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D. Cases alon the Calvert County and Lower Anne Arundel County shorelines This area contains the shoreline between the Patuxent River mouth and the Chesapeake Bay Rridge (Fiures 2.6 and 2.7). The sections below pres- ent a brief physical description of the shoreline and coastal processes, followed by a discussion of the case studies which were selected from this area. SHORELINE DESCRIPTIONS Calvert County The Calvert County shoreline along the Chesapeake Bay is composed mainly of large bluffs, hiher than 5O feet in many areas, which extend for several thousand feet at a stretch along the water's ede. The bluff faces are mostly exposed and eroding, hut they are covered with vines and shrubs in a few places. Sections of the bluffs are senarated by ravines and stream valleys which contain either woodlands or marsh. The beaches at the base of these bluffs are of varying widths and may contain small berms on the summer shoreline nrofiles. At Cove Point and near Long Beach, the beach is separated from the bluffs by a wide flat terrace which contains trees and open grassy areas. Most of the shorefront bluffs adjacent to the main Chesaneake Bay in Calvert County are heavily-wooded, with scattered residential develonment in among the trees. More concentrated residential development protected by shoreline structures can he found at the communities shown on the man. Houses in these areas are located both along the bluffs, and on the low berm that extends landward immediately adjacent to the beach. 2-48 WATER POLICIES FOR THE FUTURE Final Report to the President and to the Congress of the United States by the National Water Commission WASHINGTON, D.C. June 1973 For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402 Price- $9.30, domestic postpaid; $8.75, GPO Bookstore Stock Number 5248-00006 57- NATIONAL WATER COMMISSION 800 N. Quincy Street Arlington, Virginia 22203 June 14, 1973 The President The Honorable The Honorable The White House The Speaker of the House The President of the of Representatives Senate Dear Mr. President: Dear Mr. Speaker:. Dear Mr. President: The firial report of the National Water Commission is presented herewith in accordance with the provisions of Public Law 90-515, approved September 26, 1968, which established the Commission. The report contains the Commission's conclusions and recommendations on the policies which it believes the Nation should adopt at this point in its history for the efficient, equitable, and environmentally responsible management of its water resources. The Commission has examined virtually the entire range of water resources problems facing the Nation, including the effects of water management on the Nation's economy and on its environment and how the differences between these two major objectives can be best resolved. The problems of reconciling Federal and State water law have been addressed, as have the problems of integrating ground water and surface water management. Each of the important purposes for which water is used has been studied, and appropriate policies have been drawn for improving both water-related programs and organizational arrangements. Ways in which existing water supplies can be used more efficiently and pres ent supplies can be augmented have also been examined. Standards by which interbasin transfers of water and other kinds of water projects should be judged have been developed and ways in which water management decisionmaking can be improved have been formulated. The report considers the problems of acquiring basic water data and pursuing research so that management of the Nation's water resources can be more knowledgeably and effectively based. Finally, the financing of future water programs as well as the important question of how and by whom the cost of water programs should be paid are also addressed. Accompanying the Commission's discussion and conclusions on these and other aspects of water resources are specific recommendations for action at the Federal, State, and local levels. Many of these recommendations would require enactment of new legislation. Some, however, could be accomplished by executive action alone or by action of State and local entities. The Commission has had the cooperation of and extensive review and comments from all levels of government, from private organizations, and from interested citizens. For this and for the broad range of public participation incident to the preparation of this report, the Commission is grateful. It is particularly appreciative of the cooperation of the Water Resources Council and its constituent agencies for their helpful review and comments. Finally, the Commission acknowledges with gratitude the valuable work of its staff; the research and analysis of universities, firms, public agencies, and individuals who worked for the Commission under contract; and the advice and guidance received from the experts who served the Commission as consultants. The Commission transmits its final report to you with the earnest hope that it will contribute importantly to the timely and wise solution of America's water resources problems. Respectfully submitted, d6ali Charles F. Luce man @Howell Aqpphng@, @Jr OJames@ Roger C. Ernst R@ay @James E. Murphy Josiah Wheat The Commission Charles F. Luce, Chairman Chairman of the Board of Trustees and Chief Executive Officer, Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc., since 1967. Native of Platteville, Wisconsin. BA, LLB, University of Wisconsin; Sterling Fellowship, Yale Law School. Law clerk to Mr. Justice Hugo L. Black for the Supreme Court term of 1943-44. Attorney, Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, Oregon. Private practice of law for 15 years in Walla Walla, Washington. During 1947-61, served as general counsel for the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Pendleton, Oregon. Appointed Bonneville Power Administrator in 1961. Member of U.S. negotiating team which concluded protocols to the Treaty with Canada for cooperative development of the Columbia River. In 1966 President Johnson appointed Mr. Luce Under Secretary of the Interior. Member, Board of Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York; and of the Boards of Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, UAL, Inc., and United Airlines, Inc. Mr. Luce was appointed to the National Water Commission on October 9, 1968. Howell Appling, Jr. Founder and President, Independent Distributors, Inc., a wholesale farm equipment distribution firm in Portland, Oregon. Mr. Appling is an engineering graduate of Rice University; a former member of the State of Oregon Land Board; former Oregon Secretary of State; Director and former President, National Farm Equipment Wholesalers' Association; consultant to Oregon State University Agricultural Experiment Stations; Member, State of Oregon Investment Council; former member, State of Oregon Board of Control; former member, State of Oregon Banking Board; former water treatment engineer, Consolidated Chemical Industries, Inc., of Houston, Texas, and Baton Rouge, La. Mr. Appling was appointed April 9, 1969, to fill the place left vacant by Russell E. Train, who had resigned to become Under Secretary of the Interior. James R. Ellis Attorney and partner in the law firm of Preston, Thorgrimson, Ellis, Holman and Fletcher, Seattle, Washington; Member, Board of Regents, University of Washington, 1965 to date, President 1971-72; Trustee; The Ford Foundation, 1970 to date; Vice President and member of the Council, National Municipal League, 1968 to date; Member of the Council, Chairman of Emerging Issues Committee, past Chairman of Metropolitan Government Committee and American Institute of Planners Liaison Committee, Section of Local Government Law, American Bar Association; President, Forward Thrust, Inc., 1966 to date; President, Municipal League of Seattle and King County, 1962-64; Member, Washington State Planning Advisory Council, 1966-72;Member, Urban Transportation Advisory Council, U.S. Department of Transportation, 1970. Mr. Ellis was appointed to the National Water Commission on October 30, 1970. Roger C. Ernst Consultant, Arizona Public Service Company, and President, Central Arizona Water Conservation District. He also is a member of the Arizona State Water Quality Control Council and the Arizona Water Resources Council, and President of the Association on American Indian Affairs. Mr. Ernst was formerly State Land Commissioner, State Water commissioner, and State Engineer for Arizona. He was also formerly an Assistant Secretary of the Interior and served as General Manager of the Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation District, and Assistant to the General Manager of the Salt River Valley Water Users Association. He is a native of Colorado. Mr. Ernst was appointed to the National Water Commission on November 21, 1969. iv Ray K. Linsley Professor of Hydraulic Engineering, Stanford University. Also served as Executive Head, Department of Civil Engineering, Associate Dean, and Director of Program in Engineering-Economic Planning. Before joining the University, Mr. Linsley worked with the Tennessee Valley Authority and with the U.S. Weather Bureau. On leave from the University, he was Fulbright Professor at Imperial College of Science and Technology, London, England, and Staff Assistant, Office of Science and Technology, Washington, D.C. Mr. Linsley is consultant to various Federal agencies, State of California, World Meteorological Organization, UNESCO, and several foreign governments. He serves as President of Hydrocomp International and has authored several textbooks in hydrology and water resources engineering and numerous technical papers. He is a Registered Professional Engineer in California and Connecticut. Mr. Linsley has been a member of the National Water Commission since October 9, 1968. James E. Murphy Attorney and member of. the law firm of Murphy, Robinson, Heckathorn, and Phillips, Kalispell, Montana. Native of Laredo, Missouri; Member of the Missouri House of Representatives, 1939-41. Wheat rancher and a Director of the Conrad National Bank of Kalispell, Montana, Member of the Columbia Interstate Compact Commission. Montana representative on the Pacific Northwest River Basins Commission from 1966 to 1969. Member of the Montana House of Representatives 1967-73, and Chairman of its Judiciary Committee. Co-author, Montana Water Conservancy District Act. Former member of the Republican National Committee for Montana. Mr. Murphy was appointed to the National Water Commission on October 30, 1970. Josiah Wheat Partner in the law firm of Wheat, Wheat and Stafford of Woodville, Texas; Legal Counsel, Texas Water Quality Board; Assistant General Counsel, Lower Neches Valley Authority; formerly Chairman of the Board and twice President, Texas Water Conservation Association; Past President, State Bar of Texas; Member, House of Delegates, American Bar Association; Fellow, American Bar Foundation; Member, Executive Committee, State Bar of Texas Section on Environmental Law; Member, American Bar Association Special Committee on Environmental Law; Past President, Deep East Texas Council of Governments. Mr. Wheat was appointed to the National Water Commission on November 21, 1969. FORMER COMMISSIONERS Samuel S. Baxter (October 9, 1968 - October 30, 1970) Consulting Engineer; formerly Commissioner and Chief Engineer, Water Department, City of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Past National President, American Society of Civil Engineers, American Water Works Association, and American Public Works Association. Frank C'. Di Luzio (October 9, 1968 - November 21, 1969) Civil Engineer, Special Assistant to the Governor of New Mexico, formerly Vice President, Edgerton, Germeshausen and Grier, Inc., and President, Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Company, Inc. Mr. Di Luzio was also an Assistant Secretary of the Interior and prior to his appointment to that office he was Director of the Office of Saline Water in that Department. Clyde T. Ellis (October 9, 1968 - October 30, 1970) Attorney, Member of the staff of the Senate Appropriations Committee. Formerly General Manager of the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association and before that a Representative from Arkansas in the Congress of the United States. v Russell E. Train (October 9, 1968 - January 20, 1969) Attorney, Chairman of the Council on Environmental Quality, Executive Office of the President. Formerly Under Secretary of the Interior. Before that he was President, The Conservation Foundation, and a judge of the U.S. Tax Court. Myron A. Wright (October 9, 1968 - November 21, 1969) Civil Engineer, Executive Vice President, Exxon Corporation; Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer, Exxon Company, U.S.A. (formerly Humble Oil and Refining Company). Past President of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States and the National Wildlife Federation, and a governor of the U.S. Postal Service. APPRECIATION The Commission wishes to take this opportunity to express its sincere appreciation to the members of the staff and its consultants who gave so unstintingly of their time and efforts to help the Commission, to the former members of the Commission who helped lay the ground work, and particularly to recognize the wisdom and perspicacity of Professor Abel Wolman who helped guide the Commission in the deliberations which led to this report. The Commission pauses during its 44th Meeting on October 17,1972, for this photo. 1. to r. Murphy, Appling, Ernst, Schad, Luce, James Ellis, Linsley, Wheat. @51 IV A f IvW mow n4 T PROFESSIONAL STAFF* Executive Director Theodore M. Schad Deputy Director Howard L. Cook Assistant Director-Programs Ralph E. Fuhrman Assistant Director-Administration Robert N. Baker Assistant to the Director Florence Broussard Editor-in-Chief Myron B. Katz Legal Division Social and Behavioral Philip M. Glick, Legal Counsel Sciences Division Charles J. Meyers Lyle E. Craine, Chief Ernst Liebman (June 1969 - August 1970) John L. DeWeerdt Dean E. Mann, Chief Richard L. Dewsnup (September 1970 - October 1971) Gary L. Greer Gary Taylor William A. Hillhouse 11 Harry R. Seymour Frank Bollman Helen Ingram Engineering and Environmental Ray M. Johns Sciences Division Truman P. Price Victor A. Koelzer, Chief John H. Stierna Edwin B. Haycock Henry Vaux, Jr. Alexander Bigler Ann S. Wilm Kenneth L. Bowden John S. Gladwell Jack D. Lackner Forecast Division Thomas Scott Russell G. Thompson Richard Tucker M. Leon Hyatt Robert E. Vincent PRINCIPAL CONSULTANTS Edward A. Ackerman" Ralph W. Johnson Harvey 0. Banks Gilbert F. White Irving K. Fox Edward Weinberg Maynard M. Hufschmidt Nathaniel Wollman Abel Wolman *Members of the staff who served for a year or more. See Appendix III for complete roster of staff members, with biographical sketches of principal staff members. "Deceased vii -A6 A -llLwXl,- TIP., C, -wl wt Prefa c e Water is one of several resources without which a affecting the Grand Canyon of the Colorado, and to Nation cannot satisfy the fundamental wants of its authorize study of importation of water into the people or achieve the important national goals it sets Colorado River basin from other regions of the for itself. Without water, life itself cannot be sus- country. The U.S. Bureau of the Budget, the prede- taincd. But this is true of other resources as well- cessor of the present Office of Management and sunlight, soil, air. Just as it cannot be established Budget, advised the Senate Committee on Interior which blade of a scissors does the cutting, it cannot and Insular Affairs in May 1965 that, although it had be determined which of several critical resources is no objection to authorization of the Central Arizona most important to the Nation's welfare. Each is Project and the Lower Colorado River Development indispensable. Each must be husbanded and cared for, Fund, many of the other proposals required further protected from overuse and misuse, in order that the careful study. The Bureau pointed out that while the people may prosper and civilization may flourish. long-range water problems of the Lower Colorado As with most other critical resources, the rate of River basin were serious, such problems were by no use of water in the United States is rapidly increasing. means limited to that area; they were becoming Moreover, the Nation has experienced deterioration increasingly critical for other parts of the country as in the quality of its surface and ground water well. supplies. As the Nation's population expands, as it Under these circumstances, concluded the Bureau, grows more industrialized and urbanized, competing it would be appropriate to review water resource demands upon water increase. To determine what development problems and opportunities for the policies the Nation should adopt at this point in its Nation as a whole, and the Bureau recommended history so that its finite water resources yield the establishment of a national water commission. "Only highest measure of utility to society is the mission of a national commission," it said, "can effectively the National Water Commission and the purpose of assess the many common aspects of water problems this report. The Commission in carrying out its that we face, and only such a commission can outline mission has sought to look forward, not backward. It the consistent courses of action which must be has asked, and tried to answer, whether basic water followed if this Nation is to achieve the most efficient policies of the past are suited for conditions of the utilization of its precious water resources." present and the foreseeable future. In no way has the Several bills to establish a national water commis- Commission attempted to pass judgment on the sion for these purposes were promptly introduced wisdom of past water policies for the times in which and considered by the Congress and its committees they were fashioned. during the ensuing 3 years. On September 26, 1968, the President approved the National Water Commis- Background sion Act.' The text of the Act is reproduced as The National Water Commission was established by Appendix 1. an Act of Congress approved by the President on The National Water Commission Act September 26, 1968. It stemmed from proposals for water developments in the Colorado River Basin The duties of the Commission are stated in one which raised a number of fundamental questions as to long sentence, Section 3(a) of the National Water the future policies for water resources development in Commission Act, which says: the United States. Congress was asked in those The Commission shall (1) review present and proposals to authorize the Central Arizona Project in anticipated national water resource problems, Arizona and New Mexico, to establish a Lower Colorado River Basin Development Fund, to author- 'P.L. 90-515, September 26, 1968, 82 Stat. 868, 42 USCA ize the Bridge' Canyon and Marble Canyon dams 1962a, note (1971 Supp.). ix making such projections of water requirements 1907, and the last, until now, was the Senate Select as may be necessary and identifying alternative Committee on National Water Resources established ways of meeting these requirements-giving con- in 1959.2 sideration, among other things, to conservation Many of the recommendations of these earlier and more efficient use of existing supplies, water study commissions were later enacted into law, increased usability by reduction of pollution, although some were enacted only after they were innovations to encourage the highest economic subsequently endorsed by other commissions after use of water, interbasin transfers, and tech- many years had elapsed. For example, most of the nological advances including, but not limited to, main ideas embodied in the Water Resources Planning desalting, weather modification, and waste water Act3 in 1965 were repeatedly explored by many of purification and reuse; (2) consider economic these forerunner study groups and can be found in and social consequences of water resource devel- their recommendations many years earlier. opment, including, for example, the impact of water resource development on regional eco- Role of the National Water Commission nomic growth, on institutional arrangements, The National Water Commission and its assignment and on esthetic values affecting the quality of differ from the previous water policy study commis- life of the American people; and (3) advise on sions in several significant respects. The Commission such specific water resource matters as may be is charged with studying virtually all water problems, referred to it by the President and the Water programs, and policies in the context of their Resources Council. relationship to the total environment, including "es- The Commission is composed of seven members appointed by the President and serving at his pleas- thetic values affecting the quality of life of the ure, with a chairman designated by the President. The American people." This required the Commission to Commissioners serve on a part-time basis, and have look at problems and policies of State and local other continuing occupations. They are forbidden to entities as well as those of the Federal agencies. hold any other position as officers or employees of Another distinguishing characteristic is that the the United States. The names and identification of members of the Commission are to be citizens who the Commissioners appear on pages iv, v, and vi. do not serve the Federal Government in any other The Commission is required to consult with the capacity and thus have no commitment to any Water Resources Council regarding its studies and to Federal agency or program. In establishing the Com- furnish proposed reports and recommendations to the mission, the Congress emphasized this point, asking Council for review and comment. that it "exercise independent judgment',4 and that it The Commission is authorized to make interim and "carry on deliberations without restrictions or condi- final reports and to submit these reports simulta- tion of limitations of any kind."s neously to the President and the Congress. The President is required to transmit the Commission's 'For a summary of the recommendations of all but the last final report to the Congress together with such of these earlier study groups, see U.S. CONGRESS, Senate C, Select Committee on National Water Resources (1959). comments and recommendations for legislation as he Reviews of National Water Resources During the Past Fifty deems appropriate. Years, Committee Print No.,2, 86th Congress, Ist Session. The Commission is to terminate not later than U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. September 26,1973. Five million dollars was author- 'P.L. 89-80, July 22, 1965, 79 Stat. 245, 42 USCA 1962a ized to be appropriated for its work. (1971 Supp.). 'U.S. CONGRESS, Senate (1966). National Water Commis- Earlier Water Study Coniniissions sion, Hearings before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, 89th Congress, 2d Session, May 16 and 17, 1966. The United States has made frequent use of Sen. Henry M. Jackson quoted in a statement of Sen. congressional or presidential study commissions to Warren G. Magnuson. U.S. Government Printing Office, examine difficult problems and to propose solutions. Washington, D.C. p. 9. Since the turn of the century, at least 20 national 'U.S. CONGRESS, House of Representatives (1967). Colo- commissions or similar groups have been established rado River Basin Project, Hearings before the Subcommittee by Congress or the President to study water re- on Irrigation and Reclamation of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, 90th Congress, Ist Session, March 13, sources. The first was the Inland Waterways Commis- 14, 16, and 17, 1967. Representative Thomas S. Foley. U.S. sion established by President Theodore Roosevelt in Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. p. 182. X Conduct of the Commission's Work istration, which had statutory responsibility for finan- cial and administrative services for the Commission. Members of the Commission were appointed on The Executive Director served as Secretary to the October 9, 1968, and funds to initiate the Commis- Commission. sion's work were appropriated shortly thereafter. The Three interim reports have been made to the Commission held its first meeting on November President and the Congress, on January 30, 1970, 21, 1968. The first members of the staff were January 22, 1971, and March 2, 1972.7 These were appointed and began work on December 30, 1968, progress reports covering the Commission's activities and the nucleus of the staff was assembled by the end for the preceding calendar year. They were printed of June 1969. along with the comments of the Water Resources In preparing to carry out its assignment, the Council, which had been furnished copies of the Commission first consulted with the Water Resources proposed reports as called for in the National Water Council, then laid out a preliminary program of Commission Act. studies covering areas of water resources policy 'in Throughout its existence the National Water Com- which the development of background information mission has endeavored to keep the public informed appeared to be needed to form the basis for policy about its work, and copies of a review draft of the recommendations. In the summer and fall of 1969 Commission's final report were made available to the this preliminary program was discussed with repre- public 90 days before any final decisions were made sentatives of the major Federal agencies having by the Commission. In addition, reports on the responsibilities in the field of water resources, and, in background studies undertaken as a part of the a series of public conferences, with local, State, and program of special studies have been released through regional officials, as well as private citizens and the National Technical Information Service of the representatives of groups interested in national water U.S. Department of Commerce, and comments were policy. Following these conferences, the Commission invited from those interested. Through March 1, approved a program of background studies covering 1973, more than 22,000 copies of some 60 such 22 fields of interest related to water policy. Appro- reports had been purchased. A complete list of the priations for the first full fiscal year of the Commis- background study reports that have been released is sion's work were made available in mid-December of included in Appendix 11 of this report. 1969 6 and work began on the background studies in A final series of regional public meetings was held January of 1970. in early 1973 at which the Commission received the Meetings of the Commission have been held about views of interested parties on the review draft of its once each month since November of 1968. The size report. A total of 351 witnesses testified or filed of the Commission's staff ranged from 19 on June 30, statements at these meetings, and, in additon, several 1969, to a maximum of 44 on June 30, 1971, thousand individuals and organizations furnished including temporary, clerical, and administrative per- written statements commenting on the review draft sonnel. A list of the principal members of the staff is of the report. In important respects the Commission on p. vii, and more information is contained in has modified its report in the light of the information Appendix III of this report. Numerous consultants and viewpoints presented at these public meetings. were retained on a part-time basis and contracts for research studies to provide background information Conclusion were awarded to various individuals, universities, The report that follows reflects the Comniission's consulting organizations, foundations, and other earnest effort to comply with the mandate given it by organizations. Information on consultants and con- the National Water Commission Act. The report tractors is also contained in Appendix 111. contains many recommendations for improvement of The Commission's regular staff was organized into policies dealing with protection, development, and three major groups: Engineering and Evironmental use of the Nation's water resources. The National Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences, and Legal. Water Commission believes that adoption of these In addition, an ad hoc Forecasting Unit functioned recommendations will lead the Nation to the utiliza- for a little over I year, and an Administrative Division tion of its water resources in ways that will make an handled clerical and administrative functions and optimum contribution to the welfare of its citizens. served as liaison with the General Services Admin- 7U.S. NATIONAL WATER COMMISSION (1970, 1971, & 1972). Interim Reports Nos. 1, 2, & 3. U.S. Government 1P.L. 91-144, December 11, 1969, 83 Stat. 323, 336. Printing Office, Washington, D.C. xi A@T"%' "i, VM4 ", j'l IN 77 @o At YNI VA;' Contents Page Letter of Transmittal The Commission ........................................................................ iv The Staff ............................................................................ vii Preface ................................................................................ ix Table of Water Equivalents ................................................... : .......... xxi Glossary ............................................................................ xx,ii CHAPTER I FORECASTING FUTURE DEMANDS FOR WATER ............................. I Water Requirements vs. Demand for Water 2 Alternative Futures 3 Water Quantity ..................................................................... 4 Quality of Water 4 Water Uses 6 The Present Water Quantity Situation ................................................... 8 The Future Water Situation ....................... 9 Alternative Futures 11 Conclusions ............................................................. .......... 17 CHAPTER 2 WATER AND THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT ................................ 19 Some Basic Ecological Principles ....................................................... 20 Environmental Effects of Reservoir Development .......................................... 21 Conclusions on Water Development Projects ......................... ................... 26 Estuaries and the Coastal Zone ......................................................... 28 Conclusions on Coastal Zones ....................................................... 32 Recommendation ................................................................. 32 Channelization ..................................................................... 32 Conclusions on Channelization ....................................................... 35 Recommendations ................................................................ 36 CHAPTER 3 WATER AND THE ECONOMY .............................................. 39 The Value of Water ................................................................. 40 Conclusions on Water Value ......................................................... 47 Regional Effects of Water Developments ................................................. 48 Conclusions on Regional Development ................................................. 61 CHAPTER 4 WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ............................................. 63 Commission Approach ............................................................... 63 The Importance of Clean Water ........................................................ 64 xiii Page Sources of Pollution ................................................................. 64 What is Happening to Water Quality? .................................................... 68 When is Water Polluted? .............................................................. 69 Adequacy of Technology ............................................................. 71 Costs ............................................................................ 74 Strategies for Eliminating Pollution ..................................................... 76 Who Should Pay? ................................................................... 84 Who Should Regulate? ............................................................... 85 Improving the Effectiveness of Pollution Abatement Programs ................................ 86 Problems Not Solved by Improved Regulation ............................................. 97 Pollution in Estuaries and the Coastal Zone ............................................... 100 Pollution Problems of the Great Lakes ................................................... 103 Recommendations .................................................................. 107 CHAPTER 5 IMPROVING WATER-RELATED PROGRAMS ................................. Ill Section A Introduction ............................................................. Ill Section B The Inland Waterway Program ............................................... 113 The Program ..................................................................... 113 Appraisal of the Program ........................................................... 114 Discussion ....................................................................... 117 Recommendations ................................................................ 120 SectionC Food and Fiber Programs: Increasing Agricultural Production Arough Water Resource Development .......................................................... 121 Description of Federal Programs ..................................................... 122 Weaknesses of the Programs ................... 4 ..................................... 128 Supply and Demand ............................................................... 130 Discussion ...................................................................... 141 Conclusions ..................................................................... 141 Recommendation ................................................................. 142 SectionD Acreage Limitations and Subsidies in Reclamation Programs ........................ 142 Present Status of Acreage limitations ................................................. 143 Subsidy in Reclamation Programs .................................................... 145 The Problem ..................................................................... 145 Discussion and Conclusions .................................. ...................... 147 Recommendations ................................................................ 148 Section E Programs for Reducing Flood Losses ........................................... 149 The Programs . ; : * * ' ' ' * ' *I* * '.... ***'************ .... ** ... **'*''*'*'*'*** ...* ...... 150 Appraisal of Programs ............................................................. 154 Discussion ...................................................................... 159 Conclusions ..................................................................... 159 Recommendations ................................................................ 160 SectionF Municipal and Industrial Water Supply Programs ................................. 161 The Programs .................................................................... 162 Appraisal of Programs ............................................................. 165 Conclusions ..................................................................... 169 Recommendations ................................................................. 170 SectionG Power Production -The Waste Heat Problem ................................... 171 Demand for Electric Generating Facilities .............................................. 171 The Problem of Waste Heat Disposal .................................................. 171 Cooling Water Requirements ........... I ............................................. 172 xiv CASE 18 A STONE REVETMENT NEAR THE BAY BRIDGE The structure was completed in 1969 at an unknown cost. The historical rate of erosion at the site was about 3 ft./yr. from 1845-1942. Revetment, on a 2:1 slope, consists of 30-300 lbs. stone in a 2 ft.-thick armor layer. A bedding layer of gravel 1 ft.-thick was placed below the armor layer. There was no filter material installed below the bedding layer. The revetment also has a concrete cap 1 ft. x 1.5 ft.-thick installed along the top. This structure is in generally fair to poor condition. Parts of the structure failed during Tropical Storm David in early September 1979. The wall still provides some protection to the property though. 2-64 Page Evaluation of Federal Water Supply Projects ............................................ 269 Conclusions ..................................................................... 270 Recommendations ................................................................ 270 SectionE Improvements in State Water Laws to Provide Recognition for Social Values in Water ............................................................... 271 The Lack of Legal Protection for Some Water Values ..................................... 271 Public Access to Waters and Adjacent Shorelands ........................................ 274 Coordinated Land and Water Management for Public Recreation ............................. 276 Conclusions ..................................................................... 278 Recommendations ............................................................... 278 SectionF A Permit System for Riparian States ........................................... 280 The Problem ..................................................................... 281 Enactment of Permit System ........................................................ 281 Minimum Flow ................................................................... 287 Allocation of Water in Periods of Shortage .............................................. 289 Transfer of Water Rights ........................................................... 292 Conclusions ..................................................................... 293 Recommendations ................................................................ 293 Appendix to Section F - A Comparison of the F7orida Water Resources Act of 19 72 With the Commission's Recommended Principles .................................... 294 SectionG Reducing Water Losses by Improved Efficiency .................................. 299 Water-Saving Practices ............................................................. 299 Conclusions ...................................................................... 304 Recommendations ................................................................ 305 SectionH Reuse ofMunicipal and Industrial Wastewater ................................... 306 Reclaiming Wastewater ............................................................. 307 The Potential of Wastewater Reuse ................................................... 311 Conclusions ...................................... ........................ I ...... 314 Recommendations ................................................................ 314 CHAPTER 8 INTERBASIN TRANSFERS ................................................. 317 The Problem ..................................................................... 317 Legal Framework ................................................................. 318 Social and Environmental Considerations ............................................... 319 Economic Considerations ........................................................... 319 Area-of-Origin Protection ........................................................... 323 Institutional Arrangements .......................................................... 329 Conclusions ..................................................................... 329 Recommendations ................................................................ 331 CHAPTER 9 MEANS OF INCREASING WATER SUPPLY ................................... 335 Increasing Water Supply by Desalting .................................................... 335 Conclusions on Desalting ........................................................... 34S Recommendations ................................................................ 346 Precipitation Augmentation ........................................................... 346 Conclusions on Precipitation Augmentation .................................... I......... 351 Recommendations ................................................................. 351 Increasing Water Supply Through Land Management ........................................ 351 Conclusions on Land Management ............................................ ......... 359 Recommendations .................................................................. 359 Xvi Page Overview of Potential Technology ...................................................... 359 Conclusions on Potential Technology .................................................. 362 Improving Technological Innovation .................................................... 362 CHAPTER 10 BETTER DECISIONMAKING IN WATER MANAGEMENT ....................... 365 Water Resources Planning ............................................................. 365 The Role of the Public in Water Resources Planning ......................................... 372 Evaluation as a Basis for Decisionmaking ................................................. 379 Recommendations ................................................................ 386 Authorization, Budgeting, and Appropriations ............................................. 387 Recommendations ................................................................ 394 CHAPTER11 IMPROVING ORGANIZATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS .......................... 397 Section A Introduction ............................................................. 397 Section B Federal Coordination and Review ..................................... I........ 398 The Water Resources Council ........................................................ 398 An Independent Board of Review .................................................... 406 SectionC New Functions for Federal Water Agencies ...................................... 409 Data-Gathering Services ............................................................ 410 Engineering Services ............................................................... 410 Technology Services ............................................................... 412. Recommendations on New Functions ................................................. 413 SectionD Organizations for Water Planning and Management For River Basins and Other Regions ... 414 Intrastate Organizations ............................................................ 414 Ad Hoc and Interagency Committees and River Basin Commissions for Planning ................ 416 Interstate and Federal-Interstate Water Compacts ........................................ 418, Federally Chartered Corporations for Multistate Water Management Activities .................. 427 Section E ne Great Lakes ......................................... ................ 433 Institutions ...................................................................... 435 Management ..................................................................... 4@37 CHAPTER 12 WATER PROBLEMS OF METROPOLITAN AREAS ............................ 441 Water Management Problems .......................................................... 442 Institutional Arrangements ............................................................ 449 Federal-State-Local Cooperation ....................................................... 453 Conclusions ....................................................................... 455 Recommendations ................................................................... 456 CHAPTER 13 FEDERALSTATE JURISDICTION IN THE LAW OF WATERS .................... 459 The Problem ................................................... I., .................. 460 Conforming Federal Uses to State Procedures .............................................. 461 Reserved Rights .................................................................... 464 The Navigation Servitude and the Role of No Compensation ....................... ......... 468 Eminent Domain Procedures ..... *........................... : .........I................. 469 Sovereign Immunity: Suits by State Officials and Individuals ................................. 469 Conclusions . . @ ........................................................................ 470 Recommendations ..................................................................... 471 xvii Page CHAPTER 14 INDIAN WATER RIGHTS ................................................. 473 Background ....................................................................... 473 Accepted Premises .................................................................. 476 Discussion and Recommendations ...................................................... 477 Conclusions ....................................................................... 483 CHAPTER 15 PAYING THE COSTS OF WATER DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS ................... 485 Present Federal Cost-Sharing Policies .................................................... 485 Appraisal of Present Cost-Sharing Policies ................................................ 490 Conclusions ....................................................................... 494 Recommendations .................................................................. 497 CHAPTER 16 FINANCING WATER PROGRAMS .......................................... 501 Capital Demands for Water Resources Development ........................................ 501 Alternative Methods of Financing Water Developments ............. ......................... 517 Recommendations .................................................................. 525 CHAPTER 17 BASIC DATA AND RESEARCH FOR FUTURE PROGRESS ..................... 527 Basic Data ........................................................................ 527 Conclusions on Basic Data ........................................................... 531 Recommendations ................................................................ 531 Research .......................................................................... 532 Conclusions on Research ........................................................... 537 Recommendations ........................................................ I ....... 537 APPENDIX I The National Water Commission Act .......................................... 539 APPENDIX 11 Background Studies Undertaken for the National Water Commission ................. 542 APPENDIX III The Commission Staff and its Operations ..................................... 555 APPENDIX IV Acknowledgements ...................................................... 566 Index ................................................................. 569 TABLES Chapter I Forecasting Future Demands for Water I - 1. -Water withdrawals for selected years and purposes ................................... 7 1-2.-Recent trends in consumptive use of water ......................................... 7 1-3.-Streamflow compared with current withdrawals and consumption ....................... 9 1-4-Projected water use by purpose .................................................. I I 1-5-Projected water use by region ................................................... 12 Chapter 3 Water and the Economy 3-1.-Proposed source of water supplies for selected potential new towns ...................... 60 Chapter 4 Water Pollution Control 4-l.-Estirnate of total costs of abatement of point-sources of pollution, 1973-83 ................ 75 M@ Page Chapter 5 Improving Water-Related Programs 5-I.-Status of lands in U.S. Army Corps of Engineers flood control and major drainage programs as of December 1971 .................................... 123 5-2.-Total acreage irrigated by Bureau of Reclamation water for selected years ................. 126 5-3.-Acreages and values of crops grown on farms in Bureau of Reclamation projects in 1969 .............................................................. 128 5-4.-Major crops eligible for various Federal agricultural programs served by Bureau of Reclamation project facilities-1969 ................................... 129 5-5.-Farm value of major crops eligible for Federal agricultural programs total and Bureau of Reclamation served acreage-1969 ................................ 129 5-6.-Summary of alternative futures reviewed by the Commission for agricultural water demands ..................................................... 131 5-7.-Forecasts of regional consumptive use of water in western water resources regions for selected alternative futures in 2000 .............................. 132 5-'8. -Forecasts of national land use for selected alternative futures in year 2000 ................. 133 5-9. -Indications of prices received by farmers for selected commodities under alternative futures in 2000 ................................................. 134 5-10. -Irrigation cost and annual repayment charge per acre, Missouri River Basin Project ................................................................ 146 5-1 I.-Projected growth of utility electric generating capacity ................................ 173 5 -12. -Heat characteristics of typical steam electric plants ................................... 174 5-13. -Electrical power generating technologies ........................................... 178 5-14-Selected basic information for Federal and federally assisted reservoirs having Federal recreation facilities-1972 .................................. 193 Chapter 7 Making Better Use of Existing Supplies 7-I.-Annualized marginal costs of sewage collection and treatment in residential areas .............................................................. 250 7-2.-Summary of residential water use, Johns Hopkins Study ............................... 252 7-3.-Price effects on residential demands, 1963-65 ....................................... 253 7-4.-Current pricing policies of water utilities ........................................... 254 7-5. -Approximate costs of secondary and advanced treatment (June 1967 Cost Levels) ........... 310 Chapter 9 Means of Increasing Water Supply 9-I.-Potential annual increase in water supply from watershed land management ................ 357 Chapter 10 Better Decisionmaking on Water Management 10-I.-Effect of different discount rates on the present worth of a future benefit of one dollar ................................................................ 384 Chapter 12 Water Problems of Metropolitan Areas 12-I.-Estimated savings resulting from joint administration of water supply and waste disposal ............................................................ 447 12-2. -Revenues, debt outstanding and ratios, city governments, United States, selected years ................................................................ 450 Chapter 15 Paying the Costs of Water Development Projects 15-1-Maximurn Federal cost shares for construction agencies ............................... 491 15-2.-Maximum Federal cost shares for grant agencies ..................................... 492 Xix Page Chapter 16 Financing Water Programs 16-l.-Federal outlays by category and agency for water resources and related developments ................................................................ 502 16-2. -Comparison of Federal outlays for water resources with those for other Federal civil public works and the total U.S. budget .................................. 503 16-3.-Estimated historic Federal expenditures for water resources and related activities ................................................................... 505 16-4.-Total historical expenditures for water resources development .......................... 506 16-5. -Projection of capital investment costs based on extrapolation of "needs" in Framework Studies of WRC ........... 507 16-6.-Poflution control costs under standards established under the 1965 Federal Water Pollution Control Act ............. o ................................ 508 16-7.-Survey results of estimated construction cost of sewage treatment facilities planned for the period FY 1972-1976 ............................................. 509 16-8-Projected cash outlays required in principal industries to meet water quality standards established under the 1965 Act by 1976 ............................. 510 16-9. -Estimated water pollution control expenditures: Current levels and required to meet water quality standards established under the 1965 Act by 1980 ........... 511 16-10.-Index of pollution control investment costs related to level of abatement .................. 512 16-1 I.-Total national costs for municipal and industrial treatment ............................. 512 16-12. -Estimated additional costs for municipal and industrial wastewater management ................................................................ 513 16-13. -Estimated additional per capita costs for municipal wastewater management, 1983 ........................................................... 514 16-14. -Estimated capital costs for water pollution control ................................... 516 16-15.-Summary of annual capital demands on governments under various water resources policies ........ 0 .................................................... 517 16-16. -Government finances, revenue, direct expenditures, and debt 1960,1965,1970 ............................................................ 519 16-17-Sources of revenue -Federal, State, and local governments ............................. 520 16-18. -Indebtedness and debt transactions of State and local governments 1969-1970 ............... 0 .................................................. 521 16-19-Gross outstanding debt of State and local governments selected periods, 1950-1970 .................................................................. 522 GRAPHIC ILLUSTRATIONS 1-I.-Average annual precipitation ....................................................... 3 1-2.-Bar chart showing lowest annual runoff in the one driest year out of 20 as a percentage of the mean annual runoff for that basin ..................................... 5 f-3. -Water resources regions used in the first National Assessment ............................... 10 4-I.-Total control costs as a function of effluent control levels ........................... - " ** 76 5-I.-Irrigation development in the 17 Western States, 1899-1969 ................................ 127 1 1-I.-Map showing area covered by River Basin Commissions, Interagency Committees, and Federal-State Compact Commissions ............................................. 419 16-1-10-year trend in Federal water resources expenditures ..................................... 504 16-2. -Engineering News-Record Construction cost index (1913=100.0) .................. 0 ........ 515 xx TABLE OF WATER EQUIVALENTS 1 cubic foot ... 7.48 gallons .............................................. 62.4 lbs. of water I acre-foot ... 43,560 cubic feet 325,851 gallons An acre-foot covers I acre of land I foot deep I cubic foot per second (cfs) .......................................... 449 gallons per minute I cfs ............................................................. 646,317 gallons per day For 24 hours ............................................................ 1.983 acre-feet For 30 days .............................................................. 59.5 acre-feet For I year ............................................................... 724 acre-feet I million gallons ............................................................. 3.07 acre-feet 1 million gallons per day (mgd) ....................................... 1,120 acre-feet per year I mgd ......................................................................... 1.55 cfs Metric Equivalents I U.S. gallon ............................................ f .................. 3.785 liters A liter is a cubic decimeter, slightly more than a U.S. quart I liter ...................................................... 0.264 U.S. gallons 1 cubic foot ............................................................. 28.317 liters I cubic meter . . .1,000 liters .......................................... 35.315 cubic feet I million U.S. gallons ............................................... 3,785.4 cubic meters I acre-foot ........................................................ 1,233.5 cubic meters xxi . Wi i'N lit. kA m ip It A@ IW IV m k Ir ---- ---- -------- Glossary Ability-to-pay principle - the pricing of goods or Area of origin - in the case of interbasin water services on the basis of family income or some transfers, the area exporting water. other measure of financial capability rather than on the basis of benefits received. (See benefits- Assimilative capacity - the Aility of bodies of water received principle.) to purify themselves after absorbing waste dis- charges or to dilute such wastes and thus render Acre-foot - the quantity of water required to cover I them innocuous. acre to a depth of I foot; equal to 43,560 cubic feet or 325,851 gallons. Authorization - at the Federal level, the process whereby Congress enacts a statute approving con- Alternative futures - a range of different future struction of a project or implementation of a economic, social, and demographic patterns of program, frequently specifying a maximum development, each depending on a different set of amount to be appropriated for the purpose (but assumptions with respect to public policies, life- not appropriating the required funds). styles, patterns of consumption, etc., and any one of which could materialize. Contrasts with a single Benefit-cost analysis - comparison of the expected projection of future population, production, water benefits of a water project with the anticipated requirements, etc. costs of that project. Ordinarily, unless the com- Appropriation (funds) - at the Federal level, the puted benefits exceed the computed costs, the process whereby Congress enacts a statute permit- project is not considered feasible. ting expenditure of funds, sometimes repeatedl y over a period of several years, for construction of Benefits-received principle - the pricing of goods or authorized projects or implementation of author- services on the basis of benefits received by users; ized programs. those who use a service pay for the service. (See ability-to-pay principle.) Appropriation doctrine - the system of water law adopted by (and dominant in) most Western Best known technology - for water pollution control States. The basic tenets of the appropriation is a shorthand term to describe those techniques doctrine are (1) that a water right can be acquired and methods known by the NWC staff to be under only be diverting the water from a watercourse and consideration in the spring of 1972 when the applying it to a beneficial use and (2) in accord- Commission's estimates of cost of various pollution ance with the date of acquisition, an earlier control measures were prepared. Does not neces- acquired water right shall have priority over other sarily bear any relationship to the term "best later acquired rights. The first in time of beneficial available technology" as used in the Federal Water use is the first in right, and the right is maintained Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972. only by use. Water in excess of that needed to satisfy existing rights is viewed as unappropriated water, available for appropriation by diversion and Biochemical oxygen demand - the requirement for application to a beneficial use. (See riparian doc- oxygen when organic matter decomposes in bodies trine.) of water; oxygen-demanding wastes lower dissolved oxygen levels in water which in turn can adversely Aquifer - a saturated underground body of rock or affect aquatic life. Also called "BOD." similar material capable of storing water and transmitting it to wells or springs. Biota - The flora and fauna of a region. Xxiii Conjunctive management - the situation where man- River Basin is all the land area which drains into agement of two or more water resources, such as a the Columbia River. Also called "catchment area," ground water aquifer and a surface water body, is "watershed," or "river basin." integrated. Ecology - the study of the interrelationships of living Consumptive use - water withdrawn from a supply organisms to one another and to their surround- which, because of absorption, transpiration, evap- ings. oration, or incorporation in a manufactured prod- uct, is not returned directly to a surface or ground Ecosystem - recognizable, relatively homogeneous water supply; hence, water which is lost for units, including contained organisms, their environ- immediate further use. Also called "consumption." ment, and all of the interactions among them. Cost allocation - the apportionment of the costs of a Effective economic demand - in an economic sense, multipurpose water project among the various demand for a product (good or service) is reflected purposes served. by the quantities consumers will purchase . at alternative price levels. With respect to a water Cost effectiveness - comparison of alternative ways project or program, effective economic demand is to achieve a given objective in order to identify the the willingness and ability of those who benefit to least-cost way. pay the full costs of the output of the project or program. Cost-sharing - the assignment of the responsibility for paying the costs of a water project among two Effluent - the outflow of used water from a sewer, or more entities as for example among the Federal holding tank, industrial process, agricultural activ- Government, a State government, and individual ity, etc.; sometimes treated, other times not. users. Depletion - the withdrawal of water from surface or Eminent domain - the right of a government to ground water reservoirs at a rate greater than the acquire private property for public use, even from rate of replenishment. an unwilling owner, upon payment of compensa- tion to the owner; occasionally conferred upon Desaiting - the technical process of converting sea private entities vested with a public interest such as water or brackish water to fresh water or otherwise utilities. more usable condition by removing dissolved Estuary - the lower course of a river which flows to solids. Also called "desalinization" and "desatina- the sea and which is influenced by the tides; or an tion." arm of the sea itself that extends inland to meet a Discharge - the rate of flow of a spring, stream, river flowing to the sea; the reaches of a river into canal, sewer, or conduit. which sea water -, intrudes and mixes with fresh water from land drainage. Discount rate - the interest rate used in evaluation of E u.trophication - overfertilization of a water body water (and other) projects for the purpose of 'due to increases in mineral and organic nutrients, calculating the present value of future benefits and producing an abundance of plant life which uses up future costs, or otherwise converting benefits and costs to a common time basis. oxygen, sometimes creating an environment hostile to higher forms of marine animal life. Diversion - see "withdrawal." Evaluation examination of a proposed water Divide - a ridge which separates two river basins or project to determine feasibility. drainage basins. Evaporation - conversion of liquid water into water Drainage basin - the land area from which water vapor.-, hence, the dissipatioln of water from water drains into a river, as for example, the Columbia surfaces and the ground into the atmosphere. xxiv CASE 23 A TIMBER BULKHEAD WITH RUBBLE GROINS ON THE LOWER SOUTH RIVER Structure was completed in 1970 at a cost of $48.70/ft. The historical rate of erosion at the site was 1.5 ft./yr. from 1847-1970. Structure consists of timber bulkhead which is angular in planform. To the south alongshore, the neighboring property has installed several 8 ft.-long concrete pipes laid out perpendicular from the shoreline to act as groins. To the north alongshore., 3 concrete rubble groins are present. The bulkhead is in generally good condition. The rubble groins are extremely effective in trapping littoral sediments, and pocket beaches are present between the groins. The concrete pipe groins have trapped some sediments to form a smaller beach, but these structures are not sand-tight. 2-74 scarce resources. When marginal cost pricing does some of which consume relatively large quantities not prevail, efficiency can be improved by moving of water. resources away from industries where prices are below marginal costs and into industries where Point-source - a specific site from which wastewater prices are above marginal costs. is discharged into a water body and which can be located as to source, as with effluent, treated or Mouth of a river - the point where a river empties otherwise, from a municipal sewage sysiem, out- into another river or into the sea. flow from an industrial plant, or runoff from an animal feedlot. Multiple use - in the case of water resources, development of a particular water resource to serve Precipitation - any form of rain or snow falling to two or more purposes simultaneously. the earth's surface. No discharge policy - the policy which prohibits Recycling process - in the case of water, the discharge of any harmful substance into a water withdrawal of water for use in cooling or process- body. Strictly applied, the policy would forbid ing and the subsequent reconditioning and reuse of discharges which are within the capacity of a water that same water over and over, usually with body to assimilate and render harmless. relatively small additions of "makeup" water re- quired to compensate for losses through evapora- Nonpoint-source - the diffuse discharge of waste into tion or otherwise. a water body which cannot be located as to specific source, as with sediment, certain agricul- Regulation (stream) - the artificial manipulation of tural chemicals, and acid mine drainage. the flow of a stream, as by the storage of water and its later release. Nonreimbursable cost - a cost of a water project which will not be repaid out of project revenues Reimbursable costs - those costs of a water project but which will be borne instead by the construc- which are expected to be recovered, in whole or in tion or operating entity and funded by the part, usually from direct beneficiaries, and repaid government. to the funding entity. Once-through process - the withdrawal of water Reservoir - a pond, lake, aquifer, or basin, either from a water body for use in cooling or processing natural or artificial, in which water is stored, and subsequent return of that water, usually at a regulated, or controlled. higher temperature or other altered condition, into the same body of water from which it came. Residual - material or energy flow, the value of Contrasts with water recycling processes. which is less than the cost of using it. Pathogenic bacteria bacteria capable of causing Return flow - the portion of withdrawn water that is disease. not consumed by evapotranspiration and that returns instead to its source or to another body of water. Peak pricing - the technique of pricing goods or services higher at times of peak demand and lower Riparian doctrine - the system of water law histor- at times of reduced demand to discourage con- ically recognized by the Eastern States. The ripar- sumption "on peak" and encourage consumption ian doctrine protects landowners adjacent to lakes "off peak," thus to make more efficient use of and streams from withdrawals or uses which plant capacities. unreasonably diminish water quantity or quality. Under the riparian doctrine, individuals have a Phreatophytes - (literally, "well plants") plants that right to make reasonable use of the stream waters send their roots down to the water table, or to the flowing by lands they own so long as that use does capillary fringe immediately above the water table; not substantially diminish either the quantity or xxvi the quality of the water passing to landowners bined population of at least 50,000, the smaller of downstream. Where diversions or uses have been which must have a population of at least 15,000. unreasonable, they either have been enjoined or Each SMSA includes the county in which the riparian owners adversely affected have been com- central city is located, and adjacent counties that pensated for interference with their rights. (See are metropolitan in character and economically appropriation doctrine.) and socially integrated with the county of the central city. River basin - see "drainage basin." Storage - the impoundment in surface reservoirs or Runoff - the part of precipitation that appears in accumulation in underground reservoirs of water surface streams. for later use or release. Sediment - soil or mineral material transported by Strearnflow - the discharge in a surface stream water and deposited in streams or other bodies of course. water. Sustained yield - in the case of ground water Separable costs - the costs of a water project which aquifers, the quantity of wafer which can be can be isolated and exclusively allocated to a single withdrawn annually without, over a period of purpose. For eample, the costs of turbine genera- years, depleting the available supply. tors at a hydroelectric plant. (See joint costs.) Transpiration - the process in which plant tissues Site-specific - phenomena which occur under certain give off water vapor to the atmosphere. conditions at a particular site but which would not necessarily occur at another site... User charge - a charge made upon direct beneficiaries (users) of a water project, designed to recover part Sovereign immunity - the doctrine under which the or all of the cost of the project. Federal Government cannot be sued without its consent. Watershed - a geographic area which drains into a particular water body. (See drainage basin.) Standard metropolitan statistical area (SMSA) - an integrated economic and social unit with a large Water table - the upper level of an underground population nucleus. There are over 24S SMSA's in water body. the United States. Each contains at least one central city with 50,000 inhabitants or more, or Withdrawal - the diversion and removal of water two adjoining cities constituting, for economic and from a natural watercourse. Also called "diver- social purposes, a single community with a com- sion." Xxvii Awf kt t5 tJ 4-,v kv, 041 ilk 7ft Chapter I Forecasting Future Demands for Water The United States is blessed with a bountiful irrigation water for Western farmers has disappeared. supply of water, although it is not always in the right So, also, has the policy basis for toll-free improved place at the right time nor of the right quality. inland waterways eroded with the development of Because of the general abundance of water, national alternative means of transport: heavy trucks traveling water policy has evolved over most of the past on a national highway system; pipelines carrying oil, century as if water had no cost and there were no gas, and coal; and a national rail network in financial limits to its availability. But as demands come cloW difficulty. Among the many other changes in national to and in some regions even exceed supplies of water, goals noted by the Commission perhaps the most it becomes necessary to seek ways to increase important of all is the desire to clean up our rivers efficiency in the use of water. At the same time, there and lakes and to preserve as much as possible of the is a great and proper national concern that water be rivers that have not yet been developed. As recently used in ways compatible with its vital role in as a decade ago this did not seem a high priority sustaining a healthful and esthetically pleasing natural national goal. But in the past 10 years repeated acts environment. of the Congress, and of State and local legislative To increase efficiency in water use andto protect bodies, have attested to the emergence of this vital and improve its quality, and to do these things at new national policy objective. least cost and with equity to all parts of our country It is not the Commission's function, however, to will, in the Commission's view, require major changes decide what the Nation's social goals and objectives- in present water policies and programs. The Com- and their relative priorities-should be. This is the job of mission is not unmindful of the important contribu- the President, the Congress, and the State and local tions to the Nation's development of its great water governments, working under our representative form programs of the past such as navigation, flood of government. Programs to protect, develop, and use control, hydroelectric power, and reclamation. But water require large public expenditures. Water pro- the Commission, in looking to the future, has been grams are not the only social demands competing for faced with the reality that conditions have changed limited capital resources. Housing, education, health since the policies for those programs were established. care, aid to the indigent, transportation, energy, air It has been compelled to conclude that these changed pollution control, national security, law enforcement, conditions call for new policies. No longer is it a and other social demands all seek a larger share of the national goal to stimulate settlement of the West. Nation's resources. To recommend where water pro- That goal has been accomplished; indeed, the grams should fit into the overall priority list is Governor of one Western State has enunciated a beyond the scope of the Commission's assignment. policy of "visit us, but don't stay." Thus, a principal Some of the Commission's recommendations will cost basis for policies of providing free land and cheap a great deal of money, especially its recommendations to improve the quality of the Nation's water, which if adopted will cost the United States Treasury more than all of the navigation, flood control, hydro- Traditional stream gaging methods are yielding satellite electric power, and irrigation projects undertaken by observations for measurement of water availability the Federal Government since the formation of the Union. The Commission hopes that its recommenda- I tions will be implemented with dispatch, but it is not non-Federal interests to fulfill a national need, the prepared to say whether or not and the extent to Federal Government should participate vigorously in which its recommendations regarding water should be water resource developments. At the State and local given preference over the many other social demands governmental level, where public interest or public upon the Nation's limited resources. Consequently, it preference calls for it, governmental participation will has sought to recommend water policies of such have to be substantial. What the Commission recom- nature that they can be readily adapted to whatever mends against is not public investment but unjustified other policies and priorities are chosen to guide the public subsidy which tends to reduce efficiency, Nation's future destiny. distort the allocation of scarce resources, encourage Above all, the National Water Commission in its construction of projects that are uneconomic, and deliberations and in the discussion and recom- promote the wasteful use of water. Who should mendations of this report has sought to set a stage for finance, construct, and operate various water re- rational decisionmaking. It has shied away from the sources developments is one question. Who should temptation to apply simple but unrealistic solutions pay for them is another. The Commission believes to difficult and complex problems, as appealing as that even where a public agency is the proper entity that seems to be for many advocates of both water to finance, build, and operate a water project, the development and water quality programs. It has tried direct beneficiaries should ordinarily be obliged to to point out that alternatives are available, and some pay for the full costs of the facilities from which they of the consequences of alternative courses of action. benefit. Most importantly, it has attempted to fashion policies The Commission recommends the adoption of for management of the Nation's precious water national policies which, within appropriate con- resources that are both practical of achievement and straints of environmental protection and desired responsive to the conditions the United States is patterns of land use, will encourage the use of water likely to confront in the remaining decades of the in the most efficient and equitable way to meet the 20th century. people's demands for goods and services. And insofar Foremost among the policies that the Commission as appropriations of Federal tax dollars for water believes must be implemented if the Nation is to programs are concerned, the Commission rec- achieve wise and efficient use of its water resources is ommends that they be vastly increased, but broadly that direct beneficiaries of water facilities should be redirected from projects to control or use water to obliged to pay the cost of such facilities unless it can projects for the improvement of water quality. be demonstrated that user charges are impracticable WATER REQUIREMENTS VS. DEMAND and would frustrate important national purposes. FOR WATER User charges designed to recover all or a major portion of the costs of water-based services are the A persistent tendency of water resources planning primary mechanism which the Commission believes has been the issuance of single valued projections of will prevent distortion in the allocation of economic water use into the future under a continuation of resources. Coincidentally, user charges will discourage @resent policies, leading to astronomical estimates of construction of projects that unnecessarily change the future water requirements.' environment and encourage conservation practices that The amount of water that is actually used in the help to protect the environment. User charges appear future will depend in large measure on public policies to offer the best assurance that, insofar as water that are adopted. The National Water Commission is programs are concerned, the United States will get its convinced that there are few water "requirements," money's worth, and that natural economic advantages except for relatively small amounts for drinking, and consumer choices will be allowed to establish the cleaning, fire fighting in municipalities, and similar pattern of production for the Nation's farms, fac- other essential social and environmental purposes. tories, and waterways. But there are "demands" for water and water-related By advocating user charges the Commission does services that are affected by a whole host of other not imply opposition to Federal, State, or municipal factors and' policy decisions, some in fields far investment in water resource development. Where 'For the most recent manifestation of this, see U.S. interstate or international waters are involved, where WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL (1968). The Nation's multipurpose river basin developments are involved, Water Resources. U.S. Government Printing Office, Wash- or where there is an unwillingness or inability of ington, D.C. 2 FIGURE 1. - Average annual precipitation OW @,A o, AVERAGE ANNUAL PRECIPITATION 0-10 10-20 ALASKA,@, 20-30 PUERTO RICO 30-40 j 40-60 Ranges from 16 Rangesfrom 30 to 210 inches 60-100 to 400 inches Over 100 Source: U.S. WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL (1968). The Nation's Water Resources. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. Part 3, Chapter 2, p. 2. removed from what is generally considered to be technological development, water pricing policies, water policy. For example, the invention of the consumer habits and lifestyles, various governmental kitchen garbage disposal unit greatly increased the policies, and other variables. load on municipal sewage treatment plants, and the Although the full range of possibilities should be decision to support the price of cotton led to vast considered in planning, developm ent, and manage- increases in irrigated acreage on the High Plains of ment of water resources, the Commission believes it is Texas. unrealistic to develop water policy on the basis of a "crisis scenario" such as a severe worldwide drought ALTERNATIVE FUTURES extending over many years. Rather than base national water policy on such speculation, it is better to It is impractical, and in fact undesirable, to provide for the possibility of the occurrence of such attempt to forecast precise levels of future water use events by more direct measures, such as, for example, on the basis of past water use. How much water a national or even a world food bank. For this reason, will be used, where, and for what purposes will the Commission did not try to encompass all possible depend on the policies that are adopted. A range of alternative futures in its background studies, but "alternative futures" is possible, depending upon selected for illustrative purposes only a reasonable population levels and distribution, per capita energy number of possible combinations of policies for consumption, rate of national income growth, study, as referred to later. 3 In formulating a national water policy, two both to reduce flooding during periods of high flow measurements of water must be considered, quantity and to provide water for desired uses during periods and quality. The latter, of course, is a relative term of low flow or high withdrawals. Similarly, the depending on the use which is to be made of the differences in precipitation and runoff between areas water. have encouraged residents of relatively low-flow areas to seek water transfers from areas where flows were greater or the water was thought to be less fully used. WATER QUANTITY In response, government -Federal, State, and local- The source of all water available to the Nation is and nongovernmental entities have made major in- precipitation. Precipitation for the 48 contiguous vestments in water control, storage, transfer, and States averages about 30 inches a year, enough for distribution works. most purposes, but it is neither evenly nor regularly QUALITY OF WATER distributed. Annual precipitation varies from over 100 inches in coastal regions of the Pacific Northwest Quality determines the usability of water in any to less than 4 inches in parts of the Southwest (Figure particular location. Over time, water quality in many 1-1). In Alaska, the normal annual precipitation of the Nation's streams and estuaries has deteriorated ranges from about 5 inches in the extreme north to through the cumulative effects of two separate but more than 200 inches at places along the southern often concurrent actions. The first, of great concern panhandle. In Hawaii and Puerto Rico also there is in most of the Western United States, is the con- great variability in precipitation from place to place. centration of dissolved solids in the streamflow. This Only a portion of the precipitation flows from the concentration occurs because part of the water watershed into streams or ground water basins. The withdrawn for such uses as irrigation returns to the runoff from a watershed is more variable than stream bearing dissolved material. When water is precipitation because consumptive use in the water- evaporated from reservoirs the salts remain and their shed is satisfied before runoff occurs. Runoff also concentration is increased. Finally, any diversion of varies greatly within a given year and between years. flow leaves less water to dilute high salt concentra- Within a normal year, the ratio of maximum flow to tions due to natural causes, such as salt springs. minimum flow may be 500 to 1. Average annual The Colorado River is an excellent example of runoff varies from near zero in the Great Salt Lake quality deterioration caused by dissolved solids. desert to more than 50 inches in the Olympic Generally, flows in the headwaters of the Colorado Peninsula. It exceeds 10 inches in the third of the River are of high quality, usually with less than 50 country in which the climate is considered to be parts per million (p.p.m.) of dissolved solids, but the humid, and it is less than I inch in the third of the concentration increases progressively downstream country considered to be arid. from both natural and manmade causes. At Imperial Figure 1-2 shows, for each of the major water Dam, in the Lower Colorado River Basin, the resources regions, the lowest annual runoff of the measured flows have had an average concentration of previous 20 years as a percentage of the mean annual about 750 p.p.m. If present trends continue, it is runoff. In general, the lowest flow deviates least from estimated that the concentration will reach 1,250 the mean and therefore is most dependable in the p.p.m. by the year 2000, two and a half times the Northwest, the Northeast, and the Southeast. The recommended maximum allowable concentration for areas of greatest flow variability are the and regions municipal water supplies, and dangerously high for of the Southwest and North Central parts of the agricultural USO.2 contiguous United States. But even in the humid The second type of water quality deterioration is areas a series of dry years may result in serious caused by the generation and disposal of residuals by drought conditions such as occurred in the Northeast both producers and consumers. Marketable goods are during the period 1961 to 1966. produced and residuals, the material and energy The Nation's water programs have primarily byproducts that are not incorporated into the emphasized measures to offset the variability in precipitation and strearnflow and its effect upon water supplies. The variability in precipitation in 2U.S. BUREAU OF RECLAMATION (1972). Colorado many basins has made it necessary to seek a means of River Water Quality Improvement Program. U.S. Govern- controlling and regulating the natural streamflows, ment Printing Office, Washington, D.C. pp. 1, 43,45. 4 VARIATION IN ANNUAL RUNOFF FIGURE 2.- Bar chart showing lowest annual runoff in the one driest year out of 20 as a percentage of the mean annual runoff for that basin MEAN ANNUAL REGION NATURAL RUNOFF BGD North Atlantic 163 Great La-k,eO Columbia-North Pacific, 910: L---S,o,u-th-Atl,ariti,c---G,u,lf---- 197 Tennessee _p r Coloradq 7 13,7 125 4R 4 I Missouri' 54A :64.,,6 @U I P- p -ir_m Lis S-S ipT -_ 3 I-Rio-Grand,e---- 7 --------------7 Great Basin2 -Cariforn. 65.1- -A rk _an sas.-Wh Li 95.8, L-Lower-Colorado@-@-- - 3,19 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 PERCENT OF MEAN 1 Does not include runoff from Canada 2 Does not include runoff derived from upstream regions 3 Does not include runoff from Mexico Source: U.S. WATER RESOURCES COUNCI L @ 1968). The Nation's Water Resources. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. Part 1, p. 23. 5 product, are frequently disposed of in water. Con- Trends in Intake Water Use sumer use of goods results in wastes such as old Historic withdrawals and consumptive uses of automobile bodies, disposable bottles and caris, water for major intake uses are summarized in Tables sewage, carbon monoxide, newspapers, and heat, all 1-1 and 1-2, respectively. As indicated in Table 1-1, of which may end up in and pollute water. Many of current withdrawals for the purposes specified are these wastes are misplaced resources that can and over nine times greater than in the year 1900. The should be put to use. Broadly speaking, all raw growth in these water withdrawals has been sub- material and energy inputs to any system ultimately stantially greater than the growth in U.S. population become residuals to be disposed of in a gaseous, over this same period: U.S. population increased liquid, or solid state, or as energy. When these about two and one-half times and water withdrawals residuals are disposed of in the Nation's streams they per person have increased about three and one-half degrade water quality and may make the streamflow times. unsuitable for other purposes, or make treatment Figures on total consumptive use of water for the necessary before it can be used again. Water quality important intake uses are available only for more of streams in the vicinity of many of the Nation's recent years, as shown on Table 1-2, and the data are largest metropolitan areas is diminished in this way- less reliable, because return flows are so much more Both concentration of dissolved solids and disposal difficult to measure than withdrawals. Consumptive of residual wastes are of increasing concern in the uses may increase at a more rapid rate than with- United States. The Commission's views on the problems of water quality are discussed in Chapter 4 drawals in the future if recycling of water becomes of this report. more common. Although the data may not be very accurate, it is WATER USES clear that the Nation's growing agricultural and Water use consists of (1) intake uses, (2) onsite increasingly industrialized economy has required uses, and (3) instrearn or flow uses. Intake uses larger and larger quantities of water to be withdrawn include water for domestic, agricultural, and and consumed. Because this trend foretells difficult industrial purposes-uses that actually remove water quantity and quality problems in many areas of the from its source. Onsite USeS3 consist mainly of water Nation, the Commission has explored alternatives for consumed by swamps, wetlands, evaporation from lessening this trend through various policy and the surface of water bodies, natural vegetation, procedural changes. (See particularly Chapter 7.) unirrigated crops, and wildlife. Flow uses include Table 1-1 also indicates there has been a major water for estuaries, navigation, waste dilution, hydro- change in the relative proportion of withdrawals of electric power and also some fish and wildlife and water used for irrigation and steam electric power recreational uses. production in recent years. The proportion of total Water uses are measured in two ways, by amount withdrawals used for irrigation has been declining withdrawn and by amount consumed. Water with- steadily since 1920 when 61 percent of all with- drawn is water diverted from its natural course for drawals were used for irrigation purposes. In contrast, use, and may be returned later for further use. Water there has been a steady increase in withdrawals for consumed is water that is incorporated into a product steam electric power production since 1910, but or lost to the atmosphere through evaporation and consumptive use for this purpose is still small, transpiration, and cannot be reused. Water consump- whereas it is high for irrigation. tion is the more important indicator, since some part Trends in Onsite and Ftow Water Uses of withdrawn water can usually be reused, although not always near the point where the first withdrawal Only sparse data on important onsite and flow or takes place. Under certain circumstances, therefore, instrearn water uses are available. Nevertheless, these large water withdrawals over a short time period may uses, including navigation, waste disposal, recreation, become critical, adversely affecting onsite and and conservation of fish and wildlife, have grown to instrearn uses. great importance in our society. Unfortunately, these uses are not measured by the more conventional 'Some onsite uses deplete water supplies before they reach types of data collection and analysis. This is the streams, and therefore have never been measured as a especially true of water use for esthetic purposes such part of the Nation's water supplies available for use. as inspiration and relaxation, scenic drives, and for 6 TABLE I-I.-Water withdrawals for selected years and purposes, United States including Puerto Rico. (Billion gallons per day) Total Purpose of Withdrawals Water Public Water Rural Industrial and Steam Electric Year Withdrawals Irrigation Utilities Domestic Miscellaneous Utilities 1900 40 20 3 2.0 10 5 1910 66 39 5 2.2 14 6 1920 92 56 6 2.4 18 9 1930 110 60 8 2.9 21 18 1940 136 71 10 3.1 29 23 1950 200 110 14 3.6 37 40 1960 270 110 21 3.6 38 100 1970 370 130 27 4.5 47 170 Source: Withdrawals reported for 1900 to 1940 are taken from PICTON, Walter L (March 1960). Water Use in the United States, 1900-1980, prepared for U.S. Department of Commerce, Business and Defense Services Administration. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. p. 2. Withdrawals reported for 1950 to 1970 are taken from MURRAY, C Richard & REEVES, E. Bodette (1972). Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 1970, Geological Survey Circular 676. U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. p. 10. TABLE 1-2-Recent trends in consumptive use of water in the United States, including Puerto Rico. (Intake Uses Only) (Billion gallons per day) Purpose of Use Total Self-Supplied Consumptive Public Water Rural Industrial and Steam Electric Year Use Irrigation supply Domestic Miscellaneous Utilities 1960 61 52 3.5 2.8 3.0 0.22 1965 77 66 5.2 3.2 3.8 0.41 1970 88 73 5.9 3.4 5.3 1.04 Source: Figures taken from MacKICHAN KA & KAMMERER JC (1961). Estimated Use of Water in the United States, 1960, Geological Survey Circular 456. MURRAY, C Richard (1968). Estimated Use of Water in the United States, 1965, Geological Survey Circular 556. MURRAY, C Richard & REEVES, E Bodette (1972). Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 1970, Geological Survey Circular 676. All published by U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. Estimates of consumptive use were not tabulated before 1960. 7 recreation purposes such as motorboating, sailing, and summaries, such as shown on Table 1-3, fail to white water canoeing. Successful planning for and disclose local shortages caused when water within a management of our water resources require that these region is not available at the places where there is a uses be taken into account. demand for it. This is particularly true within regions There are some indicators of the importance of such as the Columbia, Missouri, and Arkansas-White- flow and instream water use. For example, between Red, where the flow of water is from the and 1950 and 1970, there was a fourfold increase in portions to the humid portions, or where use of traffic moving on the Nation's inland waterways 4 from ground water exceeds recharge, such as in the High 52 billion ton-miles to 204 billion ton-miles. 13e- Plains of Texas and Central Arizona. tween 1950 and 1970, the number of recreational In most regions, annual flow available 50 percent boats is estimated to have increased from 3.5 to 8.8 of the years is nearly the same as the mean annual million.5 In 1965, some 42 million persons parti- flow. Table 1-3 shows that the Lower Colorado cipated in recreational boating for a total of 265 region already uses more water than its available million days. 6 Also in 1965, about 13 million natural supply, and the Great Basin and Rio Grande recreation days were spent at waterfowl hunting and regions use 60 percent or more of their average 42 million persons participated in fishing activities.7 supplies. In 1 year out of 10, consumptive use in the. Obviously, these uses must be recognized as com- latter two regions exceeds the runoff, but storage petitive and alternative uses of the Nation's fresh facilities permit carryover of flows to cover defi- water resources, although some of the boating and ciencies. The Upper Colorado region, although it has fishing takes place on the oceans and estuaries. adequate water, will run short at least 1 year out of 10 because of its compact obligation to deliver water THE PRESENT WATER QUANTITY SITUATION to the Lower Colorado region, but large amounts of Regional withdrawal and consumptive uses of holdover storage are available. At flows available 95 water in 1970 are shown in Table 1-3 along with the percent of the years, the same three regions (Rio water supply available in each region under four Grande, Lower Colorado, and Great Basin regions) different availability criteria. Hence, it is possible to would face unfavorable water supply-demand compare, for the Nation as a whole and for individual balances and the Upper Colorado, California, and regions, water withdrawals and water consumption Texas-Gulf regions become of concern. with mean annual runoff and with annual flows that These comparisons indicate that the six regions have been available 50 percent, 90 percent, and 95 mentioned above would, in I year out of every 20, be percent of the years. Comparison of the mean annual the ones most su'sceptible to drought and water runoff with current consumptive use of water shortages if present policies are continued. Even at indicates that the present water quantity situation is present, the Lower Colorado region faces severe water very favorable for all regions except the Rio Grande, management problems. Consumptive use of water Lower Colorado, and Great Basin regions. Regional currently exceeding the natural supply is made possible through use of natural flows from outside 4U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS (1951). Annual the basin (runoff from the Upper Colorado region is Report of the Chief of Engineers, volume 1. U.S. Govern- allocated for use in the Lower Colorado region under ment Printing Office, Washington, D.C. and U.S. ARMY the terms of the Colorado River Compact), repeated CORPS OF ENGINEERS (1972). Waterborne Commerce reuse of water, and n-dning of ground water. Large of the United States, Calendar Year 1970, Part 5, National amounts of ground water also are being mined in the Summaries. U.S. Army Engineer District, New Orleans, La. p. 32. Texas-Gulf, Rio Grande, Arkansas-White-Red, and 5BOATING INDUSTRY ASSOCIATIONS & NATIONAL California regions. ASSOCIATION OF ENGINE AND BOAT MANU- In summary, two problems are evident. First, FACTURERS (1972). Boating '7 1, A Statistical Report on certain large and economically important regions of America's Top Family Sport. Boating Industry Associa- the Nation either already are or potentially could in tion, Chicago, 111. p. 8. the future be using water beyond their natural water 6U.S. BUREAU OF THE CENSUS (1970). Statistical resource. Steadily increasing municipal and industrial Abstract of the United States. U.S. Government Printing water requirements in these areas, and potentially Office, Washington, D.C. p. 203. others, combined with established and, in some 'U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (1971). Selected Outdoor Recreation Statistics. U.S. Government places, expanding irrigation activities could place Printing Office, Washington, D.C. pp. 39, 41, 109. severe strains upon limited water resources. At the 8 TABLE 1-3.-Strearnflow compared with current withdrawals and consumption. (Billion gallons per day) Annual Flow Available2 Mean 50% 90% 95% Fresh Water Annual of the of the of the Consumptive Use Withdrawals Region Run_Off2 Years Years Years 19701 1970' North Atlantic 163 163 123 112 1.8 55 South Atlantic-Gulf 197 188 131 116 3.3 35 Great Lakes 63.2 61.4 46.3 42.4 1.2 39 Ohio 125 125 80 67.5 .9 36 Tennessee 41.5 41.5 28.2 24.4 .24 7.9 Upper Mississippi 64.6 64.6 36.4 28.5 .8 16 Lower Mississippi 48.4 48.4 29.7 24.6 3.6 13 Souris-Red-Rainy 6.17 5.95 2.6 1.91 .07 .3 Missouri 54.1 53.7 29.9 23.9 12.0 24 Arkansas-White-Red 95.8 93.4 44.3 33.4 6.8 12 Texas-Gulf 39.1 37.5 15.8 11.4 6.2 21 Rio Grande 4.9 4.9 2.6 2.1 3.3 6.3 Upper Colorado 13.45 13.45 8.82 7.50 4.1 8.1 Lower Colorado 3.19 2.51 1.07 0.85 5.0 7.2 Great Basin 5.89 5.82 3.12 2.46 3.2 6.7 Columbia-North Pacific 210 210 154 138 11.0 30 California 65.1 64.1 33.8 25.6 22.0 48 Conterminous United States 1,201 87 365 Alaska 580 .02 .2 Hawaii 13.3 .8 2.7 Puerto Rico .17 3.0 Total United States 1,794 88 371 'MURRAY, C Richard & REEVES, E Bodette (1972). Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 1970, Geological Survey Circular 676. U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. p. 17. 2U.S. WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL (1968). The Nation's Water Resources. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. p. 3-2-6. same time, many areas are facing the growing Both of these problems are viewed by the Com- problems of water quality deterioration. mission as matters of major national concern and Second, ground water in many areas is being mined they receive further attention in this and later or used at rates exceeding recharge. The economy of chapters. these areas is based upon the foundation of a temporary and dwindling water resource. In the THE FUTURE WATER SITUATION major ground water-using areas, substitute supplies of water are not readily available and alternative water A comprehensive effort at projecting future water supplies can be obtained only at relatively high cost. uses was completed by the Water Resources Council 9 FIGURE 3. - Water resources regions used in the first National Assessment SOURIS-RED- COLUMBIA- RAINY NORTH PACIFIC MISSOURI UPPER MISSISSIPI %r GREAT BASIN 7, UPPER 1@1 COLORADO OHIO 0 LOWER ARKANSA -WHITE-RED COLORADO G1 LLJ TEXAS-GULF 0 ALASKA PUERTO RICO I HAWAII Source: U.S. WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL (1968). The Nation's Water Resources. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. Part 1, p. 5. in 1968 and its report is commonly called the First projected water uses for the regions of the United National Assessment.8 While time and changing States shown in Figure 1-3. circumstances have dated these projections, they do The First National Assessment also included some serve as a limited framework for studying the future indicators of onsite and flow uses of water. These water situation. The Water Resources Council is in uses were stated primarily in terms of specific the process of preparing an updated National Water activities and not in terms of water consumption, Assessment that should be available in December although estimates of flow requirements for naviga- 1975. tion on major inland waterways and of water con- Projections of the First National Assessment are sumption by fish and waterfowl developments are based largely on extensions of past trends, which may included. Very large increases in these uses were not continue, especially if the Nation adopts policies projected for the future. The total traffic on inland recommended in this report. National projections waterways was projected to increase by 170 percent from the First National Assessment are summarized by the year 2000, on the assumptions that present in Table 1-4. Table 1-5 summarizes the total policies would be continued and that the waterways would retain their current share of total intercity 8U.S. WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL (1968). Tbe commerce. The First National Assessment also sug- Nation's Water Resources. U.S. Government Printing gested that water-based recreation of all types could Office, Washington, D.C. increase by about 170 percent between 1965 and 10 CASE 26 A TIMBER BULKHEAD AND STONE REVETMENT 0N MIDDLE RIVER Structure was completed in 1978 at a cost of $115,60/ft. The historical rate of erosion at the site was about 2.5 ft./yr. from 1847-1936. Timber bulkhead consists of 3 in. x 10 in. tongue-in-groove sheetpile, and walers 6 in. x 8 in. The planform of the wall is S-shaped. A 10 ft.-wide rip rap toe has also been installed at the base of the structure on the seaward side. This structure is in generally excellent condition. The wall is constructed to extend very high up the bank face and limits splashover from the worst wave conditions. The rip rap at the toe of the structure provides added protection against wave scour and erosion of finer-grained sands and silts of the natural bottom. 2-88 TABLE 1-5.-Projected water use by region (Billion gallons per day) Projected Total Withdrawals Projected Total Consumptive Use 1980 2000 2020 1980 2000 2020 North Atlantic 54.9 113.9 236.3 2.9 5.0 8.5 South Atlantic-Gulf 53.2 87.4 130.2 3.4 5.7 8.3 Great Lakes 47.9 96.6 191.0 1.9 3.2 5.5 Ohio 41.7 65.1 90.2 1.6 2.5 3.6 Tennessee 12.3 13.9 18.1 0.6 0.8 1.1 Upper Mississippi 14.8 30.6 41.3 1.1 1.8 2.6 Lower Mississippi 12.8 28.0 39.4 3.0 4.5 6.3 Souris-Red-Rainy .9 2.0 2.8 0.2 0.5 0.5 Missouri 23.3 27.9 31.6 13.2 15.0 16.4 Arkansas-White-Red 17.3 25.3 31.6 8.5 10.6 12.3 Texas-Gulf 29.1 57.3 92.6 9.4 10.9 12.3 Rio Grande 8.3 9.5 11.7 4.7 5.0 5.5 Upper Colorado 5.7 6.6 6.7 2.7 3.1 3.1 Lower Colorado 8.5 8.4 8.9 4.1 4.6 5.3 Great Basin 7.1 7.6 7.8 3.3 3.6 3.8 Columbia-North Pacific 41.4 90.1 156.7 13.6 17.3 21.6 California 56.3 120.5 244.8 29.2 32.7 38.2 Alaska 0.5 0.9 4.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 Hawaii 2.7 4.7 8.6 0.7 1.0 1.4 Puerto Rico 4.0 8.3 13.7 0.4 0.5 0.6 U.S. Total 442.7 804.6 1,368.1 104.4 128.2 Source: U.S. WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL (1968). The Nation's Water Resources. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. Part 1, p. 24. Note: Columns may not add due to rounding, crop price support program that keeps farm land in result from changes in various factors that, super- humid areas out of production thereby stimulates a ficially, may appear to be only remotely related to demand for interbasin water transfers to irrigate new water. Significantly, most of these factors are within land in dry areas, with undesirable environmental the control of society, if it wishes to exercise such consequences, another type of crop price support control. technique may be selected. Because it believes the concept of alternative Effects of Change on Future Demands for Water futures should become a basic part of all future water resources planning and decisionmaking, the Com- The principal staff analysis had the objective of mission asked its staff to analyze the effects of analyzing the effects of changes in policy and changes in policy, lifestyles, and technology on future technology on future demands for water. Demand for demands for water and water-related services. These water for cooling steam electric powerplants and in analyses were made not for the purpose of advocating the petroleum refining industry, as well as residential any particular course of action, but to illustrate the water demand, were considered in the study, along very dramatic changes in water demands that can with the preliminary results of Iowa State University 12 model studies of demand for water for irrigated In addition, the analysis incorporated the latest agriculture, which are discussed in Section C of available information on demand for electric power Chapter 5. The analysis made use of an economic from the Federal Power Commission studies, on model developed in a study undertaken for Resources water-use coefficients for steam electric power for the Future,9 growing out of earlier work per- generation from the work of the Commission's Panel formed for the U.S. Senate Select Committee on on Waste Heat '14 on water use in the five major National Water Resources.' 0 The model evaluates the water-using industries, on advanced cooling methods relationships among water quality and quantity and and accelerated rates of recirculation of water in costs of future programs on the basis of several industry, and on agricultural demands for water from variations in future population and industrial activity, the Iowa State University model. to indicate the range of choice open to the Nation in meeting future demands through combinations of Conclusions from the Analysis: The analysis shows waste treatment and water storage for dilution of that the rate of growth of the population and the wastes. The variables considered and the salient economy and the alternative water policies and water conclusions from the staff's investigation are briefly use technologies that are adopted would have very reported here.' significant effects on future water demands. The following more specific conclusions with respect to Variables Considered: The following variables were water use in the year 2020 were reached in the considered: study: 1 5 1. Four levels of population for the contiguous 1. Water withdrawals in the year 2020 may range United States (264 million, 279 million, 299 million, from 570 billion gallons per day (b.g.d.) to 2,280 and 318 million in the year 2000) and an assumed b.g.d. depending on the combination of variables that level of productivity (output per man-hour) of the are assumed. In comparison, the Water Resources labor force.' 2 Council projected the total withdrawals at 1,368 2. Two assumptions were made regarding waste b.g.d. under a continuation of policies and trends in heat disposal: (a) that no temperature limitations are effect in 1968 (see Tables 1-4 and 1-5). imposed on receiving waters at the point of discharge 2. Water consumption in the year 2020 may and (b) that no more than 5.40 F. increase in water range from 150 to 250 b.g.d. in comparison to the 13 temperatures at the point of discharge is permitted. Water Resources Council's projection of 157 b.g.d. 3. Two assumptions were made concerning dis- (see Tables 1-4 and I-S). solved oxygen in fresh waters of the Nation: (a) that 3. Greater recycling of industrial process water 4 milligrams (mg.) per liter would be maintained and and recirculation of water used for cooling would (b) that 6 mg. per liter would be maintained. 13 significantly reduce water withdrawals in the Nation 4. Two assumptions were made about sewage without any substantial total increase in water con- treatment: (a) that all wastewater discharges to sumption. This would be particularly true for steam coastal areas and estuaries would be given primary electric power generation where the studies indicate treatment and (b) that such treatment would be at a that water withdrawals would be four times greater in secondary level .13 the year 2020 under a continuation of present technology than with substantially advanced techno- 'WOLLMAN, Nathaniel & BONEM, Gilbert W (1971). The logy which would increase consumptive use only Outlook for Water; Quality, Quantity, and National about I percent. Growth. Published for Resources for the Future, Inc., by The Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, Md. "KRENKEL, Peter A et al. (1972). The Water Use and 'OU.S. CONGRESS, Senate Select Committee on National Management Aspects of Steam Electric Power Generation, Water Resources (1960). Water Supply and Demand, prepared for the National Water Commission by the Committee Print No. 32, 86th Congress, 2d Session. U.S. Commission's Consulting Panel on Waste Heat. National Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., Accession "For details, see THOMPSON, Russell G et al. (1971). No. PB 210 355. Forecasting Water Demands, prepared for the National 'For more detail on the conclusions of this study, see Water Commission. National Technical Information THOMPSON, Russell G et al. (1971). Forecasting Water Service, Springfield, Va., Accession No. PB 206 491. Demands, prepared for the National Water Commission. fbid,, p. 29 1. National Technical information Service, Springfield, Va., 13These assumptions were from the Woliman-Bonem study. Accession No. PB 206 491. 13 4. Water withdrawals for steam electric genera- wasteful for municipalities to plan to meet future tion cooling purposes would be significantly affected demands on the basis of a single valued projection of by water quality standards. A limit on temperature past trends. increase in water at the point of discharge of no more than 5.4" F. could reduce withdrawals for this Future Agricultural Water Demands purpose about 75 percent from the levels forecast for Much more detailed analyses of future demands for the year 2020 based on extension of present water for agricultural purposes were made because trends." water used for irrigated agriculture is the dominant 5. Increasing the water quality standard of dis- consumptive use of water in the United States, solved oxygen from 4 to 6 mg. per liter for all fresh especially in the regions most likely to face water waters in the Nation, to reflect greater concern for shortages in the future. In 1970, for example, environmental quality, would increase the cost of irrigation accounted for 83 percent of all the water treating wastewaters about SO percent. consumed offsite in the Nation (Table 1-2). For the., Future Municipal Water Demands year 2000, the Water Resources Council's projection Results of research' ' on methods of forecasting indicates that agriculture (irrigation and livestock) future demand for water for municipal purposes were still could account for about 73 percent of all water also considered by the Commission as a part of its consumed offsite in the Nation (Table 14). The analysis of alternative futures. The studies showed a future agricultural demand for water depends on a rather substantial variation in possible future demand number of variables, including: (1) food and fiber for water in the four cities for which such demand demand (domestic and export); (2) Federal policies was analyzed through the use of the model developed adopted for control of farm production, resource during the course of the study. The model took into development, and environmental quality; (3) the rate account six factors: regulations, pricing policy, educa- of technological advance; and (4) the price of water tion campaigns, housing patterns, supply cost, and to the various users. It is also affected to a very great technology of demand. Using these, 96 possible extent by the way other resources, such as capital outcomes were developed, showing possible variations required to implement modern technologies, ferti- in total water demand in the year 2000 of up to 29 lizer, and land, are used with and as a substitute for percent under various combinations of these factors. water. Of all the in-house uses of water, the study found In its search for answers to how these variables that only toilet flushing appears to be excessive at interact to influence demand for water for irrigated present, and might offer some scope for reduction of agriculture in the Western regions, the Commission demand through regulation. Use of water for lawn contracted with Iowa State University for an analysis sprinkling was found in this and other studies" to be of how a series of alternative future policies would price sensitive, and probably excessive, so that use affect demands for land and water for agriculture. By could be reduced through a combination of improved going to Iowa State University, the Commission was pricing and educational policies. able to take advantage of work done by that In view of the great possibilities for reduction in University for the Tennessee Valley Authority, in per capita water use, as well as total use, it would be developing relationships between fertilizer use and 1 6But the temperature limit would require greater use of crop production, and the Bureau of Reclamation, in cooling towers, and an increase in consumptive use. developing relationships between water use and crop "For details, see WHITFORD, Peter W (1970). Forecasting production. Demand for Urban Water Supply, a dissertation submitted The analysis' 9 was made in a national context in to the Department of Civil Engineering, Stanford Univer- sity, Palo Alto, Calif. which land and alternative technologies over the 48 "See, for example, HOWE, Charles W and LINAWEAVER, F Pierce, Jr (1967). The Impact of Price on Residential "For details, see HEADY, Earl 0 et al., Iowa State Water Demand and its Relation to System Design and Price University (1971). Agricultural Water Demands, prepared Structure, in Water Resources Research, V. 3, pp. 13-32 for the National Water Commission. National Technical and LINAWEAVER, F Pierce, it, GEYER, John C, and Information Service, Springfield, Va., Accession No. PB WOLFF, Jerome B (1967). A Study of Residential Water 206 790; and MADSEN, Howard C et al., Iowa State Use, prepared for the Technical Studies Program of the University (1972). Alternative Demands for Water and Federal Housing Administration, Department of Housing Land for Agricultural Purposes, prepared for the National and Urban Development. U.S. Government Printing Office, Water Commission. National Technical Information Washington, D.C. Service, Springfield, Va., Accession No. PB 211444. 14 CASE 28 ALUMINUM BULKHEAD ON BACK RIVER Structure was completed in 1974 at a cost of $70.00/ft. The historical rate of erosion at the site was about 2.5 ft./yr. from 1846-1944. Structure consists of corrugated aluminum sheetpile 0.125 in. thick and 10.1 ft. lonq. A deadman anchoring system is connected to the wall by tie rods 3/4 in. in diameter and 14 ft. long. This structure is in generally good condition. There is evidence of splashover at the site, but there are no problems with flanking erosion alongshore since the wall connects with other vertical structures on both ends. 2-92 -777717,@ kZ vf, "'Jo- kN@ MV, 2@, J, z Food-producing capacity and water supplies through the year 2000 can be compatible future water scarcities in the West, agriculture need Other Possible Alternatives for Agriculture: Several not use more but actually could release a fairly large reviewers of the Commission's draft report have supply of water for industrial and urban uses. Finally, suggested that the Commission should evaluate an the study indicates that increasing the price of water alternative future incorporating assumptions that for irrigation in the 17 Western States would create the recent surge in food exports, Which increased the the potential for release of substantial quantities of 1972 export level substantially above the 1967-1969 water from agriculture for uses in other sectors and average, will continue and that the masses of world locations without putting pressure on the Nation's population will become dependent on the United food supplies or export potentialities or having other States for their food supply. If at the same time the than minimal effects on the cost of food to the trend toward increasing crop yields in the United Nation's consumers.21 States were reversed and the rate of population growth in the United States increased, there might indeed be food shortages. Incorporation of such "See HEADY, Earl 0 et al., Iowa State University (1971). assumptions in a model study could undoubtedly lead Agricultural Water Demands, prepared for the National to solutions which would call for vast increases in the Water Commission. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., Accession No. PB 206 790. pp. amount of land required for crop production. Never- V-1 to V-3. theless, the Commission believes that for illustrative 16 purposes the alternative futures considered in the cast with any assurance. Thus, any projection of the Iowa State University studies provide a realistic range future need for water based only on past trends is of alternatives. If the Nation decides to plan for quite likely to be wrong. What must be done is to greater crop production, such a decision should be study a variety of alternative futures in which the based on thorough consideration of all of the possible factors affecting water use are explicitly considered. options, looking to achieving greater production goals The alternative futures discussed in this chapter in the most efficient way possible. And if as a matter indicate the wide ranges of policy choices, tradeoffs, of national policy the Nation decides to increase its and flexibility in water use that are available. The food export capability by a program of subsidizing Commission believes that all policy planning activities the reclamation of land, a decision we do not should give consideration to a wide range of possible iecommend, it should do so in full awareness that the choices so that there is assurance that the selected general taxpayer would be providing an indirect course of action will, regardless of any future which export subsidy for foodstuffs. can reasonably develop, be a sound decision for the Nation. In the words of Rene' Dubos, "trend is not CONCLUSIONS destiny. "2 2 Water use is responsive to many variables in policy and technology as well as to rates of growth in the "DUBOS, Ren6 (1972). A God Within. Charles Scribner's population and the economy which cannot be fore- Sons, New York, p. 291. 17 Chapter 2 Water and the Natural Environment The environmental effects of water projects and Yet at the same time the Nation has enjoyed water use are receiving increasing attention, in the environmental benefits from water projects: Glen press, in Congress, and in the courts. Stream channeli- Canyon undammed was beautiful, but so is Lake zation; flood control, hydroelectric power, and irriga- Powell; the C&O Canal and its adjacent lands offer tion projects; and major industrial water uses such as recreation, charm, and a slice of history in metropolitan the cooling of thermal powerplants are attacked on Washington, D.C.; water projects have opened new grounds ranging from their impact on fisheries and routes to natural treasures in backcountry and offer wildlife to their esthetic unsuitability and their new fishing and recreational opportunities. Clearly, alleged long-term effects upon the complex ecology the environmental results of water use and develop- of interrelated river and ocean systems. ment can be good as well as bad. The Nation has become more sophisticated in its All projects alter the natural environment. The understanding of ecological processes and painfully challenge is to choose well, to try to foresee the aware that past water uses and developments have environmental consequences of proposed water uses produced some unpleasant and unforeseen results. For and projects, to evaluate the costs and benefits of example, the invasion of the Great Lakes by sea alternatives, and to act accordingly -which includes lamprey through the Welland Canal;' increased salin- deciding not to develop when environmental and ity in the Colorado River as irrigation has increased other costs outweigh the benefits. On the other hand, and the flow has decreased; and the discovery that some environmental change is inevitable, not all of large bacterial populations, created by sewage enrich- which will be necessarily bad. Even environmental ment of streams and lakes, can react as "environ- enhancement by various pollution control techniques mental catalysts" with discharges of inorganic mer- has associated environmental costs which must be cury to produce the highly toxic methyl mercury.' considered. The Nation has gone astray, however, when it has permitted the use and development of waters without regard for ecological processes and the STEVENS, Harry K et al., Michigan State University environmental values associated with natural water (1972). Recycling and Ecosystem Response, prepared for the National Water Commission. National Technical Infor- systems. It need not continue to do so. mation Service, Springfield, Va., Accession No. 208 669. In order to protect and achieve environmental p. 69. quality, the Commission believes that it is necessary: 2 BEETON, AM (197 1). Man's effects on the Great Lakes, 1. To understand and be able to predict the Ch. XIV in GOLDMAN, Charles R (197 1). Environmental primary environmental effects which a particular Quality and Water Development, prepared for the National water program, project, or use, and the alternatives to Water Commission. National Technical Information Ser- it, including no development, may produce. vice, Springfield, Va., Accession No. PB 207 114. 2. To assess the secondary effects which are likely to be produced and the broader environmental costs and benefits which are likely to result. Boating on scenic Lake Powell just above Aztec 3. To take environmental values and processes Canyon in southern Utah illustrates change in recrea- into account in selecting among alternatives, so as to tional and enprionmental values resulting from reser- accommodate those values or processes, or, where a voir construction. conflict of values is necessarily present, to reach an 19 informed and balanced judgment as to what will best or physical, that limit or reduce the functioning of an serve the public intereSt.3 organism, species, population, biotic community, or ecosystem. SOME BASIC ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES4 Ecosystems are powered largely by energy from To understand some of the basic environmental the sun. Green plants, the primary producers, through impacts caused by water developments and water the process of photosynthesis convert carbon dioxide uses, it is necessary to understand some basic eco- and water into oxygen and organic chemical energy, logical principles. which becomes the fuel for the food chain. The Ecology is "the study of the interrelationships of productivity of each level within the ecosystem living organisms to one another and to their surround- depends upon the productivity of the primary pro- ings."s Interrelationship is the key concept, both ducers. Another form of power is chemosynthesis, within ecosystems and among them. Speaking gen- where organisms derive their energy from direct erally, although they do not conform to strict, chemical transformations. Compared with photo- well-defined boundaries, ecosystems are recognizable, synthesis, this is usually of minor importance in most relatively homogeneous units, including the organ- aquatic ecosystems. isms, their environment, and all, of the interactions At each level about 10 percent of the energy is among them. When one part of the ecosystem is passed on through the food chain. The remainder is affected it in turn affects the other, interrelated parts. either metabolized by the organism for its own However, ecosystems are not independent; they blend maintenance or passed on at death to decomposer one into another, changing in space and over time, organisms such as bacteria and fungi. These decom- and interact. Ecologists speak of the "Law of the posers play a vital part in the ecosystem in converting Holocoenotic Environment," that there is "complete organic material back into the nutrients needed by interrelatedness and interdependency of all life and green plants, utilizing oxygen in the system. This is ,,6 the process of natural recycling.' physical factors in the biosphere. Ecosystems are self-regulating, relying upon feed- Within each ecosystem each organism has its own back mechanisms to maintain order. They react to ecological niche or role in the ecological process. If stresses or to changes in input by striking new conditions permit, these niches will become increas- balances. For example, if additional energy is intro- ingly specialized, creating a more diverse community. duced into the system, such as that provided by Developments within the ecosystem are subject to organic sewage, primary production will increase, limiting factors -substances or conditions, biological touching off further changes in production and consumption. 'See Chapter 6 for a discussion of the National Ecosystems evolve, if permitted to do so, through Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and other orderly processes, sometimes over a long period of procedures designed to produce this decision, and Chapter time. The process of change is referred to as 10 on decisionmaking. 'The Commission's background reports for this section are succession. The early stages of succession are charac- GOLDMAN, Charles R (197 1). Environmental Quality and terized by a relatively few small and simple organisms Water Development, prepared for the National Water and by relatively low primary productivity, although Commission. National Technical Information Service, it exceeds the demands upon it. As succession Springfield, Va., Accession Nos. PB 207 113 & 207 114. continues, the system becomes more complex. More STEVENS, Harry K et al., Michigan State University (1972). Recycling and Ecosystem Response, prepared for production machinery (green plants) develops, but the National Water Commission. National Technical Infor- there are more consumers of the primary production mation Service, Springfield, Va., Accession No. PB 208 and more of the energy generated by production is 669. For a helpful description of ecological principles, see required for the maintenance of the producing THORNE ECOLOGICAL FOUNDATION (1971). Field Syllabus, Seminar on Environmental Arts and Sciences, organisms. Aspen, Colorado. Mimeo, The Foundation, Boulder, Colo. 'BORN, Steven M & YANGGEN, Douglas A (1972). Understanding Lakes and Lake Problems. Environmental 7 See generally, RICHERSON P & McEVOY J (197 1). The Resources Unit, University of Wisconsin Extension, Madi- measurement of environmental quality, Ch. VIII, in son. p. 12. GOLDMAN, Charles R (1971). Environmental Quality and 6THORNE ECOLOGICAL FOUNDATION (1971). Field Water Development, prepared for the National Water Syllabus, Seminar on Environmental Arts and Sciences, Commission. National Technical Information Service, Aspen, Colorado. Mimeo, The Foundation, Boulder, Colo. Springfield, Va., Accession No. PB 207 113. 20 Diversity is a characteristic of the increasingly which may be associated with reservoir construction complex ecosystem. In general, organisms tend to and operation. Moreover, no attempt is made to become larger and more complex. There are more predict what impacts a particular project will have, species, and the increased competition among them because the effects are site-specific (that is, they results in specialization; the niches are defined more likely will vary from one site to another). precisely to those in which particular organisms are This section deals exclusively with the environ- best adapted to compete. This diversity is important mental effects of reservoir development, some good for the resilience of an ecosystem. The more diverse but many bad. It does not catalog or evaluate ecosystem, with its wide variety of species adapted nonenvironmental effects of reservoirs, some bad but to particular niches, is better able to withstand many good. Hence, the important social and eco- stresses than are less diverse ecosystems. The stability nomic values of hydroelectric generation, slack-water of an ecosystem is directly related to its diversity and navigation, flood control, irrigation, municipal and complexity. Factors which limit diversity, whether industrial water supply, and recreation made possible natural or manmade, reduce stability. by reservoir developments and discussed in detail Succession continues until an equilibrium, or cli- elsewhere throughout this report are ignored here. max, is attained. At this point, diversity within the This discussion of the environmental effects of reser- ecosystem is at a maximum permitted by the limiting voirs should not be construed to indicate that the factors of the environment, and the production of the Commission is either opposed to or invariably critical ecosystem is balanced by the demands for energy of reservoir developments. within it. The ecosystem has reached its carrying The emphasis here on the relatively direct, primary capacity. However, it is not static; it is in a dynamic environmental effects of reservoirs should not condition created by the interplay of physical, obscure an important point: reservoir development chemical, and biological forces and limitations. The and use produce secondary effects which may have dynamic character of ecosystems makes time an great environmental significance. For example, a important dimension; changes, including those trig- hydroelectric project may require the mining and gered by man's activities, may be subtle but can production of materials and the taking of land for become critical over a long period. long-distance transmission systems, which a fossil fueled electric plant at the load center would not-a ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF RESERVOIR secondary environmental cost-but it may also make DEVELOPMENT an urban fossil plant unnecessary, conserving non- renewable fossil fuels and curtailing air pollution- All water projects and water uses have environ- secondary environmental benefits. mental repercussions. Reservoir development provides By the same token, the specification of possible a good vehicle for discussing environmental impacts, adverse effects should not be taken as a general to illustrate the problems generally, because of indictment of reservoirs. Many have produced net widespread interest in them and the controversies environmental benefits. However, historically which they have generated. Consider the case of emphasis has been placed upon assets. In order to Hetch Hetchy in the early part of this century, where make a balanced evaluation of the environmental the issue was whether to dam a river within Yosemite effects of reservoir development, it is necessary to National Park to provide water for San Francisco; or appreciate adverse impacts as well. the more recent controversies over proposed dams on the Colorado River-Echo Park, Marble Canyon, and Effects in Terms of Ecological Processes Bridge Canyon; or current issues such as the proposed Tocks Island and Gillharn Dams and the future of the Reservoirs create new conditions for organisms, Middle Snake. and ultimately, as adjustments are made, foster new The purpose of this section is to suggest the range ecosystems. Some of the organisms flooded are and magnitude of the potential environmental effects tolerant to inundation; others are not. Water currents, generated by impounding a stream, effects which the levels, temperatures, and other characteristics will Commission believes must be investigated and evalu- change as a stream is converted to a lake. Within the ated in order to facilitate sound decisions about water reservoir the old stream ecosystem is replaced by a resources. No attempt is made here to set out all new lake-like one; below the dam there is still a possible environmental impacts, adverse or beneficial, stream, but here too conditions will be altered. 21 7 3;r 44@ 5 f V, Yellowtail Dam's full reservoir backs up 71 river miles of the Bighorn Canyon in Montana and Wyoming The predictable effect of a dam and reservoir is A second possible effect is increased primary change of the organisms within the affected eco- productivity in an impoundment. A reservoir may act systems. A possible effect is a loss of diversity and as a "nutrient trap," holding nutrients which other- stability. If the conversion from a stream to a lake wise would have continued downstream, thereby system diminishes the types of habitat available, as increasing the nutrient content behind the dam, while well it may, diversity will be reduced. Even if the decreasing it downstream. The impacts of this phe- changed conditions are as diverse as before, some of nomenon will vary depending upon the characteristics the previous niches may no longer exist. New and of the reservoir, such as its depth and the ratio of different ones may succeed them. Some species which inflow to storage, and of the stream. However, under live in a stream may not survive in a lake. Change, per some circumstances, the additional nutrients will se, is not necessarily bad, assunting equivalent diver- accelerate eutrophication. within the lake, stimulating sity, since new organisms may thrive. However, it is the growth of algae, acquatic weeds, and bacteria. The important to be able to predict which organisms may upper levels of the food chain characteristically are live and which may die. It is possible that rare species unable to expand their feeding fast enough to keep will be lost or that keystone species (those upon pace with the increase of the primary producers. which associated species depend for support) will be Further, many of the plants produced during ad- eliminated, triggering significant further change. New vanced eutrophication may be inedible. When the species may or may not be less desirable than the old, plants die, they are used directly by the decomposers or they may prosper at the expense of some other in large quantities, a process which requires sub- desirable species. stantial amounts of oxygen and may, in severe 22 F. Cases along the Upper Eastern Shore of Chesapeake Bay This area of the northern Chesapeake Bay shoreline (Figure 2.10) contains portions of Cecil County and Kent County. The sections below present a brief physical description of the shoreline and coastal processes, followed by a discussion of the case studies which were selected from this area. SHORELINE DESCRIPTIONS Eastern Cecil County The Cecil County shoreline along the Elk River is composed of rollinq hills up to 80 feet in height. At most spots, the land slopes gently down to the water, but some hillsides end in exposed vertical walls of erodinq sediments. The beaches in this area are of varying width, and contain some gravel. Enough sand is present in some areas of the shoreline system to form wide sandy berms on the summer beach profiles. Marshes are found in protected coves, and in the headwaters of the Flk River. Most shorefront areas on the western side of the Elk River contain farmlands or woodlands. Houses are located in among the trees on hillsides next to the shore, on low hanks Drotected by erosion-control structures, or in open grassy areas behind a wide vegetated buffer zone. On the eastern side of the Elk River, the terrain is generally flatter, and shorefront areas contain banks ranging from 5 to 15 feet in height. Areas near the entrance to the C&D Canal contain concentrated residential shorefront development and networks of erosion-control 2-100 fishery. By the same token, releases from the epilim- thermore, removal of water from the system, particu- nion may be too warm for some species. The larly high-quality water, leaves less flow to dilute and temperature tolerance limits seem particularly im- carry the salt load downstream. portant during spawning seasons. Releases from the Reservoirs almost always alter the pattern of hypohmnion are likely to be low in dissolved oxygen, sediment deposition downstream. One of the Com- which can have a detrimental effect downstream. mission's background studies points out that the These effects may be mitigated by the use of variable effect of reservoirs may be either to diminish sedi- level discharges. Knowledge about potential effects is ments downstream, where the reservoir traps up- critical for the proper operation of the reservoir.' 0 stream sediments, or to increase them, if before Another environmental impact of reservoir opera- impoundment a river flushed out accumulated sedi- tion which has received attention lately is the ments downstream during times of high flow, but did so-called "gas bubble disease" phenomenon. Waters not do so after regulation. 12 The altered sediment flowing over a spillway entrain air which plunges to load downstream may affect the fishery, either the depths in the stilling basin and dissolves, pro- improving or degrading it, and change the pattern of ducing a supersaturation of the dissolved gases. deposition at the mouth of the river. Sediment Along the Snake and Columbia Rivers, where build-up within the reservoir may also produce hydroelectric dams stairstep downstream, the super- important effects. saturation is not relieved between dams. Fish extract the gases from the water through their gills, so that Effects of Changed Land Use the dissolved gases enter the blood and tissues. Under Some of the most significant environmental im- lower water pressures, or higher temperatures, the pacts associated with reservoirs may come from the dissolved gases allempt to return to a gaseous state changed land use patterns which the reservoir permits and produce bubbles which can block the blood or encourages. For example, a flood control project vessels of a fish.' ' Spillway modifications or more may encourage people to build or to plant crops in effective use of hydropower potential to reduce water the flood plain downstream, reducing the diversity flowing over spillways are expected to ameliorate the and stability of that area. The lake created by the problem. storage reservoir may act as a magnet for recreational, residential, or commercial development, which in Effects of Altered Flows turn increases pollution. Construction can cause A primary purpose of constructing a reservoir is to sedimentation; development can increase runoff; change the pattern of flows from that which existed increased recreational use may overcrowd the lake before: capturing high flows to prevent floods or to and the surrounding area." store runoff for water supply, and later releasing the Water development tends to generate changed land water at a controlled rate of flow to produce uses, and these secondary developments themselves hydroelectric power or to augment natural low flows. affect the natural environment. This relationship These alterations in the timing and magnitude of underscores the need to coordinate water resources flows offer significant benefits. However, they also planning with the planning for and regulation of land have the potential for causing environmental disrup- use and water quality, points which are developed at tion where particular levels or patterns of flow are more length elsewhere in this report." important. Reservoir storage may lessen total flows 12 HAGAN RM & ROBERTS EB (197 1).' Ecological impacts downstream because of increased evaporation. As of water storage and diversion projects, Ch. X1 in water in the reservoir evaporates, the remaining GOLDMAN, Charles R (197 1). Environmental Quality and water-and discharges from it-are more saline. Fur- Water Development, prepared for the National Water Commission. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., Accession No. PB 207 113. "See generally, HAGAN RM & ROBERTS EB (1971). "See generally, HENWOOD K G 97 1). impact analysis and Ecological impacts of water storage and diversion projects, the planning process, Ch. IX in GOLDMAN, Charles R Ch. XI in GOLDMAN, Charles R (1971). Environmental (1971). Environmental Quality and Water Development, Quality and Water Development, prepared for the National prepared for the National Water Commission. National Water Commission. National Technical Information Ser- Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., Accession vice, Springfield, Va., Accession No. PB 207 113. No. PB 207 113. SMITH HA Jr (Summer 1972). N2 - Threat to Pacific 'See Chapter 4 on water pollution and Chapter 10, Section Northwest Fisheries? Water Spectrum 4(2):41-47. B, on planning. 24 Esthetic Effects of Reservoir Development outweigh other considerations or to make the difference on balance. It simply provides a basis for Congress regarded esthetic values as important treating esthetics less subjectively, permitting some establishing this Commission. The National Water evaluation of how outstanding the esthetic character- Commission Act directs the Commission to "consider istics of a site really are.' 7 It remains for decision- economic and social consequences of water resource makers to evaluate the esthetic considerations with development, including, for example, the impact of other relevant considerations. However, the Com-' water resource development on ... esthetic values mission believes that esthetic factors should be affecting the quality of life of the American people; . . ."'5 described as carefully and assessed as objectively as The Commission's background study on esthetic possible, by reference to standards such as those values 16 recognizes that an esthetic experience is in suggested in the background study. Furthermore, to part a product of the observer's "state of mind" and identify assets of national or regional value, land and the context of observation. However, esthetics also water resources planning should include identification may be evaluated in terms of the environmental of and recommendations for protection or rehabilita- stimuh. Certain basic characteristics, such as vegeta- tion of high quality esthetic settings. tion patterns, land form definitions and the prom- Loss of Wildness' 8 inence of the waterscape, can be identified. These can be evaluated in terms of the presence or absence of For many who love a free-flowing, undeveloped certain attributes which produce high or low esthetic river, no list of environmental impacts, or combina- quality. fion of impacts, such as that set out above, can The study also suggests a classification of manmade capture the full loss when a previously undeveloped elements and describes various ways in which devel- stream is dammed. To them, undeveloped streams are opment may be made most compatible with the rare and valuable natural resources, worthy of protec- esthetic characteristics of the land and water. Reser- tion for their own sake. They are examples of nature voirs, of course, offer certain esthetic advantages of untouched by the works of man and some, at least, their own, such as a visible increase in the amount of should be preserved that way as part of our heritage, water in the landscape. for ourselves and for generations to come. The Commission believes that the types of analysis The Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968 is suggested by the background study can be helpful in responsive to this concern. It established a system of at least three situations: wild and scenic rivers to be protected from develop- 1. Where the decision already has been made to ment or from land uses which would be incompatible construct a reservoir at a particular site, but con- with the existing primitive character of the area. The sideration of esthetic factors can lead to a design Act designated eight rivers as immediate components which is tailored to the important characteristics of of the system, charged the Secretaries of the Interior the setting. and Agriculture with studying 27 more as expedi- 2. Where a choice must be made between alterna- tiously as possible, and provided for the possible tive sites for a reservoir, and the alternatives will have inclusion of other rivers within the system. All different esthetic impacts. Federal agencies are to consider the potential of river 3. Where the choice to be made is among areas as wild, scenic, or recreational in "planning for different types of projects which might meet a the use and development of water and related land particular need (or whether there should be a project resources ... The process is a slow one. A river at all) and the esthetic characteristics of the area are "Sce also, LEOPOLD, Luna B (1969). Quantitative significant. Comparison of Some Aesthetic Factors Among Rivers, This approach does not provide an answer for Geological Survey Circular 620. U.S. Geological Survey, when esthetic values may be so significant as to Washington, D.C. See generally, NASH R (197 1). Rivers and Americans: A National Water Commission Act, P.L. 90-5 15, September century of conflicting priorities, Ch. IV in GOLDMAN, 26, 1968, 82 Star. 868, 42 USCA 1962a note. Charles R (1971). Environmental Quality and Water "LITTON, R Burton Jr et al. (1971). An Aesthetic Development, prepared for the National Water Corrimis- Overview of the Role of Water in the Landscape, prepared sion. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, for the National Water Commission. National Technical Va., Accession No. PB 207 113. Information Service, Springfield, Va., Accession No. PB Wild and Scenic Rivers Act, P.L. 90-452, Section 5(d), 207 315. October 2, 1968, 82 Stat. 910, 16 USCA 1276(d). 