[From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov]
,oastal Zone Information Center The Lakef ront Plan of CHICAGO dp HT 168 C5 C48 1972 City of Chicago, Richard J. Daley, Mayor Chicago Plan Commission City of Chicago Chicago Park District Appointed Members: Richard J. Daley, Mayor Daniel J. Shannon, President Patrick L. O'Malley, Chairman John C. Marcin, City Clerk William A. Lee, Vice-President Miles Berger, Vice-Chairman Joseph G. Bertrand, City Treasurer Franklin B. Schmick, Commissioner Joel Goldblatt Ward Alderman Gale E. Sayers, Commissioner Mary Langdon 1 Fred B. Roti Edward J. Rosewell, Commissioner Hubert F. Messe 2 William B. Barnett Norman A. Parker 3 Tyrone T. Kenner 4 Claude W. B. Holman James A. Pate 5 Leon M. Despres Arthur R. Velasquez 6 Eugene Sawyer David Zisook 7 Robert Wilinski 8 William Cousins, Jr. Ex-Officlo Members: 9 Alexander A. Adduci 10 Edward R. Vrdolyak Richard J. Daley, Mayor 11 Michael A. Bilandic Michael J. Cafferty 12 Donald T. Swinarski Aid. Thomas F. Fitzpatrick 13 Casimir J. Staszcuk 14 Edward M. Burke Aid. Theris M. Gabinski 15 Francis X. Lawlor Aid. Thomas E. Keane 16 Anna R. Langford John E. McNulty 17 William H. Shannon 18 Edward J. Hines Aid. Paul T. Wigoda 19 Thomas F. Fitzpatrick Lewis W. Hill, Secretary 20 Clifford P. Kelley 21 Bennett M. Stewart 22 Frank D. Stemberk 23 Joseph Potempa 24 David Rhodes 25 Vito Marzullo 26 Stanley M. Zydlo 27 Eugene Ray 28 Jimmy L. Washington 29 Vacant 30 Elmer R. Filippini 31 Thomas E. Keane 32 Theris M. Gabinski 33 Rex Sande 34 Wilson Frost 35 Casimir C. Laskowski 36 John F. Aiello 37 Thomas J. Casey 38 William J. Cullerton 39 Anthony C. Laurino 40 Seymour Simon 41 Edward T. Scholl 42 Burton F. Natarus 43 William S. Singer 44 Dick Simpson 45 Edwin P. Fifielski 46 Christopher B. Cohen 47 John J. Hoellen 48 Marilou Hedlund 49 Paul T. Wigoda 50 Jack 1. Sperling The Lakefront Plan of Chicago, City of Chicago, Richard J. Daley, Mayor December, 1972 Contents page 4 l Background for Planning page 16 ll Basic Policies for the Lakefront of Chicago page 28 Hl The Lakefront Plan page 36 W Realizing the Plan page 44 V Lakefront Development Control property of iibrary @A- U DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NOA'A COASTAL SERVICES CENTER OBSON AVENUE 2234 SOUTH H CHARLESTON SC 29405-2413 JA THE CHICAGO LAKEFRONT For over fifty years Chicago's lakefront has been its great pride. Each generation has improved it and embellished it with foun- tains, statues, gardens and cultural insti- tutions. Lake Michigan and Chicago share a unique and historic relationship. The city was created on the shores of Lake Michigan because this was where the inland lake system almost joined the Mis- sissippi river system. The lakefront has been the landing place for explorers, for- tress for the frontier, refuge for people dur- ing the Great Fire, location for great inter- national expositions and a transportation route for the wealth of the midwest. It has become one of the great recreational and cultural resources of the world. Chicago has been a beneficiary of the lake, and its people have enjoyed its beauty, its cool comfort in summer, and its power and stern authority in winter. Chicago's lake- front has changed with the city: from frontier, to a hub of commercial and indus- trial activity, to a cultural and recreational center of world significance. New knowledge about the lake itself, its natural forces and its ecology -makes it possible for us to plan and design for the future. We can add to the lakefront, and at -the same time, make sure that what we build contributes to a harmony between Chicago and the great natural environment of the lake and assures an ordered and humane development along the community edge. It is the great pride Chicago has in its lake- front fortified by new knowledge and new possibilities that has inspired the prepara- tion of The Lakefront Plan of Chicago. Chicago's lakefront must ever be preserved for public use and enjoyment. We must do all in our power to protect this great natural asset for ourselves and for future generations. Mayor '7'-=-7777 4". 4"t .............. J"' v -ALO Aw af AAMMMMF3W A-Mmmmw- -.I- 1. BACKGROUND FOR PLANNING Lake Michigan-An Overview of Its Environment Lake Michigan-An Overview of Its Environment Historic Lakefront Perspective Of the five Great Lakes, Lake Michigan is Regional Considerations the third largest by virtue of its 22,400 square miles of water surface. It drains a Major Issues land area of nearly 45,500 square miles, is 307 miles long, and is 118 miles at its greMest width and 40 miles at its narrow- est. The surface of the Lake is 680 feet above sea level, but the maximum depth in the northern portion is 923 feet, or 343 feet below sea level. The annual average rainfall of 31 inches within its drainage basin is the source of nearly all of Lake Michigan's waters. The basins of all five of the Great Lakes were originally valleys or lowlands on top of belts of weak rock worn down by ero- sion. Each of these basins, created millions of years ago, contained bodies of water. Then not less than one million years ago, glacial ice sheets advanced southward from Canadian origins in four successive stages covering the north central and northeast portions of the United States generally in a line following the Ohio and Missouri rivers and filling in the five Great Lakes basins. Upon retreat of the final ice stage, the basins emerged with their bodies of water intact. As short a geologic time as 3,000 years ago, Lake Michigan appeared for the first time much as it is today. Lake Michigan is divided into two basins The five Great Lakes constitute the largest separated by a distinct 35 mile wide under- body of fresh water in the world. They water ridge in mid-lake extending in a line have been, and continue to be, vital to between Frankfurt, Michigan, and Port the economy of both Canada and the Washington, Wisconsin. In the deeper United States and offer significant oppor- northern portion, shores are characterized tunities for domestic and industrial water by deep cut bays and inlets and sheer supply, power generation, navigation, and shorelines of exposed rock. In the southern recreation. With expanding population and portion, flat, sandy beaches predominate, industry around the Lakes, it becomes and sand dunes at the southern end and increasingly important that resource man- along the eastern shore are prominent fea- agement and conservation methods be tures. Chicago's lakefront is a portion of advanced to protect the total environment this southern basin which reaches lesser of these Great Lakes. depths of 500-600 feet. 4 Long term fluctuations in the level of Lake Michigan, as in the other four Great Lakes, are caused by precipitation, evaporation of 46* surface waters, and the rate of flow of rivers into the Lake. But as lake levels th 4 change seasonally, so do the waters themselves. During the summer, warmer S J*#A I r$ or surface waters are less dense and tend to A "float" above the cooler, denser and deeper MACXI#VAC waters which tend to remain in place. In the spring and fall, a water turnover occurs PETOSXEY which results in a complete circulation of the upper and lower water layers. 45' Therefore, lake pollutants that are either 450 held in suspension or that have long-lasting residual effects are circulated throughout the lake water levels at least twice a year. aJ es GRAND For appreciable lengths of time these pol- OF r,#AVC#$f lutants can accumulate in the quieter lower FRAN FORT SAY waters and affect marine life on and near the lake bottom. Along the Chicago lake- front there are two general areas of bio- logical degradation of lake bed deposits as MANISTEE identified by offshore samples taken by the I Illinois Sanitary Water Board in 1970: from BIG SABLE POINT Diversey Harbor to Grand Avenue and in 4W the vicinity of 79th Street. Contrasted to these natural features and characteristics of Lake Michigan, Chicago's modern lakefront, its parks and shoreline, is essentially man-made. The trees, grass, paths, sea walls, and beaches have been PORT WASHINGTON 0 placed by man, in most cases changing the 0 original character of the shore. MUSK60H The lakefront and its parks provide an en- MILWAUKEE vironment in which vigorous leisure time 43" Y activities can be pursued, vistas of the city and water scapes can be enjoyed, and the sense of openness can be appreciated. Chicago must preserve, protect, and en- hance these qualities in order to expand recreational potential without impairing the BOTTOM TOPOGRAPHY beauties of lake, sky, and shore. LAKE MICHIGAN 4400 CONTOUR INTERVAL 100 FEET SCALE OF MILES St JOSEPH 0 10 20 3 424 CHICAGO Sao see 850 Historic Lakefront Perspective Before the first permanent settlers arrived in the early 1800's the marshy lowlands and low beach ridges bordering the south- western portion of Lake Michigan had long known Indian settlements, trappers, and explorers. This end of the Lake afforded easy passage from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River via brief portages be- tween the Chicago, Des Plaines, and Illi- nois rivers. The mouth of the Chicago River became, therefore, a natural meeting place for water-borne travelers and a prize A_ worthy of military protection. Fort Dear 4 born was completed in 1804 on the south bank of the River to prevent the British and _4 4 Jit- their Indian allies from recapturing this vl_ tal water transportation route. `40 By 1835, piers protected the harbor en- trance, a lighthouse guided shipping, first generation urban settlers were arriving by ship through the Erie Canal and the Great Lakes, and agricultural produce was shipped back to the eastern markets. A. T;@, Chicago grew and became a city; its port and lakefront shipping activity expanded. The completion in 1848 of the Illinois- Michigan Canal provided an all-water route AL from Chicago to the Illinois River at Peru The Chicago harbor area in 1891. The view is north along and then to the Mississippi River and New Michigan Avenue at Van Buren Street. Orleans. In the 1 860's, the flow of the Chi- cago River was reversed by redredging the Illinois and Michigan Canal, and the city's waste water and sewage flowed away from the Lake. In 1900, the Chicago Sani- tary and Ship Canal, a much larger and deeper waterway, was completed. It pro- vided increased transportation and waste- carrying capacity. In 75 years, the City's lakeshore frontage became a center of intense commercial, in- dustrial, and transportation development. While recognizing the economic impor- tance to the City of harbor and port facili- ties, Daniel Burnham, the architect of the 1909 plan of Chicago, urged the develop- ment of the lakefront as park space to the greatest possible extent. In speaking of the lakefront, Burnham stated: Everything possible should be done to en- hance its attractiveness and to develop its natural beauties. Burnham attached great importance to the improvement of the lakefront by placing 'it 6 -E [email protected] 4 A; x !,Ww V loansO.- y7 AW @P- A lithograph showing the Great Central Railway Depot at South Water Street in 1866. The depot was subsequently destroyed in the fire of 1871. Ir-*77M P, M A Railroad sheds and rolling stock were familiar objects along the lakefront in 1892. This view is looking north from 23rd Street. 7 first among the six principal elements of his planning document. He depicted a new shoreline of beaches, lagoons, islands, harbors, and cultural facilities-a vast pub- lic ground to be maintained for use by all. Since Burnham's plan, the growth of eco- 3 logic knowledge as a major force in dealing with natural and environmental features has become a primary factor in lakefront planning. Today's lakefront plan must be J developed with serious regard for the total WWI environment and with flexible F design standards. Al The concept that portions of the lakefront shoula be developed for public use was recorded long before the Burnham plan. A I - --I_4 surveyors map of Chicago in 1836 de clared that the area east of Michigan Ave- nue to the Lake between Madison Street 7 0 and 11 th Place would be: Open ground-no building. ? Similarly, on the 1839 subdivision plat of . . . . . . . Fort Dearborn lands, the Secretary of War certified, with reference to lands east of Michigan Avenue, that: The public ground between Randolph and Madison streets and fronting on Lake Michi- gan, is not to be occupied with buildings of A railroad ship basin near the mouth of the Chicago River any description. at Lake Michigan. The scene is typical of the lakefront industrial scene in the late 1800's. Though this was only a small portion of the lakefront, its designation as open space was ambitious for its day and has proved prophetic in succeeding generations. In 1890, Aaron Montgomery Ward filed suit to clear the lakefront along Michigan Avenue (now Grant Park) of then existing objectionable structures and uses. Ward's action started a legal battle over the char- acter of the park land that lasted for years. He fought for the preservation of the con- cept of open space and not just to rid the lakefront of unsightly buildings. He won, with a decision based on both the 1836 map declaration and the 1839 subdivision plat certification. Through the years, en- croachments on Grant Park were continu- ally proposed, but Ward stood his ground, bringing suit whenever he felt that open space was endangered. Subsequently, with the exception of the Art Institute, existing structures were removed. Ward's third legal contest was over the pro- posal to build the Field Museum of Natural 8 [email protected]@4 W it% 4 -4 A mule-drawn grader preparing the canal bed in 1894 for the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal. Opened in 1900 the canal supplanted the function of the Illinois-Michigan Canal of 1848. 10 1W %A A 1928 land-fill operation in what is now Burnham Park. The view is looking north from 43rd Street. 