum is the sugar fac- tory, now housing the Survey Department, at Pasea Estate, Road Town. The building itself is of historic interest, with part of the old machinery still intact. The original 1905 engine is rumnoured to be still on the island and could be reinstalled in sitfu. 7 8. 8. Among the areas that should be incorporated into '\Jarine Parks include Horse Shoe Reef, Anegada; Virgin Gorda Sound, extending from east of Mosquito Island to Pajaros Point, Virgin Gorda; the reef areas surrounding Pelican Island, Dead Chest and Carval Rock; the Fallen Jerusalem - Round Rock area; and the vicinity of the Wreck of the Rhone. 7. 8. 9. Eadch Park area, whether terrestrial or marine, ideally should have its own research and education programme designed to examine the problems characteristic of its own particular environment. Some of these programmes should be included as part of the B3. V. I. educational system for school children. REFERENCES CITED Baynes, R.A., An Assessment of the Agricultural Potential of the Soils of Tortola, British Virgin Islands, University of the West Indies, Cave Hill, Barbados, 1970 (mimeo) British Virgin Islands, (Territorial) Report for the Year 1973, 1H. IM. S. O., London, 1974, Frampton, A. dek., & Biggs, H. C., British Virgin Islands: Report and Development Programme, March, 1958 (mimneo) Jordan, D. G., Test Well Sites and Preliminary Evaluation of Ground Water Potential in Tortola, British Virgin Islands, IU. S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey, October, 1966. Little, Jr., E. L., Trees of Jost Van Dyke (British Virgin Islands), Forest Service Research Paper ITF-9, Institute of Tropical Forestry, Puerto Rico, August 1969. Mather, J. D., Report on the Water Resources of Tortola and Beef Island, British Virgin Islands, Institute of Geologic Sciences, Hydrogeological Department (Internal Report WD/71/8), London, 1971. Neervort, Road Town Sewer Scheme, 1967. Nobles, R. W., Forestry in the National Parks of the British Virgin Islands, U.S. Forest Service, 1972 (?) (mimeo) Packer, J. E. The British Virgin Islands: Natural History and General Notes, 1973 (?), (mimeo) Richards and Dumbleton, Report on Feasibility Studv for Water Supply and Sewerage, Government of the British Virgin Islands, Tortola, February, 1972. Technical Studies, Anegada: Development Proposal, Insular Environments, Inc., St. Thomas, 1974. Town and Country Planning Department, British Virgin Islands Draft Territor- ial Report, September, 1973, (mimeo) Wadsworth, F. H., An Approach to Forest Conservation for Tortola, British Virgin Islands, U. S. Forest Service, Puerto 1ico, 1954, (nlitneo) APPENDIX I. Mining Ordinance (1972) Without prior consent of the Governor: a) no mining may occur within 100 yards of the limits of any reservoir or catchment area: b) no cultivated land may be disturbed by mining, without consent of the occupier or owner of the land; c) no mining may be undertaken along the coastline; d) no natural or artificial watercourse, spring, reservoir, filter bed or well may be diverted; e) no water may be polluted; In addition, under the same Ordinance, the Governor may make pro- visions to regulate: a) the cutting down and use of timer; b) the disposal of any poisonous or noxious products resulting from prospecting or mining; c) the disposal of sludge and tailings; d) the safe and sanitory undertaking of prospecting or mining oper- ations; e) the protection of areas held to be sacred, and any tree or other thing which is the object of veneration; f) the protection of land for any public purpose, as well as the vicin- ity of that land; g) the safety, welfare, health and housing conditions of any persons employed in mining operations. APPENDIX II Protected Beaches Order (1961, as amended 1962, 1963) Tortola: Banghers Bay Fish Bay Belmont Bay Josiah's Bay Big Apple Bay Kingstown Bay Brandywine Bay Lamberts Bay Brewers Bay Little Apple Bay Cane Garden Bay Long Bay Cappoon's Bay Pockwood Pond Virgin Gorda: Baths Robins Bay Deep Bay Saddle Bay Handsom Bay St.. Thomas Bay Little Trunk Bay Spring Bay Mountain Trunk Bay Valley Trunk Bay Nail Bay White Bay Plum Tree Bay Beef Island: Conch Bay Well Bay Long Bay Jost Van Dyke: Great Harbour White Bay Sandy Bay Cooper Island: Manchioneel Bay All beaches of: Anegada Salt Island Guana Island Sandy Island Little Jost Van Dyke Sandy Spit Peter Island Scrub Island Prickly Pear St. Eustatia Saba Rock -i M M m - - - - -m- - - - m- - - - - SCHEDULE OF USES (APPENDIX III. LAND DEVELOPMENT CONTROL GUIDELINES, 1972) Working Areas Recreation Areas Rural Living Areas Commercial Religious/ Industrial Public Open Private Recreation, Agriculture R1 R2 R3 Social Space Open Space Golf, etc. Detached, semi-detached or terraced housing C P P P C C X X C C Apartment block, guest house C C P P C C X X X X Hotels, condominiums