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000; 1 Coastal Zone Information Center Amu= 4L . ... . . .. .. IP irr 168 M5 )as'a I Zo]ne Ifo ma ion "a " r t C t enter S56 1976 North Ieast Michigan Regional Planning and Development Commission SHORELAND MANAGEMENT FOR LAKE HURON AND NORTHEAST MICHIGAN April, 1976 Prepared by: NORTHEAST MICHIGAN REGIONAL PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT COMMISSION P.O. Box 457 - 131 Shipp Street Gaylord, Michigan 49735 NORTHEAST MICHIGAN REGIONAL PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT COMMISSION COMMISSION OFFICERS: Chairman, Keith Titus Alpena County Vice-Chairman, Dean Welch Crawford County Treasurer, Felix Kucharek Otsego County Secretary, Lawrence LaCross Alpena County MEMBERSHIP ROSTER: Alcona County William Farrow Cheboygan County John Brown John Frechette Thomas Martin Kenneth Timm Gene Seligmiller Roy Vincent Alpena County Donald Elliott Montmorency Carl DeCou Fred Johnston Cou nty Merritt Clark Thomas Kelly Earl Seybert Oscoda County Alva Smith Presque Isle Fred McCreery Dennis G. Morse County Reuben Bruning Gordon Whitney Charles McKee Otsego County James Affhalter Crawford County Jerry Morford Raymond Butka Harold Mertes COMMISSION STAFF: Rodney E. Parker, Executive Direct-or Howard L Anderson, Chief Planner Neal A. Steinhoff, Associate Planner Lewis J. Steinbrecher, Resource Planner Ralph Eskuri, Law Enforcement Coordinator SSteven Perry, Planning Assistant Larraine Brackelman, Planning Assistant Christine F. Hopp, Secretary Susan Ramirez, Secretary Betty L. Slack, Secretary Ann Kennedy, Communications Specialist ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Apprecia 6017 is given to the shoreline coun ties, townships, cities, villages, special interest groups and interested citizens who have provided valuable assistance in the publication of this document. This report was written by Lew Steinbrecher, Resource Planner on staff at Northeast Michigan Regional Plann ing and Development Commission with thanks to Chris Hopp for its' typing. This report was prepared by Northeast Michigan Regional Planning and Develop- ment Commission under contract with the Michigan Department of Natural Resources Water Development Services Division, through financial assistance from the Office of Coastal Zone Management, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. The cover was created by Dave Seaman, drawn from existing photographs but does not represent an actual shore area on the Great Lakes. TABLE OF CONTENTS Commission Members and Staff i Acknowledgements ii Table of Content s iii List of Maps and Tables iv Introduction 1 Regional Shoreland Description 2 History of Region's Shoreland 4 Shoretype and Watersheds 5 Soils and Vegetation 9 Wildlife 18 Existing Land Use 19 Land Ownership 30 Population Projections 37 Growth and Development 42 Administrative Structure 45 Local Zoning Ordinances 46 Problems/Conf licts - Possible Solutions 50 Areas of Particular Concern 56 Location 57 Priority by Category 107 Areas for Preservation and Restoration 113 Location 114 Priority 115 Deficiencies and Obstacles 124 Management Goals and Objectives 126 Conclusion 129 Appendix LIST OF MAPS AND TABLES Map N umber Title Page Number I Region Nine Location 3 2 Regional Shoretype 6 3 Reglona*l Rivers and Watersheds 8 4 Cheboygan County Shoreland Solis 10 5 Eastern PFesque Isle Shoreland Solis 12 6 Western Presque Isle Shoreland Solis 13 7 Alpena County ShOTeland Solis 15 8 Alcona County Shoreland Solis 17 9 Cheboygan County Land Use 22 10 Eastern Presque Isle County Land Use 24 11 Western Presque Isle County Land Use 25 12 Alpena County Land Use 27 13 Alcona County Land Use 29 14 Townships along Lake Huron 41 15 Special Waterfront Requirements 49 16 Mackinaw Township Areas of Particular Concern 58 17 Beaugrand Township Areas of Particular Concern 60 18 Benton Township Areas of Particular Concern 62 19 Bearinger Township Areas of Particular Concern 64 20 Ocqueoc Township Areas of Particular Concern 66 21 N.W. Rogers Township Areas of Particular Concern 68 22 N.E. Rogers Township Areas of Particular Concern 70 23 Pulawski Township Areas of Particular Concern 72 24 Krakow Township Areas of Particular Concern 74 25 Presque Isle Township Areas of Particular Concern 76 26 N.E. Alpena Township Areas of Particular Concern 78 27 East Central Alpena Township Areas of Particular Concern so 28 S.E. Alpena Township Areas of Particular Concern 82 29 Sanborn Township Areas of Particular Concern 84 30 Alcona Township Areas of Particular Concern 86 31 Haynes Township Areas of Particular Coricern 88 32 Harrisville Township Areas of Particular Concern 90 33 Greenbush Township Areas of Particular Concern 92 34 Cheboygan County Areas of Particular Concern 94 35 Western Presque Isle County Areas of Particular Concern 95 36 Eastern Presque Isle County Areas of Particular Concern 96 iv Map Number Title Page Number 37 Alpena County Areas of Particular Concern 97 38 Alcona County Areas of Particular Concern 98 39 City of Alpena Flood Area 100 40 City of Cheboygan Flood Area 101 41 Greenbush Townsh;p Flood Area 102 42 Alpena Urban Area 104 43 Cheboygan Urban Area 105 44 Rogers City Urban Area 106 45 Areas for Preservation and Restoration Regional Location 114 46 Thunder Bay Shipwreck Locations 119 TABLES Table Number Title Page Number 1 Past and Projected Population Figures For The Shorefand Counties in the Northeast Michigan Region 39 2 Lake Huron Shoreline Township Population - 1970 40 V INTRODUCTION Few land forms possess the unique strength and quality where water and land meet. The shore is an amalgam of both, yet has a distinct character of its' own. The shore is also dynamic, always changing, always in motion. There are few places where people can stop and truly enjoy being Vvith themselves. It is because of this reason, why our shoreline should be protected so future generations may enjoy its simplicity in an ever increasing complex world. This report is a final, second year document for the purpose of review by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, local governments, and private citizens and organizations with special interest in the Lake Huron Shoreline of northeast Michigan. Management recommendations have been suggested in this report, but primarily serves as a collection of various information about the coastal zone. The State of Michigan has identified a one thousand foot boundary for the coastal zone but a one half mile inland boundary has been established for the purposes of the regional input because of its more general nature. I I I I - I I I I REGIONAL SHORELAND DESCRIPTION I I I I I I I I I I I I MAP 1 NORTHEAST MICHIGAN PLANN@NG and DEVELOPM, ENT REG@,ON 0 "Its a ... T 11A.- ULLET ALOHA Go TUJICA- OC- R.,... City R0. A WAVERLY O1T.c I., DO R.I 0 .... y KLLIII WALKE U A rOREST KRAKOW It 0 W.I-i LL.6 CASE NI"OA essm, mm--mIm cid e==Lm-mq mm 4-jetwom 0% co ==7=3 cm@I so 072"'27 "m esmm' OTSEGO Co. MONTMORLNCY CO. ALPENA CO. .2 o CORWITM MONTMORENCY ..IL- I I... . r I - "rTO" RAPIDS RIOG Alp... LMIRA LIVING- DOVER HILLM iIN STO. 51% z z 0 GREEN WILSON A@6.1 ..GLSY RUST u x LAKE ALBERT LOUD OSSINEKE SANBORN =001,421"im QRS V2gMND%E* W 92SUZM= CRAWFORD CO OSCODA CO. ALCON Co- CALEDONIA MAPLE 0 CLINTON I - LOV LLS 0 ALCONA HAWES z _0_,_S MITCHELL U-1. LING i 0 0 V-19 I ... r.TOR MILLEN zz soul "I CURTIS MIKADO [LCR= a RANC 0 -Dmw m cwmilmtttt@ compitumm %m awammom 0--M--Xsb as 5 0 5 10 15 20 MILES V cx SCALE -HISTORY OF THE REGION'S SHORELAND The shores were once occupied by the Indians, for many years until the French initiated a lucrative fur trading business. Because of the nature of the fur business, few communities and settlements were established. Fort Michilimackinac was built in 1715 by the French as a focal point fiDr fur trading and to command the upper straits for military purposes. The British began competing for the fur trade and after the French and Indian War, the entire shoreline area fell under British control. The Lake Huron shores remained primarily a wilderness area with few settlers during and well after the winning of our independence because of Indian disputes and unstable governments. After 1820, however, inland areas began to be cleared for agriculture, but in the process the wood and forest resources greatly influenced the establishment of towns. Lake Huron made an excellent natural water transportation system and many coastal com- munities flurished. Unfortunately, the lumbering boom peaked by the year 1910 and then rapidly de- clined. For the next twenty years, population declined and many once prosperous com- munities became ghost towns. Evidence of this can be found at Alcona Ghost Town, Bell Landing, and Grace, to name a few. Some towns such as Cheboygan and Alpena did have other established industries to rely on during this period to remain. During this same period, however, high quality limestone was discovered along the shores in Presque Isle County and in 1912, quarry operations began at Calcite. This quarry is still active today and is the world's largest limestone operation with plentiful reserves. Today, the shorelands economy is based on the limestone industry and its related Great Lakes Shipping Ports. Tourism and recreation greatly aids this economy but is more seasonal in nature. 4 SHORETYPE AND WATERSHEDS The Northeast Michigan Region has many miles of Lake Huron shoreline which are low ridge, sandy beaches. This type of shore makes an ideal swimming beach and allows easy access to and from the water. The regional shoretype map on the following page shows. that low lying wetland s are common along the coast as well. Note that most of Thunder Bay is classified as a marsh or swamp area. Most of the shore in eastern Presque Isle County is rock outcrop composed of lime- stone bedrock. Some high bluffs do occur along the shores in Harrisville and Greenbush Townships of Alcona County, however, the sandy beach ridge dominates much of the landscape. Two large river basins drain much of the Region. These include the Cheboygan River Watershed which empties into Lake Huron at Cheboygan and the Thunder Bay River basin with its mouth at Alpena. Smaller, coastal watersheds consist of thc 01Cqueoc, Swan, Trout, and Black Rivers. Map 3 depicts the exact location of these rivers. It should be noted that although the AuSable River mouth is located outside the region, much of the basin is in Northeast Michigan. 1.k 5 MAP 2 REGIONAL SHORETYPE D L A K E 0.0 C B C D -B CW0 C 0 09AW.000.1), IG C H U R 01 N r WIPLLCT AL.0"A oc- Boca WA Uoc .0ulme .Lv 006 13,11.14b.ra 06.041 0 a L "t",00 I'LL.. rarInT ALLIG CAQ'C .42 C., 04118 rose" -z=zz:z) CM OEM__--6 "a' CZ ALPENA CO- 10"IBLI.- L.-. A&Ptn& Classification A -low sa nd dunes a E 13- sandy beach ridge C - low bluff - sand and gravel (under 30 D feet high) D - swamp - low and wet S A N 0 C 0 Wd ca =Omomzt, - ALCON Go. C LEGOO41A E 'marsh - wet sand C GO. F_ LCOMA B F - rock outcrop G - low dry level sand plain backland N -sue .sand beach B MIKADO L Data from "Lake Shore Classification of Southern Peninsula of Michigan" Department of Resource Development, Michigan State University Andrew Gifford and C.R. Humphrys, 1966 Shoretype Examples In Several Areas Along The LAKE HURON .NORTHEAST MICHIGAN iiJf @n =21 "41Z 7- '@:!' '24! 44, g 4V Z' 4.11 ;NW, 1 11 7f, W AP V, p"l- 'rp @g got$ ;% zvo@":," F HAI IiZ p.@ 7 Jtj 4ft 4@ A ki2z 0 MAP 3 MUD CM. '-,-_Cheboygan River Mouth NORTH LAKE RIVERS LAKE LAS JLA URT A LE LAC LAK AP E SUL, L A K E KE DOG SAU LA'E LAKE LAKE ETTIE ST SA RAINY EM E LAKE E LMAN H U N AKE 0 RUSH -j LAK LAKE AVALON LAKE 4 rLETCHER OTSEGO ONO AKE 0 VILS( ABEAVER KE Thunder Bay River Mouth AKE TuFITL Te. AKE -q EAST TWIN LAKE TEA LAKE HUBBARD C9) LAKE 0. M10 DAM P 0 0"" AU LA mi ARGRET ALCONA Cn DAM MACK LAKE PONID@ E R. CEDAM LAKE Coasial Zone Management Program - Northeast Michigan Regional Planning and Development Corpmission SOILS AND VEGETATION CHEBOYGAN COUNTY Kalkaska - East Lake - Mancelona Association: Nearly level to undulating, well drained sandy soils. This association occurs only in th'e eastern shoreland area of Cheboygan County and is very suited for residential de- velopment. Agriculture and forest management practices are also suitable for this soil asso- ciation. Conifers are naturally found growing in these soils. Ontonagon - Rudyard - Bergland Association: Nearly level to undulating, well drained to poorly drained clayey soils having high natural fertility. They are calcareous soils and the clay gives a slow permeability characteris- tic. This association has severe limitations for residential development because of restricted percolation and hig h water tables. Common trees found include poplar, spruce, and cedar. Detour - Hessel - Munuscong Association: Nearly level to undulating, poorly drained loamy,soils with stony lake beach. These soils are not suited for residential development, forest management, agriculture, or recrea- tional use. The present vegetation is dominated by aspen, spruce and cedar. Roscommon - East Port - Rubicon Association: This is level, poorly drained, sandy soils along the lake with rid ges of well drained sand common at intervals. Stony beaches are also common with low natural fertility. There are severe limitations for farming and home construction because of high water tables and pos- sible pollution of ground water through sand. Dense, natural veigetation consists of cedar, aspen, paper birch, red maple and spruce. 9 MAP 4 C H E B 0 Y G A N C 0 U N T Y SHORELAND SOILS C A - Kalkaska - East Lake - Manc B - Ontonagon - Rudyard - Berg C - Detour - Hessel - Munuscong MACKI AW D - Roscommon East Port - R L A K E C H U R 0 N HEBRON D BEAUGRAND -sCHEB0YGAN BENTON INVERNESS 3/8 PRESQUE ISLE COUNTY Rubicon - Grayling - Croswell Association: Nearly level to undulating, well drained sandy soils with low natural fertility. There are slight limitations for home construction and recreation on these soils and conifers grow well (mainly jack pine). Rubicon - Eastport - Roscommon Association: Nearly level, well drained sandy soil which border the lake. Usually found in a net- work of old lake beaches as low ridges with poorly drained, organic and sandy soils in the intervening valley between the ridges. This soil has low natural fertility with white birch, fir, hard maple, poplar, jack pine, white pine and norway pine as their natural vegetation. These trees are very common to the Rubicon- Grayling- Croswell Association (above), as well. Carbondale - Lupton - Tawas Association: These soils are level, poorly drained and organic in nature, composed of plants in a de- composed stage. They are wet most of the year and found in the form of marshes and swamps. Dense, unusable vegetation occurs with cedar being very common. These soils have very se vere limitations for most developed land uses. Summerville -_Alpena - Ruse Association: Nearly level to undulating loamy soils overlying fractured limestone, bedrock or coarse gravel at very shallow depths. These limestone fragments are scattered on the surface as well and plant growth is restricted because of a limited root zone. Th ere are severe limitations for residential development and farm or forest management. MAP 5 Eastern PRESQUE ISLE COUNTY Shoreland Soils N - E Rubicon Grayling F Rubicon Eastport L A K E G Carbondale - Lupto H U R 0 N H Summerville - Alpe BEARINGER Hammond Bay Forty Mile ROGERS OCQUEOC MOLTKE W-7W MAP 6, Western PRESQUE ISLE COUNTY Quarry Pt. Adams Pt. Shoreland Soils E Rubico F Rubico H G Carbon H Surnme LA Thompson's Presque Isle Harbor PULAWSKI TOWNSHIP W KRAKOW PRESQUE ISLE TOWNSHIP TOWNSHIP -N- ALPENA COUNTY Rubicon - Grayling - Croswell Association: Nearly level to undulating, well drained sandy soils with low natural fertility. There are slifght limitations for home construction and recreation on these soils and white birch, fir, hard maple, poplar, jack pine, white pine and norway pine grow well. Ro@common - Tawas - Rubicon Association: Level, poorly drained, sandy and slightly organic soils with low natural fertility. There are severe limitations for farming, forestry, recreation and residential development. The natural vegetation is dominated by wetland conifers and thick shrubs. Carbondale - Lupton - Tawas Association: These soils are level, poorly drained and organic in nature; composed of plants in a de- composed stage. They are wet most of the year and found in the form of marshes and swamps. Dense unusable vegetation occurs with cedar and thick shrubs being very common. These soils have very severe limitations for most developed land uses. Summerville - Kiva Association: Nearly level to undulating, sandy or loamy well drained soils. Usually only twelve inches of this material overlie fractured limestone bedrock with slabs scattered on the surface. A re- stricted root zone and low moisture holding capacity severely limits vegetation growth. There are severe limitations for most land uses associated to man's activities. 