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OCT 1 0 LAND USE PLAN SOUTHERN SHORES, NORTH CAROLINA COASTAL ZOINTE INFORMATION CETNTER 1986 HD 211 .S683 L36 1986--'- LAND USE PLAN SOUTHERN SHORES, NORTH CAROLINA Property of CSC Library U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NOAA COASTAL SERVICES CENTER 2234 SOUTH HOBSON AVENUE CHARLESTON, SC 29405-2413 1986 THE TOWN OF SOUTHERN SHORES TOWN COUNCIL Kern Pitts, Mayor Donald Bierwerth Myra Ledyard Charles Leet Harold Via, Mayor Pro Tem PLANNI NG BOARD Robert Trost - Chairman Robert Andrews George McIntosh Paul Oswald J.W. Stone Adopted bythe Southern Shores Town Council April 1, 1986 Approved by the North Carolina Coastal Resources Commission April 4, 1986 The preparation of this document was financed in part through a grant provided by the North Carolina Coastal Management Program, through funds provided by the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972, as amended, which is administered by the Office of Ocean and Coastal Resources Management, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. David,J. Brower, Timothy Bea tley, Carolyn Jones and Carolyn Ocel Coastal Resources Collaborative, Ltd. 612 Shady Lawn Chapel Hill, N. C. 27514 Contents SECTION I: Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . ... . . . . . . SECTION.II: Nature of the Community . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 A. Terrain. . . 3 B. Man-Made Changes . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . ... . . 4 Existing Land-Use Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 C. Recreation and Open Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Water Accessways Map .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 D. Roads . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 E. Facilities and Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Soils Map. . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . 11 F. Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 G. Emerging Issues . . . .. . . . . . . . . ... I . . . . . . 13 SECTION III: The Land Use Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 15 SECTION IV: Goals for Southern Shores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 A. Future Growth . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 B. The Use of Land in Southern Shores . . . . . . . 16 C. Open Space and theEnvironment . . ... . . . . . . . 17 D. Recreation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . 18 E. Traffic and Transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 F. Public Services and Facilities ... . . . . . . . . . 18 SECTION V: Policy Statements . . . . . . :. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 20 A. General Policies Concerning Town Growth . . . ... . . 20 B., Land Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 1. Inland Waterways and the Sound . . . . . . . . . 22 2. Zoning and Land Use Control . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 3. Commercial Zone . . . ... . . . . . . . . ... . . 25 4. Building Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 C. Open Space and the Environment . . . . . . . . . . . 26 1. Areas of Environmental Concern . . . . . . . . . 26 2. Ocean Hazard Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 3. The Estuarine System . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 28 D. Recreational . . . . . : , , * * * . . * . * 30 E. Traffic and Transportation . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 32 F. Public Services and Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . 36 1. Water for Household Consumption . . . . . . . . . 36 2. Need for Central Wastewater Treatment . . . . . . 37 3. Solid Waste Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 4. Fire and Police Protection . . . . . . . . . . . 38 5. Library Service. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 6. Public Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 38 2 7. Medical Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 8. Utility Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 G. Public Participation . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 H. Coordination and Cooperation . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 I. Land Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Land Classification Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 J. Hurricane Hazard Mitigation and Reconstruction . . . 44 Hazard Area 14ap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 K. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 APPENDIX I: Transition of the 1980 Land Use Plan . . . . . . . . . . 50 APPENDIX II: Summary of Attitudinal Survey . . . . . . . ... . . . . . 59 I. INTRODUCTION The Town of Southern Shores has prepared this, Land Use Plan to guide the citizens of Southern Shores, the Town Council, and federal, state, and county governments in making decisions concerning the development of the Town. The plan'is intended to be used as a guide for decision-making and the formulation of development policy to be implemented over the next,ten years, but provides a foundation for longer range planning as well. The Town of-Southern Shores is governed by a five-member Town Council, with the Mayor elected from among the Council members. The initial Town Council-was named in a special act of the General Assembly which was ratified March 26, 1979. The Town Council took office on April 1, 1979, and gave early priority to land use matters. They established a Planning Board and a Board of Adjustment; adopted zoning and subdivision ordinances and assumed extraterritorial planning jurisdiction over Martins Point. The N.C. Coastal Area Management Act requires that each local unit of government have a'land use plan which is updated every five years. The original land use plan for the Town of Southern Shores was adopted in 1980. This-plan contains much of the original plan with only those changes and modifications being made during the updating process that were dictated by changed circumstances. It is important to keep in mindthat changes in life.style, economy, population, citizen concern, and other factors will, from time to time, indicate that the plan should be amended. At the same time the very nature of local government and the changing times-in which we live calls for special efforts to ensure a degree of continuity. 2 II. NATURE OF THE COMMUNITY Southern Shores, as a community, began in 1947 with the acquisition by The Kitty Hawk Land Company of all of the land'that was to become the Town of Southern Shores: 2,600 acres, extending from ocean to sound for a distance of four miles on the Outer Banks above Kitty Hawk. The original development concept was a low density, family-oriented, residential community; extensive parks, beaches, boat.harbors, overlooks and other open space; protection or preservation of the extensive forested areas, dunes, and representative swamps and marshlands; and slow, cakefully planned growth. In short, the goal was to create an informal living environment in a natural setting, rather than replicate conventional coastal development. People who liked the development concept were attracted to the community and purchased building sites for sum.mer use or permanent residence here instead of elsewhere on the coast. Aesthetics were an important consideration, and for that reason property.owners were brought into an architectural review process early on to insure that all structures conformed to a community standard or design. As Southern Shores grew, the property owners gradually assumed more and more responsibility from the development company in matters affecting the future of their community. By 1970, an informal property owners organization had been created and was serving in an important advisory function; by 1975, this evolved into the Southern-Shores Civic Association. Between 1975 and the incorporation of the Town of Southern Shores-in 1979, the Civic Association had acquired title to many of the roads and all of the beaches, open areas, and public facilities from the development company. 3 Incorporation of the Town came only after residents and other property owners petitioned the Legislature for it, but at the same time they clearly expressed a desire for minimal ''gove rnment, -minimal town services, and thus minimal taxation. Volunteers have regularly done much of the work"which other towns usually hire people to do, including service in the fire department, clean-up after storms, maintenance and beautification of common areas, etc. A close cooperative working relationship among the Town, the Civic Association And the development company continues.. Each plays an important and generally well-defined role in maintaining the Southern Shores "way of life." Representatives of*the three meet periodically to discuss and allocate responsibility in matters of mutual or overlapping concern. It is clear from the survey done as a part of the formulation of this plan that the great majority of Southern Shores people like theircommunity theway it is. Their main concern is how to keep it that way in the face of inevitable development pressure in and around Southern Shores. Terrain The natural terrain of-.the Town.of Southern Shores varies widely. An early visitor, passing from the oceanfront across the high sand hills into dense forests described the sudden metamorphosis,as being akin to "entering another world." A high and well stabilized natural oceanfront dune ridge, wider than sand dune formations on most parts of the coast, extends the full fourmiles,.with the crest an average of a hundred feet back from the high water mark. To the west of the'dune line is the so-called back beach, relatively level, sparsely vegetated and considerably loweri than the oceanfront dunes. It extendswest for an average of a quarter of a mile before rising gradually to the tops' of high, partially vegetated sand hills, 4 some of which are more than fifty feet in elevation. These migratory sand hills drop off precipitously into a heavily forested area consisting of a succession of ridges and valleys running north and south, and extending almost to the shore of Currituck Sound and Ginguite Bay where nearly bare sand hills intrude into Currituck Sound in the northernmost half mile; high, heavily wooded ridges extend to the shore of the Sound for the next mile or so; then a mix of ridges, swamps, and marshes border Ginguite Bay until finally, on the [email protected] , approaching U.S. Highway 158, the terrain flattens into marshland. Man-Made Changes Initial development, in 1947,-consisted of a mile of paved road running northward from U.S. Highway 158 parallel with the ocean with a single row of lots on either side interspersed with reserved rights-of-way to the ocean and to interior land. Subsequently, this conventional style of development was continued for another two miles, and other roads were built into some of the hill areas, for the most part following natural contours. Meandering ponds and lakes were created in low areas in the back beach. In 1957, a very different style was used in developing the last remaining mile of ocean frontage at the north end of Southern Shores. Here, in Seacrest Village, winding roads about a quarter of a mile long, dead-ending in a "T" in back of the oceanfront dune ridge, were extended eastward from the state road connecting Kitty.Hawk to Duck; each "T" was connected to the ocean by a path. In the early 1960s development of thesoundside and interior areas was begun, a process in