9 EXAMPLES OF LAKE FRONT PLANNING 1909 Plan of Chicago 1946 Comprehensive city Plan of Chicago 1966 Comprehensive Plan of Chicago Ak- [email protected] zr Al ai! ,In I N 10 History in Grant Park. In 1909, the same year Burnham's city plan was presented, the Illinois State Supreme Court handed down its decision on the lakefront. Though the Court ruled that a museum could justi- fiably be constructed in a public park, it upheld the earlier decision that the area of Grant Park should be preserved as open space, free of buildings. By the 1 930's, the lakefront decisions made by earlier generations had helped create a public shoreline park development of largely water-oriented recreational uses augmented by cultural facilities and mu- seums. The Jackson Park lakefront had been the site for the 1893 World's Colum- blan Exposition and Burnham Park hosted the 1933-34 Chicago World's Fair, A Cen- tury of Progress. Completion on the lake- front of the Field Museum of Natural His- tory, Shedd Aquarium, Adler Planetarium, Museum of Science and Industry, and Sol- dier Field preceded the 1933 World's Fair, evidence of the great attraction the lake- front held for the people of Chicago. Today, nearly 24 of the City's 30 miles of shoreline consist of public parks and beaches. Within these parks are a multitude of recreational and cultural uses and facili- ties, some of which have been enjoyed by Chicagoans and visitors for 100 years or 15 more. LANDFILL ADD11TIONS TO THE LAKEFRONT PRIOR TO 1920 1920-1940 1940-PRESENT Regional Considerations placed on the regional lakefront must be monitored and weighed so that essential development of these uses will be allowed only under strictly enforced control meas- Chicago's lakefront is only a small portion ures and only when a lakefront location 'is of the entire Lake Michigan shoreline. proved essential. However, it provides many major regional Chicago is a leader among Lake Michigan recreational opportunities and cannot be communities in its water pollution con- thought of as an isolated 30 miles of land trols and contributions toward the high and water. It must be considered in an ur- standard of water quality which must be ban context as part of a 100 mile regional maintained for water supply, recreational lakefront extending from the Illinois-Wis- uses and the retention of wildlife. Coastal consin state line south and east into the flooding and erosion are critical problerns Indiana counties of Lake and Porter. Chi- for this region and for many other sectors cago's lakefront is the central portion of of Lake Michigan. The formulation and im- this regional lakefront that has in the past plementation of programs that will im- been the major focus for water-oriented prove the quality of Lake Michigan waters recreational development. and protect its shoreline must be the con- cern of all governmental jurisdictions around Chicago is the hub of its metropolitan area the Lake. transportation network, and its lakefront now plays a key role in providing for the The op iportunity exists to create additional region's recreational and open space needs. recreational space within an exciting 100 For example, only 50 miles of the 100 mile mile lakefront through a variety of regional regional lakefront are devoted to public and local actions. Since expansion of water open space. Half of that 50 miles of public oriented uses is one of the major regional open space is provided by the City of needs, regional plans emphasize the future Chicago. development along the Lake Michigan shoreline and other lakes and rivers should With particular emphasis on water-oriented provide for the maximum use of these areas activities, the City's lakefront is developed for public recreation. While Chicago con- to*respond 'to a myriad of regional recre- tinues to contribute to the total regional ational and cultural needs. The character lakefront development in a singular and of development and enhancement of the distinctive manner, all jurisdictions within City's lakefront, however, will continue to the region should join in the cooperative differ appreciably from the remaining Illi- effort toward the eventual realization of a nois and Indiana portions. Chicago's lake unified regional lakefront. frontage, with its contrast to the adjacent densely developed urban scene, comple- ments such natural areas as the Illinois REGIONAL FEATURES Beach State Park in Zion and the newly designated Indiana Dunes National Lake- shore. The Chicago lakefront will never PUBLIC OPEN SPACE meet the total open space, recreational, and water-oriented needs of the entire region. Its primary purpose is to provide MAJOR BODIES OF WATER those recreational and cultural opportunities for the people of Chicago and the region that are most appropriate to this central EXPRESSWAYS portion of the regional lakefront. In addition to the recreational opportunities possible along the regional lakefront, other COMMUTER RAILROAD factors must be considered. Some indus- trial and transportation uses essential to the regional and national economy require RAPID TRANSIT locations upon the lakefront. All demands 12 ---- -- - ---- 00000 13 7-7 -'7 46V A [email protected] iL The U.S. Department of the Interior maintains the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, a natural geological area in the 100-mile regional lakefront extending from Wisconsin to Michigan. Annual Air and Water Thrill Show staged by the Chicago Park District at various locations in the lakefront parks. This site is Rainbow Beach on the city's south side. IF [email protected] A Special Olympics for children is held annually in Grant Park under the auspices of the Chicago Park District. 14 Major lissues by what means? What shoreline modifica- tions are needed to control erosion? Lake Ecology. What more positive steps can the City and region take toward preser- vation of the ecological balance between the lake water, with its fish and wildlife, Preceding generations of Chicagoans have and the urban shore with its constant spent their time, money, and effort to de- threat of potentially harmful effects upon velop and preserve the City's lakefront. the Lake? What are alternative treatments Today, as in Daniel Burnham's 1909 city of shoreline and water zone development plan, civic pride places a high priority on that will improve ecological balance? the conservation of the shoreline as a Community Considerations. How can the center of cultural and leisure time activities. influence of the Lake and parks be extended In developing the 1972 Lakefront Plan, into the adjoining community edge? Can a specialists in a wide variety of fields have greater sense of continuity be developed been brought together to help sort out the between parks and communities and within planning issues and recommend what the parks themselves? What special con- should be done for the lakefront. A brief trols can be formulated to guide the ap- exposition of the major issues should help propriate development of properties relat- in understanding the policies and, subse- ing immediately to the lakefront? In what quently, the plan. ways can Chicago work with other local Leisure Time Activities. Which park uses governments toward improvement of the should be encouraged and which should total lakefront? be discouraged? How can the lakefront Access and Circulation. How can public better serve needs of different user groups? access to the lakefront be improved? How How can opportunities for boating and can parking facilities and roads within the other high demand activities be increased? lakeshore parks be improved and traffic Should private or commercial recreation congestion diminished? How should Lake oriented uses be allowed, and if so how Shore Drive be maintained as a parkway? can they be operated and regulated to in- Landscaping and Design Elements. What sure public access? design standards can be formulated to New Uses. What additional, desirable uses improve the appearance 'of recreational should be encouraged and incorporated structures, play areas, and street furniture into lakefront designs to supplement the to lend a distinctive and identifiable char- existing cultural and recreational activities? acterto the lakeshore parks? Howcan land- Once identified, how can these new uses scaping be improved to increase the na- be established? tural qualities of the parks? Water Quality. How can Lake Michigan Transportation and Industrial Activities. water quality be further protected and en- What measures can be taken to assure the hanced? What are the possible harmful successful integration of water-oriented and beneficial effects of landfill on the transportation facilities and existing indus- shoreline and the Lake? What additional trial activities with the lakeshore parks? local water pollution control measures are What modifications should bernadetothese needed in the City's harbors and in the areas to blend them more successfully into Lake beyond? their adjoining lakefront park settings? Shoreline Modification. What forms of Implementation. How should future Chicago lakefront park expansion would best meet lakefront improvements be financed so that the need for additional recreation space: maximum gain occurs with the minimum off-shore islands, near-shore peninsulas, expenditure? What agencies and jurisdic- selective landfills to existing shoreline, or a tions should be involved in Chicago and combination of these techniques? Should regional lakefront developments and how thesixremaining milesof non-public shore- should they be aligned to create a well- line be acquired and developed; and if so, coordinated planning effort? 15 11. BASIC POLICIES FOR THE LAKEFRONT OF CHICAGO 1. Complete the publicly owned and locally controlled park system along the entire Chicago lakefront. 2. Maintain and enhance the predominantly landscaped, spacious, and continuous character of the lakeshore parks. 3. Continue to improve the water quality and ecological balance of Lake Michigan. 4. Preserve the cultural, historical, and recreational heritage of the lakeshore parks. 5. Maintain and improve the formal character and open water vista of Grant Park with no new above-ground structures permitted. 6. Increase the diversity of recreational opportunities while emphasizing lake-oriented leisure time activities. 7. Protect and develop natural lakeshore park and water areas for wildlife habitation. 8. Increase personal safety. 9. Design all lake edge and lake construction to prevent detrimental shoreline erosion. 10. Ensure a harmonious relationship between the lakeshore parks and the community edge, but in no instance will further private development be permitted east of Lake Shore Drive. 11. Improve access to the lakeshore parks and reduce through vehicular The basic policies for Chicago's lakefront traf f ic on secondary park roads. are broad, long-range goal statements 'in- tended to guide present development pro- 12. Strengthen the parkway characteristics of Lake Shore Drive and grams and to provide a basis for preparing prohibit any roadway of expressway standards. specific project plans in the future. 13. Ensure that all port, water supply, and public facilities are designed Taken together, they reflect a continuity to enhance lakefront character. and logical progression of the historic lake- front development proposals appearing in 14. Coordinate all public and private development within the water, all of the City's previous lakefront planning park, and community zones. eff o rts. 16 1. Complete the publicly owned and locally controlled park system along the entire Chicago Ilakef ront. Basic to all lakefront policies is the deter- mination that the entire Chicago shoreline should be publicly owned, locally con- trolled and devoted to public purposes to the [email protected] extent possible. Eighty percent of the City's shoreline is now under pub- lic ownership. To achieve a continuous public shoreline, the City and the Chicago v P Park District should take two actions re- V garding the remaining 20 per cent: Ar Complete the acquisition of lakeshore properties. The appropriate public agencies should acquire and develop available lake- front parcels as part of the lakeshore park system unless the acquisition of the riparian rights provides for needed expansion in a satisfactory manner. Complete the acquisition of riparian rights. Where lakefront private properties do not 7- become available for purchase or are not needed for park purposes, their riparian rights should be acquired in order to as- sure continuity of the public shoreline. 2. Maintain and enhance the predominanVy landscaped, spacious, and continuous z t character of the lakeshore parks. The dominant character of the lakefront is to be landscaped, spacious, and continu ous while providing diverse recreational and cultural opportunities for all the people 40,- of Chicago and the region. Preserve the beauty and traditional char- acter of the lakefront parks. The informal quality of most of the lakeshore park land- long with the highly formal nature A scape a of Grant Park present a green open space unparalleled in the world. Careful attention should be given to enhancing and expand- ing this landscaped quality as additional land and existing portions are improved. Traditional features enjoyed by generations of Chicagoans and visitors should be re- AII talned and strengthened. Among these are A view of Lake Shore Drive in the city's Gold Coast area. fountains and gardens of Grant Park, the The Oak Street beach is in the foreground. The picture museum and water features of Jackson illustrates the dramatic contrast in the area between high Park, and a wide variety of facilities in density development on the west side of Lake Shore Drive and the narrow park-beach strip on the east. Lincoln Park. 17 Reflect the spacious character of the lake- 7 shore parks in facility expansion or devel- opment. While many additional facilities are needed to accommodate a desirable range of activities, new or expanded facil itles should be located and designed to maintain a sense of openness. Promote the effective combination of uses Ilk- MW [email protected]: to maintain the predominantly spacious char acter of the lakeshore parks. The di versity of character of the lakeshore parks lends a special identity to each area. Local act vity areas and the continuous linear A,- areas which accommodate bicycling, walk- ing, and horseback riding complement the spacious landscaped areas. This effective combination of uses should be strength- ing any ened when programmi new devel- opment. 4 t" 71 3. Continue to improve the water quality and ecological balance of Lake Michigan. The quality of Lake Michigan's water must b eimproved in order to increase the utility of the Lake as a water supply, a habitat for wildlife, and a resource for recreation. These uses, when balanced, do not conflict with one another. Additional basic research and technology are required to provide inlor 4W mation on the whole system of Lake Mich- igan and the City's relationship to it. Regulate uses of the Lake. The uses of the Lake sanctioned by the City should be lim- ited to water supply, recreation, wildlife habitation, navigation, and transportation. The Sea-Lion Pool is a focal point in the city's world famous Misuse of the Lake for the depositing of Lincoln Park Zoo. This park has a wide variety of attractions, many of which were introduced before the turn-of-the- waste materials, for non -recreational de- century. velopment, or any other action which reduces the Lake's quality will not be per- mitted. The City shares jurisdiction with other local governing bodies, the states, and federal government and will exercise its authority in the public interest. Regulate waste disposals into the Lake. Chicago should continue efforts to improve water quality by controlling waste disposal from ships and pleasure boats, from do- mestic and industrial sources, and by di- verting rainwater runoff. Expansion and improvement of industrial and commercial shipping facilities near the Lake are desira- ble for the region's economic viability, but development or re-development of these 18 facilities should be accomplished in a man- ner to ensure improved water quality. Require new land developments in the Lake to be in accord with pollution controls. All new shore extensions, landfills, erosion control structures, breakwaters, and boat anchorages constructed within the juris- diction of the City should be accomplished in such a manner that water quality will re- main unimpaired. Careful analysis of all water related development proposals should be required. The City will cooper- ate and provide leadership in the design and execution of intergovernmental agree- ments to control pollution effectively and to 'improve environmental programs. 4. Preserve the cultural, historical, The Lincoln Park Conservatory and formal gardens border the zoo area. The conservatory is the year-round site for and recreational heritage of the seasonal flower shows that attract large numbers of visitors. lakeshore parks. The primary public use of the lakeshore parks should continue to be for culture and recreation. While the parks share the lake- front with two other essential uses-water supply and shipping, residential, commer- cial, and industrial uses within the lake- shore park areas would not serve the public interest. Emphasize activities appropriate to the lakefront. Priority activities to be accom- modated on the lake edge are those that require a lakeshore location, such as swim- M4 ming, fishing and boating; those that take advantage of the lakefront's unique linear aspects such as walking, bicycling and horseback riding; and those that take ad- vantage of the view of the lake and hori- zon. Other activities that increase the usa- bility of the lakeshore parks but are not water oriented may also be appropriate for lakeshore location but should be located well away from the water's edge. Strengthen the regional aspect of the lake- shore parks. Community oriented park facil- min ities such as fieldhouses should generally be located at the community edge of the lakeshore parks. Facilities attracting users @C from the entire region, such as the zoo, the conservatory, aquarium, planetarium and museums, are appropriately sited within the lakeshore parks. Although such facili- ties are appropriate in the lakeshore parks, IK large park locations elsewhere in the City or region should also be considered when locating such facilities in the future. 