14 7 ALPENA CO.UNTY Shoreland Soils E Rubilcon - Grayling - Croswell Association J Roscommon Tawas Rubicon Assoc. G Carbondale Lupton Tawas Assoc. K Summerville Kiva Association ALPENA TOWNSHIP 5 1-f Alpena Thunder Bay Partridge Pt. North Pt. Squaw Bay L A K E H U R 0 N SANBORN E South Pt. TOWNSHIP 15 ALCONA COUNTY Grayling - Rubicon - Croswell Association: Nearly level to undulating, well drained sandy soils with low natural fertility. There are slight limitations to residential development although ground water pollution is possible'because of rapid permeability. Conifers, most common of which is jack pine, dominates the vegetation on these soils. Mixed hardwo6ds such as white birch, aspen and poplar also comprise the forest cover. Rubicon - Eastport - Roscommon Ass ociation: Nearly level, well drained sandy soil which border the lake. Usually found in a net- work of old lake beaches as low ridges with poorly drained, organic and sandy soils in the intervening valley between the ridges. These soils have low natural fertility with natural vege_ tation very similar to that described in the above association. Brevort - losco - Linwood Association: Nearly level to undulating, poorly drained sandy soils. They are dark colored and high in organic matter underlain by clayey material. There are severe limitations for residential de- velopment and recreational activities because of high water tables. Natural vegetation consists of cedar and wetland shrubs. Carbondale - Lupton - Tawas Association: These soils are poorly drained and organic in nature, composed of plants in a decomposed stage. They are wet most of the year and found in the form of marshes and swamps. Dense, unusable vegetation consists of cedar and wetland shrubs. These soils have very severe limitations for most developed land uses. 16 MAP 8 ALCONA COUNTY Shoreland Soils L - Grayling - Rubicon - Croswell Assoc. F - Rubicon - Eastport - Roscommon Assoc. ALCONA M - Brevort - losco - Linwood Assoc. G - Carbondale Lupton Tawas Assoc. HAYNES Sturgeon Pt. L A K E H U R 0 N HARRISVILLE GREENBUSH 17 WILDLIFE A great variety of wildlife, including several unique species, can be found along the Lake Huron shoreline. Wetlands of Thunder Bay are hea vily used for resting by migrating Canadian, Blue and Snow Geese. The following is a list of wildlife species often seen along the shore and those rarely se6n or unique to the area. Common Species Unique Species White-tailed Deer Wild Turkey Ducks Black Bear Geese Cottontail Rabbit Ruffed Grouse Ring-necked Pheasant Squirrel Otter Snowshoe Hare Opossum Woodcock Badger Muskrat Bobcat Mink Bald Eagle Beaver American Osprey Weasel Sandhill Crane Raccoon Spruce Grouse Skunk Sharp-tailed Grouse Woodchuck Elk Porcupine Red Fox Crow Raven Coyote Hawk Owl 18 I I I I I I I I EXISTING LAND USE I I I I I I I I I I I I EXISTING LAND USE. The following maps depict the existing land use along the Lake Huron Shoreline in the Northeast Michigan Region. These maps are accurate to the property lines except in subdivided areas. Land use mapping is a useful tool in making an inventory analysis of not only the shoreline area, but for all land forms. These maps give an overall view of land uses and their relationship to each other. Residential, Commercial, and Industrial development can be seen and problems associated with their location and extent of development. The limitation of a land use map lies in the fact that it is general and cannot be absolutely accurate nor completely detailed. However, land use mapping has many advantages, especially for planning purposes. Please note that the following land use maps of the shoreline are in widths of one mile. The advantage of these maps are that they look at the land use further inland and show changes between shore use and inland use. 20 CHEBOYGAN COUNTY The Village of Mackinaw City is a summer resort with many commercial establishments. Well over fifty percent of these businesses are closed during the winter months then reopen in, the spring as the population grows almost ten times. There are many campgrounds in and around Mackinaw City and other recreational activities to accommodate the summer vacationers. Recreational boating is very popular as two commercial boat lines serve Mackinaw Island. Continuing southeasterly to Cheboygan, motels and cottages fill the beach areas between Lake Huron and U.S. Highway-23. On the inland side of the road, the land remains forested with some agricultural activity. Some recreation uses can be found in the City of Cheboygan, however, the economy of this community relies more on year-round industries and commercial establishments. It should be noted that the shore on both sides of the Cheboygan River mouth has remained, for the most part, undeveloped. This area is known as the Cheboygan Marsh and is believed to be one of the largest cattail marshes on the Great Lakes. The city has developed a park there and cleaned up an old landfill which at one time threatened the marsh. The land at Cheboygan Point is in forest-recreational use with the existence of the Cheboygan State Park. The county's remaining shoreline has residential and commercial (mainly motels) dwellings with forested areas inland. 21 PRESQUE ISLE COUNTY Thp Northwestern part of Presque Isle County (Bearinger, Ocqueoc and West Rogers Townships), has a similar land use pattern. The lake shore has residential and some commercial use with the land beffind this development used by Abitibi Corporation as a raw material supply for its hardboard mill in Alpena. Downtown Rogers City is com- mercial and this is surrounded with residential development. East of Rogers City one of two metallurgical and chemical grade limestone quarries produces and ships by lake vessels, limestone for industrial consumers. This quarry occupies land which was forested at one time, including two inland lakes. 1 Considerable acreage of proven limestone reserves of similar quality contiguous to the shoreline and north of Rogers City is being held for future development. This land is presently forested beyond Black Point where residential develop- ment occurs. This development continues until reaching Wreck PC,.::-. *, @; J the second metallurgical and chemical grade limestone quarrying and vessel loading facility in Northeast Michigan. These two limestone quarry operations are owned by U.S. Steel and Presque Isle Corporation, respectfully. Much of the shoreland south of and including False Presque Isle, extending into Alpena County, remains forested. ILEWIS, WILLIAM - "Quarry Suspected In Lowering Lake" -The Northwoods Call, January 14, 1976 - pg.5 23 WESTERN PRESQUE ISLE C(YLTNTY LAND Forest 2G @MT Residential 22 M.T Commercial Industrial Transportation 30 2, 33 is oAe HAMMOND G '0 BAK m- 0 11E, CO 6,6 ":z L ', "rov -11 PT. @:22 z., kk% - @o "41 2. 2, 2e 26 25 30 5,P 10 1 26 x 3, 1, 35 x 3, 32 3z 34 iz 33 -BLACK f. v 1. 3 3 2 5G,... 2 .1h ;0 A .1h 1. P-0 .2 Z 1 13 c C)3 c (7) V-oc 11 x .9 20 .................. 17 zo 211 "knc,c 2j 24 .9 30 zo 24 .... . za J, 3o 21 Z x AlIr 20 so .I!, 'A x 4" 1A vsclhb"* 35 32 33 j-,, E@ 3' 32 33 f- EASTERN PIRESQUE ISLE COUNTY QU.RRY ID U LAN Forest Residential Commercial Industrial @ 3. Transportation 4-4 f @i6 M,d L po,@T -s 2. 21 22 23 24 19 N \11t'1111 30 -T Sp..j@q A- k,@ 26 91 2. 26 So 2i 26 27 @ON 1A I N PO11T N1, 32 4 33 A c (U \VV L K 5 4 3 N,6'! 2 1 1 U c "r, @ 1'-1, S- 7 .0 1. 7@j,, k@;__ 0 p FR 41 -30- - - 2. 27 2. 32 34 f '33 ALPENA COUNTY The land in R8E, T32N, Section 1 and R9E, T32N, Section 6 is regaining vegetation which was once a productive limestone quarry. The coastal zone from the City of Alpena north to the deserted Port of Rockport, is predominantly forested with scattered, small, residential developments. There is some concentration of homes at Huron Bay and Roberts Cove. The City of Alpena has heavy industry along the lake, north of the Thunder Bay River mouth. Huron-Portland Cement and Abitibi Corporation utilizes their shore for vessel load- ing of cement and cement clinker. T hey also receive and store lake-borne coal, gypsum and iron ore supplies as well as winter berthing their fleet. Resigential development surrounds both of these districts except north of the Huron-Portland Cement Quarry, where the land is forested. Residential development continues along the shore south of Alpena to Ossineke and includes Bare Point, Partridge Point, and the Squaw Bay Area. Behind this lakefront and US-23 develop- ment, the land is dominated by forest cover. South of Ossineke to the county's southern boun- dary, the land is forested with scattered homes along Lake Huron. City, County and State Parks- are found at both Alpena and Ossineke. 26 MAP 12 OCKP@R GENERAL HIGHWAY MAP LAKEWOOD MIDDLE .. .... ALPENA COUNTY MICHIGAN 0 gzb W poitl Landi Use A N L P E Forest r93 Residential 0//0 Commercial Industrial A State Park County Park C@ Citv Park TIER @-@@_POIWT -Vt V" :ROOKED 1. ALPENA--\ I, TEr",, DER POINT POINT ww L-7 "; X < POINT SULPHUR 1. ..Z N W L 0 ARDWOOD ;4, 1 POINT 22 23 IRO L SOUT POI:T 'S' A 0 R N 4, 'N-R 3S 34 3, -T- n-7 ALCONA COUNTY It should be noted that transportation land use is found not only in Alcona County, but the other three counties as well. Highway US-23 is included in the coastal zone for many miles, 17 miles in Alcona County alone. The shoreland in the northern two town- ships, Alcona and Haynes, is mostly forested with scattered residential developments. Many of the homes occur at the two rural centers of Black River and Alcona and nearly all of them are situated on the shore of Lake Huron, The shoreline in both Harrisville and Greenbush Townships is residentially developed. There is a small commercial district located in the City of Harrisville as well as a few industrial activities. One of the county's largest industrial installations is located on highway US-23 at the northern limits of the City of Harrisville. This is the site of several large storage tanks which are used by Wurtsmith Air Force Base (losco County) for storing jet fuel. Lake vessels unload this fuel at this point then it is transferred to the air force base by means of a pipeline. Although some forested and agricultural lands can be found in these two southern town- ships, residential development occupies the majority of the coastal zone with commercial and industrial establishments located along the US-23 corridor. 28 MAP13 LAND USE 23 FOREST AGRICULTURAL -)'BLACK RNER 1. RESIDENTIAL F6 COMMERCIAL INDUSTRIAL T, ---------------- - 1 4 3 03 @'H A 1, 22 lTQRqf0V PI LIN I'l A R R, I I L. IN @//nl A R E G N- K 21 u GENERAL HIGHWAY MAP ALCONA COUNTY U-@ MICHIGAN 29 I I I I I I LAND OWNERSHIP I I I I I I I I I I I I I LAND OWNERSHIP The following figures on land ownership along the 192 miles of shoreline are.only approximations. However, they are accurate to within one mile. Ownership (in miles) Public: Federal 5 State 51 County, Twp., 2 City Private: Large Tracts 33 Subdivided 101 192 miles CHEBOYGAN COUNTY By far, most of this county's coastal zone is subdivided or large acreage tracts owned by private individuals. Some corporate land, less than 10% is located throughout the shoreland with some concentration in the City of Cheboygan. State land totaling about 18% of the coastal zone is also spread along the lakefront with a large tract east of the City of Cheboygan. There is no Federally owned land and only some county land within Cheboygan's shoreland, serving as an airport for that community. Mackinaw City Much of Mackinaw City is subdivided and owned by small tourist-oriented busi- nesses. State land is found in the form of a state park, Fort Michilimackinac, and it too is a tourist attraction. A railroad company owns a large parcel of land but it is mostly open field with an abandoned depot. 31 Mackinaw Township About 55% of the land is privately owned subdivisions and some large parcels. Very little of the land is owned by corporations, amounting to only 8%. The re- maining 37% of the shoreland is state owned with one mile of beach along Lake Huron at Cadott's Point and again just south of this area. Beau2rand Township Nearly all of the coastal.zone is large acreage, private land. There is only one hundred twenty acres of state owned land within the coastal zone and it is located along the inland boundary, not bordering the shore of Lake Huron. City of Cheboygan Most of Cheboygan is subdivided and individually owned. Corporately owned land is found centralized in the middle of the city and along the banks of the Cheboygan River. The county and city of Cheboygan jointly own and operate an airport just north- east of the city along Harrison Avenue. The state owns land adjacent to the Cheboygan River and has built a DNR Field Office with plans of installing a small boat launch in the same area. Benton Township Cheboygan State Park land begins just outside the city's eastern limit and extends around eastern Duncan Bay out to Lighthouse Point and continues past Cheboygan Point. There is additional state land along Grass Bay Shore with a forty-acre tract be- longing to the Cheboygan area Boy Scouts between Grass Bay area and the State Park . Most of the remaining coastal zone is in large tracts, privately owned, with some being subdivided. Approximately seven percent of Benton Township's shoreland is corporately owned but none of this land has Lake Huron water frontage. PRESQUE ISLE COUNTY Several corporations own most of the shoreland while about 30% of it is sub- divi.ded or in large tracts belonging to individual citizens. Some state land is scattered along the county's coastal zone and even less federal land. There is a large tract of land in Ocqueoc Township belonging to a private hunting club. Bearincier Township With the exception of a small twenty acre tract of land along Lake Huron near the middle of the township's shoreline, the entire coastal zone is privately owned. This small parcel of land is owned by the Michigan Waterways Commission and used as a harbor of refuge. About 80% of this private land is owned by the Abitibi Cor-_ poration, a wood producing company. The remaining shoreland is subdivided and in- dividually owned. Much of this subdivided land is located along Lake Huron in the northern portion of the township and also around the rural center of Grace, near the southern end. Occlueoc Townshi All of the shoreline in this township is individually owned in large tracts. The Abitibi Corporation owns some shoreland southwest of Huron Beach. The Oc-Oc Club owns a large tract of land along the Ocqueoc River but its property ends be- fore the stream empties into Lake Huron. Much of the land south of US-23 and east of the Oc-Oc Club belongs to the State of Michigan. None of this state land borders Lake Huron but does occupy the majority of the coastal zo ne. Rogers Township The northern half of the township is mainly subdivided while, the southern por- tion is nearly all corporately owned, P.H. Hoeft State Park is located near the middle of the township shoreline, just a few miles northwest of Rogers City. Additional state land is near the state park, but it does not reach the Lake Huron shores. Limestone 33 companies own most of the land around Rogers City, and extending through Pulaw- ski into Krakow Townships the entire width -of the coastal zone. Rogers City itself however, is subdivided with a small city park on Lake Huron at the northwest end of the town. Pulawski and Krakow Townships All of Pulawski and most of Krakow Township's shorelands are owned by the Michigan Limestone Operations Division of U.S. Steel Corporation. The only land area in either township not owned by U.S. Steel is in Thompson's Harbor. Along the shoreline is a large tract of individually owned land and about 234 acres of state land. Presque Isle Township Most of the shoreland north of and around Lake Esau is subdivided with some corporate land ownership. The United States owns the Presque Isle Lighthouse, but is presently allowing the township to use that land for a park. Southeast of Lake Esau, the entire width of the coastal zone down to the south end of Grand Lake, and including all of False Presque Isle, is owned by the Quile Corporation, a limestone company. The State of Michigan-owns the Lake Huron shore along False Presque Isle Harbor with a large, privately owned parcel of land west of this. The remainder of the shoreland is corporately owned, extending down into Alpena County with the exception of a forty-two acre tract, individually owned at the county's southern line and along Lake Huron. 