which existing wetlands were either excavated and converted to navigable waterways, or filled. In time, this process produced some six miles of "lagoons," and produced hundreds of waterfront homesites. The lagoons were conveyed to the Southern Shores-Civic Association in 1978. In the mid-1960s, 5 the development company donated approximately 300 acres north of U.S. Highway 158 to the Outer Banks Recreation Association, a private non-profit, non-stock membership corporation, for the construction of a golf course and related. recreational facilities. At the same time, roads were constructed to additionaLhill areas, including'the construction of a paved road to the top of the highest hill in Southern Shores where an overlook was built on the crest. As the decade of the 1970s began, approximately 1,000 acres of the original 2,600.acres in Southern Shores had not been subdivided. More than half of this, extending northward from U.S.158 for nearly two miles, and containing interior woodland, sand hills and some back beach, was developed in the mid-1970s and named Chicahauk. Separate Chicahauk recreational and improvement associations were formed to deal with activities within-the new neighborhood. This left three relatively large undeveloped areas in Southern 'Sho res: one in the southwest corner of South ern Shores, another in the northwest corner on Currituck Sound, and the third in the wooded area east of the golf course. These were zoned for multi-family use, with densities ranging from six'to ten units per acre. Subsequent development in these areas has been for single family residential use, though the first multiple dwelling unit buildings are in the planning- stage. In 1985there are about 2,800 platted lots in Southern Shores (there are 1,027 single-family residences) with very little land yet to be subdivided (see map on following page). Restrictive covenants and the Town of Southern Shores Zoning Ordinance restrict the development of-the platted lots to single family residences. This means,that even if the remaining unplatted land were to be developed intensively,.(which in all likelihood it will not be) the maximum number of dwelling units in Southern Shores would.be in the EXISTING ZONE DISTRICTS AND LAND USE Corporate Limits Zone District Boundary Extraterritorial Jurisdiction 0 c 'EA N Platted Unplatted SPINDR10 ATLANTIC j [email protected], Z JL R. RS-1 z -INITY See 0 0 'A% . . . . . . . . . . . R -6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DUCK WOODS G 0 L F C RS-1 R-1 CURRITUCK SOUND No, t h GINQUiTE BAY 4000 2000 0 feet MARTINS POI TOWN OF 01. SOUTHERN SHORES **too ........... 1986 The preparation of this document was financed -in part through a grant provided by the North Carolina Coastal Hanagemenc Program. through funds provided by 7 neighborhood of 3,000, unless of course there is a drastic change in policy. It appears reasonable to assume that.the actual number will be smaller than that, in the neighborhood of 2,500, since: o the survey conducted as a part of the formulation of this plan showed [email protected] for the existing approach to development, i.e., single family, low density,.non-commercial.. o Many people appear to own two or more adjoining lots and have ,developed or intend to develop them.as a single unit. Recreation and Open Space A number of areas set asid e by the development company for use by community residents Fere con.veyed,to the Southern Shores.Civic Association in 1977. Included were 35 ocean accessways; a mil e,of ocean.frontage in Se"acrest Village,. initially 100 feet deep; an ocean beach 300,feet wide and approximately a quarter of a mile deep, with a paved access roadway and parking area; a bathing beach and picnic*area on Currituck Sound; a marina and boat-launching area at the mouth of Ginguite Bay; Hiilcrest Overlook; the "Village Green" on Duck Woods Trail at it's.intersection with U.S. 158; plus a number of other small open areas (see Water Accessways Map). In addition, some 140 acres in Chicahauk, including the 13-acre Cypress Swamp and an extensive.maritime forest were retained in their natural state. The 18-hole Duck Woods,Golf Course, the swimming pool and tennis courts are owned by the Outer Banks Recreation Association. The Kitty Hawk Elementary Schooli located on the south edge of the Town, has a large open area and facilities which are often used by Southern Shores residents. WATER ACCESSWAYS Beach Sound OCEAN Lagoon fto NTIC L V 0 AT IL -4 J I I ry DUCK WOODS GOLF CL CURRITUCK SOUND 01 N 0 U I T E SAY 4000 2000 0 foot M TOWN OF SOUTHERN SHORES .The preparation of this document was financed in part chrough a grant provided Carolina Coastal 3anagement Program,' through funds provided by Acc of 1972. as amended, which is administered by --emenc, National Oceanic and 9 Roads In all instances where.lots have been platted and sold, the development company constructed h ard-surfaced roads according to state standards applicable at the time they were built although in some c .ases the rights of way are not as wide in order to preserve natural terrain and vegetation. Approximately 22 miles of these roads were conveyed to the Southern Shores Civic Association in 1977, and subsequently turned over to the Town of Southern Shores in 1979. The roads within-Southern-Shores are not without problems but the only major transport problems arise from situations outside the corpo rate limits of Southern Shores. U.S. 158 has been widened and although this has an impact on Southern Shores in that it will make it easier for people to get to the area, the impact will not be centered in Southern Shores. Of more concern is the area between Southern Shores and the North Carolina-Virginia state line.. This area has not yet been heavily developed but indications are that the rate of development will accelerate and that although traffic into and out-of the area has been relatively' light in the past, it will increase dramatically in the next several years. Three methods of dealing with this increase have been proposed. One is a road from Virginia Beach to Kitty Hawk. There are.a number of legal obstacles such a road would have to.overcome but if it were built it.would have a very real impact on traffic in Southern Shores since much through traffic could be expected to use that route rather than U.S. 158. A second proposal involves widening [email protected] Road to accommodate the increase. This too would have a very real impact on Southern Shores but at least there would be no through traffic since the road would dead end south of the Virginia State line. The last proposal involves a ferry,or causeway from the mainland to the Currituck Banks. This proposal would generate some through 10 traffic but if the bridge or ferry charged a toll, the traffic going to a destination south of the Currituck Banks and hence south of,Southern Shores would probably opt for the more direct and cheaper U.S. 158. Facilities and Services The Southern Shores Fire Station is owned by the Southern Shores Voltinteer Fire Department. Operating under the direction of a Board of Trustees, the Southern Shores Volunteer Fire Department, with three trucks, is made up entirely of volunteers from the Southern Shores area. Fire protection is provided by the department to Martins Point under a contact with Dare County. The Town Hall is located at the intersection of U.S. 158 and Skyline Road on the very southern edge of the Town. It contains clerical and administrative offices, meeting rooms and the police department. Water distribution lines of the regional water system have been constructed in virtually all of Southern Shores. The primary storage tower for the north end of the water system is located in Southern Shores. The ability of the system to serve a constantly growing demand is of concern to the Town. Individual septic tanks provide for waste disposal. In all but a relatively few sections of Southern Shores soil conditions are considered adequate for septic tanks (see map on following page). The Town has entered into an agreement with a private contractor for the collection of solid waste. The waste will be disposed of'in the Dare County Land Fill in East Lake. One utility, Carolina Telephone and Telegraph, has a substation in Southern Shores serving the north end of the beach. Southern Shores was the first in this district to use underground power lines. Since the mid-1960s SOILS UNFAVORABLE FOR SEPTIC TANKS OCEAN ,L--LJL ATLANTJC 'll-RuQui S P1 N D" f 1( 0 0 C 1, t D U C K03 @WO CURRITUCK SOUND GINGUITE SAY 4000 2000 M A TOWN OF c:::::= SOUTHERN SHORES The preparation of this document was financed in part through a grant provided by the Norch Carolina Coastal Manag'emenC Program, through funds provided by the Coastal Zone Hanagement Act of 1972, As amended, which is administered by the Office of Ocean and Coascal Resources Management. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 12 all new power lines have been underground. The original beach area, part of Seacrest Village, and the older hill areas, however, are still served by overhead lines. There are five commercial buildings (three professional buildings, one real estate office and a bank) in the Town's commercial.zone which is located on U.S. 158 at the southern end of town. A recently approved shopping center, when built, will greatly increase the amount of commercial activity. The Kitty Hawk Elementary School is located in Southern Shores at the intersection of U.S. 158 and Dogwood Trail. It serves the northern beach area. Population It is extremely difficult to make population estimates in a place like Southern Shores because-of the very nature of the community. It is clear that a large number of the 1,027 houses in Southern Shores are occupied for only a few months in the summer. But it is also clear that the number of full time residents is increasing and that the spring and fall (and even winter) in .Southern Shores are becoming more popular for vacationers. The majority of full time residents are and will probably continue to be retirees averaging two persons per household. Most summer occupancies range between 4 and 8. If it is assumed that there will be 2,500 dwelling units in Southern Shores when it is completely developed, outside limits of a range can be established. If one half of the units are occupied year around the off season population would be (2500/2) x 2 - 2500. If the remaining units are occupied during the summer by an average of six people the summer population would be (2500/2) x 6 + 2500 10,000. But the real numbers will be determined by a great many variables which are impossible to predict. For example, drastic changes in the economy 13 or even the tax laws could make second homes much less popular or more popular. Outside limits probably should assume the current ratio of about one-third year around occupancy or (2500/3) x 2 - 1,666 off season population and a full summer occupancy or (2500/3) x 2 x 6 + 12666 11,332 maximum population. Emerging Issues Perhaps the biggest concern of the residents ofSouthern Shores is that the present character of the Town will change in the future. The most fundamental message that was derived from the 1985 survey (see Appendix II) was that the residents and landowners like Southern Shores and want it to stay the way. it is.' This message has been translated into the goals and policies of this plan with the intent that they- make it clear to present and future local leaders, developers and others that the course the..Town of Southern Shores intends to