C C P P C C X X C C Public entertainment C C C C C C X C C Public buildings: civil government, social, religious C C C C P P X C C C Businesses, supermarkets X C C C P C C C C X Warehouses, workshops, industry X X X X C X P X X X Petrol station C X X X C X C X X X Commercial oil storage X X X X X X C X X X Commercial quarrying X X X X X X C X X X Educational P C C C C C X C C C Non-residential recreation or social club C C C C C C X C P P Commercial horticulture or agricultural building or storage P C C C C C X C P C Commercial livestock unit C X X X X X X C C X Minor or ancillary buildings, public utility buildings C C C C C C C C C C Garbage disposal areas C X X X X C C C C C P = Approved R1 = Residential zone, average 6 houses per gross acre C = Subject to consent R2 = Resort residential zone, average 3 houses per acre X = not permitted R3 = Hotel zone - -- ---- - - - -- - - -- I APPENDIX IVa. OUT H- 7 Apptrv-4lts tr P 2 tt>F,. O .. -t . ^ &N2P~~~~~~~IGUR/tlE 14 ,~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ / -~FPL, C~<;,~,~'Yi:V'4 fD: 14,[ O',)LIT~ C~~~~~~ | 4 - L ' l -' ' * ! r ta- '4'-^- 1tI~ :' ~' .... cti podsr fo r d e vloe i t r 7 4_ zt ~ rme' to ~ ~~ ' - ;'"' (6 _ ~ ~~~~ > --DX [_D 5S.;Cg 74�v)Kktt~iIi. , t 7 1 re-organ'z a tion oI -, � 2f app- ' z~~ ~~~~ ~~ ca t ion pr'cedu're;'\'s fo devlomet ra. T j7 r- . r S 1~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Tw & Count ry Plannig Depart- [te 4 Oct ob e r , - 1 it7 j '5 ft j + -LF e :-a u~/ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~osbere-organizatio f appli7- �. . ~~~~~cation procedures for development :and planning. Town & Country Planning Depart"' ment 4 October, 1973 APPE'NDIX IN-b. -Y - ,,~ 4 A. -, ~t -- . A ~ ~ C/ tw .s-~J i .v~c ...........~~~~~~~~~~. . 0( A A C ______ ??A~~~~~ zp-A pa' g z~~x1- C6~-- OK) d AF-L- ~A-V OECD~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~A~N~A. _ AP~~~4~ yc1~ ____________ ____ - .A. .~ I~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~- ~kreit-P I) LAMD3- P&Seep-' 'L L> CA s czsw7,--A)~~~C--. I-f ~ T~ Vt' Joip i ~m I ~~~~~~~APPENDIX V Wickhams Cay Marina Use of Marina I ~~The use of the area designated Wickhams Cay Marina is limited to those persons who have entered into an agreement or lease with Wickhams Cay Development Authority or to such persons as those individuals have des- I ~~ignated such right within the terms of their original agreement or lease or to those persons given permission direct by the Authority. All users of the marina will comply with the following regulations in addition to any specific regulations created by persons or companies who have the right to lease or hire their berthing facilities. I ~~~1) The owner of any boat'is to indemnify the Authority against any damage or destruction of any property by whomsoever caused as the result of any act or default or omission of the owner his or their crew, passengers or other guests and also against all claims made against the Authority in respect thereof, I ~~~2) The boat shall at all times be at the sole risk of the owner and the Authority shall not be responsible for injury, death or dam- age to the owner his or their crew, passengers or guests, the boat or any property of any kind thereon or otherwise belonging to the owner his or their crew, passengers and guests including * ~~~~motor vehicles and howsoever caused whether by the state or condition of the property of the Authority or otherwise. 3) The owner is to insure for all Third Party Risks and damage to an amount of not less than $100, 000 for any one accident and will during the owners continuing use of the marina keep the boat so insured and further that he will produce to the Authority on demand the insurance policy and the latest prem- ium receipt. 4) No boat or vessel may be berthed or anchored in the Marina in any place other than in the berth allocated from time to time I ~~~~by the Authority, 5) The owner will move the boat as and when required by the Auth- I ~~~~ority to any berth which the Authority may allocate except where an agreement or lease is in force containing specific covenants regarding the use of certain allocated berths which will be out- I ~~~~side the intention of this clause. Appendix V - page 2 6) No boat or vessel shall be careened in the Marina nor shall the bottom of the boat or vessel be cleaned in the Marina except with express permission of the Authority. 7) All craft shall navigate with due care and attention under power at a speed not exceeding 6 knots. 8) The use of dinghies or small boats for pleasure under sail or I ~~~~power is forbidden in the Marina. Rowing of dinghies or small boats will be permitted subject to there being no interference with the movement of larger vessels which will have priority at all times. 