34 ALPENA COUNTY The shoreland is predominantly privately owned being 40% corporately and 40% individually owned. The remaining 20% is state land and some county and city ownership. Alpena Township (northern half) The land at the extreme end of Alpena Township is corporately owned. How- ever, mos t of the shoreland is individually owned north of and including the area of El Cajon Bay. Some of the land at South Nine Mile Point and Monaghan Point is owned by companies. State land is found around the El Cajon Bay shoreland area but none touches Lake Huron. Most of Thunder Bay north of the City of Alpena is owned by either Huron Portland Cement Company or Ford Motor Company. There is a large 700 acre tract of individually owned land at Thunder Bay's North Point. Some of the shore at Whitefish Point in Thunder Bay is subdivided. City of Alpana North of the Thunder Bay River the shoreline is owned by Huron Portland Cement Company and Abitibi Corporation, both using Lake Hui-on for some shipping operations. Most of Alpena is subdivided with commercial establishments along tile River and in the downtown area. Alpena owns several small parks along the lake in the southern part of the City. The remaining shore is individually owned and developed. Alpena Township (southern half) South of the City the entire coastal zone south to the Village of Ossineke is sub- divided with some large acreage tracts owned by individual citizens. Only a small parcel of land at Bare Point is commercially owned and is in the form of a marina. Sanborn Township The northern section of the coastal zone including the community of Ossineke is subdivided, mostly occurring between Highway US-23 and Lake Huron. South of Ossineke state land is located at Harwood Point and South Point and extends southernly into Alcona County. However, most of the shoreland in Sanborn Township south of Ossineke is pri- vately owned and is divided into large acre tracts. I r, ALCONA COUNTY About 90% of Alcona County's coastal zone is subdivided or large tracts of land, privately owned. State land occurs for several miles in northern Alcona County as does some township property. Large tracts and subdivided private pro- perties travel the entire stretch of coastal zone with some state and federal land scattered along the way. Alcona Township M uch of the northern half is state land with a 40 acre tract belonging to Alcona Township. The southern half is mostly large private tracts with some sub- divided land in and around the rural center of Black River. The United States has three separate tracts totaling about 150 acres in the shorelands area, including 21/2 miles of lake frontage. Haynes Township Most of the shoreland in Haynes Township is privately owned, having only two parcels which are in public ownership. The United States owns 103 acres near the northern township line and the state owns the lighthouse and 60 acres at Sturgeon Point. Approximately 30% of the private land is subdivided while the remaining shoreland is in large acreage ownership. Harrisville Township Most of the shoreland is privately owned, large tracts with 80% of the City of Harrisville being subdivided. The entire waterfront from one mile north of Harrisville to several miles south of Springport is subdivided. Harrisville State Park is located on the lake just south of the city. The remaining shoreland is in large acreage tracts with a subdivision at the southern township line. Greenbush Township The entire coastal zone of Greenbush Township is privately owned. All of the lakefront is concentrated with subdivisions and these small parcels occupy nearly half of the shoreland's area. The remaining land is in large acreage tracts, individually owned. 36 I I I I I I POPULATION PROJECTIONS I I I I I I I I I I I I .1 POPULATION PROJECTIONS- The following charts show past and projected population figures for the four shoreline counties in the Northeast Michigan Region. Th e growth rates have been relatively low, however, compared to state and national increases, But more re- cently, this area has experienced a larger increase (in terms of percentage), than downstate and out-of-state regions. The development of oil fields and migration of retirees from urban areas are the principal reasons for this increase. By observing only those township population figures on Table 2, an interesting pattern occurs. According to these figures, approximately 59% of the total four county population live on about one-fourth of the land. Map 13 shows that this land is in close proximity to the 1-1wron It sh,@@11 noted that the concentration of the population on';UCS tllt@ uron and inland lakes in this area. '38 TABLE I PAST AND PROJECTED POPULATION FIGURES FOR THE SHORELAND COUNTIES IN THE NORTHEAST MICHIGAN REGION 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 ALCONA 5,856 6,352 7,113 8,947 9,91-:4 ALPENA 22,189 28,556 30,708 37,473 43,994 CHEBOYGAN 13,731 14,550 16,573 24,205 32,393 PRESQUE ISLE 11,996 13,117 12,836 15,638 19,438 Cl) Total 53,772 62,575 67,230 86,263 105,779 AS COMPARED TO STATE OF MICHIGAN 6,371,766 7,823,194 8,875,083 - - - (total) UNITED STA TES 151,325,798 179,323,175 203,211,926 - - - - - - - "Population Projections of the Counties of Michigan" Planning and Policy Analysis Division Michigan Department of Management and Budget October, 1974 TABLE 2 TOWNSHIP POPULATION - 1970 Only Those Townships Which Have Lake Huron Shoreline Percentage of Population In Close Proximity to Lake Huron ALCONA COUNTY (total) 7,113 eastern A!cona Township 188 26% Haynes Township 416 Harrisville Township 902 eastern Greenbush Township 355 TOTAL: 1,861 ALPENA COUNTY (total) 30 @700- Alpena City 13,805 79% Alpena Township 9,001 Sanborn Township 1,624 TOTAL: 24,430. CHEBOYGAN COUNTY (total) Pvbckinaw City & Township 553 43% Beaugrand Township 850 Cheboygan City 5,553 northern Benton Township 326 TOTAL: 7,282 PRESQUE ISLE COUNTY (total) 12836 Bearinger Township 139 50% Ocqueoc Township 414 Rogers City 4,275 Rogers Township 727 Pulawski Township 396 northern Krakow Township 221 eastern Presque Isle Township 442 TOTAL: 6,614 40 MAP 14 TOWNSHIPS AND ENUMERATION DISTRICTS ALONG THE LAKE HURON COASTLINE IN NORTHEAST MICHIGAN et'lawo Clip L A K E H U R 0 N IDURT AST AL0- IUCCA- .0".41 I.r... City DOCA C, ",it 9LLI% -.LKER 0. 0 69%.Q.- LLIC CASS c= C-tv. am AMC= XLPENA L;()- Shaded area represents approximately 094cam WSLSOP4 one-fourth of the land and 59% of the population in the four-county shore- land region. @A t M 717 C @() 7 A L t 0 0 N I mITCHELL HAWKS 14ILLCR J "ILLCM _1j - I F--IT.- 41 GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT Historically, the shares have always been primary development sites and this holds true for the Northeast Michigan Region as well. Lumbering brought on much of this region's growth, but many of these old settlements are now ghost towns with very few remains. Thi's out-migration has continued throughout the years until recently. There has always been home construction along Lake Huron but most of this was in the form of summer cottages. Many of the smal I commun ities on Lake H uron and nearby in land lakes swell five to eight times during the warmer months. This pattern will continue, but there has been an increase in the year 'round residents. Many of these summer cottages are being win- terized and used by retirees and unemployed families. New home construction is increasing but at a slower rate in the coastal zone. Most of the residential development is occurring on the region's inland lakes. The reason for this trend is that very little land is left along the shore to develop. The limestone companies own many miles of undeveloped shoreline which they will not sell nor will the state be selling any of its shoreland. v- - little residential development will occur in the region's coastal zone. Industrially, increased quarrying of area limestone is anticipated to meet the constantly growing consurner requirements. Present operations of this t ype have substantial reserves. U.S. Steel has begun a quarry at Adams Point with plans of leaving a protective limestone wall be- tween the quarry and Lake Huron. This quarrying will continue until reaching the bottom of the formation, estimated to be seventy to eighty feet below the Lake Huron water level. This quarry could then be used as a deep water harbor for the large limestone ships of U.S. Steel. Bell shale, salt, gas and oil are additional natural resources that may be developed for lake markets. Forest products are likewise anticipated to increase as Michigan's construction indus- try requires greater volumes of hardboard and as research and development finds other uses for second growth timber. 42 Sequential use of exi sting and future shoreland take-oriented industrial facilities is very much in the picture such as, but not limited to, power development sites, mid- continent ocean commerce ports, dry dock and shipyard installations, and marinas for pleasure craft. Present environmental laws should hopefully insure the ecological and aesthetic values of the shorelands. Small industry is needed in the area but can occur only outside the coastal zone. Cheboygan and Rogers City each have one, while Alpena has two industrial parks which are located close to Lake Huron but not directly on the shores. Mackinaw City and Har- risville also desire a small factory to help support their economies. Rogers City has a unique problem in the sense of expansion. That community has not grown in the past fifty years nor will it grow much in the future. The city is boxed "i n on three sides because limestone companies own the surrounding land. Rogers City is re- stricted in growth to the north because of the existance of Lake Huron. However, they are actively seeking companies for their industrial park to support the community's econornic base. Recreational use will increase significantly along the shoreline bringing with it needed income to the area during the restricted summer months. Tourism is increasing year after year and more facilities will be needed to support this volume of vacationers. Existing parks and campgrounds will be improved and presently held state shoreland may develop additional parks and campgrounds. One example, is the proposed Negwagon State Park located in southern Alpena and northern Alcona Counties. The plans have been finalized but construction has been stalled because of the absence of an accessible road into this very natural and wilderness shoreland area. Additi onal shorelands may be acquired by the state to accommodate increased recrea- tional needs. Recreational boating on the lake will also increase with a need for additional 4R shore facilities throughout the region. Motorcycle and dune buggy activities are very evident along the beaches and home owners on the shore are concerned over their con- tinued operation. CONCLUSION AND OBJECTIVES Recreation is very much a part of this region's shoreland economy but there is a need to stabi:ize its f luctuation. Care-fu I and orderly industrial development is essential for a stable and solid economic base along the region's coast. Residential development can also cccur but at a controlled rate to prevent unsound management practices. Much of this development can occur along the coastal zone given the proper conditions. OBJECTIVES A. To identify shoreland areas of ecological and historical importance. B. To limit rasidential development to only those areas which can sup- port such use. C. To restore or remove damaged and destroyed structures so as to en- hance the beauty of the coastline. D. To identify and receive approval of areas for National Flood Insurance Program. E. To identify areas which are in need of additional recreational facilities and supported by local citizens and governmental units. F. To promote a stable industrial base with sound environmental con- siderations. G. To cooperate with interests developing shoreland for industrial and commercial uses which will strengthen the regional economic base as well as lake economy through good and services from the North- east Region. H. To promote governmental policy conducive to the orderly develop- ment of industrial facilities dependent on Great Lakes shipping. 44 I I I I I I ADMIMSTRATIVE STPUCTURE I I I I I I I I I I I I I ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE The following is a list of all local governmental units which are found along the Lake Huron shoreline in Northeast Michigan. Counties Townships Cities and Villages Alcona Alcona Harrisville Greenbush Harrisville Haynes Alpena Alpena Alpena Sanborn Cheboygan Beaugrand Cheboygan Benton Mackinaw City Mackinaw Presque Isle Bearinger Rogers City Krakow Ocqueoc Presque'Isle Pulawski Rogers Contact has been made with the planning commission or the actual governing body of all four counties, eleven of the fifteen townships, the four cities and the only village. The program has generally been well received by these governmental units. The four county planning commissions have all passed resolutions supporting the program and endorsing the goals and objectives. LOCAL ZONING ORDINANCES In Alcona County, the county planning commission has recently completed a county- wide comprehensive plan which has given consideration to shoreland environments both on Lake Huron and Inland Lakes. 46 Zoning regulations are the townships' responsibility and four of these townships in Alcona County have jurisdiction of the shoreland area under their individual zoning ordinances. However, according to those ordinances, and barring any recent amend-* ments.to them, only two (Alcona and Haynes Townships) have special provisions or setback requirements for waterfront property. The City of Harrisville also has its own zoning ordinance but with no special \@aterfront regulations. The Alpena County Planning Commission completed a comprehensive plan in 1968 and is currently in the process of updating that document. The townships, as those in Alcona County, have adopted individual zoning ordinances and have generally related to the county-wide plan when arnending their ordinances. The City of Alpena also has a comprehensive plan and a more detailed plan for the downtown area, but both are in need of updating. The City's zoning ordinance does have specific provisions for all water- front property. Presque Isle County also has a planning commission which has initiated a study to develop a county-wide comprehensive plan. The planning commission does intend to in- corporate some of the shorelands program material into this plan which will aid the county- wide zonin g in the shoreline area. Two townships and Rogers City have adopted their own zoning ordinance while the remaining land in Presque Isle County is zoned by the County. Presque Isle and Krakow Townships both have planning commissions and have special waterfront regulations in their zoning ordinances. Rogers City is presently updating their master plan while Presque Isle Township is beginning to develop one. Rogers City's ordinance has no specific waterfront regulations but it should also be noted that the city owns a majority of the lakefront with intentions of purchasing more land. A-7 The following is a list of all governmental units within the region which do have zoning ordinances in effect along the Lake Huron shoreline. The asterisk (*) indicates those ordinances with specific setback regulations for waterfront development. *Alcona Township *Alpena, City 9f .-Alpena Township *Beaugrand Township Cheboygan, City of *Cheboygan County Greenbush Township Harrisville, City of Harrisville Township *Haynes Township *I(rakow Township Mackinaw City, Village of *Presque Isle County *Presque Isle Township Rogers City, City of Sanborn Township The Map on the following page shows those areas of the Lake Huron shores which have special waterfront setback regulations stated in the local zoning ordinances. 