hold to is that charted by this Plan. Unfortunately, the,future of Southern Shores is -affected not.only by development within the Town but also by development in the area around it. The area to the north has been growing very rapidly and given every sign of continuing to grow. Large areas have been subdivided and are on the market. The beach communities to the south, Kitty Hawk, Kill Devil Hills and Nags head are also,growing rapidly. All of this growth is dependent upon the regional water system operated by Dare County. If the growth exceeds the capacity of the water system to supply it all users are likely to suffer. Water shortages are-naturally an inconvenience but can cause a threat to health and safety as sanitation facilities and fire hydrants become less efficient or fail. 14 This growth also places a greater burden on U.S. 158 as it runs along the southern boundary of Southern Shores and crosses Currituck Sound on the Wright Memorial Bridge. Here again, exceeding the capacity of the system is at least an inconvenience as it becomes'more difficult to get to and from Southern Shores (one cannot drive to Southern Shores without using U.S. 158) but it becomes'a threat to health and safety as hurricane evacuation becomes more difficult or impossible and emergency vehicles have difficulty getting where they need to go. The most significant impact on Southern Shores could be caused by the traffic generated by the development to the north. If an alternative means of ingress and egress is not developed all of this traffic will have to travel along Duck Road to U.S. 158 which would have a tremendous impact on the character of Southern Shores. It would be quite literally split in two; a large part of it separated from 'the ocean by a large,'busy highway. None of these issues can be solved by the Town alone; the Town does, however, call attention to these'issues and sets forth its policy about each elsewhere in this plan. 15 III. THE LAND USE PIAN Preparing a land use plan and implementing it, is one of the most important activities a locality can undertake. The purpose of a land use plan is to provide a rational basis for future land use and development decisions made in the community. The land use plan identifies and analyzes local trends and problems, identifies important community goals and develops policies for the achievement of those goals. Ideally, local land use ordinances and decisions (e.g., zoning and subdivision)*and future public investment decisions are consistent with the goals and policies delineated inthe plan. The plan which follows is intended to provide a rational, future-oriented framework for Southern Shores. The substantive content of the plan is organized in two ways. First, it is organized in terms of Goals and Policy Statements. The goals (contained in Section IV) are statements of a desirable long-term future. They are necessarily broad and general. Policy statements (contained in Section V) are more specific, designed to implement the preceding goals. Policies are more subject to review and revision as the Town's understanding-of how to best accomplish stated goals changes over time. The policy statements will constrain and provide guidance for the specific land use and public investment decisions that the Town will make in the future. A second way in which the plan is organized is according to the specific policy area being addressed. Different goals and policy statements are developed for different substantive areas, including future growth, land use, open space and the environment, among others. While many of these substantive policy areas are overlapping, this represents a logical and efficient way for the town to consider a-range of issues and problems which confront it. 16 IV. GOALS FOR.SOUTHERN SHORES A. Future Growth COAL A-1. SOUTHERN SHORES SHALL CAREFULLY PLAN AND MANAGE ALL FUTURE GROWTH TO MINIMIZE ITS NEGATIVE EFFECTS. COAL A-2. SOUTHERN SHORES SHALL CONTINUE TO DEVELOP AS A LOW-DENSITY, SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITY. THE TOWN'S POLICIES AND ORDINANCES.SHALL REINFORCE THIS PATTERN OF DEVELOPMENT. GOAL A-3. FUTURE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT SHOULD BE MANAGED COMMENSURATE WITH THE CAPACITY OF THE TOWN'S SERVICES AND FACILITIES TO ACCOMMODATETHIS.GROWTH. SHOULD SERVICES AND FACILITIES NEED TO BE EXPANDED, THE COSTS OF THESE EXPANSIONS SHALL BE BORNE IN LARGE PART BY THE NEW DEVELOPMENT. [email protected] The Use of Land in Southern Shores GOAL B-1. LOW-DENSITY, SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT SHALL BE THE. PRIMARY USE OF LAND PERMITTED AND ENCOURAGED IN THE TOWN. GOAL B-2. THE COMMERCIAL ZONE IN THE TOWN SHALL BE VERY LIMITED IN SIZE, AND RESTRICTED TO USES DEEMED ESSENTIAL TO LOCAL RESIDENTS. GOAL B-3. COMMERCIAL USES PERMITTED MUST BE COMPA TIBLE WITH SURROUNDING RESIDENTIAL USES, AND THE OVERALL COMMUNITY ENVIRONMENT. GOAL B-4. THE TOWN PRESENTLY HAS SOME AREAS ZONED FOR MULTI-FAMILY USE. THESE AREAS ARE ADEQUATE AND WILL NOT BE EXPANDED. INDUSTRIAL USES ARE NOT NOW PERMITTED AND WILL NOT BE. 17 COAL B-5. THE LOCATION, SITING, AND INTENSITY OF LAND USE IS REGULATED BY THE ZONING ORDINANCE TO ENSURE PUBLIC SAFETY, TO SECURE AND PROTECT PRIVATE PROPERTY AND THE QUALITY OF THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT. GOAL B-6. THE TOWN SHALL SEEK TO MINIMIZE THE EXTENT TO WHICH NEW CONSTRUCTION IS SUBJECT TO NATURAL HAZARDS, SUCH AS COASTAL STORMS, HURRICANES, FLOODING AND EROSION. IT WILL ATTEMPT TO MANAGE FUTURE DEVELOPMENT SO THAT IT OCCURS IN LEAST HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS AND IS CONSTRUCTED USING MATERIALS AND BUILDING PRACTICES WHICH MINIMIZE THE POSSIBILITY OF DAMAGE TO STRUCTURES. C. Open Space and the Environment COAL C-1. THE TOWN SHALL WORK TO PRESERVE OPEN SPACE, FORESTED AND UNFORESTED, IN THE FUTURE, AND TO MANAGE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT COMMENSURATE WITH THIS GOAL. THESE PRESERVED OPEN SPACE AREAS SHALL BE A COMBINATION OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE AREAS. COAL C-2. THE TOWN SHALL REGULATE AND MANAGE FUTURE DEVELOPMENT TO PRESERVE THE AESTHETIC INTEGRITY OF THE COMMUNITY, AND TO PRESERVE ITS CHARACTER AND HUMAN SCALE. GOAL C-3. THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT IS A MAJOR REASON RESIDENTS CHOOSE TO LIVE IN SOUTHERN SHORES, AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENT AND CROWTH SHALL BE MANAGED TO PROTECT AND ENHANCE, TO THE EXTENT FEASIBLE, THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT. FURTHERMORE, THE TOWN SHALL MAKE EVERY EFFORT TO RESPECT THE NATURAL PROCESSES OF THE BARRIER ISLAND ECOSYSTEMS, AND TO MANAGE DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH ACCORDINGLY (E.G., DEVELOPMENT SHOULD NOT INTERFERE WITH THE BEACH AND DUNE SYSTEM). 18 D. Recr6ation GOAL D-1. RECREATION IS AN IMPORTANT ASPECT OF SOUTHERN SHORES LIVING, AND THE TOWN SHALL INSURE ADEQUATE RECREATIONAL FACILITIES FOR EXISTING AND FUTURE RESIDENTS. PROVISION OF THESE FACILITIES SHALL BE COMMENSURATE WITH THE DIVERSITY OF RECREATIONAL NEEDS AND DESIRES OF THE SOUTHERN SHORES POPULATION, BOTH PERMANENT AND SEASONAL. THE PROVISION OF THESE FACILITIES WILL-BE CONSISTENT WITH A PERIODIC ASSESSMENT OF COMMUNITY NEED. E. Traffic and Transportion GOAL E-1. THE TOWN SHALL INSURE THAT AN ADEQUATE INTERNAL ROAD AND STREET SYSTEM EXISTS AND THAT NECESSARY MAINTENANCE AND IMPROVEMENTS ARE MADE TO ENSURE THE EFFICIENT AND SAFE MOVEMENT OF TRAFFIC WITHIN THE TOWN. GOAL E-2. RECOGNIZING THAT HURRICANE EVACUATION IS A COUNTY RESPONSIBILITY THE TOWN SHALL MAKE EVERY EFFORT TO INSURE THAT RESIDENTS AND VISITORS OF THE TOWN ARE ABLE TO EVACUATE IN A TIMELY AND SAFE FASHION SHOULD A HURRICANE OR SEVERE STORM THREATEN THE AREA. THIS SHALL ENTAIL A PERIODIC ASSESSMENT OF EVACUATION DEMAND, THE CAPACITY OF THE EXISTING ROAD AND BRIDGE SYSTEM TO ACCOMMODATE THIS DEMAND, AND ANY IMPROVEMENTS, OR LAND USE RESTRICTIONS, NECESSARY TO ENSURE SAFE EVACUATION. F. Public Services and Facilities GOAL F-1. THE TOWN SHALL INSURE'THAT ADEQUATE BASIC LIFE-SUPPORT SERVICES ARE SUPPLIED TO RESIDENTS, AND THAT THEY ARE PROVIDED IN AN EFFICIENT AND COST-EFFECTIVE MANNER. INCLUDED AMONG THESE BASIC SERVICES ARE SUCH THINGS AS POLICE AND FIRE PROTECTION, WATER, AND 14AINTENANCE/IMPROVEMENT OF LOCAL ROADS. 19 COAL F-2. THE TOWN SHALL INSURE THAT IT PROVIDES ADEQUATE ADDITIONAL, NON- LIFE-SUPPORTING SERVICES AND FACILITIES, AS DESIRED AND NEEDED IN THE COMMUNITY. THESE SHALL BE IDENTIFIED THROUGH PERIODIC NEEDSASSESSMENTS, AND SHALL BE PROVIDED IN-AN EFFICIENT AND COST-EFFECTIVE MANNER. 20 V. POLICY STATEMENTS This section contains policies intended to advance the goals stated in the previous section. For the sake of convenience, policy statements have been organized under headings the samek as,those-used for the goals. It should be remembered, however, that these policies will advance several different goals at the same time. These policies are not self-implementing, but rather depend upon subsequent actions (ordinances, programs, budgets, etc.) by the Town and its officials to implement them. A. General Policies Concerning Town Growth Population estimates show a steadily increasing number of year-round residents from 75 in 1970, to 520 in 1980, to over 750 in 1984. Summer population is estimated to have increased to about 5,000 in 1985. Ultimate populations will probably be larger (about double). In responding to the 1980 Land Use Questionnaire, Southern Shores property owners expressed desires to "limit" and "control" growth. Similar attitudes were expressed in the 1985 survey. While respondents appear to accept the inevitability of growth,.they felt that Southern Shores should neither change character nor grow beyond the capacity of its facilities and services. If services and facilities must be expanded to accomodate growth, respondents felt that it should be developers and new.homeowners who should bear the cost of the expansion, not the public-at-large. Respondents to the 1985 questionnaire were-almost unanimous in their attitude about the need to plan for and manage future growth carefully to reduce its negative effects. About 96% of the respondents either "agreed" or "strongly agreed" with the statement that future growth should be managed to 21 minimize negative effects on environmental quality. Respondents acknowledged that while the town can manage the pace and impacts of future growth, it cannot stop such growth. Results from the 1985 questionnaire indicate that growth in the next few years may be substantial. Of those respondents who owned undeveloped land in the town, close to 60% of them (219 respondents) said they planned to develop their land within the next five years. POLICY A-1. IT IS THE POLICY OF THE TOWN OF SOUTHERN SHORES TO PERMIT THE DEVELOPMENT AT LEVELS CURRENTLY PERMITTED BY THE EXISTING ZONING ORDINANCE. POLICY A-2. THE TOWN WILL MAKE WHATEVER SERVICE AND FACILITY IMPROVEMENTS NECESSARY TO ACCOMMODATE FUTURE GROWTH, BUT IT WILL EXPLORE WAYS TO ENSURE THAT NEW DEVELOPMENT PAYS ITS FAIR SHARE OF THESE COSTS. THIS MAY INCLUDE, FOR INSTANCE, THE IMPOSITION OF IMPACT FEES, DEVELOPMENT EXACTIONS, OR SOME OTHER ARRANGEMENT WHICH SUBSTANTIALLY SHIFTS A MAJOR PORTION OF THE COSTS OF NEW GROWTH TO THOSE PARTIES CREATING IT. POLICY A-3. THE PACE OR RATE OF GROWTH HAS A SIGNIFICANT INFLUENCE ON THE TOWN'S ABILITY TO ACCOMMODATE IT AND MINIMIZE ITS NEGATIVE EFFECTS. THE TOWN WILL, THEREFORE, MONITOR THE RATE OF DEVELOPMENT, AND CONSIDER, WHEN APPROPRIATE, SLOWING THE RATE OF DEVELOPMENT. 