25 IWO A" o .igw V x --04" A k i Q-96 The Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968 will protect scenic rivers, such as this, from incompatible use may be added to the system only by the action of mental costs and benefits of proceeding or of denying Congress or by the Secretary of the Interior's a license or foregoing a project. The existence of a approval of a river corridor designated by a State . mechanism by which Congress may designate certain legislature. Proposed additions to the system are rivers as wild or scenic should not relieve Federal 20 subject to review by interested Federal agencies. In agencies from this responsibility. many instances, the Federal Government would be required to acquire fee title or scenic easements in CONCLUSIONS ON WATER the land corridor along the river to provide the DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS management necessary to preserve the river's Potential water resources programs and projects qualities; need to be approached carefully and analyzed com- The Wild and Scenic Rivers Act does not provide prehensively so they do not produce unexpected and the sole vehicle for determining that the qualities of aenvironmentally unacceptable results. particular river reach are such that a dam should not Elsewhere, this report makes a number of recom- be built. Under the National Environmental Policy mendations directed toward the better planning and Act and the Federal Power Act, as interpreted by the courts, Federal licensing and construction agencies have an obligation, before licensing or constructing a"HILLHOUSE, William A & DeWEERDT, John L (1972). ;07F dam, to consider whether that is the best use of the Legal Devices for Accommodating Water Resources Devel- river or whether the river should be left in its natural opment and Environmental Values, prepared for the National Water Commission. National Technical Informa- state. They should decide how to act in light of all tion Service, Springfield, Va., Accession No. PB 208 835. relevant factors, including the secondary environ- Chs. 1, 7. 26 evaluation of such programs and projects. These nition that nature contains intrinsic resources which recommendations, designed to further sound projects may be utilized to our benefit but may not be and to eliminate unsound ones, are applicable to overtaxed except at a CoSt.,,l 4 They suggested environmental considerations as well as to econon-dc gathering appropriate data on such natural resources ones. Since the rationale for these recommendations as terrain, water, minerals, and vegetation; by is set out more fully in other chapters of this report, analyzing this data, unique or scarce components of the discussion here is limited to ways in which these the landscape could be identified, as well as the most recommendations apply to environmental considera- appropriate areas for different types of land and tions. water use. The Task Force applied this approach to 1. Develop an adequate data base. The Commis- five major physiographic regions within the Potomac 25 sion has recommended an extensive, continuous Basin and to the Washington metropolitan area. program for collecting and organizing data on the Innovative approaches such as this, conducted with condition of the Nation's waters.*21 Too little is realistic consideration for the resulting plans' known about their present characteristics and quality economic and political acceptability, offer promise. and additional information is needed to assist intel- A later section of this report deals with the role of 26 ligent judgment about the levels of quality which the public in water resources planning. While should be sought and the measures needed to achieve public participation serves to develop public prefer- them. ences broadly, including economic preferences, one However, if the Nation is to have environmentally important function is to involve members of the sound land and water development, it may not rely public from the inception of planning in order to upon water quality data alone, important though that identify what they believe are the important elements is. A broader data base is needed. The ecological of environmental quality, to broaden and deepen the processes and environmental attributes of potentially planning agency's examination of environmental affected areas should be studied; wherever practi- effects, to suggest alternatives which the agency cable, these studies should include the geology, soils, might not consider under traditional approaches, and, fisheries, climate, vegetation, historical and archeo- to educate both the public and the agency. logical resources, land uses, esthetics, and other In some situations it is helpful and practical to relevant factors. construct and operate a model to simulate the effects 2. Conduct further research into the environ- which different actions will produce within the mental impacts of water resource development. The system modeled. For example, in Chapter 11, Commission has identified this as one of the Nation's Section E, the Commission recommends increased primary water research needs." Too little is known Federal support for water quality models for the about the environmental impacts, good and bad, of Great Lakes. water projects. In particular, while our knowledge 4. Develop rigorously and present as clearly as about ecological processes is expanding and becoming practicable the environmental impacts associated with more sophisticated, there is a need for further work a proposed water resources project and the available to improve the prediction of ecological effects of alternatives. The National Environmental Policy Act proposed water projects and of possible modifications (NEPA) requires Federal agencies to describe the or alternatives. environmental impacts of major proposed actions, 3. Utilize planning techniques which are sensitive including those which cannot be avoided should the to ecological processes and environmental values. proposal be implemented, and to explore and 27 Some imaginative techniques exist. The work of the describe alternatives to the proposed action. The Potomac Planning Task Force, assembled by The Commission believes that NEPA, if properly applied, American Institute of Architects, provides an 24 example." The Task Force recommended an Ibid., p. 44. "environmental approach," starting with "the recog- See also, McHARG IL & CLARKE MG (197 1). Skippack Watershed and the Evansburg Project, Ch. XVI in GOLD- MAN, Charles R (197 1). Environmental Quality and Water See Chapter 17, Basic Data and Research. Development, prepared for the National Water Commis- "See Chapter 17. sion. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, 23 POTOMAC PLANNING TASK FORCE (1967). The Va., Accession No. PB-207 114. Potomac, A Report on Its Imperiled Future and a Guide Chapter 10, Section C, for its Orderly Development. U.S. Government Printing "P.L. 91-190, January 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852, 42 USCA Office, Washington, D.C. 4321-47. 27 provides an important tool for planning and evaluat- should not be expected always to produce definitive ing water resources programs and projects. However, information on every possible environmental impact too often an environmental impact statement sub- of a proposed project and its alternatives. mitted under NEPA reads like a justification for a Some predicted consequences, good or bad, may particular project rather than a rigorous exploration remain as unproved possibilities, incapable of being of impacts and alternatives. Impact statements, and established either as future fact or of being dismissed the analysis which they reflect, should help shape with certainty. Planners and decisionmakers must agency decisions, not simply justify them." meet their responsibilities fully and fairly to evaluate NEPA, as interpreted by the courts, requires a the information which is available or reasonably "rather finely tuned and 'systematic' balancing attainable, but when they have done so, the time analysis in each instance"-an assessment of the comes for judgment of probabilities and decision on relative weight of environmental, economic, and the best information available. other costs and benefits .2 9 Accordingly, it is appro- 6. Monitor environmental consequences. Once priate for development agencies to discuss the range projects are completed, the environmental impacts of benefits which a proposed project may produce. should be monitored to obtain information which However, an environmental impact statement which would provide a better basis for future decisions to emphasizes the positive and talks primarily about the protect the environment when water projects are 11 environmental" benefits which a project may bring undertaken. by providing additional water supply, flood protec- tion, and water recreation, misses an important point. The environmental impact statement is supposed to ESTUARIES AND THE COASTAL ZONE be a tool for assessing and evaluating the impacts When the National Water Commission was created which a proposed project will have upon the natural in 1968, a two and one-half year study of national environment, so that these may be considered along oceanographic research and development authorized with other factors." In order to serve this purpose, by Congress in 1966 was nearing completion by the an environmental impact statement should describe in Commission on Marine Science, Engineering and detail the nature and magnitude of the environmental Resources. The designed overlap of the two com- impacts wl-dch a project and its alternatives may missions made it clear that Congress did not expect produce, good and bad, and the possible combined or the National Water Commission to consider in any synergistic effects with other existing or proposed detail the problems of the oceans." Therefore this developments and land uses. Beyond this, the Com- report does not. Other recent Federal reports have mission believes that an environmental impact state- discussed estuaries and the coastal zone in consider- ment is particularly helpful when it identifies and able detail.32 discusses measures which can be taken to mitigate the However, the Nation's estuaries and coastal zone, adverse environmental impacts of a proposed action, the areas where the rivers and oceans interact, are an including measures which might be taken by another government agency. " See U.S. COMMISSION ON MARINE I SCIENCE, S. Reach a decision. Even improved programs of ENGINEERING AND RESOURCES (1969). Our Nation data collection, research, planning, and analysis and the Sea: a Plan for National Action. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 28 See U.S. GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE (1972). "See for example, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE IN- Improvements Needed in Federal Efforts to Iiitplement, the TERIOR (1970). National Estuary Study, House Docu- National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, Report to the ment 91-286, Part 11, 91st Congress, 2d Session, U.S. Subcommittee on Fisheries and Wildlife Conservation, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.; U.S. House Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries,, by DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (1970). The Na- the Comptroller General of the United States, B-170186. tional Estuarine Pollution Study, Senate Document No. General Accounting Office, Washington, D.C. 91-58, 91st Congress, 2d Session. U.S. Government Print- "'Calvert Cliffs' Coordinating Committee v. AEC, 449 F.2d ing Office, Washington, D.C.; U.S. NATIONAL ACAD- 1109, 1113 (D.C. Cir. 197 1). EMY OF SCIENCES/NATIONAL ACADEMY OF "See U.S. COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENGINEERING (1970). Waste Management Concepts for (May 1972). Memorandum to Federal Agencies on Pro- the Coastal Zone. National Academy of Sciences/National cedures for Improving Environmental Impact Statements. Academy of Engineering, Washington, D.C.; U.S. Reprinted in Environment Reporter, Current Develop- COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY (1970). ments [Bureau of National Affairs, Inc., Washington, Ocean Dumping, A National Policy. U.S. Government D.C.] 3(3):82-87. Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 28 integral part of our river systems. Development, The Coastal Zone - An Area with Competing preservation, or use of water in some parts of the Demands system affects other parts, making it impossible to The term "coastal zone" describes the part of the discuss national water policy meaningfully without continent where the land meets the sea, including the considering the role of estuaries and the coastal zone. estuaries, marshlands, and lands adjacent to the This section, then, discusses two matters which relate shoreline, and the adjacent sea. to planning sound water projects, water uses and The coastal zone is subject to multiple, frequently related development: the impact of upstream devel- competing demands. Some require changes in the opment on estuaries and the impact of development within the coastal zone itSelf.3 3 natural environment and ecology of the coastal zone; others require their preservation. The coastal zone is urbanized, industrialized, and densely populated .3 1 it Estuaries - The Rich Mixing Zones is at the heart of commerce, a medium for shipping The estuarine region-the intermediate zone and a place for harbors, a mecca for recreation and between fresh water rivers and open ocean-is second homes, a logical site for powerplants and affected by the mass movements of each but pos- other installations which require large amounts of sesses the exclusive character of neither. Tradition- cooling water, and a disposal ground for wastes of ally, the term "estuary" applies to the lower reaches varying character washed from upstream sources or of a river into which sea water intrudes and mixes discharged locally by municipalities and industries. It with fresh water from land drainage. In all estuarine is a source of vast amounts of oil, gas, and other systems the essential process is that of mixing, of the resources. 31 It is the primary supplier of the Nation's interchange between the waters of the ocean and fish harvest and a potentially fertile field for aqua- fresh water from lands, with the fresh water inflow culture. It is also the location of delicately balanced and tidal currents primarily determining the circula- estuarine ecosystems and a place where there still is tion patterns. some solitude and wilderness. Productivity is an important attribute of estuaries and their associated marshlands. Rivers drop sedi- Upstream Development ments rich in nutrients; and the interaction of the The discussion earlier in this chapter of the tidal wedge, pushing upstream from the sea, and of potential environmental effects of reservoir develop- the downstream currents tends to hold waterborne ment illustrates the types of impacts which upstream nutrients in the estuaries. Tides and cuff ents flush the develop .ment may have. Where reservoirs intercept marshes, bringing additional nutrients to the plants in sediment, for example, the creation of productive intertidal areas; the shallow water permits good light delta land may be retarded or reversed or beaches penetration and provides excellent conditions for may erode because of a reduction in the supply of fixed plants growing in the estuaries; floating algae sand. Erosion control, channel lining, and other steps add their production. As a result, the estuarine region to improve upstream conditions may have adverse is the most biologically productive area known on effects on the estuaries and coastal zones. 34 earth. Estuaries may suffer from major alterations of Oysters and crabs spend their lives within the fresh water inflow, particularly where they accen- marsh-estuarine ecosystem. Two-thirds of the com- tuate natural fluctuations. Salt water intrusion may mercial fish caught nationally spend an important part of their fife cycle in estuaries whether spawning, "The coastal counties contain only 15 percent of the land nursing, foraging, living there, or just passing area of the United States, but within this area is through. The estuarine regions also provide important concentrated 33 percent of the Nation's population, with habitat for waterfowl and wildlife. about four-fifths of it living in primarily urban areas which form about 10 percent of the total estuarine zone area. . . "The coastal counties have within their borders 40 percent of all manufacturing plants in the United States." 3 3See Chapter 4 for discussion of estuarine pollution and U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (1970). The ocean dumping. National Estuarine Pollution Study, Senate Document No. 34See KETCHUM, Bostwick H & TRIPP, Bruce W (1972). 91-58, 91st Congress, 2d Session. U.S. Government Print- Pre-Publication Summary, A Summary of the Conclusions ing Office, Washington, D.C. pp. 20-21. and Recommendations of the Coastal Zone Workshop, "'See THEOBALD PK et al. (1972). Energy Resources of held in Woods Hole, Mass., from May 22 to June 3, 1972. the United States, Geological Survey Circular 650. U.S. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, Woods Hole, Mass. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 29 AT % y@,n 7. Ae 77 ell 1-11.4cl?" NOW101i, AN 001 MI ek o This aerial view of the outlet to Lake Telequance in Alaska vividly illustrates an estuarine region reach farther upstream, increasing the salinity of the Rivers play an important role in many estuaries by estuaries and decreasing the amount of mixing. This flushing out coffected nutrients, as well as by deposit- change may have an adverse impact upon estuarine eco- ing nutrients from upstream. Diminished inflows systems. For example, significant changes in the flow from upstream developments, together with the of fresh water from the Susquehanna River into the addition of nutrients from man's activities, can upset Chesapeake Bay could affect the Bay's oyster crop the prevailing delicate balance. It has been suggested which thrives between certain salinity limits. On the that smaller inflows may result in greater trans- other hand, natural fluctuations such as that experi- parency, higher temperatures, and a longer retention enced during hurricane Agnes in 1972 sometimes have time within the estuary. These conditions may cause EW, , a much greater effect than any manmade changes. eutrophication, with resulting damage to commercial 30 and other fish species."' Larger inflows may also ing the ecological balance and the maintenance of cause changes within estuaries. high biological productivity which makes these areas Moreover, altered inflows may alter the ecology of so important." This modification-dredging, filling, marshlands which are associated with the estuaries, and development-may enhance valuable uses, but it insofar as organisms there rely upon particular pat- also may damage estuarine ecosystems by altering terns of inundation and salinity. circulation patterns and flows or by filling marshes Estuaries and the coastal zone are affected by land and estuarine shallows. For example, ditching and and water use throughout an associated river system. diking can provide fresh water impoundments for In turn, restrictions on the use of the coastal zone waterfowl habitats in marshy backbay shorelands and generate pressures to locate new uses upstream. open up fish access to wetland areas, but these Therefore, the coastal zone may not rationally be operations also can alter conditions to the detriment managed in isolation. It would not do to ban a of important species. Dredging and filling may particular use of a site on an estuary because of its improve navigation, boating, and water circulation by anticipated adverse effects, if the banned project were deepening watercourses, but may also destroy habitat then located upstream, with much the same harmful and foraging areas, imposing a cost to be borne by effect. fish and wildlife,"' and can impair the capacity of an. Speaking generally, comprehensive river basin plan- estuary to handle discharges from industries and ning has given too little attention to the effects of municipalities. Natural forces also affect the eco- upstream water uses and development on the logical balance. For example, one-quarter of Mary- estuaries into which the rivers drain. There are land's annual "loss" of approximately 400 acres of examples of a broader approach, but comprehensive coastal wetlands has been ascribed to natural erosion planning of this type is still in its infancy and carried and succession. out on a very restricted scale. Water resources Until very recently the primary Federal mechanism development plans and projects prepared by river for controlling the physical modification of estuaries basin planning entities should include measures to was the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers dredge and fill protect the important characteristics of estuarine and permit program under Section 10 of the Rivers and coastal waters and of marshlands, and the costs Of Harbors Act of 1899 .4 0 This Act was construed by these measures should be borne by project bene- the courts as authorizing the Corps of Engineers to ficiaries where possible. deny a permit where the activity would harm fish and wildlife or cause other environmental damage .41 Coastal Zone Development Section 13 of the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899 was the primary statutory basis for the Corps of The Nation's estuaries and shorelands have been Engineers' program to regulate water quality through subjected to massive physical modification, threaten- discharge permits. "See GOLDMAN CR (1971). Biological implications of Research Center, State University of New York, Stony reduced fresh-water flows on the San Francisco Bay-Delta Brook, New York. System, pp. 109-124, in SECKLER, David [ed.], Califor- "'Hedgpeth reports that the surface area of Boca Ciega Bay nia Water, A Study in Resource Management. University of in Florida has been reduced by 20 percent since 1950 with California Press, Berkeley. the resultant estimated loss of fisheries worth about $1.5 "Coastal wetlands near population centers have been affec- million annually. See HEDGPETH JW (1971). Protection ted strikingly. The Department of the Interior found that of environmental quality in estuaries, Ch. XIII in GOLD- 12,635 acres, or 29 percent of the Long Island wetlands MAN, Charles R (197 1). Environmental Quality and Water existing in 1954, were developed between 1954 and 1964. Development, prepared for the National Water Commis- U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (1970). sion. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, National Estuary Study, House Document No. 91-286, Va., Accession No. PB 207 114. p. 8. Part 11, 91st Congress, 2d Session. U.S. Government Act of March 3, 1899, 30 Stat. 1151, 3 3 USCA 403. Printing Office, Washington, D.C. Volume 3, p. 32. Later "Zabel v. Tabb, 430 F.2d 199 (5th Cit. 1970), cert. denied, studies concluded that an additional 4,400 acres of high 401 U.S. 910 (1971); see also HILLHOUSE, William A II tidal marsh were developed in Nassau and Suffolk counties & DeWEERDT, John L .(1972). Legal Devices for Accom- since 1964. See O'CONNOR, Joel S & TERRY, Orville W modating Water Resources Development and Environ- (1972). The Marine Wetlands of Nassau and Suffolk mental Values, prepared for the National Water Commis- Counties, New York, prepared in cooperation with the sion. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Nassau-Suffolk Regional Planning Board. Marine Sciences Va., Accession No. PB 208 835. Ch. 6. 31 Section 402 of the Federal Water Pollution Control estuarine and coastal waters and marshlands. Act, as amended in 1972, shifted responsibility for 'the cost of measures required for such protec- the issuance of permits for discharges to the Environ- tion should be included in the joint costs of mental Protection Agency (EPA) and to the States. proposed projects and borne by the benefici- Section 404 of that Act provides for a permit aries of the projects, except where Federal program, administered by the Corps of Engineers, for policy authorizes nonreimbursable allocations the discharge of dredged or fill material at specified to be borne by the Federal Government for disposal sites. These sites are to be determined benefits of widespread or national scope that applying guidelines developed by the Administrator cannot be traced to particular beneficiaries. of EPA in conjunction with the Secretary of the Army. The Administrator is empowered to prohibit specification of any area as a disposal site and to CHANNELIZATION restrict the use of sites. Additional controls on activities carried out in During the regional conferences held in January estuarine areas are provided by the Coastal Zone and February 1973 to receive public comments on Management Act of 1972 .42 Under this Act, States the review draft of this report, a number of witnesses will develop and administer management programs urged that the National Water Commission give for their coastal zones, subject to the approval of the further attention to the environmental effects of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration * channelization. The witnesses then went on to level Provision also is made for the establishment of considerable criticism against the programs of stream estuarine sanctuaries. Federal agencies carrying out channelization conducted by the Soil Conservation activities that affect the coastal zone must do so in a Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and, to manner consistent with the State program to the a lesser degree, by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers maximum extent practicable. Federal agencies issuing and other water resource development agencies. permits or providing assistance for activities affecting . Channelization is not a water program objective. It the coastal zone also must take into account the is an engineering measure by the use of which various State's management program. objectives, or combinations of objectives, may be achieved. These objectives include: drainage (that is, CONCLUSIONS ON COASTAL ZONES the reclamation of wetlands by lowering the level of the water table); flood control (through lowering One of the major premises of this report is that flood stages by increasing the capacity of stream water resources and water quality planning must be channels); navigation (by increasing the natural depth 43 integrated with land use planning. This is especially of some of the larger rivers); and erosion control (by true in the coastal zone and in upstream areas where the substitution of artificial channels for gullies or land use affects the estuaries. Decisions about where, other eroding natural channels). whether, and how to dredge and fill, develop real Since channelization, or channel rectification, is a estate, preserve natural systems, locate industries, and measure used for a number of purposes, it is discussed dispose of wastes determine to a large extent the at a number of points in this report. As a drainage possible uses and the environmental health of the improvement measure, it is mentioned in Section C of waters and associated shorelands of the coastal zone. Chapter 5. Its use for reducing flood damages and for For this reason, planning for the coastal zones should making possible more intensive use of flood plain be handled in coordination with general land use and lands subject to frequent flooding is referred to in water resources planning, as discussed in Chapter 10. both Section C and Section E of that chapter. Section H of the same chapter deals with erosion and sedimentation, and channelization is also mentioned RECOMMENDATION in this context. And channelization for navigation 2-1. Water resources development plans and proj- would be covered under the principles enunciated in ects should include measures to protect the Section B of Chapter 5. Since at least two other investigations of the effects of channelization were under way during 42 Public Law 92-583, 86 Stat. 1280, 16 USCA 1451 et seq. preparation of this report, the National Water Com- 4'See Chapter 10. mission did not attempt to duplicate the work being 32 G. Cases along Kent Island and Talbot County Shorelines This area of the northern Chesapeake Bay (Figures 2.12 and 2.13) contains portions of the shoreline in Queen Anne's and Talbot Counties. The sections below present a brief physical description of the shorelines and coastal processes, followed by a discussion of the case studies which were selected from this area. Kent Island] The Queen Anne's County shoreline on Kent Island contains farmland, a few heavily wooded areas, and many clusters of shorefront homes protected by erosion-control structures. North of the Bay Bridge, the Kent Island shoreline is composed of low rolling hills which usuallv end at the water's edge in exposed hanks from 3 to 15 feet in height. An exception is at Love Point, where the high around slones gently down to the water's edge. Shorefront areas on this reach contain mostly farmland, and the few houses that are present are separated from the water by a wide vegetated buffer strip. Below the Bay Bridge, many of the shoreline banks support residential development, and shorefront areas are often landscaped, covered with lawn grass and shrubbery, and protected hv erosion-control structures. Clusters of homes are interspersed with tidal creeks surrounded by marsh. Farther south, the shoreline contains farmlands and woodlands at the edges of eroding hanks, and the beach is nearly uninterrunted by erosion-control structures. The few groin fields that are present were filled with sand in the summer of 198O. 2-110 done under these investigations, but made use of of the channelized flood plains are further decreased 44 information developed. by the removal of trees and other vegetation, by the unsightly appearance of the raw ditch banks, by the Principal Effects muddy torrents that occur during storms, and, in It is not channelization in itself that has led to the some places, by the failure of the perennial flow that widespread opposition to the use of this measure but existed under natural conditions. Even in urban areas rather its environmental consequences and the down- the installation of artificial channels for flood pro- tection not infrequently meets with criticism because stream effects. Actually, diversion, terrace outlet, and such channels, although more hydraulically efficient, other channels provided as erosion control measures are less pleasing to the eye than the natural channels are rarely criticized, as they -rluce erosion and, they replace. In most cases, without expensive main- where necessary, are protected by vegetal or artificial tenance, the new channel will return to its original linings. meandering course. When channelization is undertaken for the purpose A further undesirable consequence of channel of draining wetlands or reducing the frequency of rectification in headwater valleys is an increase in the flooding of wooded, brush-covered, or pastured flood frequency and magnitude of downstream floods. This plain lands, undeveloped lands are frequently con- comes about because of the reduction of flood stages verted to intensively cultivated croplands. This results in the channelized reach, for any reduction in stage in in the loss of both valuable habitat for fish and upstream reaches decreases the temporary storage of wildlife and the esthetic values of a natural area. flood waters in those reaches and thus increases peak Another consequence is the acceleration of erosion flows in downstream reaches. that results from many channelization projects. This leads also to lowering of ground wateri levels, Excessive erosion is caused by failure to make proper by reducing the time available for infiltration of rain provisions in the planning of such projects for bank water which is speeded downstream by the artificially protection and other measures required to stabilize improved channels. the new channels. The usual reason for omitting these The foregoing paragraphs constitute a brief sum- important ancillary measures is to reduce the cost of mary of the principal adverse effects of channeliza- the channelization project. Since the necessity for tion projects. There are, of course, benefits resulting reducing costs is most imperative for those projects from channelization. undertaken to bring new lands into production Fertile lands can be made available for crop (because the resulting increase in farm income must production by drainage improvement and by reducing exceed project costs) it is normally channelization the frequency of flood overflow through channeliza- undertaken to drain wetlands or to decrease the tion, and in the long run the resulting enhancement in frequency of flood overflow that gives rise to the the efficiency of the Nation's agricultural plant may most serious erosion problems. Had the erosion and be a desirable consequence.475- Quite naturally, the sedimentation damages been added to the cost of owners of wetlands and of rural flood plain lands such projects some of them would have failed to meet subject to frequent flooding are desirous of increasing the test of economic justification. their incomes by utilizing these lands for crop Another consequence of channelization is the production, and it is nearly always increased farm replacement of meandering natural streams by income that makes possible the favorable ratio of systems of @straight ditches forming a severe and benefits to costs that is necessary to obtain Federal unattractive geometrical pattern. The esthetic value assistance in planning and carrying out channelization projects. In urban areas subject to damage and "'For more detailed information on the subject of channel- ization, see U.S. CONGRESS, HOUSE OF REPRESENTA- TIVES (1971). Stream Channelization, Hearings before the 4'As pointed out in Section C of Chapter 5, however, the Conservation and Natural Resources Subcommittee of the Commission's background studies indicate that there is no Committee on Government Operations, 92d Congress, Ist immediate need for bringing new land into agricultural Session. Four volumes, June 3, 4, 9, 10, and 14, 1971. production, and this suggests that until such time as an U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. increase in the Nation's agricultural land base is urgently ARTHUR D. LITTLE, INC. (1972). Final Draft Report: needed, there is no need for the Federal Government to Channel Modifications-An Environmental, Economic and subsidize projects designed to increase production of crops Financial Assessment, prepared for the Council on En- that are in surplus or are price supported or involved in vironmental Quality. Two volumes, March 31, 1972. programs to take. land out of production. 34 f Failure to provide bank protection on this channel leads to excessive erosion possible loss of life by floods there is an even more the total cost to the Nation, including the cost of the powerful incentive for seeking Federal assistance in detrimental effects previously described? Channeliza- increasing the capacity of stream channels. In some tion projects are similar to all other water projects in areas, drainage projects are desired in order to still another respect: For some of them the benefits eliminate mosquitoes and other hazards to public exceed the costs and for others the reverse is true. health. The accrual of these and other beneficial The evidence placed before the Commission makes effects to landowners and to nearby communities has it impossible to avoid the conclusion that in many created interest groups that oppose the efforts of the cases insufficient weight has been given to the environmental interests to stop channelization activi- detrimental consequences of channelization, and ties. particularly to losses not readily expressible in CONCLUSIONS ON CHANNELIZATION monetary terms. There appears to be a tendency fully to evaluate all benefits that would result from There can be no doubt that most channelization channelization projects, but to underestimate, or even projects produce both beneficial and- detrimental to ignore, some operation and maintenance expenses effects, just as do all other measures used in develop- and damages resulting from lowering of ground water ing water resources. And as for all other types of tables, destruction of fish and wildlife habitat, in- water projects, the question to be answered is this: creasing downstream sedimentation and flood Are the benefits to the Nation sufficient to outweigh damages, and loss of esthetic values. The work 35 r "=W* .7 MW WMIKIV M. 4 A - V 'IT NAV J This picture of the junction of the "old" and "new channel of the Forked Deer River in Tennessee illustrates effect of channelization on a natural environment accomplished during the past few years by the Water aries thereof should be required to assume any costs Resources Council in its development of principles, properly allocable to the purpose of increasing the standards, and procedures for the evaluation of water value of private lands. This would serve to dampen projects has made it abundantly clear that in the past the desire of landowners to make more intensive use such evaluations have generally failed to consider all of wetlands and of lands subject to frequent inun- of the consequences of carrying out such projects. 46 dation. It has also made it clear that there are many The Commission urges, in Section E of Chapter 5 detrimental effects that must be added to the cost of of this report, that the use of flood plain lands be such projects if a valid benefit to cost comparison is regulated by the States or appropriate local govern- to be made. The Commission hopes that as the mental entities. If the recommendations of that proce dures being developed by the Council are section are implemented, the need for future channel perfected, and all Federal agencies are required to improvement projects, particularly in urban areas, comply with them, the intensity of the channeliza- would be substantially reduced. tion controversy will gradually wane. The Commission also believes that as another means of insuring that future channelization projects RECOMMENDATIONS are truly in the national interest, the direct benefici- 2-2. All agencies responsible for planning and carry- ing out channelization projects should broaden 46 A recent court decision emphasizes the need for develop- and otherwise improve their evaluation pro- ing better information on the environmental effects of cedures, making a special effort to reflect in channelization before proceeding with authorized projects. See Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc. v. Grant, Civ. the cost estimates damages caused by increased No. 754, E.D.N.C., February 5, 1973. downstream flooding and sedimentation, 36 lowering of ground water levels, and loss of fish Appropriations Committees of the Congress and wildlife habitat and esthetic values. The should require the submission, by both the full cost of continuing maintenance should also agency that would be responsible for the use of be reflected. these funds and the Council on Environmental 2-3. All future proposals for channetization projects Quality, of statements on the probable effects should be required to indicate the part of the of the proposed undertaking on downstream cost thereof that is properly allocable to the flood and sedimentation problems, on ground purpose of increasing the value of lands in water levels, on fish and wildlife habitat, and private ownership, and no such project should on esthetic and other noneconomic values and be approved unless and until an appropriate these Committees should provide for the fund- non-Federal entity has agreed to assume that ing of only those projects for which, in their part of the project cost. opinion, the benefits are sufficient to justify 2-4. In considering requests for funds to carry out both the monetary and nonmonetary costs to previously authorized channelization plans, the the Nation. 37 I Ilk if 4,14 4p -by] , f@j rj 1 14 L.1 1@ I 4fe In, -& CASE 34 A STONE REVETMENT, TIMBER BULKHEADS, AND STONE GROINS AT THE SOUTH END OF TILGHMAN ISLAND In 1976, the following work was accomplished: 3 new groins (40 ft., 53 ft., and 63 ft. long) were installed at a cost of $106.17/ft.; timber bulkhead was replaced at a cost of $163.64/ft.; and repairs to stone revetment cost $77.88 /ft. The historical rate of erosion at the site was 8 ft./yr. from 1847-1942. The timber bulkheads replaced sheetpile bulkheads at this site. Stone revet- ment was installed along with filter cloth. These structures are in generally good condition. The offshore profile is very deep at the base of the seawall, and no beach existed at the time of the site visit in summer of 1980. There is evidence of wave overtopping at locations along the timber bulkheads. 9 COPPER CAP WALE -6 BATTEN BOARD GRADE OF FILL, LEVEL AT + 4.0 8"x 8" WALES, BOLTED TO 20x7/8 GALV TIE ROD, W/ GALV.OGEE NUTS ACH EN -3 ASHERS a AT EACH EN PILE W/ 7/8" GALV. SOLT 8'3"X 1/4"GALV. WASHER 0PPOSITE SIDE. GALV OGEE WASHER & NUT APPROX. EXISTING THIS SIDE GROUND LLJ EX. STEEL SHEET PILING TREATED TIMBER PILES 8" MIN. TIP. ILL. O"-12" BUTT TREATED TIMBER PILES 3"x 10"x 14' T &G SHEETING 18' IN LENGTH, 5'-6"O/C 12 0 BUTT,8"MIN.TIP, FASTENED TO WALES W/ 60 d GALV. SPIKES 25'IN LENGTH, 5-6"O/C EXIS 6 3 0 -3 -6 -9 -12 -15 -18 -21 -24 -27 30 FEET "loo-year Run-up (12.1) Nearshore profile (=18:1 vertical exageration) "10- year " Case 34 Run-up (8.4') Survey Date:6/22/80 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Annual" Run-up M 71 Tide q0 RAnge DISTANCE OFFSHORE (FT) 200 150 100 5O 4 2-116 illustrated dramatically by the national controversy made unfit for further use. The standard explanation over location of the new Miami jetport in relation to for treating water so carelessly is that it costs too water supply for the Everglades National Park. Many much to do otherwise-a reason that seems to new facilities, such as subdivisions, shopping centers, contradict the idea that water is our most valuable factories, highways, electric generation stations, strip resource. Obviously, water value is a complex subject. mines, and cattle feeding operations, have enormous potential impacts on the quantity, quality, location, Value Concepts and timing of flows within hydrologic systems. The Value means, simply, the degree to which some- Commission believes that proposed legislation, now thing is desirable, useful, or important. Since there is being considered by the Congress, for Federal assist- a limited supply of water in many areas, knowledge ance for State land use planning could be of critical of its value in alternative uses is a prerequisite to significance for the development and use of water selecting the most valuable uses from the range of resources. Greatly increased attention must also be choices that are available. Should water be diverted given to the effective regulation of occupancy in for irrigation or saved for fish? Should water be flood plains, wetlands, and coastal areas. transferred from one basin to another or should it be Finally, the Commission believes that the self- left for uses where it originates? Should valuable purifying capacity of water bodies is a valuable labor and materials be put into water development national resource that has been widely abused. Within projects or should these resources be employed in limits, water bodies can perform the valuable service other uses-roads, schools, etc.? The answers ulti- of assimilating certain wastes and rendering them mately depend on relative values. harmless. There is a need to develop a philosophy of controlling the use of assimilative capacity in such a Econornic Values: Economic value has been the way as to maintain desirable environmental standards. principal concept of value in our society. In a This will involve tradeoffs because wastes must be competitive economy, economic values are measured either recycled or disposed of in air, water, or landfill. by market prices. When it is working well, the market While recycfing of wastes is frequently a desirable pricing system reveals the value that goods and goal, disposal needs will continue and selections of services have for people, and the value of the the disposal method will require judgments based on resources such as water used in the production of the economic and environmental facts of each situa- these goods and services. But for various reasons tion. The self-purification capacity of a given stream market prices are not always a good or complete varies with the quantity, quality, location, and timing measure of the true worth of an item. Distortions of of flow. Here is an obvious situation where land use regulation, influencing the location of new installa- economic values can result from undesirable distribu- tions, will indirectly influence disposal of such wastes tion of income and from assorted market imperfec- as heat and organic matter into the Nation's water- tions such as monoply power, lack of knowledge, ways. hidden subsidies, etc. Futhermore, social and environ- mental factors are seldom reflected in or subject to THE VALUE OF WATER market transactions, and hence often have inadequate economic value attached to them. Water is sometimes referred to as "our most In the case of water these problems are often valuable resource." It is necessary for life. Take water important. Various institutional arrangements have from an area and the basis for plant and animal life is been employed to allocate water by nonmarket gone, leaving a barren desert. It is not surprising that means. But this approach also has problems because dernands for water are often treated as "require- choices are often made without the benefit of market ments" or "needs" that absolutely must be satisfied, prices that usually indicate economic value and assist regardless of cost. decisionmaking. Although it is true that life depends on water, Fortunately, it is possible to estimate economic society does not usually act as though water had values even though market prices are not available. value equal to life itself. The reason is that the supply Sometimes there are prices for the services of water of water far exceeds what is required to sustain that permit an estimate of the value of the water hurnan life. In practice, water is "used" extrava- itself. In other situations, estimates can be made of gantly. Large quantities of water are polluted and values gained through use of water that are fairly 40 CASE 35 A TIMBER BULKHEAD ON KENT ISLAND WITH ST0NE GROINS One stone groin existed prior to the construction of the rest of the structures. The original timber bulkhead and one groin were constructed in 1973 at a cost of $63.29/ft. and $35.80/ft., respectively. In 1976, 493 ft. of timber bulkhead and two stone groins were added at a cost of $79.35/ft. and $54.91/ft., respectively, and the two existing groins were refurbished and extended at a cost of $39.92/ft. Timber bulkheads consist of tongue-in-groove sheeting. and piles are spaced on 7.5 ft. centers. Groins were constructed of 400-800 lbs. stone on a 1.5:1 slope with a 3 ft.-wide crest. These structures are in generally good condition. No beach sand was observed at the site in thesummer of 1980. There is strong wave activity in this area, and the wave crests were observed to reflect against the vertical bulkhead. Bulkheads to the north alongshore are being forced landward by waves, and backfill is being lost through the bulkhead wall. There is also evidence of wave overtopping and splashover at this site. 10- 8 6 4 2 0 TREATED CAPBOARD COPPER CAP TOP OF WHALE 6"X6" WALES BOLTED TO PILE WITH 3/4" GALV. BOLTS A 3"X1/4 GALV. FLAT WASHER OPPOSITE SIDE. GALV OGEE WASHERS A NUTS THIS SIDE BATTEN BOARD 15 3/4" GALV TIE ROD WITH GALV OGEE WASHER & NUT EACH END APPROX. EXISTING GROUND 10"X 12" & TREATED TIMBER PILES 8"6 MIN TIP 14' IN LENGTH AT EACH WALL PILE 3"X 10"X12' T & G SHTG FASTENED TO WALES WITH 60 & GALV. SPIKES 10"-12 & TREATED TIMBER PILES 5"6 MIN TIP, 20'IN LENGTH AT 7'6 O/C -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 nearshore profile ( 18:1 vertical exaggeration Case 35 Survey Date: 6/11/80 PROFILE1 (Between Groins) PROFILE 2 (Between Groins- south alongshore) "100-year" Run-up (13.1) "10-year" Run-up (8.5) "Annual" Run-up 5 4 3 2 1 0 50 100 150 200 -1 -2 -3 CAPBOARD 2-118 of the water itself at the point of diversion from the Estimates of Water Value in Major Uses natural supply, the costs involved in bringing it from A report prepared for the Commission by Colorado the point of origin should be subtracted from the State University (CSU) contains estimates of water value of water at the point of use. values in some of the major withdrawal and instrearn uses.' The values developed in the Colorado study are Choosing Accounting Perspective: The willingness to useful primarily because an attempt has been made to pay or value of water depends in part upon the point compare water uses on a consistent basis, permitting a of view or accounting perspective of the individual comparison between relative values in various uses.3 making the evaluation. From the point of view of a The generally low values presented here reflect the private water user, water value is determined by its generally abundant supplies of water that have been contribution to his net revenues or satisfaction. His available for economic development in the United perspective is narrow and the consequences of his use States to the present time. As demands for various on other individuals often do not enter into his water uses increase, more costly alternatives, such as evaluation. A regional perspective would take into recycling processes or improved irrigation techniques, account all the returns that occur in the region, It will tend to reduce water use per unit of production may consider some effects that may not enter into and the values per unit of water in various uses can be the consideration of an individual firm, such as expected to increase. employment and economic activity induced in other sectors of the regional economy as a result of water Crop Irrigation: Crop irrigation is one of the largest development and use. From the national point of uses of water. Irrigation accounts for about 35 view, the goal is to increase net social income from percent of total water withdrawals and about 83 use of all national resources. All benefits and costs percent of the water consumed in the United States. should be taken into account. Induced employment Over half of the water diverted for irrigation is or disemployment that occurs outside of a benefited consumed through evaporation and transpiration, and region should be evaluated as well as the more thus is not available for any subsequent use. The apparent regional effects. water that is not consumed may return to the system Different evaluation purposes may call for differ- after considerable delay (a month or more for much ent accounting perspectives. Economists generally of it) at a downstream location or in a ground water favor the national point of view where all effects, aquifer often some distance from the point of including those that are external to individuals or diversion and sometimes degraded in quality. regions, are taken into account. Regional estimates of The value of irrigation water depends upon envi- value consistently tend to be higher than national ronmental conditions, the crop grown (high-valued estimates because the beneficial economic effects of vegetables and fruit, or low-valued forages and water resource projects are generally concentrated in grains), the stage of growth of the crop, and the a local region, whereas detrimental effects may occur efficiency of water utilization on the farm. There are in other regions of the Nation, and are hard to literally scores of estimates of irrigation water value identify. resulting from many different studies. These studies have employed a variety of concepts and perspectives Recognizing Noncommercial Values: Much esthetic in evaluation, which means that all the estimates are or social value is derived from water. Water provides enjoyment for people through recreation, scenic beauty, and the simple appreciation for nature. 'YOUNG, Robert A & GRAY, S Lee, Colorado State Although these are difficult to evaluate, they are University (1972). Economic Value of Water: Concepts undeniably desirable, useful, and important and thus and Empirical Estimates, prepared for the National Water Commission. National Technical Information Service, valuable uses of water. Estimates of the economic Springfield, Va., Accession No. PB 210 356. value of water, including these difficult-to -evaluate Some studies have taken an alternative approach and have benefits, can contribute much to better decisions related various measures of the value of output to the units about water management and use even where certain of water consumed in each use. High values of production values can only be approximated or protected by are related for such industries as printing and publishing or clothing manufacture. See, for example, WOLLMAN, placing limits on permissible changes in natural water Nathaniel, et al. (1962), The Value of Water in Alternative systems, such as maintaining minimum strearriflows. Uses, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, N.M. 42 not strictly comparable. Nevertheless, there is con- These values include the costs incurred in delivery of siderable common ground among the studies. Most water to the residential user. seek to estimate water value from the point of view of the private irrigator, that is, his theoretical Industrial Water Use: Withdrawals of water by in- willingness to pay for the water used. They com- dustry account for more than one-half of all with- monly estimate the value of-water delivered to the drawals. Most of this water is used for disposing of farmer's headgate rather than at point of diversion. heat or other waste, and returned to the stream. Very The CSU study indicates a value for irrigation little water is actually consumed by industry; there- water ranging from $15 to $40 per acre-foot at the fore, use of water by industry primarily affects water farmer's headgate, with most estimates clustering quality. Ninety percent of water used by industry is around $20 per acre-foot. The higher values are for cooling (principally in steam electric generating generally for irrigation of higher-valued crops and for plants).' Most of the remaining industrial uses are irrigation in the most and areas or in areas with concentrated in five industries: food products, pulp longer growing seasons. In the humid East, relatively and paper, chemicals, petroleum, and primary metals. small amounts of irrigation water are used, but it is The most appropriate method for determining the mostly applied to high-value crops and has values in value of water in industrial uses is to examine the cost about the same range. of alternative processes that will produce the same The value of irrigation water may often reflect product while using less water. Internal recycling of some farm prices that are government supported. water is a primary alternative. Without price supports the value estimates for water The costs of recycling are usually quite low. For used for irrigating price supported crops would be cooling uses, recycling through a cooling tower lower. (where heat is transmitted directly to the atmos- phere) can be accomplished at costs ranging from Municipal Water Use: A large portion of water used $2.50 to $4.20 per acre-foot, with the higher costs by municipalities is returned to the natural water occurring in warm or humid regions where the system soon after its use. Since most domestic and cooling process is less efficient. The value of water for municipal water is used for washing (clothes, dishes, once-through cooling (where warmed water is re- streets, etc.) and carrying away wastes, quality turned to the water body) thus can be no more than degradation can be serious unless the water is treated $2.50 to $4.20 per acre-foot, at the site of use. The to reduce pollutants. value of the water at the point of diversion actually Water for municipal uses usually enjoys priority will be less than that by the amount of additional over other uses, perhaps because drinking water is cost in delivering it from that point to the plant. essential to life. However, the amount required for Water for process uses such as washing or carrying drinking is so small that it is insignificant in determin- dissolved materials generally is more expensive to ing the total value of water in municipal and domestic recycle and costs may vary greatly with the nature uses. Most water employed in municipal and domestic and extent of quality degradation occurring in the uses is not nearly as essential as drinking water and, as process. The mean value of recycling process-water in a result, is much less valuable. the five major water-using industries ranged from less Estimation of the value of water for municipal and than $5 to about $26 per acre-foot, with an average domestic uses must proceed without benefit of the of $13. Scattered estimates in minor industries are techniques that can be employed for valuing water largely consistent with findings for the major indus- for a production use. Nevertheless, there have been tries. 4 several studies of household demand. In general, they support estimated values of around $100 per acre-foot for in-house uses and about $66 in the West 'MURRAY, C Richard & REEVES, E Bodette (1972). and $16 in the East for lawn and garden irrigation. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 1970, U.S. Geological Survey Circular 676. U.S. Geological Survey, 'See discussion summarizing the results of these studies in Washington, D.C. p. 5. Also, for discussion of this subject YOUNG, Robert A and GRAY, S Lee, Colorado State see THOMPSON, Russell G, et al. (November 1971). University (1972). Economic Value of Water: Concepts Forecasting Water Demands, prepared for the National and Empirical Estimates, prepared for the National Water Water Commission. National Technical Information Commission. National Technical Information Service, Service, Springfield, Va., Accession No. PB 206 491. pp. Springfield, Va., Accession No. PB 210 356, pp. 184-198. 145-191. 43 V 41 oil, "4, v*, X 2. "It WN V?- lv. ly "j" SA, Ais cooling tower on the Susquehanna River pennits recycling of powerplant condenser water Costs of water supply for industry usually are less The best measure of the value of water for than 2 percent of production costs. In water-short wasteload assimilation is the alternative cost of areas, because water rights or purchased supplies may providing treatment for the effluent. A given quantity be more costly, industrial plants usually are designed of water under given stream and weather conditions to extensively recycle the water used. Thus, generally can only assimilate a certain amount of waste where water is more costly, the value in use will be material without exceeding quality limits. A reduc- higher and the amounts used by a typical plant will tion in flow thus implies an increase in treatment be less. level and treatment costs to stay within standards. The value of water can be estimated by the change in Waste Assimilation: Watercourses are used extensively cost that would be associated with a change in flow. to assimilate and transport waste materials, mainly in Under minimum cost combinations of treatment conjunction with municipal and industrial water use. and dilution, the change in cost associated with each In fact, many streams are now overused for this additional acre-foot in flow of water would range purpose. Nevertheless, if waste could not be disposed from about 10-15 cents per acre-foot in the water- of in streams, it would have to be put somewhere else abundant Southeast and Pacific Northwest to about 6 and there would be added disposal costs and potential $6.50 per acre-foot in the and Southwest. These environmental problems with land disposal or air values will tend to increase over time as the required pollution. Thus, when streams can be used to degree of treatment is raised to secondary and assimilate and transport waste materials, they provide tertiary levels to meet water quality standards. a valuable service. However, use of streams for waste assimilation degrades the quality of the water and 6 Correspondence in the Commission's files from Robert A. may reduce its usefulness for other purposes. Young and S. Lee Gray, January 4, 1973. 44 Navigation: A large river such as the Mississippi or in one region they dropped to only 14 cents per lower Columbia can be used for navigation with little acre-foot. Short-run values (where the construction or no effect upon the water. Navigation's only costs of existing generating plants and storage dams requirement is that sufficient water be in the critical are ignored) ranged from $3.92 per acre-foot down to parts of the stream at the right time. In smaller 43 cents per acre-foot. These values apply to the streams, substantial regulation of flows may be water at a typical hydropower site. In several river required to facilitate navigation. systems the same water may pass through a number The value of water for navigation is the difference of hydrosites before all its potential for generating between the economic costs of water transport and electricity has been exhausted, thus multiplying the those of the Icast-cost alternative mode of transporta- above values. tion. In the major waterways, the Ohio or the Mississippi, water no doubt has a positive value for Recreation: Streams or other bodies of water are an navigation. However, for some waterways savings in important part of many recreation areas and serve a costs are insufficient to cover the costs of construct- basic role in many recreational activities. But, as with ing and operating navigation facilities. The value of other instrearn uses, it is difficult to define just how water for navigation, on such waterways, when other recreation 11 uses" the water. Many recreational uses costs are subtracted, would be zero or negative, are complementary to other uses, especially uses that although navigation projects might still be justified to require water impoundments. Often water is used for achieve social purposes such as transportation diversi- recreation in its natural setting and is not physically fication. affected by being employed for recreation. Still, recreation does use water in a sense, when a certain Hydropower Generation: Hydropower plants account volume of water must be retained in a lake, reservoir, for less than one-sixth of the total electric energy or stream to support recreation activities, or where generated in the United States, and there are few recreation use precludes or limits other uses. Water- undeveloped major hydro sites except pumped stor- based recreation itself can be a source of locally age sites. Additional power generation will have to significant pollution. Some water may be consumed come largely from thermal generating plants. Never- by evaporation while it is being held for recreation. theless, in many streams water passes through one or The value of water for recreation depends on a more powerplants. It is an important use of water. number of factors, including accessibility, setting, Use of water for electric generation may have type of beach, and various aspects of quality. Value substantial impact on the timing of flows within the varies greatly from case to case, ranging in a few hydrologic system. Furthermore, the location of selected examples from a few cents per acre-foot of diversion points for nonpower, offstream uses may water to $150 per acre-foot of water in the recreation affect electric generation potentials and thereby the pool of a heavily-used reservoir. "The more typical potential total value of water use from the system. range appears to lie in the area of $3 to $5 per Hydropower may be valued by comparison with acre-foot."' the lowest-cost alternative, usually power generation by comparably-owned steam plants. The value of the Water Value in a Systems Context8 water for hydropower generation is the difference The value of water in alternative uses provides only between the costs of producing the hydropower a part of the information needed for decisions about (including transmission) and the costs of the lowest- water development and allocation. Because of the cost alternative (also including transmission). It will vary from site to site depending on such variables as 7YOUNG, Robert A & GRAY, S Lee, Colorado State differences in head (the distance water falls in turning University (1972). Economic Value of Water: Concepts turbines), transmission distances to load centers, the and Empirical Estimates, prepared for the National Water suitability of sites for hydropower construction, Commission. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., Accession No. PB 210 356. p. 241. strearnflow variations, storage, etc. aThis material is based on a Commission study prepared at The value of water for hydropower generation was Washington State University in which the systems ap- measured in a long-run perspective (using capital costs proach to valuation of water is demonstrated empirically as well as operating costs) on the basis of the cost and for the Yakima, Columbia, and Susquehanna River basins. efficiency characteristics of existing plants. In no case See BUTCHER, Walter R et al,.(1972). National Water Commission. National Technical Information Service, were regional values more than $1 per acre-foot and Springfield, Va., Accession No. PB 210 357. 45 N: _4 F- Water in lovely natural setting provides recreational opportunities combinations of uses and reuses of water that are place in the system. Wise use of this natural recycling possible within a water system, it is equally as system is one of two key principles in obtaining the important to know how uses combine and interact in most value from the Nation's water resources. The the total system. The possibility of using water more other principle is to give preference to high-valued than once, either simultaneously or in sequence, uses where other factors, including system effects, are means that the total value gained from use of a given equal. unit of water may be several times greater than the Return flow and reuse are important factors in value in any single use. water system evaluation. Uses that have fast and Since water usually stays in the system or returns complete return of the water can be located in the to it, its condition when it leaves one use can be very system so that the same physical unit of water is used important to other water uses. "Upstream" and many times over (if damaging pollution can be "downstream" uses are commonly used to illustrate avoided in the process). Such a use pattern can this relationship. An upstream industry, for example, generate large values for the water in the system even withdraws water, uses it, and returns part Of it, though each individual use of the water adds only somewhat polluted, to the stream. The downstream small value per unit of water employed. Conversely, user must operate with water reduced both in quality impressively high-valued uses that preclude the possi- and quantity. The value of the water to the down- bility of other uses in the total system limit value to stream uses may be reduced as a result. The gain in less than might be achieved if several quick turn- value from the upstream use is not free of some costs around uses of lower value could occur throughout in the sense of reduced values elsewhere. the system. Once the water is taken from the system The return of water to the system after use raises by consumptive use, the possibility of gaining value all sorts of possibilities for getting additional value from its use is also lost. In some pollution cases from the water in another use, at another time and return water not only may be unfit for subsequent 46 use but may also contaminate the other water in the There is a need in river basin planning for a system. systematic procedure for evaluating the multitude of The siting and timing of uses takes on particular possible alternative combinations of developments importance when water use is viewed in its system and uses that could be fitted into a river system. This context. The importance of location is apparent when requires some form of systems analysis. Through water is used for waste conveyance and dilution. The simulation of possible choices in a model of a basin, potential for making valuable use of the water is systems analysis can provide important information greater if pollution-sensitive uses can be located on likely consequences before decisions on develop- upstream of polluting uses. Thus, value in the system ment are actually made. It could be described as a will be greatest when waste-releasing uses which response and accounting system-the response prevent or impair other uses are located as far as portion referring to the way that components of the possible down the stream, leaving as much of the system are affected by various physical as well as stream as possible to be used by other potential users. economic changes. (Obviously, pollution-sensitive uses of estuaries can- Systems analysis of water values does not require not be relocated to upstream sites. Hence, special care that all uses of water be valued directly in monetary must be taken to protect estuaries from pollution.) terms. Minimum streamflows or water required, for example, for maintenance of marshes and estuaries Value Comparisons for Water Allocation may be valued indirectly in terms of the economic Value estimates are useful only if they contribute values which are foregone as a result.' 0 With such to better decisions about how water should be information, reasoned ju 'dgments may be made as to allocated. In the relatively simple case of choosing an socially desirable actions. allocation among competing uses that have similar CONCLUSIONS ON WATER VALUE effects upon the water resource, a comparison of value per unit of water used indicates the direction The comparison of water values in alternative uses allocation should take. As water becomes relatively will become increasingly important in the years scarcer, it will be more important to put it to its most ahead, as growing demands compete for limited valuable uses if net social gains are to be maximized. natural supplies and values in use increase. The Implementation of water marketing and pricing pro- opportunities for net gains by better allocations will cedures can help greatly in this situation in encourag- be much greater. Not only will efficiency in design of ing reallocation of water to its most valuable uses. facilities be important, but also efficiency in alloca- A more typical situation is one in which the choice tion of the water itself. Economic values provide the must be made between uses that employ and affect best general indication of the basic worth of water if water in very different ways. Comparison of values is appropriate attention is given to protection of envi- more complex in this case. Private individuals and ronmental values. Pricing policies, discussed in even individual cities and towns lack direct incentive Chapter 7, can be most helpful in improving the to take into consideration effects of their use that allocation of water. A systems framework is impor- occur elsewhere and affect others. Value deter- tant, as is appropriate measurement of values in use initiation must come from an integrated view of uses not only in terms of quantity but also quality and if comparisons of value are to result in choices that timing and location of return flows. maximize system value. 9 The Commission's conclusions can be summarized River basin planning efforts are one attempt to as follows: account for interdependencies in water systems ' I . In river basins where present and projected Planning for whole rivers and entire river basins, demands for water indicate some element of competi- including all uses and related activities, has done tion, the values of water in alternative uses (including much to fit together compatibly the several uses and environmental values) should be estimated as a part demands on a river system. However, river basin For example, if society decides on a minimum strearnflow planning agencies need to place greater emphasis on to protect some benefits such as those of marshes and maximizing water value at the user or consumer level. estuaries, and if as a result other potential benefits are sacrificed, the social value of the benefits from the minimum streaniflow must be at least as great as the value 'See Chapter 7, Making Better Use of Existing Supplies, and of the benefits foregone. Otherwise a rational society Chapter 11, Improving Organizational Arrangements. would not have made such a choice. 47 of planning studies and the resulting development officials to evaluate proposed water developments in plan should seek to maximize these values. terms of their social consequences. 2. Water resources should be analyzed as in- Disagreement exists as to whether water and water dividual hydrologic systems taking into account the development merely pern-flts growth or whether it can value of the various aspects of water uses including actually induce growth. It is acknowledged that no their impact on quantity, quality, timing, and loca- area can grow and prosper without adequate water tion. Proposed diversions and instream uses should be supplies. This does not mean, however, that water analyzed in these same terms and evaluated on the alone can exert a controlling influence. Even in the basis of their effects on subsequent uses within the and West, where population growth has been rapid, system. household and industrial uses constitute only a very 3. Values of water for fish, wildlife, and esthetics small fraction of consumptive water use. cannot now be satisfactorily determined directly by The Commission has considered the opposing economic evaluation. However, they can be indirectly arguments, contracted for technical studies on this determined by considering the economic values of topic, and inspected a number of areas of the Nation. uses in the hydrologic system with and without these This section summarizes findings with respect to the uses. These "with and without" values should be past, present, and possible future role of Federal determined so that informed judgments can be made water resources development as a means of inducing on balancing of all uses within the hydrologic system. population growth and redistribution and economic The value of the uses preserved must be judged to prosperity in regions of the United States. equal or exceed the value of alternative uses foregone. The problem is to determine whether the develop- ment of. water resources can increase income and employment and induce structural shifts in a region's REGIONAL EFFECTS OF WATER economy that stimulate future economic growth. 