48 MAP 15 SPECIAL WATERFRONT REQUIREMENTS INCLUDING LAKE HURON GAI&D. CUP !rr.. L A K E D.C.,. clely .. ........ .......... . . . ......... ......... H U R 0 N ........ ... + P @ .......... ....... ... k-W ALPENA Cu. Legend for Waterfront J..0va. nap,:. 11-4 Setback Ragulations Alp... County-Wide Zoning WILSON .0 Township Zoning I-- City Zoning 0 a 0 SA MOO"" I m @ C=z@ . C ALCON CO- CALErONIA No Specific Waterfront Setbacks Required 04AW1111 4 a 10.1110 WILL994 0 custvas 641KADO PROBi-EPvIS/CONFLIc-rs - POS, IBLE SOLUTIONS PROBLEMS/CONFLICTS - POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS Problem Lack of identification and understanding by general public and local officials of prime shoreland areas for wildlife and fish habitat, recreation and forest. Possible Solution: Continued work. with local decision-makers to develop sound planning and zoning principles which recognize unique, fragile or prime areas. Problem Continued home construction along the shore with excessive clearing and side-by-side septic tanks in coarse-textured soils and, in some cases, high seasonal water tables can re- sult.in future pollution of Lake Huron and groundwater. Possible Solution: Technical assistance to local officials to become aware of the rarni- fications of land use decisions on the resources of the area. Problem Lack of public access site- .;Ivite beaches. Possible Solution: The state can install new state parks at Negwagon and Sturgeon Point on presently owned state land. Improvements can also be made in the form of smal I boat launches- at various points including Black River in Alcona Township. The state should also evaluate the potential for a new state park in Thompson's Harbor in Presque Isle County. All of these additions would greatly relieve the people pressure being placed on present facilities. Problem Increased litter, crime, noise, motorcycle and dune buggy activity and other associated problems at existing public access sites due to the increased number of people using present facilities. 1141 1 Emsible Solution# Existing sites should be re-evaluated to determine the amount of use each individual site receives, then improve or expand each facility to meet its demand. Proper controls should also be imposed to reduce the above mentioned problems to a minimum. Problem Increased lakeshore erosion due to extreme high water levels have endangered homes built too close to the water's edge. Homes near the rural center of Greenbush have loss up to 40 feet of beach and the park manager at Harrisville State Park could possibly lose several campsites. The waste water treatment pla nt in Rogers City is also threatened by continued erosion but the city hopes to build a concrete erosion prevention structure in the near future. Possible Solution: Educational programs should be instituted to inform local residents of careful site selection and construction in high risk erosion areas. Continued work with local governments to institute the "Greenbelt Concept" within present zoning ordinance would be a tremendous help to perspective home builders. Demonstration and direct erosion prevention projects should also be continued to help presently threatened homes from des- truction. Problem Development in flood prone area has caused water-related damages to buildings. Periodic high water levels of Lake Huron create problems to many communities including Alpena, Cheboygan, Harrisville and others. Possible Solution: Again, continued work with local governing bodies to zone these lands to their best use without placing undue restrictions on the land owners. All new build- ings constructed in these areas should meet flood-proof standards. Detailed mapping of these flood prone areas by the Federal Insurance Administration (HUD), should be carried out in cooperationwith the local governmental units. 52 Problem Present location for disposal of dredging spoils and the inconsistency in which con- trols are enforced. Private citizens are required to dispose of this material on upland areas while the Army Corps of Engineers continue to dump dredging spoils into the open waters of the Great Lakes. Possible Solution Uniform controls for the disposal process should be enforced by an identified agency, regardless of what the effect is said to be on the eutrophication of the Great Lakes. Conflict Development vs. Preservation of natural and wetland areas. Citizens are concerned that the state designation of environmental oi- ecological areas will reduce the value of that land and restrict development of an individuals parcel. wetland Possible Solution: The responsibility clearly lies with the property owners as to the actual effect this designation has on the development of this land. No one will be told they can't build, but they will be restricted to the best suited building area on his land. Also, these designated areas will be limited to only unplatted and un- developed wetlands. Local zoning amendments can also be enacted for these areas but if not, building permits will have to be secured from the state. Royalties from oi I and gas drilling on state land should be exclusively intended for the purchase of wetlands and other natural areas. Problem Perhaps the single most discussed issue is of increasingly high property taxes along the waterfront. Property owners with undeveloped land are having to sell parcels of that land to developers to pay their taxes. This is resulting in home construction along shore areas which were once undeveloped. The assessed values are presently high but, will have 53 to be, raised to comply with state standards. It is becoming very difficult for these people to pay their taxes. Possible Solution: This is a very complex problem and one which requires much more thought than can be given in this Study. One-possible solution, however, would be the Farmland and Open Space Preservation Act for those land owners who have un- developed lands, Problem The increase of population during the summer months and the strain it puts on local area services, such as police patrol, fire departments, hospitals, garbage contractors, and sanitary landfills, road mainLenence and others. Possible Solution: Continue to work with local officials to develop plans and account for seasonal influx of people. Problem The need for an inventory of res taurants, gas stations and other service facilities located along the shorelands. Possible Solution: Cooperation with area Chamber of Commerc.es to develop bro- chures about shore area services including tourist attractions. Problem Intense demands placed on fish populations by anglers have reduced the quality of fishing both along the shore and at river mouths. Possible Solution: Develop and promote public educational program to inform fishermen of the problem and give examples of proper water and surrounding land uses compatible to the environment and fisheries resource. 54 Problbm Lack of funding for waterfowl and fish habitat improvement and acquisition. Possible Sol ution: Support legislation to purchase wetlands with royalties from oil bnd gas drilling on state land. 55 I f I I I I I I I AREAS OF PART ICULAR CONCERN I I I I I I I I I I - I 1. Fort Michilimackinac. The French built this fort in 1715 and taken by the British in 1761. It was abandoned in 1780 where it fell into decay. The state began excavations in 1959 and continues today., 2. Mackinaw Point L4qhthouse Built in 1890, this brick tower overlooks the Straits of Mackinaw. 3@ Cambell Farm Site, also known as Mill Creek Site Once a gristmill and sawmill, this industrial complex was the first in northern Michigan. 4. City-State Harbor Located in downtown Mackinaw City, fecs are charged to launch boats. Commercial ferries to Mackinac Island also operate the docks. 5. Mackinaw Campground (r)rivately ownecl) Located 3 miles south of the Mackinaw Bridge on US-23 and Lai,- i -',iron, and it has 100 campsites. 7 Green Acres Campground (privately otillneof) Located along 1-75 in Mackinaw City. 8. Mackinaw Island A very popular tourist and hiotoric site and although not in the reg'.-n, it does have a significant impact on Mackinaw City, environ mentally, physically, and economically. 9. Bois Blanc Islancl Although this island is not part of Cheboygan County, residents are closely associated to the mainland in many respects. R7 MAP 16 MACKINAW TOWNSHIP Cheb3ygan County STRAITS OF MACKINAW 2 MACKINAW CITY 6 CADOTTES POINT 5 US-23 cale 1 inch 1 mile 10. Cheboygan Opera House and City Hall The Old Ope ra House is on the second floor of the present City Hall. It is presently condemned, but plans call for its' restoration. 11. Old Cheboygan County Courthouse One of the oldest courthouses still@tanding in Michigan. A second county courthouse was built but torn down a few years ago. A third courthouse has been constructed in re- cent years. 12.. Inland Waterway Begins at the mouth of the Cheboygan River. This chain of lakes and rivers extends inland to Crooked Lake, just north of Petoskey. 13. Old Duncan City Site of first settlement in Duncan Bay, now part of the Cheboygan Marsh. The village was destroyed by fire and the people moved to present locations of Cheboygan. 14. City Boat Launch No fee charged, located off US-23 on east side of the river. 15. State Boat Launch No fee charged, located one mile south of US-23 on the east side of Cheboygan River. 16. Tio-A-Canoe Campground Located west of Cheboygan on US-23 and Lake Huron and has fifty campsites. 17. State Roadside Park Located on US-23 west of Cheboygan. 86. U.S. Coast Guard Station Home port of U.S.C.G. Cutter Mackinac. 87. Cheboygan Locks Allows passage around the dam and continuation of the Inland Waterway. 59 City of Cheboyqan MAP 17 EBOYGAN RI BEAUGRAND TOWNSWP 13 Cheboygan County 10 15 US-23 67 POINT AU SABLE US-23 @H E60 1 YGA N 3 City of Chebo a, H _B Y I 0 GYA'N 13 u S-23 16 scale 1 inch 1 mile 60 18. Skipper5 Marina Commercial operation with fee charged for boat launch. 19. Cheboygan State Park 932 acres with 78 campsites, this park has electricity and a fine swimming beach on Lake Huron. 20. State Roadside Park- Located along US-23 on Lake Huron, no camping allowed. 21. Duncan Bay (wetlancls) Mostly state owned shoreland with unique ecological features including a cattail marsh. 85, Grass Bay Area Natural and sand dune area used by U.of M. for research purposes but threatened by OR V users. 61 NINE MILE POINT MAP 18 BENTON TOWNSHIP Sid3 A US-23 Cheboygan County LIGHTHOUSE CHEBOYGAN POINT POINT CORDWOOD POINT GRASS BAY 21 DUNCAN 85 BAY US-23 ---------- ---------- ------- US-23 Side A I- ----------- ---------- ---------- NINE MILE PO INT US-2 N3 scale: 1 inch 1 mile 22. 40 Mile Point County Park Located along US-23 on Lake Huron, this park is designed.for small trailers only. 63 MAP 19 BEARINGER TOWNSHIP Presque Isle County Scale I inch I mile US-23 HAMMONDBAY 64 23. Ocqueoc River - U.S. Lamprey Expedment Station Permanent research laboratory of the U.S. Department of Interior; Bureau of Commercial Fisheries. Its primary work is to investigate means of controlling the sea lamprey in the Great Lakes. 24. Ham mond Bay Had5or of Reftige 25. Hammond B" 26. Small Huron Dunes Area 65 MAP 20 QCQUEOCTOWNSHIP Presaue isie County scale 1 inch= 1 mile U'S. LAMPREY EXPERI NT STATION 25 23 HAMMONDBAY 26 26 24 US-23 66 26. Small Huron Dunes A r-ea 27 Sacred -Rock 28. P. /-/. Hoeft State Park Located in "Huron Dunes" country along US-23, this state park has 300 acres and 146 campsites. The Lake Huron beach is also excellent for swimming and bathing. 67 MAP 21 northwest ROGERS TOWNSHIP Presque Isle County 26 26 28 US-23 FORTY MILE POINT co 27 scale: 1 inch 1 mile 30. U.S. Ste el Limestone Quarry Started in 1912, this is the world's largest limestone quarry. 31. Calcite Harbor - Great Lakes Shipping Port 32. Rogers City Park 33. Rogers City Boat Harbor One of the finest small boat harbors on the Great Lakes and provides for approxi- mately fifty crafts. 34. State Owned Access Point 35. Limestone Ouarry View ancl Harbor View Visitors can watch quarry operations and ships loading and unloading. Fossils can also be found in the area. 36. Presque Isle County Historical Museum Located in downtown Rogers City, this museum is dedicated to preserving the history of Presque Isle County. 69 34 MAP 22 southeast ROGERSTOWNSHIP Presque Isle County 33 ROGERS CITY 36 3 IAL-CITE' 30 HARBO 35 US-23 SO scale: 1 inch 1 mile 37 Swan Lake-. . Located between two active quarry operations, this la ke has been preserved by U.S. Steel. 38. Big Trout and Little Trout Lakes and Surl-ounding Are Entire area owned by U.S. Steel and held in reserve for possible future development of high quality limestone which lies underneath. Presently, the area is in a very natural and completely undeveloped state. 71 DAMS POINT QUARRY POINT MAP 23 PULAWSI(I TOWNSHIP 37 Presque Isle County scale 1 inch 1 mile 30 LITTLE BIG TROUT LAKE TROUI LAKE US-23 LAKE AUGUSTA 72 39. Grand Lake 6,080 acre coastal lake heavily used by fishermen for Bass, Perch, Pike and Walleyes. 40. Thompson's Harbor Most of the shoreline along this harbor was once owned by U.S. Steel but given to state in return for other land closer to Rogers City.. This area remains undeveloped and has . small dunes (Huron Dunes) which are in a natural state but is threatened by off-road vehicle activity. 73 MAP 24 KRAI(OWTOWNSHIP Presque Isle County BLACK POINT THOMPSONS HARBOR US-23 GRAND 39 LAKE ;@SO@NSHAR@BOR@@@, scale: 1 inch 1 mile 39. Grand Lake 6,080 acre coastal lake heavily used by fishermen and recreational boaters. 4 1, lVew Presque Isle Lighthouse Built in 1870 when there was an apparent need for a coast light instead of harbor light. This is one of about 40 still manned by the Coast Guard and provides an excellent view of the Lake Huron shoreline. 42. Old Presque Isle Lighthouse This stone tower was built in 1840 by the U.S. Government, designed by Jefferson Davis but was abandoned in 1870 when the new lighthouse was built. 43. Lake Esau This is a 275 acre coastal lake with excellent fishing for Trout, Perch and Walleyes. 44. Bu.'-'ser Natural Area (Bel/Pines) Once a prosperous lumbering village, Mr. Jesse H. Besser donated this 158 acre parcel of virgin pine forest to the State of Michigan.in 1966. There is over 4,500 feet of waterfront with camping and hiking permitted. 45., Bell Bay Boat Launch- State owned boat launch in rustic state and only small trailers allowed. 46. Bell River Area 4Z Long Lake 5,652 acre lake inland of the coastal area boundary. 48. Sink Holes A very unusual geological feature unique to the Northeast Michigan area. 75 41 PRESQUE[SLE MAP 25 PRESQUE ISLE TOWNSHIP Presque Isle County scale 1 inch I mile 43 EASU LAKE WRECK POINT GRAND 39 KNIGHT BAY LAKE US-23 46 44 FALSE PRESQUE ISLE HARBOR 45 ONG FER F7@ I @FERRON POINT 47 LAKE 49. Porto f Rockport Abandoned limestone quarry and Great Lakes Shipping Port. 50. Middle Islancl Environmentally, sensitive areas are found along the shoreline of this island. 77 MAP 26 NORTHEAST ALPENA TOWNSHIP. ROCKPORT Alpena County 50 - MIDDLE ISLAND US-23 SOUTH NINE MILE POINT G RASS LAKE HURONSAY scale: 1 inch= 1 mile 78 51. Thunder Bay Area Bottomland (shipwrecks) Site of 83 shipwrecks from various time periods consisting of schooners, tug boats, great lakes steamers and freighters. This is one of the highest concentration of shipwrecks on (in) the Great Lakes. 52. El Cajon Bay "Sink Holes" land sUnique geologic features found in very shallow water and surrounded by wet- 53. Misery Bay Scenic View- Many views of natural settings and Lake Huron waters. 54. Crooked Island and Other Small Islands Several small islands serving as wetland habitats for many species of animals. 55. Sugar Island - Thunder Bay Island - Gull Islan of All three islands have important wetland areas and Thunder Bay Island has a U.S. Coast Guard Station. 56. North Point Peninsula Area Many acres of natural and wetland areas with only development along the shore. Inland areas have very dense and natural vegetation. 79 MAP 27 EAST CENTRAL ALPENA TOWNSHIP Alpena County POTTER POINT 52 EL- CA N BAY MISERY BAY WHITEFiS BAY 53 ELBOW 4 CROOKEO ISLAND co WHITEFISH POINT C:@p 51 NORTH POINT scale: 1 inch= 1 mile 57. Huron Portland Cement Plant, Quarry and Great Lakes Shipping Port World's largest cement plant located by high quality limestone deposits. 