22 B. Land Use The results of the.1985 questionnaire illustrate the commitment of residents and property owners to maintain Southern Shores as a low density, single family residential community. Approximately 97% of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed with the statement: "Southern Shores should continue to develop as a'low-density, single-family residential community, with limited multi-family and commercial uses." This commitment has consistently been a part of all planning policy in Southern'Shores. POLICY B-1. THE TOWN IS A LOW DENSITY, SINGLE FAMILY, RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITY AND DOES NOT,DESIRE TO ENCOURAGE AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY, MINING, FISHERIES, INDUSTRY, ENERGY FACILITIES,,OR TOURIST-RELATED COMMERCE, Inland Waterways, and the Sound The-western areas of the Town (woods and soundside)'are interlaced with a network of approximately six miles of manmade lagoons with outlets into Ginguite Bay and,Currituck Sound. Initially, these lagoons drained low-lying swampy areas while providing additional building.sites. .The lagoon banks Areowned by the adjacent property owners, including the Town where the lagoonborders the Town's right-of-way. Since these waters are navigable, a number of public agencies (both Federal and State) have jurisdiction ov er the use, maintenance, or alteration of the lagoons. These agencies include: the Army Corps of Engineers, the N.C. Coastal Resources Commission, the N.C. Wildlife Commission, and the Dare County Health Department. This picture is compounded by the emergence of problems associated with greater use of.the waterways arising from residential growth. These problems include: (a) adequate water circulation and flushing; (b)'contaminants 23 affecting the quality of water; (c) siltation, erosion, and deterioration of embankments; (d) growth of brush, trees, and weeds along the banks and milfoil and other aquatic growths; and, (e) impact of animal life nutria, muskrats, etc. POLICY B-2. THE TOWN HAS ADOPTED AN ORDINANCE REGULATING SPECIFIC MATTERS PERTINENT TO THE CONTROL, MANAGEMENT, AND PRESERVATION OF INLAND WATERWAYS AND THEIR USE (OR ABUSE), SUCH AS THE CONSTRUCTION OF PIERS, BULKHEADS, BOAT OPERATIONS, NOISE, LITTER, AND POLLUTANTS. THE ORDINANCE WILL BE ENFORCED CONSISTENTLY AND FAIRLY. POLICY B-3. THE TOWN WILL'CONTINUE TO STUDY THE FORMULATION OF APPROPRIATE ORDINANCES REGARDING WATER-REIATED MATTERS SUCH AS CONTAMINATION, NOISE AND LITTER, DOCKS, BULKHEADING AND OTHER CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITY IN OR ADJOINING WATERFRONT AREAS. THE TOWN WILL CONTINUE TO COOPERATE WITH THE COUNTY TO INSURE CONSISTENT AND VIGOROUS ENFORCEMENT OF THE APPLICABLE HEALTH AND SANITATIONLAWS AND REGULATIONS TO PREVENT WATER QUALITY DEGRADATION. POLICY B-4. COMMERCIAL MARINAS, FLOATING HOMES,-AND ANY OTHER FORM OF STRUCTURE, OTHER THAN A CONVENTIONAL BOAT, DESIGNED TO FLOAT OR OTHERWISE OCCUPY THE SURFACE OF THE WATER IS NOT PERMITTED WITHIN THE WATERS OF THE TOWN OF SOUTHERN SHORES. BOATS ARE NOT PER14ITTED TO BE USED AS TEMPORARY OR PERMANENT RESIDENCES. 24 Zoning and Land Use Control Shortly after incorporation, the Town of Southern Shores adopted, with minor changes, the Dare County Zoning Ordin ance. This action'was one mainly of expediency since state law provides that a new community has nine'@ty days from the date of incorporation to adopt the zoning ordinance under which it had been operating or adopt a new zoning ordinance. If neither had been adopted, the Town would have been without a zoning ordinance. Recognizing that a new zoning ordinance could not be drafted and approved within.ninety days, and that the alternative of operating without a zoning ordinance was unacceptable, the Town adopted a modified Dare County ordinance. Because citizens of Southern Shores played a major role in the initiationand writing of the original Dare County ordinance, accleptance of the county ordinance was not difficult. The Southern Shores Zoning Map illustrates the desire for a low density single-family residential community with minimal multi-fa mily and commercial development. Martins Point is not part of Southern Shores, but the Town does exercise extraterritorial zoning jurisdiction over this area. The.minimum lot size permitted in the predominant residential districts is now,20,000 square feet and the density of the developed areas is less than three dwelling units per acre. The.zoning ordinance requires that a public or community wastewater disposal system must be provided for.any multi-family development. Many portions-of the districts zoned for multi-family developments have been, subdivided for single-family detached dwellings. A multi-family development, y the first in Southern Shores, has been proposed for the ocean front commercial area in the southeastern corner of the Town. 25 Throughout the process of land use plan development the citizens of Southern Shores confirmed their desire for a low-density single family residential community with minimal commercial and multi-family development. In Southern Shores low-density equates to a community of predominantly single- family detached dwellings. Housing Mix The residential character of Southern Shores was a major factor in attracting both resident and non-resident property owners. Current provision for multi-family development is acceptable. Any increase in multi-family districts is unacceptable. POLICY B-5. THE TOWN DESIRES TO MAINTAIN ITS EXISTING MIX OF RESIDENTIAL USES. MULTI-FAMILY DISTRICTS ARE ACCEPTABLE AS CONSTITUTED BUT WILL NOT BE INCREASED. Commercial Zone The Town desires only those commercial uses that serve the community. The 1985 survey results indicated that residents and property owners did not want an expanded commercial area. When asked whether the existing commercial zone was adequate, approximately 86% of the respondents indicated that it was. Almost all of the respondents to the questionnaire (96%) indicated that commercial uses should not be permitted in other parts of town. POLICY B-6. THE COMMERCIAL DISTRICT IS ACCEPTABLE AS CURRENTLY CONSTITUTED AND WILL NOT BE EXPANDED. USES PERMITTED IN THE COMMERCIAL ZONE WILL BE THOSE THAT SERVE THE COMMUNITY OF SOUTHERN SHORES. 26 Maximum Building Height The zoning ordinance allows these maximum heights: Single-family dwelling 30 feet Duplex 30 feet Multi-fa.mily structure 35 feet Commercial structures 30 feet Provision is made for a variance in the case of structures such as church steeples, flag poles, etc. Respondents to the 1985 community survey generally expressed satisfaction with a 30-foot building height limitation. POLICY B-7. BUILDING HEIGHT LIMITATIONS ARE IMPORTANT TO PRESERVING THE. CHARACTER AND SCALE OF THE TOWN OF SOUTHERN SHORES. THE TOWN WILL CONTINUE TO MAINTAIN AND ENFORCE ITS EXISTING LIMITATION ON THE HEIGHT OF STRUCTURES. C. Open Space and the Environment Results from the 1985 Land Use Survey indicate that residents and property owners are very concerned about preserving the.natural environment of Southern Shores. Over 94% of the respondents indicated that they chose to live in Southern Shores because of the natural environment. These findings suggest the importance of efforts by the Town to preserve and enhance the environment. Areas of Environmental Concer The term "Area of Environmental Concern," or AEC, is used in North Carolina's Coastal Area Management Act (CAMA) to identify important natural resources, both land and water, which could be damaged if subjected to incompatible development or other activity. 27 The Coastal Resources Commission (CRC) has defined 13 AECs.in four general categories, and has spelled out the significance and basic management objectives for each. Local governments are encouraged, by the CRC, to allow only.that development in the AECs within their jurisdiction which will not significantly damage or impair them. AECs in Southern Shores fall into two general categories -- those located along the Atlantic Ocean in what has been designated by the CRC as the Ocean Hazard Area and those located along Currituck Sound.and Ginguite Bay and their tributaries, in what has been designated by the CRC as The Estuarine System. Ocean Hazard Area In Southern Shores two AECs occur within-the Ocean Hazard Area. The first is the Ocean Erodible AEC, in which there exists a possibility of substantial erosion and significant shoreline fluctuation. In general, the Ocean Erodible AEC in Southern Shores is a strip of land extending from the Atlantic Ocean to or slightly west of the crest of the oceanfront dune system. POLICY C-1. IT IS THE POLICY OF SOUTHERN SHORES TO MAINTAIN THE LINE OF OCEANFRONT SAND DUNES BY PROTECTING THE VEGETATION WHICH STABILIZES THE DUNE SYSTE14 WITHIN THE OCEAN ERODIBLE AREAS. The Town currently implements this policy by:, (a) prohibiting the construction of buildings within the Ocean Erodible Areas; (b) enforcing an ordinance banning use of vehicles off roads; (c) encouraging the construction of wooden walkways and steps to the beach, as well as elevated observation platforms; and, finally, (d) encouraging the installation of sand fences in areas where erosion has occurred. 28 The. second AEC within the Ocean H azard Area is the High Hazard Flood Area, which is subject to high velocity waters, including but not limited to hurricane wave action. In general this AEC equates to the V-Zone shown on the Federal Emergency Management Agency Flood Insurance Rate Maps for Southern Shores. These areas are shown on a Hazard Map on Page .6. POLICY C-2. WITHIN THE HIGH HAZARD FLOOD AREA THE TOWN WILL ENFORCE THE STANDARDS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE PROGRAM (NFIP). This policy,is implemented through the Southern Shores building permit process,'as specified in appropriate Town ordinances and enforced by the Town Building Inspector. The Estuarine Syste Several AECs which are within the Estuarine System category are in or adjacent to Southern Shores. Currituck Sound, which extends along the northern one-third of the Town'swestern boundary, is within the Estuarine Waters AEC classification but since no part of the Soundis within the Town of Southern Shores, the Town has no jurisdiction over the AEC. The land adjacent to the Estuarine Waters AEC is within the Estuarine Shoreline AEC however and is within the jurisdiction of the Town. Ginguite Bay is a Public Trust Waters AEC, but as in the case of Currituck Sound, no part of the Bay is within the Town and hence Southern Shores does not have jurisdiction over the AEG. The Town does have jurisdiction over the network of navigable lagoons and canals which connect with Ginguite Bay and which are also classified as Public Trust Waters. 