9) No person shall cause obstruction on any jetty or shore line to the Marina or leave or deposit any equipment, dinghies or rub- bish thereon. I ~~~10) The banks and jetties 'are to be kept clear, clean and tidy and all garbage and rubbish should be placed in suitable receptacles for collection, and arrangements entered into with the Authority for their clearance. No rubbish or waste material may be thrown overboard or deposited in the Marina. I ~~~11) In the interest of hygiene lavatories on board vessels should not be used while the vessel is in the Marina. U ~~~12) No washing lines may be put up ashore. 13) No fishing is allowed from the banks of the Marina except by special arrangement. 14) Radios, record players and musical instruments of any kind shall only be played below deck of any vessel and such instru- ment shall be kept at low volume at all times. 15) All vessels must be maintained in a seaworthy condition. 16) All pets and domestic animals must be kept under proper control. 17) Caravans or tents may not be stationed or erected in the car parks I ~~~~or elsewhere on the Authority's land. 18) The storage of all boat trailers and boat cradles is to be by I ~~~~agreement with the Authority. 8th July, 1975. APPENDIX VI 13 June, 1975. Water Storage Ci~tern Capacities Required for all Buildings to be erected on Wickhams Cay The following table has been prepared in the light of conflicting recommen- dations in various technical data and is an attempt to arrive as a reason- able assessment of the varying requirements of residential, commercial and industrial buildings on the Cay. It also considers the varying times that the buildings are occupied and every attempt has been made to make the requirements reasonable. Note: All volumes are Imperial measure. All lavatories and bathrooms are calculated on the basis of incorporating a wash hand basin. Amounts given are calculated for 2-3 months supply. SHOPS (Including Banks, Travel Agents, etc.) 2160 gallons for each flushing lavatory. 3600 gallons for each bath/shower. OFFICES 1800 gallons for each flushing lavatory. 3000 gallons for each bath/shower. MARINA FACILITY 3250 gallons for each flushing lavatory. 3600 gallons for each bath/shower. 1500 gallons for each sink unit. or if the marina facility is divided into shop/office or other accommoda- tion that accommodation may be used as a basis for the calculation. PUBS/BARS 3250 gallons for each flushing lavatory. 1500 gallons for each sink unit. HOTELS 2500 gallons for each bed. LIGHT INDUSTRY 1800 gallons for each flushing lavatory. or 180 gallons per employee whichever is greater. YACI11T CLUB, CULTURAL CENTER, PUBLIC RECREATION 3250 gallons for each flushing lavatory. 3600 gallons for each bath/shower. 1500 gallons for each sink unit. RESIDENTIAL 8000 gallons for each one bedroom unit. 10000 gallons for each two bedroom unit. 12500 gallons for each three bedroom unit. 1500 gallons for each four bedroom unit. APPENDIX VII. Wild Birds Protection Ordinance (1959) Schedule 1: species protected year-round Banana bird Flamingo Pea whistler Barbados blackbird Frigate bird Pelican Blacksmith Gaulding Sour sop bird Black witch Heron Tern Booby Humming bird West Indian canary Chitty bird Kingfisher West Indian robin Coo-coo Loggerhead Crane Man o' war bird Schedule 2: species protected by close season Coots (red and white seal) Quail Ground dove West Indian Thrush Mountain dove Partridge Bird Sanctuaries Order (1959) Areas specified as bird sanctuaries: Cockroach Great Dog Prickly Pear Cooper Great Tobago Round Rock Deadman's Chest Little Tobago Saba Fallen Jerusalem Mosquito St. Eustatia George Dog Necker Salt Ginger Peter Seal Dogs APPENDIX VIII. Protection of the Environment (Draft) Ordinance 'Cultural property' is to include: a) immoveables, such as archaeological, historic or scientific features, structures or other features of historic, scientific or archaeological value, whether religious or secular, including groups of traditional structures, historic quarters in urban or rural areas, and the ethnological structures of previous cultures still extant in valid form. b) immoveables constituting ruins above the earth, whether on dry land, or on or within the seabed. c) the setting of the property described in a) or, b) above. d) moveable property of cultural importance including that existing in or recovered from immoveable property and that concealed in the earth or on or within the seabed, which may be found in archaeological or historic sites or elsewhere whether or not any such property is owned publicly or privately. ,S-TTUEML841T . ~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~~m \4lr . . . fw Ky~ RI-SH VIlCI G5L~~) INATION'Al PARKS ~ 40ST VA~N DK vr.T~ cl tT i 3>~ lvfqST~oG M7. SOL: A a kl-FToFIC. SITES1 Felt Rep 0 O-T 0LA ow . *:5 EAT AVGoANOA TA T-~~~~~~~ 3i~~~~~r ~ V P 4'0