19 5. Maintain and improve the formal around uses and activities should be pro- character and open water vista grammed in the park to take advantage of of Grant Park with no new above the wide variety of open spaces and the ground structures permitted. high level of accessibility of its location. Grant Park is a unique symbol of Chicago's Seek formal recognition of Grant Park's historic relationship with Lake Michigan historic role. Grant Park and related sites and provides a dramatic focal point for the and buildings should be formally proposed City. The formal character of Grant Park, for designation at national, state, and local as exemplified by its gardens and walk- levels as a place of historical and cultural ways and by Buckingham Fountain, should significance. be maintained and enhanced. The variety of activities which the park now accom- 6. Increase the diversity of modates without detracting from it's formal recreational opportunities while character should be expanded. emphasizing lake-oriented leisure Maintain the integrity of Grant Park. Grant time activities. Park should continue to afford completely Many of the lakeshore parks are comprised open views and vistas. Both the park zone of two main sections: the lake edge, which and the water zone must be kept free of offers unique opportunities for lake- structures which might.climinish that char- oriented activities, and the western edge, acter. Breakwaters that improve and in- generally west of Lake Shore Drive, which crease sheltered water are desirable but lends itself to clustered activity develop- should not be used to create land forms in ment for all-season indoor and outdoor the area east of the park. No additional activity. structures above ground level should be Respond to park user preferences in pro- permitted in the park itself. viding recreational opportunities. The lake- Increase opportunities for the use of Grant shore parks should provide opportunities Park in all seasons. A broad range of year for satisfying a variety of interests in recre- Centrally located on the lakefront, Buckingham Fountain greatly enhances the formal and dramatic character of Grant Park. Shown here is the arrival of Queen Elizabeth 11 in Chicago in 1959. [email protected],77 W 4 N AW 1,7 A 1, if 7, 117 92 20 ational activity. Community participation, fishing and also would contribute to shore- continuing analysis and flexible manage- line protection. ment should be employed to respond ef- Encourage appropriate leasehold, conces- fectively to these needs and preferences. sion, and user-fee facilities. Quality lease- Increase the usability of the lakeshoreparks. hold and concession arrangements are ap- Increasing the usability of the lakeshore propriate for providing supportive services parks includes expansion of activities and which complement or expand the recrea- of the hours and seasons of use. Choice tional uses and facilities of the parks. These of activity should be expanded particularly might include restaurants, bait shops, and for those who rely most on the public equipment rental operations. Recreational parks for their cultural and recreational choice may be expanded by use of reason- experiences. able user-fees to finance the development Increase parkland to provide space for of certain special activities. Sight-seeing added activity use. There is a great and in- and fishing excursions, boat rental and creasing need for more usable lakefront water skiing, theater presentations, and land and facilities. To avoid overtaxing ex- golf are examples of suitable user-fee ac- isting recreational space and to improve tivities. the functioning of the lakeshore parks, ex- Make all services in the parks available to pansion of lakefront park space is indicated. the public. Recreational facilities may be New park space should be provided through landfill, which could provide for developed pr Ivately on public lakefront shoreline continuity, and through shore ex- land when this serves to enlarge recrea- tensions, peninsulas, and off-shore islands. tional opportunities. Under these circum- stances, public land may be ]eased to pri- Increase areas of protected water. In- vate interests for recreational development creased areas of sheltered water would ex- for use by the public. Leases negotiated pand recreational opportunities for such with a private group should include stipu- things as small boating, swimming, and lations to protect the public interest by en- A ball diamond in Lincoln Park near the lake becomes a winter hockey rink. A'K"@-34 r gk A 11K 'A - ORO 1 40, *i 4"" 1! 7_1 % 21 Suring that general use facilities are appro- priately designed and open for public use. Although an organization may limit the size of its membership for reasons of physical accommodation, membership in such a recreational development must be open on an equal basis to anyone wanting to join and use the special use facilities. 7. Protect and develop natural lakeshore park and water areas for fish and wildlife habitation. Protection of the environment and main- tenance of beneficial ecological balances are major concerns. The designation and development of natural areas for wildlife habitats upon the Chicago lakefront would respond to the City's location on bird A popular fishing event held annually by the Chicago Park migration routes. Such nature areas, District is the Coho Salmon Derby at Montrose pier. whether on the shore in a lakefront park or on islands, would partially meet the need for assuring the safety and preserva- tion of a part of our environment. Con- tinued efforts should be made to foster marine life, including improved water qual- ity. Attention should be given to providing spawning, feeding and nesting areas for all wildlife that might be attracted. 8. Increase personal safety. Utilization of the park facilities is depend- ent upon the apparent and real safety of the users. Increased use of park areas should increase safety. Incorporate new design standards. Safety 7 1 will be a primary concern in landscaping treatments, facility and equipment design, and lighting standards at underpasses and access points. J It ;ZT, Strengthen park security. Greater public awareness of police patrols and the estab- 05 lishment of a call system throughout the "7 A-, parks for summoning police aid should re- sult in a higher level of personal safety. Areas of highly intensive use within the park system require a system of protection and police patrolling different from those areas of low intensive use. ,_j Separate systems of park circulation. To T X K3`@ avoid conflict among various means of travel within the lakeshore parks, each R, Ali, 47 should have a clearly separate system of circulation. Underpasses and overpasses 22 should provide for separating vehicular I traffic from pedestrian, equestrian, and cy- cle paths. In addition, separation of the three path forms should also occur so that each mode has its own path system apart from the other two. 'E Increase safety for those participating in all activities. Sections of the lakeshore park and sheltered water areas should be set aside for, and limited to, instruction in the use of equipment and the safe practice of such skills as sailing, sculling, canoeing, It swimming, and ice skating. 9. Design all Ilake edge and Ilake construction to prevent ---------- detrimental shorelline erosion. Four dynamic interacting factors-tempera- ture, currents, lake level, and wave action A -produce severe problems in preventing 4 "M 2m, and controlling erosion. All additions to _V \ Cl-, ND za, the lakeshore parks through landfill and all R Q land features created in the Lake must meet design standards and specifications which will result in a shoreline substantially free from erosion and as complementary to the High waves created by a November storm damaged this natural forces of the Lake as possible. private lakefront property at Thorndale Avenue. Erosion effects at the Juneway Terrace Beach at the northern extremity of the city are typical of the sporadic storm damage afflicting the city's shoreline. 10. Ensure a harmonious relationship between the Ilakeshore parks and the community edge, but in no instance will lurthW PTWat8 development be permiltted east of Lake Shore Drive. A better relationship-functionally, physi- M cally, and visual ly- between the lakeshore parks and the adjoining communities is required In order to respect the proper use of both areas, minimize conflicts and maxi- mize the potentials of each. Require that urban edge community de- velopment projects be compatible with the character of the lakefront. Just as a park development should be planned in recog- nition of its impact on the adjoining com- munity area, so should urban edge devel- -A opments be sensitive to the aesthetic and physical balance that is needed between community and park. In most cases the transition between community and lake- shore park is sharp and abrupt and creates 7 L a definite change of character. Public and private community developments that are either adjacent or in close proximity to this line of division should reflect more closely 23 the spacious landscaped character of the Reduce vehicular traffic in the lakeshore adjoining lakeshore park space. For this parks by eliminating secondary park road- purpose, more sensitive controls of develop- ways where possible. To eliminate through ment should be established. No further traffic in the parks, closures of portions of private development will be permitted east existing internal secondary roadways and of Lake Shore Drive. theirreturn to recreational usewould be pos- sible in some cases. By reducing through 11. Improve access to the lakeshore traffic movements in the parks, safety could parks and reduce through be increased and park land expanded. vehicular traffic on secondary park roads. Organize and balance parking in the lake- Convenient access to any park increases shore parks according to activity functions. its potential use. Vehicular congestion must Major parking areas convenient to the be avoided and conflict between access main centers of activity should be pro- provisions and recreational park uses re- vided. Since the parking would serve both solved. the regional and local facilities, parking Locate points of access to the lakeshore locations must be convenient to both and parks to interconnect with circulation pat- should not take prime water-oriented park terns in the communities. Connections space nor prime local park space. Parking should be located to improve access to the should not be the dominant use in any lakefront from community parks and park- one part of the park, and when feasible it malls. Pedestrian and non-motorized vehic- should be developed underground. As a ular access connections into the lakeshore rule, parking in the park should be auxiliary parks should be designed as attractive to park uses only. community ties. Their form and level of accessibility should also be coordinated Extend transit to the lakeshore parks. In with the park character and activity func- order to increase lakefront accessibility to tions they directly serve. all Chicago neighborhoods, existing bus Along with its formal landscaping Grant Park also provides recessed grassy areas for such activities as soft-ball. Most of the park's ball players work in the nearby Loop area. 14 r @k 4 ow A( K:, [email protected], 24 service should be extended into the parks not, nor should it become, a high capacity where activity clusters are located. The expressway. It is a parkway which should feasibility of a variety of internal shuttle conform to the following general roadway services through major portions of the park standards: lanes should be no more than should be explored. eleven feet wide with additional width only 12. Strengthen the parkway at curves and other special locations; reg- characterilsUcs of Lake Shore ularly spaced emergency pull-off bays DHve and prohilb,K any roadway should be provided rather than continuous of expressway standards. paved shoulders and where continuous Lake Shore Drive is a parkway which shoulders are needed they should be spe- should retain its parkway nature. Land- cially treated; minimum width access ramps should be provided; and design speed scaping treatments of the outer edges of should be 45 mph or 50 mph with speed the Drive should emphasize natural design limits set at 40 mph or 45 mph. The median and suggest a separation of the right-of- should be developed with appropriate way from the adjacent park land by changes plantings. Protective barriers where neces- of slope and types of planting materials. sary to protect pedestrians should be Alignment and elevation of the Drive blended with landscaping. should be controlled by the design require- ments of the lakeshore parks so that the Create no further direct linkages of ex- parks are enhanced rather than interrupted. pressway standards to the metropolitan Piarkway design should accentuate the expressway system. By creating no further visual qualities of the lakefront. All park connections of expressway standards be- users, including motorists should be af- tween Lake Shore Drive and the metro- forded pleasant and diverse views of the politan expressway system, the capacities lake and the park. of the Drive can be controlled. Thus, addi- Maintain the current speed and traffic ca- tional direct linkages to the expressway pacity of Lake Shore Drive. The Drive is system should not be allowed; any future The pedestrian overpass at North Avenue is an excellent example of the kind of access facility needed at more frequent intervals along Lake Shore Drive. 'Ir Al J 11 V 7 @[email protected] W,A 25 connections to the major street system should be limited to those aiding the dis- tributor function of the Drive in the Central Area. The former U.S. Coast Guard Station at the mouth of the Retain the present length of Lake Shore Chicago River near Navy Pier is a prime example of the kind Drive. There should be no extension of the of port facility that adds to the attractiveness of the lakefront. Drive north of Hollywood Avenue or south of 67th Street. The connection of the Drive to the major street system at Hollywood Avenue should be improved. This is not aimed atincreasingthe capacityof the Drive. Between 57th and 67th streets the Drive V should be improved through Jackson Park w th an at 57th. It should op- erate at a reduced speed as it reaches the points where traffic is distributed to the major street system. Retain the distributor function of Lake rV Shore Drive in the Central Area. The dis- IV* tributor function of the Drive will be im- proved by adding el connection to an ex- tended Wacker Drive, interchanges with Randolph, 1 2th, and I 8th streets, and with traffic improvements between the Chicago River and Oak Street. In addition, the right angle turns south of the bridges will be eliminated. 13. Ensure that all port, water supply, and public facilities are designed to enhance lakefront character. Port activities at Navy Pier and the Chicago and Calumet river entrances should be _AA maintained and developed. These port facil- ities and other public uses such as the 1W\1 water filtration plants, Meigs Field, and McCormick Place, should be landscaped and maintained to make them as com- patible with the total lakefront character as possible. 