29 POLICY C-3. THE TOWN WILL COOPERATE WITH APPROPRIATE STATE AND FEDERAL AGENCIES IN PROTECTING THE INTEGRITY OF PUBLIC TRUST WATERS WITHIN SOUTHERN SHORES. This policy is implemented currently through the CAMA permit-letting process as administered by the Town Building Inspector in his capacity as the CAMA local permit officer. At the Town's request, "NO WAKE" speed limits are enforced by the-N.C. Wildlife Resources Commission. Coastal wetlands, or marshes, are located in an area adjacent to Ginguite Bay in the southernmost half-mile or so of the Town. POLICY C-4. THE TOWN RECOGNIZES THE IMPORTANCE OF COASTAL WETLANDS AS A BREEDING GROUND FOR FISH, SHRIMP, BIRDS, AND OTHER ANIMALS AND PLANTS. NO DEVELOPMENT IS PERMITTED WITHIN THIS AEC. Implementation of the policy is through the CAMA permitting process. The only Estuarine Shoreline AEC in Southern Shores borders Currituck Sound. It's total length is less than a mile and a half and covers a strip 75 feet landward from the mean high water mark. The Town is concerned about water quality in the estuary and recognizes the value of clean water and a vital ecosystem. The construction of septic tanks and drain fields is carefully monitored, and those contemplating construction are warned about the possible danger of erosion. POLICY C-5. WITHIN THE ESTUARINE SHORELINE AEC THE TOWN OF SOUTHERN SHORES IS COMMITTED TO ENFORCING THE LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING THIS AREA THAT ARE PROMULGATED BY THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA. THE TOWN WILL STUDY THE RULES TO SEE IF THEY SHOULD BE APPLIED TO A LARGER AREA AS A MATTER OF TOWN POLICY. 30 The people of Southern Shores are concerned about the destruction of natural resources, including vegetation, animals, birds, and geological formations. .POLICY C-6. IT IS THE POLICY OF THE TOWN OF SOUTHERN SHORES TO ENCOURAGE THE RETENTION OF FOREST GROWTH AND NATURAL PLANT COMMUNITIES, INCLUDING THE PROTECTION OF MARITIME FOREST AREAS,- TO MAINTAIN A SUITABLE HABITAT FOR ANIMALS AND BIRDS INDIGENOUS TO THE AREA; AND, TO DISTURB.THE NATURAL TERRAIN AS LITTLE AS POSSIBLE. The Town has implemented'this policy by: (a) designating the Town as a Bird Sanctuary; (b) enacting.an ordinance prohibiting the use of firearms within Town limits; and, (c) prohibiting off-road use of vehicles. The Town Council and the Civic Association encourage citizens to protect such resources on a voluntary basis. The Town will also consider amendments to its development ordinances which will work to protect vegetated areas, and which will restrict the amount of vegetation that is permitted to be lost.during the development process. D. Recreation Ownership of recreational facilities and open space is largely in the hands of the Southern Shores Civic Association and the Chicahauk Recreation Club. As noted earlier, the Civic Association owns and maintains some 35 beach accessways, beach and picnic areas along the sound, and access points to the lagoons. While these areas arenot open to the general public, they are available for use by all Southern Shores property owners and their guests. Under these arrangements, the town can recommend improvements of such recreational facilities. 31 The 1985 survey asked respondents about recreational improvements they felt were needed. The most frequently selected recreational.improvements were bike, walking, and. jogging paths (indicated as "important" by 68% of the respondents), followed by additional parking in the vicinity of ocean beach accessways (43%), additional ocean beach accessways (43%), additional marina and ramp facilities on Currituck Sound (37%), and additional ocean beach facilities (33%). Clearly of less importance were such facilities as playgrounds and ballfields (17%), and additional picnic areas (19%). Of medium importance are tennis courts (29%) and additional swimming access to Currituck Sound (25%). Thus, bike, walking and jogging paths and access to ocean and sound shorelines emerge as recreational improvements perceived to be of high priority. POLICY D-1. THE TOWN WILL STUDY THE FEASIBILITY OF CONSTRUCTING BICYCLE, WALKING, AND JOGGING PATHS. POLICY D-2. THE TOWN WILL WORK WITH AND ENCOURAGE THE SOUTHERN SHORES CIVIC ASSOCIATION TO MAINTAIN, AND EXPAND WHERE NEEDED, THE BEACH, SOUND, AND LAGOON ACCESS POINTS AVAILABLE FOR USE BY THE RESIDENTS OF SOUTHERN SHORES. POLICY D-3. THE TOWN WILL WORK WITH THE SOUTHERN SHORES CIVIC ASSOCIATION TO ,INCREASE THE OCEAN BEACH PARKING AREA FOR THE NEAR TERM AND STUDY ALTERNATIVES TO PROVIDE ADDITIONAL OCEAN AND*SOUND BEACH PARKING FOR THE LONG TERM. POLICY D-4. THE TOWN WILL CONTINUE TO ENCOURAGE THE CONSTRUCTION OF DUNE WALKOVER STRUCTURES ALONG THE OCEAN. 32 E. Traffic and Transportation About 35 miles of hard-surface roads interlace the community, 30 miles of Town roads and two State highways (U.S. 158, along the southern boundary, and S.R. 1200 (Duck Road), which runs north into the Currituck Banks). The primary interior Town roads are North Dogwood.Trail which runs north from U.S. 158 and parallel to the sound,.East Dogwood Trail which runs East from North Dogwood Trail to the ocean and, Duck Road which runs North and South parallel to.the ocean. A minorconnection between U.S. 158 and Duck Road exists via the Chicahauk Road network. Internally, most roads feed into either Dogwood Trail (soundside) or Duck Road (6ceanside). Two additional interior roads (Hickory and Hillcrest), ;which,serve the open dunes area, connect with Duck Road to the east and merge into Dogwood Trail to the west. Thus, although there are several roads which feed into (or receive traffic from) Duck Road, these ultimately converge into a single east/west interior connector, East Dogwood Trail. Through-traffic (autos, trucks, campers) going to or coming from Duck and the Currituck Banks often seek "short cuts".over Town roads increasing the volume. The community does not have nor does it desire public transit service. The concept of a seasonal Outer.Banks public bus, at no financial obligation to the Town, is supported. Growth within Southern Shores and especially north and south of the Town will continue. Current problems and conditions will be exacerbated: (a) heavier traffic flow along U.S. 158 and on S.R. 1200 north to-Duck and b.eyond into the Currituck Banks; (b) more hazardous intersections; (c) increasing dangers to families walking to the beach and to joggers and bicyclists; and (d) a larger evacuation burden. A southern east/west internal connector is precluded due to the location of the golf-course. 33 The Town believes it can make such internal road adjustments as will be required. It is,virtually helpless, however, to correct or ameliorate problems arising from greatly increased traffic flows to the Outer Banks beaches and particularly the increase of traffic northward into the Currituck Banks whose only outlet, at.this time, is to the south, thus traversing Southern Shores on both its eastern and southern flanks. In a very real sense, Southern Shores.is at the vortex, not only of burgeoning seasonal traffic but also for emergency evacuation affecting the entire northern banks. Viable solutions to these traffic problems are extremely limited. Although the Town is powerless to provide direct access to the Currituck Banks from the Currituck mainland, it has gone on record in two resolutions supporting this-alternative. Some problems can be mitigated however with State cooperation., This includes lower speed limits, strict traffic enforcement, clear and visible intersections and rights-of-way with appropriate turn lanes, well maintained road surfaces and shoulders, etc. It is important to note that road maintenance is perceived to be of very high importance to residents and property owners in Southern Shores.. From a list of 18 public services and facilities provided in the 1985 Survey, more respondents selected local road maintenance as being "most important" than any other service or facility. 34 POLICY E-1. THE PRESENT NATURE AND CAPACITY OF DUCK ROAD ARE COMPATIBLE WITH THE PRESENT AND INTENDED CHARACTER OF THE TOWN OF SOUTHERN SHORES. THE TOWN IS OPPOSED TO ANY.SIGNIFICANT CHANCE IN DUCK ROAD BUT STRONGLY SUPPORTS REGULAR MAINTAINCE OF IT. POLICY E-2. THE TOWN SUPPORTS THE CONCEPT OF PROVIDING VEHICULAR ACCESS TO THE CURRITUCK BANKS IFROM THE CURRITUCK MAINLAND BY MEANS OF A BRIDGE OR FERRY. THIS WOULD PROTECT THE CHARACTER OF SOUTHERN SHORES, THE GURRITUCK BANKS, AND WOULD PROVIDE A BADLY NEEDED HURRICANE EVACUATION ROUTE. POLICY E-3. THE TOWN STRONGLY URGES THE N.C. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TO CONDUCT STUDIES AND TO DEVELOPPLANS FOR DEALING WITH TRAFFIC TO AND FROM CURRITUCK BANKS BEFORE IT.BECOMES A MAJOR.,PROBLEM. POLICY E-4. THE EAST-WEST PORTION OF U.S. 158 THAT RUNS ALONG THE SOUTHERN BOUNDARY OF SOUTHERN SHORES IS A VITAL LINK BETWEEN SOUTHERN SHORES AND THE MAINLAND AND OTHER PARTS OF THE OUTER BANKS. THE TOWN URGES THE N.C. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TO INSURE THAT ADEQUATE OPPORTUNITIES FOR INGRESS AND EGRESS TO AND FRO14 SOUTHERN,SHORES ARE PROVIDED IN WHATEVER CHANGES MAY BE MADE TO THIS ROAD IN THE FUTURE. To the extent the Town can, on its own authority, implement the above recommendations it plans to do so as the circumstances warrant. -,To the extent the initiative and determination resides in State agencies, the Town will solicit careful consideration and 'appropriate support or action by such agencies. 35 Hurricane and Storm Evacuation Southern Shores participates in an overall Dare County Civil Preparedness Evacuation Plan. While the town feels comfortable that its portion of the County Plan is workable, there is a large degree of dependence on other governments and agencies, and the efficiency of the total plan has not been tested. Southern Shores' concerns in this area focus on the possibility of bumper-to-bumper evacuee traffic from the north and the south converging on the Town and Wright Bridge with no opportunity for Town evacuees to break into the traffic stream or worse, a grid lock. While a full-scale evacuation exercise is impractical, a plan of this type can and should be evaluated analytically. POLICY E-5. THE TOWN RECOMMENDS THAT THE COUNTY CONTINUE TO REEVALUATE THE DARE COUNTY EVACUATION AND OTHER EMERGENCY PROCEDURES. An important determinant of the ability of Southern Shores residents to evacuate in the event of a hurricane is the capacity of Wright Bridge. The 1985 community survey asked several questions concerning this capacity. When asked whether the residents believed that existing roads and bridges were adequate for hurricane.evacuation, approximately 50% indicated that they were not, while about 23% did not have a strong opinion one way or the other. 'When asked the more specific question of whether the Wright Bridge should be expanded to four lanes, a more divided response resulted. While 37% supported this idea, 36% were opposed to it. When asked whether ah additional bridge to the mainland should be constructed, a similar split resulted, with about 35% supporting this idea and about 49% opposing it. Thus, no strong consensus for such improvements appears to exist in the community. Of these two options, however, expanding the Wright Bridge is the least offensive. 36 F. Public Service and Facilities Water for Household Consumption Water for household consumption is obtained from wells on Roanoke Island and disbributed through the Dare County Regiondl.Water System. This system has been in operation for several years. The major overhead storage tank for the northern end of the Dare Beaches is located in Southern Shores, insuring adequate pressure for distribution. The central water system has been projected to satisfy the requirements of the County through 1990, but growth in the county and geologic problems at the wells has brought this projection into question. POLICY F-1. DRINKING WATER FROM WELLS AND SURFACEWATERS IN THE AREA IS BELIEVED TO BE FREE OF HARMFUL CONTAMINANTS. THERE HAS BEEN NO INDICATION THAT WATER QUALITY PROBLEMS EXIST IN THE COMMUNITY. IT IS THE POLICY OF THE TOWN TO PROTECT THE QUALITY OF ITS WATER SUPPLY FROM WHATEVER SOURCE OF CONTAMINATON. The County Health Department-confirms the satisfactory quality of tap water at most rental housing units in the Town on an annual basis. The Town. has conducted a quality testing program for surface water (ponds, lagoons, bay, sound) to confirm the satisfactory quality of these waters as.well. it is important to note that citizens of Southern Shores perceive the provision of water to be of high importance. The results of the 1985 community survey indicate that nearly half of the respondents rated the water system at "most important" among the list.of services and facilities. 