12 DEVELOPMENTS Regional economic development is a complex eco- Econon-dc growth and prosperity of regions within nomic and social phenomenon. It is not possible to the United States have long been important goals of make a categorical generalization of the role of water Federal water resources development. Water resource resource developments in inducing regional economic development has also been viewed by some as a development. Presently available data and sophisti- means to achieve a national policy of population cated computer models, while helpful, cannot show distribution-primarily to encourage growth in small what would have happened in a region without a cities and towns, thus reducing the concentration of particular water development. For example, would people in the Nation's great cities. This concern stems California still have prospered without the huge from the expectation that the Nation will continue to Central Valley project? Might not other forms of have large increases in population.' 1 development have induced more growth than has During the national and regional conferences held irrigated agriculture? Would the Upper Mississippi by the Commission in 1969, however, a number of Valley have prospered more, as much, or less without people questioned the effectiveness of water develop- the Upper Mississippi navigation channel? Will future ment as a stimulus to regional economic development growth in Florida and related coastal areas really be under present conditions. Others expressed the view hindered without the Cross Florida Barge Canal? that more explicit recognition of regional economic While definitive answers to such questions do not and demographic effects of proposed water develop- exist, there are important principles and criteria that ments should be included in planning studies under- can be used to assess the regional development taken by Federal water agencies. It was argued that effects, if any, from proposed future water develop- inclusion of these effects would permit responsible ments. The President and the Congress must make the 'The U.S. population totaled 200 million at the time the National Water Commission was established in 1968. 'The concern in this chapter is with the distribution of Various official projections indicate America's population population and economic activity among regions. There is will exceed 300 million some time in the next century. little question that water developments, such as water and U.S. COMMISSION ON POPULATION GROWTH AND sewer lines or flood protection, can have a significant THE AMERICAN FUTURE (1972). Population and the influence on the location of population and econon-de American Future. U.S. Government Printing Office, activity within a particular metropolitan area. See Chapter Washington, D.C. Ch. 1, p. 12. 12, Water Problems of Metropolitan Areas. 48 CASE 39 CONCRETE BULKHEAD/STONE REVETMENT AT WADES POINT Stone revetment was completed in 1975 at a cost of $40.22/ft. The historic rate of erosion at the site was about 3 ft./yr. from 1847-1942. Stone revet- ment consists of an armor layer of 250-1200 lbs. stone in a 2 ft.-thick layer. A 10 in.-thick bedding layer was installed under the armor layer. Filter mater- ial was used below the bedding layer. A 3 ft.-wide splash apron was also built. This structure is holding up quite well. Alongshore, an unprotected section of shoreline is eroding rapidly. Offshore, there are 8 groins which are submerged. These are approximately 45 years old and were once attached to the shore. They presently serve no useful purpose. 15 -12 9 250 TO 1200 LB ARM0R STONE CHINKED 800 TO 1200 A ARMOR STONE PLACED AT TOE 20' MIN. 6 10"-12" 3 NO I TO NO 2 BEDD1NG STONE END OF FILTER CLOTH COMPACTED FILL FILTER CLOTH UNDER ENTIRE STRUCTURE -03 3 6 9 12 15 9 6 3 0 -3 -6 FEET 100-year" Run-up (12.0) Nearshore profile(17:1 vertical exaggeration) 10-yeor Case 39 6 Run- up ( 8.0) Survey Date 6/22/80 PROFILE 1 5 "Annual PROFILE 2 ---- < 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 DISTANCE OFFSHORE (FT.) 200 150 100 50 150 100 ELEVATION IN FEET 2-126 tion Growth and the American Future, which re- bustion motors, and central station electric genera- ported last year.' 5 tion have substantially reduced and in many cases To develop a proper perspective on water resources virtually eliminated the significance of onsite water development as related to population distribution and power. The expansion of railroads and highways regional economic development, the past, present, made water routes relatively less important. As and possible future role of water resources develop- regional per capita income grew, water-related basic ment should be analyzed. industries produced proportionately less and less income, even though aggregate water use has con- The Past tinued to increase. Some cities that formerly de- Historically, locations of bodies of water were pended on irrigation or waterway transportation (e.g., important in determining where settlements were Phoenix, Salt Lake City, Detroit, and New York) established. The development of water resources attained sufficient size and econon-dc diversity that contributed to the economic activity that made their continued growth became more dependent on growth and development possible. Water-powered other factors. Thus, the relative importance of water mills, State canals, Federal river and harbor improve- development as an inducement to economic growth ments, and the Federal reclamation program are has tended to decline. examples of water developments that have, in years past, contributed to economic growth and develop- ment. 16 In 1950, the President's Water Resources The Present Policy Commission said: Had it not been for the big and little reclamation The Influence of Water Policies and Programs on projects, the West as we know it today would Population Distribution: On the whole, water re- not exist, for impounded water alone makes source development does not appear to be an possible not only agriculture, but the very life of effective means to implement a national policy for the people in this vast semiarid region... the distribution of population. Under present and ... Federal reclamation projects have had much foreseeable future conditions in the United States, to do with development of the West! ' water programs and projects are unlikely to affect Over time, however, the importance of water significantly net migration from region to region. location or water resource development for economic Although water projects may encourage a clustering growth has diminished. Steam engines, internal com- of workers and their families in certain irrigated or recreation areas, the number of people affected in this manner is likely to be relatively small. While it is true that iff igation projects may increase farm income "The Commission on Population Growth and the American and enhance prosperity of residents, even very large Future devoted about 30 percent of its published back- irrigation developments will not attract large popula- ground studies to distributional aspects of the population tions because agriculture is not labor intensive. For issue. They found that although population concentration example, the High Plains of Texas with about 15 increases the intensity of certain urban problems, the origin of these problems is frequently technological and percent of the Nation's irrigated land has only about institutional in character. The Population Commission's one-third of I percent of the Nation's population. report reflects a general deemphasis of population distribu- Industrial development offers greater hope of regional tion as a panacea for urban problems. See U.S. COM- development because of the greater employment MISSION ON POPULATION GROWTH AND THE potential but, generally speaking, the need for AMERICAN FUTURE (1972). Population and the American Future. U.S. Government Printing Office, Federal water projects is small. Washington, D.C. The complex and powerful forces that create "LEGLER, John B et al., Washington University (1971). A population growth or decline in specific areas involve Historical Study of Water Resources Policy of the Federal many factors that are beyond the influence of water Government, 1900-1970, prepared for the National Water resource projects. For example, characteristics favor- Commission, Washington University, St. Louis, Mo. pp. able to population growth of small communities 1-37. include: (1) location near existing metropolitan areas; "U.S. PRESIDENT'S WATER RESOURCES POLICY (2) some minimum concentration of population; (3) COMMISSION (1950). A Water Policy for the American People, Volume 1, General Report. U.S. Government history of recent growth rather than decline; (4) an Printing Office, Washington, D.C. pp. 152-153. economic base which includes manufacturing as a 50 basis for growth; and (5) access to metropolitan areas The Influence of Water Development on Regional via the Interstate Highway SySteM.1 8 Economic Growth: The accomplishments of the Although many of the Nation's metropolitan areas reclamation program in fostering irrigated agriculture are located adjacent to a lake, river, or estuary in the West 21 and the experiences of the Tennessee because of the important historical role of water in Valley where TVA activities stimulated growth and economic growth, recent trends reveal that metro- relative prosperity22 have attracted proponents of politan areas located adjacent to water demonstrate water development to the view that water develop- no more growth potential than those not located ment by itself is an effective stimulus to economic close to water. The same trend is observable in growth. Contrasting views, however, have also been growing nonmetropolitan communities; the greatest expressed. Various studies have concluded that an proportion have experienced significant growth by adequate supply of water was not a guarantee of virtue of their location adjacent, not to water, but to growth, and further, that an apparent shortage of a metropolitan area.' 9 water was not necessarily an impediment to rapid 23 Studies have also shown that investments in com- economic growth. It has also been shown that munity water facilities do not directly influence there are so many opportunities for water conserva- population growth.20 Investments in water resource tion and reuse that the physical availability of water, developments to stimulate population growth in beyond some minimal amount, has very little in- selected areas are not likely to be effective unless fluence on industrial location .24 other ingredients of growth exist and are simul- The availability of an inexpensive supply of water, taneously developed. For example, Federal assistance for example, is less important for most proposed new for the construction of water and sewer facilities plant locations than other factors that have greater offers little real promise of influencing development direct effects on costs and revenues, such as the cost and growth in communities not otherwise able to and availability of labor and proximity of the site to attract commercial enterprises. markets and to raw materials. Even for industries that are major users of water (for processing, cooling, or transporting of products), other cost factors are usually of greater importance in location decisions. 18RIVKIN/CARSON, INC. (1971). Population Growth in However, it has been found that regional growth is Communities in Relation to Water Resources Policy, stimulated by water developments in certain situa- prepared for the National Water Commission. National tions, even though water-related goods and services Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., Accession No. PB 205 248. pp. 7-19. comprise a declining portion of the Nation's "Ibid., pp. 6-17. economic activity. This can be explained by the wide "The findings were as stated: "The test results also show no correlation between 21U.S. CONGRESS, House Committee on Interior and (water) expenditures and population growth by location or insular Affairs (January 19S9). Reclamation- size of county. Neither SMSA counties nor the most Accomplishments and Contributions, a report by the populous counties appear to be influenced in their rate of Library of Congress Legislative Reference Service, pre- growth by water resource investment. pared by Theodore M. Schad and John Kerr Rose, "On the other hand, the analysis shows that metro- Committee Print No. 1, 86th Congress, lst Session. U.S. politan location is correlated with growth, confirming the Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. pp. 28-36. expectation that metropolitan counties and counties "GARRISON, Charles B (1971). Effect of Water Resources peripheral to them grow more rapidly than other counties, on Economic Growth in the Tennessee Valley Region. and they do so regardless of the intensity of water resource investment. University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Also, WIEBE, Jacob E "Our tests, therefore, reject the hypothesis that water (1970). Effects of Investments in Water Resources on resources expenditures effect population growth." Regional Income and Employment. University Microfilms, These findings, based on data from 350 sample counties Ann Arbor, Mich. (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation at the (or 11 percent of the more than 3,000 counties in the University of Tennessee, published on request by Univer- U.S.), were developed from an in-depth statistical analysis sity Microfilms.) of selected community -oriented water programs. Ex- "For example, see HOWE CW (April 1968). Water resources penditures for irrigation facilities were not included in the and regional economic growth in the United States, analysis. RIVKIN/CARSON, INC. (1971). Population 1950-1960. The Southern Economic Journal Growth in Communities in Relation to Water Resources 34(4):477-489. Policy, prepared for the National Water Commission. 2'KNEESE AV (October 1965). Economic and related National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., problems in contemporary water resources management. Accession No. PB 205 248. pp. 68-73,177-191. Natural Resources Journal 5(2):236-258. 51 variance in effects from water projects-partly be- ment, the greater the possible gains. However, it cause of the widely differing economic characteristics should be recognized that there are serious problems of the regions in which developments are located. in scheduling public works projects. A project These effects are both short- and long-term in nature. planned to relieve unemployment will not likely be ,under construction until the econornic recession Short-Term Effects: Construction of water projects which caused the unemployment is over. plays a role in providing short-term impacts on a region's economy. These short-run effects were Long-Term Effects: Short-term effects disappear recognized by the National Resources Planning Board rapidly as project construction is completed. The real when it urged that public works planning include measure of regional economic inducements from "the objective of seeking through such work to water development is how they influence long-term stabilize employment and economic activity."2 -1 Sub- growth prospects. Studies of some specific water sequently, a large "shelf" of planned water projects resource developments illustrate the fact- that water was developed in anticipation of a postwar de- developments vary widely in their discernible long- pression, which did not materialize. term effects on regional economic development. The significance of water projects as a means of providing short-term employment opportunities was Minidoka Project - The Minidoka irrigation investigated by Haveman and Krutilla. They con- project in Idaho produced $150 million of gross crop cluded: value in 1970. Since 1909, when the project began, In considering water resource development as a cumulative gross value of crops produced on stimulant for the economy, the policy maker Athnidoka's project lands has been $3.5 billion-third must distinguish the several different kinds of ranking Federal irrigation project in the Nation. projects. There are substantial differences in the Dominant crops are potatoes, alfalfa hay, and sugar structure of demands imposed upon the beets. Idaho is the leading potato producer in the economy and each project type tends to Nation, with Minidoka project lands producing one- 21 stimulate quite different parts of the third of the State total. economy. 26 Minidoka County is one of 16 counties, parts of For example, construction of the powerhouse at which are included in the project. Even though this Beaver Dam in northwestern Arkansas had a ratio of county has a predominantly rural population, a net material, equipment, and supply cost to onsite labor population gain of 47 percent occurred during the cost of 4.54 to 1. Therefore, much of the impact 1950 to 1960 decade; half was due to net in- occurred at distant manufacturing locations rather migration. Yet, 14 of the other counties in the than at the dam site. In contrast, the Painted Rock project area experienced net out-migration in the Dam in southwestern Arizona (a large earth-fill dam) same period. Between 1960 and 1970, Minidoka had a ratio of 1.71 to 1, thus suggesting that much County had a 9 percent gain in population, while six more impact occurred locally per dollar of direct of the remaining 15 counties had losses.2' labor cost.' ' In the absence of a "with-and-without" analysis it The extent of unemployed labor, especially in the is difficult to say how these counties would have industrial sector, is a useful measure of the short-term developed if there had not been a Minidoka project. employment gains possible from constructing water Obviously, the Minidoka irrigation project has development projects. The greater the unemploy- stimulated growth in southeast Idaho. However, the 2 1 U.S. NATIONAL RESOURCES PLANNING BOARD (1941). Development of Resources and Stabilization of 211 U.S. BUREAU OF RECLAMATION (1971). Water and Employment in the United States, House Document No. Land Resource Accomplishments 1970, 2 volumes. U.S. 142, 77th*Congress, lst Session. U.S. Government Printing Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. Office, Washington, D.C. p. 3. 29 U.S. BUREAU OF THE CENSUS (1962). County and City 26 See HAVEMAN, Robert H & KRUTILLA, John V (1968). Data Book 1962. U.S. Government Printing Office, Wash- Unemployment, Idle Capacity, and the Evaluation of ington, D.C. pp. 83-93. and U.S. BUREAU OF THE Public Expenditures: National and Regional Analyses. CENSUS (June 28, 1971). Current Population Reports, Published for Resources for the Future, Inc., by The Johns Population Estimates and Projections, Components of Hopkins Press, Baltimore, Md. p. 36. Population Change by County: 1960 to 1970, Series P-25, "Ibid., Table 6, pp. 20-21. No. 461. U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. 52 effects of the project were not uniform among all Tucumcari ProjeCt3l - Quay County, New areas within the project, and it is probable that Mexico, is the home of the Tucumcari Project, a irrigation development was not the sole cause of the moderate-sized irrigation development. About $3 changes that have taken place. million in crop value was produced in 1970 from Tennessee River - The Tennessee River represents 35,000 acres irrigated-or $89 per acre. Alfalfa hay is another case where major water resource develo the principal crop grown and it is used to support the P_ local livestock-based economy. Quay County lost 12 ments have been undertaken by the Federal Govern- percent of its population during the 1950-60 decade, ment. Through the Tennessee Valley Authority because of heavy out-migration, and suffered an 11 (TVA), public investments have been made for hydro percent population loss from 1960 to 1970. The and steam electric power generation, navigation proportion of low-income families in Quay County improvements, flood control facilities, fertilizer exceeded the national average by 55 percent in 1960. production, recreation facilities, and many types of Without irrigation water, there would have been little research and development activities. economic activity in the project area. But even with Private investment in plants along the Tennessee irrigation, economic growth has been lirnited. River has totaled more than $2 billion since 1933 3 0 _Most of this occurred during the 1960's .31 Monongahela River - The Monongahela River Waterfront industries now employ more than 38,000 waterway is used primarily to transport coal and workers. Most of this investment has been made by lignite from upstream counties in Pennsylvania and the chemical, primary metals, and pulp and paper West Virginia to Pittsburgh and other areas via the industries. The chemical industry is a large user of Ohio River. This waterway has been a large carrier of water. Most of the chemical firms along the tonnage for the past 50 years. In 1969, a total of 40 Tennessee River produce products that require large million tons was shipped on the Monongahela River, quantities of processing water and large quantities of about two-thirds more than on the Tennessee power per dollar of value added. Many of the River.' ' However, the counties along the chemical products can be shipped in barges. These Monongahela have experienced substantial amounts same general characteristics-large users of processing of out-migration. Over 170,000 people left the water and power relative to value added, and Monongahela area during the 1950's." Out- potential for barge use-apply also to the primary migration continued, at a slower rate, between 1960 metals and pulp and paper industries. and 1970. Per capita income grew at a modest rate, 35 Much of the industrial growth in the Tennessee but remained below the national average. Valley can be attributed to the combination of The contrast between the Monongahela region and (1) large blocks of relatively low-cost power, (2) low- the Tennessee Valley is reflected in the character of cost water supplies, (3) favorable market and resource locations, (4) availability of both rail and water "Data found in: U.S. BUREAU OF RECLAMATION transportation, (5) specific site characteristics, and (1971). Water and Land Resource Accomplishments 1970, (6) favorable national growth of specific industries Statistical Appendix. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. p. 155. and U.S. BUREAU OF THE (e.g., chemicals). Through multipurpose develop- CENSUS (1962). County and City Data Book 1962. U.S. ments, TVA activities contributed to some but Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. and U.S. obviously not all of these factors. BUREAU OF THE CENSUS (June 28, 1971). 1970 Census of Population, Advance Report, Final Population Counts, New Mexico PC(Vl)-33, revised. U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. "TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY (1971). Annual "U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS (1970). Waterborne Report of the Tennessee Valley Authority, Volume I-Text, Commerce of the United States, Calendar Year 1969, Part 1971. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 2, Waterways and Harbors, Gulf Coast, Mississippi River p. 13. System and Antilles, U.S. Army Engineer District, New "About 62 percent of the $2 billion in private investment 34 Orleans, La. pp. 18, 26. occurred during the 1961-71 decade, or about 30 years U.S. BUREAU OF THE CENSUS (1962). County and City after TVA was established. Since 1950, annual increments Data Book 1962. U.S. Government Printing Office, of private investment along the waterway have generally Washington, D.C. Monongahela service area includes been parallel to changes in national economic conditions. Marion and Monongalia Counties, West Virginia, and See TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY (1966). Naviga- Fayette and Greene Counties, Pennsylvania. tion and Economic Growth, Tennessee River Experience. "Based on data prepared by the Bureau of Economic Tennessee Valley Authority, Knoxville, Tenn. Analysis, U.S. Department of Commerce. 53 the river traffic. Coal amounts to 80 percent of the ability of planners, engineers, and economists to tonnage on the Monongahela River, but only 39 assess what would have happened without these water percent on the Tennessee. The Tennessee River developments. Possibly, some of these areas would carries chemical products, petroleum products, and have prospered even without the developments. Some agricultural commodities in addition to coal, reflecting areas might have declined. Others may have experi- the more diversified and growing economic base of enced little real change. the Tennessee Valley compared to the relatively One conclusion is clear: regions differ widely in the specialized and slow-growth economy of the type of economic impact that can result from the 36 Monongahela area. In the Monongahela River development of their water resources. Because of this region, the ability of the waterway to foster variability, it is necessary to identify the strategic economic growth is dependent on the demand for factors that shape the role of water development in a coal and on coal mining technology. The influence of region's future development. the waterway may decline as development of unit trains becomes increasingly important as a substitute Critical Factors That Determine Water Development for water navigation. Hopes for sustained future Effect on Regional Economic Development: Four growth depend more on the region's ability to major factors determine the degree to which various diversify its economic base than on improvements in types of water improvements may contribute to the waterway. regional economic development. These factors are: South-Central Arizona - Testimony on the review I . The extent of demand for water-related draft of the Commission's report at several regional factors of production of goods and services, conferences in early 1973 disclosed that notwith- such as municipal and industrial water supply, standing substantial expansion in Federal and non- irrigated land, water-based transportation and recreation, hydroelectric power, and flood-free Federal irrigation projects, agriculture in many land. project areas continues to decline in relative eco- 2. The availability of low-cost substitutes for nomic importance. For example, in 1959, personal water-related factors of production or alter- income from farming accounted for 7.9 percent of all natives, such as dryland agriculture, land-based personal income in Arizona; by 1971, although farm transportation and recreation, nuclear or earnings had increased absolutely, they had declined fossil-fuel generated energy using recycled to only 3.7 percent of the total. In the three counties cooling water, etc. of the Arizona Water Conservation District (which 3. The region's competitive advantage or counties include the cities of Phoenix and Tucson), economic potential to supply water-related farm earnings represented 14.1 percent of total goods and services to national markets. personal income in 1950 and, despite a modest 4. The capability of the region to capitalize on 37 absolute increase, only 3.1 percent in 1969. developmental opportunities. An Unanswered Question - Each of these illus- Market Demand - The stronger the demand for trative cases leaves one nagging question unanswered: production dependent on specific water-related goods What would have happened without TVA, or without and services, the greater the contribution a particular the Minidoka or Tucumcari Projects? The answers water development can make to regional growth. The cannot be determined with confidence. At the derived demand for water developments depends on present time, analytical problems seriously limit the markets for the final goods and services produced. 3 6 U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS (1970). Waterborne The factors affecting these markets include national Commerce of the United States, Calendar Year 1969, Part population growth, industrial activity, exports, per 2, Waterways and Harbors, Gulf Coast, Mississippi River capita use, and sensitivity of demands to price and System and Antilles. U.S. Army Engineer District, New income changes. Orleans, La. For example, as the Nation's population grows and 3'FIRST NATIONAL 13ANK OF ARIZONA, Marketing as personal incomes rise, water projects with Department (1971 & 1972). Arizona Total Personal recreational facilities become more likely to stimulate Income by Major Sources, October 4, 1972 and Personal regional growth-e specially if such projects are near Income by Major Sources and Earnings by Broad Indus- large urban areas where population growth is greatest. trial Sector for Selected Counties, August 26, 1971. From data furnished by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Lake Sidney Lanier in northern Georgia (created by Office of Business Economics. Buford Dam) had nearly 12 million visitor-days of 54 recreation in 1970-among the highest in the supplying water-related goods and services is another Nation.' ' In this instance, the recreation demands of important factor. A region's competitive advantage Atlanta's population stimulated local business depends on three important attributes: (1) the activities related to the Federal water project. resource base, such as mineral deposits, soil fertility, Substitutes - The second major factor that timber, labor supply, water supply, and proximity to determines the capability of water resource develop- markets; (2) public facilities, such as industrial parks., ments to induce growth is the degree to which other water and sewer systems, highways and airports, resources may be economically substituted for water- educational and cultural opportunities, etc.; and related resources. While it is possible to substitute dry (3) the efficiency of firms in producing needed goods land for irrigated land, rail or highway transportation and services. These attributes are included in the for waterway transportation, and steam-generated package that industrial developers emphasize in pro- electrical energy for hydroelectric power, the deter- moting their location to prospective firms. They are mining factor is the relative cost of the substitute. important reasons for much of the industrial develop- Bulk commodities such as petroleum and coal ment along the Tennessee River, the Ohio River, and products, the principal commodities shipped on a few other major inland waterways. Navigation inland waterways, can usually be shipped most capacity, low-cost electrical energy, and water supply, economically by water transportation, although they although important, are merely components of the are also shipped by other modes when water transpor- overall competitive advantages enjoyed by these tation is not available or when the per unit cost of an areas. alternative is competitive with water transporta- Capitalizing on Development - The fourth major tion.3 9 The importance of pipeline transportation as factor is the capacity of a region to capitalize on a substitute for Water transportation has been par- developmental opportunities. This capability is ticularly evident over the past quarter centUry.4 0 dependent on: (1) the region's economic base; (2) the Irrigated land, especially under the favorable repay- laws and institutional arrangements, such as land use ment terms for Federal irrigation projects, often has regulation and taxation 'that serve as inducements or lower direa costs per unit of value produced than is constraints to economic growth; and (3) the available from nonirrigated land. complementary development activities that are under- Substitutes must always be considered as a means taken to reinforce the advantages of any particular of meeting demands for goods and services. water development. Frequently, water-related goods and services have A highly developed economic base will permit been cheaper than substitute nonwater-related goods economic activities related to water development to and services-a factor that has tended to increase the be multiplied as private firms purchase supplies and significance of water development as an inducement services from other firms, and sell their products. of growth. But as low-cost substitutes for water Payette, Idaho, serves as an example where urban services are developed, and as progressively higher- income in 1949 was estimated to be 123 percent of cost water projects are next in line for development, the value of crops grown. In this case, the urban cost differentials tend to narrow and the growth income was generated indirectly from irrigation on inducements of water developments tend to diminish. Boise project land." A more recent study concerned Competitive Advantage - The competitive the impact of irrigated agriculture on Nebraska's advantage or, relative potential of each region for economy. It demonstrated significant economic gains for the State's crop processors and their suppliers "U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS, unpublished data during 1963.' ' Had Nebraska's economic base lacked provided the National Water Commission. U.S. CONGRESS, House, Committee on Interior and "'One of the major arguments in support of inland Insular Affairs (1955). The Growth and Contribution' of navigation in the past was the competitive influence of Federal Reclamation to an Expanding National Economy, waterway transportation in reducing rail rates. prepared by the Bureau of Reclamation, October 1954. "Pipelines now surpass inland water transportation in terms Committee Print No. 27, 83d Congress, 2d Session. U,S. of ton-miles shipped. LEWIS, W Cris et al., Utah State Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. p. 10. University Foundation (1971). Regional Economic De- "ROESLER, Theodore W et al., University of Nebraska velopment: The Role of Water, prepared for the National (1968). The Economic Impact of Irrigated Agriculture on Water Commission. National Technical Information the Economy of Nebraska, prepared for the Bureau of Service, Springfield, Va., Accession No. PB 206 372. pp. Reclamation. Bureau of Business Research, Lincoln, Neb. 11166-67. p. 46. 55 Or A 7 M r. vv@ N C, 1- FRIO r4 -C 7_7__.:@ 77" @ @@74 �R-0111 rl.* 'rl's- A Aerial view of spectacular Lake Powell, formed by the building of Glen Canyon Dam a crop processing capability, these gains would have Finally, the simultaneous presence of com- been diffused and dissipated so as not to contribute plementary developmental activities reinforces the significantly to Nebraska's economic growth. In growth inducements provided by water projects. For general, a project area's economic base determines the example, fertilizer production at Muscle Shoals, extent of the indirect or multiplier effects (usually Alabama, has tended to reinforce the growth called "secondary benefits"). potential created by other TVA facilities. Similarly, Legal and institutional arrangements constitute a recreational developments financed by private invest- framework within which economic activities take ment or by State and Federal agencies can generate place. Land use and business regulations vary with significant growth in tourist and recreation-related State and local jurisdictions. The structure and sectors of the region's economy, along with other traditions of the financing organizations may also water project benefits, as apparently was the case at vary significantly and in turn shape the character of Georgia's Lake Sidney Lanier, Minnesota's Leech economic development responses to water develop- Lake, and Utah's Lake Powell. The relationship of ment projects. complementary development activities to water 56 resources development was explicitly recognized in ments has led to displacement of production in the the Corps of Engineers report on water resources Southeast because the national market for cotton is development in Appalachia. 43 There, planners limited. estimated developmental benefits by assessing what If regional growth is due either to relocations of would happen as a result of the entire package of existing firms or to establishment of new firms that development activities planned for Appalachia, displace economic activity in other areas, offsets are including improvements in highways and education, generated. In planning water programs that are for example, as well as water resource development. intended to induce regional economic growth, In summary, four major factors determine the planners should attempt to distinguish new growth extent regional economic development is likely to that would not otherwise occur elsewhere from result from proposed water developments. These growth that will produce adverse offsets in other factors provide a means for evaluating water develop- areas. ments, separating those that can contribute sub- Although adverse effects from regional offsets may stantially to economic growth and development in a be serious in some instances, it does not mean water region from those that cannot. Hence, the Com- resource developments that may generate regional mission believes these factors should be evaluated offsets are to be invariably condemned. Relocation of where regional economic development is to be con- private firms and the establishment of new firms sidered in project evaluation. occurs continually, with and without "special" inducements, and is usually due to opportunities for ne Problem of Regional Offsets: When Federal reducing costs. Firms also often relocate to take water developments are used to encourage econorruic advantage of changing market situations. These growth in certain regions, offsetting declines or adjustments to cost and revenue considerations are reductions in the pace of growth may result in other 44 essential characteristics of a competitive economy regions. This issue is illustrated by the charges that and lead to increased economic efficiency. The net irrigation projects in the West have displaced farmers result of these adjustments is generally reflected by elsewhere in the Nation. The illustration often used is reduced market prices for the goods and services that cotton production on Western irrigation develop- produced. 43The planning report was authorized in Section 206(a) of These gains in national efficiency may, however, the Appalachian Regional Development Act of 1965, P.L. adversely affect workers or businessmen who cannot 89-4, March 9, 1965, 79 Stat 5, 15, 40 USCA App. Sec. or will not relocate. When such displacement occurs, 206(a), which states: Federal, State, and local governments may incur "The Secretary of the Army is hereby authorized and higher expenditures for worker relocation, retraining directed to prepare a comprehensive plan for the develop- programs, or public assistance. These considerations ment and efficient utilization of the water and related resources of the Appalachian region, giving special make it imperative that the executive and the attention to the need for an increase in the production of legislative branches carefully consider the equity as economic goods and services within the region as a means well as the efficiency aspects of regional offsets of expanding economic opportunities and thus enhancing related to Federal water development programs. the welfare of its people, which plan shall constitute an Water resource developments have had and will integral and harmonious component of the regional continue to have regional offset implications, but economic development program authorized by this Act." The last phrase was the principal guide used in their significance depends on a number of factors estimating benefits based on a combination of develop- including, but not limited to, market demands for the ment activities rather than on water resources development goods and services made available as a result of water alone. This was in contrast to then current procedures as resource development. described in Senate Document 97. U.S. CONGRESS, Senate (May 1962). Policies, Standards, and Procedures in Market demand is a dominant factor in deter- the Formulation, Evaluation, and Review of Plans for Use mining the extent to which regional offsets will and Development of Water and Related Land Resources, occur. Where market demand for the ultimate Senate Document No. 97, 87th Congress, 2d Session. U.S. product is strong and growing, economic develop- Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. ment in a water project area is not likely to generate "LEWIS, W Cris et aL, Utah State University Foundation substantial adverse effects elsewhere. (1971). Regional Economic Development: The Role of Conversely, regional offsets are likely to be high Water, prepared for the National Water Commission. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., when firms, capitalizing on a water, development, Accession No. PB 206 372. pp. 11186-90. produce products for which demand is not growing or 57 growing only slowly-for example, agricultural com- goods and services at the least cost. Thus, each region modities such as cotton. In this case, there is a will share in increased economic activity in relation to 46 declining national demand for acreage on which to its competitive advantage. Many diverse areas share produce these crops. Regional offsets could be to some extent in national growth and prosperity- expected to be significant if major new irrigation but not in a uniform pattern. The various regions of projects are developed to produce agricultural the Nation differ in their growth characteristics and products for which demand is weak. stage of development, as well as in their rates of growth. Overall, however, fewer and fewer areas are The Future completely isolated from the general trends in na- tional prosperity. Thus, caution should be exercised Economic growth in the future will be shaped by in considering major new water programs for the basic market forces and governmental policies. specific purpose of proninting regional development. Improved transportation and communication systems have strengthened the influence of nationwide and Future Directions for Water Policy Related to Re- international markets and of Federal economic gional Development: The Commission discerns several policies on economic growth in each of the Nation's ways for water resource development to contribute to component regions. Regional economic growth is regional economic growth in the future. The role increasingly dependent on the performance of the water development can play, however, must always national economy. reflect a basic principle. Water must be increasingly The trend in the last few decades has been for viewed as a scarce resource, one to be developed for regional per capita incomes to gravitate toward the regional economic growth only when: national average. During the period from 1929 to (a) market demands indicate that the goods and 1970, national per capita income increased by more services that would be produced are needed than 4.25 percent annually. However, regions such as by a growing economy, the Southeast and Southwest grew at rates suf- (b) substitutes for water-related goods and serv- ficiently higher to improve their per capita income ices are not economically competitive in levels from 52 and 67 percent, respectively, of the meeting these demands, national average to 81 and 89 percent of the national (c) the competitive advantage is favorable, and average in 1970. At the same time, other regions that (d) the region is willing and economically able to were well above the national average in 1929 grew at undertake complementary development activ- more modest rates .4 -5 The upward trend in regional ities. incomes stems primarily from gains in national Failure to recognize this fundamental principle will economic performance. The narrowing of regional result either in (1) water developments poorly differences stems primarily from the inclination of planned and ineffective for regional growth purposes industry to gravitate toward areas of low wage rates or (2) significant economic losses in other regions as and surplus labor and the inclination of workers to the water development merely relocates economic gravitate to areas of high wage rates and superior activities. employment opportunities. Water projects cannot be Management of Existing Water. Developments - credited with making more than a minor contribution Consonant with this principle, the Commission to these national phenomena. believes that, in the future, increased emphasis must Obviously, as the Nation grows, industries will be placed on the management of existing water increase their investment in capital facilities to spur developments as a means of improving regional growth production of needed goods and services. The potential rather than relying as heavily as in the past increased production will not occur randomly, but on new projects. A number of existing waterways, for will occur in those areas capable of producing the example, may have potential for further development of plant sites and barge terminal facilities that would 41 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, Office of Business be attractive to industrial firms, if other factors are Economics (May 1970). Personal income in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas. Survey of current Business 46RIVKIN/CARSON, INC. (1971). Population Growth in 50(5):22-35. and U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, Communities in Relation to Water Resources Policy, Office of Business Economics (August 1971). Regional and prepared for the National Water Commission. National state income gains in 1970. Survey of Current Business Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., Accession 51(8):30-31. No. PB 205 248. pp. 35-36. 58 favorable. Use of water-saving techniques or an industry and thus creating jobs." The Federal effective transfer mechanism for water rights in assistance is directed towards nonmetropolitan areas. irrigation areas might enable some supplemental FHA, for example, is prohibited from providing irrigation adjacent to existing project lands without financial assistance for water and sewer projects to new project development. If other factors suggest areas "in any city or town which has a population in ,,48 industrial development potential is favorable, excess of ten thousand inhabitants ... protection and intensive development of a modest The Nation's rural areas differ widely in terms of portion of a flood plain (provided that it is consistent economic or resource characteristics. Timber- with sound land use plans) should be employed rather producing portions of the Pacific Northwest and than establishing flood protection projects covering Upper Great Lakes, for example, are quite distinct entire flood plains. from the coal mining areas of the Appalachian Use of existing developments to achieve increased Mountains or the Midwest's agricultural prairies, yet regional gains has the twofold advantage of being all are classified "rural." Each of these diverse rural more efficient and reducing the otherwise long lead areas has certain demands for water and sewer time required for project planning and construction. facilities, but the "needs" will vary depending on the anticipated water use and the life styles preferred by New Developments - New water developments, of the area's residents. In areas where rural residents live course, will be needed in the future. Most of these in reasonably close proximity to each other, new projects will be sought in response to traditional centralized water systems may be an efficient method water purposes such as flood protection or water of providing water for population growth. In other supply. Many of these future developments will not areas where residences are widely scattered, produce significant regional gains as the relative centralized water systems may be impractical. importance of water developments as a stimulus for The Commission does not see a need for initiation economic growth diminishes. Some will generate of new water programs to respond to potential significant regional offsets unless market demands are population growth in rural areas. If the Nation increasing at a sufficiently rapid rate to absorb the chooses to adopt a rural development approach to goods and services produced. population distribution, existing Federal water programs could be used to provide water and water- related services. Population Distribution Strategies and Their Relationship to Water Resources: In coming months and years, public debate on a national policy on population distribution is likely to increase. There are "The EDA program, which grew out of the area a number of possible strategies for population redevelopment program of a decade ago, is predicated on dispersal, among which the following are receiving the assumption that water and sewer facilities provide jobs, considerable attention: reduce unemployment, and thus promote economic 1 . Rural development (sometimes referred to as growth. The program generally serves nonmetropolitan rural industrialization, reversing rural-urban areas, but grants and loans have been made to Chicago and Omaha. For an assessment of the EDA program, see the migration, rural areas development, area re- following: U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, development, and the like). Economic Development Administration (1967). Regional 2. Creation of new towns (sometimes referred to Economic Development in the United States, 3 vols. U.S. as planned communities) to absorb future Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. BOOZ, increases in population. ALLEN & HAMILTON, INC., Washington, D.C. (1970). An Evaluation of the Business Loan Program of the 3. Distribution of population in a network of Economic Development Administration, prepared for the growth centers. Economic Development Adniinistration. U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. U.S. CONGRESS, House, Rural Development - The Federal role in rural Special Subcommittee on Economic Development Programs of the Committee on Public Works (1970). development usually involves investment in public Evaluation of Economic Development Programs-Part 11, facilities including sewer and water grants and loans 91st Congress, 2d Session. U.S. Government Printing from the Economic Development Administration Office, Washington, D.C. (EDA) and the Farmers Home Administration "Rural Development Act of 1972, P.L. 92-419, Sec. 109, (FHA) in rural areas to assist them in attracting August 30, 1972, 86 Stai'@657, 659, 7 USCA Sec. 1926. 59 New Towns - New towns are not new. 49 About may see the simple extension of municipal water lines 3,000 years ago, the Greeks founded entirely new as an attractive alternative to entirely new water "settlements for purposes of colonization, commerce, projects. The Commission believes that water de- and absorption of population increases in the city- velopment for new towns should be viewed in the states."" In the United States, a number of "new same way as water problems of other kinds of cities towns" have been developed. Reston (Virginia), and towns. Columbia (Maryland), and Jonathan (Minnesota) are Growth Centers - The Commission on Population recent examples of privately developed new towns Growth and the American Future has endorsed a established in an attempt to accommodate increased "growth centers" strategy for aiding the normal population in a desirable living environment. transition of people from declining rural areas to Water is required for new towns just as numerous urban places with job opportunities." The growth other resources and facilities are needed. The centers concept focuses on existing communities that question, however, is whether a "special" water have demonstrated capabilities for further expansion program is required. in economic and population growth. Even though a location close to surface water may The growth centers approach requires identifica- be a desirable feature, relatively few developers of tion of an economic base or growth nucleus that can proposed new towns intend to use specially de- provide jobs. While the characteristics of the required veloped surface water supplies. The distribution of base might vary, it has generally been defined as a proposed new communities by source of water supply town or city having (1) some minimum initial con- is shown in Table 3-1. centration of people," (2) a viable economic base, Because 91 percent of the proposed new towns and (3) a favorable rate of growth. Government included in the sample are either within or on the development funds are then channeled to these periphery of a metropolitan center, water planners growth centers. For example, the Appalachian Regional Development Act authorizes investment of TABLE 3-1. -Proposed source of water supplies for supplemental Federal grant funds for projects of 53 selected potential new towns various kinds in designated growth centers. The theory is that growth centers have the greatest Number of Percent potential for development and are the areas most Water Source Communities Distribution likely to produce a satisfactory return on Federal Ground Water Only 9 26 investment in terms of goals achieved. Surface Water Only 6 17 The programs of EDA, under the Public Works and Extension of Municipal 14 Water Lines Only 18 51 Economic Development Act of 1965, make certain Combination of Sources' 2 6 U.S. COMMISSION ON POPULATION GROWTH AND 35 100 THE AMERICAN FUTURE (1972). Population Growth and the American Future. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. Ch. 12. 'One development anticipates using both ground and surface "Various minimum size standards have been argued. See water supplies. The other anticipates temporary use of MORRISON, Peter A (1971). Dimensions of the Popula- ground water until municipal lines are extended to reach tion Problem in the United States, prepared for the this satellite new town. Commission on Population Growth and the American Future. RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, Calif. pp. Source: Sample of unnamed, proposed new towns seeking 52-53. In a few cases 5,000 people may be a sufficient Federal financial assistance; provided by U.S. Depart- number to permit viable future growth, but in most cases ment of Housing and Urban Development (1971). 25,000 to 100,000 people may be needed. The Com- Letter and attachment dated July 26, 1971, from mission on Population Growth and the American Future Samuel C. Jackson to Theodore M. Schad. Onfile, uses 25,000 as the minimum population size for a growth National Water Commission. center, although it suggests the desirability of some flexibility because of regional diffe.rences. "Appalachian Regional Development Act of 1965, P.L. 49 New towns traditionally have been defined as preplanned, 89-4, March 9, 1965, 79 Stat. 5, 40 USCA App. Secs. self-contained communities, established for specific pur- 1-405. poses. "Public Works and Economic Development Act of 1965, "CLAPP, James A (1971). New Towns and Urban Policy. P.L. 89-136, August 26, 1965, 79 Stat. 552, as amended Dunellen Publishing Co., Inc., New York. p. 16. 42 USCA Secs. 3121 et seq. 60 redevelopment areas and economic growth centers recycling may help stretch limited water supplies and eligible for increased grant and loan assistance. thereby assist likely areas of growth. Transfer of Because the EDA program is generally aimed at water use (for example, from irrigation to municipal assisting depressed areas, other criteria for eligibility and industrial uses) may offer some communities such as high rates of unemployment and low income opportunities to meet water needs at costs far less levels are considered along with optimum size to than the development of new supplies. identify communities eligible for assistance. These criteria can be modified from program to program, CONCLUSIONS ON REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT however, to meet different purposes. Whereas 1. While water resources projects have had very Appalachian and EDA programs were primarily significant impacts on regional economic develop- intended to benefit depressed areas, other criteria ment and population distribution in the past, they are could be developed to identify appropriate centers of not usually the most efficient way to accomplish emerging growth to receive Federal assistance to these objectives and their importance is diminishing. accommodate future population increases. 2. Under certain conditions, water development If and when the Nation adopts a population-based may be helpful as one of several ingredients necessary growth center strategy, Federal water development to encourage regional economic development and programs could respond. Under existing assistance population growth, or to preserve existing develop- programs, water supply and sewage facility invest- ment. However, water developments differ widely in ments are generally treated separately from other the effects they induce. Congress, in making developmental activities such as land use regulation, judgments as to whether water developments should educational investments, transportation improve- be used to aid regional growth, should require ments, etc. They could all be coordinated around a evaluations of certain critical growth factors in order central theme of community (or growth center) to enhance the effectiveness of developments and development. reduce offsetting losses in other regions. These factors Synthesis - It is likely that all three alternatives- include: market demands, availability of substitutes rural development, new towns, and growth centers- for water services, competitive advantage of the will be used in some combination to affect popula- region, and the potential for capitalizing on growth tion distribution. Regardless of the ultimate outcome, opportunities. water resources should be planned and managed to 3. Federal water programs can be easily adjusted respond to future changes in population and the to support whatever population distribution policy response should be under terms that are most the Nation adopts. However, water programs are not, efficient and equitable from a national standpoint. in and of themselves, adequate to effectuate a Water planning, undertaken jointly with planning national policy concerning where people will live. for land use, housing, transportation, education, and Water programs should continue to accommodate industrial development, encourages efficiency in the future population growth and economic well-being by construction and operation of water supply and responding to the pattern of interregional population sewage treatment facilities, especially when invest- distribution. In some instances water programs may ments are staged at rates comparable to actual need. influence desired population distribution provided Existing Federal water programs, established for other controlling conditions are favorable. Where purposes other than population- distribution, have the Congress has determined that the growth of a potential for accommodating population dispersal particular area should be promoted in the national objectives if the President or Congress so direct. The interest such programs may be used if they provide application of technologies in water reuse and the most efficient way to achieve that growth. 61 02 vz, ,e 400. "To vk A@_ W, @tt4 @Mw "A' 41 441 @Xwz@@L .- 11 @@l- - , - - I - @- @ .7. @L@ Chapter 4 Water Pollution Control' The development of the Nation has exacted a high cannot be sustained. The difficult and important task price in the deteriorating quality of its water re- is to weigh the benefits and costs of each available sources. Rivers, lakes, and coastal waters have been alternative and to devise policies and systems which heavily damaged by the uncontrolled discharge of will improve these choices over time. wastes; by polluted runoff from urban, agricultural, and mining development; and by accelerated siltation, COMMISSION APPROACH erosion, and sedimentation. The Commission is convinced that a new ethic of Efforts to clean up water pollution have been conservation and reuse must replace the history of impeded by basic disagreements over goals to be exponential growth in the production of wastes. Our sought and strategies for water quality management. 4-year study of water pollution has demonstrated the Complexities and costs have often been obscured by environmental truth of the aphorism "there is no the rhetoric in which oversimplified solutions are advanced. As a basis for sound decisions about such thing as a free lunch." The Nation can no longer programs for water quality improvement, the Ameri- rely on "cheap raw materials," "underpriced" water, can people need to know the facts about water and "free" waste disposal to achieve its national pollution and to understand the costs and benefits of development goals. alternative strategies for managing water quality. It is increasingly evident that some wastes in our In this chapter, a range of possible pollution waters need never have been produced and represent, abatement programs is examined in the context of a in effect, misplaced resources. If appropriate regula- total environment and a whole society. It is generally tions are enforced and polluters are required to pay recognized that improved water quality will enhance the cost of abating their pollution, the Commission the immediate environment, augment the useful believes that the amount of waste production will be supply of water, and reduce costs stemming from the minimized and the costs of its treatment will be more use of polluted water. It is also necessary to recognize equitably shared. that matter can be altered but not destroyed and The Commission believes that for the next decade some processes which abate the pollution of water the primary national water resource priority should can impair other elements of the environment. The shift from water development to water quality consumption of minerals and energy to construct and management to meet a high standard of water operate waste treatment systems can drain supplies of quality. Regulations and expenditures should be limited and nonrenewable resources. Many valid directed at the most effective site-specific pollution unmet needs compete for limited tax moneys and 'In preparing this chapter, the Commission relied on expenditures for water pollution abatement can background information from HINES, N William (197 1). impose heavy social costs in lost opportunities for the Public Regulation of Water Quality in the United States, solution of social problems. Water quality manage- prepared for the National Water Commission. National ment policies which do not recognize these facts Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., Acces- sion No. PB 208 309, and PANEL ON WATER POLLU- TION CONTROL (1971). Water Pollution Control in the United States, prepared for the National Water Commis- Polluted waters are off-limits for recreational and fish sion. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, and wildlife use Va., Accession No. PB 212 139. 63 abatement rather than uniform national requirements waters frequently degrade water for a wide range of and absolute goals. National water quality goals uses. Various organic or inorganic chemicals reaching should be set only after analysis of the effect which waters through direct discharges and through land their achievement will have upon other national goals. runoff disrupt the delicate food chains of lower levels A 10-year national financial commitment to acl-deve of life and ultimately may prove toxic to people. At water quality standards is necessary because of the the opposite extreme, chemical nutrients stimulate sheer magnitude of the long-accumulated backlog of the growth of some aquatic organisms in nuisance work and the need to establish equity among the quantities. Dissolved and suspended materials affect State and local governments which have been un- the color and turbidity of water and may congest evenly affected by prior Federal grant programs. At watercourses as they are deposited. Heat added to the end of this period, the Federal grant program water in industrial cooling processes may have should terminate and local and State agencies should deleterious effect on aquatic fife, and reduces operate and improve their systems and the users of capacity to purify organic materials. Finally, the such systems should pay the costs. escape of radioactive material into water can pose a threat to all forms of life. THE IMPORTANCE OF CLEAN WATER In the past, wastes were discharged into waterways SOURCES OF POLLUTION with little regard to the costs imposed on other users Pure water is a manufactured product. Natural and on the public by the resulting decline in water water is not pure. Its quality is affected by a variety quality. Limited only by the laws of public and of geologic, hydrologic, and biologic factors. Natural private nuisance, these practices were not entirely impurities such as sediments, decaying vegetation, satisfactory even in a frontier society with an and wastes from wild animal populations impose abundance of clean water. Under today's increasing measurable levels of contamination on many water- demands for high-quality water, unrestrained waste courses. Dissolved minerals rendered some of our disposal leads to serious conflicts among potential surface and ground waters unfit for certain uses long water uses and occasions the loss of social and before man appeared on the scene. But most of what environmental values. 2 we call pollution today results from disposal of the Projections of future water demands in some waste products of civilization. Controlling man- regions of the United States make it clear that unless caused pollution is the central concern of this major new supplies of fresh water can be developed, chapter. increased reuse of existing water supplies will be Pollution sources are of two types: (1) waste essential to meet these, demands. Reuse is possible discharges from identifiable points (point-sources) because the great majority of users return water to its and (2) diffused wastes reaching water through land source after use; however, to rely on reuse to satisfy runoff, washout from the atmosphere, or other means increasing demands, water returned must be of (nonpoint-sources). The two differ in their amena- sufficiently high quality that its usability is not bility to control. Discrete point-sources may be destroyed. controlled directly while nonpoint-sources are Impairment of water quality also seriously extremely difficult to control. threatens in-place water uses. The maintenance of desirable fish and wildlife populations and the Point-Sources preservation of natural beauty require water of good quality. The demand for water-based recreation is Municipal Sewerage Systems: The sanitary wastes increasing dramatically and requires clean water. from an urban population of roughly 160 million Water quality is impaired primarily by the use of people are systernatically collected through sewers the water as a receptor of wastes. Wastes may contain and subjected to some type of treatment before being bacteria or viruses harmful to human health. The discharged into water bodies. Municipal systems also decomposition of organic wastes robs water of collect and treat a significant portion of the Nation's dissolved oxygen essential to support the life process industrial wastes. Municipal effluents contain large of aquatic creatures. Salts, acids, phenols, alkalies, amounts of organic materials, dissolved minerals, and and other compounds present in industrial waste- often contain residues from industrial wastes. In many places, municipal wastes do not receive 'See Chapter 1. adequate treatment. Even where secondary treatment 64 is provided, important nutrients and toxic materials diverse ways ranging from outright toxicity to harm- escape removal. Some measure of the deficiencies in less but unpleasant tastes. The rapid development of municipal waste control is provided by a comparison new synthetic chemicals promises new and more of the present value of existing municipal sewage exotic types of production wastes for the future. In treatment plants ($8.5 billion)3 and the estimate of 1968, according to Federal agency studies, only 37 additional investments needed in such plants by 1985 percent of the wastewater discharged by industry ($15 billion) to meet water quality standards estab- received any treatment whatsoever; and 7 percent of fished under the Water Quality Act of 1965 .4 what was treated passed through municipal sewage plants.7 One projection to the year 2000 shows that, Storm Water Runoff: A second source of water unless process changes occur, there will be a sevenfold pollution attracting increasing attention is storm increase in the wastes of water-using industries.' water runoff from urban areas. Urban land runoff is Obviously, there will have to be changes in process- commonly collected in storm sewers and discharged ing. into waterways, Frequently, storm water inlets con- Discharge of heated industrial wastewater also nect directly with sanitary sewers. Where a combined affects water quality, and may have adverse effects on storm and sanitary sewer system is used, heavy storm the biota. By far the largest discharger ofwaste heat runoffs result in temporarily overloading or bypassing is the electric power industry, which uses great of local waste treatment plants so that raw or quantities of water for cooling. Growth estimates lead partially treated sewage is discharged into water- to predictions of a six- to tenfold increase by the year courses. Even where separate storm sewers are 2000 in the discharge of heated water from power- utilized, storm water poses a pollution threat. plants. One commonly used method of reducing or Accidental interconnections with sanitary sewers are eliminating the discharge of heat to watercourses is common, and recent studies have revealed that the the installation of cooling towers; however, such first "flush" of storm water often carries a pollution installations increase consumptive use of water, load of some constituents greater than that of raw require more energy, 9 and may affect air quality. sanitary sewage,' It should be noted that the early runoff from heavy rainfall on rural agricultural land Animal Wastes From Commercial Feedlots: Steady and even on wilderness areas also transfers a heavy increases in per capita meat consumption and con- pollution load to watercourses. tinued population growth have caused agricultural technology to seek more efficient methods for Industrial Wastes: The total output of organic wastes producing meat animals. One result is the modern from water-using industries in the United States is confined feeding operation in which large numbers of estimated to have a pollution strength three to four animals are scientifically fed and managed in tightly times greater than the domestic sewage handled by all restricted quarters. Feedlots carrying more than municipalities combined 6 and organic industrial 10,000 head of cattle or swine each are not unusual. wastes are growing at a rapid rate. In addition, Current estimates project continued expansion of industry effluents contain a variety of inorganic confined feeding operations. wastes which in their initial state, in degraded forms, Unfortunately, animal waste management practices and in compounds affect the usability of water in have not always kept pace with improve d-efficiency 3U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 7U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (1972). The Economics of Clean Water, Vol. 1, Environ- (1972). The Economics of Clean Water, Vol. 1, Environ- mental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. p. 120, mental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. p. 17. assuming treatment plants represent 45 percent of total 8U.S. NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES-NA- of costs given therein which also include interceptors, TIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL, Publication 1400. Na- outfalls, and pumping plants. tional Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, See Chapter 16, Financing Water Programs. Washington, D.C. p. 12. 5BRYAN, Edward H (1970). Quality of Storm Water 'See Chapter 5, Section G, for more complete discussion Drainage from Urban Land Areas in North Carolina. of waste heat problems. The Commission established a Report No. 37, Water Resources Research Institute, special panel to study this subject. See the report by the University of North Carolina, Raleigh, N.C. CONSULTING PANEL ON WASTE HEAT (May 1972). 6U.S. COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY The Water Use and Management Aspects of Steam (1970). Environmental Quality, The First@ 'Annual Report Electric Power Generation, prepared for the National of the Council on Environmental Quality. U.S. Govern- Water Commission. National Technical Information Serv- ment Printing Office, Washington, D.C. p. 32. ice, Springfield, Va., Accession No. PB 210 355. 65 X, Z Z' W,, -300 i F, lab.