14. Coordinate all public and private development within the water, park, and community zones. [email protected] The lakefront consists of three linear zones: the waters of Lake Michigan, the lakeshore parks, and the urban communities adjacent to the lakeshore parks or shoreline. Public interest in the management and develop- ment of the lakefront and the complex re- lationships among the three lakefront zones require a coordinated approach to develop- 26 ment. Thus to protect the character of the lakefront and existing and future develop- ment, standards for development adjacent to the lakefront should be established. All projects, public and private, must be considered and evaluated within the con- text of these policies. All development or modification which affects the character of the lakefront-including the design of new lakeshore park areas, any development in the water zone, the nature of new activi- ties offered in the lakeshore parks, and the uses and design of buildings on land near the lakeshore parks-should be reviewed to determine their effect on the character of the lakefront. Lighted tennis courts in the city's park system help the Develop criteria on which to base an effec- Chicago Park Districtto expandthetotal hoursof park-use. tive lakefront ordinance. Criteria should be established for the guidance of all agencies and developers in order that the design and function of all proposals affecting the lake- front be as harmonious as possible. They should also enhance the lakefront's unique qualities including the spacious and land- scaped view of the parks and Lake. 40 T;. Establish a mechanism for a coordinated approach to design and development of the entire lakefront. A well defined review procedure within Chicago's administrative structure should be developed for review- ing and evaluating all proposals affecting the lakefront. A process of public evalua- tion of proposals affecting the lakefront should be part of this review mechanism. Y ROW Nk N a @17 Y 4L A 27 M. THE LAKEFRONT PLAN Existing Conditions Plan Proposals Summary of Proposals Chicago's lakefront is one of the world's prime examples of how man has created % and beautified an urban shoreline. Whereas Daniel Burnham in 1909 had a limited 25 r.4 lakefront park base on which to build his innovative city planning concepts, 63 years later 80 percent of the City's shoreline is 7S in public ownership. This amazing shore- [email protected]!.,Vh S..tor line transformation has been a source of enjoyment for all Chicagoans and millions of visitors and has resulted in a lakefront that provides a multitude of recreational op- portunities and affords the citizenry stinnu- lating and exciting cultural experiences. The lakeshore parks require improvements, i Central Sector----- particularly in regard to their relationship with the commun ities adjoining them. The shoreline itself needs strengthening to withstand increasing erosion and beach degradation. Becreational opportunities should be expanded through new facility developments, the completion of a con- N 0 r,@ - 30 mile long public shoreline, and 0 -01 tinuous the construction of additional lakefront park 11 South Sector -7 . ..... space through judicious landfill projects. Fortunately, Chicago has a sound base from which to begin: a lakefront with a well-developed system of lakeshore parks; the technological knowledge necessary to Far South Sect3r design an expanded lakefront that responds more adequately to the natural forces of the Lake, and a growing awareness of the increasing importance of the environment and the urgent need to protect and enhance this environment for the present and future generations. 28 Existing Conditions by Zone For purposes of analysis and planning, Chicago's lakefront is divided into three linear zones: the water zone, the lakeshore parks zone, and the community zone. Existing conditions and basic needs in each of these zones are presented below. This inventory and the policies from the preceding Chapter form the basis for plan- ning and development recommendations. The Water Zone. The waters of Lake Michigan within the city limits of Chicago constitute the Water Zone. This zone in- cludes an opportunity area extending from the shoreline to a line approximately co- incidental with the 25 foot depth line in The Adler Planetarium sits on a promontory created by Lake Michigan in which many improve- landfill in the 1920's. The nearby 12th St. Beach is fre- ments can take place. quently subject to erosion. Within the water zone there are public boat harbors at Montrose, Belmont, Diversey, and Monroe streets and in Burnham and Jackson parks. These harbors provide ap- proximately 2,500 mooring spaces. In addi- tion, many small craft dock at the marinas iver within the Chicago and Calumet ri systems. The water supply for much of the Chicago Metropolitan Area is taken from Lake F Michigan. There are two water filtration [email protected] plants: the Central Plant, constructed in 1964 in conjunction with Olive Park, and the South Plant near Rainbow Beach. ,41 Combined, these two plants have a water "A treatment capacity of 2.6 billion gallons per [email protected] 4 R day. By United States Supreme Court order, the Chicago Metropolitan Area is presently zi 2- limited to a diversion from the Lake of [email protected] 3,200 cubic feet per second. Of this, 1,700 -A -46 cubic feet per second is used for water supply and 1,500 cubic feet per second for -.4 & waste treatment. The treated waste water [email protected] J, from Chicago enters the Sanitary and Ship Canal, the Des Plaines River, the Calumet- Sag Channel, and then the Illinois- M issis- J, 11.% J:e sippi river system, However, in some areas north of Chicago, waste water is returned to the Lake causing pollution problems and tit accelerated water treatment costs. law* 4 -t [email protected] tt There is increased concern for the quality of our lake water. Legal action has been -4, taken to lower the amount of pollutants discharged into the Lake. A detailed survey of industrial waste is now underway as well 29 as surveillance of pleasure craft to prevent overboard dumping of wastes. Sealing of diversion valves of pleasure craft and a river-front clean-up program along the Chicago River have been undertaken by the City and the Chicago Park District, which also conducts hearings to secure compliance with the Harbor Pollution Con- trol Ordinance. The City Council Environ- mental Control Committee conducted pub- lic hearingswhich led to legislation banning laundry detergents containing phosphorous on June 30, 1972. Chicago was the first city in the nation to pass such an ordinance. Since the opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway in 1959, there has been an appre- ciable increase in the number of foreign vessels operating in Lake Michigan. The Amateur Rowing Association Regatta is held annually Calumet Harbor has become a transship- in the Diversey Harbor lagoon. ment pont for grain and other products Q, 0-1: destined for ports around the world, while shipping from the iron mines of Michigan and Minnesota to the steel mills of Chicago and Indiana continues to be of great im- portance. 4 Although several species of Great Lakes fish were once commercially important, only a few fish remain so. Some species were decimated by the sea lamprey, and following control of the lamprey in the 1950's, the alewife flourished in the ab- sence of predator fish. Recently, a variety of salmon and trout species have been A introduced into Lake Michigan both to control the alewives and to reestablish recreational game fishing. The Park Zone consists of the individual parks which comprise the present and future public park land within the city limits of Chicago adjacent to Lake Michigan and any land under the waters of the Lake ceded to the Chicago Park District by the State under various grants. In some areas, _4a the park zone is a mile wide, while in others it is very narrow. Beaches, land- scaped natural areas, and cultural recrea- tional, and special use areas and facilities are located within this zone. The shoreline must be resistant to erosion, yet responsive to the Lake's natural cur- N rents. It is where the opportunity exists to *hui create continuous public access along Chicago's entire 30 miles of shore. The 30 continuing public acquisition of riparian rights will be a primary element in creating a continuous public shoreline. These rights relate to the water, its use, ownership of land under the Lake, and access to the shore. Extensions and additions to the shoreline can also be made to provide ad- ditional recreational space. Lake Shore Drive extends from Hollywood Avenue to 67th Street and is a key element along the lakeshore. Speeds on the Drive are limited to 45 miles an hour or less. This is well below expressway standards. Use of the Drive by commercial vehicles is pro- hibited. There are 30 beaches along Chicago's The 9-hole Waveland Avenue golf course bordering the lakefront, nine of which are small street- lake on the city's north side provides a regional recreation facility. end beaches with only limited capacity. In 1971, total beach attendance exceeded 18 million persons. Lagoons in Lincoln and Jackson parks are stocked by the Chicago "a Park District with a variety of fish, and smelt and salmon are available in Lake Michigan, along with the ever-present perch. Fishing piers are located along the lakefront in Loyola, Lincoln, Burnham, Jackso @A, *P n, and Calumet Parks; five casting pools have also been provided by the Park @rp Ve - District. A* Most of Chicago's lakeshore parks are the result of filling in a portion of the Lake to S create new land. Such land has in the past increased the amount of usable park land and prevented overtaxing existing recre- Z ational space. Landfill can also create a continuous shoreline, complement natural water processes, and prevent further ero- 0 sion of the shoreline. Lake ecology must always be taken into consideration when planning landfill projects. In addition to the impressive improvements since 1900 in the lakefront parks, all of '0 '7- the major lakefront parks have sections which continue to have characteristics and functions developed before the turn of the ry. Lincoln Park has a diverse nature centu characterized by the conservatory, zoologi- cal garden, rowing pond, farm- in-the-zoo, and a variety of other recreational features. More than four million persons visited the ;04 T _W "r-7- 4% zoo and nearly two million the conservatory n 1971. Jackson Park, the site of the Columbian Exposition, contains the world famous Museum of Science and Industry 31 which entertained three million visitors in water and community zones depends on 1971. Other developments of this century pedestrian movement between these zones. include Grant Park, characterized by Its Where existing facilities for carrying pedes- open and formal garden qualities and its trians from the community to the parks relationship to the central area, and Burn- across barriers such as Lake Shore Drive ham Park which continues to provide an are inadequate or inappropriate, new and impressive setting for unexcelled cultural improved pedestrian facilities should be facilities. provided. The Community Zone. The Community Developments in the community zone Zone is composed of the private and public should be planned and designed to com- lands adjacent to the Lake or lakeshore plement the character of the lakefront. parks. Most of this zone is developed with Diversity in the intensity of development residential uses, and the neighborhoods and the types of structures in the commun- within one-half mile of the Lake or the ity zone is a valuable asset, and it should be lakeshore parks house nearly 12 percent of preserved both in existing neighborhoods the City's 3.3 million residents. and in any new large scale developments. Understandably, residential development is generally intense along the lakefront, but structure types and intensity of develop- ment vary greatly from neighborhood to neighborhood and, in some instances, from block to block. For the most part, the com- munity zone is well served by both road- ways and mass transit facilities. The combi- nation of good transportation service to the Central Business District and proximity to lakefront amenities has resulted in medium to high intensity development in much of the zone. The great variety of types and intensity of development in the zone generates a corre- sponding variety of interrelationships with the Lake and lakeshore parks. Views of the Lake and open spaces and frontage on the parks are important components of residen- tial development and life style in the zone. Certain parts of the community zone near the Central Business District have a special relationship to the Lake and the lakeshore parks. Grant Park, for example, offers extra- ordinary recreational and cultural oppor- Existing Conditions by Sector tunities for visitors, residents, and workers The following discussion of conditions is in the vicinity. presented by sectors of the lakefront: North, Parts of the community zone along the from the city limits to North Avenue; lakefront have direct frontage on the Lake, Central, from North Avenue to the Steven- with little or no intervening park space. The son Expressway; South, from the Steven- building on the lake edge of these com- son Expressway to 71 st Street; and the Far munities provides remarkable views of the South, from 71st Street to the city limits. Lake, but they often have severe erosion The sectors contain characteristics and and water damage problems and they I I suffer a shortage of parkland and recrea- conditions that tend to separate them from tional facilities. each other and that call for different park and shoreline improvements and program- Much of the relationship among the park, ming treatments. 32 North Sector. The North Sector encompasses the lakefront Between Montrose and Belmont avenues, a dramatic communities and parks between the city limits and North change occurs as the park bbse narrows and Lake Shore Avenue. It contains a mix of multiple-family housing types. Drive is aligned directly adjacent to high-rise apartment Recreational facilities within these communities are limited buildings. This section of the park has many recreational and unevenly distributed, resulting in heavy recreational opportunities. However, paths for pedestrian and bicycle demands on the lakeshore parks. Population densities are movement through the park area and from the community generally high, particularly adjacent to the Lake where to the .9horeiine should be improved. much development has occurred since 1945. South of Addison Street, the park base between Lake Shore From the city limits to Hollywood Avenue, private owner- Drive and Belmont Harbor is severely constricted by the ship of riparian rights and shoreline restricts complete public access ramps for the Drive at Belmont Avenue, and there lakefront use and interrupts the continuity of the shoreline. is limited opportunity for improvement to pedestrian and The Chicago Park District has acquired a significant amount bicycle facilities or expansion of the park base. Pedestrian of riparian rights in this area, but additional parcels are underpasses serving the adjacent densely populated com- needed to complete a continuous public shoreline. This munity are narrow, unattractive and subject to flooding section of the lakeshore is susceptible to severe erosion during storms. problems. Many buildings in this area have been severely damaged during storms. Loyola Park is the only large public South of Belmont Harbor, Lake Shore Drive swings from park in this extent of shoreline, and other parks, except the western edge of the park to the east, close to the shore- Ardmore Beach, are small and overcrowded. Pedestrian line, and the park base is generous once again. The con- access from the community and the rapid transit line is tinuous strip of beach north of Fullerton is susceptible to convenient, but auto access to the lakefront in this area is extreme erosion problems. Because the Drive is located very limited. along the eastern edge of the park, the park and community are effectively joined, and the park user has a wide range The northernmost section of Lincoln Park, between Holly- of easily accessible recreational activities from which to wood and Montrose avenues, was developed over 30 years choose. However, an inadequate park base exists east of between 1925 and 1955. Generally, the area north of Lake Shore Drive between Fullerton and North avenues. Foster Avenue should have improved landscaping and The current lack of adequate public transit service to and better organization of activities in the park. Pedestrian into the Park east of the Drive, particularly in relation to access to the park areas east of Lake Shore Drive is a problem common to all of this section of Lincoln Park. North Avenue Beach, is another area of concern. Though Pedestrian tunnels and vehicular routes are ade- quate in total number, they need to be made more attractive and safer to use. Within the eastern park space, roadways and parking areas are numerous and often act as visual and physical barriers. V v IN tl. Severe Erosion V'V k t, [email protected] 4 4, vi t M-W44 4. It VIM 4'41 W 4V @10, [email protected] U 1 0 4 4, We -k @'A % i. -:", 4A rh A, 6 -1 J 4 - WAA if, 1: T [email protected]'@fn 7-/ r 4 - J'@ EY [email protected] ?5, [email protected] y: r v t> eation Buildin V, v 17 v Belmont Harbor ,Z A arbor Diversey H JL k J 0 v 'P, Py, [email protected] @[email protected] "P 8! 