58. Abitibi Corporation and Great Lakes Shipping Port Region's largest wood producing mill. 59. Kruger's Marina Inc. A commercial marina operation. 60. Partridge Point Marina A commercial marina with harbor facilities. 61. Michekewis and Other City Parks Small city lots used as public beaches where once private homes stood. 62. Alpena County 63. Yach t Club an d Small Boa t P, arbor 64. Alpena Wildlife Refuge and City Park 65. Jesse Besser Museum 66. Sulfur Island Environmental areas located along this islands shoreline. 6Z Grass Island This island is isolated from development and used heavily by shorebirds. 81 64 --.,65 62 57 CITY OF ALPENA 63 5J' under Bay River 51 V G RASS 67 ISLAND BARE POINT MAP 28 SOUTH EAST ALPENA TOWNSHIP 60 Alpena County PARTRIDGE POINT SQUAW BAY SULPHUR ISLAND US-23 DEVILS LAKE scale 1 inch 1 mile 82 68. Alpena Marina Commercial.. 69. 'Ossineke State Access Site and J. L. Sanborn County Park Small boat launch with picnic area and camping allowed. 70. Domke's Prehistoric Zoo Gardens 71. Scarecrow and Bird Islands Small islands used by shore birds with wetlands dominating most of the area. 72. Proposed Negwagon State Park Area Large parcel of state land with a proposal for a small state park in the area. Plans call for nature and hiking trails. 41 MAP 29 70 669 SANBORN TOWNSHIP Alpena County HARDWOOD.POJNT US-23 L 7'0 6 @q scale: 1 inch:- 1 mile 72. Proposed Negwagon State Park Area See previous page. 73. Alcona Township State Public Access (Lake Huron and Black River) Public land on north bank of river with U.S. Army Corps of Engineer plans for con- struction of Harbor. Heavily used by fishermen. 74. Black River Island Less than one acre island presently up for sale and an environmental area. 85 MAP 30 ALCONA TOWNSHIP Alcona County 12 ----------- 73 G 74 BLACK RIVER ISLAND US-23 ............... scale: I inch= 1 mile \US23 @73 86 75. Sturgeon Point Lighthouse An early fishing headquarters built in 1869 as a navigational marker. An important historic site in need of restoration. 76. Alcona Ghost Town Very few remains of this old lumbering settlement. One building remains standing but is beyond the stage of restoration. Many old newspapers can be found inside but caution is advised. 87 MAP 31 HAYNESTOWNSHIP Alcona County 76 US-23 75 STURGEON POINT scale 1 inch 1 mile 88 77. Springport Inn A Swiss-Gothic building constructed in 1878 for Joseph Van Buskirk, a lumber baron of that time. 78. Huron Hills Campground Privately owned facility but no waler frontage. 79. Greenbush Golf Course (oublic invited-) Located along US-23 and on high bluff overlooking Lake Huron. 80. Harrisville Harbor and Boat Launch Heavily used facility by fishermen and boaters alike. 81. Harrisville State Park 94 acres with 229 campsites with an excellent swimming beach. Erosion has caused damage to vegetation and threatens some campsites. 82. Mill Creek Public Access state. Small boat launch used for recreational purposes but also in a natural, undeveloped 83. Great Black Rock An old Indian worshiping rock about sixty feet in the lake. MAP 32 HARRISVILLE TOWNSHIP Alcona County 82 80 78 HARRISVILLE 81 77 83 US-23 LAKE H U R 0 N scale: 1 inch 1 mile 90 I I 84. Cedar Lake I Coastal lake extending into northern losco County. I .I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 91 1 MAP 33 GREENBUSH TOWNSHIP Alcona County US-23 84 scale: 1 inch 1 mile 92 AREAS OF PARTICULAR CONCERN The following maps depict specific geographic sites which are of particular concern to local citizens, local governments, and state and regional agencies. Use this legend for the following five maps. LEGEND High Risk Erosion Areas Areas of Ecological Importance Mineral Resource Sites Sand Dunes 93 MAP 34, CHEBOYGAN COUNTY Areas of Particular Concern (See Legend) Mackinaw City -N- Mackina L A K E Township H U R 0 N Hebron Township Cheboygan Beaugrand Point Township L Cheboygan Benton Township Inverness Township M MAW M Western PRESQUE ISLE COUNTY Areas of Particular Concern - (See Legend - Page 60 L A K E Hammond Bearinger Bay H U R ...................... Township , 7 Rogers Ocqueoc Township Moltke Township MAP36 Eastern PRESQUE ISLE COUNTY Areas of Particular Concern - (See Legend Page 60) Observatory Point Presque Isle Pulawski Township Krakow Township Presque Isle Township MAP 37 ALPENA COUNTY Areas of Particular Concern - (See Legend page 60 Alpena Township South Nine Mile Point -N- all@ vol .FW orth Point Thunder Bay L A K E 1-1, U R 0 N Sanborn Township South Point MAP 38 ALCONA COUNTY Areas of Particular Concern - (see legend, page 60) Alcona Township -N- Haynes Township Sturgeon Point Harrisville Township L A K E H U 0 N Greenbush Township 98 AREAS OF PARTICULAR CONCERN FLOOD HAZARD AREAS *City of Alpena Alpena Township Beaugrand Township *City of Cheboygan *Greenbush Township *Haynes Township City of Harrisville *Maps on Following Pages 99 J-LLI I I I y Flood Hazard Area CITY OF ALPENA MAP 39 MAP 40 CitY OF CHEBOYGAN F loo d Hazard Area ............... ........... . ............ ..... ..... X-K oQo [@D I 00 r I C=3 r= iFl 101 MAP 41 GREENBUSH TOWNSHIP Alcona Coun ty F lood Hazard US-23 Area scale: 1 inch 1 mile 102 AREAS OF PARTICULAR CONCERN URBANAREAS Alpena Cheboygan Rogers City Maps of all three on following pages Wetland Residential Park Vacant Land Satisfactory Land Use Limitations on Land Use M Developed Wetlands ALPENA MAP 42 MAP 43 CHEBOYGAN Residential Development Vacant Cheboygan Marsh City Park 47. S. Coast Guard (Mackinac) acant El C:D a (@OFI ID 0 VO DO 1C.Q El no F J Satisfactory Land Use Limitations on Land Use 105 MAP 44 ROGERS CITY Vacant (Bicentennial Park Proposed) Residential Development S ewage Treatment Plant 00 0 D 1011 M E_=_ Harbor City -Park Vacant Great Lakes Ship i Port Limestone Quarry Satisfactory Land Use Limitations on Land Use 106 I I I I AREAS OF PARTICULAR CONCERN I Priority by Category I I I I I I I I I I I .. I I I I HISTORIC AND ARCH[EOLOGIC SITES Criteria The followi ng criteria has been used for classifying a site as high or low priority. 1. Is it connected with an event resulting in signi fican t con tribu- tions to the pattern of history or prehistory? 2. Is it associated with an important phase of growth or decline of a local society or movemen t? 3. Is it associated with the lives of historically significant per- sons? 4. Is it associated with important contributions to science, tech- nology, politics, the arts, or humanitarian causes? 5. Does it embody distinctive characteristics of type, period or . method of construction? 6. Does it represent the work of a master? Z Does it yield or may be likely to yield information important in prehistory of our history? 8. Does it possess high artistic value of unusual and unique work- manship? 9. Is it one of a kind? 10. Is it part of a Great Lakes bottomland containing shipwrecks? 11. Is it at least 50 years old (this criteria could be overruled in cases of something of anticipated potential historic value)? 12. Is it a district or grouping of structures or other objects which individually are not unique but which taken together, represent a certain historic scene or way of life? High Priority Low Priority Fort Michilimackinac. Mackinaw Point L igh thouse CambeH Farm Site Old Duncan City Cheboygan Opera House Sacred Rock Old Cheboygan County Courthouse US, Steel Limestone Quarry Inland Waterway Presque Isle Lighthouse Old Presque Isle Lighthouse Huron Portland Cement Quarry Springport Inn Alcona Ghost Town Black Rock Sturgeon Point Lighthouse Thunder Bay Area Bottomland Port of Rockport 108 NATURALAREAS Criteria The following criteria has been used for classifying a site as high or low priority. 1. Have retained, have re-established or can readily re-establish natural character. 2. Possess one or more of the following characteristics: a. Unusual flora or fauna b. Biotic, geological, physiographic or palen- tological features of scientific or educational value or c. Outstanding opportunities for scenic pleasures, enjoyable contact with nature or wilderness type of experiences (solitude, exploration and challenge). High Priority Low Priority Negwagon State Park North Point Peninsula Area proposed area Big Trout - Little Trout Lakes Area Harrisville Mill Pond Thompson's Harbor Area Grass Bay Area log SAND DUNE AREAS Criteria The following criteria has been used for classifying a site as high or low priority. '1. Perched sand dunes or other duties of dramatic relief. 2. Exhibiting unusual flora or geologic qualities. 3. Experiencing intensive recreational use. 4. In a na tural s ta te an d deserving o f pro tec tion from con- sumptive uses including residential development and mining activity. 5. In need of reclamation due to past removal of sand andlor vegetation. High Priority Low Priority Grass Bay Area Hammond Say - 40 Mile Point small drive area Thompson's Harbor Small Dunes 110 MINERAL RESOURCE AREAS Criteria The following criteria has been used for classifying a site as high or low priority. 1. Demand for the mineral on a local, state or international level. 2. Quality of the deposit. 3. Quantity of the deposit. 4. Minability. 5. Amenability to concentration and processing. 6. Availability of water, energysupplies, economical trans- port and other mineral commodities necessary in processing. High Priority Low Priority U.S. Steel Limestone Quarry Local Gravel Pits Presque Isle Corporation Limestone Quarry Rockport Quarry (abandoned) Huron-Portland Cement Plant Limestone Quarry WATER TRANSPORTATION Criteria 1. Ports and related facilities for shipping of a Great Lakes nature. 2 Ports used commerciallywith significant impact on local economy. 3. Docking and moori .ng areas which are heavily used, High Priority Low Priority Port of Calcite Rockport Stoneport Black River (Alcona) Mackinaw City Docks Ossineke Public Access Cheboygan Locks State Owned Access Points U.S.C.G. Station (Cheboygan) Thunder Bay Island Rogers City Harbor (U.S. C G. Station) Huron-Portland Cement Plant Abitibi Corporation Docks Harrisville Harbor Hammond Bay Harbor of Refuge 112 I I I I I I I AREAS FOR PRESERVATION AND RESTORATION, I I I I I I I I I I I .1 MAP 45 REGIONAL LOCATION OF AREAS FOR PRESERVATION AND RESTORATION 5 L A K E Cheboygan 6 County Presque isle County 0 1, Rogers City Sewage Treatment Plant Alpena 2. Duncan Bay Wetlands & Cheboygan County 0 Marsh 3 3. Thunder Bay Shipwrecks 4. El Cajon Bay "Sink Holes" 5. Mill Creek Site (Cambell Farm Site) 6. "Huron Dunes" area Z Sturgeon Point Lighthouse 8. Rogers City Bicentennial Park 9. Negwagon State Park Proposal Alcona County 114 AREAS FOR PRESERVATION AND RESTORATION 1. Rogers City Se wage Trea tmen t Plan t 2. Duncan Bay Wetlands and Cheboygan Marsh 3. Thunder Bay Shipwrecks 4. El Cajon Bay "Sink Holes" 5. Mill Creek Site (Cambell Farm Site) 6. "Huron Dunes" Area Z Sturgeon Point Lighthouse 8. Rogers Citv Bicentennial Park 9. Negwagon State Park Proposal The following criteria was used in prioritizing the above list of sites. A. State significant historic site B. Unique physical feature C Eminent use change D. Threatened by human activities E Threatened by natural process F. Overused or abused G. Inadequate state or local program H. People directly affected. *Old Chebo ygan County Courthouse v6s reconsidered and dropped because it lies outside of the coastal study area. 115 ROGERS CITY SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT Rogers City has located their sewage treatment plant on the shore of Lake Huron. With the present high water levels and increased local erosion, the beach is quickly re- treating to the site of the filtering tanks. The city has applied for financial aid to con- struct a concrete seawall to prevent this accelerated erosion. The picture below shows just how close the water is getting to the plant. It is recommended that financial assistance be provided to Rogers City to construct an erosion prevention structure at their sewage treatment plant. DUNCAN BAY WETLANDS AND CHEBOYGAN MARSH Lake Huron shoreland of Cheboygan County, with many acres of wetlands. These areas are very productive in terms of plant and wildlife activity but are threatened by continued filling and draining. The city has one of the largest cattail marshes along the Great Lakes outside of the Saginaw Bay. This area is also very active with plant and wildlife communities. Unfortunately, there are no present regulations to prevent unwise development practices in these wetlands. In an effort to preserve these unique and essential lands, the state must give technical assistance to the local units of government in defining, evaluating and protecting these wetlands. 116 THUNDER BAY SHIPWRECKS The Thunder Bay area has one of the highest concentration of shipwrecks anywhere in the Great Lakes. Many of the wrecks have historical, state significance, but salvage opera- tions have dismantled them to the point where very few, if any, remains can be found. There is a desperate need to stop the stripping of these sunken vessels and preserve their historical and scientific value. This bottomland can best be ni,....-.,ged by the state by incorporating the Underwater Re- serve Park concept through an act of thc legislature. The DNR should encourage the passage of such an act to ensure the preservation of all shipwrecks on Michigan's Great Lakes bottom land. The State of California, Hawaii, and Florida have already established these underwater preserves in ecological areas such as coral reefs. Canada has established the "Fanthorn Five Underwater Park" at Tobermory, Ontario, (lo cated 71 miles east of Thunder Bay on Lake Huron), which contains 18 wrecks. 2 The map on the following page was taken from a report by the Department of Parks and Recreation Resources, Michigan State University and shows the location of many wrecks in the Thunder Bay area. 2Th. Thunder Bay Shipwreck Survey,Study Report, Department of Parks and Recreation Resources, Michigan State University, Thomas Warner and Dr. Donald Holecek, 1975 117 Alpena CountyAsked ToAct To Se_,t- Up Underwater Park' 0 0 A gra@eyard for ships off the Montana. was lost after fire bro'ke instance, three huge anchors that 9 Michigan shoreline may become out on board. had been sighted on one vessel by 0 the nation's first underwater The most famous wreck is that 'the survey team were found to be "park" dedicated for historical of the Pewabic which sank in 1865 missing a month later and are 1.@ preservation. with the loss of 125 lives. believed to have been removed by salvors and sold. The park would be located in the Warner described the survey to Thunder Bay area of Lake Huron the Michigan Natural Resources dff the shore of Alpena County,* Commission and warned of the Stile officials have taken the U-) position that the artifiacts belong where the remains of more than 80 loss of arLifacts to divers. vessels are strewn. to the state by virtue of public As a first step in setting aside ownership of 'the Great Lakes The area is a major hunting part of Thunder Bay as a park, the bottomlands. The problem is lack L ground for scuba divers and a survey team has recommended to of specific legislation setting forth .2 valuable historical resource. the Alpena County Board Of details. 11B 4185. which is now E A survey of shipwrecks con- Commissioners that an area be before UJ 0) the House. spells out the j > ducted last summer in Thunder designated in which divers would 0 state's legal rights to submerged 2 -Bay resulted in the inspectioiTof 17 not be allowed to salvage parts Of artifacts and establishes criminal P wrecks by vo"lunteer scuba divers the sunken vessels. One proposal penalties for violations. x and the pinpointing of nine other calls for a 130 foot depth as a < wrecks. Thomas Warner, one Of reserve area in which salvaging We're hard put to protect these the coordinators of (he survey, would be banned. wrecks as 'the law is now written," which was conducted by Michigan said Dr. Howard A. Tanner, DNR State University, said at least 57 The survey team also suggested director. "Our initial step is to get other shipwrecks are known to that an interpretive center might the legislation through. Then we have taken place in the Thunder be built in Alpena for the display could start drafting blanket Bay area. of some of the artifacts recovered 'regulations to protect all wrecks." Most of them are vessels that from Thunder Bay. Until . then, Department of called at the Port of Alpena to take Meanwhile, Warner warned Natural Resources officials have on cargoes of limestone and that some wholesale salvaging is been instructed by the Attorney lumber. Most sunk as the result occurring in Thunder Bay. Ile General's office to bring civil of collisions, but some. were cited the case of a vessel that had action against individuals ir blown onto reefs during storms been dynamited by divers - to flagrant cases oi artifacts and. at Jeast one vessel, the @etrieve arLifacts._,In another removal. wpxii 4W.W. ... ........ X, %: Th Montanta was constructed e i n1872. It was a wood streamer -o-'a .......... which caught fire and sank on .-A 77 r7 September 6, 1914, in a ship= ping channel near the center of Thunder Bay (See Map). t"n 5. 118 M Al Rockport V lig \j CD Alpena w %P X ANNA- I&FX "Off ef%ki Isery IN a s and - A-MIDSON 1,q sdjao= AHAHSM@Qd P undQP y 0 to .1A1 cz@ rd aca South PC nt (V @erif icat !on ua' 71@pAie and/or Dives' M THUNDER BAY SHIPWRECK U. N SURVEY - DEPARTMENT V)uf I OF PARK & RECRE T ,RESOURCES % M.S.U.-1975 m5 MAP J EL CAJON BAY "SINKHOLES" El Cajon Bay is a small bay shaped similar to Italy (boot), located in Misery Bay, just north of the Thunder Bay in Alpena Township. It is the site of two very unique "sink holes," which is believed to be the end of a cave formation in the area. Water flows out of a 300 foot opening - 70 foot deep hold and another 20 foot deep hole. Other "sink holes" are located inland several miles with one hole having a 50 foot waterfall inside it. This same water is believed to drain in the El Cajon Bay area. The land surrounding this bay is privately owned and development could destroy this natural phenomena. It is recommended that the State acquire the rights of this surrounding land with the help of nature conservancy groups. MILLCREEKSITE (CAMBELL FARM SITE) This site is located a few miles from Mackinaw City along the lake and was once a productive logging camp and sawmill. Much of the lumber processed at this site was transported to Mackinaw Island to build the fort located there. Various crops were also grown in the area and traded to the soldiers at Fort Michilimackinac. Five or six buildings have been uncovered and are presently being studied for their feasibility of being restored. It is recommended that the State enact a restoration program for this mill creek site similar to that which restored Fort Michilimackinac. i,)n "HURON DUNES" AREA The Grass Bay, Hammond Bay, Evergreen Beach, Forty Mile Point, Thompson's Harbor and Black'Point areas are all part of the "Huron Dunes" Country. Although these dunes are small in size, they do exhibit certain plant species not found outside the coastol area. Even though these dunes do not compare in size to the ones along Lake Michigan, they are unique to the eastern side of the State. These areas are in need of protection from development and loss of vegetation. STURGEON POINT LIGHTHOUSE The Sturgeon Point Lighthouse and surrounding 60 acres is state owned. Howev er, there has been little maintenance of this property and the tower is deteriorating. The township has no jurisdiction, nor money, to restore and police the area. It would be a shame if this historic marker were to be destroyed. ROGERS CITY BICENTENNIAL PARK Rogers City is attempting to secure funds to purchase an approximately 3000 foot waterfront property. It is presently owned by Caivert Investment Con-ip.--oly, - leal estate and development organization. The property would connect a city-owned parcel of land with 3000 feet of lake front to the city's northeast limits. It is recommended that this paroc! ',I,-- purchased through whatever means possible. Perhaps buying smaller parcels pui` .Aly, keeping the option to purchase the rest at a later date. 121 Presque Isle County A D V A N C E Rogers City, Michigan 49779-The Limestone City-Thursday, January 22, 1976 City seeks to purchase lakeshore properly The City of Rogers City with the general approval ascertained at the present the realm of possibility for has taked steps to deter- of the citizenry, the City time through the offices of future expansion of the mine the feasability of ac- could float a bond issue or Congressman Philip city's recreation needs. quiring by purchase a large go the route of State and Ruppe. "We will continue to pur- block of lakeshore property Federal funding, if such is Although this is a big sue it," said Mayor Stew- for future recreational pur- available. This is being undertaking, it is not out of art. poses. The property involved is shown on the accompany- ing sketch as the shaded LAKE N area and has approximately W E 3,000 feet of frontage on HURON Lake Huron. The location is S in that area between US 23 north and what is com- monly known as Seagull Point. Forest Avenue bi- ROGERS CITY sects the parcel through ROGERS BOAT HARBOR which a portion of Trout CITY River flows. Several weeks ago Grant Silverfarb, representing Calvert Invetment Com- pany - owners of the prop- PORT OF erty, met at the City Hall CALCITE with Manager Charles M-68 CHEMICAL McKee, City Attorney CORPORATION Charles Menefee, and Harry Whiteley, the latter AIRPORT representing the Dept. of Natural Resources, to dis- cuss the proposal. Mr. Silverfarb at that time indicated a willingness ROGERS CITY LIMITS to sell and the discussion then moved to various funding possibilities. If the proposal meets 122 NEGWAGON STATE PARK PROPOSAL This issue began in 1961 when the Alpena Chamber of Commerce requested the construction of a new state park between the 70-mile gap of the ones at Harrisville and Rogers City. Six miles of Lake Huron waterfront at South Point was chosen.for the site. A few years passed while attempting toget finances for the park and then the big debate over the extent of development began. The original plans called for a capacity of 3,500 persons-bUt objections from local citizens and groups reduced the park size to 300 per- sons. This plan has the support of the Alpena County Planning Commission, The League of Women Voters, The Audubon Society and The Alpena News. It is recommended that the Dep artment of Natural Resources study this proposed state park plan begirr. construction at the earliest possible time to meet the demands of recreational users in the area. 123 I I I I I I I DEFICIENCIES AND OBSTACLES I I I I I I I I I I I I DEFICIENCIES AND OBSTACLES it has been very difficult to receive active input into this program. The key aspects have been discussed with many local officials but little input is received. Because of this lack of input, certain sections such as problem identification, and formulation of goals a nd objectives have been compiled by one or two persons. What is desperately needed is an advisory board to help develop the CZM Program in northeast Michigan. Such an organization could represent various interests and governments found along the shorelands and would greatly aid by giving the input needed. Overall program skepticism by the general public caused from misunderstandings as to its' intentions, is a large obstacle. People are fearful that undue restrictions will be placed on shoreland property owners. Public meetings are needed to inform the public about the program and what the State is trying to accomplish through it. Prioritizing areas for preservation and restoration has been very subjective in nature. All of these sites do have high local priority but regional prioritizing should be done by an advisory group which would be more representative of the local con- cerns and more objective. Inadequate and distorted news media coverage has been an obstacle throughout the entire length of this program. However, personal contacts in several regional news- papers are being made arid it is hoped that program coverage will soon improve. 125 I I I I I I I MANAGEMENT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES I I I I I I . I I I I I I I MANAGEMENT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES FOR LAKE HURON SHORELANDS .1; The establi shment of goals and objectives is the first and often must important step in the planning process. In this program, they are intended to direct and shape the future of the shoreland's environ- ment. The following goals and objectives have been formulated from a regional perspective with contributions from county and local governments in the Northeast Michigan Region. Local governmental units may wish to refine these goals and objectives as time passes or to conform to their own purposes. GOA L: Protect, the welfare of shoreland property owners from damaging activities by Lake Huron waters. OBJECTIVES: a. Advance public awareness of the value, uniqueness, and problems of their shorelands. b. Encourage the continuation of shore erosion engineering studies. GOAL: Preserve the natural and wetland areas for educational, aesthetic, and fish and wildlife survival purposes. OBJECTIVES: a. Identify these unique, ecological, and other important coastal areas. b. Encourage development of only those shoreland areas which can support such use. GOAL: Promote a stable economic base with sound environmental con- siderations. OBJECTIVES: a. Encourage adherence to environmental controls by industrial, agricultural, commercial, residential, and recreational users. 127 b. Encourage litter reduction by supporting legislation prohibiting disposable containers and press coverage of its detrimental ef- fect to the environment. C. Support limestone quarrying and shipping as the main shore- land industry. GO@ L - Provide recreational opportunities for all citizens with support from local governmental units. OBJECTIVES: a. Stimulate seasonal economy by establishing recreational facili- ties where needed. b. Cooperate with local governments in the identification and planning of these facilities. C. Inform all levels of government to proposed action during the planning phase. 128 CONCLUSION The shoreland of Northeast Michigan is a unique, fragile and valuable resource to the region. It offers many opportunities to many people for recreation and industry alike. The aesthetic amenities of the coastal area has also brought many problems with increased population and development. But there are natural occurring problems as well, such as erosion and flooding, which will continue into the future. Past development did not consider these dynamic features of the shore. The CZM Program is a start in identifying present problems and planning to avoid future problems. Areas which are of special concern to local citizens must also be inventoried as well as those in need of preservation or restoration. It is the purpose of this program to do just that, and work with local decision makers to help plan for better communities along the shoreline. 129 APPENDIX Regional Soil Limitation Maps List of Shoreland Meetings Newspaper Articles cn CZM Program Bibliography MACKINAW CITY DEGREE OF SOILS LIMITATION FOR CHEBOYGAN COUNTY'S SHORELAND FOR RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT WITH SEPTIC TANKS slight moderate L -. J. severe H U R. 0 N X. MACKINAW S TOWNSHIP D E POINT T AU SA13LE S L A K E ti I D E "All BEAUGRAND TOWNSHIP STONY POINT CHEBOYGAN COUNTY S -N- I D E L A K E H U R 0 N LIGHTHOUS POINT GRASS s BAY I S D CHEBOYGAN DUNCAN I E RIVER D BAY E ffB' tcli BENTON TOWNSHIP CORDWOOD L A K E S H U R 0 N D E licil BENTON TOWNSHIP 4 L--- N411 I I "D" L A K E CHEBOYGAN S %in I I - - ---- NINE 14ILE D POINT COUNTY E J--Lj 81D BENTON TOWNSHIP r \ @N CHEBOYGA &T M M AWGRANWE SM LAWTIMO PRESQUE ISLE COUNTYS SHORELA14D R -SIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT WITH SEPTIC E slight moderate-severe very severe. H U R 0 N HAMMOND BAY BEARiNGER . . . . . . . . . TOWNSHIP OCQUEOC TOWNSHIP L A K E H U R 0 N PRESQUE ISLE COUNTY -N SIDE "All L A K E s H U R 0 N D .... ........ B s NORTHWEST ROGERS TOWNSHIP E c 6e-.: ` N L A K E NORTHEAST ROGERS TOWNSHIP H U R 0 N QUARRY PT. s SWA LAKE D E "D' PULAWSKI TOWNSHIP PRESQUE ISLE S COUNTY BIG TROUT . ..... D E "Ell L A K E SIDE "G" OBSERVATORY POINT BLACK POINT H U R 0 N . ... .......... S. .......... D ....... .... PRrSQUE ISLE NORTH ........ KRAKOW TOWNSHIP BAY PRESQUE ISLE HARBOR NORTH ALBANY POINT SOUTHEAST .. ........ . .......... L A K E PRESQUE ISLE TOWNSHIP SOUTH ALBANY POINT NORTH PRESQUE ISLE TOWNSHIP LAKE ESAU H U R 0 N CK POINT PRESQUE ISLE COUNTY @IDE "G" DEGREE OF SOILS LIMITATION FOR ALPENA COUNTY'S SHORELAND FOR RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT WITH SEPTIC TANKS legend SLIGHT MODERATE SEVERE-VEPY SEVERE t 0 2 SCALE 1 1/4 inch equals one mile 'Elmo NORTHEAST MICHIGAN REGION m NWE "6 L A K E MIDDLE ISLAND H U R 0 N S CENTRAL T ALPENA D TOWNSHIP E ROU ELBOW NORTH LAKE ALPENA TOWNSHIP ALPENA COUNTY -N- L A K E H U R 0 N SIDE 11,01 SO@MERN ALPENA TOWNSHIP S Blo D E SQUAW .......... BA 'MUNDER BAY RIVER L A K E H U R 0 N GRASS ISLAND SIDE f'Clt ALPENA COUNTY S S D E SIDE "E" HARDWOOD L A POINT ......... ........ ...... ..... . .... L A K E H U R 0 N' NORTHERN .......... SANBORN SOUTHERN TOWNSHIP SANBORN TOWNSHIP S D E AIPENA COUNTY -AL CONA COCNTY'S SHORELAND FOR -LOPMENT WITH SEPTIC TANKS RESIDENTIAL DEVF SLIGHT SLIGHT-SEVERE SEvm-'RE-VERY SEVERE -r- BLACK RIVER . . . . . LAKE HURON T-T- lr-%pdusVlT-TrI ALCONTA TOWNSHIP To"INISHip LAXE HUPION -N- HAYNTES EOT STURGr_ TOWNSHIP PT. j, F-i -T-, A.LCON.A ITY COUN .... .... s DE SIDE 'tB'j MACKINAW CITY DEGREE OF SOILS LIMITATION FOR CHEBOYGAN COUNTY'S SHORELANDS FOR RECREATION SLIGHT ILJ SLIGHT-MODERATE I A L A K E MODERATE SEVERE H U R 0 N MACKINAW TOWNSHIP -T 4__ POINT AU SABLE L A K E -LILL H U R 0 N BEAUGRAND TOWNSHIP ------- - STONY POINT CHEBOYGAN COUNTY 19 N- L A K E H U R 0 N LIGHTHOUS POINT GRASS BAY CHEBOYGAN DUNCAN RIVER BAY DENTON TOWNSHIP CORDWOOD P 14T L A K E H U R 0 N BENTON TOWNSHIP L A K E CHEBOYGAN H R 0 NINE 141LE COUNTY POINT BENTON TOWNSHIP M M ME 'M DEGREE OF SOILS LIMITA PRESQUE ISLE COUNTY'S SHO RECREATION slight-moderate moderate moderate-severe severe-ve severe @y H U R. 0 1@ HAMMOND BAY BEARINGER TOWNSHIP OCQUEOC TOWNSHIP L A K E H U R 0 N PRESQUE ISLE COUNTY L A K 13 s H U R 0 N ol D E 11B s D. NORTHWEST ROGERS TOWNSHIP E s i47 D E c1l L A K E NORTHEAST z 7, ROGERS TOWNSHIP H U R 0 N QUARRY PT. SWA LAKE D E"I D PULAWSKI TOWNSHIP PRESQUE ISLE COUNTY s BIG TROUT D LAKE E L-A K E OBSERVATORY SIDE "G" POINT BLACK POINT H U R 0 N S, PRE-,SQUE ISLE NORTH KRAKOW TOWNSHIP BAY ........ . . PRESQUE ISLE DE Fit HARBOR NORTH ALBANY POINT SOUTHEAST L A K E PRESQUE ISLE TOWNSHIP SOUTH ALBANY POINT NORTH PRESQUE ISLE TOWNSHIP LAKE ESAU H U R 0 N ,.@iwoa . ......... .. ............ CK POINT PRESQUE ISLE COUNTY SIDE "G" DEGREE OF SOILS LIMITATION FOR ALPENA COUNTY'S SHORELAND FOR RECREATION legend SLIGHT-MODERATE MODERATE MODERATE-VERY SEVERE SEVERE-VERY SEVERE 0 2 SCALE 1 1/4 inch equals one mile NORTHEAST MICHIGAN REGION UBE?, blUB "A" L A K E MIDDLE ISLAND H U R 0 N S ....... CENTRAL ALPENA D TOWNSHIP E ROU "B' ....... .. . Al ............ ... LBOW H NORT, LAKE ALPENA om TOWNSHIP ... . ...... . . ......... . .......... ALPENA COUNTY .. ... .... ... ........ L A K E H U R 0 N SIDE "A" TNSHIP SOUTHERN ALPENA TOW S B" D E S(2UAw BA7. TMIDER BAY RIVER LLLI L A K E H U R. 0 N GRASS ISLAND SIDE ALPENA COUNTY s S SIDE "'Ell first HARDWOOD LA POINT L A K E H U R 0 N NORTHERN SANBORN SOUTHERN TOWNSHIP SANBORN S TOWNSHIP I D E wFoll [ ALPENA COUNTY @CEOUNTY DEGREE OF SOILS LIMITATION-FOR ALCONA COUNTY'S SHORELAND FOR RECREATION SLIGHT El MODERATE 144A SEVERE-VERY SEVERE BLACK RIVER HURON L, HAR.RISVILTLEr A -CONA L TOWNISHIP LAXlE TOWNSHIP : HURON H J HAYNES STURGEEC' TOWNSHIP PT. 1 17-- ALCONA H; t COUNTY T-T SIDE "A" SIDE Si SHORELAND MEETINGS September 3 - Alpena - Alpena County Planning Commission - regular monthly meeting attended by Howard Anderson where he discussed the CZM program in the Northeast M ichigan Region. (attendance - approximately 10 people) September 18 - Kalamazoo - Shoreland Vegetation Workshop sponsored by the Shorelands Adviscry Council and DNR, Attended by new staff member Lew Steinbrecher. (attendance - approximately 50 people) September 18 - Rogers City - Presque Isle County Planning Commission - regular monthly meeting attended by Howard 9nderson where the CZM program was discussed. (attendance - approximately 8 people) Septernbar 23 - Cheboygan - Cheboygan county Planning Commission - regular monthly meeting attended by Neil Steinhoff. (attendance - approximately 12 people) Septembe;- 30 - Lari@-ing - Orientation on the Coastal Zone Management Program for new staff member Low Steinbrecher. He met Bill Walsh in person. Octobir 10 - Gaylord -- Northeast Michigan Regional Planning and Development Commission - fuil commission meeting where the Shorelands Management Program preliminary report was presented. The commissioners passed a resolution of support for the program and its goals and objectives. October 28 - CheLoygan - Cheboygan County Pl3nning Commission - regular monthly meeting attended by Neil Steinhoff and Lew Steinbrecher. The preliminary shorelands report was presented for their review and comment. (attendance - 14. people) November 6 - Harrisville - Alcona County Planning Commission - regular monthly meeting attended by Howard Anderson and Lew Steinbrecher where they presented the shoreiand slides and the region's preliminary report. (attendance - approximately 14 people) November 12 - Mio - Oscoda County Board of Commissioners- regular monthly meeting attended by Rod Parker and Keith Titus. Mentioned the CZM program as one function of the Northeast Regional Commission. November 11 - Alpena - League of Women Voters of Michigan - environmental committee meeting attended by Lew Steinbrecher and Neil Steinhoff where the shoreland slides were shown and the CZM program discussed. (attendance - approximately 12 people) November 13 - Rogers City - Presque Isle County Board of Commissioners - regular monthly meeting attended by Rod Parker and Keith Titus where they reported that the Commission is participating in the CZM program. November 14 - Atlanta - Executive Committee of the Northeast Regional Planning Commission - regular monthly meeting where a status report on the Shorelands Program was given. (attendance - approximately 20 people) November 17 - Michigan State University, East Lansing - Thunder Bay Underwater Park Seminar. Attended by Lew Steinbrecher (attendance - approximately 35 people) November 19 - Atlanta - Montmorency County Board of Commissioners - regular monthly meeting attended by Rod Parker and Keith Titus where they mentioned the CZM 'program as one activity of the Northeast Commission. November 20 - Rogers City - Presque Isle County Planning Commission - regular monthly meeting attended by Howard Anderson and Lew Steinbrecher where they presented the Shoreland slides and the preliminary report and requested the commission's support of the gobls and objectives. (attendance - approximately 14 people) November 20 - Harrisville - Alcona County Board of Commissioners - regular monthly meeting attended by Rod Parker and Keith Titus. where they mentioned the key aspects of the- CZM Program. November 25 - Cheboygan - Cheboygan County Planning Commission - regular monthly meeting attended by Neil Steinhoff and Lew Steinbrecher where they presented the Shoreland slides and requested support for the goals and objectives contained in the preliminary report. A committee was appointed to study the report before any action would be taken. (attendance - approximately 16 people) December 3 - Alpena - Alpena County Planning Commission - regular monthly meeting attended by Howard Anderson where he discussed the CZM Program (attendance - approximately 18 people) December 9 - Black River - Alcona Township Board of Trustees - regular monthly meeting attended by Lew Steinbrecher where he presented the Shoreland slides and the preliminary report and asked for their support of the goals and objectives. (attendance - approximately 12 people) December 11 - Gaylord office - Mr. Bill McDonald of Great Lakes Basin Commission interviewed Lew Steinbrecher and Howard Anderson in regards to a study being conducted by that commission. December 11 - Ossineke - Sanborn Township Board of Trustees - regular monthly meeting attended by Lew Steinbrecher where lie presented the Shcreland slides and the preliminary report and requested their support for the goals and objectives. (attendance - approximately 12 people.) December 17 - Lansing - CZM State/Regional Workshop - Discussion ensued relative to the second year program requirements. Attended by Lew Steinbrecher December 18 - Mackinaw City - Mackinaw City Village Council - regular meeting attended by Lew Steinbrecher where he presented the Shoreland slides , the preliminary report and asked for support of the goals and objectives.The council stated that they would refer the report to the High School's government class for their recommendations before taking any action. (attendance - approximately 30 people) December 19 - Atlanta - ExeCUtive Committee (NMRP&DC) - regular monthly meeting where a status report was given on the CZM Program. December 23 - Alpena Township - Alpena Township Board of Trustees - regular meeting attended by Lew Stei-abrecher where he presented the Shoreland slides and the preliminary report for review. He also requested their support of the goals and objectives but no action was taken. (attendance - approximately 8 people) December 23 - Cheboygan -7 Cheboygan County Planning Commission - regular monthly meeting attended by Neil Steinhoff where he discussed the CZM Program relative to Cheboygan County. No action was taken at this time to endorse the program. (attendance - approximately 12 people) YEAR 1976 January 6 - Hardsville Township - Harrisville Township Board of Trustees - regular monthly meeting attend by Lew Steinbrecher where he presented the Shoreland slides and the preliminary report for their review. He also requested their support for the goals and objectives in the CZMi Program. (attendance - approximately 9 people) January 8 - Haynes Township - Haynes Township Board of Trustees - regular Monthly meating attencied by Lew Steinbrecher where he presented thc Shoreland slide!i, the preliminary Shoreland Program report and asked for support of the goals and objectives contained in that report. The,@-e was a consideralble discussion about the OZM Program zand the problems encountered by private land owners along the Lalke Huron shore. (attendance - approximately 17 people) January 8 - Harrisvil@e - Alcona County Planning Commission - regular monthly meeting attended by Howard Anderson where he discussed the Shorelands Program and the commission approved the goals and objectives in the report. (attendance - approximately 13 people) January 9 - Gaylord office (NMRP&DC) - Bill Walsh and Lew Steinbrecher discussed the problems being encountered in the second year program in the Northeast Michigan Region. morning meeting January 9 -Indian River - Northeast Michigan Regional Planning and Development Commission- full commission meeting where Bill Walsh discussed the State's Shoreland Program. Bill Walsh was also interviewed by Channel 7/4 News. (attendance - approximately 55 people) January 13 - Posen - Krakovu Township Board of Trustees - regular monthly meeting attended by Lew Steinbrecher where he presented the Shoreland slides, the preliminary report and discussed the CZM Program. He also asked for their support of the goals and objectives. (attendance - approximately 13 people) January 15 - Cheboygan - Cheboygan City Planning Commission - special meeting attended by Lew Steinbrecher to discuss the CZM Program and view the Shoreland slides. (attendance - approximately 19 people) January 21 - Rogers City - Rogers City Council - regula r meeting attended by Lew Steinbrecher where he discussed the Shorelands Program to the council; January 27 - Harrisville - Harrisville City Planning Commission - regular meeting attended by Howard Anderson and Lew Steinbrecher where they presented the Shoreland slides, the preliminary report and requested support for the goals and objectives. (attendance - approximately 11 people) January 27 - Cheboygan - Cheboygan County Planning Commission - regular monthly meeting attended by Neil Steinhoff where lie discussed the Shorelands Program further with the commission. Again no action was taken to support the goals and objectives but a committee was appointed to study the report and especially the goals and report back to the Planning Commission. (attendance - approximately 12 people) February 4 - Cheboygan - Special Shorelands Committee of the Cheboygan County Planning Commission--- special meeting attended by Neil Steinhoff and Lew Steinbrecher to discuss the Shoreland Goals and Objectives relative to the needs and values of Cheboygan County. A revised list of goals and,objectives was formulated by the committee and will be presented to the Planning Commission at their next meeting. February 4 - Rogers City - Rogers City Council - regular meeting attended by Lew Steinbrecher where he presented the Shoreland slides, the preliminary Shorelands report and discussed the program relative to Rogers City. He also asked for support for the goals and objectives in the CZM Program. (attendance -7 people) February 5 - Gaylord office - Bob Allen representing Presque Isle Corporation reviewed the preliminary report with Lew Steinbrecher. February 17 - Alpena Township Hall - Public meeting between MDNR - A!pena Township and Sanborn Township to discuss the designation of "En- vironmental Areas" and the implementation of local zoning to control de- velopment in these areas. Sponsored by Northeast Regional Planning. (Attendance - 16 people). February 23 - Alpena - League of Wornen Voters Shoreland Concurrence Meet- ing - Afternoon (1:30 P.M.), session where Lew Steinbrecher viewed slides on problems along Lake Michigan shoreline and presented CZM and Regional slides. Discussed CZM Program and entertained many questions. (Attendancq - 17). Evening - (7:30 P.M.) Session - Followed same basic format. Again entertained many questions. (Attendance - 13 people). February 24 - Cheboygan - Cheboygan 'County Planning Commission - Regular monthly meeting attended by Neal Steinhoff where the Commission passed a resolution endorsing the Northeast Region's Shoreland Management Goals and Objectives. (Attendance - 14 people). March 8 - East Grand Lake - Presque Isle Township Board of Trustees - regular monthly meeting attended by Lew Steinbrecher where the shoreland slides were presented. Passed out Public Nomination Brochures and 2nd Draft Reports. Much interest was expressed by the board and citizens. (Attendance - 47 people). March 16 - Rogers City High School - Rogers City Ecology Club. Special meeting for the Shoreland's Program attended by Lew Steinbrecher. The shoreland slides were presented and many questions were asked by very interested citizens. (Attendance - 8 people). March 22 - Alcona Township Hall - Alcona Township and Zoning Boards Special Meeting to discuss the nomination procedure for areas of particular concern. Lew Steinbrecher helped them by completing several forms. March 25 - Michigan State University Campus - Michigan Water Resources Commission and Michigan Natural Resources Commission. Regular monthly meeti ng of both commissions attended by Lew Steinbrecher to observe their procedures. Also attended evening banquet and heard Governor William G. Milliken, Tom McCall (former Governor of Oregon), and Bobby Grim, (speaker of the Michigan House of Representatives). Also visited DNR shorelands office in afternoon. March 26 - Michigan State University Campus - Michigan Shorelands Advisory Council - Regular monthly meeting attended by Lew Steinbrecher to observe their procedures. April 6 - Alpena - AFpena City Planning Commission - regular monthly meeting attended by Lew S,,einbrecher to discuss the CZM Program and show the Shoreland slides. (Attendance - 12 people). April 7 - Alpena - Alpena County Planring Commission - regular monthly meeting attended by Lew Steinbrecher and Howard Andi,,rson. The shoreland slides were presented to the commission and areas of particular concern were discussed. (Attendance - 12 people). April 8 - Alpena - Northeast Michigan Regional Planning and Development Commission - Quarterly meetirg of the Full Commission. Status report on CZM Program given apd various brochures on the Program were distributed. SHORELAND GOALS Protect the welfare of shorline property -5 owners from erosion and flooding. > un 70 Protect the region's Lake Huron coastline from potential abuse or overuse. ,.C) MT Maintain and improve various beaches along the coastal zone for public enjoyment. tj > Preserve natural areas for educational and aesthetic purposes. Promote a stable economic base with > sound environmental considerations. Promote litter reduction by urging passage of legislation prohibiting'manufac- CA ture cr sale of disposable beverage containers in this state. Promote increased communication and cooperation among local units of govern- ment involving shoreland management. Advance public awareness of the value ane uniqueness of their shorelands. NORTHEAST MICHIGAN Encourage adherence to environmental controls by industrial, agricultural, com- AND mercial, residential and recreational users. LAKE HURON For information on the state of Michigan's Shoreland Management Program, contact; W5 Michigan Department of Natural Resources Bureau of Water Management Stevens T. Mason Building Lansing, Michigan 48926 INTRODUCTION Few land forms posses the unique strenth and quality where water and land meet. The shore is an amalgam of both, yet has a distinct character of its own. The shore is also dynamic, always changing and recently, has caused many problems for the people who live along the coastline. Present high water levels and man's continued encroachment along the shore has resulted in damages to buildings, costing into the millions of dollars. In an efort to preserve its unique qualities, the federal and state governments have passed legislation to protect and guide the future development of the Great Lakes Shoreland. STATE LEGISLATION In 1970, the Michigan Legislature enacted the Soreland Protection and Management Act in an effort to control the deterioration of the shorelands. In this act, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources was instructed to carry out certain studies and develop a plan for the proper management of the Great Lakes Shoreland. In developing this program, the DNR was directed to make the following investigations: 1. An engineering study to identify high risk erosion areas. These beaches are eroding at a rate of one foot or more per year and are in need of protection. Undeveloped or uplatted sites have a recommended setback distance from continued erosion. This distance is determined by multiplying the annual recession rate by 30 (life of a house in years). --- 2. An engineering study ot identify flood risk areas. This includes all land which falls within the one hundred year flood plain. Management recommendations will include rules which are necessary to prevent damage or destruction to property. 3. An environmental study to identify environmental areas which are essential habitats for fish and wildlife. Wetland zoning is important for the protection of hese coastal dependent species. The Michigan Shoreland Protection and Management Act applies to only those coastal lands which are 1000 feet inland from the ordinary high water mark (except when certain wetlands bulge further inland) and only to the unplatted and undeveloped lands adjacent to the Great Lakes. FEDERAL LEGISLATION The Federal Government also recognized the unique resources of the shorelands when Congress passed the "Coastal Zone Manage- ment Act of 1972." The Office of Coastal Zone Management, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration administers this act and awards grants to the coastal states (Great Lake States included), to assist\ in developing a management program for their coastal land and water resources. In order to receive a grant, a coastal state must identify recreational, cultural, historic, industrialized, aesthetic, and other impor- tant areas along the shoreline. The management program must then develop so as to preserve and protect these qualities. The Michigan Department of Natural Resources is presently developing its Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Program with assistance from the Federal Govern- ment. The DNR has also entered into --- contact with 10 Regional Planning Agencies with Great Lake shoreline to aid in the development of this CZM Program. NORTHEAST MICHIGAN'S ROLE The Northeast Michigan Regional Plan- ning and Development Commission is participating in this program throughout its planning phase. In the first year, the region developed a preliminary report which was an inventory of land use, land ownership, shoretype, soils, vegetation, population trends, growth and development problems, lcoal zoning regulations, and recommended goals and objectivies for sound shoreland management. The Commission will prepare a final report which will be available in April, 1976, as a result of its coastal area investigations. The Northeast Regional Planning Com- mission has had contact with all 4 counties (Cheboygan, Presque Isle, Apena, Alcona). and 12 of the 15 townships with Lake Huron shoreline. Four cities and one village have also been contacted to date because their inut is so important during the planning stage. Certain goals and objectives have been recommended and these local com- munities are showing a great deal of interest on how they want ot manage their shorelands. There are slides available in the Gaylord office which depict the problems along the shoreline and how local governments can manage this valuable resource. Coastal Zone Management will affect everyone who lives on or near the shore. There are state and regional agencies that can help you make better decisions about the future of the shorelands. Northeast Michigan shorelands have a lot to offer and a lot to lose. Northeast Michigan Coastal Zone Management Program NEWS (Continued from Page 1) 2. Identify trends in shoreland use and socio-economic, political and environmental relationships. DIGEST OF HIGHLIGHTS OF ACTIVITIES OF 3. Formulate goals, objectives, and THE NORTHEAST MICHIGAN REGIONAL policies for the use and develop- PLANNING & DEVELOPMENT ment of the coastal zone. COMMISSION 4. Identify existing and future issues, problems and conflicts. 