- Industrial and mine wastes degrade watereourses feeding operations. In yesterday's small feedlot opera- Sediment in streams is a natural phenomenon- tion, manure was a valuable byproduct used to sediments were present in the Nation's waters long fertilize the land that produced the crops fed to the before the country was settled. Natural happenings next generation of animals. Today, labor costs of such as lightning-caused forest fires can trigger spreading manure coupled with the availability of accelerated erosion. Man's activities, such as urban low-cost chemical fertilizers have converted this construction, overgrazing, surface mining, or recrea- once-valuable byproduct into a waste disposal tional activities, can have a similar result. The effects problem of sizable dimensions in some sections of the are more dramatic where soils are least protected by country. vegetative growth, as in the Southwestern United States, where streams have always carried heavy Nonpoint-Sources concentrations of sediment. Man's activity has, for the most part, increased sediment loads in streams of Sediment: Sediment is frequently found in natural the populated areas of the country. Unprotected water supplies. In excess quantities, it impairs recrea- croplands, overgrazed pastures, strip mines, roadways, tion, interferes with aquatic species, increases the and clearing for urban construction all have increased costs of water control projects, and increases the the production of sediment over that occurring in expense of water treatment for municipal and nature. Agricultural development increases erosion industrial purposes. Sediment, therefore, must be rates four to nine times while urban construction may considered as a pollutant. In addition, eroding sedi- increase the erosion rate a hundredfold during the ment transports pesticide residues and chemical period of construction. nutrients from fields to waterways.' 0 Agricultural Chemicals: Chemical fertilizers and "For more detailed discussion of erosion and sedimenta- pesticides can cause serious adverse effects if they tion see Chapter 5, Section H. reach waters in excessive quantities. Current evidence 66 suggests that these chemicals are entering waters in mining is the biggest offender. Acids from coal mines increasing concentrations. Nitrogen and phosphorus, account for a large share of the damages from mine the two chief nutrients in agricultural fertilizers, drainage pollution, mostly in the Ohio River Basin. directly stimulate and feed the growth of algae. A A recent study of active mines revealed that over certain amount of algae is essential as food for other half of them pumped untreated wastewater directly forms of aquatic life, but dense algae blooms reduce from the mine into a nearby stream. Like feedlot water quality by increasing turbidity and forming wastes, drainage from active mines will respond to a scum and floating mats. Heavy algae growth may point-source style of regulation based on collection compete with other aquatic life forms for dissolved and treatment of the wastewater prior to its dis- oxygen. This algae growth can be reduced or elimi- charge. The 90,000 or so abandoned mines which nated by minimizing escape of chemicals from the account for 60 percent of acid drainage are still fields through the use of good fertilizer application another problem. 12 Data to show that the benefits techniques. Phosphate fertilizer that reaches water is from control measures undertaken to date are suf- usually carried there by eroded soil particles, but ficient to justify the costs of such measures are not nitrogen is soluble and is carried in the drainage. available. While there are pesticide residues in many of the Nation's waterways, the level of pesticide concentra- Spills of Oil and Other Hazardous Substances: An tions in water is generally low. Because many of the estimated 10,000 spills of oil and other hazardous persistent pesticides precipitate rapidly from water, materials occur annually in or near navigable waters low pesticide levels in water samples may not reflect of the United States. Although damages from other accurately the availability of these compounds to hazardous substances spilled into waters can be just as aquatic flora and fauna. Bottom sediments frequently significant as those caused by oil pollution, the contain pesticide concentrations many times greater volume of oil transported and used vests it with great than the overlying water. Whether these pesticides are potential for damage and makes it the major concern. a cause of trouble depends on potential for scour, and Most large oil spills come from vessels, pipelines, oil on the aquatic life in the area. terminals, and bulk storage facilities. Two hundred Although the precise routes by which pesticides thousand miles of pipelines carry annually more than Lravel through the environment are not known, a billion tons of oil and hazardous substances. These agriculture's role in their dissemination is generally pipelines cross waterways and reservoirs and are acknowledged. Nearly a billion pounds of pesticides, subject to leakage. 13 Spills from this source are not of which agriculture uses slightly more than 50 frequent, but the hazard is increasing as the amount percent," are used in the United States each year. of exposure increases. In addition, disposal of used oil These totals, large as they are, are of little value in is beginning to be recognized as a matter of environ- appraising water quality, because of the large variety mental concern, particularly since the tax incenitives in kinds, variations in persistence, and uncertainties in for re-refining used oil were eliminated. effects. As with phosphate fertilizers, eroding soil particles are suspected to be the major vehicles for Other Sources: Other nonpoint-sources of pollution, transporting pesticides to waterways. such as animal and vegetable residues washed from open lands, runoff from commercial and industrial Nfine Drainage: Drainage from active and abandoned sites, salting of highways for ice control, discharges of mines pours harmful acids, minerals, and sediments waste materials from vessels, and washout of residuals from 11 million acres of mine land into streams and deposited in the atmosphere through man's activities, lakes in 31 States. It is impossible to document the are also causing increasing environmental damage. amount of the damages, since many watercourses received such inflows under natural conditions. Mining operations for nearly 20 different minerals U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, Federal Water create wastes which diminish water quality, but coal Quality Administration (June 197 0). Clean Water for the 1970's. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. p. 9. U.S. COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY 1 3 U.S. COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY (1970). Environmental Quality, First Annual Report of (1970). Environmental Quality, First Annual Report of the Council on Environmental Quality, U.S. Government the Council on Environmental Quality. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. p. 13 1. Printing Office, Washington, D.C. p. 38. 67 A A V jC7 Oil spills spread rapidly on water surfaces WHAT IS HAPPENING TO WATER QUALITY? waterways revealed cases of marked improvements in One major impediment to an adequate assessment dissolved oxygen and a few other water quality indicators during the last 30-40 years, but a general of water quality is that existing monitoring and increase in dissolved solids. 14 These findings are surveillance programs are inadequate to provide the corroborated by a U.S. Council on Environmental data base required for a comprehensive analysis of Quality (CEQ) report which notes that while the total water quality conditions, except in a limited number biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) loading of waters of waterways. Even where extensive sampling pro- increased only slightly over a 10-year period (during grams have been instituted, little or no historical which the production of potential BOD materials water quality data exist from which to make com- more than doubled), the discharge of other types of parisons over a period of time. For these reasons, pollutants increased significantly.' ' It can be con- most assessments of water quality are highly subjec- cluded from these reports that pollution control tive. One method for assessing current status is by 1 4WOLMAN MG (November 26, 1971). The Nation's comparison with the past. The overall impression Rivers. Science 174(4012);905-.918. gathered from two recent studies of water quality "U.S. COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY conditions is that some deterioration has occurred (1971). Environmental Quality, The Second Annual Report of the Council on Environmental Quality, August over time but also some improvement has been 1971. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. shown. One study of long-term changes on selected p. 218. 68 efforts of the past decade have held even or gained WHEN IS WATER POLLUTED? somewhat on oxygen-demanding wastes, but have lost Pollution can be defined in alternative ways which ground against some other pollutants. This is not have markedly different implications for the Nation's surprising, as conventional waste treatment processes effort to improve water quality. One view of pollu- have been principally directed to reduction of oxygen tion is expressed in the Federal Water Pollution demand. A more recent study undertaken for the CEQ Control Act Amendments of 1972," which defines based on a sample of water quality stations and 11 pollution" as "man-made or man-induced alteration adjusted for variations in flow also shows a mixed of the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological picture of trends in water quality. In general, it shows integrity of water."2'') Thus, natural water quality that there has been a dramatic worsening in the appears to be regarded as a norm from which any concentration of phosphorus and nitrogen com- deviation constitutes pollution. This is not a good pounds and a slight increase in the total oxygen- standard on which to base the definition of pollution. demanding wastes. 16 In some places water is naturally toxic, naturally hot, A more optimistic view is presented by responses naturally turbid, naturally radioactive, or naturally .received by the Commission staff to an inquiry acid or alkaline. Some lakes are naturally choked concerning recent changes in water quality. Reports with algae, and the eutrophication of lakes is a received from 30 States and three interstate agencies natural process in their aging. Oil seeps in large indicated that in the past several years both general quantity occur in nature. Heavy sediment loads occur improvements in water quality and specific instances naturally in many flowing streams. Man-induced of upgrading have overshadowed isolated situations of changes due to discharges of specific chemicals can deterioration.'7 actually improve the usefulness of water, for A second method of assessment is to compare example, where wastes which contain lime neutralize existing quality to stated objectives as expressed in the excess natural acidity of streams, or where water quality standards. EPA has recently made a nutrients are needed to support aquatic life. Con- systematic attempt to record such information." An servation of marine species that are heavily used as a inventory of some 260,000 miles of streams and source of food for man may require replacement of shorelines by that agency shows that almost 30 nutrients in the marine environment to maintain the percent of the Nation's stream and shoreline miles are food chain. out of compliance with one or more criteria at least 1-f the purpose of the 1972 Act's definition of once a year. The study does not, however, permit a pollution were just to bring within the ambit of the quantitative judgment as to losses or damages frorn control program all discharges of substances poten- pollution, because the comparison does not take tially harmful to water quality, its bre adth of scope account of the fact that failure to meet certain would be commendable. However, this all- criteria 100 percent of the time may have little or no encompassing definition does not merely expand the detrimental effect. jurisdiction of the control program; it is an integral Notwithstanding uncertainties resulting from the component of a water quality policy which is lack of reliable data and the imprecision of evaluation designed ultimately to prevent all use of water bodies procedures, the available reports contain a consistent for waste disposal. The 1972 Act establishes 1985 as theme of substantial noncompliance with existing a tentative target date for achievement of this "no standards. Decisive action is needed to achieve the discharge" goal. Nation's stated water quality objectives. Such a goal is unrealistic. Tolerance of foreign materials in water varies greatly among different water uses. The ranking of purposes for which water 16U.S. COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY is used in terms of the quality levels required in (1971). Environmental Quality, The Third Annual Re- natural watercourses might be represented as follows: port of the Council on Environmental Quality, August (1) preservation of the natural environment, as in the 1972. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. pp. 13-14. "Correspondence in files of National Water Commission. "'Public Law 92-500, October 18, 1972, 86 Stat. 816, 33 U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY USCA 1251-1376. Hereinafter referred to as the "1972 (197 2). The Economics of Clean Water, Vol. 1, Environ- Act." mental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. Part 1. 2'Ibid., Section 502(19), 86 Star. 887, 33 USCA 1362(19). 69 "wild river" program; (2) water contact sports, such policy thus amounts to the imputation of an extrava- as swimming and water-skiing; (3) use as a source of a gant social value to an abstract concept of water potable domestic water supply;' ' (4) preservation of purity; a value the Commission is convinced the aquatic life; (5) noncontact recreational uses, such as American people would not endorse if the associated boating-, (6) agricultural use, such as irrigation and costs and effect on other resources were fully livestock watering; (7) industrial use; (8) navigation; appreciated and the policy alternatives clearly under- (9) disposal and transport of wastes. Only use (1) stood. requires natural water quality. In all other cases water The danger of setting the restoration of natural quality different from that which would exist in water quality as a national goal lies not merely in its nature will adequately support the desired uses. In conceptual unsoundness, but in its potential for doing fact, natural water itself often is unfit to satisfy long-term harm to the pollution control effort. Like important uses, and a requirement that all water other oversimplified solutions to complex social discharged after use be distilled would not assure problems, this policy holds out a promise of water of useful quality. "natural" water it cannot redeem. Water quality The Commission believes adoption of "no dis- regulation which loses touch with the reasons people charge" as a national goal for water quality manage- value water is 'hopelessly adrift and eventually will ment is no more sound than would be the establish- founder. When it does, the attendant loss of public ment of a "no development" goal for controlling land confidence will make it more difficult to marshall -use. First, the "no discharge" policy ignores the public support to reestablish a program with rational functional interrelationships among environmental objectives. resources and places man in absolute oppostion to In the Commission's view, pollution should be natural processes of runoff and drainage. Second, the defined in a functional and dynamic manner by maximum degree of industrial or sewage treatment saying that water is polluted if it is not of sufficiently process changes cannot eliminate all wastes which are high quality to be suitable for the highest uses people now discharged to water. Forbidding the disposal of wish to make of it at present or in the future. Such these wastes in water inevitably will result in their uses should be determined by responsible public disposal in the air or on land, but with no assurance authorities. Under this approach, maintenance of that such disposal alternatives are either environ- natural water quality is necessary only where some mentally or economically preferable to disposal in use of the resource requires it.2 2This is not to say water. Third, the no discharge policy assumes that that the pollution control program ought to ignore restoration and preservation of natural water quality any man-induced alteration of water quality. Rather, is of higher value than any other use of the resource. the goal of the control program should be to regulate This assumption will not pass the tests commonly those changes to achieve and maintain a quality applied to determine how or whether resources sufficient to sustain the uses people wish to make of should be used. The costs of achieving the social the water now or in the future. objective of pure water are so great that they surely It is this relative theory of pollution upon which will necessitate a cutback or postponement of other was based the national water quality standards worthy domestic programs. An examination of rela- program introduced by the Water Quality Act of 13 tive priorities among social goals is in order. In the 1965. This legislation fostered the establishment of Commission's view, a reduction in waste disposal receiving water standards for nearly all of the beyond that necessary to protect existing or antic- Nation's surface waters. In the 1965 Act, the congres- ipated future uses of receiving waters would create sional description of the water quality standards costs unrelated to any social benefit and would result intended was somewhat lacking in detail; the Act in needless expenditures and a waste of other simply provided that the standards shall be such as resources such as air, land, minerals, and energy. "to protect the public health or welfare, enhance the Absolutely pure water simply is not necessary for quality of water," and serve the purposes of the Act, many uses, and these include uses such as recreation and fish propagation. Adoption of a no discharge 2 'For a more complete discussion of this philosophy, see U.S. CONGRESS, House of Representatives (1966), "Water Pollution Control," House Report No. 2021, 89th "Where water bodies are used as a source of domestic Congress, 2d Session. U.S. Government Printing Office, supplies without filtration, this use must be placed ahead Washington, D.C. of water contact sports in the ranking. 2 3P.L. 89-234, October 2, 1965, 79 Stat. 903. 70 taking into consideration the "use and value [of the for conventional biological treatment. Although the interstate waters] for public water supplies, pro- dedication of marginal lands to the disposal of pagation of fish and wildlife, recreational purposes, municipal and industrial effluents by filtration an d agricultural, industrial, and other legitimate through the natural soils has been practiced in other uses."" For this reason, several years were required countries, a project in Muskegon County, Michigan, to establish satisfactory standards and there has not represents the first attempt in the humid portion of been time for them to be fully implemented. Never- the United States to use land disposal on a large scale theless, the Commission believes the concept of water for handling the wastewater from an urban popula- quality standards provides the foundation for an tion.2 6 The Muskegon project, which is not yet effective national strategy for pollution control. operational, will spray-irrigate 6,000 acres of land Standards based on present and proposed water uses having sandy soil, using the effluent from the not only represent the most rational national water system's biological treatment lagoons. Another 4,000 quality policy from a cost-benefit standpoint, they acres will be used for treatment and storage lagoons also permit maximum adaptability of national goals and a protective zone to isolate the project from to local situations. Although refinements were clearly neighboring lands. The capital cost of the project was needed, particularly clarifications in matters of estimated to be comparable to the cost of a con- responsibility and treatment required, the State- ventional waste treatment system with similar Federal water quality standards program was proceed- capabilities, but the net operating costs are estimated ing in the right direction and should be restored as by sponsors to be 50 percent lower. When the project the basic framework for the national effort to clean is complete, it will handle the effluent from a up our waterways. population of 138,000. ADEQUACY OF TECHNOLOGY The possibility of lower costs is not the sole attractive feature of land disposal. Not only does the The Commission does not believe that lack of land disposal system have a potential for reducing adequate technology is a significant impediment to BOD without producing the amount of sludges which controlling most point-sources of pollution. In a plague most conventional systems of waste treatment, separate section of this report '25 the Commission has it is expected to have advantages in the handling of concluded that existing technology is capable of dissolved solids. Sponsors of the Muskegon system producing a finished municipal effluent suitable for claim that filtration through soil provides an effective all uses with the possible exception of direct human means of removing, decomposing, recycling, or im- consumption. Less confidence is expressed with mobilizing some substances which now escape from regard to the reuse of industrial wastes, but there, most conventional treatment facilities. By using too, production process changes coordinated with agricultural land as a "living filter," they claim, the existing treatment methods can produce a reusable nutrient value of such wastes can be reclaimed for effluent from most industries within the next decade. agricultural production, rather than in the aquatic If the Commission's assessment of the capability of food chain. existing technology to produce effluents suitable for Because the Muskegon system will disperse direct reuse is correct, discharges sufficient to satisfy residuals and may be cheaper to operate than adequate- water quality standards are certainly conventional municipal treatment methods, it is often attainable. The importance of discovering new treat- cited to demonstrate the feasibility of a "no dis- ment processes should not be minimized, but the charge" policy. In the Commission's view, land Commission believes most water quality objectives disposal is by no means a complete solution for the can be achieved through creative application of country's waste disposal problem. Many design and known technology. operational problems exist which are site-specific in nature. Michigan pollution control officials are con- Adapting Technology to Special Problems cerned that the filtrate of the Muskegon drainage Land Disposal of Municipal and Industrial Wastes: fields might contain undesirable concentrations of Broad-scale land disposal of wastewater is attracting increasing interest in the United States as a substitute "See DAVIS GW and DUNHAM A (1971). Wastewater Management Project, Muskegon County, Michigan, pre- `1bid., Section 5(c) (3). pared for the National Water Commission. National "See Chapter 7, Section H, Reuse of Municipal and Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., Acces- Industrial Wastewater. sion No. PB 208 310. 71 - - - - -- - - - - -- - - - R'- Sugar beet wastes killed these fish in Ohio nitrates, chlorides, and other salts, just as do the return information about large-scale land disposal. The flows from irrigation projects in and lands. Projecting Muskegon project is not yet operational and no the Muskegon approach to larger urban communities experience has been gained on any other spray- produces estimates of enormous land areas needed for irrigation system of comparable size. Land disposal is waste disposal (448,000 acres in the case of Chicago not a panacea through which a no discharge policy and more than a million acres for New York City) may be accomplished; however, it is sufficiently which certainly would not be available nearby at attractive to merit attention as an alternative which reasonable cost. Obtaining public acceptance of large should be considered where suitable land is available 11 sewer farms" may be difficult in particular locales. at costs which make the technique economically Land disposal is further site-specific in the sense that competitive with other systems and where the waste- local soil and climatic conditions will affect both water is not required to be returned to the stream operating costs and system efficiency. In some areas, from which withdrawn. land disposal may be precluded by a need to return municipal effluents to the source of withdrawal to Aquaculture: Techniques for increasing the useful sustain the flow of streams or to satisfy vested water productivity of bodies of water by the scientific rights. application of treated wastes may also hold promise. The Commission regards land disposal as an alter- Man removes food from the sea much as crops are native treatment method, which should be evaluated grown on land and such removal requires the replace- along with other methods to determine which pro- ment of nutrients to permit harvest on a sustained duces the desired results at least cost. At the moment, yield basis. As waste treatment becomes more such evaluation is difficult because of lack of reliable sophisticated it may improve the food production 72 capability of water bodies through controlled the deep tunnel approach to cost only one-fourth to management of nutrients. The 1972 Act contains one-half as much as sewer separation, and to be only appropriate recognition of the potential value of about 60 to 85 percent as costly as holding tanks.' 8 aquaculture projects by authorizing the approval of One segment of a system to implement such a discharges which might otherwise be piohibited as program currently is being tested in Chicago. pollutants. 27 Even with storage, it must be recognized that occasional storms, beyond the design capacity of the Storm Flow Treatment: The technology of handling system, will cause overflows and discharge of un- the pollution associated with storm water overflows treated pollutants to the receiving stream. The design from combined sewers is an emerging one. For many of the Chicago system will permit such an overflow years it was believed that the solution lay in dividing about once in 5 years. However, such overflows the combined systems into separate sanitary and ordinarily occur at times when the receiving stream storm systems. While this approach is effective on a has an unusually high flow, so that the pollution selective basis, in other cities it is expensive and impact will be significantly lessened by dilution. For disruptive, and may not solve all of the problems. this reason, less costly measures, such as settling Inadvertent or intentional cross-connections between basins to collect the solid wastes, may provide all of storm and sanitary systems have to be eliminated, the pollution abatement that is economically justi- sometimes at great expense, and the "first flush" of fied. pollutants from the city streets still carries a signif- Other alternatives which demand attention are icant pollution load. If large areas of rural land instrearn aeration of streams to provide oxygen for contribute to the stream, however, the contribution reduction of BOD, extending storm sewer outfalls of urban storm flows may be so small as to be into large bodies of receiving water some distance unimportant. away from shore so that storm waters may be One solution is to store storm water runoff conveyed to points where they will not adversely overflows, whether from combined systems or affect water use, and insystern storage of peak separate storm sewer systems, so that they may be combined flows so that they may be temporarily held released at controlled rates to undergo conventional and treated later. 29 treatment. The fact that most storm flows are discharged to waterways in developed metropolitan Feedlot Runoff Control: Promising strides are being areas limits opportunities for storage in conventional made in the control of runoff from animal feedlots. impoundments created by dams. The most widely Most States now require registration of feedlots advocated approaches for storing storm waters have where the size, animal density, proximity to a been construction of concrete holding tanks at each watercourse, or method of waste disposal is likely to sewer outfall, or combination of adjacent outfalls, cause water pollution problems. Where investigation and excavation of large underground tunnels to which reveals actual or potential pollution, control measures a number of sewers are connected. The latter are required. Typically, the control consists of approach is limited to areas of favorable geologic diversion structures to prevent surface drainage from conditions, where there is no possibility of ground passing through the feedlot, plus construction of water contamination, conditions which probably retention structures to capture wastewater escaping occur under far less than half of the major cities in from the feedlot proper. The control system usually the United States. Studies in four major cities where includes procedures such as irrigation and land- favorable geological conditions were present showed spreading for emptying the contents of the retention 271972 Act, Section 318(a), 86 Stat. 877, 33 USCA Weston, Inc., West Chester, Pa. SOUTHEAST WIS- 1328(a). CONSIN REGIONAL PLANNING COMMISSION (Octo- 2 8METROPOLITAN SANITARY DISTRICT OF ber 1971). A Comprehensive Plan for the Milwaukee GREATER CHICAGO, STATE OF ILLINOIS & CITY River Watershed, Planning Report No. 13. Southeast OF CHICAGO (January 1972). Development of a Flood Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission, Waukesha, and Pollution Control Plan for the Chicagoland Area- Wise. Evaluation Report of Alternative Systems. Metropolitan Computer regulation of combined sewer flows has dem- Sanitary District of Greater Chicago, Chicago, 111. ROY F onstrated a capability for elimination of more than half WESTON, INC (August 1970). Combined Sewer Over- of the peak period overflows at reasonable costs in flow Abatement Alternatives - Washington, D.C. Roy F. Detroit, Minneapolis, and Seattle. 73 structures. For roofed or indoor feeding stations, allowing his dog to destroy stock, but there are still land-spreading of wastes or lagooning are commonly many States in which no one has authority to do used. Such collection and land disposal systems seem anything about it if the same landowner allows his adequate to handle most feedlot waste problems. topsoil to erode away into the public waters. The Another possible control strategy is the employment collective 'effect of this environmental impact is of land use regulation to restrict the siting of feedlots extremely serious not only to the landowners but to to areas where they will cause minimal environmental the public at large. Acceptable soil loss limits should harm. be established and enforced by existing soil conserva- tion or pollution control agencies, or by other State Control of Nonpoint-Sources agencies capable of administering such a program." The methods for controlling nonpoint pollution COSTS sources are in a more primitive stage of development Estimating the costs of pollution control measures than the techniques for remedying point-sources. By needed to achieve compliance with specific water and large, pollution caused by such processes as soil quality standards involves a compounding of un- erosion, mineralization, land runoff, acid drainage, certainties. The target is vague and it is moving. and oil spillage is not susceptible to control through Under the circumstances, it is possible only to make conventional abatement methods; however, some order- of-magnitude estimates. nonpoint pollution is preventable by exercise of The Commission estimates that expenditures for control over contributing elements or activities. For water pollution control in the period 1973 to 1983 to example, earthmoving in connection with construc- meet existing approved water quality standards estab- tion is subject to stringent erosion control restrictions lished under the 1965 Act 100 percent of the time in some States, and the President has recommended would be about $206 billion in 1972 dollars, exclu- Federal legislation to encourage extension of such sive of the costs of controlling pollution from such controls to all States, with Federal enforcement if the nonpoint-sources as agricultural runoff and soil States fail to aCt.3 0 The President's recommendations erosion, mine drainage, and watercraft wastes. This 31 were partially incorporated in the 1972 Act. figure would cover the costs for new or replacement Similarly, pollution resulting from improper use of facilities and additional operating and maintenance pesticides and fertilizers could be controlled by costs for municipalities and industries; however, there banning, restricting, or requiring more careful are alternatives that can be considered for specific appreciation of potential pollutants. However, such situations that may result in substantial reduction of direct regulation involves a difficult balancing of costs. economic and environmental values. The 1972 Act Meeting the standards by 1983 would require 32 wisely provides for studies of pesticide problems, expenditures of about $21 billion annually, which prohibits discharge of toxic chemical, biological, and would be unprecedented in the Nation's pollution radioactive wastes, 33 and provides for the establish- control history. This amount is about on the same 31 ment of toxic effluent standards. order of magnitude as total annual expenditures for It is not so much that techniques are not known highways by Federal, State, and local governments. for direct control to minimize effects of other Moreover, the Federal cost of $126 billion would be nonpoint-sources, such as soil erosion from agricul- 50 percent greater than the amount of all Federal tural land, as it is a matter of laissez faire land use expenditures on all water projects to date. 36 An policy, A landowner may be taken to court for undertaking of this magnitude would be required if permitting a field to grow up to noxious weeds or point discharges are to meet water quality standards established under the 1965 Act 100 percent of the "NIXON, Richard (1972). The President's 1972 Environ- time. The Commission is not convinced, however, mental Program. Weekly Compilation of Presidential that the social and economic benefits of reaching 100 Documents 8(7):218-227. February 14, 1972. percent compliance will justify the added increment 1972 Act, Section 304(e), 86 Stat. 852, 33 USCA 1314(e). "The State of Iowa currently has such a program. See Iowa "Ibid., Section 104(l)(2), 86 Stat. 822, 33 USCA Code 467A.42-53 (1971). 1254(l)(2). "The Commission's staff estimated total Federal expendi- "Ibid., Section 301(f), 86 Stat. 846, 33 USCA 1311(f). tures on all water projects to date to be $87.7 billion in "Ibid., Section 307(a), 86 Stat. 856, 33 USCA 1317(a). 1972 dollars. See Table 16-4. 74 TABLE 4-1. - Estimate of total costs of abatement of point-sources of pollution, 1973-83' Expenditures Required (billions of dollars at 1972 price levels) To Meet Water Quality Standards Established Under the 1965 Act To Achieve "Best Item 100% of the Time Known Technology" Municipal Collection sewers $ 40 $ 40 Wastewater treatment plants 15 40 Storm water systems 113 234 Added operation & maintenance costs to 1983 16 38 TOTAL S184 $352 Industrial Capital investment $ 10 S 49 Added operation & maintenance costs to 1983 12 59 TOTAL $ 22 $108 TOTAL $206 $460 Summarized from Table 16-12, Chapter 16, and excluding costs of controlling waste heat and agricultural and other nonpoint-sources of pollution. of costs required. It should be noted that more than of the cost of moving from the present water quality half of the costs would be for control of pollution standards approach to a no discharge policy is from storm water in urban areas, the economic or provided by Figure 4-1 prepared by the U.S. Environ- social value of which may vary greatly between mental Protection Agency, which shows how costs different places. Before a 100 percent compliance increase with great rapidity as the level of treatment program is undertaken, a careful analysis should be increases. More than half of the costs of total made to determine the usefulness of a uniform pollution control would be expended to remove the national storm water treatment program in compari- last I percent of pollutants. son with its enormous costs and its adverse impacts In controlling water pollution, benefits are subject on other resources. to severely diminishing returns. As indicated on the As indicated in Table 4-1, the Commission graph, to clean up the last I percent of pollution estimates that implementation of a pollution abate- involves a doubling of the very large costs of ment policy calling for the use of the "best known" eliminating the first 99 percent. These enormous technology for treatment of all municipal and costs of achieving the no discharge goal must be industrial wastes by 1983 would require expenditures viewed in terms of the sacrifices society would be totaling about $460 billion through 1983. Implemen- obliged to make in other social demands such as tation of a true "no discharge" policy if, in fact, such housing, education, medical care, slum clearance, full a policy could be implemented, would undoubtedly employment, and price stability. Moreover, large cost several times as much. For this massive invest- amounts of scarce natural resources and energy would ment, the Nation would realize only marginal gains in have to be expended to clean up the last increment of the uses that could be made of its waters. Some idea pollution. Finally, the expenditure of such additional 75 Figure 4-1. -Total control costs as a function of efflu- estimate of the benefits and the costs of meeting ent control levels water quality standards. The Commission commends the Congress for re- Index of quiring studies of the environmental impact, and the Control Costs economic and social costs and benefits of achieving 37 the objectives of the 1972 Act, and for authorizing 100 100-1 a thorough study of all aspects of the 1983 goal of reducing waste discharges to whatever level is economically achievable with the best available tech- nology.3 8 It is unfortunate that such studies were not undertaken prior to enactment of the 1972 Act itself. We fear that the Nation has already become com- 50 99 1 mitted to an enormously costly water quality goal 40 98 with negative environmental and social ramifications. 30 95 STRATEGIES FOR ELIMINATING POLLUTION 20 85 Unacceptable levels of pollution are encouraged when society does not require dischargers of wastes to include the costs of adequate waste disposal as a 0 25 50 75 100 part of their cost of doing business. Because use of water as a waste receptor has been free, the polluter Percent reduction of pollution has been allowed to shift these costs to other water users who must accept them in the form of impair- Source: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ment of the quality of the resource. The economic AGENCY (1972). Ae Economics of Clean essence of pollution control is the creation of Water, Vol. L U.S. Government Printing mechanisms to correct the misallocation of waste Office, Washington, D. C. p. 151. disposal costs. The issue is how to do it. Compelling payments by polluters to compensate parties injured by pollution is one technique for large amounts of resources to eliminate the last forcing the polluter to assume this cost of his increment would probably have serious offsetting, economic activity, either by indemnifying, injured adverse waste disposal impacts on the Nation's air and parties or by modifying his activities to reduce or land. These adverse impacts on land and air may be eliminate the pollution. The traditional method for far more damaging to the environment than the compelling such payments has been the law suit to retention of the last I percent of water pollution, recover damages for private nuisance. This approach particularly in areas where the self-purifying capacity continues to have great utility in particular cases; of water is great or where other uses of water are not however, its after-the-fact character combined with adversely affected. its cost make private litigation an insufficient frame- On the other hand, polluted water itself causes work on which to construct a general control substantial economic costs. There are losses in income program. The need for some form of broad-scale from the closing or curtailment of commercial and governmental action is commonly conceded. sport fisheries, costs to manufacturers of preproces- Government may employ two different, but not sin-g excessively polluted waters for industrial purposes mutually exclusive, strategies to produce the or of resorting to higher-cost processes because of necessary reassignment of pollution costs. One polluted water, costs to municipalities and others of purifying water supplies to meet drinking water '7 1972 Act, Section 305(b)(1)(D), 86 Stat. 854, 33 USCA standards, and losses of potential recreation. There 1315(b)(1)(D). are also costs to society at large from ecological "Ibid., Section 315, 86 Stat. 875, 33 USCA 1325, which 95 f5@@8@5 damage to lakes, rivers, estuaries, and other water establishes a National Study Commission and authorizes bodies. Losses and costs associated with not abating $ 15 million for a thorough study of the economic, social, and environmental effects of achieving or not achieving pollution, while difficult to compute, are nevertheless the effluent limitations and goals set forth in the 1972 very real, and must be taken into account in. any Act. 76 approach is to use economic inducements to bring and third, they do not always achieve the desired about desired changes in the disposal of wastes. results. Regulation, the other approach, involves the applica- Subsidies to stop polluting involve tacit recognition tion of legal force and economic sanctions to compel of a right to destroy the quality of water that does compliance with established norms. Traditionally, not exist if pollution is defined as an interference Federal, State, and local governments have relied with the use of water by others. Federal subsidies for almost exclusively on a regulatory approach. Because pollution abatement unfairly deflect pollution con- the problem is economic in origin, economic induce- trol costs from the consumers of the polluter's goods ments also deserve attention as a means of encour- and services to the general taxpayer. This deflection is aging corrective action. not only inequitable, it promotes uneconomic alloca- Of course, both economic sanctions and economic tion of resources. Subsidizing pollution control incentives will more effectively eliminate pollution expenditures gives benefited producers competitive 40 when they are elements of a total strategy of water advantage in pricing their products in the market, quality management developed as a part of overall and encourages overproduction of their products and land and water resource planning. underproduction of other nonpolluting products. Subsidies are also uneconomic in the sense that they Economic Correctives provide a disincentive to search for nonpolluting Some economists believe that correctly applied least-cost alternatives. Finally, subsidies to industry economic inducements are the best way to achieve do not induce changes in waste disposal practices prompt and lasting results in cleaning up pollution. 39 unless the payment is large enough to make the Under this philosophy, polluters could either be performance desired less costly than other alterria- provided with incentive payments or subsidies to lives. Subsidies might, however, be justified in some control their wastes or they can be charged for their instances to soften the impact of regulation and thus pollution. Properly tailored, payments and charges serve the limited purpose of accelerating changes are equally capable of correcting a pollution problem. which already have been mandated. The most important difference between the two is Construction Grants: The early Federal grant pro- that payments spread the cost of pollution control gram to assist municipalities in the construction of measures among a broader group (the taxpaying waste treatment facilities has been an example of a public) while charges force the polluter to assume the subsidy program which consistently failed to achieve costs, and pass them on to the consumers of his goods the anticipated water quality improvement objectives. or services. The program was not funded sufficiently to be Subsidies: Historically, the payment approach to effective, limitations spelled out in the statutes water pollution control has been used in a variety of produced serious inequities, and by frequent increases forms, all of which involve partial subsidies. Examples in grant percentages the program rewarded procrasti- of partial payments (subsidies) for pollution control nators. The 1972 Act attempted to remedy the include tax incentives such as investment credits and funding deficiency by establishing higher grant levels accelerated depreciation, research and development financed with contract authority which would not be grants to industries, Small Business Administration subject to the vagaries of annual appropriations acts. loans to firms for pollution control equipment, and As pointed out earlier, however, less than half of the grants for municipal waste treatment plant construc- 1973 and 1974 authorization has been made available tion. The Commission believes subsidies may be for allotment. The 1972 Act also attempted to necessary for a short time to achieve prompt correc- remove prior inequities by authorizing reimbursement tion of a major backlog of need and to avoid serious of a portion of the costs of facilities that had not hardships while doing so. Over the long term, received the full amount of Federal aid authorized however, the use of subsidies to achieve pollution abatement has three serious drawbacks. First, they Such a subsidy, on a State or local basis, may be justified are premised on an unsound and unfair policy; as a means of regional self-help, to prevent an industry from moving elsewhere, with resultant economic losses to second, they do not promote economic efficiency; the region involved which would create a greater burden "For discussion of this point, see KRIER, JE (197 1). The than the cost of the subsidy. The local tax credits Pollution Problem and Legal Institutions: A Conceptual provided by Washington State law is an example of such a Overview, UCLA Law Rev. 18:429. program that has been successful. 77 under the earlier programs but reimbursement author- reason why the actual cost of protecting the environ- izations have not yet been fully implemented by ment against the harmful effects of human sewage appropriation or allocation. should not be borne proportionally by all contribu- The grant program is a necessary and main step to tors of wastes. Properly calculated, sewer charges to achieve a timely national water cleanup, but still urban households for ordinary treatment processes suffers from the inequity of deflecting up to 75 should be a relatively small proportion of the average percent of the capital cost of sewage interceptor and family's budget .4 '2 Those who are unable to pay treatment facilities from local users to national should be assisted by adequate income maintenance taxpayers. Any construction grant program is con- programs rather than by burdening the pollution trary to the principle that the cost of pollution abatement program with income redistribution objec- control should be borne by the persons directly tives. benefited by the goods or services produced by the Congress has not sought to justify construction activity causing pollution. Under the "polluter pay" grants on income redistribution grounds. The basis principle espoused by the Commission, users of for such grants has been the pragmatic goal of getting municipal sewers and waste treatment services should the job done. Federal grants have been aimed at ultimately pay the full cost of controlling the accelerating needed local action, but the program pollution they create. The Federal grant program is hasn't worked the way it was intended to. necessary in order to achieve clean water on a national scale within a relatively short time, but the Deficiencies in Prior Construction Grant Programs - Commission believes that this program should be A review of the 15-year history of the prior construc- terminated at the earliest date consistent with the tion grant programs indicates that some cities have achievement of the national goal. delayed construction while waiting for Federal funds One rationalization of a continuing construction to become available or for grant percentages to grant program financed by the Federal income tax increase. Progress on some facilities has been carried holds that it would be a socially regressive allocation on at inefficient rates of construction because Federal of costs to rely solely on user charges to support the funds have not been made available as promised. One financing of waste disposal facilitie S.4 1 This, it is General Accounting Office report observes that the argued, would saddle lower income groups with a majority of States are constructing waste treatment disproportionate share of the cost of cleaning up facilities "at a rate consistent with the availability of waters to make them available for recreational use by Federal funds. ,43 An illustration which could be the more affluent. Funding obtained from the Fed- cited is the experience of the Ohio River Valley Water eral income tax is generally a less regressive source of Sanitation Commission (ORSANCO) which came into payment than utility user charges. The Commission being on June 30, 1948, the date the first Federal believes this fact has particular significance only when Water Pollution Control Act was approved. At that the heavy cost of catching up with generations of time, I percent of the sewage in the Ohio River Basin neglect is sought to be paid in a short time. Over the was treated. ORSANCO operated on the thesis that longer term, however, income redistribution and cities would take action if there were specific pollution abatement goals should be considered ob- standards which could be publicly demonstrated as jectively and independently. There is no adequate necessary to achieve ends. The standards permitted 4'NADER TASK FORCE (197 1). Water Wasteland, Nader lead to substantial percentage increases in sewerage Task Force Report on Water Pollution, David R. Zwick & charges but, as indicated in the Panel report, they would Marcy Benstock [editors] . Center for the Study of still be far less than charges for other services. Only in the Responsive Law, Washington, D.C. p. XVI-22. event that unnecessarily stringent requirements for "on the average, sewer charges are currently by far the municipal waste treatment were imposed would the lowest of all public service or utility fees, much less than resulting costs place a serious burden upon the average the cost of water, electricity, or telephone service. See household. PANEL ON WATER POLLUTION CONTROL (1971). Water Pollution Control in the UniteO States, prepared 43 COMPTROLLER GENERAL OF THE UNITED STATES for the National Water Commission. National Technical (1969). Examination Into the Effectiveness of the Con- Information Service, Springfield, Va., Accession No. PB struction Grant Program for Abating, Controlling, and 212 139. p. 74. The Commission recognizes that in some Preventing Water Pollution, B-166506. U.S. General instances the adoption of its recommendations would Accounting Office, Washington, D.C. p. 15. 78 alternatives -technical, adiriinistrative, and financial- A Grant Program Terminating in 1983 - The to be adopted, and led to an understanding and demand for a cleanup of polluted waters on a acceptance of responsibility by local interests. By the national scale and at an early date can only be met by time Federal grants became available in 1956, some a Federal construction grant program which is ade- 55 percent of the sewage was treated. Since then, quately and reliably funded. The Federal grant however, progress has slowed as cities waited their program has also created too many inequities and turn for Federal grants. expectations to be terminated summarily at this time. A further example of the inadequacies of the prior Therefore, the Commission believes that the program construction grant program is evidenced by the should be continued until the Nation has eliminated response of the City of New York to a Federal law- the present backlog of needed facilities and has suit charging the City with violating water quality fulfilled the reasonable expectations of communities standards. In the public hearing the City pointed out currently relying on Federal funding, including reim- that the Federal Government had provided only 3 to bursements. The 1972 Act wisely attempted to 4 percent of the funds for the City's treatment plant restore equity to the Federal grant program by construction program, instead of the 55 percent providing partial reimbursement for communities promised in the law .44 which acted early and at their own cost to clean up A number of other deficiencies in the grant their waters. The Commission believes that Federal program can be cited. Like most such restricted- grant policy should encourage local governments to purpose programs, the Federal grant program has not act promptly and should not reward procrastination. stimulated the search for least-cost solutions, because This policy can be implemented by appropriating it encourages municipalities to favor projects that will money to finance the reimbursements, by setting a qualify for Federal funding rather than the most realizable goal for completion of the program, and by economic solutions. The 1972 Act further accentu- making a determination to cut off further grant ates this problem by limiting the discretion of the eligibility thereafter. Administrator of the Environmental Protection The grant cutoff date must be related to the level Agency to prescribe no less than secondary treatment of funding which the Congress and the President for all municipal waste treatment. determine can be appropriated and spent to achieve Prior to the passage of the 1972 Act, some the clean waters goal. The Commission urges that this municipalities assisted by the construction grant goal be accomplished within 10 years if this can be program offered urban industries waste treatment done without impairing programs which the Congress services at unrealistically low costs. finds more important to the national welfare. Any Congress has attempted to eliminate this deficiency cutoff date will create some inequities but the by requiring, as a precedent for any grant, that Commission believes these will be outweighed by the provision be made for industrial users of the treat- benefits from putting the Nation's municipal waste ment works to pay their proportionate share of disposal systems on a sound tong-term econon-dc and operation and maintenance costs of the works plus fiscal footing. The establishment of the grant cutoff the construction costs of the portion of the plant date will provide an incentive for cities to expedite allocable to the treatment of their wastes to the construction of treatment plants, so as to qualify for extent attributable to the Federal share of the cost of the grants, and will therefore result in a much more construction .45 effective program. After the cutoff date, responsi- In summary, the construction grant program has had bility for construction, maintenance, operation, a mixed effect as an incentive to local action and in repair, replacement, and improvement of municipal some cases has been implemented with uneconomic sewage disposal systems should be borne by local results. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act government and paid for by user charges. should be amended further and administered in such a During the period the program continues, its way as to remedy these deficiencies. effectiveness can be greatly enhanced if the historic unevenness of funding can be eliminated, so that 14NEW YORK TIMES (August 30,1972). City Blames U.S. States and municipalities can plan construction proj- for Dirty Water, Says Promises of Funds for Cleanup are ects on a rational basis. Underfunding of grants Unfulfilled. p. 40. impedes progress toward achieving the goals of the 1972 Act, Section 204(b)(1), 86 Stat. 836, 33 USCA water quality standards program and cuts out much 1294(b)(1). of the ground beneath enforcement proceedings 79 against both industries and municipalities. The con- Several European nations have attempted to use or tract authority provisions of the 1972 Act could are considering using effluent charges along with provide a basis for at least partially solving this other types of service charges to provide funds for problem, if adequate amounts are authorized and managing water quality. 4 ' A system of effluent made available. charges was authorized in 1969 in the State of Federal policy on grants should specifically require Vermont to provide pollution-reduction incentives to that municipalities shall have established cost-based dischargers who cannot comply with the terms of pricing of all future municipal waste collection and their discharge perniits to change their processes, but treatment services through local assessments and user the State has not yet been able to work out the 49 charges by the time the cutoff date is reached. Full details and put it into effect. development of regional waste management systerns To be effective, effluent charges would have to be should be encouraged where they can lead to better set at levels required to bring about a reduction in resource management, environmental protection, and discharge of pollutants sufficient to pern-dt estab- economies of scale. Grant funds should not be lished water quality standards to be met. Such disbursed to construct facilities which lack cost variable effluent charges present administrative prob- effectiveness from the standpoint of regional lems and could in some cases permit costs to be problem-solving. inequitably imposed upon a downstream user of The points enumerated above are addressed with polluted waters. These problems may be avoided and varying effectiveness by the construction grant pro- the same results achieved by a system of regulations visions of the 1972 Act. No cutoff date was estab- adequately enforced by injunctive relief and civil and lished, but the Act provides a foundation for eventual criminal penalties. The Commission would be op- termination of construction grants by requiring that posed to establishing effluent charges under circum- each applicant for Federal grant funds adopt a charge stances where they might permit the destruction of system for all of its waste treatment service that will the public usefulness of a body of water in exchange pay for replacement of facilities as well as for their for the payment of a fee. operation and maintenance. 46 Assertions that effluent charges will result in better Effluent Charges: An effluent charge is a direct control of pollution are as yet unproved. Where charge for pollution which is permitted to be dis- roughly the same or better results, in terms of water charged into a natural watercourse. Effluent charges quality improvement, can be achieved through regula- are designed to remedy the misallocation of resources tion as through effluent charges, it is appropriate to which occurs when certain users are allowed to continue our efforts to refine regulatory techniques. impose on others a part of the costs associated with User and Service Charges: A user charge is a charge their use." Such external diseconomies are undesir- for the discharge of pollutants into a waste disposal able in an economy which is otherwise controlled by system. User charges have long provided the basis for the marketplace, because they distort the prices of revenue bond financing for many types of public goods and services in which water use is a cost factor. facilities in most local communities. Municipal waste Effluent charges are designed to remedy this defect treatment, with its captive customers, is an ideal by imposing a cost on polluters based on the harm enterprise to put on a self-sustaining basis. Both caused by their wastes. If the charges are set amortized capital costs and operating costs are easily correctly, they provide an incentive to waste pro- apportioned among consumers of the system's serv- ducers to reduce their discharge of wastes or else ices through user charges, including assessments indemnify society so substantially as to have it elect against new users to pay for their share of the cost of to suffer the pollution and enjoy the compensation. the facility which serves them. Such a public utility If society is dissatisfied with the compensation and approach to municipal waste treatment is preferable the pollution continues, the charges should be set under both economic and equity criteria and it is now higher. 4 11 [bid. 4 6jbid. 49U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 47See generally KNEESE, Allen V & BOWER, Blair T Water Pollution Control Research Series (1972). Develop- (1968). Managing Water Quality: Economics, Technol- ment of a State Effluent Charge System, Vermont ogy, Institutions. Published for Resources for the Future, Department of Water Resources, Project No- 16110 GNT - Inc., by The Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, Md. 02/72. 80 M 0 A A VNIa"";a@"; lot A LO-R. 'W'p, 7 .It :iw Effluent eharges would have to be set high enough to prevent environmental degradation in practice in many cities where a user service charge volume and strength of wastes has proved to be an reflects the cost of the services provided. This is the effective incentive to reducing industrial waste- principle in the Ruhr Basin in Germany where a user loads.5' The Commission believes this practice charge for service provided is imposed to raise money should be encouraged, with charges for effluents at for construction, operation, and maintenance of such levels as to encourage dischargers to install facilities, and in cities in the United States such as pretreatment facilities or to change processes so as to Philadelphia, Los Angeles, Detroit, and Baltimore. reduce wastes which might overtax the capacity or Some cities, such as Racine, Wisconsin, and East are incompatible with the processes of the treatment Chicago, Indiana, have legislative policy which en- plant. The Commission recognizes, however, that courages industrial connections and uses a four-point there are severe difficulties and high costs involved in control to determine if industrial wastes are accepted administering any system of charges based on quality for treatment: (1) it must be cheaper for the city to of effluents. Such a system requires a level of detailed treat the wastewater than industry; (2) the waste- information about waste discharges and their effects water must be compatible with the municipal waste on other water uses that is still not completely in the treatment plant either with or without prior available in many areas, and a very complex ac- treatment; (3) monitoring controls and effective counting system, to properly assess the charges. measures to prevent concentrated discharges (slugs) that might temporarily overload or bypass the treat- ment plant must be provided; and (4) industry must 'OU.S. COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY pay the added cost of the treatment. (1971). Environmental Quality, The Second Annual Such variable pricing of municipal collection and Report of the Council on Environmental Quality. U.S. treatment services to industrial dischargers based on Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. p. 137. 81 Regulation regulatory responses appropriate for dealing with For the reasons stated above a practical and extra-State problems are voluntary arrangements effective pollution abatement program must be based among the several States and creation of a Federal on a legal regulatory system which effectively pro- authority. Both were proposed in the mid-1930's, but hibits dischargers from disposing of wastes which the use of interstate compacts developed ahead of have received inadequate treatment. One writer has Federal regulation. After an initial flowering, the described legal regulation as "mutual coercion, interstate arrangement has failed to realize the hope mutually agreed upon."' ' For such a regulatory of its advocates and has gradually faded in relative system to work, it must impose understandable and importance in the face of escalating Federal activity. enforceable limitations on all dischargers and must The Federal role, as created in the first legislation find and penalize failure to comply with such in 1948, was primarily a supportive one. Federal limitations fairly but relentlessly. The power to funds and technical assistance were applied to regulate point-sources of water pollution is possessed strengthen local, State, and interstate water quality by a multitude of local governments, by specialized programs. The States responded unevenly to the agencies in all 50 States, by a handfull of interstate stirmili of Federal assistance and the threat of Federal agencies, and by the Federal Government. Although intervention. Some States developed strong aggressive for some years public regulation has been the programs while others languished. When this style of prevalent means of attempting to cause dischargers to Federal involvement did not produce desired results, improve their performance in waste treatment, the the Federal Government embarked on a series of basic ingredients for an effective system of legal steps expanding Federal activity. regulation have only recently been created in most The first was the Federal involvement in financing States and at the Federal level. For years Federal and municipal treatment plants under the 1956 amend- interstate pollution control programs were not well ments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. This designed to utilize coercive regulatory techniques. At program also proved to be inadequate and Congress the State and local level, the potential for strong adopted the Water Quality Act of 1965, which enforcement has long existed, but in most areas only stepped up Federal financing and for the first time in the past few years has it been utilized effectively. laid the framework for a coordinated national pro- The history of pollution control in the United gram of water quality regulation. Under the 1965 States reveals that public regulation has passed Act, the States were encouraged to create receiving through a series of evolutionary stages. Public regula- water standards for all waters. The standards are tion started out as a strictly local enterprise in which intended to be sufficiently high to protect existing agencies concerned with water supply, health, sanita- and future uses. Through regulations adopted in tion, and other related activities carried out modest implementing the 1965 Act and conditions imposed programs within their own limited domains. In the in the disbursement of Federal funds, Federal adniin- early 1900's, as water pollution worsened and need istrators sought to create a corollary national policy of for some centralized regulation became apparent, best practicable treatment of all wastes discharged to various State departments whose work involved water water. Both legislative and administrative actions qualityImatters were given regulatory powers. When placed severe strains on State-Federal relations in separate, uncoordinated regulation by several State water quality control." agencies proved unequal to the task of handling the Federal pressure coupled with an awakening of growing size and complexity of the pollution problem, grassroots concern for environmental values unques- the seeds were sown for development of the modern tionably has acted to spur most State programs to centralized State pollution control agency. greatly improved regulatory performance. Neverthe- About this same time, State pollution control less, impatience with results being achieved has led to officials began to recognize that some problems on far-reaching Federal legislation which changes dra- interstate and border waters were beyond their matically the pollution control role of the Federal control because they originated in other States. Two Government. See U.S. CONGRESS, House, Committee on Public Works (1971). Water Pollution Control Legislation-1971 (oversight of Existing Program), Seriat 92-10, 92nd 51HARDIN G (1968). The Tragedy of the Commons. Congress, 1st Session. U.S. Government Printing Office, Science 162(3859):1243-1248, December 13, 1968. Washington, D.C, pp. 266,400, 423, 43S. 82 Improved Planning wastewater treatment and municipal and industrial Control of water pollution will increasingly be water supply. As another example, planning which accomplished through continuous management of fails to consider total environmental impacts in water quality within basins and other regional or choosing waste disposal methods incurs the risk of metropolitan frameworks. Creation of such manage- diverting a waste from one medium where it causes ment systems heightens the need for comprehensive slight environmental harm to another medium where water quality planning. Without concerted planning its impact is severe. In an absolute sense, a "no dis- effort, attainment of water quality goals will be charge" goal for waterborne pollutants could repre- delayed and costly. sent an institutionalization of this failure. One past deficiency with some water quality For example, an arbitrary decision to eliminate planning has been its narrow focus. This deficiency discharge of waste material into watercourses will has manifested itself in several forms. First, the search require tertiary or advanced waste treatment proc- for alternatives has sometimes been foreclosed by the esses that will require more use of construction arbitrary imposition of a single strategy or method of materials, more power and chemicals for operation, control. For example, a requirement that all point- and more sludge that will have to be put somewhere. sources of discharge within a basin employ secondary If it is burned, it may pollute the atmosphere. If it is treatment processes precludes consideration of other placed on land, it may pollute ground water basins. alternatives for achieving the desired water quality at The same problem arises if discharge of waste heat lower costs. A "no discharge" goal would likewise into watercourses is prohibited. Total recycling of cooling water through cooling towers or ponds will inhibit achievement of the least costly method of cause an evaporative loss twice that from cooling in achieving water quality standards. To be fully effec- the receiving water body. The increase in evaporative tive, planning must include adequate and continuous loss will cause a reduction in the flow of water monitoring of water quality and full consideration of downstream; thus, where maintenance of low flow is all alternatives for achieving specific goals, including critical, the no discharge policy creates problems. such approaches as regulatory changes, pricing tech- Also, more power will be required for operation of niques, regional systems, controlled use of the capac- the cooling towers, with greater depletion of fuel ity of flowing water to purify itself, low flow reserves, more solid wastes to be disposed of, and augmentation, land use controls, as well as different larger requirements for chemicals. 54 Thus, uniform methods and levels of waste treatment. The advantage policies to eliminate discharges into water without of preserving the widest range of planning options is first determining their effect and the consequences of demonstrated in the Delaware estuary, where em- alternatives to reduce or eliminate the impact may ployment of a mix of alternative approaches led to very well, in fact, cause a much greater deterioration the adoption of a plan to achieve the requisite quality of the total environment. level at two-thirds the estimated cost of uniform One other deficiency in a few existing water secondary treatment. quality plans has been a lack of coordination between A second deficiency stems from the planning of planning activities and the information needs of water quality programs in isolation from related pollution control programs. Long-range plans fre- planning activities. Water quality planning should be a quently do not provide adequate guidance in day-to- composite of water supply planning, other water day regulatory activities or help with decisions as to resource planning, sewage disposal and storm water the siting of plants. Large-scale and long-term plan- drainage planning, land use planning, and planning ning efforts need to be continued and improved, but efforts of other environmental agencies handling air for the next few years extra emphasis should be quality and solid waste problems. 53 Coordination of placed on the development of immediate -impact water quality planning with other types of planning is plans for local basins or metropolitan areas. difficult, but failing to recognize and consider the Water quality planning has a long history of interrelationships will retard the effectiveness of all undersupport but the importance of better planning affected programs. For example, the future likelihood is beginning to be recognized in State and Federal of an extensive need to reuse treated wastewater budgets. A major investment is needed to assure that makes important the integration of planning for See Chapter 10 for discussion of this point. 