4 -,sc: AV, Central Sector. The Central Sector extends from North facade along Grant Park has a unique and special relation- Avenue to 26th Street. The area from North Avenue to ship to the park. As Lake Shore Drive passes through Ontario Street is characterized by the dramatic proximity of Grant Park it becomes a collector- distributor for Loop- high-rise development to Lake Michigan. Oak Street Beach related traffic. The formal image of Grant Park is created by is the main lakefront activity focus in this area. North and its gardens and Buckingham Fountain. south of this beach lies a seawall which provides for Peclestrain and bicycle movement as well as for deep water The area from Roosevelt Road to the Stevenson Expressway swimming. The views here are extraordinary, but access to is the most intensively developed portion of the lakefront the public spaces along the Lake is inadequate in capacity and contains the Field Museum of Natural History, the and design. The Central Water Filtration Plant is land- Adler Planetarium, the Shedd Aquarium, Soldier Field, scaped and has a park setting with Olive Park on its Meigs Field, McCormick Place, 1 2th Street Beach, Burnham west side. Harbor, a promontory with one of the most famous views The area from Ontario to Randolph streets contains pre- of the lakefront, a yacht club with marina facilities, four dominantly non-residential uses-transportation, industry, large parking areas, and a wide stretch of railroad facilities business and commerce, and port facilities. The port func- that separate the community zone from the park zone. tion of Navy Pier is economically significant and an impor- Recent landfill along the shore at McCormick Place has tant highly visible recreational and educational experience. provided continuous public pedestrian and bicycle access This area can be expected to undergo vast change in the along the shoreline. near future. Although this area includes a park, gymna- sium facilities and an exhibition hall at Navy Pier, it lacks park continuity and adequate pecloitrian access. The area from Randolph Street to Roosevelt Road con- tains Qrant Park, the renowned front yard of Chicago. The Grant park area offers a world famous view of open water and the city skyline. It also contains major parking areas both underground and at grade. The Michigan Avenue -0 or, e _4 \Chess Pavilion Cil /o/ Monroe Harbor WAA jo ry Q Ilk r C6, 0 Irk J I Ar I k f South Sector. The South Sector extends from 2 6th to 71 st District field house, a childrens' hospital, recreation space Streets and contains most of Burnham Park, Jackson Park for a high school, and a series of roadways connecting with and the privately owned South Shore County Club. the southern end of Lake Shore Drive. Many of the areas In the Burnham Park portion, generally between 26th and and facilities within Jackson Park are in need of increased maintenance, and the basic configuration, ecology and use 55th Streets, the park zone is narrow, except for the prd- of the water features in this park should be thoroughly montory at 54th Street, and there is limited community analyzed prior to any great modifications in the classical access. Occasional very long pedestrian overpasses bridg- Olmsted design. The 57th Street intersection with Lake ing the Illinois Central and Lake Shore Drive alignments Shore Drive is a major point oftraffic congestion and should provide some linking of the park to the communities. be redesigned. To establish a harmonious relationship Lakeshore Drive through Burnham Park is divided but between the roadway and the park areas and to facilitate lightly landscaped in the median strip. Erosion problems traffic flow through the parks, Lake Shore Drive should along the Burnham Park shoreline are severe. The Park be carefully redesigned. base west of the Drive from slightly north of 47th Street to Jackson Park is used as local park space. The remainder of the South sector between 67th and 71 st Between 55th and 67th streets, the park base east of Lake Streets is a privately owned golf and country club of about Shore Drive is generally narrow and suffers from erosion at 58 acres. The initial steps have been taken to acquire this the shoreline. Pedestrian access across the Drive and along property for park use. This site contains a beach, a 9 hole the lakefront is inadequate and discontinuous. Beginning golf course, multiple buildings, stables and a variety of at 55th and extending to 67th Street, Jackson Park extends outdoor facilities. westward from the Lake to Stony Island Avenue to provide a spacious park area. Jackson Park contains a considerable mixture of regional and local facilities and uses. The Museum of Science and Industry, two beaches, a beach house, a golf course, three harbors, a yacht club, a coast guard station, several lagoons and a wooded island, a Park V ',7 17 V Jaw Area Se,4ere FTOSkon V "We 17 '7 V V v V 7 '7 Ole e CO Far South Sector. This sector includes the area from 71st In addition to the lack of complete recreational shoreline Street to the Illinois- Indiana state line and contains Rainbow development, this southern reach of the Chicago lakefront Beach and Calumet Park. From 71st to 75th street, the suffers from industrial pollution from both Illinois and shoreline area is privately owned and interrupts park con- Indiana sources. South of the Calumet River, a tract of tinuity. The area from 75th street to 79th street contains largely vacant land extends to Calumet Park. South of Rainbow Beach Park and the South Filtration Plant. Calumet Park to the State line there is a narrow band of From 79th street to the Calumet River, lakefront park con- privately-owned lakeshore. tinuity is broken by heavy industry along the shoreline and Calumet Park, built mostly on landfill around the turn of by the Calumet River entrance. The Calumet River is of the century, has substantial recreational facilities and an major economic significance, providing water access to adequate park base. Closing of the beach is necessary from heavy industry along its banks, access to Lake Calumet time to time due to dangerous pollution conditions. Harbor, and a major connection to the Illinois- Mississippi river system. Filtration Plant In August the city stages a week-long Lakefront Festival featuring water sports, thrill-shows, and a regatta. The show attracts thousands of spectators to the lakeshore. IR [email protected] WON.W"W Zama= W V 33 Plan Proposals The illustrative plan does not represent a final plan, nor does it cover all the possible means of attaining an enhanced and ex- panded lakefront. It is the purpose of the following section to focus on planning recommendations. The following proposals illustrate, by sec- tor, the broad range of potential lakefront improvements. Within this range are many alternatives, from modest additions and im- provements to the existing lakeshore parks to several miles of island and sheltered water development and very substantial additions to the parks. These alternatives will be evaluated in the detailed planning and programming process outlined in Chapter IV of this report. What will be possible and feasible over the long run depends on many factors, includ- ing financing, technical knowledge, and opportunity. Therefore, it is important that immediate and middle-range improvement projects be carried forward in a manner that does not foreclose long range pos- sibilities. 34 North Sector and an activity cluster could be located in Loyola Park to From Montrose Avenue to Belmont Avenue, improved location of activi Planning Guidelines for this sector: take advantage of that park's existing facilities and its pedestrian access to the park is a major concern. The North Avenue. enlarged beach and its high accessibility. existing recreational facilities near Addision Street could lagoon and Lake Complete public ownership of riparian right. Between Hollywood and Montrose avenues, community become the nucleus for an activity cluster, and this cluster A series of off- Design the Lake edge to overcome erosion. linkages to the lakefroni and the organization of recreational could be better linked to the community by improving the water zone of th play spaces would receive major attention. An activity existing passageway under Lake Shore Drive. Similarly, approximately a Expand existing lakeshore parks through landfill and beach cluster could be located east of Lake Shore Drive in the improved existing underpasses at Buena Avenue and extend from the enlargements. Hollywood Avenue vicinity and locations for local neigh- Roscoe Street would result in more attractive and inviting Park Road. Tw Create stronger links between community areas and the borhood play areas within the lakeshore park to the west means of park access for the pedestrian. Existing path accommodated, lakeshore parks. of Lake Shore Drive could be accommodated in direct systems would be improved to provide greater safety for Montrose avenu relation to the communities. A riding stable is recommended pedestrians, cyclists, and equestrians. could aid in linki Develop local recreational activities west of Lake Shore for a park location accessible from Montrose and Lawrence The historically most significant parts of Lincoln Park' might also come Drive. avenues, and beaches at Montrose and Foster avenues should be expanded. The two existing pedestrian under- which are located between Belmont and North avenues Place activity clusters to take advantage of existing recrea- passes along Lake Shore Drive between Bryn Mawr and should be preserved and enhanced. The strip of shoreline tional facilities and activities and to create new areas of Lawrence avenues should be improved. Ultimately, the and beach to the east of the Drive is extremely narrow and opportunity. Wilson Avenue-Lake Shore Drive underpass should be subject to severe erosion problems. It is proposed that the Development Potential. One of the most immediate lake- converted to pedestrian use only and the traffic interchange recreational opportunities along the shoreline in this area front needs in this sector is to complete acquisition of the should be removed. be expanded through landfill, enlarged beaches, and the remaining private riparian rights between the city limits The reduction of secondary park roads and the elimination and Hollywood Avenue. Following this acquisition, an of through vehicular traffic are proposed in this section of d through expanded lakeshore park base can be create Lincoln Park to create more continuous landscaped areas landfill that would result in a continuous public shoreline ...t: and safer pedestrian access. Attention to improved land- south from the city limits to the northern portion of Lincoln scaping details north of Foster Avenue would improve the Marina Park and at the same time would contribute to the solution attractiveness of the area. of the erosion problem. Bicycle and bridle paths and 'tv pedestrian walkways could be accommodated on this new and expanded park land. Extensive enlargements of beach areas should occur between Pratt and Hollywood avenues, V VIZ. WK. 3- 4i -3, 71- t r % -0 Vt W WO -zr, tt i'vig 01 F -%oot. to to Belmont Harbor Diversey Harbor jf 46. is s t e 4-i ell, 0 Central Sector ments should be further developed. While maintaining the The Monroe Street parking lot will be rebuilt as an under- Soldier Field a Planning Guidelines for this sector: shipping activities at Navy Pier, a portion of the remaining ground facility and decked over to provide landscaped major activity structure should be developed as an activity cluster with a open space. The eventual extension of this landscaped setting of each Improve community access to the lakefront. distinct water orientation. This site would provide an deck westward over the depressed railroad could create of the facilities exceptional location for a national museum related to the new park land and pedestrian access from Michigan major generato Preserve the dramatic relationship between high-rise build- Great Lakes and transportation. The rental of small boats, Avenue eastward to the Lake. Ultimately, all of the de- parking facilitie ing masses and the open expanse of Lake. pressed railroad right-of-way in Grant Park should be patible with the the docking of excursion vessels, and a mooring place for decked over. Provide for improved circulation along the lakefront. boats of visitors to the Pier could be accommodated. Any reclevelopn Expand the park base through landfill. In the future, construction that may have serious impact on tween 11 th PI The realignment of Lake Shore Drive between the Chicago the character of the park or that might dramatically change dominantly resi Develop recreational potentials in the vicinity of the River and Randolph Street will provide opportunities to the skyline should be carefully evaluated, and design Roosevelt Roa Chicago River entrance. expand the lakeshore park. A 100 acre landfid park develop- changes should be required where necessary to minimize eastern or lak ment is proposed here which would provide a wide range any undesirable results. Pedestrian passageways from the pedestrian and Enhance the setting of the Burnham Park complex. or recreational uses. This landfill should be shaped to in- proposed downtown and distributor subway systems to the lakeshore p clude a new harbor. Monroe Street harbor should be Grant Park could provide greater access to the Park from The one-and-o Maintain and enhance the existing character of Grant Park. improved to insure greater protection and easier access to the adjacent urban edge. and east of its Retain the distributor function of Lake Shore Drive in the parking facilities. of a portion of t Central Sector. The existing quality and character of Grant Park will be The cultural complex south of Roosevelt Road should be could provide preserved and enhanced. Grant Park particularly and parts maintained and improved so it will continue to be the adding a two m Development Potential. Park and beach expansion could of other parks, buildings and monuments closely related to superlative cultural center that it is today. Meigs Field and Cermak Ro be provided by landfill from North Avenue to Oak Street, the lakefront should be designated by national, state and should be made more park-like in character, and its setting could be create and the promenade from Oak Street to Ohio Street should local governments as places of historic and cultural im- could be enhanced through limited landfill and landscaping be improved. Pedestrian access to these shoreline develop- portance. around the east and south sides of the airfield. Activity Cluster Marina Zz 'A Marina - [email protected] V of Monroe Harbor r it :d 0 A" 41 90, South Sector General improvement in community-oriented park space Planning Guidelines for this sector: should be made along the west side of Jackson Park. The natural qualities of Wooded Island and its environs should Expand the park base and create new beach areas. be maintained and upgraded. Roadway alignments in Provide improved pedestrian connections from the com- Jackson Park south of 63rd Street should be studied further. munities to the lakeshore parks. The proposals for this area should also embrace the recom- Design the lake edge to overcome erosion. mendations contained in the March, 1969 report of the Department of Development and Planning: Jackson Park, Augment local community park space with a series of Burnham Park and South Lake Shore Drive between 47th activity clusters. and 67th Streets. Develop a continuous system of paths for pedestrians, The 58 acre site of the South Shore Country Club between cyclists, and equestrians. 