5. Identify the present role of local VOLUME 1 NUMBER 7 - NOVEMBER 1975 government units in shoreland management. COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM B. Conduct a public information program UNDERWAY AT NORTHEAST to acquaint local officials and citizens with all aspects of the coastal zone Environmental Specialist Hired 1. Conduct periodic public meet- ings to obtain the views of groups About a year ago, ten regions signed a ments listed below: and individuals concerning the one year Coastal zone Management Con- A. Prepare an initial plan for the use present and future use of shore- tract with the State Department of Natural and development of the Lake Horon land resources. Resources, (DNR), Bureau of Water Man- Coastal Zone area. 2. Publicize through newspaper, elec agement. tronic media and newsletters, the key aspects of plan. The objective, under this Contract for 3. Attend meeting of county and Northeast Michigan Region states: local planning commissions to discuss issues, problems, pro- Plan for the management of shore- posed management techniques, land resources to minimize damages etc. from erosion and flooding and to C. Consult with the State Shorelands Agency facilitate the orderly use and de- and its consultants regarding proposed velopment of shoreland resouces state-wide policies, legislation, progress, through the development of a etc. Coastal Zone Management Plan- 1. Review and prepare written respon- ning process by the end of 1975. ses as needed to coastal zone man- agement proposals initiated by state In meeting the first year criteria, En- Lew Steinbrecher agencies. vironmental Specialist Lew Steinbrecher com- 1. Conduct inventories and analyse The Shoreland Management document piled and submitted to the DNR, Bureau of of natural and man-made feature is now being presented to local officials or Water Management, the program require- ownership patterns, etc. recommendations and suggestions which will be implemented into the overall Shoreland (Please Turn To Page 2, Col. 2) Management Program in N.E. Region. HAPPY THANKSGIVING Work has now begun on the second year program to include supplementing in- ventory information about the shorelands 1 locally conceived goals and objectives. STAFF NOTES . . . . Prior to joining the Commission, Lew Environmental Specialist Hired - was employed on the Maple River RC & D Joining the Northeast Michigan Re- Project in Emmet County. Lew will be gional Planning Commission Staff as En- working with Howard Anderson in develop- vironmental Specialist is Mr. Lewis Stein- ing a plan for Coastline Zone Management brecher. Program for the Northeast Region. Lew is a graduate of Petesburg, Michi- Lew and his wife Pam live Gaylord. gan High School and also a 1974 graduate of Pam is a native of Gaylord and is employed Michigan State University where he received by the First National Bank of Gaylord. a Bachelor's Degree in Resoure Develop- ment. t NEWS DIGEST OF HIGHLIGHTS 0F'AC77WT7SS OF THE NOR 771EA ST MICHIGAN REGIONAL PLANNING & DEIVELOPMEW COMMISSION VOLUMEi NUMBER 8 - DECEMBER 1975 SECOND YEAR COASTAL ZONE PROGRAM SIGNED ottmv clap 0 0 t: eta Gat., Goa CO. 06004 909-LCA ut .1.1. cit, U L L 10 V,AL 0 ALLIG CACC r-144 KRA&OW WILMOT -J ALPENA The Northeast Michigan Regional Phinning and WILLI.- @ LO.. Development Commission recently entered into the PAP,0 second year Coastal Zone Mana-ernent Prograin with the Michigan Department of Natural Resources. Some 192 miles of shoreline extending, from WILSON the Mackinaw Bridge southeasterly along Lake liuron C@ t, to flie southern boundary line of Alconzi County are included in the program. Local units of government are encouramd to A participate in the program by supplying information 1`C-O@N k (-U- C A. L I. C C1 R for future implementation. ALCONA A management report will be published in MITC14ELL 14AWCO April 1976 recommending proper coastal manage- ment obtained from -athercd data. no If you would like further information regardi -- the Coastal Zone Mana-ement (CZ\l Pro,-rani please c,,Ik T I a HI K A 0 0 con'tact Lew Sicinbrecher at the Aloriheast Ah'chi.lzevl Regional Planning and Dcvc1opincni amimission P.O. Box.457, Gaylord, Michigan 4973S, (517) 732-35SI. MONTMORENCY COUNTY PRESQUE ISLE ADVANCE TRIBUNE THURSDAY, DECEMBER 25, 1975 THURSDAY, DECEMBER 25, 1975 Regional Development agency Enter 2nd. Year Of Costal Zone has information on Management coastal zone management The Northeast Michi- formation for future im- The N.M.R Planning and gan Regional Planning plementation. Development Comm. recently and Development Com- A management report entered into the second year mission recently en- will be published in Coastal zone management prog- tered into the second April 1976 recommend- ram with the DNR. year Coastal Zone ing proper coastal Some 192 miles of shoreline Management Program management obtained extending from the Mackinaw with the Michigan De- from gathered data. Bridge southeasterly along Lake partment of Natural Re- Huron to the southern boundary sources. If you would like fur- line of Alcona Conty are included Some 192 miles of ther information re- in the program...local units of shoreline extending garding the Coastal government are encouraged to from the Mackinaw Zone Management participate in the program by Bridge southeasterly (CZM) Program please suppling information for future along Lake Huron to the contact Lew Steinbre- implementation......a manage- southern boundary line cher at the Northeast ment report will be published in of Alcona County are Michigan Regional April 1976 recommending proper included in the program Planning and Develop- coastal management obtained Local units of govern- ment Commission P.O. from gathered data. ment are encouraged to Box 457, Gaylord, paricipate in the pro- Michigan 49735, (517) gram by supplying in- 732-3551. THE ALPENA NEWS WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 24, 1975 Regional commission to continue coastal zoning The Northeast Michigan Regional Planning & Development Commission recently entered into the second-year coastal zone management program with the Michigan Department of Natural Resources. Some 193 miles of shorelines extending from the Mackinac Bridge southeasterly along Lake Huron to the southern boundary of Alcona County are included in the program. Local units of govern- ment are encouraged to participate in the program by supplying information for future implementation. A management report will be published in April, 1976 recommending proper coastal management obtained from gathered data. Proceedings of City Council Rogers City, Michigan Synopsis of the Minutes of the Regular Meeting of the Rogers City Council, held in the Council Chambers, on Wednesday, January PRESQUE ISLE COUNTY 21, 1976 at 7:32 p.m. Mayor Stewart presided and called the meeting to order. ADVANCE Roll Call: Present - Councilmen Dettloff, Newhouse, Nowak, Przybyla, and Mayor Stewart. Absent: None. Thursday, February 5, 1976 The Minutes of the regular meeting of January 4, 1976 and the Special Meeting of January 12, 1976, as prepared by the Clerk and distributed to Council members were approved. SHORELINE MANAGEMENT Mr. Lou Steinbecker, from the Northeast Regional Planning Office, appeared to discuss short and long term goals for shoreline management. Mr. Steinbecker asked the Council to review the list of goals and also a proposed resolution endorsing the shoreline management program. Presentation of his slides was postponed due to faulty equipment. OF PUBLIC MEETING A Public Meeting concerning the Michigan Shorelands Management Program .specifically discussing the designation of environmental ALPENA NEWS areas will be held in the February 14, 16, 17, 1976 Alpena Townsbip Hall (North of Alpena on US-23) on Tuesday, February 17, 1976@ at 7:30 P.M. This meeting will deal with the Shorelands of Alpena Township and Sanborn Township and will be con- ducted by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, W a t e r Development Services in cooperation with the Nor- theast Michigan R,egional Planning and Development Commission. Hear shoreline management plan Representatives of Alpena and Sanborn Township, Department of Natural Resources, and NorthEast Michigan -Regional Planning and Development ALPENA NEWS Commission met at the Alpena Township ,Civic Building Tuesday,night to hear an February 18, 1976 explanation of the proposed shoreiine management act by the DNR. The act is @designed to impose certain restrictions on the use of shoreline property. Future meetings are scheduled to gather input on the proposal both from governmental bodies and property owners. M V N Rogers City, Michigan 4-9779 -rhe Liz-astor-e City -Thursday, March 4, 1976 1.3 PRESQUE ISLE COUNTY ADVANrE Thvrsday, Morch 4, 1976 f 7 1, C 38 w V@v 7 Ecology Club plans tree planting The Ecology Club The Ecology Club meeting was held at would like Rogers City Synopsis of the Minutes of the Regular Meeting of the RCHS on Tuesday, Feb- residents with respira- Rogers City Council, held in the (,ouncil Chambers on ruary 24th. Among the tory diseases, such as Wednesday, February 1-8, 1976 at 7:30 p.m. items discussed during asthma, sided, and called the meeting to emphysema, Mayor Stewart pre.. the business meeting etc., to contact them at order; ff, Newhouse, was a tree planting pro - -either 734-3132 or 734- Roll Call: Present =-- Councilmen Dettlo ject for the community. 2490 as soon as pos- Nowak, Przybyla and Mayor Stewart. The next meeting will sible. I be March 16th with Lew Absent = None. Steinbrecher, an en- vironnient specialist with the Northeast Re- SHORELAND GOALS & OBJECTIVES RESOLUTION gional Planning De- The following resolution was adopted: velopment, presenting a RESOLVED, that the City Council of the City of program on coastal zone Rogers City does hereby support the goals and objectives management. Non- for shoreland management programs affecting the members are invited to sho-elands of Presque Isle County, as proposed by the attend. Northeast.'Michigan Regional Planning and Development Commission; BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, that the City does hereby affirm support of our local basic industries, limestone quarrying, agriculture, and forestry, and further affirms that shoreland management programs should give due consideration to the affect they have on these sources of our livelihood, allowing them freedom to prosper and expand without undue restrictions. Established 1875 - In Service To The Community For 101G"Y'C'MrS MI. 49'7'35. -BU IIIIN Al -tt NE @ G. d i4*,e Historic Straits of Madihac Region Serving Cheboygar., County an CHEBOYGAN, WCHIGAN 49721 THURSDAY, APRIL 1, 1976 .6 'PAGES 6 shorellhies Meeting Tomigha 7be public is invited to attend a meeting tonight at 7:30 in the CiV Hall at which the state wal explain its plans for management of Mi- chigan shorelines. ne meeting is sponsored by the Department of Natural Resources. it was scheduled once be- fore, but was prevented at that time due to a storm. OY zL NINETY-EIGHTH YEAR--.;No. 14 ROGERS CITY, MICHIGAN 49779 --- THURSDAY, APRIL 1, 1976 PRICE 200 Ecology Club Ihears Planning COMM. expert The Ecology Club met on M arch 16th with Lew Stein- brecher of the Northeast Planning Commission as guest speaker. As an en- vironmental specialist, he presented a slide program on coastal zone manage- ment with emphasis mainly on Cheboygan, Presque Isle and Alcona County shorelines. Some areas which members felt should be preserved were brought to his attention and he said 4 he would. include them in his report. A business meeting followed the program and plans for a March 21st sleigh ride were finalized before the meeting was adjourned. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 - Alcona County Planning Commission', critical analysis of first-year preliminary report 2 - Alcona County Triennial Atlas and Plat Book 3 - Alcona Township Zoning Ordinance 4 - Alpena County Land Plat Book 5 - Alpena Township Zoning Ordinance, Alpena County, Michigan 6 - Alpena County, Sanborn Township Zoning Ordinance 7 Beaugrand Township Zoning Ordinance 8 Bureau of the Budget, Dept. of Management & Budget - Population Projections of the Counties of Michigan, Oct. '74 9 Cheboygan County Triennial Atlas and Plat Book 10 - Cheboygan County Zoning Ordinance No. 100 - Amended "Land Use Control Ordinance for Cheboygan County" 11 - Foster, William; Michigan, University of, Biological Station, Douglas Lake 12 - Great Lakes Basin Framework Study, Appendix 5: Mineral Resources, 1974. 13 - Great Lakes Basin Framework Study, Appendix 6: Water Supply - Municipal, Industrial Rural, 1975 14 - G reat Lakes B asi nFramework Study, Appendix 7: Water Quality, 1975 15- G reat Lakes Basin Framework Study, Appendix R9: Recreational Boating, '7 5 16 - Great Lakes Basin Framework Study, Appendix C9: Commercial Navigation, 1975 17 - Great Lakes Basin Framework Study, Appendix 12: Shore Use & Erosion, 1975 18 - Great Lakes Basin Framework Study, Appendix 14: Flood-Plains, 1975 19 - Great Lakes Basin Framework Study, Appendix 17: Wildlife, 1975 20 - Great Lakes Basin Framework Study, Appendix 22: Aesthetic and Cultural Resources, 1974 21 - Greenbush Township Zoning Ordinance 22- Harrisville Township Zoning Ordinance 23- Haynes Township Zoning Ordinance 24- Huron Pines Resource Conservation and Development Council, Huron Pines Resource Con- servation and Development Project, 1 7'@ 25- Inland Lake Protection in Northern Michigan, University of Michigan Biological Station, September, 1975 26- Krakow Township Zoning Ordinance 27- Lowe, Dr. Rex; Bowling Green University, Genera of Algae Observed at Cheboygan Marsh, July, 1974 28 - Northeast Michigan Regional Planning & Development Commission, Regional Planning Hand- book, June, 1973 29 - Presque Isle County Atlas and Plat Book 30 - Presque Isle Corporation, Bob Allen, A Critical Analysis of First-Year preliminary report 31 - Presque Isle County Township Zoning Ordinance 32 Presque Isle County Zoning Ordinance 33 - Remaining Shoreline Opportunities in Michigan, Great Lakes Shoreline Recreation Area Sur- vey, 1959 34 - Soil Survey of Alpena County, Michigan US Department of Agriculture, 1924 35 - Soil Survey of Cheboygan County, Michigan, US Department of Agriculture, 1939 36 -Soil Interpretation Sheets, USDA 37 - Thobaben, Jr.,- Robert G. The Relative Abundance of Birds in the Cheboyga[I Marsh, August, 1974 38 - Warner, Thomas D. and Holecek, Dr. Donald F., The Thunder Bay Shipwreck Survey Study Report, 1975 39 - Woodby, Douglas A., Distribution and Potential Productivity of Rordq in the Cheboygan Nf1Di:sh August, 1974 40 Volume 11, "The Inventory," Michigan History Division, Department of State, Pwgust, 1975 I i i i i i I i I i i i I i i I i I - - 3 6668 14102 6262 - , I 1@