'See Chapter 5, Section G. 83 adequate planning underlies the proposed accelera- price levels) were financed by Federal funds. 57 In tion in pollution control measures. To use planning recent years, with increased public demand for clean moneys most effectively requires careful identifica- water, the Federal Government has assumed a larger tion of rational planning units; renewed commitment portion of the financing burden. to interagency coordination; development of a better One solution to the problem of allocating the costs system for the collection, storage, and retrieval of of waste treatment is to treat it as a collective one water quality data; the refinement of arrangements to and to rely extensively on the Federal income tax receive public inputs; creation of procedures for system to provide the necessary funds. To the extent periodic program assessment; and a number of other that the national interest is served and our common matters discussed in more detail in Chapter 10. physical and mental well-being are at stake, this The 1972 Act attempts to cover all of these approach has some merit. Indeed, only Federal matters and more. It authorizes-$300 million for funding is capable of raising the large amounts needed grants to support the development of areawide waste to implement a nationwide clean up on a timely basis. treatment management plans in urban and other National action also minimizes obstacles to invest- regions with substantial water quality problems5 5 ments in water quality projects which have been and $200 million for basin planning under the Water raised because of local fiscal constraints and political Resources Planning Act .16 The areawide waste treat- resistance. However, removing the investment burden ment management concept called for in the 1972 Act from the local level has the disadvantage of blurring represents a laudable effort to overcome cost- important cost-benefit decisions that are most effectiveness deficiencies encountered in the prior squarely faced when both the benefits and costs Federal construction grant program. Under the new accrue to an identifiable community or region, and arrangement, Federal waste treatment grants can go decisionmakers know they are spending their own only to a designated waste treatment management money and not someone else's. Also, the historical agency which must have the capability to implement variability in Federal appropriations for the small the approved plan for the area within its jurisdiction. portion of pollution control programs which have Unfortunately, the 1972 Act succumbed to the been borne by the Federal Government to date has temptation to prescribe the nature and form of local impaired orderly development of the program. Ap- organization. Federal prescription of local agency propriations lagged behind authorizations in two- form is unsound in concept and may serve to inhibit thirds of the years since the Federal construction or warp desired areawide action. The form of grant program was initiated in Fiscal Year 1957, and i@trastate planning and operating agencies should be less than three-fourths of the $4.3 billion authorized determined by the States. Handling of interstate basin through 1971 was appropriated. Futhermore, less planning through the Water Resources Council as than half of the contract authority authorized by the provided in the 1972 Act should assure integration Congress in the 197 2 Acts a has been allocated by the with other water resources planning as recommended Administrator. The legality of withholding these by the Commission. funds is being tested in the courts and the U.S. District Court in Washington, D.C. on May 8, 1973 WHO SHOULD PAY? ruled that impoundment is illegal. An even more serious difficulty with the early The total costs of eliniinating water pollution are Federal construction grant programs lies in the staggering. However, realization of the magnitude of inequity of forcing taxpayers in communities which overall costs should not obscure a fundamental issue had acted on their own to remedy local pollution that must be resolved. What is to be the formula for problems to help pay the costs for other communities assessing costs among the citizenry? Until recently, which have been dilatory. This inequity will be Federal financing played a minor role in pollution remedied if the reimbursements authorized by the control. Of total capital expenditures for public waste 1972 Acts 9 are implemented. treatment facilities and sewers from the time records "PANEL ON WATER POLLUTION CONTROL (1971). began to be kept through June 30, 1971 only $4.9 Water Pollution Control in the United States, prepared billion out of a total of $84 billion (adjusted to 1972 for the National Water Commission. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., Accession No. PB 212 139. p. 17. 1972 Act, Section 208, 86 Stat. 839, 33 USCA 1288. "Section 207, 86 Stat. 839, 33 USCA 1287. 16Ibid., Section 209, 86 Stat. 843, 33 USCA 1289. "'Section 206, 86 Stat. 838, 33 USCA 1286. 84 "T -1; 4 t-111, 404 -P q p 4 f V Al Ak "Fish-eye camera view of secondary clarifier at Des Moines, Iowa, sewage treatment plant The most equitable and economically efficient treatment plant construction or cases where other association of cost with benefits over the long term social policies countervail against it, the Commission will be produced by assigning the costs of preventing urges consistent application of this principle in water pollution to those whose wastes cause pollu- distributing the costs of water quality management. tion. Under such a "polluter pay" principle, in- dustries and municipalities would be expected to WHO SHOULD REGULATE? assume the economic burden of controlling their wastes. Under our econon-dc system, costs thus Regulation involves several different types of incurred will be passed along to consumers in the governmental activity. The three clearest phases of form of higher prices for goods and services. regulation are policy formulation, translation of Thus, the ultimate user of the products and policies into programs, and program administration. services will pay the costs of preventing the pollution All. three need not be concentrated in one level of which his consumption would otherwise cause. In government, and they often are not so concentrated. nearly all cases the "polluter pay" principle yields Analysis of the current national effort in regulating both the fairest and the least-cost results. Except in pollution shows that the formulation of broad policy situations like the present backlog in municipal waste on national water quality has been largely taken over 85 by the Federal Government. Under the 1972 Act, cumulative and are felt over long distances. Marked responsibility for general design of programs is also differences in local water conditions and pollution assumed by the Federal Government, but responsi- sources render unproductive any regulatory scheme bility for implementation, planning, and program which pursues nationwide uniformity as a major administration is assigned to the States. All responsi- program goal. bilities may be assumed by Federal authorities if the The regulatory approach needed is one with States do not perform them satisfactorily. Thus, on sufficient flexibility to allow adjustment of policies the surface it appears Congress did not intend the and programs to fit a wide variety of local situations. new water quality program to be a Federal under- The effectiveness of such regulation is enhanced if the taking, but rather intended a joint venture in which decisionmaker is familiar with the problems and the implementation of a national water quality policy is social and economic milieu in which they arise, and carried out by State and local agencies within has freedom to select from various technical ap- federally established guidelines. However, at the proaches that one which is most suitable for local moment, State and local decisionmaking is substan- conditions. Under such conditions, sound political tially constrained by the threat of duplicative Federal theory supports the notion that the level of govern- regulatory activity and the need to meet arduous ment closest to the problem should deal with it, if conditions attached to Federal grant programs. The competent to do so. Commission believes the concept of shared responsi- State and local governments possess the com- bitity is fundamentally sound, and that with modifi- petence to handle most water quality problems. While cation to redirect program objectives and to reduce this competence has been underutilized in the past, the opportunities for unilateral Federal action and largely because adverse effects of pollution are often thereby restore State and local initiative, it represents felt downstream or out of State, public opinion and the best arrangement for achieving the widest range Federal pressures are leading to significant changes. of social objectives. Recent studies of State and local pollution control Prior to the 1972 Act, the Federal Government programs document a new resolve to regulate force- had been assigned a role subsidiary to that of the fully and comprehensively .6 0 These studies belie States in the national program for water quality assertions that State and local governments are unable improvement. The Federal Government was expected to deal effectively with water quality problems. It to provide leadership and support necessary to assure appears that a satisfactory division of governmental competent State and local performance of their responsibility for pollution control was developing primary functions. In carrying out its responsibilities prior to the 1972 Act. It would be unwise to for research, financial assistance, and enforcement, implement the 1972 Act in such a way as to the Federal agency was forced to search continuously jeopardize the State-Federal partnership before it can for an optimal balance between offers of assistance, be fairly tested. demands for performance, and assertions of Federal authority. Under such circumstances, it was unrealis- IMPROVING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF tic to expect a high degree of intergovernmental POLLUTION ABATEMENT PROGRAMS harmony; the best to be hoped for was creative tension. As noted earlier, the Commission believes Federal Activities this cooperative approach is sound and recommends its restoration. The arrangement is not without Research: Federal preeminence in the organization, defects, but the major problems centered not in the conduct, and funding of research and development of concept but in its implementation by all levels of pollution control technology is considered desirable government. by many observers because of the commonality of There are valid reasons to support the cooperative approach to solution of the Nation's water quality 6 0 HINES, N WILLIAM (197 1). Public Regulation of Water problems. Although the problem of pollution is Quality in the United States, prepared for the National nationwide, conditions of pollution are local phe- Water Commission. National Technical Information Serv- nomena with local causes. The most noticeable ice, Springfield, Va., Accession No. PB 208 309; and effects of pollution are also primarily local although COMPTROLLER GENERAL OF THE UNITED STATES (1972). Water Pollution Abatement Program; Assessment some of the most critical effects, such as those from of Federal and State Enforcement Efforts, B-166506. heavy metals and certain types of pesticides, are U.S. General Accounting Office, Washington, D.C. 86 the problems. The performance of the present re- The 1972 Act is by far the most complex and search program, however, has drawn some criticism, comprehensive Federal entry into the field of en- and it is difficult to conclude that the money has vironmental regulation. The water quality policy been well spent. Although the Federal agency has its announced in this Act represents a radical departure own network of laboratories, about two-thirds of the from prior theory. In contrast to the traditional $60 million annual water pollution control research regulatory purpose of preventing waste dischargers budget is spent on out-of-house research under grants from interfering with other beneficial water uses, the and contract. Emphasis has been on the application newly established purpose of the control effort is to of known technology to new purposes. Consequently, eliminate all man-caused alteration of the chemical, few technological innovations have been produced by physical, biological, and radiological integrity of the Federal research effort. In the past, the concen- water. tration on applied research was probably justified by The mainspring of the statute is a system for the need to encourage fuller utilization of proven controlling point-sources of pollution through the processes; however, accelerating demands for higher establishment and enforcement of increasingly more levels of waste removal create a need for shifting stringent direct lin-dtations on the quality of ef- more research emphasis to the search for new fluents. Effluent limitations are based primarily on technology. the technological and economic feasibility of waste reduction rather than local water quality needs. The Financial Assistance: Federal financial assistance is water quality standards established in response to the provided in the form of annual program grants to 1965 Water Quality Act are retained as a floor under State agencies, short-term grants to planning groups, the new effluent limitations and are expanded to and construction grants to local communities to help include all navigable waters. build public waste treatment plants. Program and Depending on the character of the discharge, planning grants are authorized to be significantly effluent limitations are required to be based on a increased in the 1972 Act to keep pace with rising number of factors, including existing and subse- costs and increased workloads. As discussed earlier, quently established water quality standards and the prior construction grant program was not success- federally established toxicity limits and pretreatment ful, and the appropriations fell far short of the standards. In addition, if adequate technology is authorizations. The 1972 Act authorizes much higher available and a favorable relationship exists between grant levels, a larger Federal share, and allocation of economic and social costs and benefits, effluent grants on the basis of need, but it is not adequate to limitations must be set to attain or maintain an achieve the goals set forth in the Act. The National overall water quality standard which provides for the Water Commission proposes achievable goals, ade- protection of public water supplies, agricultural and ,quate and equitable funding to accomplish such goals, industrial uses, and the protection of a balanced and an eventual transition from a Federal-State population of shellfish, fish, and wildlife, and allows subsidy program to one which allocates the costs of recreational activities in and on the water. Achieve- pollution control to Polluters through utility-type ment of this water quality goal is targeted for 1983. charges which will facilitate econon-dc efficiency. New sources of pollution must immediately comply with federally established performance standards Regulation: Before the 1972 Act, the Federal regula- which reflect the greatest degree of effluent reduction tory effort was concentrated primarily in three areas: achievable by use of the best available demonstrated (a) general abatement proceedings, (b) establishment control technology, processes, , and operating and enforcement of water quality standards, and methods, including a no discharge standard where (c) implementation of the Refuse Act permit pro- practicable. 61 gram. The Federal agency also has special responsi- Under the Act, effluent limitations are tightened in bilities in the control of spills of oil and other a predetermined sequence. By 1977, all dischargers, hazardous substances and in the prevention of water except publicly owned treatment facilities, are ex- pollution from Federal installations. Except for the pected, at a minimum, to employ the best practicable Refuse Act suits, the Federal regulatory process was handicapped by complicated procedures with lengthy built-in delays. The 1972 Act dramatically expanded 1972 Act, Section 306(a)(1), 86 Stat. 854, 33 USCA and streamlined Federal regulatory activity. 1316(a) (1). 87 control technology currently available. If more strin- basis if the Administrator believes it is necessary to gent limitations are required to meet local water achieve requirements of the 1972 Act or regulations quality standards, they must be met. Publicly owned issued thereunder. 62 treatment works must use at least secondary treat- Prompt and tough enforcement procedures are set ment by 1977. The final upgrading benchmark out to assure compliance with the new permit mandated by the Act is 1983, by wl-iich time all program and with other requirements under the Act. dischargers, except publicly owned treatment works, The enforcement process under the new permit are required to apply the best available technology system eliminates a longstanding deficiency in en- economically achievable. By the same date, publicly forcement of pollution abatement laws by shifting to owned treatment works must be employing the best the polluter the burden of proving that his discharges practicable water treatment technology. The new Act are in conformance with the law. Upon finding a does not, however, say how its stated goal of violation of the Act, Federal authorities are author- elimination of all discharges of pollutants by 1985 is ized to pursue alternative enforcement tactics. Civil to be achieved, and this is one of the great weaknesses relief may be sought immediately in the courts, or an of the Act. order may be issued directing the polluter to comply A national pollutant discharge elimination system with the Act, or a notice of violation may be served is created as the vehicle for implementing the new on the polluter. In the latter two cases, the affected effluent-limitations approach. The Act makes unlaw- State agency is also notified. Uncorrected violations ful the discharge into water of any pollutant without may result in the imposition of civil penalties of up to a discharge permit and then sets out detailed pro- $10,000 per day and criminal fines of up to $50,000 cedures for the operation of the permit program. per day and jail terms of up to 2 years for repeated Permits will set forth specific upper limits for each offenses. potentially polluting constituent of a discharger's ImpFovernents Needed: The Commission believes that waste stream. Where desired waste reduction cannot the 1972 Act represents a praiseworthy attempt by be accomplished immediately, the permit will es- Congress to provide a more effective program of tablish an abatement schedule for the discharger. The water quality control and enhancement. However, in permit will also require each discharger to perform the Commission's view, there are certain provisions of such monitoring and reporting functions as are the Act, particularly with reference to goals, regula- needed to check on his compliance with permit tion, permit systems, grants, Federal-State relations, conditions. and accountability which must be revised or clarified The 1972 Act seeks to provide maximum oppor- if the laudable purpose outlined by the Congress is to tunity for public participation in the pollution be attained without disrupting ongoing successful control effort by requiring public hearings at key water quality programs and without creating unneces- points in the implementation of the permit system sary economic and social hardships and environ- and by assuring that water quality information, mental damage. I discharge requirements, and monitoring data be made First, as was discussed earlier, the shift away from available to the public. reliance on water quality standards and economic The Act contemplates that the permit program will practicability as the bases for regulation should be be a joint Federal-State effort. Specific provision is reversed. The new Act's establishment of a no made for a State-by-State delegation of responsibility discharge goal to be achieved through application of for administering the national permit program. How- the best available waste treatment technology is ever, if a State will not or cannot carry out the unsound in theory and will prove unworkable in objectives of the program, the Environmental Protec- practice. The Congress should revise this rniscon- tion Agency (EPA) may administer the program ceived goal now and reaffirm its commitment to the directly. To receive the delegation, the States must water quality standards approach and economically demonstrate the capability to fully carry out the practicable minimum treatment requirements. objectives of the national permit program as specified Second, if the Congress intended the new national in the 1972 Act and as further developed in guide- permit system to be operated by the States, as we lines issued by EPA. Even though responsibility for believe it did, a longer time must be allowed and administering the permit program is delegated, State greater assistance provided to the States to facilitate processing of permits is subject to review by EPA and State permits may be vetoed on a permit-by-permit 62jbid., Section 402(d) 86 Stat. 882, 33 USCA 1342(d). 88 7% 2 Al k Enforcement of new water pollution control laws should prevent this type of waste disposal their acceptance of the delegation to adniinister the Third, the experience in State-Federal relations program. We cannot foresee all the ran-dfications of gained in implementing the water quality standards the current plan to begin operation of the permit program. under the 1965 Act convinces the Commis- program at the Federal level and later shift responsi- sion it is undesirable to create, as does the 1972 63 bility to the States, but it seems likely that both the Act, an unqualified power to commence unilateral public interest and regulated dischargers will suffer Federal enforcement procedures in respect to a from the transition of an ongoing program. The program primarily administered by the States. A Comn-dssion recommends a change in the legislative strong Federal enforcement capability is needed as a and administrative deadlines which create the present backstop to State regulation, but it should be invoked urgency to initiate the issuance of permits by EPA. only after State enforcement authorities demonstrate The permit program should be implemented with all that they are unable or unwilling to carry out the deliberate speed, but wherever possible the con- necessary enforcement action. Except for cases of tinuing responsibility for issuing and enforcing per- emergency, notice to the affected State and expira- mits for the waters of each State should be fixed tion without corrective action of a short, but reason- prior to commencement of permit issuance. Review able, time period should be made a prerequisite to of the stringent guidelines and detailed standards initiation of Federal enforcement procedures. established under the 1972 Act and promulgated by Fourth, Federal grants for municipal pollution EPA convinces the Commission that a workable control facilities -must be made available by the delegation process could be modeled on the mech- Congress and the President in amounts sufficient to anism utilized under the 1965 Water Quality Act to establish water quality standards, with appropriate "Ibid., Section 309(a)(3), 86 Stat. 859, 33 USCA tightening to eliminate unnecessary delays. 1319(a)(3). 89 achieve the national water quality goals. Water water quality will be protected and who should create quality standards set pursuant to the policies recorn- and administer the regulatory programs necessary to mended by this Commission cannot be achieved in achieve this protection. Imprecision in the assignment the next 10 years with the level of funding authorized of these responsibilities and attendant misunder- in the 1972 Act. The Congress substantially under- standings have been a major reason for lack of estimated the cost of achieving the goals described in progress to date. The 1972 Act speaks ambiguously the 1972 Act and the executive impoundment of to these questions; the Commission believes they funds has further cut the congressionally authorized should be faced squarely and resolved once and for moneys by more than half. The result is a serious all, as discussed hereinafter under the heading conflict between federally mandated requirements and "Permits". Federal appropriations and allocations to meet those Finally, the 1972 Act sets a 1983 standard for requirements. The waste treatment facilities which effluent limitations of "best available technology are needed will only be accomplished by a Federal economically achievable." If this means the same grant program if the funding promised to perform thing as the 1977 standard of "best practicable Federal grant commitments is made available. If control technology currently available," it should be Federal financing continues to lag behind Federal deleted as unnecessary. If "best available" is intended promises, the grant program will become increasingly to mean that discharges can be required to install new inequitable and local incentive will again be weak- pollution control facilities each time a technological ened. advance is made, the provision should be applicable Fifth, the 1972 Act suffers from absolute legisla- only when receiving water quality standards require tive mandates which do not give the Administrator of it. A moving effluent standard not related to the the Environmental Protection Agency the discretion achievement of desired water quality will unneces- necessary to adopt the flexible grant requirements sarily increase costs paid by consumers and could needed to meet different local water and waste discourage producers from making necessary major conditions. The Administrator should be authorized investments in water pollution abatement facilities to encourage those local expenditures which will which require many years to amortize. produce the greatest improvement in water quality and constitute the most effective use of limited Interstate Agencies funds. The uniform requirement for secondary treat- The presence and performance of interstate ment could cause clean water moneys which have agencies created to handle water quality management been squeezed out of a tight budget to be expended in waters which cross State lines is a noteworthy facet for facilities with minimal impact upon the receiving of the total picture of governmental activity. The waters while leaving raw sewage outlets without theoretical attractiveness of using regional agencies to interception. An examination of the effectiveness of control water quality throughout an entire watershed secondary treatment on the Missouri River by the or basin is recognized, and such agencies have been General Accounting Office in 1971 pointed out the created for several major basins. As presently con- importance of applying those pollution abatement stituted and operated, however, interstate pollution techniques which will do the most good .6 ' The control agencies play a much less important role in history of funding to date demonstrates that available the water quality regulation than do local, State, and moneys are seriously limited. Any realistic grant Federal agencies. Elsewhere in this report specific program operating under budget constraints should recommendations are made for the improvement of provide the. most cost-effective solution for each such interstate agencies. 65 situation. Sixth, a basic issue which the 1972 Act fails to State Programs clarify is the matter of accountability. Stated simply, the issues are what level of government should be State programs have undergone dramatic changes assigned responsibility for deciding to what degree in the past 10 years. Although universal adoption of water quality standards has provided a common 6.4COMPrROLLER GENERAL OF THE UNITED STATES denominator among State programs, substantial (1972). Alternatives to Secondary Sewage Treatment variety exists in the development of such key Offer Greater Improvements in Missouri River Water Quality, B-125042. U.S. General Accounting Office, Washington, D.C. 'See Chapter 11. 90 program elements as administrative structure, finan- still lacks the resources to mount a full-scale attack cing, standards, permits, information gathering, en- on water quality problems. Increasing emphasis on forcement, control of nonpoint-sources, and plan- planning, surveillance, and enforcement, which de- ning. In some cases, variations reflect a justifiable mand large numbers of, people, requires greater concern for local hydrologic and economic factors. commitments of funds than are presently provided by Too often the differences among States are sympto- State governments. On the horizon lie even larger matic of shortcomings in their regulatory prograrns. financial requirements to cope effectively with non- Reviews of the water quality programs of nearly point-sources; until nonpoint-sources are controlled, one-third,of the States lead to the conclusions which water quality objectives will not be achieved. State follow. 66 legislatures must be prepared to provide the necessary resources for effective programs if the present Administrative Structure: The structure and organiza- primacy of State regulation is to continue as a viable tion of State programs are undergoing significant policy. changes. In a number of instances reorganization has not resulted in functional change because the same Standards: All States have established receiving water policies and personnel are dominant in the new standards for interstate waters and nearly all States structure. In most States responsibility for the water apply comparable standards to the rest of their quality program is now assigned either to a separate surface waters. Most States make some use of general agency created expressly for that purpose or to a effluent standards as well, principally through lirnita- special agency created within an established depart- tions on discharges. ment. A trend is observable in the direction of A major advantage of the approach to water making water quality regulation a function of a quality standards contained in the 1965 Act is its comprehensive State environmental protection capability for adaptation of standards to a wide agency, which has responsibility for control of air variety of local needs and conditions. This value quality, water quality, and solid waste disposal. This should not be lost through rriisguided desires for theoretically permits coordination of pollution abate- nationwide, or even statewide, uniformity in stand- ment programs, and should eliminate programs which ards. Uniform effluent standards or treatment re- merely transfer pollutants from one medium to quirements, and nondegradation policies are clearly another. It does not always succeed. The Federal contrary to the situation -specific theory of standard effort to achieve this coordination through establish- setting, and it is doubtful whether a specific set of ment of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) water quality criteria for designated uses can serve has not yet been successful. effectively as more than a guideline to be adjusted for In the Commission's view, State water quality local conditions. Uniformity should exist in the programs should be made a functional component of poHcies and procedures under which standards are an environmental resources program capable of established, but not in the standards themselves. coordinating resource allocation and management Uniform national water quality criteria for designated with the full range of environmental protection water uses should not be established until more activities. The State program should be capable of scientific knowledge becomes available regarding geo- administration by metropolitan or regional water graphic and ecologic variation. An exception to this quality agencies, if such decentralization is practical. general rule needs to be made, however, to apply a However, coordinating, review, and preemptive total ban on discharges of toxic materials. For powers should be retained at the State level to assure standards to be in the public interest, there must be a satisfactory statewide administration. determination that there is a favorable relationship between the economic, social, and environmental Financing: State expenditures for administration of costs of achieving them, including any economic or pollution control programs have increased sharply in social dislocation in the affected communities or recent years, but in many States the control agency industries, and the economic, social, and environ- - mental benefits to be obtained. To the extent waters "See HINES, N William (1971). Public Regulation of of high quality should be protected, this should be Water Quality in the United States, prepared for the accomplished within the standards framework by National Water Commission. National Technical Infor- mation Service, Springfield, Va., Accession No. PB 208 designating them for uses which guarantee protection 309. of existing quality. The Commission recommends 91 development of use designations which serve to 1965 Act failed to produce desired results because protect high-quality water. the concept of relating discharge requirements to Full provision should be made for public participa- receiving water standards is administratively im- tion in the determination of protected water uses and practical. It is urged that by basing individual effluent in the establishment and review of quality standards. limitations on the best available control technology Local and regional interests should have paramount economically achievable, which, it is apparently responsibility in the designation of water uses, but assumed, is more easily discovered and applied, the broad national interests must be recognized in cases proposed system MR free the administrators from the where unique areas need to be protected through heavy burden of translating water quality standards high-use classifications, such as preservation of wild into effluent limitations. rivers. Standards should be periodically reviewed. In the view of the Commission, the pronounce- The water quality standards have provided a focus ment that the water quality standards approach of which has had a salutory effect on control programs, the 1965 Act is inadequate is premature. 69 Although even though they have not yet been fully imple- it represented a milestone in the evolution of the mented. Creation of the standards forced States to national program, the 1965 Act was deficient in not articulate program goals with respect to water providing the blueprint for a completely developed quality. Development of such goals is an essential water quality standards program. The concept of the element of meaningful planning and is a prerequisite 1965 Act was sound, but the legislative design for to consistent administration of other facets of a implementation of the Act's policy was so vague that comprehensive control program. Standards simplify years have been wasted trying to assemble this puzzle, the enforcement process by replacing the vagaries of which was missing key pieces. By failing to set time "pollution" with an objective measuring stick for limits for review and approval of procedures for determining diminished water quality. Standards pro- translation of receiving water standards into specific vide a framework for the development of stream discharge limitations, the Act neglected an essential surveillance programs and serve as a touchstone for implementation step. This gap has already been filled such systematic pollution prevention activities as by most States through the adoption of permit waste discharge permits. Finally, standards serve as a systems, under which State agencies regularly impose baseline against which to measure progress in water effluent limitations or treatment requirements con- quality improvement. sistent with approved water quality standards. Where Refinement of use designations and upgrading of comprehensive permit systems are used to implement specific quality standards are clearly needed in many quality standards, and where the Federal agency areas. Nevertheless, based on the staff review of approved the standards, regulation under the 1965 programs in nine StateS6 ' and the General Ac- Act is going forward and improved water quality is counting Office report which covers six additional resulting. States, 68 the Commission believes present receiving It is frequently contended that effluent lin-dtations water standards are capable of protecting adequately based on technological feasibility would be easier to most reasonable present and future uses. Failure in establish than effluent limitations based on Water implementation is the major impediment to achieve- quality standards in the receiving waters because ment of the water quality goals represented by the administrators would not have to deterniine how current standards. To remedy this defect, the Com- much, if any, waste can safely be discharged consis- mission recommends implementation of receiving tent with the standards set for the particular receiving water standards through a comprehensive waste dis- water before deciding what limitations can be im- charge permit system. posed. Limitations based on what is technically feasible, however, completely ignore the economic Permits: Advocates of a "no discharge" policy claim impact and practicability of the restrictions, the the water. quality standards program created by the impact on other resources, and the effects on both the individual discharger and on society as a whole. 67Ibid., p. 254. 6 11 COmPTROLLER GENERAL OF THE UNITED STATES 6 9 U.S. CONGRESS, Senate, Committee on Public Works (1972). Water Pollution Abatement Program: Assessment (1971). Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amend- of Federal and State Enforcement Efforts, B-166506. ments of 1971, 92d Congress, lst Session, Senate Report U.S. General Accounting Office, Washington, D.C. pp. No. 92-414. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washing- 18-27. ton, D.C. p. 7. 92 That which is technologically achievable may be water. Permits should contain limitations requiring wholly unnecessary to protect the uses made of the sufficient removal or control of wastes to assure body of water, may be completely beyond the means compliance with standards set for local receiving of the city or the industry involved, and may cause waters, and a time frame for compliance which sets untold waste of other, more critical resources. For priorities and reflects capacity for financing not only these reasons, the Commission believes the policy water pollution abatement but air pollution control calling for uniform effluent limitations7o should be and solid waste disposal as well, so that overall rejected. environmental quality improvement is taken into A permit system based on achieving a given quality account. Permit procedures should provide full op- of receiving water presupposes the technological portunity for public participation and provide effec- ability to predict the effect of waste discharges on the tive review avenues to aggrieved parties. Waste dis- quality of water under varying conditions., Scientifi- charge limitations should be stated in terms of cally-based predictive models for making such calcula- concentrations and maximum amounts per unit of tions are available, but further development is needed time, and should be related to seasonal variations in to make them more readily usable. Recent progress flow and receiving water characteristics. toward development of usable models has been very Where it is necessary to allocate the capacity of rapid, as the scientific community has responded to receiving waters to purify wastes, the permit agency the massive environmental interest and expenditures should seek to develop an equitable allocation of that .in recent years. The experience of States having capacity among affected permittees and no "grand- successful permit systems suggests that, while deter- father" rights should be recognized. If insufficient mining permissible wasteloading is a significant task, data exist to execute such a policy, a best practicible it is well within their information and manpower treatment standard will have to be employed which capabilities. The present state of knowledge is ade- includes consideration of such factors for the specific quate to take initial steps involved in issuing permits discharging entity as cost, age of plant, social, based on existing standards; greater precision in the economic, and physical environmental impacts, and establishment of permit terms can be attained as engineering aspects of the application of various types information improves. of control techniques or process changes. In addition, Overall, determining acceptable wasteloading is not consideration should be given to possible alternatives as demanding of administrative skill as is establishing or supplementary programs such as instrearn treat- permit conditions dischargers will accept as fair and ment to achieve quality objectives as readily and at feasible. Thus, because the difficult problems associ- the lowest cost possible. ated with meeting requirements for practicability and Surveillance and monitoring procedures at control technological feasibility are present under both sys- points along the rivers should be adequate to detect tems, along with the full assortment of followthxough immediately any violations of quality standards. problems, the differences in adn-dnistrative efficiency Immediate attention should then be given to moni- do not appear to be an overriding factor. toring the point-sources and deterniining responsi- The Commission concludes that basing discharge bility for the violation. Enforcement measures should limitations on applicable water quality, standards is be stiff enough to insure prompt correction. Permit feasible. Such an approach is preferred because it duration should be limited to guarantee reexamina- provides superior safeguards against both under- tion at reasonable intervals, and the terms and protection and overprotection of water quality. conditions of permits should be upgraded to take At the time the 1972 Act was passed, 47 States account of technological advances.An annual permit utilized some form of permit system, but few States fee is advocated to help defray costs incurred in have developed this regulatory technique to its full checking on dischargers' performance of permit con- potential. Discharge permits should be required for ditions. Programs for the training and certification of every existing or potential7l point-source of pollu- waste treatment plant operators should be provided tion to all waters in the State, including ground which are sufficient to assure competent operation of facilities in accordance with the terms of the permits. 711972 Act, Section 301(b)(2)(A), 86 Stat. 845, 33 USCA While the 1972 Act contemplates that the pernrit 1311(b)(2)(A). 71 For example, storage pits for oil or other potential program will be a joint Federal-State effort and that pollutants which might leak or overflow into nearby the States will operate the new system and continue water bodies if not properly constructed. to have and exercise the primary responsibility for 93 regulation and enforcement under the national from nonpoint-sources. A comprehensive surveillance policy, the EPA requirements thus far made known network should be maintained to monitor water and the delay in approving State programs would quality in place. This last point is the crux of an seem to indicate a contrary intent. So detailed are the effective program; it defines success or failure, and matters with which that agency appears to be pinpoints the areas where more attention is needed. It concerning itself that it will be difficult, if not provides the basis for comparison of the effectiveness impossible, for a State to administer its own program of alternative programs, and thus it is essential to and EPA does not have, and is not likely to have, the have valid data competently and completely inter- manpower or budget to take over the State permit preted, and not limited to data for specific enforce- programs. However, the 1972 Act itself, by its ment actions. Thus, the function should be carried on provisions, would require judgments to be made at by an independent agency, such as the U.S. Geo- the Federal level which would be better left to the logical Survey, which is not involved in either policing States. For example, the Act sets the qualifications or regulation. for members of State water quality boards, allows The Federal Government, in cooperation with local officials to fractionalize the State program by State and interstate agencies, has been attempting to setting their own standards, allows the Regional develop a strategy for monitoring and a national data Administrator to veto individual permits@ and imposes collection, storage, and retrieval program. The efforts other detailed requirements that involve the EPA in to date have not yet resulted in a design which the day-to-day operation of the State program. It enables State, interstate, and local governments to appears to the Commission this is not the proper role utilize the system for their own management pur- to'be played by the national government, would be poses. The Commission believes that one agency, inefficient, and is not desirable. The Federal Govern- preferably the U.S. Geological Survey because of its ment should set the national goals and policy and competence in the organization and operation of should look to the States for results only. As many joint Federal-State programs for the collection and decisions as possible as to how those results will be analysis of data, should be given responsibility for obtained should be left to the States. developing water quality data programs. Data to be collected should include information on instrearn Information Collection: In only a few States are quality of water and such other information as is information collection and processing programs ade- necessary to revise standards, monitor compliance, quately developed. Such programs are essential to and fully evaluate the status and progress of water effective regulation and must be financed at a level pollution control programs. The pattern for Federal- sufficient to permit continuous review and interpreta- State cooperation should encourage local responsi- tion of data and evaluation of the effectiveness of bility for monitoring and should be generally similar plans. A technical competency is required which can to that used in the national strearnflow data program. only be developed by providing sufficient funds for States should collect data on effluents and instream the programs on a continuing basis not subject to quality as necessary to monitor permits, while year-to-year fluctuations. If the permit system is to Federal-State cooperative effort should be expended perform its functions, the control agency must to maintain records of quality at principal streamflow provide effective review of self-reported information stations. Many States already require industry to and conduct a vigorous monitoring and inspection report new processes, products, and types of wastes, program. To keep costs down as well as to prevent so that control agencies could anticipate problems being inundated with unused data, there must be a associated with new pollutants in effluents or in- two-stage monitoring-the first limited to a few tended for widespread application. All States should parameters which would reflect changes and indicate have such requirements, including an ongoing pro- the need for second-stage monitoring, which should gram of technology assessment. be a comprehensive analysis to define responsibility. State officials should have authority to enter and inspect the premises in which an effluent source is Enforcement Procedures: For most of its history, located or in which records are required to be kept State pollution regulation was premised largely on an under the terms of a permit. Systematic surveys are unfortunate analogy to nuisance law. This approach needed to detect unreported point-sources and to encouraged the view that regulatory objectives were determine the extent and type of pollution resulting substantially achieved when the polluter had been 94 identified and his liability established. This view of To obtain voluntary compliance, it is necessary the enforcement function fostered endless delays in that the enforcement program present a credible obtaining abatement of pollution. While the polluter threat that noncompliance will result in decisive negotiated with agency engineers concerning correc- action and meaningful sanctions. It is also essential to tive measures, his pollution continued, having become have reasonable goals and time schedules. Compliance legitimized. In a sense, by its subjection to regulation. procedures should be streamlined and unfruitful Most States now recognize that the critical phase of negotiation reduced by the adoption and publication regulation begins as soon as a violation is determined. of specific guidelines for enforcement procedures. Subjection of all point-sources of pollution to Statutes should provide effective sanctions, which permit limitations creates a framework which will attach to the initial violation and escalate with make possible more direct administrative enforce- repeated violations; these should bear some relation ment techniques. Information suggesting violation of to the damages and not be so punitive as to permit conditions should, in theory, trigger a simple discourage the courts from applying them. and swift administrative procedure to determine and In addition, if a State agency having responsibility rectify discharger noncompliance. As time passes, this for public health and safety does not have express will become more of a reality, but at present there is powers to deal summarily with emergency situations a confusion of laws and regulations in a number of which endanger human health or safety, State enforcement agencies, not always coordinated. statutes should be enacted to confer such powers. Many States now have a streamlined administrative Perhaps more important than better sanctions is enforcement procedure under which the pollution demonstration of a willingness to wield whatever control agency may hold hearings, issue emergency stick is available swiftly and forcefully. Some State abatement orders, and revoke permits on grounds of officials with responsibility for enforcement have noncompliance where there is a threat of irreparable been unwilling to act against powerful local interests, harm from discharges. In some States the procedures and have been content to let Federal officials take the need amplification and the right of the alleged responsibility for acting against polluters, a responsi- polluter to appeal such determinations to the courts bility which some zealous Federal officials have been should be preserved. Once the data collection and eager to grasp. Improved performance by State monitoring programs recommended herein become officials will require a combination of more intel- effective, there should be less need for reliance on ligent use of statutory powers and policy directives, court action. based on realistic water quality standards and a The advantages of the more direct enforcement realistic time frame for meeting them, expansion of procedures available within a permit framework have the professional pool from wWch program administra- not yet been realized in most States where efforts tors are drawn, development of reliable Federal must still be concentrated on those enforcement cooperation and mobilization of public opinion to activities designed to bring dischargers under permit. influence and support administrative recognition of Policies and practices carried forward from an earlier environmental values. era of more leisurely regulation underniine both Local Govemment enforcement efforts and permit administration. Furthermore, with the increased role of the Federal Municipal governments have primary responsibility Government in recent years, it is easy for States to sit for the construction and operation of waste treat- back and let Federal agencies take the initiative in ment facilities to control sanitary sewage and in- enforcement. dustrial wastes discharged into municipal sewers. A substantial measure of voluntary compliance is Although good progress has been made in providing critical to the success of the regulatory effort. Past treatment for municipal wastewater, there is still State reluctance to employ coercive techniques in much to be done. Deficiencies in performance of .dealing with overt recalcitrance acted as a disincentive municipal government responsibilities lie chiefly in to dischargers to agree to and implement needed the areas of organizational efficiency and operating pollution control actions. This difficulty is fast practices. disappearing. Recognizing that some dischargers face real problems in compliance, agencies should demand Organizational Efficiency: Intramural jealousies information adequate to distinguish inability from among neighboring communities often act to pro- recalcitrance. mote inefficiencies in the planning of collection 95 77,1 I Lm@ A @i WA Municipal sewage treatment is primarily the responsibility of local governments systems and to stifle realization of economies of scale achieve water quality standards in the receiving in the construction of regional treatment plants. waters with a lower degree of treatment and at a Coordinated metropolitan and regional waste manage- lower cost than at a single large plant. ment is essential to achieving cost effectiveness in waste treatment systems and in protection of water Responsibility for Construction: From time to time quality from pollutants from all sources. 72 The suggestions have been made that authority for Commission strongly supports current efforts to regional waste management systems be placed in the systematize metropolitan and regional water quality Federal Government, which would design and con- planning so as to control pollution in the most struct regional systems to combat pollution. Such efficient way. Areawide waste treatment management suggestions appear to be based on the opinion that plans created in response to the requirements of the efficiency would be promoted, and that existing 1972 Act should prove to be a powerful force for Federal construction agencies which are running out rational water quality management, if suitable organ- of work have the competence to undertake regional izations can be developed under State law for waste waste management. treatment management. The Commission finds no evidence that the design Waste treatment planning should recognize that and construction of waste disposal systems would be even though collection of wastewater from a large better performed by Federal construction agencies. area into a single treatment plant will fix responsi- Local government has demonstrated the capability to bility for facility planning, operation, and monitor- design and construct the most sophisticated systems ing, in some instances a single large plant can be less when adequate financing is available. Uniform design desirable than building a number of plants at various is neither practical nor desirable. Decentralized points. With dispersal of plants it may be possible to responsibility for construction provides lower ad- ministrative costs and encourages variation in systems "See Chapter 12 for a more complete discussion of this and methods, compatibility with local conditions, subject. and cost effectiveness competition between areas. 96 Local policyrnakers will be making land-use decisions runoff from land under cultivation or opened in which affect the design criteria of sewerage systems. connection with construction projects. But generally, Local sewerage agencies will be responsible for such rural special districts have failed to adopt water meeting water quality standards, levying user charges, quality improvement as a program goal. Because and producing environmentally and socially accept- control of open land runoff is such a critical able projects. A large Federal planning, engineering, component of a successful water quality program, the and construction organization is not necessary to Commission urges careful examination of the op- achieve adequate local water supply and sewage portunities for agencies of local governments to disposal facilities and should not be created or achieve specific water quality objectives by soil maintained in the absence of such necessity. conservation, land use, and surface water control methods. Operating Practices: The prevalence of industrial If existing local government units are not capable discharges in municipal wastewater can create serious of mounting effective programs to control sources of problems in the operation' of a municipal treatment water pollution lying in the nonurban areas, effort plant. Many materials, in high concentrations or must be directed at organizing and implementing new discharged to sewers in batches or surges, can retard institutional arrangements for bringing such pollution or destroy biological waste removal processes; heavy under control. Several States are currently experi- organic wastes can overload treatment capacity. menting with innovative regional agencies which Excessive quantities of flow such as storm water or might be adaptable to this purpose." flushing water can hydraulically overload the plant and reduce its efficiency. Carefully prepared and PROBLEMS NOT SOLVED BY sternly enforced pretreatment contracts or regula- IMPROVED REGULATION tions are required to prevent these interruptions of Disposal of Residues effective plant operation. The frequently employed practice of designing a municipal treatment plant Improvement of regulatory law cannot change the without a prior detailed survey of expected connec- fundamental law of the conservation of matter. tions and then being compelled to adopt an ordinance Production changes can lead to improved perform- prohibiting the connections so as to protect the plant ance in industrial waste management by eliminating should be discouraged. some wastes or recapturing them as valuable by- A second operating problem lies in securing and products, but until new processes are developed retaining adequately trained personnel to manage and further, much pollution control will continue to maintain community treatment facilities. Local of- involve the capture and removal of pollutants from ficials have frequently failed to take enough responsi- wastewater discharges. Thus, disposing of the residues bility for assuring competent operation of a muni- of waste treatment will continue to be a problem cipal wastewater treatment plant, with the result that with serious environmental impacts. a plant which is adequate in all other respects Until technology can find ways to use these regularly produces an unsatisfactory effluent. Muni- residues, planning for their handling and disposal cipalities should support strong State programs for essentially involves a search for lesser evils. Matter training and certification of treatment plant operators which will pollute fresh water may also cause and provide a rate of compensation commensurate environmental harm if dumped into oceans, expelled with achieving full benefits from their significant into the atmosphere through incineration, spread on investment in treatment facilities. land, or buried in landfills. What is needed in each case is a careful search for the method of disposing of Suburban and Rural Units: Nonurban local govern- residues with the least overall environmental impact, ments also have important regulatory responsibilities recognizing local conditions and the interrelationships in protecting water quality. Creative exercise of among air, land, and water resources. county land-use control powers can prevent improper The sludge disposal program of Chicago offers an waste management practices in rural residential sub- example for cities unable to rely on ocean dumping. developments, construction projects, landfills, and "See UNIVERSITY OF IOWA (April 1971). Contempo- mining and manufacturing sites. Drainage districts, rary Studies Project: Impact of Local Governmental soil conservation districts, small watershed districts, Units on Water Quality Control, Iowa Law Review and the like could play major roles in controlling 56(4):804-929. 97 Sludge from Chicago's treatment plants accumulates ness of the problems requiring attack, and not, as has at the rate of 900 tons per day. For years the sludge too often been the case in the past, on the suscepti- was stored in lagoons until almost 5 million tons bility of problems to easy administrative solution, or accumulated and all storage areas were filled. After on the reduction of all problems to a uniform and several false steps, Chicago now is implementing two conventional solution. Because water quality im- programs for land disposal of these sludges. One provement occurs over time, and sometimes over program involves the movement of the stored sludge space, deliberate planning is required to assure that by rail to an agricultural area in central Illinois where the allocation of available resources produces maxi- it is applied to croplands. The second program mum incremental gains. The areawide waste manage- involves disposal of current sludge production; it is ment requirements of the 1972 Act could provide an being transported by barge and pipeline to an area important push for improved cost effectiveness in near Peoria, where it is spread on strip-mined land, in expenditures under the construction grant program; an effort to reclaim the land. The Chicago experience however, the uniform secondary treatment require- should provide important information to other cities ment of this Act may cause ill-timed or unnecessary faced with a conflict among environmental concern, expenditures. economics, and local resistance to residual disposal A major concern of cost effectiveness relates to sites. achieving the maximum water quality improvement Much earlier, the City of Milwaukee found a for each dollar spent on pollution control facilities, market for some of the residuals from its sewage particularly in the Federal grant programs which local treatment plant by processing the sludge from the officials frequently look upon as windfalls. Under a plant into fertilizer which has been marketed com- control program where appropriate water quality mercially for many years under the trade name standards are set and enforced, and where costs are Milorganite. In its new plant, however, the City has allocated on a "polluter pay" principle, identification omitted the fertilizer production process because the and application of least-cost solutions will be a sewage to be handled had lower concentrations of natural objective of the industry or municipality nitrogen and phosphorus, the essential ingredients for disposing of wastes. fertilizer. The commercial market for this type of Alternative methods of achieving water quality fertilizer is probably very limited, because the mate- standards must also be considered in relation to the rial is not competitive with lower-cost mineral ferti- overall environment and those methods which achieve lizers. Sludge is available free at many sewage water quality improvement at the expense of other treatment plants all over the country, but there are environmental values should be reexamined. Again, few takers. there is no simple answer to this problem, for unless a It is the Commission's view that the Nation must coordinated water-air-land appraisal is completed, the move toward reuse of sludge from waste treatment least-cost solution for water may well result in processes, because of the massive volumes involved environmental harm to other resources of more and the need to conserve resources. The full extent to serious and longer-term significance. which land disposal of sludge can be used is highly The best way to achieve cost effectiveness and at site -spe cific-its applicability will depend on the the same time minimize environmental impact is to individual situation. The most critical requirement is eliminate restrictions on the range of alternatives land, which will not always be available. open to decisionmakers searching for least-cost, optimum-effect pollution control methods. Up until Achieving Cost Effectiveness now, most of these restrictions have been administra- Only through cost effectiveness and environmental tive in origin so could be changed without difficulty, impact studies can the Nation find an answer to the but the 1�72 Act will dramatically limit choices question of how clean can waterways be kept, and unless the concept of uniform method and the goal of relate the pollution abatement program to other no discharge are abandoned. aspects of the national economy. The strategy of Economic Dislocations regulation should focus resources first on correcting problems that will have the greatest impact in Recent studies of 11 selected industries predict improving water quality. For example, priorities in that minor, though not insignificant, economic dis- regulatory attention should be based on the serious- locations will result from the full implementation of 98 After the atlas Product was completed, the shoreline terrain was compared to the historic erosion rates to show the relationship between these two factors. Figure 5.4 (below) is a Graph which summarizes the historic erosion rates along all reaches of at least 0.5 kilometers in length which were also composed of only one type of shoreline terrain. The selection of 0.5 km. as a minimum length for study is arbitrary, but this is the smallest reach length which is regarded as suitable for analyzing variations in historical rates of coastal retreat. Figure 5.4 Above: Figure 5.4. Graph of relationship between the rate of coastal retreat anf the shoreline terrain for the norhern Chesapeake Bay. Opposite: Figure 5.3. Example of atlas product showing shoreline classification, derived from aerial photo- graphs. 5-8 local wastewater treatment plant operators, direct have been isolated also from shellfish inhabiting these training courses at regional facilities, and support of waters. Sewage polluted water leads to the closing of periodic short courses at regional, State, and local oyster beds to commercial harvesting; it is reported levels. than one-fifth of the U.S.'s 10,000,000 acres of Education and training programs usually suffer near-shore shellfish grounds have been closed because from low visibility in the competition of the budget of pollution. 82 Reductions in fishery resource popu- process at all levels of government. However, the lations and severe restrictions on their consumption Commission believes it is the height of fiscal folly to by the public are a threat to the commercial fishing authorize the expenditure of billions of dollars for industry. Furthermore, the ability of finfish and water pollution control programs without priority shellfish to accumulate substances disposed of into attention to the manpower resources needed to run streams and coastal waters to a much higher concen- them efficiently. The 1972 Act authorizes such tration than that in the surrounding waters requires programs 79 but funds must be provided to imple- that the human risk involved in such food sources be ment them if they are to be effective. determined. A report of the National Academy of Sciences POLLUTION IN ESTUARIES AND THE suggests that coastal zone ecosystems are being COASTAL ZONE subjected to pollution-caused stress which is ex- Water pollution is a prominent and pressing prob- tremely severe, and might be irreversible. 113 This lem in the management of coastal-zone waters. stress cannot now be fully quantified, although Coastal waters, estuaries, and the open ocean have Federal and State agencies are actively studying some been the natural recipient of most of man's liquid- of the complex effects of wastes on marine biota, borne waste materials as well as some atmospheric- including the effects of bacterial and viral pathogens, borne 80 and solid wastes. When major watercourses heavy metals, pesticides, organometallic compounds enter estuaries, some of the pollutants dissipate into and parasite protozoa, sewage sludges, and heated the sea, but some concentrate sluggishly in the discharges. estuaries. Thus, a plotting of water quality gradients Unfortunately, some of the toxic pollutants are in coastal areas often will show that the pollution is not subject to casual observation and may not even concentrated primarily in the poorly flushed, finger- be suspected; moreover, some basic pollution damage, like, subestuaries near major urban areas. It can be such as reduced productivity of certain marine shown, for example, that the amounts of nutrients organisms, may be very difficult to detect. Although discharged to the Hudson estuary are five to ten times the impact of particular types of pollution is not fully greater than its capacity to assimilate and recycle known, it is clear that the types of wastes discussed in them.8' Furthermore, although the open ocean is the following paragraphs contribute to the pollution vast, its ability to assimilate the wastes reaching it has of the coastal zone. limits. Liquid Wastes Microbiological pollution of coastal waters associ- ated with the discharge of raw sewage is cause for The volume of industrial and municipal liquid concern. Estuarine waters receiving primary treated wastes being discharged into the waters of the coastal sewerage effluents have been shown to contain zone is substantial. In 1968, over 8 billion gallons of bacterial pathogens. Enteric viruses of human origin municipal wastes in the coastal counties and nearly "Ibid., p. 23. 1972 Act, Sections 104(g), 109, and 111, 86 Stat. 82 1, 'All [biological I communities are fragile in the sense that 829, 831, 33 USCA 1254(g), 1259, 1261. they are susceptible to stresses that are not part of their 'A recent study indicates that atmospheric washout may historic experience. Many of the substances entering the be a primary contributor of heavy metals to the seas, sea today as wastes are clearly not part of this experience. sometimes contributing more than the rivers do. See U.S. Depending on the level of stress they impose, such NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (1972). Marine substances can reduce population sizes, exterminate Environmental Quality, Suggested Research Programs for species, and even eliminate. entire biotas. See U.S. Understanding Man's Effect on the Oceans. National NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES/NATIONAL Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. Table 3, p. 12. ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING (197 0). Wastes Manage- 91U.S. NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (1972). ment Concepts for the Coastal Zone. National Academy Marine Environmental Quality, National Academy of of Sciences/National Academy of Engineering, Washing- Sciences, Washington, D.C. p. 10. ton, D.C., especially Chapter 5, Biological Effect. 100 22 billion gallons of industrial wastes in the coastal tuarine and coastal waters can be detrimental to States were discharged daily. Municipal wastes in- ' navigation, recreation, and propagation of fishery clude substantial amounts of industrial wastes, which resources. Restricting the movement of sand through add to their complexity. The National Estuarine estuaries, however, may deprive nearby beaches of Pollution Study reported that only about half of the needed replenishment and cause erosion. municipal wastes received secondary treatment. The exact nature of all these discharges and their effect on Ocean Dumping the marine ecosystems is not known and needs to be In 1968, almost 62 million tons of wastes (dredge in onitored. spoils, industrial wastes, sewage sludge, construction Solid Wastes and demolition debris, refuse, explosives, and miscel- laneous other wastes) were known to have been The use of the estuarine shoreline for refuse dumps dumped into the sea off the United States coasts, and landfills results in considerable debris getting into including areas beyond the coastal zone. Dredging the water; water leaching through these dumps can spoils made by far the largest contribution, some pollute the estuaries. Spoil disposal from dredging 52,200,000 tons, to this total. 86 Some of the wastes activities is another form of solid waste material that dumped are hazardous to public health, harmful to 14 contributes to estuarine degradation. marine life, and esthetically unattractive. The tonnage of wastes dumped at sea increased Industrial Use of Cooling Water fourfold from 1949 to 1968. Of the 250 known Powerplants are the major users of water in the disposal sites, 50 percent are off the Atlantic Coast, estuarine zone. In 1950, 22 percent of the Nation's 28 percent are off the Pacific Coast, and 22 percent powerplants were in the coastal zone; it is anticipated are in the Gulf Of MeXiCO.8 7 Only partial figures are that in the late 1970's over 30 percent of the plants available since 1968, but one study reports that ocean 85 dumping off the Pacific Coast (excluding dredging will be located there, emphasizing the necessity to spoils which contributed 8,320,000 tons in 1968, find suitable sites. The subject of siting powerplants explosives, and radioactive wastes) has declined from and other water-using enterprises is discussed in 1,007,500 tons in 1968 to 23,860 tons in 1971."8 Chapter 6. Whatever the magnitude of present ocean dumping, Heat sometimes has a deleterious effect on the increasing demands for waste disposal sites, together aquatic environment, and the quantity of water used with concern over the possible environmental effects, for cooling can create critical problems for some make it a live, current subject. Legislation has been marine organisms. The screens which cover the intake enacted to forbid the dumping of any radiological, pipes of the cooling system for thermal electric plants chemical, or biological warfare agent or high-level as well as the system itself sometimes cause mortality radioactive waste and to require a perrnit from the by capturing zooplankton, larval, and juvenile life Environmental Protection Agency or the Secretary of forms. On the other hand, the warm water releases the Army for the dumping of any other waste. 