67th and 71ststreets is recommended for public acquisition. Development Potential. While this sector exhibits a nearly The stables could be retained to create an equestrian center continuous public shoreline interrupted only by the South on the southern lakefront, the existing beach area could be Shore Country Club, much of the lakeshore park is narrow enlarged, and the golf course and other active recreational and relatively inaccessible. Lake Shore Drive and the rail- facilities maintained. A thorough study of the most appro- road tracks are often major barriers. priate public reuses of this area should be undertaken. A landfill project encompassing nearly 300 acres is pro- Throughout this entire sector, a system of continuous linear posed between 26th and 54th streets. Nearly three miles of paths for pedestrians, cyclists, and equestrians should be new beach would be created, and existing beaches would completed in the lakeshore park. be replaced. The intensively developed communities to the Several elongated island forms between Cermak Road and west should be provided with improved means of access 791h Street could create a large area of sheltered water to the lakeshore. Broad landscaped land bridges are pro- which would inhibit shoreline erosion and promote more posed at 35th Street and at 43rd Street. The improvement extensive and safer water-oriented activities. at 35th Street should be designed to integrate the historic tomb and monument of Stephen A. Douglas into the Three island groups are illustrated in this sector. The broader park system. northernmost and southernmost of these could have land Three activity clusters accessible from 31 st, 39th and 47th connections at 39th and 75th streets, respectively. The streets should be developed, and vehicular access to the central island could be made accessible only by boat and lakeshore parks at 47th Street should be improved. In con- developed as a natural reserve. Two boat harbors and three new beaches could be provided on the islands. junction with expansion of the park base, full landscaping treatment should be programmed. Improvements in the lakeshore parks between 55th and 67th Streets should emphasize integrated development of the park and the roadway. The roadway alignments north of 63rd Street should not use any existing park land to the west of the present alignment of Lake Shore Drive. Specific improvements could include a land bridge over a depressed Drive at55th Street, improved pedestrian facilities over the Drive in the vicinity of 63rd Street, and shoreline extension to move beaches and paths eastward from their current close proximity to the Drive between 57th and Marina 63rd Streets. @p At* @@ste tef- r MI, a tI IY #to A% U e N lie @W& A % v1L. Cluster V *,j6 Park land can be acquired or developed to assure to future generations a public shoreline extending the length of the city. Landfill for any purpose should be designed to prevent pollution and to be compatible with the forces of the Lake itself. Cooperation with neighboring governments should be estabUsAed to assure steady progress toward improve- ment in the balances of uses. Between 71 st and 75th streets, it is recommended that the ripar ian rights be publicly acquired. This shoreline and the Far South Sector one immediately south of Rainbow Park could be expanded Planning Guidelines for this sector: by 100 acres of landfill which would accommodate nearly one-half mile of new beaches. An activity cluster is pro- Encourage coordinated lakefront planning among neigh- posed in Rainbow Park at 79th Street, and access to nearby boring governments. islands could be provided between 71st and 75th streets. Complete public ownership of riparian rights and acquire The park extension illustrated south of Rainbow Park could portions of lakefront properties for lakeshore park devel- occur in conjunction with industrial landfill I and could opment. offer an unusual lakeshore park strip in an industrial and Improve community access to the lakeshore parks. commercial shipping setting. Require all new landfill to be in accord with erosion and Between the Calumet River and Calumet Park, approxi- pollution controls. mately 30 acres of existing lakefront property together with 30 acres of landfill could provide a major extension of Insure compatibility among park, industrial and port func- the park. tions. Development opportunities in Calumet Park include the Development Potential. The southernmost sector of the expansion of and improvements to beaches and cycle and lakefront is complicated by competing essential uses: pedestrian paths and the provision of an activity cluster in industrIal, port and recreational. The importance of Calumet conjunction with the existing fieldhouse. The privately Harbor in the regional and national economy is clearly owned property immediately south of Calumet Park should recognized. At the same time, air and water quality must be be acquired for the development of the south end of maintained and improved. the park. CO 40 co 0) Summary of Proposals water would increase substantially the number of days annually when these,activ- ities could be safely enjoyed. Balanced Facility and Activity Develop- ment. Improvement to existing facilities arid recreational and cultural programs, their expansion or modification, and the development of new facilities and activities should provide a balance between local, citywide and regional use of the lakefront. They should also provide a balance in the variety of activities to accommodate a broad range of ways in which people en- joy the lakefront. And finally, special atten- tion should be given to a balance between the demands and needs of the general public and the special needs of particular groups such as the elderly and the handi- capped. To increase utilization of the parks and to retain their open character, a series of major activity clusters would be located near major mile streets. Some new lakeshore park lands should The Lakefront Plan of Chicago offers four be devoted solely to wildlife refuges, and major types of proposals for the preserva- existing natural areas should be improved. tion and improvement of Chicago's lake- front: park expansion and erosion control; Access and Circulation Improvements. balanced facility and activity development, Lake Shore Drive should be maintained at access and circulation improvements; basic parkway standards. In certain areas, in- services and controls. Although the pre- cluding the Central Sector and Jackson ceding maps illustrate potential lakefront Park, major improvements to the Drive development, many alternative approaches should be undertaken. The Drive should not are available for the development of almost be extended beyond its current northern any improvement, and a thorough study and southern limits. should precede each major stage of lake- Pedestrian, bicycle and vehicular traffic front development. should be separated. Improved access by Expansion of the Park Base and Control of public transportation and both the 'im- Erosion. The remaining privately owned provement of existing pedestrian passage- riparian rights and certain privately owned ways and the development of new ones lakefront properties should be acquired to over and under Lake Shore Drive and the further the development of continuous railroad right-of-way between Roosevelt public access and public park space along Road and 47th Street are fundamental the lakefront. among the Plan proposals. Landfill for both park base expansion and Basic Services and Controls. The full use erosion control could take the form of and enjoyment of the lakefront and its shoreline modifications and extensions, facilities and activities are almost wholly breakwaters and island development, and dependent on adequate maintenance, effi_ could double the amount of park space at cient management and operation of facilities the lakefront. Island and breakwater devel- and activities, coordination of development opment could create significant areas of and adequate safety and security. Ade- sheltered water which would help control quate provision for these functions should erosion and accommodate additional facil- be a fundamental part of every develop- ities for swimming and boating. Sheltered ment proposal. 35 IV. REALIZING THE PLAN Planning and Implementation Fiscal Policy Continuing Studies Program Development The basic policies for Chicago's lakefront are guidelines for the formulation of plans and programs, All lakefront improvement proposals and activity programs should be formulated within this framework. The Lakefront Plan of Chicago does not set definite priorities for specific projects since this can only be done in cooperation with the implementing agencies and after re- lated essential studies have been made and the public has had the opportunity to fully consider the proposals. The strategy of program development re- quires an overall coordinated program ap- proach, rather than implementation on a project by project basis, in order to assure the proper timing, location and sequence of each improvement and activity proposal. The Lakefront Plan is based upon factual information, professional judgment and policy examinations to assure its realism and significance. However, specific prob- lems and proposals will require detailed study, planning and refinement in order to properly evaluate them and to determine the most appropriate direction to take in the development of the lakefront Implementation of the Lakefront Plan re- quires intergovernmental cooperation and assistance at all levels. A comprehensive approach as advocated in the plan must be undertaken in order to carry out even minimal plan objectives. Improvement and activity program costs should be equitably shared among the responsible govern- ments. 36 Planning and Implementation The realization of the Lakefront Plan re- quires the establishment of a process which will produce the necessary commitments to coordinate and guide future develop- ment. The process would include the fol- lowing organized activities: -Adoption of lakefront policies -Continuing studies, analysis, monitoring and evaluation -Programming public improvements -Citizen participation -Guiding development. Adoption of Lakefront Policies will provide the fundamental guidelines for decisions regarding the propriety, timeliness, scale and order of all public or private develop- Rowing in the lagoons is one of the more popular user-fee ment proposals. They serve as the basic activities in Lincoln Park. reference point for planners, developers, public bodies, community groups, private interest groups, and others concerned with A maintenance and future development of V the lakefront. Those policies, with detailed criteria, will be used in determining whether or not spe- cific lakefront development proposals are desirable. P7 % Continuing Studies, Analysis, Monitoring and Evaluation should provide records of performance and effectiveness for the en- I tire process and provide the basic data for J, refining and updating the Lakefront Plan. Periodic reports on the status of the Lake- front Plan should be shared with all inter- ested parties-public and private. Programming Public Improvements in- volves the identification and evaluation of all recommendations for the purpose of se- lecting specific projects for implementation. As the Lakefront Plan is further studied ......... and refined, these development proposals will then be incorporated into Chicago's Capital Improvements Program. z%, This program relates capital expenditures to a soundly formulated long range plan for needed public improvements within a ca- pacity to finance them on a sound fiscal basis. It also provides a timetable for ac- complishing improvements in existing fa cilities as well as for constructing new facilities. [email protected]_ 77 A technical subcommittee of the Capital J.. @,7 Improvements Program Committee will be 37 established to focus on! lakefront programs. The testing would involve a review of This subcommittee will also interrelate whether each proposal adequately responds activity programming with the capital pro- to a broad range of concerns. For example, gram for the lakefront. does the proposal: Citizen Participation in the future devel- -recognize the need for pedestrian ac- opment of Chicago's Lakefront will be cess to and from the lakefront area at brought into the process in many ways, appropriate locations; both formally and informally. Since the -contribute to a sense of openness and earliest days of the City, citizen activity have minimal impact on vistas to the has con itinuously introduced a valuable lakefront from the adjoining urban perspective into lakefront planning and de- edge; velopment proposals. Individual and group -complement existing or potential de- interests should remain strong and should velopment in the lakeshore park zone be encouraged to participate in future lake- and the water zone; front development. New or expanded con- -have no harmful environmental or eco- trols on lakefront development should logical impact; encourage the participation of individuals and groups concerned with the lakefront. -emphasize the provision of recreational Hearings will be held by [email protected] public space and facilities on-site in private bodies including the Chicago Plan Com- developments so that an extraordinary local use of lakefront park space does mission, the appropriate committees of the not occur; Chicago City Council and the Chicago -include participation of the developers Park District. These hearings will cover: in the provision of public facilities such 1 . the Lakefront Plan itself, as roadways, pedestrian passageways, 2. all changes and revisions to the Lake- utilities, bridges, etc. in those instances front Plan, where a specific development proposal 3. all proposals for development on the would necessitate new facilities. Lakefront, and 4. development control and other pertinent ordinances and legislation. The Museum of Science and Industry borders a lagoon in Guiding Development. The basic responsi- Jackson Park at 67th Street. The present marble structure bility for guiding the lakefront development replaced an architecturally similar plaster structure erected process should be vested with the Lakefront in 1892 for the World's Columbian Exposition. I I - Coordinating Committee which was re- sponsible for developing the Plan. Repre- 4r sentation on this committee would con- tinue to include the General Superintendent of the Chicago Park District, the Mayor's Administrative Officer and the Commis- sloner of Development and Planning. This committee would coordinate planning ef- forts, establish priorities and guide the future development of the lakefront. Basic A staff support for this committee will be pro oil vided by the Department of Development Ing. and Plann' 7 It is also recommended that, through City for testing proposals for development with- 1 J I Ordinance, a formal process be established In a lakefront district against the policies MIMI- - and recommendations of the Lakefront Plan and additional detailed criteria derived from those policies and recommendations. 