37 Need for Central Wastewater Treatment In making an analysis of wastewater and disposal facilities, extensive data has been accumulated from a 1977 Soil Survey of the Outer Banks made by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service. Additional information and advice has been secured from the N.C. Department of Human Resources, Division of Health Services; the N.C. Shellfish Sanitation Commission; and, the Dare County Health Department. The conclusions reached are that in most developed areas of Southern Shores the soils are suitable for individual septic systems. In a few instances where soils are questionable, septic system design and special soil preparation can probably render the sites acceptable; the large lot size in Southern Shores (averaging over 20,000 sq. ft.) minimizes problems of contamination from individual septic systems. Multi-family development requires an approved public or community disposal system. POLICY F-2. DUE TO THE IARGE LOTS FOR RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT, THE DESIGN OF SUBDIVISIONS WHICH HAS LEFT THE MORE UNFAVORABLE SOILS IN OPEN SPACE AND THE GENERALLY FAVORABLE SOILS FOR ON-LOT SEWAGE DISPOSAL, THE TOWN WILL BE ABLE TO ACCOMMODATE FUTURE GROWTH ON SEPTIC SYSTERS. IT IS THE POLICY OF THE TOWN TO CONTINUE THIS PRACTICE SO THAT A CENTRAL SYSTEM WILL NOT BE NECESSARY. This is monitored and implemented by the Dare County Health Department and the Town Building Inspector. The zoning ordinance specifies minimum lot sizes and requires a community or "package" system for other than single- family detached dwellings. The Town has adopted an ordinance regulating waste water treatment which focuses primarily on multi-family structures and "package" systems. 38 Solid Waste Collection Solid waste collection is a matter of special importance in Southern Shores as it is in many similar communities. The Town has entered into an agreement with a private contractor who will provide services designed to meet the needs of the individual customer. POLICY F-3. THE TOWN WILL CONTINUE TO ENSURE THAT SOLID WASTE COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL CAPACITY IS SUFFICIENT TO MEET THE FUTURE NEEDS OF SOUTHERN SHORES BY CONTRACTING WITH A QUALIFIED SERVICE, PUBLIC-OR PRIVATE. THE TOWN WILL NOT SET UP A COLLECTION SERVICE OF ITS OWN IN THE FORMABLE FUTURE. Fige and Police Protection Respondents to the 1985 community survey rated police and fire protection high in importance among a list of public services. From a list of 18, police and fire ranked second and third in terms of the number of respondents indicating these services as "most important." POLICY F-4. IT IS THE [email protected] THE TOWN TO INSURE THAT EFFICIENT FIRE AND POLICE PROTECTION IS PROVIDED TO RESIDENTS. Library Service Library service is provided by the Dare, County Library in Manteo from a central 40,000 volume, 10,000 square foot facility. A bookmobile visits Southern Shores twice a month and a book drop is conveniently located. Decentralization of the present system is being considered. Public Educatio Southern Shores is served by the Dare County Public School System. Ki tty Hawk Elementary School is located in Southern Shores. An expansion program 39 was completed in 1982 and another is planned for 1988. Students in Southern Shores attend Kitty Hawk School for K-5, Manteo Middle School for grades 6-8, and Manteo High School for grades 9-12. The location of Kitty Hawk School in Southern Shores is not only convenient for the.attendance of the younger children but also provides an excellent playground and location for community meetings and [email protected] Medical Services There are several physicians in private practice within a 20-mile radius of Southern Shores, Health Services are provided to. the Town and its residents by the Dare County Health Department in Manteo, N.C. The Outer Banks Medical Center is a non-profit, outpatient, 24-hour facility located in Nags Head. The Center is staffed by three physicians and a normal complement of paraprofessional and administrative personnel. This Center provides a vital service to the community and it has grown to meet the needs of the population it serves. General hospitals are located in Elizabeth City and Norfolk. It is unlikely that the beach area will be able to support a hospital in the foreseeable future. Emergency movement and.evacuation is a critical link between the services of the local doctors, the Medical Center, and the hospitals. Dare County has placed all emergency evacuation service under a Director of Emergency Medical Service and ambulance drivers are county employees. POLICY F-5. IT IS THE POLICY OF THE TOWN TO MONITOR THE NEED FOR ADDITIONAL PUBLIC SERVICES AND FACILITIES, SUCH AS MEDICAL AND EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES, AND TO ENSURE THAT THESE KEEP PACE WITH FUTURE GROWTH. 40 Utility Lines Southern Shores is served by Carolina Telephone and Telegraph Company and by the North Carolina Power Company. The telephone company has a'substation in Southern Shores. Both companies provide hook-up, as required, to all areas of the Town. Since the mid-1960s, utility lines in Southern Shores have.been placed underground. The older sections of the Town (in the lower beach and dune areas), however, are still served by overhead lines. Overhead utility lines in a treeless beach area are particularly unattractive and are vulnerable to the severe weather conditions of the Outer Banks. Unfortunately, the few overhead lines feed the underground lines, so whenever the overhead lines go out the underground lines are out, too. Less than severe weather conditions can cause salt build-up on lines and transformers which can also cause power loss. Property owners' response in the 1985 survey was,in favor of working with the utility companies to place existing wires underground and, if necessary, to pay for the project from a combination of general revenues and assessment of affected property.owners. POLICY F-6. THE TOWN WILL CONTINUE TO WORK WITH THE UTILITY COMPANIES TO DEVELOP A LONG-RANGE PROGRAM TO PLACE ALL EXISTING LOCAL SERVICE AND TRANSMISSION LINES UNDERGROUND. 41 G.' Public Participation The Southern Shores community has always encouraged active participation of its residents in public affairs. Incorporation has not seen a lessening of this attitude. Town meetings, public hearings, Civic Association meetings, etc., are lively and well-attended. The Town will continue to encourage active participation in all of it's planning activities and will provide ample opportunity for those who choose to do so. POLICY G-1. THE SOUTHERN SHORES LAND USE PLAN WILL BE REVIEWED AND UPDATED PERIODICALLY. THE PUBLIC WILL BE ENCOURAGED TO PARTICIPATE IN ALL PHASES OF THE UPDATE PROCESS. The Southern Shores Planning Board will review the Land Use Plan no less frequently than every two years and, if appropriate, will recommend changes to the Town Council. H. Coordination and Cooperation Both before and after incorporation the Town of Southern Shores received. a great deal of assistance from state, county, and neighboring town governments. It is the intent of the Town to continue this spirit of coordination and cooperation and to reciprocate wherever and whenever possible. The Town has supported, and continues to support, both formal and informal efforts among local government leaders and agencies to work together to solve common problems. POLICY H-1. THE TOWN WILL CONTINUE TO COORDINATE AND COOPERATE WITH STATE, COUNTY, AND NEIGHBORING COMMUNITY GOVERNMENTS ON COM14ON PROBLEMS AND OTHER AREAS OF INTEREST. 42 Compatible development along a community's boundaries is of vital interest to its citizens. Southern Shores is 'no exception. The Town's eastern boundary is the Atlantic Ocean..,On the west it is bounded by Currituck Sound, Ginguite Bay, and Martins Point. The extraterritorial jurisdiction the Town exercises over Martins Point provides adequate control over the western boundary. POLICY-H-2. THE TOWN WILL WORK WITH DARE COUNTY AND THE TOWN OF KITTY HAWK TO INSURE THAT THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROPERTIES ADJACENT TO THE TOWN Is COMPATIBLE WITH THE EXISTING OR PLANNED DEVELOPMENT. I. Land Classification Southern Shores is divided into two distinct areas (see map on following page): POLICY I-1. DEVELOPED. THAT PORTION OF THE CONMUNITY THAT HAS BEEN SUBDIVIDED AND/OR TO WHICH AT LEAST SOME URBAN SERVICES, SUCH AS ROADS, WATER AND UTILITIES ARE AVAILA13LE IS CLASSIFIED AS DEVELOPED. THIS DOES NOT NECESSARILY MEAN THAT STRUCTURES'HAVE ALREADY BEEN BUILT ON THE LAND. WHAT IT DOES MEAN IS THAT THIS LAND IS APPROPRIATE FOR DEVELOPMENT AND MAY BE DEVELOPED AT ANY TIM E SUBJECT TO THE OTHER POLCIES OF THIS PLAN, THE ZONING ORDINANCE AND OTHER RELEVANT POLICY. POLICY 1-2. CONSERVATION. THAT PORTION OF THE COMMUNITY, WHICH BECAUSE OF ITS SPECIAL NATURE AND VALUE TO THE COMMUNITY SHOULD NEVER BE DEVELOPED MTHE USUAL SENSE TO THE TERM; HOWEVERi SOME SITE MODIFICATION OR CONSTRUCTION MAY BE.APPROPRIATE DEPENDING ON THE NATURE AND VALUE OF THE SITE. -FOR EXAMPLE AN AREA ON CURRITUCK SOUND COULD BE DEVELOPED FOR COMMUNITY RECREATIONAL PURPOSES. LAND CLASSIFICATION Developed OCEAN Conservation FLJ- L SPINn-l A TLA NT1 ILO 0 9 U x ISM, - Co kE. DUCK' WOODS G 0 L F C L CURRI TUCK SOUND N o, I h GINGUiTE BAY 4000 2000 0 lost M TOWN OF SOUTHERN SHORES ------ 1986 .he preparation of this document was financed in part through a grant provided by the North Carolina Coastal Management Program, @-hrough funds provided by the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972, as amended, which is administered by ,@- @FFI - @ I , _ , , , , , I - 44 J. Hurricane Hazard Mitigation and Reconstruction Policy Coastal storms and hurricanes, once viewed as freak occurrences, are now recognized as a part of the natural coastal processes and the damage to human settlements is the result of locating these settlements where these natural processes occur. Recognizing that storms do occur and will continue to occur and that the Town of Southern Shores is clearly in an area where significant damage may result the question arises as to what policies, if any, the Town should pursue. There are three basic approaches that are used in efforts to make construction in areas subject to severe coastal storms.less likely to be damaged by these storms. The most widely used approach is to "stiffen" the barrier island so that the wave action, storm surge and flooding will not reach the settlement. This. -has been done with bulkheads, groins, jetties, revetments and other devices. Experience has shown that these efforts to change the very nature of a barrier island.from energy absorbing to an energy deflecting have been very expensive and often result in the destruction of the beaches. A Variation on this theme is beach renourishment which involves replacing beach sands lost to natural processes (perhaps exacerbated by human intervention)with sand pumped in from some other place. This too has proven to be very costly and often ephemeral in that the new sand frequently stays in place for only a short period of time. A second measure is to build'structures so that they can better withstand the effects of the storm: flooding, wind, and wave action. Studies have shown that des ign and construction standards which are appropriate for the coastal area cannot eliminate storm damage but they can greatly reduce it. HAZARD AREA OCEAN A'rL,ANTi.C V 0 Sf. 