89 promoted the growth of some species, and have actually improved fishing, but in some instances sudden shutdown of the plant has caused increased 96 SMITH, David D & BROWN, Robert P, Applied Oceano- mortality in fish species attracted by the warm water. graphic Division, Dillingham Corporation, La Jolla, Calif. (1971). Ocean Disposal of Barge-Delivered Liquid and Sedimentation Solid Wastes from U.S. Coastal Cities. U.S. Environ- mental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. p. 21, Table 4. The natural process of sedimentation is modified 87 U.S. COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY and in many instances intensified by man's activities. (1970). Ocean Dumping, A National Policy. U.S. Govern- Increasing the influx or altering the composition of ment Printing Office, Washington, D.C. p. 1. substances and accelerating their deposition in es- See BROWN, Robert P & SHENTON, Edward H (197 1). Evaluating Waste Disposal at Sea - The Critical Role of Information Management. Paper presented at the 7th 14 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (March 1970). Annual Conference of the Marine Technology Society, The National Estuarine Pollution Study, 91st Congress, Washington, D.C. August 16-18, 1971. Table 1, p. 4. 2d Session, Senate Document No. 91-58. U.S. Govern- "'Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of ment Printing Office, Washington, D-C. p. 33. 1972, P.L. 92-532, Title 1, October 23, 1972, 86 Star. 8 51bid. 1052, 33 USCA 1401-1421. 101 t 7- 7- ul@ _7 z 7 Spoil from dredging operations can damage fish and wildlife resources The new legislation is largely a product of a study blanket ban on all dumping of sludge and relatively of ocean dumping made by the Council on Environ- harmless industrial wastes because of its concern over mental Quality, Ocean Dumping - A National Policy the alternatives for disposal of these residues. The (1970). Much of the discussion during congressional Commission believes that, given the current state of hearings on the legislation focused on which dumped knowledge, a case-by-case analysis of available waste wastes would be forbidden or phased out under the disposal alternatives, including ocean dumping, and standards provided in the bills, since the Council on their economic, social, and environmental effects is Environmental Quality had recommended that needed before decisions are made. In some instances, dumping of a number of types of wastes, including ocean dumping of sludge may prove to be the most digested and undigested sewage sludge, should be attractive alternative; the nutrients contained in stopped and no new dumping allowed.9" sludge may provide valuable nourishment for the The National Water Commission agrees that ocean marine ecosystems. Likewise, the use of old auto- dumping of toxic materials should be stopped, and mobile bodies to form fishing reefs has provided that all ocean dumping should be subject to regula- valuable fish habitat. Intelligent administration of the tion. The Commission cannot, however, endorse a 1972 legislation." should permit continuation of ocean dumping when it is the most efficient means of 90U.S. COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY waste disposal. (1970). Ocean Dumping - A National Policy. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. p. vi. 1972 Act, Section 403, 86 Stat. 883, 33 USCA 1343. 102 POLLUTION PROBLEMS OF THE the Lakes act like sinks. Wastes tend to settle in the GREAT LAKES9 2 relatively quiet waters and accumulate on the bot- The changes that have occurred in the Great Lakes tom. Some discharges are significantly warmer than as a result of pollution have been cited as a striking the receiving waters, which is not beneficial to the example of the misuse of one of the major water cold water fish that once thrived in the Lakes. resources of North America. Dramatic changes in the The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers dredges about biota and increased productivity of Lake Erie, often 10 million cubic yards of sediments yearly and erroneously referred to as the "death of Lake Erie," commercial interests another 2 million cubic yards to are cited repeatedly as the dire consequences of maintain depths of navigable waterways. The dredged pollution. Yet, as recently as the early 1950's many material from the harbors of industrial cities contains people, including some in the scientific community, polluted materials, including agricultural sediments believed that the Great Lakes were too large to be from upstream, which may be toxic to aquatic life seriously affected by man's activities. Pollution of and have a high oxygen demand. Dredging is not in tributaries, bays, harbors, and some inshore waters itself a new source of pollution, since the dredged was evident, but the possibility that a body of water material is already in the Lakes, but the moving of covering almost 10,000 square miles, such as Lake the material releases buried nutrients and produces Erie, could be undergoing measurable changes was highly visible and odoriferous results which dramatize not recognized until late in the 1950's. Nevertheless, the pollution problems. In response to criticism of it has been well documented that all of the Great the practice of dumping spoil into offshore waters, Lakes, except Lake Superior, have undergone signifi- the Corps developed an interim plan of diked disposal cant changes in quality of their environments and for polluted sediments. This evoked criticism because nature of their biota. the diked areas include marshes and lagoons from Present use of Lake Superior for disposal of which nutrients continue to enrich take waters. taconite iron ore waste has generated concern that Marshes play an important role in straining nutrients this lake may also be subjected to significant quality from land wash and for that reason, as well as for changes, and legal action has been taken in an providing a source of food for the lake fish, should be attempt to stop the practice. preserved. For example, the filling of the "Black Swamp" in the area of Toledo is considered to be one Nature of Pollution of the principal reasons for the algal blooms in western Lake Erie. The swamp had strained the The Great Lakes have been used as a receptacle for nutrients from the Maumee River drainage. The wastes, liquid and solid, discharged by industries, needed long-term solution, however, is pollution municipalities, individual homes, and ships, or de- abatement in the rivers to prevent the offensive posited as dredging spoil. Many industries and munic- material from reaching the lake in the first place, and ipalities do not discharge directly into the Lakes, but selection of intake disposal areas where the dredged the tributaries carry the effluent there. Most of the spoil material can be buried by sand on the lake water withdrawn for municipal and industrial uses bottom. from the Lakes is returned at lower quality. Treat- ment removes many pathogens and toxic materials, Present Environmental Quality of the Great Lakes but fails to remove nutrients, such as nitrogen and Water quality in most of the Great Lakes is better phosphorus, and various other chemicals. Unlike rivers, whose currents flush out these waste deposits, than a casual reading of the newspapers would lead one to believe, although there are areas of very poor The background studies for this section of the Commis- quality. Dissolved oxygen content of even the deepest sion's report are: BEETON AM (1971). Man's effect on waters remains near saturation throughout the year, the Great Lakes, Ch. XIV in GOLDMAN, Charles R except in Lake Erie and southern Green Bay. The (1971). Environmental Quality and Water Development, coliform content is usually low in most open lake prepared for the National Water Commission. National waters, and the 5-day biochemical oxygen demand is Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., Acces- usually less than I p.p.m. In general, the open waters sion No. PB 207 114; and KELNHOFER, Guy T (1972). of all the Lakes are of good to excellent quality. Preserving the Great Lakes, prepared for the National Water Commission. National Technical Information Serv- The suspended nricroscopic plants and animals ice, Springfield, Va., Accession No. PB 211442. comprising the planktonic community are the same 103 species found in other large, deep lakes of the change in the sediments. The oxygen demand of Lake Northern Hemisphere. Many of them are cosmo- Erie sediments is about three times that of Lake politan in distribution. Diatoms are probably the Michigan sediments and at least ten times that of most important components of the algal com- Lake Huron sediments. Changes in the fish popula- munities, although green and blue-green algae become tion of Lake Erie may be closely related to changes in very abundant at times, especially in the nearshore the sediments, since all Great Lakes fishes, except waters, in bays and harbors, and in Lake Erie, areas sheepshead, have eggs that settle and hatch on the that have been influenced most by enrichment. bottom. Most areas of Lakes Huron and Superior are Recent studies of Lake Michigan have demon- nutrient poor, as evidenced by the high transparency, strated that it is unrealistic to assume that the entire high dissolve d-oxygen content, low total dissolved volume of the Lakes is available for dispersion and 93 solids content, and nature of the biota. The dilution of domestic and industrial wastes. Inshore offshore waters (greater than 19 miles from shore) of and offshore waters of Lake Michigan have pro- Lake Michigan also have a high dissolved-oxygen nounced differences in concentrations of major nu- content and relatively high transparency, but the trients, especially in the vicinity of urban centers and concentrations of dissolved solids are higher. Portions along the east shore where most of the major of Lake Erie have high phosphorus concentrations, tributaries enter the Lake.9-5 The inshore environ- low transparency, an annual oxygen depletion in the ments are deteriorating at a much faster rate, with bottom waters, abundant plankton, and high produc- greater concentrations of ammonia, nitrate, tivity. 94 Lake Ontario receives nutrient rich waters organic-N, and soluble phosphate. The abundance of from Lake Erie, but its great depth apparently does algae inshore reflects the differences in nutrients. The not permit full utilization of the nutrients by the response is not limited, however, to increased algae algae. Lake Ontario has a greater chemical content growth. The species composition of inshore areas and than Lake Erie, but much of the biota consists of in bays differs from offshore, with eutrophic species those organisms which are also important in Lakes common in the inshore zone of many areas. Huron and Superior. Similar inshore -offshore differences have been The Eutrophication Problem: Many of the changes demonstrated for Lakes Erie and Ontario. Thus, it is which have taken place in Lakes Erie, Michigan, and the shallow water environments that are first altered, Ontario indicate accelerated eutrophication, i.e., nu- and they are of the greatest importance for water trient enrichment. Increases in nitrogen and phos supply, waste disposal, fish production, and recrea- phorus, and decreases in dissolved oxygen content, tion. are accepted indices of eutrophication. Most of the Man's Impact on the Fisheries: The decreased abun- alterations in the biota have considerable significance dance of some species of fish can be attributed to as indices of eutrophication also. Changes in species intensive fishing. In early years, the huge lake composition and increased abundance of plankton, sturgeon were caught and purposely destroyed to and decline and disappearance of salmonoid fishes, eliminate them from fishing grounds, since their large have occurred in a number of small lakes undergoing size damaged gear used to capture other species. 96 eutrophication. Over 8 million pounds were caught in 1879, 5 million It appears that many of the important changes in pounds in 1890, and 106,000 pounds by 1925. Only the Great Lakes are those taking place in the 41,000 pounds were taken throughout the Great sediments due to the entrance of tremendous Lakes in 1969 .97 The sturgeon has been protected amounts of nutrients and organics. Major changes in since 1929, but its numbers have not increased, since the characteristics of the lake bottoms and extensive depletion of dissolved oxygen offer evidence of 91U.S. FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL S- 3BEETON AM (1965). Eutrophication of the St. Law- ADMINISTRATION (1968). Lake Michigan Basin, Physi- rence Great Lakes. Limnology and Oceanography cal and Chemical Conditions. 10(2):240-254. 9 6 SMITH SM (1968). Species succession and fishery exploi- 94 BEETON AM (1969). Changes in the environment and tation in the Great Lakes. Journal of Fisheries Research biota of the Great Lakes, pp. 150-187 in NATIONAL Board of Canada 25(4);667-693. ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, Eutrophication: Causes, 97U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (1970). Great Consequences, Correctives. National Academy of Sci- Lakes Fisheries 1969, Annual Summary, C.F.S. No. ences, Washington, D.C. 5474. 104 many of the rivers and shallow areas otherwise the environment and biota. Increases in the chen-dcal suitable for the species are severely polluted. content and abundance of plankton in Lake Ontario Construction of the Welland Canal opened the closely parallel changes in Lake Erie. upper Lakes to the predatory sea lamprey. The sea The effect of a rapidly increasing population is lamprey attaches to other fish with its sucker-like beginning to show in Lake Michigan, although mouth and feeds on the blood of its victims. A changes have been more gradual than in Lake Erie lamprey destroys at least 20 pounds of fish during its and probably will continue to be more gradual, life, and the lake trout is especially vulnerable to its because the volume of Lake Michigan is much greater predation. Once spawning populations.of the lamprey than that of Lake Erie. The extent of change in Lake were established, the lake trout fishery collapsed. The Michigan might have been much greater if the annual lake trout catch was around 10 million pounds Chicago Sanitary Canal had not been constructed to in Lakes Huron and Michigan during the 1930's; less divert wastes from Chicago away from Lake than I nii1lion pounds were caught in these Lakes by Michigan. The long-term outlook for Lake Michigan is 1949. The sea lamprey has now been controlled in not encouraging, since the net addition and flow- Lake Superior and the lake trout catch, which through of, water is small and most of the major previously had fallen spectacularly, is now recovering. tributaries are seriously polluted. Changes in the drainage basin of Lake Ontario, e.g., The possibility of improving conditions in Lake damming and siltation of streams, made many of the Erie is somewhat better, since high-quality Lake streams unsuitable for stream-spawning fish, such as Huron water enters the Lake via the St. Clair and the Atlantic salmon. The salmon ascended various Detroit Rivers. Abatement of the pollution dis- streams tributary to Lake Ontario in the pioneer charged into the Lake or its tributaries should days, but rapidly declined in abundance and had eventually lead to improvement of conditions in Lake almost disappeared by 1880.9" Erie, since it is theoretically possible to exchange the Several developments between 1900 and 1970 entire volume of the Lake in about 3 years. were especially important to later changes in the Municipalities contribute major inputs of phos- Great Lakes. Several exotic species were introduced; phorus to the Lakes, as shown by data from the for example, smelt, carp, and alewife, which com- International Joint Commission report on pollution peted for food and thus replaced the natural species. of Lakes Eric and Ontario.9 9 Ten percent of the total Also, the introduction of nylon ne ts undoubtedly had phosphorus comes from direct discharge into Lake an effect in removing smaller fish and thus acceler- Erie. Municipalities also contribute about 55 percent ating the effects of intensive fishing. The attempt to of the phosphorus inputs from tributaries to Lake establish uniform fishing regulations was unsuccess- Erie. Together, municipal and industrial wastes ac- ful, and overfishing of many stocks continued. The count for about 75 percent of the estimated total sharp increase in industry and in the population in phosphorus input to Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, and the region was also of major importance. Major urban it is estimated that up to 50 percent of the centers were developing rapidly and sewerage systems phosphorus in municipal wastewaters comes from were expanded to carry waste to the Lakes, under the detergents. Even larger amounts probably come from assumption that the large volume of water in the runoff from agricultural lands. This ever-increasing Lakes would dilute any pollutants to concentrations discharge of nutrients is a major factor in accelerated harmless to the fisheries. eutrophication of the Lakes. The problem is com- pounded since large amounts of nutrients are retained Future Prospects or stored in the Lake, especially in the sediments. As pointed out previously, pollution flows directly Some of the changes in the Great Lakes, such as into inshore areas, bays, and harbors. The critical increases in chemical content, increased abundance of plankton, and changes in the characteristics of the 9 9 INTERNATIONAL LAKE ERIE WATER POLLUTION lake bottoms, have been subtle, and were not BOARD & INTERNATIONAL LAKE ONTARIO-ST. recognized until lake conditions were substantially LAWRENCE RIVER WATER POLLUTION BOARD altered. Lake Erie has shown the greatest changes in (1969). Pollution of Lake Erie, Lake Ontario and the International Section of the St. Lawrence River, report to 9 8 International Board of Inquiry for the Great Lakes the International Joint Commission. International Joint Fisheries (1943). Report and Supplement. U.S. Govern- Commission United States - Canada, Washington, D.C. ment Printing Office, Washington, D.C. p. 18. pp. 47-49. 105 J11 'A V w." % 7 A% 4Z t: log- A* '-7-77 Untreated storm water pollutes watercourse near Chicago areas now adversely affected are Green Bay, southern Water Quality Agreement between the United States Lake Michigan, Saginaw Bay, the shores of the and Canada, will provide further impetus toward Detroit River, western Lake Eric, southern shore of achievement of water quality standards under which Lake Eric, and western Lake Ontario. The intensive the quality of the Great Lakes will be improved. pollution abatement programs now being mounted in The complexities of the Great Lakes, including the these critical areas will undoubtedly be a major step differing conditions within each Lake and the inter- towards improving conditions throughout the Great relationships among the Lakes, makes the setting of Lakes. intelligent water quality and discharge standards The Great Lakes, as interstate waters, are subject extremely difficult. An enormous investment will be to the Nation's water quality programs. All of the required to install and operate municipal and in- Great Lakes States have established receiving water dustrial treatment facilities in order to meet par- standards within their jurisdictions under the pro- ticular water quality standards in the Great Lakes visions of the 1965 Act. The States have their own basin. It is imperative, therefore, that the standards water quality programs, based upon State law, as be grounded firn-fly on facts and biological under- well. In addition, the recently created Great Lakes standing and not on uninformed speculation. They Water Quality Board, created under the Great Lakes must be precise and tailored to the wide variation of 106 After computing the expected variations in tides throughout the tipper Bay, the tidal range was compared to the historic erosion rate for all reaches at least 0.5 kilometers long which contained uniform erosion and tidal characteristics. The results are shown in Figure 5.7. Most of the reaches which were suitable for analysis possessed "low" rates of erosion. There are some slight differences in the curves shown in Figure 5.7, but there are no strong differences in the way tidal ranges are distributed between reaches with low, medium, or high historic erosion rates, Figure 5.7 HISTORICAL SHORELINE RETREAT (FT/YEAR) Above: Figure 5. 7. Graph of relationship between the rate of coastal retreat and Class 4 tides for the northern Chesapeake Bay. 5-16 periodic assessments of water supplies by 4-12. Except in the event of default in performance the Water Resources Council and the as determined through preestablished pro- annual reports of the Council on Environ- cedures, States should have primary responsi- mental Quality. bility for definition and implementation of 4-8. Regional or metropolitan waste management water quality standards, including the time agencies organized under State authorization frame for implementation, and for regulatory should be charged with planning and imple- and enforcement actions, including the is- menting programs for collection and disposal suance and administration of the permit of waterborne wastes. Such agencies should system. Federal agencies should avoid taking provide for local or State decisionmaking with actions which interfere with or supersede regard to techniques for meeting standards, legitimate State and local functions in the financing the program, and enforcement. The implementation of the Nation's pollution 1972 Act should be amended to delete control program. requirements for Federal control over the 4-13. The Congress should obtain greatly improved organizational form of such agencies, leaving information on the cost effectiveness - of the form of local government up to the Federal water quality programs, looking States. toward providing assurance as to: (1) costs to 4-9. Water quality standards should be imple- the Nation of achieving alternative levels of mented through a national waste discharge water quality improvement, (2) beneficial ef- permit system, administered by State author- fects to be realized through the programs, ities under Federal guidelines. The 1972 Act (3) probability of proposed programs should be implemented by EPA in a manner achieving objectives, and (4) priorities for the which will maximize the opportunity for abatement of pollution from alternative early State assumption of responsibility for sources in various regional and local areas. the issuance and enforcement of pern-tits. 4-14. Present education and training programs Discharge limitations should be based on local should be continued and expanded as needed receiving water standards, taking into account to meet manpower requirements. However, the self-purifying capacity of natural water the level and composition of education and bodies. Such capacity should be allocated, training programs should be justified on the with appropriate safety factors, to existing basis of periodic surveys of the manpower discharges, conservation and recreation re- needs for water pollution control programs of serves, and a reserve for future discharges in State and local governments. accordance with applicable land use and 4-15. Study of alternative methods of disposing of comprehensive water quality plans. residues should continue, so as to provide 4-10. Permits issued under the national permit data to guide future decisions. This should system should place dischargers in compliance include . a comprehensive survey by the with Section 13 of the Refuse Act. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Admini- 4-11. The States should have primary responsibility stration to determine the extent of pollution for information collection systems, but the throughout the coastal zone and adjacent Federal Government should have responsi- oceanic areas and the Great Lakes. bility for developing, in cooperation with the 4-16. Estuarine and lacustrine research programs of States, both a national stream surveillance the Federal Government and of State agencies system and a uniform data collection, storage, should seek improved bases for the establish- and retrieval program, under the direction of ment of water quality standards for estuarine the U.S. Geological Survey. and coastal waters and for the Great Lakes. 108 14 -40% 'i ow IT Lill 41 -k V! All, WV- A7, IINU aqw, 7%. COO, @F, fl@, NIL Chapter 5 Improving Water-Related Programs Section A floods on the Mississippi, the Congress for the first time accepted a limited responsibility for flood 3 control. But it was not until 1936 that it authorized 4 hitroduction a nationwide flood control program. Thereafter, the scope of Federal responsibilities broadened with great In this chapter the Commission briefly describes rapidity, as will be evident from the subsequent and appraises the principal Federal water programs discussion of the present Federal water programs. and offers its recommendations for their improve- These programs came into being one at a time as ment. These programs came into being over a period the American people reached a consensus that a of a century and a half during which fundamental problem existed and that it would be proper for the changes took place, not only in the Nation's water Federal Government to play a part in solving that problems, but also in the American people's concept problem. But throughout the almost two centuries in of the proper role of their Federal Government. For which this was taking place the Nation was growing, many years after the adoption of the Constitution it new demands were evolving, and the people's concept was generally held that the Federal Government was of the role of the Federal Government was changing. without power to undertake "internal improve - It is not surprising, therefore, that some of the basic ments," other than improvements in aid of naviga- policies underlying these programs are inconsistent; tion; and even this limited power was not finally and, in many respects, anachronistic when viewed in established until 1824 when the Supreme Court held the light of what has happened since they were that the Commerce Clause of the Constitution had established. vested the Federal Congress with power over naviga- The Federal program to make the inland. water- tion within all of the States.' In that same year, ways navigable had its beginnings in an era when the appropriations were made for removing some minor young Nation had practically no transportation sys- obstructions to navigation from the Ohio and Missis- tem for bringing the products of the border regions to sippi Rivers. Additional navigation improvements its cities, or to its coastal harbors for export. were authorized by subsequent Congresses. Not until Navigable waterways were essential if those regions the 20th century did the Federal Government accept were to be settled, become productive, and thus make major responsibility for water resources development the Nation stronger and its people more prosperous. for other purposes. In 1902, the Congress utilized the There being but few settlers in the undeveloped Property Clause of the Constitution as a base for the hinterlands, it was obvious that if the waterways were Reclamation Act.' Fifteen years later, after great to be built the Nation as a whole would have to bear 'Gibbons P. Ogden, 22 U.S. 1 (1824). 'Federal assistance for the control of floods on the Mississippi and Sacramento Rivers was authorized by the 2A@t of June 17, 1902, P.L. 161, 57th Congress, 32 Stat. Act of March 1, 1917, P.L. 367, 64th Congress, 39 Stat. 388. 948. The Mississippi authorization was broadened by the - Act of May 15, 1928, P.L. 391, 70th Congress, 45 Stat. 534. Increased recrea *tional use adds a new dimension to 'Act of June 22, 1936, P.L. 738, 74th Congress, 49 Stat. water development 1570. the cost. Today, the regions served are highly develop- important uses of water resources. The people of the ed and the beneficiaries of new waterways are in a United States give far greater weight to environmental position to help pay for them. Moreover, the Nation and esthetic values than they did when many of the has a nationwide transportation system providing water policies still in effect were enacted into law. In alternatives to waterway transportation. The problem short, present conditions and needs differ greatly is no longer one of developing the only practicable from those that existed when the Nation's most means of transporting goods, but of developing the costly water programs were, for reasons good and most efficient combination of transportation modes. sufficient at the time, brought into being. This The Federal Reclamation Program came into being Commission concluded early in its life that it had no when many were seeking homes on the land, and in more important task than that of reappraising exist- an era still strongly influenced by the American ing policies and programs in the fight of changed dream of a great unified Nation extending from the conditions and needs, and of distilling from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Today, farming is highly results of these appraisals guidelines for bringing the mechanized, the United States has an agricultural water policies and programs of the United States into plant capable of producing food and fiber in excess of consonance with the needs of the Nation in the the Nation's needs, and the movement of people is remaining decades of the 20th century. from the land to the cities. The long-term trend, beginning with the justly When it was authorized, the nationwide Federal celebrated "Conservation Crusade" of the present flood control program was an expression of the desire century, has been toward comprehensive multiple- of the majority to help their unfortunate fellow purpose programs for major river basins. This trend citizens in those cities that had developed from early has been accelerated by the enactment of the Water settlements on river banks which had grown beyond Resources Planning Act of 1965,' and there can be the point at which a new start was economically no doubt that when Congress enacted this law, it feasible. This humanitarian motivation was reinforced took a long step in the right direction. But it failed to by the need for a program of public works to get modernize the policies that govern the components of people back to work in the depths of a great the comprehensive programs contemplated by the depression. Very few could foresee that this program Act. The navigation component is still planned and would be continued long beyond the time when the carried out under policies designed to meet condi- major flood problems that inspired it had either been tions and demands existing in a nation just beginning solved or could be addressed mor@ effectively in to expand into vast undeveloped regions. Those alternative ways. Probably none could foresee that components that increase the productive capacity of today the Federal Government would be building the Nation's agricultural plant are governed by works to increase the value of agricultural lands in policies fashioned during a period in which no one river bottoms, and even to provide protection for the dreamed that there would be a time when the Federal narrow flood plains of the smallest creeks; problems Government would be forced to establish programs to of such small magnitude that they can easily be reduce the production of food and fiber. Some flood solved by local entities, or in some instances, by the control projects, undertaken under policies initially States. Today, the major problem requiring solution intended to rescue already imperiled people and is not one of stopping damages already being exper- property, are being used to make possible more ienced, but of keeping more flood problems from intensive use of flood plain lands. The prospect of developing. The Nation has had little success in this, future flood protection at little or not direct cost to as is shown by the fact that flood damages continue landowners is encouraging them to develop flood to increase despite the billions spent for protective plain lands. Thus, policies that were intended to put works. an end to flood losses tend to create now flood The major water problems of today were of little problems faster than the Nation can solve its old consequence when the Nation decided to assume ones. These are evidence that the Nation has not kept responsibility for navigation improvements, reclama- its water policies and programs up to date. it tion, and flood control. Today, the United States is indicates that the kinds of programs the Water faced with a tremendous problem of pollution con- trol. The great majority of its citizens live in cities, and the water problems of the urban areas cry out for 'P.L. 89-80, July 22, 1965, 79 Stat. 244, as amended, 42 attention. Recreation has become one of the most USCA 1962 et seq. 112 uniform. The results are plotted in Figure 5.9 . As in the case of the comparison based on tides (Figure 5.7), most of the reaches suitable for analysis possess "low" historic rates of coastal retreat, and there are no general differences in the way predicted "100-year" storm surge levels are distributed between reaches with low, medium, or high historic erosion rates. Figure 5.9 Above: Fiqure 5.9 Graph of relationship between the rate of coastal retreat and the predicted "100-year" storm surge height for northern Chesapeake Bay. opposite: Fiqure 5.10. Height-Frequency estimates of storm surges for the Maryland Bay shore. 5-22 pipeline. The proportion of the total traffic carried Since the beginning of the Federal program in by inland waterways has increased from about 4 1824, the Corps of Engineers has been responsible for percent in 1950 to 10 percent in recent years. its planning and execution. In the early years of the Federal expenditures for the improvement of the Nation, States undertook the construction of water- inland waterway system had totaled $3.2 billion9 by ways. One of the most famous, as well as the most June 30, 1971. The cost to the Federal Government successful, of the State projects was the Erie Canal of operating and maintaining the system has been built by the State of New York. Later, it was rebuilt 14 running over $80 million annually. Under present as the State Barge Canal and is still in operation. policies, the Federal Government usually bears the However, the other State canal projects have been full construction cost of improving waterways for abandoned or replaced by Federal waterways. commercial use, but non-Federal interests are From the beginning of the Federal program, there required to provide lands, easements, rights-of-way, has been a strong demand for waterway projects in and spoil areas and provide and maintain public the belief that the "low cost" transportation thus terminal and transfer facilities. permitted would stimulate economic development in In 1970, there were 1,849 transportation com- the less developed regions of the Nation. The con- panies operating on the inland and coastal waterways. struction of waterways has also been used as a means Only 141 of these were subject to regulation by the of forcing reductions in railroad freight rates. For Interstate Commerce Commission. The 1,849 com- these and other reasons,@ many parts of the country panies operated almost 24,000 vessels of which about still seek projects to make their rivers more navigable. three-fourths are unpowered barges." The largest The Corps of Engineers has made reports on a barges now in use have a capacity of 3,000 tons, a number of potential waterways and the Congress has load that would fill 55 average sized railroad freight authorized the construction of an additional 2,351 cars or 30 of the big new ones. Barges are joined into miles of waterway, the cost of which is presently "tows" which are generally pushed' ' by diesel- estimated at $4.6 billion. Other possible waterways powered towboats. Towboats with powerplants of not authorized, but supported by the regions that 4,000 horsepower are fairly common. Such a vessel would be benefited, would have an aggregate length can handle up to 20,000 tons of freight in a single of 2,514 miles and, according to preliminary esti- tow. Towboats with powerplants of 8,500 horse- mates, would cost about $5 billion.' 5 power have proven practicable on the Mississippi During recent years, a counterforce, has come into River. Average charges to shippers of moving bulk play in the form of an increased public interest in the commodities on the waterways are said to be about 3 impact of waterway construction on the environ- mills per ton-mile" and average transportation ment. This force has resulted in the stoppage of savings over alternative means of transportation have construction work on one project, the Cross-Florida been estimated by the Corps of Engineers to average Barge Canal Project, and in the future it may be much 5 mills per ton-mile. 1 3 more difficult to obtain authorizations or appro- priations for new waterway projects than has been 9N6t converted to present dollars- Information furnished the case in the past. by Corps of Engineers. 10 BLOOD, Dwight M (1972). Inland Waterway Transport APPRAISAL OF THE PROGRAM Policy in the U.S., prepared for the National Water The Federal inland waterway program has been Commission. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., Accession No. PB 208 668. pp. 11-10, appraised by many study commissions and similar 11-13. bodies since its beginning almost a century and a half Except on the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway where they are ago. The National Water Commission has reviewed pulled. the findings of the principal previous studies, as well 1 2AMERICAN WATERWAYS OPERATORS (1973). as the results of an independent study made for it by Statement of Braxton Carr, President, at Washington Conference, National Water Commission, February 9, 1 4 The State of New York is seeking Federal participation in 1973. the operation, maintenance, rehabilitation, and improve- 13U:S. CONGRESS, Senate Committee on Public Works ment of the State Barge Canal. It is also considering (1955). Hearings on Flood Control, Rivers and Harbors, legislation to impose user charges on the carriers using and Miscellaneous Projects, S. 414, S. 524, and S. 1069, this waterway. 84th Congress, Ist Session. Statement of Lt. Gen. Samuel Information on potential waterways furnished by U.S. D. Sturgis, Chief of Engineers, April 18, 195 5. p. 3 1. Army Corps of Engineers. 114 Professor Dwight M. Blood of the University of Deficiency in the Present Cost-Sharing Policy 16 Wyoming. There is no need to repeat all of the The Federal waterway improvement program had findings of these reports here, since the reports are its beginnings when the major reason for providing readily available. The principal deficiencies pointed transportation facilities-then limited to waterways out in these reviews may be briefly stated as follows: and roads-was to induce the settlement and eco- First, a major weakness of the present program nomic development of regions that were essentially stems from deficiencies in the procedures by which uninhabited. This was an overriding national purpose. it is determined whether or not a proposed When a region to be served by a waterway had few waterway project would result in a justified addi- people living in it, there was no way for local tion to the national transportation system. beneficiaries to assume any part of the cost of Second, a major weakness of the legislative policies improvements and it was in the national interest for governing the present program is that they do not the Federal Government to bear these costs. As time require beneficiaries to share in the cost of passed, other means of transportation were devel- constructing, operating, and maintaining Federal oped, and the regions served by waterways increased waterway projects. in population and affluence. The national purpose of Third, the inland waterway system is inescapably pushing back the frontier and developing under- an element of the national transportation system. developed regions was achieved. Eventually, railways, Yet, the waterways are not planned, evaluated, or highways, and pipelines were developed, and improv- regulated as a part of the national transportation ing technology made the waterways a highly efficient system. and competitive mode of transport, the costs of which can easily be paid by the direct beneficiaries. Deficiency in Evaluation Procedures However, the policy of Federal assumption of prac- tically all costs which had been established during the This deficiency is serious, but calling attention to formative period of the Nation's economic growth its existence should not be interpreted as an attempt has never been adjusted to take into account the to cast doubt upon the economic justification of present competitive situation in the Nation's trans- waterway improvement as such. Some of the existing portation system. New waterway projects serving waterways have undoubtedly reduced the real cost of highly developed regions are still being installed transportation to the Nation by amounts greatly entirely at Federal expense, paid for from the general exceeding the costs of providing them. For example, revenues. Commercial users of inland waterways pay there can be no doubt but that the improvement of no Federal fuel tax, nor any lockage fees or other the mainstem of the Ohio River has been a sound form of remuneration for the cost of providing and investment for the Nation. But there is a tendency to maintaining the waterways. A change in the policy conclude that because some waterways have contri- governing the division of the cost of waterway buted greatly to the prosperity of a region or the projects between the public Treasury and those who Nation, all waterways are, or will be, justified. This is directly benefit from the low-cost transportation a very old mistake. The success of the Erie Canal, facilities is long overdue. The lack of an equitable built by the State of New York early in the last cost-sharing policy is a major weakness of the present century, brought on a great demand for similar waterway program. waterways in other States. Many of the waterways built by the States and private enterprise turned out Failure to Treat Waterways as Elements of a National to be financial failures. Modern economics has pro- Transportation System vided much more reliable methods for predicting The third major defect stems from the fact that to what effect a contemplated waterway project would date the United States has failed to develop a really have upon the national income. Yet, projects are still effective national transportation policy, and hence undertaken that could not pass the test of an has not achieved a national transportation system unbiased economic evaluation. that meets the transportation demands of the United States at least cost to the public as a whole. The present situation is well characterized in a report,17 16BLOOD, Dwight M (1972). Inland Waterway Transport Policy in the U.S., prepared for the National Water "U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (March 1960). Commission. National Technical Information Service, Federal Transportation Policy and Programs. U.S. Springfield, Va., Accession No. PB 208 668. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 115 The basic equations are: and 5.1 5.2 Here "H" is the significant wave height (defined as the average height of the highest third of the waves) and "T" is the corresponding wave period; "g" and "U" are gravity and wind speed, respectively, and "F" is the fetch (the distance over which the wind blows). These equa- tions are based on North Sea wave data and are valid for an infinite depth. To incorporate depth effects, a reduction factor 'r' is introduced to reduce the wave height as a result of bottom friction. 5.3 and 5.4 where "k" wave number (2 /L) and "h" is the water depth. The factor "f" is a friction factor, which generally is taken as 0.01 for sandy areas. The x is the distance travelled by the wave over a shallow bottom of depth "h". For computational purposes, a given distance is broken down into numerous lengths " X" of assumed constant depth. The computational procedure consists of a number of steps. 1. The water surface is overlain by a fan of rays emanting from the shoreline point of interest. This fan is symmetrically 5-25 issued by the Department of Commerce in 1960, in national transportation system. This subject is treated the following words: broadly in Chapter 10 of this report in the section on National transportation is presently out of bal- evaluation. However, the problem of evaluating ance. It is less a national system than a loose waterway projects is rendered unique by the fact that grouping of individual industries. We have built a the Congress has, for this one type of water project, vast network of highways, railways, inland enacted into law certain procedures for determining waterways and seaports, airways and airports, the desirability of the construction of a contemplated and pipelines, with little attention to conflict waterway. This it did by including in Section 7 of the among these expanding networks. Economic Department of Transportation Act of 1966 a provi- regulation has been administered in rigid com- sion requiring a determination of the probable effect partments although many basic problems are of the waterway on the cost of transportation to common to many areas of transportation. Total shippers.18 While there can be no objection to capacity is not closely geared to total need. requiring the report on a waterway to show the Although the remedy lies in the development of an potential savings to shippers, this is not a measure of effective national transportation policy, it is impossi- the economic benefits of a waterway. From the ble to separate water policy and transportation policy standpoint of the Nation, a waterway project is insofar as inland waterways are concerned. A water justified only if it will reduce the economic-i.e., commission is not in a position to deal with this "real"-cost to the Nation of providing the transport problem in its entirety. Nevertheless, it is services in question, and if the benefits derived exceed appropriate for this Commission to call attention to these costs. An estimate of the savings to shippers is the fact that the national transportation system can of little value in determining whether a proposed never attain optimum efficiency until its waterways waterway should be built, for a number of reasons become an integral component of that system, and not the least of which is that these so-called savings are utilized in such a way as to minimize the total may be wiped out after the investment is made if the cost to the Nation of meeting its transportation competing mode-such as a railroad -reduces its rates ' needs. It is also appropriate for this Commission to This is not true of reductions in economic costs. They point out that when waterway user charges are represent the value of the resources, including labor, imposed, as recommended in this report, and institu- required to provide the transportation service, and tional arrangements require that the rates charged by hence do not change if rates change. It follows that a other. modes of transportation realistically reflect comparison of economic costs must be made to economic costs, freight which can move on the determine whether the construction of a waterway waterways at the least real cost to the Nation will be would reduce the real cost to the Nation of providing encouraged to move by water. Finally, it is proper for needed transportation services. this Commission to emphasize the importance of It is the view of this Commission that it would be initiating a vigorous effort to 'achieve the goal of an desirable for reports on potential waterway projects efficient and fully coordinated national transporta- to show both the "savings to shippers" as required by tion system, and as a first step to improve the data Section 7 of P.L. 89-670, and a comparison of the base for such an effort. true economic costs of transportation by the water- DISCUSSION way and by the least-cost alternative mode-rail, truck, pipeline, or combinations thereof- and the The Commission's review of the three areas of associated benefits. The Congress and the public deficiency leads to consideration of remedies which would then know three things: (1) what shippers would modernize the Nation's waterway policies by might save, either by shifting their shipments to the improving evaluation procedures, promoting more waterway or as a result of the competing mode equitable cost-sharing arrangements, and lead to reducing its charges; (2)what "real" savings would better utilization of waterways as elements of a accrue to the Nation if the waterway were con- national transportation system. structed; and (3) whether construction of the water- way is economically sound. Unfortunately, and in the Improving Evatuation Procedures opinion of the Commission unnecessarily, Section 7 First, there is an urgent need to improve the procedures by which the decision is reached that a P.L. 0-670, October 15, 1966, Sec. 7, 80 Stat. 931, 942, particular waterway project should be added to the 49 USCA 16S6. 117 has been interpreted as requiring the executive branch uniform on all segments of interconnected water- to confine its analysis to a determination of the first ways, such as the Mississippi River and its tributaries. figure. The law does not prevent the executive branch The Commission believes this would be feasible. from applying any test of desirability that it considers At the hearings on its draft report, Commission essential to determining whether or not a project is in members repeatedly asked witnesses who represented the national interest. The Commission believes the inland waterway interests what distinction they saw economic test should be included in any future between on the one hand, trucks which must pay user evaluation of a proposed navigation project and that charges in the form of license fees, toll charges, and Congress should amend Section 7 to require that an fuel taxes and, on the other hand, barge tows which economic evaluation be made in addition to the pay no such user charges. Some witnesses replied that estimation of the savings to shippers. trucks carry a different kind of cargo than barges, typically a higher-value cargo. Most asserted that Improving Cost-Sharing Policy trucks do not pay 100 percent of the cost of the As indicated previously, there is no longer any highways they use; that passenger car owners and rational justification for assumption by the Federal general taxpayers pay part of the cost. In view of the Treasury of the entire cost of constructing, operating, Commission's recommendations as to the charges to and maintaining navigable waterways. Once this is be collected from users of existing improved water- accepted, the problem becomes one of deciding what ways-which would apply to recreational as well as share of the cost should be home by non-Federal commercial craft, and would not in fact reimburse interests, and what is the best way to collect that the Federal Government for 100 percent of the costs share. Many who have advocated cost-sharing have of improving the waterways=the Commission regards proposed that the carriers operating on Federal these attempted distinctions as being without any real waterways be required to pay tolls, or user charges. difference. Furthermore, the user charges that are Others have suggested a fuel tax.'9 Another means, collected by Federal and State governments in the less frequently proposed, would be to require the form of fuel taxes do pay 100 percent of the carriers to maintain a record of their use of Federal costs of constructing and operating the Federal interstate highway system, and proposals to divert a waterways, probably in terms of ton-miles, and portion of the revenues from these charges to mass periodically to submit a report somewhat like an transit subsidies are being seriously considered. income tax return, along with a payment of whatever It is the view of the Commission that for water- tax might be due for the number of units of use ways built in the future, the entire cost -con struc.tion reported. costs as well as operation and maintenan e costs- After considering these approaches, the Commis- c sion arrived at the conclusion that for existing should be borne by the direct beneficiaries of the waterways recovery of construction costs already project. It would not, however, be desirable to incurred is impractical and that the most practicable require the repayment of the construction costs of system for recovering future operation and mainte- new waterways in the form of user charges as this nance costs would be a combination of a fuel tax and could result in the user charges for the new water- lockage charges. The fuel tax should be paid both by ways being several times larger than those collected commercial and pleasure craft. The lockage charges on the old waterways. A preferable system would be might be collected as lockage fees at each passage one under which the user charge collected on a -now through the lock of a commercial vessel and by sale waterway would be the same as the charge for. a of annual lock permits to recreational vessels and comparable old waterway in the same region, and other small craft. An alternative for commercial which would require that an appropriate non-Federal vessels would be for the lockmaster to record their entity" or a Federal or Federal-State corporation2l passage and bill each company on a monthly or agree, in advance, to repay the construction cost, quarterly basis. It appears to be the view of some with interest, in installments over a period of years, in representatives of inland waterway shipping interests 20 Perhaps a State, or an interstate compact commission, that if user charges are imposed they should be where more than one State should contribute. 21 Patterned after the St. Lawrence Seaway Development Pr@sidents Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon have supported Corporation, perhaps, or similar to the Delaware River fuel tax legislation, but the Congress has not seen fit to Basin Commission or a federally chartered regional enact such legislation. corporation as discussed in Chapter 11 of this report. 118 a manner similar to that in which non-Federal entities recover any part of the sunk construction presently reimburse the Federal Treasury for capacity cost. provided in Federal reservoirs for the storage of water (2) For "new" waterways, it would be desirable to be used for municipal and industrial supply. The for the Federal Government to require that in costs of operating and maintaining the new water- advance of construction an appropriate entity ways would, under such a scheme, be covered by the other than the Federal Treasury agree to fuel taxes and user charges collected from the users of repay the construction cost, with interest, all components of the waterway system. over a specified period of years. Costs of The cost to the Federal Government of operating operating and maintaining the new waterways and maintaining the shallow-draft inland waterways should be collected from the users, the same averaged about $73 million annually for the 5-year as for existing waterways. period 1968-1972, inclusive." The commercial traf- There are a number of reasons for requiring future fic on these same waterways during this 5-year period costs of waterways to be paid by the users rather than amounted to something less than 200 billion ton- the Federal taxpayers. One of these reasons has miles. Had a user charge system to recover the entire already been mentioned: If non-Federal interests cost of operating and maintaining these waterways agree to repay the first cost -of a waterway, the been in effect during that period, the user charge per Congress and the public can be sure that those urging ton-mile should not have amounted to more than the project are sincere in believing that it is justified. about 0.4 mil ($.0004) per ton-mile of commercial Thus, cost-sharing requirements would be effective in traffic, since recreational traffic would also bear part eliminating political pressures from a group seeking a of the cost." Although numerous statements were project for no other reason than that they expect it made at the Commission's regional conferences to the to be paid for by the Federal Treasury. effect that user charges would seriously reduce or Another reason for requiring cost-sharing is that it even eliminate the use of inland waterways, no solid is essential to prevent the inequity that results when evidence was offered in support of such statements. those who benefit substantially from the construction On the contrary, testimony as to the wide disparity in of a public work pay no more of its cost than those favor of water rates over rail and truck rates suggested who receive no benefits whatsoever, and who may that for the principal waterways traffic would not be even be adversely affected because they reside in a diverted by user charges such as those recommended region that will be placed at a disadvantage by a by the Commission. project that stimulates the economy of a competing In summary, the Commission believes that: region. (1) For existing, or "old," waterways, the aim User charges on waterways can also help eliminate should be to recover, through a combination inequities between different modes of transportation of fuel taxes and lockage charges, a progres- that result from uneven Federal policies. The rail- sively increasing annual total that would, by roads believe it is inequitable to require them to the end of 10 years ', and indefinitely there- compete with carriers who pay nothing for the use of after, be sufficient to cover the entire Federal waterways provided at public expense. The problems annual expenditure for operation and main- involved in imposition of user charges to correct this tenance. No attempt should be made to inequity are complicated by the deficiencies in present laws governing the regulation of transporta- Data provided by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The tion rates. The principal objective of regulation amount shown does not include the cost of operating and should be to achieve a national transportation system maintaining those lower reaches of major rivers that are that meets the Nation's transportation needs at least used by deep-draft vessels. The annual operation and cost. To ass ure that this goal be achieved, it is maintenance costs for these deep-draft sections averaged essential that waterways be used to transport freight about $13.5 million for the 5-year period 1968-1972. that can move by water at a lesser real cost to the 1111iformation furnished the Commission by Professor Nation than by any other mode of transportation. Marvin Barloon of Case Western Reserve University But present regulation by the Interstate Commerce suggests that from 15 to 20 percent of the marine fuel Commission does not always prevent competing consumption in the Mississippi River and tributaries and modes from reducing their rates below cost for the Gulf coastal waterways might be for pleasure boat operation. (Letter dated February 21, 1973, to Com- purpose of diverting from the waterways traffic that missioner James R. Ellis.) could move at a lesser real cost by that mode. For 119 this reason, the Commission believes that when the transportation system would be frustrated. However, Congress imposes user charges on waterways it must the Commission believes that the Congress by setting also make possible such regulation of rates as may be up and overseeing the right kind of transportation necessary to insure that each mode of transport is regulatory agency could provide reasonable assur- used to the best advantage of the Nation as a whole. ances that such agency would not favor one form of Regulation should require that all rates be compen- transportation over another, but allow each to carry satory, and filed with at least 30 days notice, to that cargo which from the standpoint of the national preserve rate stability, but otherwise should promote, interest it carries best. If Congress does not create such rather than stifle, competition among various modes. a body, it cannot establish and enforce a rational national transportation policy. Better Utilization of Waterways as Elements of a National Transportation System RECOMMENDATIONS The foregoing leads directly into the third defi- 5-1. Any report proposing a Federal inland water- ciency mentioned which presents a problem that lies way project should provide an estimate of the somewhat outside the proper sphere of interest of the true economic cost and benefit to the Nation National Water Commission, since it involves both of providing the contemplated transportation transportation and water policies. Nevertheless, the service, and a comparison thereof with the true Commission believes it has an obligation to recorri- economic cost of providing this service by the mend that provisions be made at an early date for a least-cost alternative means. Ibis should be in vigorous attempt to determine the changes in national addition to the estimate presently required by transportation policy that will insure that waterways Section 7 of the Department of Transportation shall be used most effectively and equitably as an Act of 1966. important element of the national transportation 5-2. Legislation should be enacted to require non- system. The complex problems involved cannot be Federal interests to bear an appropriate share solved by simply requiring carriers to pay for the use of the cost of Federal inland waterway pro- of the public waterways. jects. Such legislation should require: (a) that Pending the development of a better solution to carriers and pleasure craft using inland water- this problem than any that has been previously ways be required to pay user charges such that proposed, two courses of action should be pursued: the total collections on all Federal waterways (1) The Congress should seek to assure that the would be sufficient to cover Federal expendi- Nation's great investments in waterways shall be tures for operation and maintenance of the used-to the extent that their use is economically entire system; (b) that within the bounds of justified-by requiring that the rates charged by other administrative practicability the user charges modes of public transportation be so regulated that should consist of a uniform tax on all fuels the imposition of user charges would not have the used by vessels operating on the inland water- effect of shifting to these other modes any traffic ways, plus lockage charges at rates sufficient to that can move at lesser real cost by water; and (2) the repay the cost of operating and maintaining the executive branch should take steps to make available locks within integral segments of the total a more adequate data base to those who must waterway system; (c) that charges be imposed ultimately find an answer to the difficult and gradually over a 10-year period and increased complex problem of bringing into existence the best progressively so that by the end of that possible national transportation system. period they will be sufficient to recover annu- The Commission recognizes the concerns expressed ally the entire cost of operating and maintain- by knowledgeable witnesses at the hearings on its ing the Federal inland waterway system; and review report to the effect that inland water carriers (d) that as a condition for Federal construction could not expect fair treatment if they were placed of future inland waterway projects responsible under the regulatory jurisdiction of the same Federal federally chartered or non-Federal entities be agency that regulates rail and truck carriers. Simply required to enter into agreements to repay the stated, the water carriers fear that the agency would construction costs, including interest, over a be pro-railroad or pro-truck. If such fears proved specified period of years unless the Congress well-founded, the Commission's recommendation determines that a particular waterway will that waterways be treated as part of a national result in national defense benefits sufficient to 120 justify assumption of a part of the cost by the legislative actions as may be required to bring Federal Government. into being an integrated national transportation 5-3. Any legislation requiring the payment of water- system in which all modes of transportation, way user charges should also authorize and including inland waterways, are utilized in such direct the Federal transportation regulatory a way as to reduce to a practical minimum the agencies to regulate rates for all competing cost to the Nation of meeting the demands for modes of transportation in such a way as to transportation. To prepare the way for the encourage the use of the waterways for any development of such an integrated and ef- traffic that could move by that mode at the ficient national transportation system, the De- least economic cost to the Nation. partment of Transportation should develop and 5-4. The Department of Transportation should submit to the President and the Congress broaden and intensify its efforts to improve recommendations designed to provide the data national transportation policy. It should base that will be needed to achieve the objec- develop a plan for such administrative and tive of this recommendation. Section C Food and Fiber Programs:` Increasing Agricultural Production Through Water Resource Development The Federal Government has a number of water ments, for example, encourage intensive farming on resources development programs that increase the land remaining in production, with heavy inputs of number of acres in the Nation's agricultural land base water and fertilizer. Production quotas, on the other or that increase the productivity of the agricultural hand, would tend to discourage intensive farming. land now farmed. These programs encompass three The alternative futures analyzed in the study25 of principal activities: supplying irrigation water, pro- future demands for water and land for agriculture tecting agricultural land from floods, and draining included alternative hypotheses as to future farm land for agricultural use. The issue to be faced in this policies, The Commission's mandate, however, does section is whether these programs should be con- not extend to an evaluation of farm price support tinued at present levels, expanded, or reduced. programs and no recommendations on them are made. 26 The Commission has made no attempt to evaluate In the balance of this section, there follows a brief the farm price support programs of the Federal description of the programs and an inquiry into Government, even though the size and nature of present and future demand for agricultural pro- those programs may affect the demand for water and duction and the adequacy of present and futue land. Land retirement programs and acreage allot- resources to meet the demand. 24nis discussion excludes problems of forest products on National Technical Information Service, Springfield Va., which the Commission has made no study and expresses Accession No. PB 211444. no opinion. The discussion also excludes measures un- 26Recent developments suggest a trend toward the free related to water resources that are aimed at increasing market policies assumed in 9 of the 11 alternative futures agricultural production, such as research and extension analyzed in the Iowa State University studies. The programs. Department of Agriculture has reduced the acreage set aside in the land retirement program for 1973, and in 25HEADY, Earl 0 et al., Iowa State University (1971). testimony before the Agriculture Appropriations Sub- Agricultural Water Demands, prepared for the National committee of the House Committee on Appropriations Water Commission. National Technical Information on February 21, 1973, Secretary of Agriculture Earl L. Service, Springfield, Va., Accession No. PB 206 790; and Butz announced that the Administration intended to MADSEN, Howard C et al., Iowa State University (1972). propose modifications in the domestic farm programs to Alternative Demands for Water and Land for Agricultural move agriculture toward greater independence and Purposes, prepared for the National Water Commission. greater reliance on the marketplace. 121 DESCRIPTION OF FEDERAL PROGRAMS over 2 million ponds and pits providing water for agricultural use." Three departments of the Federal Government are The small watershed program of the SCS under responsible for the principal water supply, flood Public Law 566 has led to authorization for the control, and drainage programs. The Bureau of installation of more than 1,000 projects (as of June Reclamation of the U.S. Department of the Interior is 30, 1971) at a cost of about $2.3 billion. These principally concerned with irrigation in the 17 West- projects deal with watersheds totaling roughly 66 ern States. It supplies raw, arid land with irrigation million acres, but no estimate of the agricultural land water, thereby bringing new land into agricultural benefited or the crops which will be produced on production, and it provides supplemental irrigation those lands is available in a form useful for making water for lands already in cultivation, thereby main- policy recommendations. Stream channeling for taining or increasing their productivity. The U.S. drainage and flood protection is part of the small Army Corps of Engineers provides flood control and watershed program, and estimates indicate that more drainage for land presently being cropped as well as than 20,000 miles of streams will be altered. Some for potential cropland. The Corps also furnishes some 6,000 miles of channel alterations have already been irrigation water. The U.S. Department of Agriculture completed at a cost of $166.5 million.2 8 In January has two agencies engaged in water control programs. 1972, slightly under 3,000 applications for grants The Soil Conservation Service (SCS), operating under under the program were pending for a like number of Public Law 566 of the 83rd Congress, provides flood small watersheds embracing 227 million acres.2 9 protection and drainage for small, upstream water- sheds. Some irrigation water is supplied from these Corps of Engineers Programs projects. The Department's Agricultural Stabilization Flood Control and Drainage: The nature of the flood and Conservation Service (ASCS) has an extensive control program of the Corps of Engineers results in program of financial assistance for drainage of agri- the protection of large amounts of agricultural lands cultural land to enhance its productivity. The extent surrounding urban and suburban developed areas. In of the increase in farm productivity resulting from addition, large areas of low-lying lands have been drainage and flood protection programs is not easily reclaimed through Corps of Engineers flood control documented, since neither the Corps of Engineers nor and major drainage projects, particularly in the vaHey the Agriculture Department publish such data. On the of the lower Mississippi River and its tributaries, and basis of the acreage involved, it is likely that the in Central and Southern Florida. The Corps of Department of Agriculture's program has the largest Engineers does not publish data that permit an impact on crop production, followed by the Corps of analysis of the costs per acre of draining or protecting Engineers and Bureau of Reclamation programs, in arable land from floods, nor does it publish data on that order. Programs of other agencies, such as the the incremental amount of agricultural production Tennessee Valley Authority and the International that results from its flood control and drainage Boundary and Water Commission, have a much lesser projects. Gross figures on land suitable for agriculture effect and are not discussed herein, but the same that has been or will be protected by Corps flood policies adopted for the major programs should be extended to them. 27 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service (October 1971). Agricultural Conservation Program, Practice Accomplish- ments by States, 35 Year Summary, 1936 Through 1970. Department of Agriculture Programs U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. pp. 97-99, 111, 112, 166-168, and 179-181. Some conception of the magnitude of the Depart- "The Commission's views on channelization are contained ment of Agriculture programs is revealed by gross in Chapter 2. expenditures and other operational data. The Agri- 29 U,'S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (March 1972). cultural Conservation Program of ASCS and prede- inventory of Benefits, Costs, and Other Data for P.L. 566 cessor agencies in the 35 years of operation between Watershed Work Plans. A staff report on Project Plans 1935 and 1970 disbursed S6.7 billion on land and approved to July 1971 under Public Law 566 of the 83d water conservation measures, improving the drainage Congress. Compiled by the Natural Resources Economics Division, Economic Research Service, for the Soil Con- on more than 52 million acres and assisting construc- servation Service. U.S. Department of Agriculture, tion of some 80,000 small irrigation reservoirs and Washington, D.C. 122 control projects are presented in Table 5-1. A total of million acres cleared and suitable for agriculture are 53.6 million acres of land are benefited by projects not now being cultivated but could be brought into completed or under construction, and another 36.7 production if demand warranted it. 30 Some indica- million may be benefited by future work. tion of the actual effect of this program is provided by a report issued by the Department of Agriculture TABLE 5-1.