38 Fiscal Policy other assistance necessary to achieve the objectives and recommendations set forth The key to financing new improvments an.d in this plan. Nongovernmental sources of expanded recreational services as envi- funds and assistance can also play a role sloned in the Lakefront Plan lies In inter- in the development process. governmental cooperation and participa- tion by all concerned public and private The types of assistance to be sought include agencies. technical, advisory, research and special Chicago ranks lowest of all cities over services, as well as funds for planning, de- 500,000 population In terms of ratios of sign, construction, staffing and mainte- its over-all debt to both assessed and full nance and operation. valuation. This enviable position has been Federal interest has been expressed in par- achieved through sound fiscal manage- ticipating in large scale recreational devel- ment. opments and water pollution control meas- The funding of lakefront improvement pro- uires whose scope is of regional or national jects and activities cannot be considered significance. Therefore, the Federal govern- independently of Chicago's other needs. ment should be expected to support a much The demands placed on the property tax higher percentage of lakefront recreational dollar for maintaining other essential public and water quality improvements. services and for financing high priority Ways and means should be devised to take projects in the City's capital program im- advantage of unique opportunities as they pose constraints on local funding options, arise. Events such as the National 1976 Chicago's lakefront facilities and recrea- Bicentennial observance could provide the tional programs serve a major leisure time basis for added permanent cultural and need for the entire metropolitan region. The recreational facilities. major burden for meeting these needs, While the basic principle remains that the however, has been borne by the City of use of lakefront parks and beaches should Chicago and the Chicago Park District. be free for all, consideration should be In order to carry out the Lakefront Plan and given to charging a user fee for certain related essential study efforts, a multiple specialized activities. Other options to be approach to intergovernmental sharing of investigated include public-private agree- costs must be pursued. All levels of govern- ments whereby debt incurred would be ment should be called upon to participate retired by revenues produced by the facility and make available financial resources and or concession operations. Potential Sources of Assistance Federal �Department of Agriculture - Smithsonian Institute �Department of Commerce - Water Resources Council �Department of Defense State and Local �Department of Health, Education & Welfare -State of Illinois �Department of Housing & Urban Development -Cook County Forest Preserve District �Department of Interior -Cook County �Department of Labor -Metropolitan Sanitary District �Department of Transportation -Chicago Park District �Economic Development Administration -Chicago Transit Authority �Environmental Development Administration -City of Chicago �Environmental Protection Agency oPublic Building Commission of Chicago �General Services Administration -Chicago Urban Transportation District -Great Lakes Basin Commission �National Endowment for the Arts Nongovernmental �National Foundation of Arts and Humanities - Professional Organizations �National Science Foundation - Civic and Community Associations �Office of Economic Opportunity - Educational and Cultural Institutions �President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports - Foundations, Individuals, and Corporations 39 Continuing Studies The lakefront plan proposals involve science and technology in a broad range of dis- ciplines. The proposals have been made on the basis of sound study, but, as has been emphasized, the exact designs of island development, shoreline modification and erosion control require specific studies of the natural forces of the Lake, the specific problems unique to Chicago lakefront de- velopment and the relationship of any de- velopment to navigation and shipping. Similar questions arise in connection with how best to finance the improvements and the necessary maintenance that would result. The following studies suggest the areas in which important inquiry should be orga- nized. They are listed under four major types of lakefront improvements. The range of these studies indicates the necessity for organizing a substantial research capability Contests for young people sponsored by the Mayor's as a principal priority in lakefront improve- Reachout Program are a part of the varied summertime ment. activities that take place on the city's beaches. Expansion of the Park Base and Control of Erosion. Studies should focus on: -methods of controlling erosion, ts and methods of acquiring land -Cos and riparian rights, -the potential impact of various en- gineering and design alternatives on the ecology and the natural forces of the lake, -effects of developments on navigation Amu= and shipping, and -methods for minimizing disruption and inconvenience during construction of park improvements. Development and Improvement of a Wide and Balanced Variety of Facilities, Spaces and Activities. Studies should focus on: -location of regional and water oriented ities and facilities, activity clusters @,,@-T WE activ i I I I @j and activities to be provided in each cluster, -the need for and the feasibility of par- ticular user-fee facilities and possible public-private leasing arrangements, -recreational needs and analysis of park 40 usage, -the siting, and accessibility of cultural institutions, -the appropriate redevelopment of Navy Pier and the immediate surrounding area, -historical designations, and -the design of all park improvement elements. Improvement of Access to and Circulation Within the Lakeshore Parks. Studies should focus on: -ways of minimizing the disruption of the park during Lake Shore Drive al- terations, -the parking problems generated by in- tensely used lakeshore park facilities, and -ways of linking the community to the park through landscaped connections with community circulation patterns. Provision of Basic Support Services and Necessary Controls. Studies should focus on: -alternative ways for financing park services and programs, -methods of improving water quality, The popular Chess Pavilion at North Avenue and the Lake -lakefront development control was donated by a prominent local manufacturer. Senior alternatives, citizens and persons preferring less strenuous sportfrequent -methods for maximizing personal the facility. safety, and -maintenance and management procedures. Inventories. Elements requiring ongoing inventory and monitoring include: -detailed mapping of fills, soils, and geology of Lake Michigan; all possible landfill materials and opportunities and the advantages and disadvantages of . . .... . ...... .... ..... each; and beach improvements and erosion problem areas. -indoor, outdoor, seasonal and year round activities and facilities including an up to date survey of area prefer- ences; user fee facilities (existing, newly developed and needed); private facilities offered by them; all landscap- and water quality ing improvements, levels within each lakefront sector. -vehicular and pedestrian problem movements; areas of congestion; all roadway, parking and associated im- provements, accident and other prob- lem generators. 41 ------ Program Development Existing Parkland Program development is a process which Landfill Additions w identifies a broad range of improvement objectives, relates them to each other in a schedule and provides an approximate measure of costs. The development process is dependent upon a number of variables which must be broadly viewed in terms of short and longer range planning objectives. Development program elements in each sector of the lakefront should be coordl- nated to maximize positive impact on ad- j.acent communities. This will call for special sensitivity in coordinating the various types of improvements relating to accessibility. B A Some activities can be accomplished over a relatively short period of time, such as: acquisition of certain properties and riparian rights, protection from erosion, provision of Alternative Development Approaches shoreline extension, breakwater construc- The Lakefront Plan focuses on one out of many possible tions, upgrading and expanding park facill- approaches to lakefront development. Three examples of basic alternative development approaches [email protected] ties, and some improvements along seg- ments of Lake Shore Drive. Activities con- Alternative A expands the park base through shoreline cerned with construction of islands and re- extension. This landfill would complete a continuous public shoreline, add new parkland and strengthen the shoreline lated facilities will take longer to complete to withstand erosion. and are subject to greater uncertainties. Alternative B includes breakwater construction and shore- line extension and creates sheltered water areas which in- An important resource considered in for- crease shore protection and provide opportunities for small mulating the program is the landfill material boating, swimming and fishing, that will become available from construc- Alternative C includes the development of islands as well tion of the "deep tunnel" flood control as shoreline extension. This approach provides an extensive project of the Metropolitan Sanitary Dis- amount of new off-shore parkland, creates additional areas of sheltered water and provides further shoreline protection. trict and from the central area subway A sound and realistic lakefront development program will project. These projects will provide exten- apply these alternative approaches to each lakefront area C sive quantities of excavation materials suit- according to the needs of that area and the opportunities for development there. able for *shoreline extension and for the construction of islands. If this unique op- portunity is to be captured, it is essential to schedule and provide the containment bulkheads well in advance to receive the landfill material as it becomes available. The strategy for park development calls for a logical order of projects. The exact order Landfill Opportunities (10 Year Period) in which they are to be initiated depends Potential on what various studies may recommend Fill Available Potential and on practical considerations such as the Programs Cubic Yards Acres availability of funds and fill material. It is Chicago Urban Transportation District necessary to be alert to projects that have * Distributor Subway 1,500,000 15- 30 multiple benefits, such as landfill that 9 Loop Subway 3,000,000 40- 60 prevents erosion and adds to park space Metropolitan Sanitary District while creating sheltered water and provid- 9 Underflow Plan 45,000,000 700- 900 1 ing the basis for future island development. Other Sources to be Considered 18,000,000 300- 400 All proposals should be carefully evaluated to interfere as little as possible with the TOTAL ... 67,500,000 1,055-1,390 continuous full use of the parks. 42 Development Objectives Short Range Goals Middle & Long Range Goals Total Existing Program Description Units Units Units Added Facilities Park Expansion & Shoreline Protection � Acquisition: South Shore Country Club 58 Acres 58 Acres Scattered Sites 40 Acres 40 Acres Riparian Right 15,000 Feet - 15,000 Feet � Breakwater Construction 8-10 Miles 6-8 Miles 14-18 Miles 6.2 Miles � Lakeshore Extension & Islands 800-1,400 Acres 1,600-2,200 Acres 2,400-3,000 Acres 2,945 Acres Sheltered Water 2,000 Acres 4,000 Acres 6,000 Acres 1,270 Acres Park Oriented Facilities � Develop Activity Clusters, Picnic Areas, Tennis Courts, Ball Fields, Bicycle Paths, & General Park Improvements & Upgrading, Etc. Continuous Service and Facility Improvements - � Construct Horse Stable, Ring & Bridle Paths 1 Stable 1 Stable -0- � Construct Community Oriented Recreational Facilities 8 - 8 21 Water Oriented Facilities � Improve and Expand Harbors 750 Mooring Spaces 250 Mooring Spaces 1,000 Mooring Spaces � Construct New On-Shore Harbor 750 Mooring Spaces 250 Mooring Spaces 1,000 Mooring Spaces 2,500 Mooring Spaces � Construct Off-Shore Harbors in Connection with Land Forms 500 Mooring Spaces 2,500 Mooring Spaces 3,000 Mooring Spaces � Construct Boat Launching Ramps 6 Launching Ramps 3Launching Ramps 9Launching Ramps 9 Launching Ramps � Develop Boat Rental and Charter Facilities 2 Boat Rental 2Boat Rental 4Boat Rental 1 Boat Rental Beaches � Replacement & Expansion of Existing Beaches 3 Miles 2Miles 5 Miles 5.3 Miles Sand Beaches and 1.4 Miles Paved Swimming � Develop New Beaches 4 Miles 6Miles 10 Miles Areas Accessibility Improvements � Construct Land Bridges over Lake Shore Drive 2 Land Bridges 2Land Bridges 4 Land Bridges -0- � Pedestrian Bridges (New & Improved) 10 Pedestrian Bridges 10 Pedestrian Bridges 11 Pedestrian Bridges � Public Transportation (Extension of Bus Lines, Mini-Buses, Etc.) Continuous Service and Facility improvements � Develop Park Mall Links between Lakeshore Parks and Adjacent Communities Development � Develop Chicago River Bank Esplanade East of Michigan Avenue Development Navy Pier-Develop for Recreational Use Development Underground Parking Garages 3,700 Spaces 1,100 Spaces 4,800 Spaces 5,671 Spaces Lake Shore Drive � Improvements at Various Locations 5.5 Miles - 5.5 Miles � Randolph St.-Michigan Ave. to Lake Shore Drive 0.5 Miles - 0.5 Miles � Wacker Dr. Extension- Beaubien Ct. to Lake Shore Drive 0.5 Miles - 0.5 Miles � Columbus Drive, Monroe St. to Ontario St. 0.9 Miles - 0.9 Miles 43 V. LAKEFRONT DEVELOPMENT CONTROL Historic Perspective Existing Control Mechanisms Proposed Lakefront Development Controls A major issue affecting the future of Chi- cago's Lakefront focuses on guiding and controlling public and private development at and in proximity to the Lakefront. New municipal legislation and the augmentation of existing legislation are recommended. The responsibility for the control of'Lake- front areas in the region should rest with local government, with the Federal and state governments being prepared to sup- port local efforts. 44 Historic Perspective In the 1 830's the Commissioners of the Illinois and Michigan Canal designated the 1E:111 I area east of Michigan Avenue from Madi- F-1 son Street to 11 th Place as open ground on which there was to be no building, And lp"EtORIVIE I Or E emi A 197 ft"11109 I A R 1 R7 197 the Federal government designated a por- I F7 [email protected] E:1 tion of old Fort Dearborn, that part bound- F-1 F] ed by Michigan Avenue, Randolph Street, Lake Michigan and Madison Street, as F-1 F-1 cl I % public ground which was not to be occu- I F-1 Flt' I pied by buildings. Both of these areas be- i came Lake Park which later became part of Grant Park. hi, ZZ 24 In 1852 the City passed an ordinance grant- Zj, ing a right-of-way to the Illinois Central 0 FA." Railroad east of Michigan Avenue between Randolph Street and Roosevelt Road an d -1 F-1 0 requiring the Railroad to construct break- 131 J. waters in an attempt to protect the shore- line from erosion between those two streets. Rand h treet awl In 1869 the Illinois Legislature passed a Chicago Harbor Area, 1870 bill known as the "Lakefront Act," which Is ided for the acquisition by the Illinoi prov 11 t '3 Central and other railroads of that part of Lake Park north of Monroe Street from the Chicago Harbor Area, 1972 city, granted to the Railroad ownership of all submerged lands for a distance of one mile into Lake Michigan, and authorized the City Council of Chicago to provide necessary local ordinances and to accept payment for the above-mentioned acquisi- tion of Lake Park land. The City Comp- troller refused to accept the first payment for the acquisition of Lake Park land, thereby repudiating the privilege granted by the Legislature and refusing to accept the act as binding on the City. Subse- quently, the Supreme Court of the United States denied the right bf the Legislature to make the extensive grant of submerged land to the -Railroads and further denied the right of the Legislature to deny previously adjudicated rights to property owners abut- ting Lake Park on the west. The legislature repealed the Act in 1873. Between 1890 and 1911, through a series of four court actions, A. Montgomery Ward, a prominent businessman, estab- lished the rights of property own 'ers on the west side of Michigan Avenue between Randolph Street and 11 th Place to an open and unrestricted view of the park lands 45 and the lake to the east of Michigan Ave- nue. These court actions remain in effect today and are popularly known as the Montgomery Ward decisions. The 1909 Plan of Chicago established a model for much of the city planning of the Twentieth Century. The plan also estab- lished principles and designs which were the basis for much of the subsequent de- velopment of the lakefront. In 1919, the City of Chicago, the South Park Commissioners and the Illinois Cen- tral Railroad entered into a contractual agreement known as the Lakefront Ordi- The Theatre- on -the- Lake at Fullerton is one of the most nance to create land through landfill and to popular attractions in Lincoln Park. For a small admission control immediate and future development price theatre goers can see popular shows I ike Ofivel- while of the lakefront area between the Chicago enjoying the cool lake breezes. River and 67th Street. 