'J L.LC F. $1 0 DUCK WOODS G 0 L F CL CURRI TUCK SOUND GINQUITE 4000 2000 0 too I BAY AA A R T I POINT TOWN OF SOUTHERN SHORES The preparation of this document was financed in part through a grant provided by the North Carolina Coastal Management Program, through funds provided by the Coastal Zone Management Ac t Of J972, 0,@ ,,,[email protected](I, whi,h [email protected] @Aj,4 4 , 46 A third measure is to manage development so that the amount of development built in hazardous areas is minimized. The early settlers of the Outer Banks recognized this and built their settlements in the higher and more sheltered areas. Later development was built closer to the ocean but still in back of the frontal dunes and hence sheltered from at least some of the storm forces. Recent development has sought to be "right on the beach," in the most hazardous area. Fortunately the pattern of development in Southern Shores from the very outset has been to encourage development well back from the ocean, out of hazardous areas. Low density development is less prone to "domino" damage in which one failing structure damages others. .In order to avoid damage from coastal storms and hurricanes the Town of Southern Shores: POLICY J-1. SUP-PORTS THE COASTAL RESOURCES COMMISSION POLICY LIMITING THE USE OF BARRIER ISLAND "STIFFENING,- POLICY J-2. DOES NOT ANTICIPATE AND WILL NOT SUPPORT BEACH NOURISHMENT AS A TOWN ACTIVITY; POLICY J-3. WILL VIGOROUSLY ENFORCE THE STATE BUILDING CODE AND WILL ACTIVLY COOPERATE WITH THE BUILDING CODE COUNCIL IN THEIR EFFORTS TO IMPROVE THE COASTAL PROVISIONS.; POLICY J-4. ENCOURAGES HOME OWNERS TO EXAMINE EXISTING STRUCTURES AND TO RETROFIT THEM, WHERE APPROPRIATE, WITH NEW STRENGTHENING DEVICES AND/OR TO REPLACE THOSE THAT MAY HAVE RUSTED OR ERODED. 47 POLICY J-5. WILL ENCOURAGE PUBLIC AND SEMI-PUBLIC BUILDING PROJECTS TO CONSIDER DESIGN AND LOCATION PROGRAMS WHICH WILL PERMIT THE BUILDING TO BE USED AS A STORM SHELTER. POLICY J-6. ENCOURAGE BUILDERS TO LOCATE WASTE WATER TREATMENT FACILITIES AWAY FROM HAZARDOUS AREA. POLICY J-7. ENCOURAGE THE DESIGN AND PLACEMENT OF ALL NEW CONSTRUCTION SO AS TO MINIMIZE THE IMPACT OF STORMS. POLICY J-8. WILL ADHERE TO THE EXISTING PATTERN OF DEVELOPMENT SINCE IT HAS PRODUCED A SETTLEMENT PATTERN IN WHICH A COMPARATIVELY MINISCULE AMOUNT OF PROPERTY IS AT HIGH RISK. POLICY J-9. RECONSTRUCTION FOLLOWING A STORM WILL BE REQUIRED TO FOLLOW DEVELOPMENT PATTERNS ESTABLISHED IN THIS PLAN, THE ZONING ORDINANCE AND SUBDIVISION ORDINANCE. IT IS CLEAR THAT LOW DENSITY SINGLE-FAMILY.RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT IS DESIRED BY THE RESIDENTS AND LAND OWNERS OF SOUTHERN SHORES AND THAT THIS PATTERN OF DEVELOPMENT MINIMIZES THE AMOUNT OF PROPERTY AND THE NUMBER OF LIVES AT RISK AND IT IS THEREFORE THE POLICY OF THE TOWN OF SOUTHERN SHORES THAT ANY RECONSTRUCTION FOLLOWING A STORM SHOULD CONFORM TO THE ESTABLISHED PATTERN OF DEVELOPMENT. POLICY J-10. EVACUATION PLANNING IS THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE COUNTY. THE TOWN OF SOUTHERN SHORES WILL CONTINUE TO COOPERATE WITH THE COUNTY TO INSURE THAT THE COUNTY PLAN IS AS EFFECTIVE AS IT CAN BE. AT THE SAME TIME IT IS RECOGNIZED THAT EVACUATION OF THE TOWN INVOLVES NOT ONLY DARE COUNTY BUT.TO A 48 VERY GREAT EXTENT CURRITUCK COUNTY AND THE STATE OF VIRGINIA. THE TOWN WILL ENCOURAGE APPROPRIATE COMM AND STATE OFFICIALS TO INSURE THAT THE EVACUATION PLANS OF THE ENTIRE REGION ARE CAREFULLY COORDINATED. J-11. ENCOURAGES INDIVIDUAL PREPAREDNESS AND WILL.INSTITUTE LOCAL PRACTICES TO HELP INSURE THAT LOCAL RESIDENTS AND GUESTS-KNOW WHAT TO DO IN THE EVENT OF A MAJOR STORM. K. General The results of both the 1980 survey and the 1985 survey make it abundantly clear that the residents and land owners of the Town of Southern Shores chose to live and buy land in Southern Shores because of the natural setting of the Town and because they believed that the Town could and would reserve that natural setting while allowing the Town to develop as a low density, single family residential community. This entire plan is committed to that end. The objectives of residents of other parts of the Outer Banks appear to be similar if not identical and the land use plans of many of the localities reflect this. There are, however, a number of realities that affect the quality of life that are beyond.the control of individual communities. Examples have been mentioned in this plan: hurricane evacuation, transportation, and water supply. POLICY K-1. THE TOWN OF SOUTHERN SHORES URGES THE COUNTY, THE ALBEMARLE COMMISSION AND THE N.C. COASTAL RESOURCES COMMISSION TO EXPLORE WAYS IN WHICH THESE AND OTHER ISSUES THAT AFFECT THE ENTIRE REGION CAN BE ADDRESSED AS A WHOLE RATHER THAN PIECEMEAL. 49 The quality of life in southern shores and the outer banks depends on the ability of the natural and human built systems to absorb the impacts of development. When the amount or type of development exceeds the capacity of these systems the quality of life suffers, perhaps irreparably. POLICY K-2. IT IS THE POLICY OF THE TOWN OF SOUTHERN SHORES TO INSURE THAT THE TYPE AND A14OUNT OF DEVELOPMENT DOES NOT EXCEED THE ABILITY OF THE NATURAL AND HUMAN BUILT SYSTEMS TO ABSORB THAT DEVELOPMENT WITHOUT CAUSING IRREPARABLE DAMAGE. Appendix I Transition of the 1980 Land Use Plan To insure that there was an adequate transition made between the previous Land Use Plan and this plan each policy of the previous plan was examined to determine the extent to which each had been carried out and whether it should be incorporated into this plan. What follows is a list of all of those .policies and a brief discussion of each.'. .POLIGY 1. The basic objective within the ocean erodible areas is to maintain the line of oceanfront sand dunes by protecting the vegetation which. stabilizes the dune system. The Town currently implements this policy by: (a) prohibiting the constru ction of buildings within the Ocean Erodible Areas; (b) enforcing an ordinance banning use of vehicles off roads; (6) encouraging the construction of wooden walkways and steps to the beach, as* well as elevated observation platforms; and, finally (d) encouraging the installation of sand fences in areas where erosion has occurred. This continues to be the policy of the Town and is incorporated into th e present Land Use Plan as Policy-C-1. POLICY 2. Within the high hazard flood areas the Town will enforce the standards prescribed by the Federal Insurance.Administration. This continues to be the policy of the Town and is incorporated into the present Land Use Plan as Policy C-2, POLICY 3. THE TOWN WILL WORK WITH THE APPROPRIATE STATE AND FEDERAL AGENCIES IN PROTECTING THE INTECRITY,,OF PUBLIC TRUST WATERS WITHIN SOUTHERN SHORES. 51 This continues to be the policy of the Town and is incorporated into the present Land Use Plan as Policy C-3. POLICY 4. THE TOWN RECOGNIZES THE IMPORTANCE OF COASTAL WETLANDS AS A BREEDING GROUND FOR FISH, SHRIMP AND CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS AND PLANTS. NO SPECIFIC DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITY IS CURRENTLY PERMITTED WITHIN THIS AEC. This continues to be the policy of the Town and is incorporated into the present Land Use Plan as Policy C-4. POLICY 5. THE TOWN WORKS.CLOSELY WITH THE COUNTY HEALTH DEPARTMENT AND WITH THE STATtOFFICE OF COASTAL MANAGEMENT IN MANAGING ESTUARINE SHORELINES. this continues to be the policy of the Town and is incorporated into the. present Land Use Plan as Policy C-5. POLICY 6. IT IS THE POLICY OF THE TOWN TO IDENTIFY A VARIETY OF NATURAL RESOURCES WHICH DO NOT QUALIFY FOR AEC STATUS UNDER CAMA: TO ENCOURAGE THE RETENTION OF FOREST GROWTH AND NATURAL PLANT COMMUNITIES, INCLUDING THE PROTECTION OF MARITIME FOREST AREAS: TO MAINTAIN A SUITABLE HABITAT FOR ANIMALS AND BIRDS INDIGENOUS TO THE AREA: AND TO DISTURB THE NATURAL TERRAIN AS LITTLE AS POSSIBLE. The Town has implemented this policy by: (a) designating the Town as a Bird Sanctuary;,(b) enacting an ordinance prohibiting the use of firearms within Town limits; and, (c) prohibiting off-road use of vehicles. The Town Council and the Civic Association encourage citizens to protect such resources on a voluntary basis. The Town will also consider amendments to its development ordinances which will work to protect vegetated areas, and which will restrict the amount of vegetation.that is permitted to be lost during the development process. 52 This continues to be the policy of the Town and is incorporated into the present Land Use Plan as Policy C-6. POLICY 7. DRINKING WATER FROM WELLS AND SURFACE WATERS IN THE AREA ARE BELIEVED TO BE FREE OF HARMFUL CONTAMINANTS. THERE HAS BEEN NO INDICATION THAT HARMFUL WATER QUALITY PROBLEMS EXIST IN THE COMMUNITY. Drinking water is now obtained from the regional water system operated by Dare County. This continues to be the policy of the Town and is incorporated into the present Land Use Plan as Policy F-1. POLICY 8. DUE TO THE IARGE LOTS FOR RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT, THE DESIGN.OF SUBDIVISIONS WHICH HAS LEFT THE MORE UNFAVORABLE SOILS IN OPEN SPACE, AND THE GENERALLY FAVORABLE SOILS FOR ON-LOT SEWAGE DISPOSAL, THE TOWN WILL BE ABLE TO ACCOMMODATE FUTURE GROWTH ON SEPTIC SYSTEMS. IT IS NOT ANTICIPATED THAT A PUBLIC SEWER SYSTEM WILL BE NECESSARY. This continues to be the policy of the Town and is incorporated into the present Land Use Plan as Policy F-2. POLICY 9. -THE TOWN WILL SEEK-REMEDIES TO AVERT FLOODING SUCH AS THAT WHICH OCCURRED DURING THE ASH WEDNESDAY STORM. There are no economically feasible options for dealing with this. The general concern is dealt with in Policy J-1 et seq. POLICY 10. THE TOWN WILL RECOMMEND THAT THE COUNTY SPONSOR AN ANALYTICAL EVALUATION OF THE DARE COUNTY EMERGENCY EVACUATION PROCEDURES. .This is being addressed in the carrying capacity study being done by Dare County and is also addressed in Policy E-5, Policy J-10, and Policy K-1 of the present plan. 53 POLICY 11. THE TOWN IS PRIMARILY A RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITY AND THEREFORE DOES NOT DESIRE TO PROMOTE AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY, MINING, FISHERIES, INDUSTRY, ENERGY FACILITIES, OR TOURIST-REIATED RECREATION. This continues to be the policy of the Town and is incorporated into the present Land Use Plan as Policy B-1. POLICY 12. THE TOWN WILL SEEK TO ACQUIRE AND MANAGE ALL INLAND WATERWAYS (LAGOONS) CONNECTING WITH CURRITUCK SOUND AND GINGUITE BAY FOR THE PURPOSE OF PROVIDING A SINGLE TOWN ENTITY FOR THEIR MANAGEMENT. POLICY 13. THE TOWN WILL ENACT APPROPRIATE ORDINANCES REGULATING SPECIFIC MATTERS PERTINENT TO THE CONTROL, MANAGEMENT, AND PRESERVATION OF INLAND WATERWAYS AND THEIR USE (OR ABUSE) SUCH AS THE CONSTRUCTION OF PIERS, BULKHEADS, BOAT OPERATIONS, NOISE, LITTER, AND POIJUTANTS. POLICY 14. THE TOWN IN COOPERATION WITH ALL OTHER INTERESTED PARTIES (SOUTHERN SHORES CIVIC ASSOCIATION, CHICAHAUK IMPROVEMENT ASSOCIATION, KITTY HAWK LAND COMPANY) WILL DEVELOP A LONG RANGE POLICY REGARDING THE PRESERVATION, MAMENANCE, AND MANAGEMENT OF ALL PROPERTIES BORDING ON ALL BODIES OF WATER - INLAND, SOUND, AND OCEAN. SUCH POLICIES SHOULD CONSIDER CONTINGENCIES LIKELY TO ARISE FROM EMERGENCY CONDITIONS SUCH AS FLOODS, HURRICANES, AND STORMS. These policies are being implemented by regulatory and management provisions of an ordinance adopted by the Town. - The concerns are addressed in Policies B-3, B-4 and B-5 of the present plan. POLICY 15. THE TOWN DESIRES TO MAINTAIN A MIX OF RESIDENTIAL ZONING. MULTI- FAMILY DISTRICTS ARE ACCEPTABLE AS CONSTITUTED AND WILL NOT BE INCREASED. 54 POLICY 16. THE COMMERCIAL ZONE IS ACCEPTABLE AS CURRENTLY CONSTITUTED AND WILL NOT BE INCREASED. USES PERMITTED IN THE COMMERCIAL ZONE WILL ONLY BE THOSE THAT SERVE THE COMMUNITY OF SOUTHERN SHORES AND THAT THE CITIZENS DESIRE. POLICY 17. THE TOWN WILL RESTRICT MOTELS/HOTELS TO A SEPARATE ZONE IN THE VICINITY OF THE OLD SOUTHERN SHORES MOTOR LODGE. POLICY 18. OWNERS OF PROPERTY IN THE RS-1 DISTRICT ARE ENTITLED TO VISUAL AND NOISE BUFFERS FROM COMMERCIAL FACILITIES. POLICY 19. MAXIMUM BUILDING HEIGHT OF THIRTY FEET IS MORE CONSISTENT WITH COMMUNITY.HOUSING STANDARDS THAN THE CURRENTLY PERMITTED THIRTY-FIVE FEET. All of these policies have been and continue to be implemented by the Zoning Ordinance. Policies 15 and 16 are incorporatedinto the present Land Use Plan as Policies B-5 and B-6. Policy 17 has been obviated by a multi-family development that is to be built on that site. Policy 19 has been incorporated into the present Land Use Plan as Policy B-7. POLICY 20. THE TOWN WILL INITIATE PLANNING FOP, A NEW TOWN HALL AND TAKE ACTION TO ACQUIRE LAND FOR TOWN FACILITIES IN THE VICINITY OF THE FIRE STATION. The [email protected] was dedicated in 1985. POLICY 21. THE TOWN WILL START A CAPITAL IMPROVEMENT FUND. A capital improvements fund was established in 1981. The first improvement was the new Town Hall. 55 POLICY 22. THE TOWN WILL CONTINUE TO DEVELOP AND STUDY ALTERNATIVES TO THE CURRENT FIRE DEPARTMENT ORGANIZATION. The fire department has been reorganized. This concern is addressed in Policy F-4 of the present Land Use Plan. POLICY 23. THE TOWN WILL WORK WITH DARE COUNTY TO DEVELOP A POLICY ON EXTENSION OF THE WATER SYSTEM. The regional water system now serves all of Southern Shores. POLICY 24. THE OUTER BANKS MEDICAL CENTER RENDERS A VITAL SERVICE TOTHE COMMUNITY. THE TOWN WILL PROVIDE FULL SUPPORT TO THE CENTER AND ITS PROGRAMS. POLICY 25. THE TOWN SUPPORTS EFFORTS-TO IMPROVE EMERGENCY EVACUATION SERVICE AND WILL MONITOR THE QUALITY OF SERVICE PROVIDED. These continue to be of concern and are addressed in Policy F-5 of the present Land Use Plan. POLICY 26. THE TOWN WILL WORK WITH THE UTILITY COMPANIES TO DEVELOP A PROGRAM TO PIACE.ALL EXISTING AND FUTURE LOCAL SERVICE AND TRANSMISSION LINES UNDERGROUND. All new service and transmission lines are being placed underground. Placing existing lines underground continues to be an expensive problem. This continues to be the policy of the Town and is incorporated into the present Land Use Plan as Policy F-6. POLICY 27. THE TOWN WILL CONSULT AND COOPERATE WITH STATE AGENCIES IN THE DETERMINATION OF NECESSARY IMPROVEMENTS AND SAFEGUARDS ON U.S. 158 BORDERING THE TOWN ARISING OUT OF PROBABLE INCREASED TRAFFIC FLOW BROUGHT ABOUT BY ROAD IMPROVEMENTS TO U.S. 158 IN CURRITUCK COUNTY AND THE STEADY GROWTH OF THE ENTIRE OUTER BANKS AREA. 56 Improvements have been made and others are being planned. This continues to be the policy.of the Town and is incorporated into the present Land Use Plan as Policy E-4. POLICY 28. THE TOWN WILL CONSULT WITH AND SEEK STATE ASSISTANC E IN EFFORTS TO MITIGATE THE IMPACTS OF I NCREASED TRAFFIC ON DUCK ROAD (S.R. 1200) CAUSED BY ANY POSSIBLE STATE ACTION EXTENDI14G [email protected] 1200 INTO THE CURRI1tCK BANKS. DOT continues to monitor this situation by doing periodic traffic studies. The concern is addressed in Policies E-1, E-2, and E-3 of the present Land Use Plan. POLICY 29. THE TOWN WILL URGE THE STATE TO PROCEED IMMEDIATELY TO IMPLEMENT ITS DECISION (FOLLOWING A PUBLIC HEARING IN JULY 1979) TO CORRECT HAZARDOUS AND BOTTLENECK TRAFFIC CONDITIONS NOW EXISTING AT THE 6-WAY INTERSECTION OF U.S. 158, BY-PASS 158, SKYLINE ROAD, PIER ROAD, AND S.R. 1200ACCESS. (PROJECT W-441) This has been completed. POLICY 30. THE TOWN WILL REQUEST T HAT THE STATE STUDY TRAFFIC PROBLEMS AND HAZARDS AT INTERSECTIONS OF TOWN ROADS WITH U.S. 158 WI TH PARTICULAR ATTENTION TO THE DOGWOOD TRAIL INTERSECTION WHICH ALSO SERVES THE KITTY HAWK ELEMENTARY SCHOOL AND DUCK WOODS GOLF COURSE: AND THAT THE STATE-MONITOR, ON A PERIODIC BASIS, PEAK TRAFFIC FLOWS THROUGH SOUTHERN SHORES ON THE DUCK ROAD (S.R. 1200). This critical intersection is to be redesigned in 1986. This continues to be the policy of the Town and is incorporated into the present Land Use Plan as Policy E-4. 57 POLICY 31. THE TOWN WILL UNDERTAKE, WITH THE COOPERATION OF THE DEVELOPER, FEASIBLE MEANS TO PROVIDE AN EMERGENCY ACCESS EAST/WEST ROAD THROUGH THE NORTHWESTERN SECTOR OF THE TOWN CONNECTING WITH DOGWOOD TRAIL NORTH. This has been accomplished. POLICY 32. THE TOWN SUPPORTS A SEASONAL PUBLIC TRANSIT BUS, KITTY HAWK TO NAGS HEAD, WITHOUT ANY COMMITMENT OF TOWN REVENUES FOR ITS OPERATION. RESIDENTS HOWEVER HAVE OVERWHEIMINGLY INDICATED LACK OF INTEREST FOR PUBLIC TRANSIT WITH THE TOWN. No action is required. The concept is supported on Page 31 of the present Land Use.Plan. POLICY 33. THE TOWN WILL NOT ADVERTISE OR OTHERWISE PROMOTE THE COMMUNITY OF SOUTHERN SHOR ES IN AN ATTEMPT TO INCREASE YEAR-ROUND OR SEASONAL POPULATION. This has been accomplished. POLICY 34. THE TOWN WILL WORK WITH DARE COUNTY TO INSURE THAT ZONING AND DEVELOPMENT OF PROPERTIES ADJACENT TO ITS BOUNDARIES IS COMPATIBLE IN LAND USAGE WITH THAT EXISTING OR PLANNED FOR ADJACENT AREAS OF THE TOWN. Since this policy was adopted Kitty Hawk has been incorporated and has adopted a Land Use Plan and Zoning Ordinance. This continues to be the.policy of the Town and is incorporated into the present Land Use Plan as Policy H-2. POLICY 35. THE TOWN WILL CONTINUE TO COORDINATE AND COOPERATE WITH STATE, COUNTY AND NEIGHBORING COMMUNITY GOVERNMENTS ON COMMON PROBLEMS AND OTHER AREAS OF INTEREST. This continues to be the policy of the Town and is incorporated into the present Land Use Plan as Policy H-1. 58 POLICY 36. THE TOWN WILL STUDY THE FEASIBILITY OF ANNEXING THE GOLF COURSE AND MARTINS POINT. The golf course has been annexed. Martins Point does not qualify for .annexation at this time. POLICY 37. THE TOWN WILL STUDY THE FEASIBILITY OF CONSTRUCTING BICYCLE, WALKING, JOGGING PATHS. A study has indicated that building these paths would be very expensive. Other alternatives will be explored and this continues to be of interest in the 'present Land Use Plan. (Policy D-1). POLICY 38. THE TOWN WILL WORK WITH THE SOUTHERN SHORES CIVIC ASSOCIATION TO INCREASETHE OCEAN BEACH PARKING'AREA FOR THE NEAR TERM AND STUDY ALTERNATIVES TO PROVIDE ADDITIONAL BEACH PARKING FOR THE LONG TERM. The Southern Shores Civic Association has-com pleted a major expansion of the ocean beach parking area. Other areas have been selected for improvement. This contin ues to be the policy of the Town and is incorporated into the present Land Use Plan-as Policy D-2. POLICY 39. THE SOUTHERN SHORES LAND USE PLAN WILL BE REVIEWED AND UPDATED ANNUALLY. THE PUBLIC WILL BE OFFERED AN OPPORTUNITY TO PARTICIPATE IN ALL PHASES OF THE UPDATE PROCESS. This has been accomplished. This continues to be the policy of the Town and is incorporated into the present Land Use Plan as Policy G-1. Appendix II Summary of Attitudinal Survey As part of its land use plan update process, the Town of Southern Shores conducted a mail survey of attitudes about growth and development. Questionnaires were mailed to the 1,757 individuals owning property in the town; 836 completed surveys were returned, for a response rate of approximately 48%. Quite decidedly respondents do not want Southern Shores to become more tourist-oriented, or to increase its accommodation of*tourists (e.g., motels, retail shops). They appear to accept the inevitability of growth, but do not feel that Southern Shores should grow beyond the capacity of its existing facilities and services. If services and facilities must be expanded to accomodate future growth, respondents generally feel that it should be developers and new homeowners that bear the cost of these expansions, and not the public at-large. Respondents are very supportive of the need for carefully managing future growth in Southern Shores. About 96% either agreed or strongly agreed with the statement that future growth should be managed to minimize negative effects on environmental quality. When asked whether commercial uses shouldbe permitted in other parts of the town, 96% of the respondents 'answered in the negative. The fairly clear impression of respondents is that existing commercial areas are adequate, and should not be permitted to expand, either in existing locations or in other parts of the town. Hotels and motels, and gas stations, are considered by respondents to be most inappropriate commercial uses. Nearly 80% of the respondents to this question felt that hotels and motels were either inappropriate or very inappropriate. Most survey respondents (80%) felt that the existing 30 foot height limitation for single-family residential structures was adequate, while a majority of respondents (73%) believed that Southern Shores needs an ordinance to prevent the unnecessary loss of vegetation during the construction process. About 755 of the respondents believe that the town needs more open space in forested And vegetated areas. The natural environment emerges as a key feature to 'property owners and residents of Southern Shores.. About 94% of the respondents either agreed or strongly agreed with the statement they had chosen to live in Southern Shores because of the natural environment. A majority of respondents (63%) believe that the natural processes of the barrier island should be accepted as given and that they should not be significantly interferred with through the construction of seawalls, bulkheads, etc. even in the ocean area. Residents of Southern Shores are split on the issue of whether the Wright Bridge should be expanded to four lanes. Approximately 37% agreed or strongly 60 agreed that such improvements are needed, while about 45% disagree or strongly disagreed. Opinion was equally split on the need for an additional bridge to the mainland. Respondents were asked to evaluate the importance of a number of public services and facilities. Clearly the four categories most frequently selected as most important are: maintenance of local roads (63.5%), fire protection (61.75), police protection (57.9%), and water system (45.5%). This is not surprising as these are the most basic types of safety and life support services. a second tier of important services and facilities emerged, and includes the following: emergency management and hurricane evacuation (28.5%), need to bury utility lines (27.9%), public sewer (20.7%), traffic control and management (19.7%) and bike and walking trails (18.5%). Respondents are overwhelmingly in favor of cooperating with other beach communities in coordinating and consolidating selected services and facilities. Responses to an open-ended question yielded comments.which confirm the above findings. Generally, respondents indicated great concern for maintaining the single-family residential character of the community, protecting the natural envirorunent, and carefully managing future growth and development. @GAYLORD No. 2333. PRINTED IN U.S.A. 3 6668 14108 3354