40 This ordinance defined the concept of a do Lakefront which included private areas as well as public areas and established the first public controls on private development in the vicinity of the Lakefront. In 1923 a city-wide zoning ordinance was adopted by the City of Chicago and has been periodically revised since then. All of the public and most of the private portions of the Lakefront are now zoned for residen- tial development, a basic control that has kept much noxious development away from the open spaces. In 1929 the Lakefront Ordinance was amended to authorize the subdivision of the Illinois Central Railroad's Randolph Terminal properties with a grid street pat- tern. The Railroad was encouraged to "im- prove, utilize and develop this real estate for non-railroad uses." In 1966 the Illinois Supreme Court resolved certain issues over ownership of the air rights above the Illinois Central's properties. "boo- The Railroad proceeded with plans to de- velop those air rights north of Randolph f Street. In 1968, the City of Chicago issued guidelines for the development of the Randolph Terminal Air Rights properties, . . . . . . . . . . and in 1969 an amendment to the Lake- front Ordinance and a Planned Develop- ment Ordinance which stipulated the basic character and responsibilities for develop- ment of the Randolph Terminal properties were approved. 46 Existing Control Mechanisms Past actions aimed at guiding and control- ling the development of theLakefronthave been effective, but they have been applied only to certain areas and selected issues. For example, the Montgomery Ward deci- sions and the Lakefront Ordinance apply to only portions of the lakefront. All public improvements and development proposals at the Lakefront are reviewed by the Chicago Plan Commission under the Inter Agency Planning Referral Act, but this review is only advisory. Lakefront de- velopment proposals, both public and pri- Grant Park is the locus for many of the Chicago Park vate, are reviewed by the Zoning Admin- District musical events. Square dances are held near the istrator under the provisions of the Chicago symphony band shell at the southern end of the park. Zoning Ordinance. However, these city wide controls do not adequately recognize the unique nature of the Lakefront area and are of limited value in guiding and con- trolling the development of the Lakefront. ... Proposed Lakefront Development Controls A Lake Michigan and Chicago Lakefront Protection Ordinance is proposed to estab lish procedures whereby designs and de- velopment proposals for physical changes to real property would be reviewed within the context of established goals, objectives, principles and policies for the Lakefront. This approach to control of development is based on the recognition of the Lakefront as a special place, a unique resource for the people of the city and the region re- N quiring special protection. This is related to the Home Rule powers of the city and is also readily seen in the powers granted by Sections 11-48.2-1-7 of the Illinois Mu- nicipal Code, which Sections refer to the "Preservation of Historical and Other Spe- cial Areas." Particular reference is made therein to the power municipalities shall have to designate areas or places having special community or aesthetic value and *4 "to impose regulations governing con- struct on, alteration, demolition and use, and to adopt other additional measures ap- propriate for their preservation, protection, enhancement, rehabilitation, reconstruc- tion, perpetuation or use .... he proposed Lakefront Protection Ordi- nance would control development at Chi- cago s Lakefront by regulating the issuance of building permits and the acquisition 47 and disposition of property within a Lake- greatest in areas that are in close proximity front Protection District. The Lake Michi- to the Lakefront; however it would be inap- gan and Chicago Lakefront Protection propriate to attempt to respond to all of District would consist of three zones: the these concerns through a Lakefront Protec- Off-Shore Zone, the Public Use Zone, and tion Ordinance. A separate regulatory con- the Private Use Zone. The Off-Shore Zone trol concerning community environmental would include the waters of Lake Michi- quality is also proposed. A Lakefront Pro- gan in the State of Illinois which lie south tection Ordinance and additional legisla- of the north city limits. The Public Use tion related to community environmental Zone includes all public lands and facilities impact, reinforcing and complementing ex- at the Lakefront- parks, roads, schools, isting codes and regulations, should serve street-end beaches, filtration plants, etc. to ensure the highest quality environment The Private Use Zone extends landward on the lakefront and adjoining communities, from the Public Use Zone. As the Lakefront Protection Ordinance is currently drafted, the Chicago Plan Com- mission is the central administrating body. Private and public interests alike would submit plans, designs and proposals for physical changes to the Plan Commission for review within the context of an official Lakefront Plan. The Plan Commission would determine whether or not the pro- posal, design or plan conforms to the lake- front policies and would approve or dis- approve of the plan, design or proposal. All building permit applications would be conveyed to the Plan Commission for re- view and approval. Any public agency pro- posals for acquiring or disposing of land would be similarly conveyed to the Plan Commission. The Plan Commission would schedule public hearings on each permit application or proposal. The Commissioner of Development and Planning would con- vey his recommendations, those of the Commissioner of Environmental Control and any others, to the Plan Commission. It is anticipated that this ordinance would have the effect of encouraging develop- ment in accord with the principles and recommendations of the Lakefront Plan. In the examination of the community zone it is clear that concerns for the community environment are only partly based in a rela- tionship with the Lakefront and its parks. The community impact of developments whether measured in terms of population density, traffic intensity, effect on local schools and parks, ordemand on utilities pre- sents a set of questions which may require new methods of evaluation and control. This environmental concern is frequently 48 Signif icant Events in the History of Chicago's Lakef ront 1830 Commissioners of the Illinois and Michigan Canal Company designated the 1916 Construction of Navy Pier. area east of Michigan Avenue between Monroe Street and 11 th Place as open space. 1919 Lakefront Ordinance -agreement on Lakefront development, Chicago River to 47th Street, among the City, the South Park Commission, and the Illinois 1839 United States Government subdivided the lands of Fort Dearborn and Central Railroad. designated the area east of Michigan Avenue between Randolph and Monroe Streets as open and clear of buildings. 1910- Development of Lincoln Park-Fullerton Avenue to Addison Street. 1920 1847 City of Chicago officially designated the space extending 400 feet east of Michigan Avenue between Randolph Street and 11 th Place as "Lake Park". 1920- Development of Lincoln Park-Addison Street to Foster Avenue. 1930 Development of Burnham Park and Northerly Island- Roosevelt Road to 1862 Illinois Central Railroad granted a right-of-way east of Michigan Avenue Jackson Park. and extending from Randolph Street to 11 th Place. 1923 Citywide zoning ordinance established. 1860's Construction by the Illinois Central Railroad of trestle and terminal facilities 1924 Soldier Field completed. for railroad operations and breakwaters for shoreline protection. 1926 Construction of Shedd Aquarium. 1866 Underground sewer system installed throughout the city; streets were raised and the sewer system connected to the River. 1928 Construction of Adler Planetarium. 1860- Water intake cribs were constructed two miles offshore. 1929 Randolph Terminal Amendment to the 1919 Lakefront Ordinance. 1870 The Illinois and Michigan Canal was redredged to reverse the flow of the Chicago and Calumet Rivers so that sewage emptied into the River flowed 1930- Development of Rainbow Beach-73rd Street to 79th Street. away from Lake. 1940 1864 Lincoln Park was established and the city cemetery was relocated. 1931 Present Chicago Historical Society building constructed. 1869 The State Legislature established three independent park Commissions- 1933 Century of Progress World's Fair in Burnham Park. the south, west and north districts. 1934 Consolidation of South, West and North Park Commissions into the Chicago 1869 The State Legislature, in the "Lakefront Act," granted rights to Illinois Central Park District. Railroad to acquire part of Lake Park and the submerged lands one mile into Lake Michigan from its right-of-way on the lakefront. 1937 Centennial Bridge on Outer Drive at Chicago River dedicated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. 1871 The Great Fire. 1946 Preliminary Comprehensive City Plan of Chicago published. 1873 The State Legislature repealed the 1869 grant to the I.C.R.R. following litigation. 1947 Meigs Field constructed on Northerly Island. 1874 Calumet Harbor was developed as a heavy industry area and bulk port facility. 1947 South Water Filtration Plant at 76th Street completed. 1874 Jackson Park, the Midway and Washington Park were designed by Fredrick 1950- Development of Lincoln Park-Foster Avenue to Hollywood Avenue. Law Olmsted, and Washington Park was developed. 1960 1889 The Metropolitan Sanitary District was established for the purpose of 1960 Original McCormick Place completed. ensuring the quality of the Lake Michigan drinking water supply. 1964 Central Water Filtration Plant at Ohio Street completed. 1890 A. Montgomery Ward began litigation to establish open character of Grant Park. 1964 Basic Policies for the Comprehensive Plan published. 1892 Construction of the Art Institute. 1966 Comprehensive Plan of Chicago published. 1893 Columbian Exposition and World's Fair: the Midway and Jackson Park 1966 Illinois Supreme Court determined issues of Illinois Central Railroad owner- completed. The Fine Arts building later became the Museum of Science and ship at Randolph Terminal properties. Industry. 1967 Original McCormick Place destroyed by fire. 1893 Academy of Science (Matthew Laflin Memorial Building) was built. 1968 Guidelinesfor development of the Randolph Terminal railroad area published. 1900 Sanitary and Ship Canal completed. 1968 City Ordinance passed controlling harbor pollution from pleasure craft. 1904 Interceptor sewer system completed. 1969 1969 Randolph Terminal Amendment to the Lakefront Ordinance and the Randolph Terminal Planned Development Ordinance were approved. 1909 Daniel Burnham's Plan of Chicago. 1969 Harbor Pollution Control Ordinance passed. 1911 Fourth and final "Montgomery Ward Decision" related to the issue of open space rights in Grant Park. 1971 Second McCormick Place completed. 1912 Construction of the Field Museum of Natural History. 1971 Detergent phosphate levels controlled by City Ordinance. 49 Lakefront Coordinating Committee Department of Development Technical Advisors Kenneth W. Sain and Planning John Armstrong Mayor's Administrative Officer City of Chicago Sea Grant Institute Edmund L. Kelly Lewis W. Hill University of Michigan General Superintendent Commissioner William N. Barbaro Chicago Park District Charles P. Livermore Director of Recreation Lewis W. Hill Deputy Commissioner Chicago Park District Commissioner William R. Marston George Barton Department of Development and Planning Deputy Commissioner Barton-Aschman Associates Edward A. Marciniak Deputy Commissioner Miles Berger Lakefront Policy Committee Mid-America Appraisal Edward J. Bedore Jerral T. Ha,per and Research Corporation Budget Director Assistant Commissioner Robert Black for Planning Chief Engineer Professor Lachlan F. Blair George S. Cooley Chicago Park District University of Illinois Dwight S. Scott Richard Huxmann Richard L. Curry Robert E. Hayes Assistant Chief Engineer Corporation Counsel Virginia K. Morin Paul F. Rasmussen Chicago Park District Thomas R. Donovan Mary L. Solomon William Johnson Administrative Assistant Joan V. Franks Johnson, Johnson & Roy to the Mayor Catherine A. Martin John E. Egan Curtis E. Larsen President Martin R. Murphy Lake Michigan Federation Metropolitan Sanitary District Assistant Commissioner Edith McKee for Development Chief Geologist Erwin A. France Dennis A. Harder Theodore S. Leviton & Associates Administrative Assistant Christine M. Brown to the Mayor Carmen Powell Richard Pavia Lewis W. Hill Deputy Commissioner Commissioner Charles C. Sklavanitis Department of Water and Sewers Department of Development and Planning Assistant Commissioner Matthew L. Rockwell for Planning Services Executive Director James W. Jardine Thomas Kapsalis Northeastern Illinois Commissioner Malcolm Wolf Planning Commission Department of Water and Sewers Idah Rosenthal Marshall Suloway Edmund L. Kelly Yvonne J. Whiteneir Chief Engineer General Superintendent Chicago Park District James C. McInerney Department of Public Works Director of Graphics Robert L. Zralek William A. Lee Eugene A. Ciardullo Deputy Commissioner President Guy A. Herman Department of Streets and Sanitation Chicago Federation of Labor Arthur R. Kraus James J. McDonough James M. Miller, Sr. Commissioner Laurence T. Young, Jr. Department of Streets and Sanitation Jerome J. Jacobsen Patrick L. O'Malley, Chairman Director of Administration Chicago Plan Commission John H. Taaffe Milton Pikarsky, Commissioner Director of Information Department of Public Works H. Wallace Poston Commissioner Department of Environmental Control Kenneth W. Sain Mayor's Administrative Officer Daniel J. Shannon President Photographs were provided by the Chicago Association Chicago Park District of Commerce and Industry-pp. 3, 33, 38; the Chicago Historical Society-pp. 6, 7, 8, 9 (upper): the Chicago Park Capt. Verner J. Soballe District-pp. 9 (lower), 14 (right and lower left), 18, 19, Port Director 20, 21, 22, 24, 27, 29, 30, 31, 40, 41, 46, 47; the Chicago Department of the Port of Chicago Department of Public Works-pp. 17, 26, 37; U. S. Depart- ment of the Interior. National Park Service. Indiana Dunes David E. Stahl National Lakeshore-p. 14 (upper left); Department of City Comptroller Urban Renewal-p. 23; Larry Ludwig-p. 25. Professor Louis B. Wetmore University of Illinois The illustrative plan of the lakefront was designed and Special Assistant to the Mayor prepared by Dwight S. Scott. DATEDUE GAYLORDJNO. 2333 PRI%Tl D A