-Status of lands in U.S. Army Corps of which indicates that the Corps' flood control program Engineers flood control and major drain- in the lower Mississippi valley contributed to the age programs as of December 1971 clearing of 4.1 million acres of land in the period 1950-1969, land which was largely devoted to the Completed growing of soybeans." At its New Orleans con- Or Under Future ference, the Commission was told that the channel Status Construction Work' Total clearing and straightening under this program had worsened flood problems downstream by speeding up Agricultural (Millions of Acres) the flow of water, requiring the construction of additional protective works to provide protection Cleared and 29.6 19.6 49.2 against higher flood stages. suitable for agriculture Recent Projects: In the absence of detailed data from Suitable for 6.3 6.4 12.7 the Corps of Engineers, the staff reviewed the project agriculture reports submitted to the 9 1 st Congress by the Corps, when cleared which formed the basis for projects which were Not suitable 8.1 4.3 12.4 authorized in the Flood Control Act of 197 0,3 2 and for agricul- therefore indicate the nature of the future Corps ture programs. The projects having agricultural flood Not classified 9.6 6.4 16.0 control or drainage benefits can be divided into two Total 53.6 36.7 90.3 groups. The first group is composed of projects devoted almost entirely to producing agricultural Drainage benefits. The second group consists of projects which, No drainage 23.7 11.5 35.2 though devoted in part to agriculture, have sub- problem stantial urban, recreational, and other components. Drainage 12.7 11.1 23.8 There are five almost entirely agricultural projects. works When completed, these projects would add 237,570 provided acres of cropland and improve 133,925 additional Drainage 17.2 14.1 31.3 acres at a total cost of $37 million. The largest single required project is along the Red River downstream from Total 53.6 36.7 90.3 Alexandria, Louisiana, in Eastern Rapides and South- Central Avoyelles Parishes, Louisiana. The project Includes projects authorized but not started and future would provide flood control and drainage to protect work. 1 206,000 acres from overflow. Some farming is pres- Source: U.S. ARMY, Office of Chief of Engineers, Policy ently taking place on about one-third of the land but Programs and Legislative Branch, Policy@and Analysis it is subject to flooding four or more times per year. Division, Washington, D.C. (1972). Communication The added land would support soybeans, pasture, of February 15, 1972, to National Water Com- mission. '0 A large portion of this 29.6 million acres falls within the 36.4 acres that either have no drainage problem or have been provided drainage works. Works already completed or now under construc- 31 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, Economic tion would allow 6.3 million acres of land not Research Service (October 1971). Land Use Change in presently cultivated to be added to the agricultural the Southern Mississippi Alluvial Valley, 1950-69, land base when it is cleared. Moreover, the produc- Agricultural Economic Report No. 215. U.S. Department tivity of 12.7 million acres has already been enhanced of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. pp. 5, 6, 11. by the building of drainage works. It is also likely 32p.L. 91-611, December 31, 1970, Title 11, 84 Stat. 1818, that some portion, perhaps a large one, of the 29.6 1825. 123 cotton, and corn. "The recommended project would Some small wooded areas will be converted to have a significant impact on regional develop- cropland. Cost: $2.4 million. ment ... by permanently making its land resource 4. Western Tennessee Tributaries, Tennessee and more productive." In the benefit-cost evaluation, the Kentucky: 31 Construction of two pumping stations increased agricultural production provides all but and improvement of channels. Total cleared acreage: $50,000 of the estimated $3,364,000 of benefits. The 7,425. Practically all tillable land is in cultivation. cost of the project is $25.9 million, composed of $9.4 Flooding occurs nearly every year. Primary problem million from SCS and $16.5 million from the is crop production losses. Benefits to farmers would Corps .33 largely be from higher crop yields. Cost: $2.7 million. The other four projects in this first group are the The second group of Corps projects, consisting of following: those with substantial nonagricultural components, 1. Steele Bayou, Yazoo River: The project contains six projects. Their aggregate total cost is would permit more intensive farming on 96,000 $282 million. Agricultural benefits account for vary- acres, and add 29,000 acres presently wooded but ing shares of the total benefits set forth in each suitable for agriculture when cleared. Cost: $4 mil- proposal. The following four proposals identify signif- 34 lion. icant agricultural benefits: 2. Posten Bayou, Arkansas: Improvements to 1. Sabine River and Tributaries, Texas and interior drainage network and new outlet to Red Louisiana :3 ' Three multiple-purpose dam and reser- River should "assure greatly expanded production voir projects, local flood protection, and extension of from some 12,500 acres of fertile farm lands and an authorized commercial navigation channel. Esti- make possible the conversion of additional marginal mated average annual flood damages on the Sabine woodlands into productive agricultural lands." Pro- River under 1964 conditions are approximately $2.4 ject would permit conversion of 2,570 acres of million of which 40 percent are agricultural losses. woodlands to cropland. Cost: $2 million." Total improved agricultural land in the flood plain is 3. Fort Chartres and Ivy Landing Drainage Dis- 47,998 acres. Approximately 952,900 acres of land trict No. 5 and Stringtown Drainage and Levee are subject to flooding. Average annual benefits from District No. 4, Illinois : 3 6 Construction of three the project include $3.7 million damage prevention pumping stations, new drainage ditches, and rehabili- and $.2 million improved agricultural efficiency. tation of existing ditches. Project area contains Water requirements and supply for irrigation in the 18,700 acres of highly productive bottomland, 95 basin are included in the project. Cost: $191.8 percent of which is cultivated. Flooding occurs million. practically every year. Seventy-five percent of 2. Sheyenne River, North Dakota: 31 Multiple- $28 1, 100 annual benefits are crop damage prevention. purpose reservoir. Agriculture is the basic industry of the basin. Forest losses are likely in the areas 3 3 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, Chief of Engineers downstream from the proposed dam. "Once these (1971). Eastern Rapides and South-Central Avoyelles areas are protected from flooding, timber would be Parishes, Louisiana, Senate Document No. 91-113, 91st cleared for agricultural use." Average annual agricul- Congress, 2d Session. U.S. Government Printing Office, tural benefits of $181,900 account for 12 percent of Washington, D.C. pp. 5, 6, 93. 3 4 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, Chief of Engineers (1970). Steele Bayou, Yazoo River (Lower Tributaries), 31 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, Chief of Engineers Mississippi, Senate Document No. 91-74, 91st Congress, (1970). Western Tennessee Tributaries, Tennessee and 2d Session. U.S. Government Printing Office, Wash- Kentucky, House Document No. 91-414, 91st Congress, ington, D.C. 2d Session. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washing- 3 s U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, Chief of Engineers ton, D.C. pp. 17, 19, 5, xvi. (1970). Posten Bayou, Arkansas, House Document No. 3 8 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, Chief of Engineers 91-318, 91st Congress, 2d Session. U.S. Government (1971). Sabine River and Tributaries, Texas and Printing Office, Washington, D.C. pp. viii, xviii. Louisiana, House Document No. 91-429, 91st Congress, 3 6 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, Chief of Engineers 2d Session. U.S. Government Printing Office, Wash- (1970). Fort Chartres and Ivy Landing Drainage District ington, D.C. pp. 279, 189, 91, 114, 84. No. 5 and Stringtown Drainage and Levee District No. 4, 39U,'S. DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, Chief of Engineers Illinois, House Document No. 91-412, 91st Congress, 2d (1970). Sheyenne River, North Dakota, House Document Session. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, No. 91-330, 91st Congress, 2d Session. U.S. Government D.C. pp, 4, 40, 37. Printing Office, Washington, D.C. pp. 21, xvii, xv. 124 total average annual benefits. Total cost: $20 million. In the Eastern States, the Corps of Engineers Twelve percent of total cost: $2.4 million. usually requires irrigation water users to make a 3. Souris River, North Dakota :4 ' Reservoir for contribution of half the portion of the costs of flood control and channel improvement. Agriculture multiple -purpose projects allocated to irrigation, in is the principal occupation of the basin; farms lieu of the interest-free repayment provisions of the comprise 85 percent of the land. Average annual Federal reclamation laws. The largest Corps project agriculture benefits from the project of $53,300 having irrigation as a purpose is the Central and comprise I percent of total average annual benefits. Southern Florida project, where over a million acres Total cost: $34 million. One percent of total cost: of agricultural land are being reclaimed by a project $34 million. authorized in 1948. A recent report 43 on an addition 4. Running Water Draw, Plainview, Texas:" to that project authorized in the Flood Control Act Channel improvements, outlet channels, underground of 1968 44 recommended construction of an inter- flood conduits, and diversion works. Economy of the related system of canals, levees, pumping stations, area is centered around irrigated agriculture. In- and structures necessary to supply irrigation water, creased land use affecting about 1,810 acres will maintain optimum water levels, and remove flood result from the project. Twelve percent of average waters in Martin County, Florida, and is an example annual benefits are due to increased land use. Flood. of a recently authorized Corps of Engineers project damages along Running Water Draw and in playa which is primarily for irrigation. Annual benefits of lakes areas are 95 percent urban and 5 percent the project are stated to be as follows: agricultural. Eighty-eight percent of average annual Purpose Dollars Percent benefits are due to flood control; 4.4 percent is due to control of agricultural flood damage. Total cost: Flood Damages Prevented 720,000 5 $5.8 million. 16.4 percent of total cost: $.95 million. Increased Land Use 4,747,900 33 Irrigation 8,799,000 62 Irrigation: The Corps of Engineers has no single- Recreation 13,000 - purpose irrigation projects, but provides additional Total 14,279,900 100 capacity in some of its reservoirs for storage of irrigation water. In the 17 Western States, the Bureau Total costs of the project were estimated to be of Reclamation is responsible for marketing this $15,470,900 and the benefit cost ratio is stated to be water under Section 8 of the Flood Control Act of 15.3 to 1.45 42 1944. Considerable controversy has arisen over the The cost allocation, based on allocating to flood application of this provision of law, particularly on control the cost of an alternative plan to provide the the Missouri and Columbia Rivers, where irrigation same flood control benefits but with the irrigation pumpers who would otherwise have had to divert and recreation features omitted, was computed as from a free-flowing stream can now pump from a follows: reservoir. It appears equitable to expect the pumpers to reimburse the Federal Government for the benefits Purpose Cost Allocation Percent received as a result of reduced pumping head and more dependable water supply, but they should not Flood Control $8,136,700 53 have to pay a portion of the costs of the reservoirs Irrigation 7,234,200 47 unless they have storage space allocated for their use. Recreation 100,000 - Total $15,470,900 100 40 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, Chief of Engineers (1970). Souris River, North Dakota, House Document No. 91-321, 91st Congress, 2d Session. U.S. Government 43U3. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS, Jacksonville Printing Office, Washington, D. C. pp. 19, 67. District (1967). Survey-Review Report on Central and 41 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, Chief of Engineers Southern Florida Project, Martin County, Florida. (1969). Running Water Draw, Plainview, Texas, House Jacksonville, Fla. (Portions of the report published later as Senate Document No. 101, 90th Congress. U.S. Document No. 91-192, 91st Congress, Ist Session. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.) Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. pp. 4, 8, 29. 44 P.L. 90-483, August 13, 1968, Title 11, 82 Stat. 731, '11P.L. 534, December 22, 1944, 78th Congress, 58 Stat. 740-741 887, 890, 43 USCA 390b. 41 Survey-Review Report. p. 25. 125 Federal share of the costs is to be $8,072,500, with In 1969, the total46 of 8.6 million acres served by local interests required to assume the balance of the Bureau of Reclamation projects was slightly more cost, consisting of providing all lands, easements, and than one-fifth of the total of 39.1 million acres rights-of-way, assuming the costs of new highway irrigated in the Nation in 1969, 89 percent of which bridges and alterations to utilities, and making a cash (34.8 million acres) were located in the 17 Western contribution estimated at $5,266,000 prior to con- Reclamation States .4 ' The average increase in land struction. In addition, the local interests are required served by Bureau of Reclamation projects during the to operate and maintain the project features after 20-year period 1950 to 1969 was 175,000 acres per completion. year. Figure 5-1 shows the relationship between With provision of adequate flood control and Federal and non-Federal irrigation in the 17 Reclama- irrigation facilities, it is considered by the Corps of tion States. Between 1949 and 1959, non-Federal Engineers that citrus fruits will become the dominant irrigated acreage increased about 33 percent, while agricultural industry by the year 2020 using 79,400 Federal irrigated acreage increased a little over 40 of the 85,500 acres benefited by the project, an percent. In the next decade, non-Federal irrigation in increase of 59,700 acres over that planted in citrus in those States increased by only 7 percent as Federal 1965. The value of the crops to be produced is irrigation rose by 26 percent. Since 1939, the increase obviously high enough to support full repayment of in non-Federal irrigation in the 17 Reclamation States the project costs. has been due largely to the use of ground water, a negligible source of supply for Federal projects. Bureau of Reclamation Program Expressed as a percentage of all irrigated land in the The Bureau of Reclamation maintains excellent Reclamation States, Federal irrigation accounted for statistics on the amount of land irrigated through its 21 percent in 1949, for 22 percent in 1959, and for projects, the nature and value of the crops grown, and 25 percent in 1969. the expenditures incurred for construction and opera- Table 5-3 gives acreage and value of principal crops tion. Table 5-2 shows the acreage irrigated by Bureau grown in Bureau projects for the year 1969. projects for selected years. It can be calculated from Table 5-3 that about 23 percent of reclamation land produces hay with an average annual gross return of $106.50 per acre. Barley and corn are grown on about 13 percent of reclamation land and produce annual gross revenues TABLE 5-2.-Total acreage irrigated by Bureau of around $100 per acre. Thus, 36 percent of the land Reclamation water for selected years irrigated by Bureau project water produces crops whose gross value, without deducting costs of labor, Iff igated equipment, fertilizer, and pesticides, averages about Year Acreage $ 100 an acre. On the other hand, fruits and nuts account for 7 percent of reclamation land and have 1906 22,300 an annual gross return around $660 per acre; vege- 1910 473,423 tables acccount for 9 percent of the land and have an 1920 2,205,420 annual gross return of approximately $600 per acre. 1930 2,790,856 Thus, only 16 percent of reclamation land is used for 1940 3,391,070 high-value crops. 1945 4,162,588 1950 5,077,186 "Use of Bureau of Reclamation statistics for 1949, 1959, 1955 6,261,761 and 1969 permits comparisons to be made with U.S. 1960 6,899,711 Census Bureau Censuses of Agriculture. 1965 8,012,021 47 U.S. BUREAU OF THE CENSUS (May 1972). 1969 1969 8,575,761 Census of Agriculture -County Data (by state and for the 1971 8,833,998 United States). Issued on a State by State Basis. U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. Another Source: U.S. BUREAU OF RECLAMATION (1972). Federal 600,000 acres in the West were irrigated with Bureau of Reclamation Projects, Water & Land Resource Ac- Indian Affairs water. See U.S. BUREAU OF INDIAN complishments 1971. U.S. Government Printing Of- AFFAIRS, Division of Economic Development fice, Washington, D.C. Table 5, p. 64. (undated). Irrigation Land Data, Calendar Year 1969. Memo, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Washington, D.C. 126 36 34 32 30 1 1 1 1 Figure 5-1. Irrigation Development in the 28 17 Western States, 1899-1969 26 24 HOW 22 LU cc 20 4// LL 018 V) z 0 F'9@btRAL 7116 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 1899 1909 1919 1929 1939 1949 1959 1969 Source: U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, Bureau of the Census. Adapted from Figure 1.2, Earl 0. Heady, Howard C. Madsen, Kenneth J. Nicol, Stanley H. Hargrove, Future Water and Land Use Effect of b Selected Pu lic Agricultural and Irrigation Policies on Water Demand and Land Use, p. 1-32. 127 TABLE 5-3.-Acreages and values of crops grown on WEAKNESSES OF THE PROGRAMS farms in Bureau of Reclamation pro- A primary weakness of the Federal water resources jects in 1969 development projects is that they have been heavily Total Acreage Gross Crop subsidized by the Federal Government; that is, by all Harvested on Value for the taxpayers of the Nation, to provide benefits for a Farms in Bur. Farms in few. The water users on some modern Federal of Reclamation Bur. of Reclam. Reclamation projects, for example, repay no more Projects Projects than 10 percent of the construction costs attributable (acres) (dollars) to irrigation, the remaining cost being borne by the Federal Government in three ways: by not requir- Wheat 374,317 25,709,921 ing the water users to reimburse the Treasury for the Barley 617,209 46,952,959 interest on the capital advanced for project construc- Corn 455,156 52,347,501 tion, by permitting power revenues and sometimes Oats 114,502 6,053,908 other nonirrigation revenues to be credited toward Rice 190,485 50,453,415 irrigation reimbursement, and by alocating an unduly Sorghum 242,317 20,967,682 large part of the costs to nonreimbursable purposes. All Hay 1,997,483 213,275,585 As another example, flood control projects under- Beans, Dry Edible 320,913 44,821,334 taken by the Corps of Engineers and the Soil Cotton 569,018 104,530,488 Conservation Service often make it possible for Sugar Beets 586,774 139,885,503 landowners to receive large windfall benefits by Vegetables 746,679 450,283,840 enabling them to convert woodlands or pasture lands Fruits and Nuts 606,474 402,068,630 to croplands. As explained in Chapter 15, in some Potatoes 309,582 136,798,334 instances beneficiaries receive these windfalls at little Source: U.S. BUREAU OF RECLAMATION (1970). Federal or no cost to themselves, particularly in the lower Reclamation Projects, Water & Land Resource Ac- Mississippi River and Tributaries project, where the @complishments, 1969. U.S. Government Printing Federal Government pays the full cost of construct- Office, Washington, D.C. Table 3, pp 43-44. ing, operating, and maintaining the project. Finally, As of June 30, 1971, projects were authorized, but water projects that result in large increases in the not yet constructed, to provide a full water supply production of certain commodities have been under- for the irrigation of 552,000 acres of land and a taken with little or no consideration of the demand supplemental water supply for another 1.6 million for those commodities. irrigable acres, 1.2 million acres of which are located Still another major weakness of present procedures in the Central Arizona Project.4 8 for deciding whether a water project should be Statistics compiled by the Bureau of Reclamation undertaken is found in the evaluation procedures for June 30, 1971, showed that the total construction use .d.' 0 Of particular importance is the value assigned cost of all authorized Bureau of Reclamation projects various crops in evaluating benefits of contemplated was $12.1 billion, of which $6.2 billion was tenta- projects. Because of the price-support programs tively allocated to irrigation. The Bureau expects to utilized by the United States to maintain farm secure repayment contracts for about $2.1 billion, income, prevailing prices received by farmers for and through June 30, 1970, only about $266 million supported crops should not be used in making an had actually been repaid on matured repayment economic evaluation of a water project that will contracts and $268 million from special sources, such further increase the production of these price- as contributions and advances and water service supported commodities. Often in the past the prices 49 used in evaluation of such water projects were not contracts. adjusted for price supports. For this reason alone it 48BOLLMAN, Frank H et aL (July 1972). A Summary seems certain that some water projects that have been Appraisal of Farm Productive Capacity, Part 111, Status of undertaken in the past have not been economically Irrigated Agriculture. Unpublished memo, National Water sound. In 1966, the Water Resources Council estab- Commission, Arlington, Va. pp. 49, 50. Based on U.S. Bureau of Reclamation figures. fished price standards for project evaluation which 49U *'S. BUREAU OF RECLAMATION (1972). Statistical Report of the Commissioner, Statistical and Financial See Chapter 10 for the Commission's discussion of Appendix, Schedules 1, 11, and 111. pp. 79-83. evaluation procedures. 128 reject use of prevailing prices received by farmers for TABLE 5-5.-Farm value of major crops eligible for supported crops. Instead, the standards require use of Federal agricultural programs total and "adjusted normalized" prices which are supposed to Bureau of Reclamation served acre- correct for the impact of price-support subsidies. age-1969 One of the great controversies in water policy has been the role of Bureau of Reclamation irrigation Total Reclamation Reclamation development in producing "surplus" crops. The Corn- Crop National Served Proportion mission has been unable to determine the exact (millions of dollars) N impact of the Reclamation program on crop sur- pluses; however, nearly 37 percent of the acreage Wheat 1,816 26 1.4 served by Bureau of Reclamation project facilities Corn 5,290 S2 1.0 produced crops eligible for Federal price support (grain) programs in 1969. (Table 5-4.) In terms of the value Cotton 1,055 105 10.0 of major price-supported crops, Bureau-serve.d pro- (lint) jects account for significant production of only sugar Sorghum 791 21 2.7 beets, barley, rice, and cotton (Table 5-5), and for (grain) only 4.2 percent of the total value of all crops eligible Barley 369 47 .12.7 Oats 565 6 1.1 for price supports. There is no way, short of a massive Rice 450 50 11.1 field investigation of the operations of individual Sugar Beets 353 140 39.7 farmers, to determine exactly how much of the Total 10,689 447 4.2 production from Federal reclamation projects is paid for in part through the price-support program. Sources: U.S. BUREAU OF RECLAMATION (1971). Sum- mary Report of the Commissioner, Bureau of Reclamation 1970, Statistical and Financial Appen- TABLE 54.-Major crops eligible for various Federal dix, Parts 1, 11, & III. U.S. Government Printing agricultural programs served by Bureau Office, Washington, D.C. p. 115. and U.S. of Reclamation project facitities-1969 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (1971). Agricultural Statistics 1971. U.S. Government Percent of Printing Office, Washington, D.C. p. 459. Reclamation Total Reclama- Project tion Project of fertilizers and other measures which increase Crop Acreage Acreage productivity. Elsewhere in this report, measures are advocated that will facilitate transfers of water to its Wheat 374,317 4.36 most productive uses.' 1 The Commission also recom- Corn 455,156 5.31 mends that irrigation users served by new Federal Cotton 569,018 6.64 projects pay the full costs of water supply." These Sorghum 242,317 2.83 changes may result in more or less irrigation water Barley 617,209 7.19 use, but the resulting total costs to society will be Oats 114,502 1.34 lower because they will improve efficiency in the use Rye 2,291 .03 of water and related resources. Sugar Beets 586,774 6.84 When irrigators receive water on a subsidized basis, Rice 190,485 2.22 incentives to use water carefully and efficiently are 3,152,069 36.76 often removed. Where water is priced substantially Source: U.S. BUREAU OF RECLAMATION (1971). Sum- below cost, it will be to the advantage of irrigators to mary Report of the Commissioner, Bureau of be lavish in its use and neglectful of programs to Reclamation 1970, Statistical and Financial Appen- stretch supplies and improve the productivity of dix, Parts 1, 11, & Ill. U.S. Government Printing water. Office, Washington, D.C. p. 115. The assertion that the price of irrigation water is often substantially below the cost and, as a result, It is obvious, however, that agricultural price- uneconomic projects are sometimes advanced was support and supply-control programs encourage farmers to use irrigation water on crops with acreage See Chapter 7. allotments just as they have stimulated increased use IIS6e Chapter 15. 129 confirmed at the Commission's public conferences fertilizers and other inputs that increase held in January 1973. For example, a spokesman for production; and the Pacific Northwest Waterways Association told the (4) resource and product prices. Commission that application of full-cost pricing to In recent years the Department of Agriculture, the one Federal Reclamation project presently under Bureau of Reclamation, and the Tennessee Valley construction (the Manson Unit in the State of Authority have attempted to make model studies to Washington) would increase annual water charges to develop relationships among and between these vari- irrigators from $32.50 per acre to $414.00 per acre. ables. The Tennessee Valley Authority, because of its Subsequently, at the same conference, the President role in fertilizer production, undertook studies of the of the Washington State Reclamation Association relationships between fertilizer application and crop (who is also manager of the South Columbia Basin production. The Bureau of Reclamation is developing Irrigation District) testified that annual gross crop such relationships between water use and crop pro- receipts on the nearby Columbia Basin Project were duction. In order to take advantage of the work about $218 per irrigated acre. Even if future spe- underway for these agencies at the Iowa State cialized crop production on the Manson Unit pro- University, the National Water Commission con- duces many times that amount of gross crop receipts, tracted with the University for analyses of the it is doubtful that the value of the crops plus the demand for land and water for crop production under increased business profits generated in processing and I I different sets of hypotheses, or alternative futures. marketing them could support the $414 full-cost The full results of the analyses are contained in two annual charge per acre for water alone, plus the reports" prepared. for the Commission and are additional costs of bringing orchards into production. summarized briefly here. They serve to confirm the Bureau of Reclamation figures show that total Commission's conclusions that the Nation's land and capital costs of the Manson Unit project, including water resources are adequate to meet future needs at costs of the Federal Columbia River Power System to least through the year 2000 if they are used in ways furnish pumping power but excluding any interest which avoid waste and inefficiency. component, will be $16,624,000 to provide a full water supply to 2,052 acres and a supplemental Alternative Futures for Agriculture supply to 4,003 acres. The interest-free irrigation cost Eleven possible alternative futures for agricultural to develop the Manson Unit will be $2,746 per acre. water demands were analyzed. The assumptions on Of the total interest-free $16,624,000 cost, only which they are based are summarized in Table 5-6. $3,855,000 will be repaid by irrigators; the balance The alternatives were selected to encompass a wide will be covered by power revenues. range of possible alternative futures. SUPPLY AND DEMAND The I I forecast models or alternative futures analyzed can be considered in four general groups. The answer to the question whether or not the The first (Futures A, B, C, and D) defines alternative water resources development programs described futures in terms of conventional sets of assumptions herein should be continued at present levels, ex- dealing with population, farm policies, exports, tech- panded, or reduced depends in part upon future food nology, etc. The second (Futures Al, A2, and A3) and fiber demands. Those demands will be a function incorporates alternative prices of water. The third of four variables: (Futures G and H) provides for continuing per capita (1) population levels; beef and veal consumption at present levels (116.7 (2) income levels, lifestyles, and eating habits; pounds per capita per annum) and for substituting (3) export and import levels; and vegetable proteins for the 26 percent increase in per (4) food prices. The domestic supply available to meet future food "For details, see HEADY, Earl 0 et al., Iowa State and fiber demands is also a function of four variables: University (1971). Agricultural Water Demands, prepared (1) the resource base, including the arable land for the National Water Commission. National Technical base and water supply; Information Service, Springfield, Va., Accession No. PB (2) technological, scientific, and managerial 206 790; and MADSEN, Howard C et al., Iowa State University (1972). Alternative Demands for Water and advances affecting agriculture; Land for Agricultural Purposes, prepared for the National (3) governmental policies relating to control of Water Commission. National Technical Information Serv- supply and to restrictions on the use of ice, Springfield, Va., Accession No. PB 211444. 130 TABLE 5-6.-Summary of alternative futures reviewed by the Commission for agricultural wat Alternative Future Farm Policy Population Water Price Exports' Technology Future A free market 300 million' present 1967-69 average trend Future A I free market 300 million S I 5.00/A.F. 1967-69 average trend Future A2 free market 300 million S22.50/A.F. 1967-69 average trend Future A3 free market 300 million $30.00/A.F. 1967-69 average trend Future B free market 280 million2 present 1967-69 average trend Future C annual land 280 million present 1967-69 average trend retirement Future D free market 325 million 3 present double the 1967-69 advanced average Future G free market with 300 million present 1967-69 average trend beef consumption held at present per capita levels Future H annual land retire- 300 million present 1967-69 average trend ment with beef consumption held at present per capita levels Future I free market with 280 million present 1967-69 average trend I 10 pound nitrogen limitation Future J free market with 50 280 million present 1967-69 average trend pound nitrogen limitation 'This is the C population level of the Department of Commerce. 2 This is the D population level of the Department of Commerce. 3This is the B population level of the Department of Commerce. 'Imports of beef and veal, lamb and mutton, and dairy products are assumed to equal average 1967-69 per capita levels in 2000. capita beef and veal consumption in 2000 assumed of crops, excluding forest products, are shown in in all of the other alternative futures. Finally, the Table 5-8, and resulting national average farm prices fourth (Futures I and J) incorporates an assumption for each of the alternative futures are presented in of a restriction on the rate of application of nitrogen Table 5-9. These results are described briefly in the fertilizer in agriculture as one possible step that might following paragraphs. be taken to improve environmental quality. The forecasts of agricultural water demands deal 300 Million Population: Four of the alternative with water use only in the nine Western basins where futures analyzed are based on a population of 300 the largest consumptive use of water is for irrigation million and a free market in U.S. agriculture in 14 and where over 90 percent of the currently irrigated 2000. Under the assumptions of these models, crop land is located. Water use in the East was not production would be allocated and land and water considered because it appears that demands for water could be used among areas and regions so that the for agriculture will not be controlling outside of the national production pattern is most efficient, and no Western basins. Selected results from seven of the alternative futures are presented in tabular form 541)etailed results of these analyses are given in HEADY, (Tables 5-7, 5-8, and 5-9). Regional consumptive use Earl 0 et al., Iowa State University (1971). Agricultural Water Demands, prepared for the National Water Com- of water in the 9 Western basins is presented in Table mission. National Technical Information Service, Spring- 5-7. National summaries of land use for major types field, Va., Accession No. PB 206 790. Part IV. 131 TABLE 5-7.-Forecasts of regional consumptive use of water in western water resources regions for selected alternative futures in 2000 (Billion gallons per day) Future A Future A3 Future B Future C Future D Future G Future J Total Agri- Agri- Agri- Agri- Agri- Agri- Agri- River Basin 19701 culture Total2 culture Total' culture Total2 culture Total' culture Total2 culture Total2 culture Total2 Missouri 12.0 10.2 13.3 2.7 5.8 9.9 13.0 10.8 13.8 11.2 14.4 8.8 12.0 10.5 13.5 Arkansas-White- 6.8 4.2 5.5 3.0 4.3 4.1 5.3 3.4 4.6 4.2 5.6 3.8 5.1 3.7 4.9 Red Texas-Gulf 6.2 3.9 11.0 3.3 10.3 3.5 10.1 3.8 10.5 4.0 11.7 3.5 10.6 3.9 10.5 Rio Grande 3.3 2.5 3.1 1.3 1.9 2.0 2.5 3.1 3.6 3.0 3.6 1.9 2.4 2.5 3.0 Upper Colorado 4.1 2.4 2.9 0.1 0.6 2.1 2.6 2.7 3.2 2.9 3.5 2.0 2.6 2.3 2.8 Lower Colorado 5.0 2.2 4.4 1.0 3.3 2.2 4.4 3.3 5.5 2.0 4.3 2.1 4.3 3.2 5.4 Great Basin 3.2 1.9 3.2 0.6 1.9 1.9 3.2 1.9 3.2 1.9 3.2 1.3 2.5 2.0 3.2 Columbia-North 11.0 12.1 13.6 3.6 5.1 11.3 12.7 12.3 13.7 12.1 13.7 10.9 12.4 11.8 13.2 Pacific California-South 22.0 21.4 29.9 12.9 21.3 20.4 28.4 20.2 28.2 21.0 30.1 16.1 24.6 20.8 28.8 Pacific Western Basins 73.6 60.8 86.9 28.5 54.5 57.4 82.2 61.5 86.3 62.3 90.1 50.4 76.5 60.7 85.3 'MURRAY, C Richard & REEVES, E Bodette (1972). Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 1970, Geological Survey Circular 676. U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. p. 17. 'Includes agriculture, rural domestic, municipal, self-supplied industrial, recreation, and thermal electric power. Also included are onsite consumptive uses, the forecast export to Mexico, depletion of the Upper Milk River by Canada, and transfer of water from the Missouri river basin into the Souris-Red-Rainy river basin, TABLE 5-8-Forecasts of national land use for selected alternative futures in year 2000, in rnillions of acres Year 2000 Level' 1964 1969 Future Future Future Future Future Future Future Land Use Level 1 LeVe12 A A3 B C D G i Dryland annual crops 176.4 n.a. 189.5 187.7 177.3 188.0 219.2 172.9 209.2 Dryland tame hay & silages 57.2 n.a. 99.1 115.5 77.8 70.2 80.2 40.6 83.0 Dryland wild hay & silages 921.2 n.a. 938.5 938.8 936.8 938.8 938.4 934.8 938.5 Total dryland 1,154.8 1,024.2 1,227.1 1,242.0 1,191.9 1,197.0 1,237.8 1,148.3 1,230.7 Irrigated annual crops 13.3 n.a. 6.1 4.1 6.1 8.9 8.1 7.0 6. 1 Irrigated tame hay & silages 7.5 n.a. 10.9 2.3 9.8 10.1 10.1 6.6 10.4 Irrigated wild hay, pasture, 10.5 n.a. 10.2 6.0 10.1 10.2 10.4 10.2 10.2 fruits, nuts, etc. Total irrigated 4 31.3 34.8 27.2 12.4 26.0 29.2 28.6 23.8 26.7 Unused cropland & hayland n.a. n.a. 16.4 12.5 51.0 44.9 4.5 95.0 13.4 Unused wild hay & pasture land n.a. n.a. 11.2 10.9 12.9 10.9 11.3 14.9 11.2 Total unused land' 55.5 58.0 27.6 23.4 63.9 55.8 15,8 109.9 24.6 Cropland shifted 6 n.a. n.a. 49.3 52.1 42.8 2.1 21.0 19.0 31.3 'U.S. BUREAU OF THE CENSUS (1967). U.S. Census of Agriculture, 1964, Volume 1, Statistics for States and Counties. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 2U.S. BUREAU OF THE CENSUS (1972). U.S. Census of Agriculture, 1969, Volume 1, Statistics for States and Counties. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 'HEADY, Earl 0 et al., Iowa State University (1971). Agricultural Water Demands, prepared for the National Water Commission. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., Accession No. PB 206 790. Part IV; and MADSEN, Howard C et al., Iowa State University (1972). Alternative Demands for Water and Land for Agricultural Purposes, prepared for the National Water Commission. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., Accession No. PB 211 444. pp. 34,61. 417 Western States only. 'Land either currently used for crop production or currently in Federal land retirement programs that would not be needed for crop production in 2000. 'Land either currently used for annual crops production or currently in land retirement programs but used for tame hay production in 2000. TABLE 5-9-Indications of prices received by farmers for selected commodities under alternative future, ; 2@00O Actual Future Future Future Future Future Future Future Item' 19692 A 4 A3 B4 C D G 4 P Crop prices Corn (dol./bu.) 1.12 1.10 1.21 0.93 1.38 1.58 0.89 1.40 Wheat (dol./bu.) 1.24 1.49 1.65 1.22 1.93 2.26 1.16 1.79 Soybeans 2.33 2.25 2.58 1.78 2.89 3.81 1.67 2.42 (dol./bu.) Cotton 0.21 0.14 0.16 0.14 0.23 0.20 0.14 0.21 (dol./bu.) Hay (dol./ton) 25.00 25.01 28.22 21.10 39.40 33.46 18.35 26.06 Livestock-products Cattle & calves 26.20 33.90 37.07 29.93 46.62 37.57 27.33 35.82 (cents/lb) Milk (dol./cwt) 5.46 3.41 3.53 3.22 3.77 4.39 3.20 3.65 'All prices for 2000 are measured in 1970 equivalent dollars and do not take into account inflations from 1970 to 2000. 2 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, STATISTICAL REPORTING SERVICE (1970). Agricultural Prices: 1969 Annual Summary, Washington, D.C., Pr. 1-3(70). 'HEADY, Earl 0 et al., Iowa State University (197 1). Agricultural Water Demands, prepared for the National Water Commission. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., Accession No. PB 206 790. 'MADSEN, Howard C et al., Iowa State University (1972). Alternative Demands for Water and Land for Agricultural Purposes, prepared for the National Water Commission. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., Accession No. PB 211 444.pp.35,62. restraints, such as land retirement, would be placed water scarcity would include the lower rainfall areas on geographic and land-water substitutions.s 5 of the Nation and those areas that currently are Under Future A, with 300 million people and mining ground water-the Southwestern United present prices of water in year 2000, total con- States and the Great Plains area, including parts of sumptive use of water in the Western water resource the States of Kansas, Nebraska, Oklahoma, and regions would increase 19 percent over the 1970 level Texas. (Table 5-7), but there still would be a surplus of The irrigated croplands in the Western States are water for the West as a whole. among the most productive in the Nation. Currently, Under this future, only a part of the Texas-Gulf around 35 million acres of land are irrigated in the 17 river basin might face a water deficit because of the Western States. The model study for Future A shows large municipal and industrial water requirements that if land now idle under government programs 56 forecast for that region in 2000. Other regions of would be allowed to return to production, it could be "Water available in 2000 is based on mean annual runoff substituted for water on irrigated land. Because the and reservoirs constructed estimated as of 1980 adjusted idle lands are not as productive,' ' larger acreages for reservoir evaporation. For the nine Western river would be required, but the food and fiber needs of basins, a total of 213.7 million gallons per day of water is the Nation could be met even if the amount of land estimated to be available for withdrawals and consump- irrigated in the Western States had to be reduced tive use in 2000. because of an increase in nonagricultural water 16Water consumption in agriculture can vary as the amount requirements. Even with the increased food and fiber and location of irrigated agriculture and livestock produc- tion respond to conditions under each forecast model. Withdrawals and consumptive use of water for nonagri- "Recent studies by the Department of Agriculture contain cultural purposes were assumed for the purposes of these estimates that diverted lands were only 80 to 90 percent models to be fixed on a per capita basis, and the studies as productive as the cropland remaining in production. do not, therefore, show how the demands would respond U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (1969). Pro- to changes in the price and availability of water or to ductivity of Diverted Land, by P. Weisgerber, Economic changes in the policies governing their use. Research Service, Washington, D.C. 134 illustrated in the map in Figure 5.17. The littoral drift is catego- rized as "medium" if net littoral transport past a fixed point is estimated between 50,000-80,000 cubic yards/year, and as "high" if the net transport is estimated at greater than 80,000 cubic yards per year. It is important to note that these numerical estimates apply to the rates of longshore movement of all sediment which can he moved about by waves. This can be considered to include sediments at least out to around the nine foot bathymetric contour. All the highly-eroding reaches illustrated in Figure 5.2 can be compared with the distribution of potential, littoral drift rates in Figure 5.18 Above: Figure 5.18. Graph of relationship between the rate of coastal retreat and the distribution of potential littoral drift rates for northern Chesapeake Bay. 5-44 Future C is the same as Future B except for the With the increased food and fiber demands under assumption that the Nation will continue to pay for these assumptions, water consumption would be holding 45 million acres of cropland out of produc- 2-1/2 percent higher than under Future A (Table tion in the year 2000 to control crop output. The 5-7). Water for consumptive use in both agriculture program simulated would be similar to the annfial and municipal and industrial uses would be higher wheat, feed grain, and cotton programs used during and, thus, total water consumption would be greater the 1961-1970 decade and would not allow land uses than under any of the other alternative futures and crop production to be fully allocated among considered. A greater number of regions would be regions so as to achieve the most economical produc- water-scarce and additional pressures would be placed tion as determined by a free market. Under these on available water supplies in the Western basins, but assumptions, the model shows some land retirement the study indicates that the increased production of would result in all regions of the Nation. food and fiber could be achieved even if the total The annual land retirement program permits sub- amount of land irrigated in the Western regions had stitutions of water in the Western States for land in to be reduced by 6.3 million acres because of the States east of the Missouri River, but also leads to demands for water for other purposes. The higher some substitution of water in the West for dryfarmed food and fiber demands forecast under Future D of land in the West. This was exactly the nature and the study would still leave 4.5 million acres of outcome of agricultural and water policies of the cropland and hayland unused (Table 5-8). Including 1960's decade: (1) to achieve farm price and income the wild hay and pasture land unused, only 15.8 goals the supply of land for crops was reduced by million acres would not be in production. payments that diverted it from producing food and The high food and fiber demands under Future D (2) public investments were used to increase the would result in relatively high levels for farm prices supply of water for food production. (Table 5-9). Thus, consumer food costs also would increase substantially compared with levels implied Higher Demands for Food and Fiber in the Year by the earlier forecast models reviewed. The high 2000: To show the effects of very substantially farm prices indicated to result under Future D would increased demands for food and fiber on demand for provide incentives for new lands to be brought into water and land for agricultural purposes, the assurnp- production either through irrigation, drainage, or tions underlying Future D consisted of a population other forms of land reclamation. Recent studies of 325 million in the year 2000, doubling of the indicate that from 49 to 150 million acres of new 1967-1969 level of agricultural exports in the year lands, exclusive of those held in current land retire- 61 2000,and advanced technology to improve produc- ment programs, could be farmed if the need arises. tion potentials, particularly in the livestock in- According to one study, 33 million acres of this dustry .6 ' Dryland crop production yields for additional land could be used for major field crops principal crops were assumed to reach about 108 such as soybeans, corn, rice, and cotton. 66 Under the bushels per acre for corn, 40 bushels per acre for higher farm prices of Future D, much of this land wheat, and 81.2 bushels per acre for grain sor- would start to enter intensive production. ghurn,61 compared to 84 ', 31, and 55, respectively, in Should conditions of Future D be realized in the 64 1969. Also, agriculture in the Southeast in 2000 year 2000, the study indicates that food and fiber was assumed to approach levels of productivity and demands still could be satisfied through investments costs achieved in the Corn Belt. to speed the rate of technological advance and by farming new lands. Also, even at the higher level of For complete details on this model, ibid., Appendix M. 61U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (1971). Ex- 6 3Jbid., p. M-17. All projection studies utilize a number of ploring our cropland potential. The Farm Index assumptions. One of the most critical in considering land 10(9): 11. and UPCHURCH LM (1967). The capacity of use is continuing improvement in crop yields. The the United States to supply food for developing coun- assumptions of yield improvement in these studies are tries, Ch. 14 in IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY CENTER solidly based on several decades of past performance and FOR AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT. are believed to be conservative when compared with Alternatives for Balancing World Food Production and actual experience on many well managed farms. Needs. Iowa State University Press, Ames. pp. 215-223. "See U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (1971). 61U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (1971). Ex- Agricultural Statistics for 1969. U.S. Government Print- ploring our cropland potential. The Farm Index ing Office, Washington, D.C. 10(9):Il. 136 Irrigated lettuce provides high crop returns on lands near Blythe, California water consumption posed by Future D, the study the lifestyles or eating habits of consumers and a shows that there would still be enough water for the possible restriction on the use of fertilizer to reflect needs of the West as a whole. Thus, the study national concern with environmental quality. suggests that the water problem of the future, even In recent decades, many substitutions by con- with substantially higher food and fiber demands sumers have affected resource use and food prices. In than at present, is not one of outright water shortage. the area of food and beverages, vegetable fats have replaced animal fats as margarine has been substituted Eating Habits of Consumers and the Demand for for butter. Synthetic sweeteners have replaced ordi- Water: The previously discussed alternative futures nary sugar in tea, coffee, and carbonated beverages, were based on conventional assumptions as to the and synthetic juices have come to serve as replace- level of population, exports of farm products, Federal ments for citrus. Consumers also have substituted farra policies, and rate of technological advance. One synthetic materials for clothing, affecting the demand set of alternative futures examined the outcomes for natural fibers. The possibility that vegetable under a pricing system for water allocation in 2000. proteins might be substituted for a part of the greatly The Commission also had a separate study 67 made of increased demand for animal proteins assumed in the alternative futures incorporating possible changes in first seven model studies led the Commission to "MADSEN, Howard C et al., Iowa State University (1972). request analysis of alternative futures in which per Alternative Demands for Water and Land for Agricultural capita consumption of beef and veal would be Purposes, prepared for the National Water Commission. assumed to continue at current levels (116.7 pounds National Technical information Service, Springfield, Va., per capita per annum) and the increased demands for Accession No. PB 211444. protein (projected to reach 157.7 pounds in the other 137 studies) would be met by substituting vegetable assumptions that restrictions would be placed on the proteins. use of nitrogen fertilizers, Such restrictions would Two possible alternative futures were investigated obviously increase the demand for water and land under these assumptions (Future G and Future H, resources- Table 5-6), both based on 300 million population. Two specific limitations on nitrogen fertilizers used Under Future G, a free market was assumed, but in agriculture were considered in the study-110 Future H contains the assumption that government pounds per acre per year (about the present level of supply control programs similar to those used over use) and 50 pounds per acre per year. The inclusion the past decade would be continued in 2000 in in the study of these alternative futures is not a attempts to control excess supply and raise farm suggestion by the Commission that these levels of prices. 68 restriction be adopted as national policy, but is for The regional consumptive use of water under the purpose of forecasting demands for agricultural Future G is shown in Table 5-7. The national water and land should such limitations be imposed. summary of land requirements and of farm com- Other than for the nitrogen fertilizer restriction, the modity prices are shown in Tables 5-8 and 5-9, forecast models for Futures I and J" are just like respectively. Data summarized on the tables show Future B with a population of 280 million (Table that such a substitution, if made by consumers, 5-6). Only the results of Future J are shown in the would free up substantial amounts of water and land tables. in the year 2000, with 95 million acres of cropland With nitrogen fertilizer application restricted to a and hayland not required for agricultural purposes. maximum of 50 pounds per acre in the year 2000, The reason that the substitution of vegetable the most restrictive of the two models, water con- protein for animal protein in the diet would require sumption would increase by nearly 4 percent over far less land and water is, very simply, that cattle and Future B (Table 5-7). There would be an equivalent other meat animals are very inefficient converters of reduction in the total water surplus in the Western plant to animal protein. Beef cattle require many basins and additional regions would face potential pounds of plant protein to produce one pound of water problems. With the 50-pound fertilizer limita- meat protein. 69 If human beings consume the vege- tion, the entire Southwestern United States would be table protein directly, instead of through the beef water-scarce. cycle, they increase their efficiency of food utiliza- The reduction in crop yields with the 50-pound tion several times. limitation on the use of nitrogen fertilizer is forecast to result in a substantial increase in the crop acreages Quality of the Environment and the Demand for required to meet demands for food and fiber (Table Water: Recent studies" indicate that pollution 5-8). Both dryland and irrigated acreages of crops caused by runoff from agricultural land may have a would be higher, although the greatest change would deleterious effect on water quality, since water occur in dryland acreages. The total acreage of crops soluble nitrogen fertilizers are sometimes carried into would be nearly 40 million acres more than under the streams and underground water basins by runoff Future B and would be even higher than under and deep percolation. In an effort to determine the Future A (with 300 million population). The large effect on water use if measures to reduce such increase in crop acreages under this alternative future pollution are adopted, the Commission had an would decrease unused cropland and hayland by analysis made of two alternative futures under nearly 38 million acres, but nearly 25 million acres of land would still be unused (Table 5-8). In addition, " For further details on these two forecast models, ibid. crop prices would be substantially higher than under " In a recent article in the Wall Street Journal, Volume LI Future B (Table 5-9). No. 26, February 7, 1973, pp, 1 & 12, David Brand quotes food scientists as saying that it takes 100 pounds of plant protein to produce less than 5 pounds of edible meat protein. For the methods and procedures followed under these "See for example, U.S. COUNCIL ON ENVIRON- assumptions, see MADSEN, Howard C et al., Iowa State MENTAL QUALITY (1972). Environmental Quality, University (1972). Alternative Demands for Water and The Third Annual Report of the Council on Environ- Land for Agricultural Purposes, prepared for the National mental Quality, U.S. Government Printing Office, Wash- Water Commission. National Technical Information Serv- ington, D.C. p. 16. ice, Springfield, Va., Accession No. PB 211444. 138 Projection of Past Trends in Agriculture Council to serve as a basis for regional water resources Another useful way to look at the future is to planning under the Water Resources Planning Act compare it with the past. In general, over the last 50 projects harvested irrigated cropland at 39.8 million years, more and more food has been grown on fewer acres in the year 2000,'9 considerably above the and fewer acres and with less and less labor. Thirty acreage indicated in the Iowa State University studies years ago, one farmer fed 13 persons ;12 in 1971, each to be required to meet demands. The OBERS farmer fed 48.2 persons.' 3 In 1949, 334.4 million projections are single-valued projections based on acres of cropland were harvested; 74 20 years later, assumptions that U.S. population will reach 306.8 the figure had dropped to 273 million acres, an million by the year 2000, and that there will be no average decline of 3.5 million acres a year." In the policy or program changes of an unusual or unfore- same period, population increased 36 percent (from seen nature. The report states that 149.8 million to 203.2 million)76 and farm output The projections are in no sense a goal, an increased 40 percent .7 ' Thus, a comparison of the assigned share, or a constraint on a region's facts of the past with the forecasts obtained from the economic activity. They carry no connotation as analyses of alternative futures is consistent with the to desirability or undesirability. Especially, they thesis that agricultural land availability will not limit should not constrain the planner in considering food and fiber supply. alternative levels of growth which might be achieved through more or less resource devel- OBERS Projections: Projection of past trends has led opment. 80 some of the Federal agencies involved in water The agricultural projection system used in the resources planning to the conclusion that there will report is based largely on the extension of historical be an increase in irrigated acreage in the future. A trends." Yield projections are based on general recent report 78 prepared for the Water Resources assumptions that research leading to increases in crop yields will continue to ine'rease, but at a dampened 72 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (1958). Agri- rate and that implementation of current knowledge cultural Statistics 1957. U. S. Government Printing and'technologies will lag, but that there will be more 73 Office, Washington, D.C. p. 556. extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides, improved U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, Economic varieties, and improved management practices. 82 Research Service (June 1972). 1972 Changes in Farm Production and Efficiency, A Summary Report, ERS Since they are a single-valued set of projections, Statistical Bulletin No. 233, U.S. Department of Agricul- the OBERS Projections do not consider the pos- ture, Washington, D.C. p. 29. sibility of substituting land for water and other 74 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (1971). Agri- possible alternative futures covered in the Iowa State cultural Statistics 1971. U.S. Government Printing Office, University! analyses. But they do provide another Washington, D.C. Table 626, p. 436. possible alternative future that should be considered 75U.S. BUREAU OF THE CENSUS (May 1972). 1969 as a possibility, a future that would apparently Census of Agriculture-County Data (United States). continue the policy of maintaining surplus or reserve Issued on a State by State basis. U.S. Department of capacity in the Nation's agricultural plant. Commerce, Washington, D.C. p. 1. 7 6 U.S. BUREAU OF THE CENSUS (July 1970). Statistical Abstract of the United States 1970, 91st Annual Edition. Findings of Other Studies U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. Table 2, p. 5. 77KRAUSE OE (1971). Farm production capacity can Most other studies corroborate the proposition meet our needs, pp. 278-284 in U.S. DEPARTMENT OF that the Nation's agricultural land base is adequate to AGRICULTURE, A Good Life for More People, The meet future food and fiber demands without Federal Yearbook of Agriculture 197 1, House Document No. 29, water resource development programs to enlarge the 92d Congress, lst Session. U.S. Government Printing base or its productivity. The National Advisory Office, Washington, D.C. 7 "U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, Bureau of Eco- nomic Analysis-U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRI- "Ibid., Table 6, p. 43. CULTURE, Economic Research Service (1973). 1972 0 Ibid., p. 7 OBERS Projections of Regional Economic Activity in the U.S., prepared for the U.S. Water Resources Council. U.S. "Ibid., p. 29, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 5 volumes. "Ibid., p. 31. 139 Commission on Food and Fiber, 83 reporting in 1967, 2000, ERS concludes agriculture will have no concluded: difficulty meeting the country's needs for food 87 Reclamation and land development projects paid and fiber (excluding forestry products). for by public investment have significantly Under assumptions used, including a U.S. popula- increased farm production in the past three tion projection of 308 million for the year 2000 decades, during which agriculture was plagued which is decidedly high based on present trends, the with overproduction and surpluses. Clearly, it is report says: unsound policy to invest public funds in new ... the domestic use of farm products is farm capacity at a time when the overriding expected to rise 55 percent in the next 30 years, problem is too much capacity. allowing for the projected population increase The Comn-dssion recommends that public funds plus a small gain in per capita food consump- for agricultural reclamation, irrigation, drainage tion. With land development following recent and development projects should be justified on trends, ERS projects that by the year 2000 there the basis of whether they represent the cheapest will be a 3-percent (additional) decrease in land means of getting additional farm production-if in farms. 118 84 The reduction in farn-dand contemplated amounts needed. The National Advisory Commission on Rural to 34 million acres, a little over 3 percent of the more Poverty was even more specific, recommending: than I billion acres of land in farms in 1969. It That land development programs of the Bureau includes 1-1/2 million fewer acres of cropland. of Reclamation, the Soil Conservation Service, There are, of course, other views, based on the and other Federal agencies be discontinued, and adoption of other assumptions. A committee of the that no more public money be invested in National Academy of Sciences assumed a U.S. popu- developing privately owned farmland until the lation in the year 2000 between 300 and 340 million nation needs more land for producing the a world population between 6 and 7 billion (nearly desired output of food and fiber products. double the present level), the risk of world famine Exceptions should be made where land develop- and the likelihood of increased American food ment offers the only feasible escape from exports, and it accordingly recommended: poverty for Indians and other specific groups of That the efficiency and capacity of agricultural rural poor people." productivity, both in the United States and A recent official publication of the U.S. Depart- abroad he increased to the maximum levels ment of Agriculture summarized a comprehensive possible. This is necessary not only to assure land and water study by natural resources experts in national food reserves, but also to help those the Department's Economic Research Service (ERS) countries in need. Overproduction, as well as which adds further support to the assertion that the underproduction, of perishable products must Nation's land base will be adequate to meet future be controlled, for it is evidence of poor national 16 food and fiber demand. The study points out that management and vitiates the improvement of acreage actually used for crops has been decreasing at farm production and management. The Depart- an average of 2 million acres a year since 1950 and ment of Agriculture has been working in these that the increase in idle cropland is a result of a 50 directions for a long time, in collaboration with percent increase in cropland productivity since 1950. the Department of State and the United Na- Analyzing trends in population, production, and tions. The effort should be continued, improved, land use, and projecting changes to the year and intensified.89 'Created by Executive Order No. 11256, November 4, 8 6 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (1972). Farm- 1965. land: Are we running out? The Farm Index. December 14 U.S. NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMISSION ON FOOD 1972. pp. 8-10. AND FIBER (1967). Food and Fiber for the Future. U.S. 8 7-ibid. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. p. 21. 8 8 Ibid. 85PRESIDENT'S NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMISSION 19 U.S. NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, Committee ON RURAL POVERTY (September 1967). The People on Resources and Man (1969). Resources and Man, A Left Behind. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washing- study and Recommendations. W. H. Freeman and Com- ton, D.C. p. 138. pany, San Francisco, Calif. p. 13. 140 But the dominant theme of the studies of become dependent upon the United States for food American agriculture is overproduction accompanied supply. by a depressed agricultural economy. 90 If our Nation, or the United Nations, concludes DISCUSSION that food shortages may be caused by sudden and catastrophic events, whether climatic or biologic, the At each of the hearings on the Commission's draft Commission believes the proper policy to guard report, witnesses representing groups that would against this disaster would be a national or world continue the national programs of subsidies to bring program for food storage. A World Food Bank would new farm lands into production urged upon the make sense for many reasons, not the least of which Commission the possibility that a national food would be its symbolizing the dependence of nations shortage may lie ahead. They pointed to the very upon each other, the "One World" of Wendell Wilkie. recent dramatic increases in food exports to Russia, If there is to be a national or world catastrophe that China, and India. They suggested that this sharp causes food shortages, the addition of a few million upward trend of exports might continue. They more acres of farm land will not prevent it. And if for pointed also to the example of the corn blight of whatever reason there should arise a need for more 1970, and foresaw that the high-yielding hybrid farm land in the United States to meet an unex- grains might suffer catastrophic destruction through pectedly rapid increase in exports of farm products, uncontrollable diseases, or that the droughts of the the sensible way to meet such need would be to allow mid-1930's might reoccur. They questioned whether a free and unsubsidized market to do so in the most agricultural technology would continue to improve at economic manner. That might or might not involve the rates assumed in the Iowa State University bringing new land under irrigation or draining and forecasts, and similar forecasts of the National Ad- protecting new land from floods. It should depend on visory Commission on Food and Fiber and the what at the time proves to be the least-cost method National Adivsory Commission on Rural Poverty. In of increasing farm production. The cost, in any event, other respects too, for example, the possibility of should not be borne by the taxpayers, but should be even more severe limits upon the use of chemicals in incorporated into the price of the crops exported, so agriculture than assumed in the Iowa study, these that the United States will no longer be buying witnesses questioned the accuracy of the Commis- imports at today's prices and selling exports at prices sion's forecast that the Nation already has adequate of the 1940's and 1950's. agricultural production capacity to meet the needs of the next 30 years. CONCLUSIONS Any forecast can, of course, err. Neither this nor Land reclamation measures such as irrigation and any other Commission has the gift of prophecy. We drainage of new land, protection of existing and do not know whether any of the alternative futures potential cropland from floods, and provision of used in the Iowa State University studies will materi- supplemental irrigation water for existing croplands alize. But the Commission believes the assumptions have added to the excess productive capacity of U.S. which underlie them are not unreasonable. In the agriculture and have thereby contributed to the high Commission's view it would be highly imprudent to costs of crop price support and land retirement conclude, as a matter of national policy, that we programs. If the assumptions used in the Iowa State should continue to subsidize the bringing into pro- University studies are reasonable, and we believe that duction of new farm lands on the basis of specula- they are, there appears to be adequate productive tions of food shortage that might arise because farm capacity in the Nation's agriculture to meet food and technology may falter; or because blights and fiber demand under various alternative futures at least droughts of catastrophic proportion may occur; or until the year 2000. In such case there would be no because other nations such as Russia and China may need in the next 30 years to continue federally subsidized water resource development programs to 90 See for example, CLAWSON, Marion M et al. (1960). increase the agricultural land base of the country, but Land for the Future. Published for Resources for the where the Federal Government has executed con- Future by The John Hopkins Press, Baltimore, Md.; tracts to complete water projects already begun, such JOHNSON, Glenn L & QUANCE, C Leroy (1972). The projects should of course be completed. Overproduction Trap in U.S. Agriculture. Published for Resources for the Future by The Johns Hopkins Press, Even if none of the alternative futures assumed in Baltimore, Md. the Iowa State University studies adequately project 141 the actual supply and demand for food and fiber for food is produced is obtained in the most efficient the year 2000, there is still no justification for least-cost way. subsidizing reclamation projects. If, for example, The adoption of the Commission's recommenda- export demand for food and fiber greatly exceeds the tions on cost-sharing (Chapter 15), which would amount contemplated in any of the alternative require identifiable beneficiaries or owners of bene- futures considered, that demand should nevertheless fited property to repay their respective shares of the be satisfied in the most efficient way. Efficiency in full costs of irrigation, drainage, and flood control agriculture, as in many other sectors of the economy, projects, and the recomm 'endations on project evalua- is more often than not distorted by subsidies. The tion as a basis for decisionmaking (Chapter 10), discipline of the -marketplace should be relied upon to which would require that consideration be given to insure that, consistent with environmental con- both the positive and negative effects of proposed straints, food is produced in the least-cost way. That projects on all regions, would serve to limit public may or may not entail more land under irrigation support for those projects and programs which would than at present. But the decision should not be not contribute significantly to the development of distorted by the influence of subsidies. viable economies and qualify environments in the If the demand for such high-value, specialty crops Nation's water resource regions. as fruits, nuts, and vegetables should increase so as to The Commission is aware that its recommendations require the use of additional land, the demand can be would lead to a reduction in new starts on projects by met by the private sector in a number of ways the Federal water agencies. The future role of these without Federal subsidy, for example, by shifting agencies is considered in Chapter 11, Section C. land presently in use for production of low-value crops to production of high-value crops. Even if the United States should embark upon RECOMMENDATION large-scale aid programs to supply food to the rest of the world, the reclamation of farm lands should pay 5-5. Legislation should be enacted to require full its own way. Any subsidies in the price of exported repayment of costs of Federal water resource food found advisable for reasons of foreign or development projects that result in increases in domestic policy should be straightforward (e.g., production of food and fiber in accordance direct appropriations to the Department of State to with the principles set forth in Chapter 15 of purchase food in the open market) so that whatever this report. ------- Section D Acreage Limitations and Subsidies in Reclamation Programs" National farm policy has sought creation of an by such an agrarian society. 92 The distribution of agricultural community of independent, self-reliant, public land in 160-acre blocks free of charge to and self-sufficient farmers. This goal rested essentially homesteaders reflected this goal. The acreage limita- on what has been called the Agrarian Myth, epi- tion (originally 160 acres) in reclamation law also tomized in Thomas Jefferson's belief that the Na- reflects this goal. The 1902 Reclamation Act said in tion's welfare depended on the civic virtue produced effect that Government assistance in securing irriga- tion water would be available to farmers owning not "The background and operation of the acreage limitation more than 160 acres.93 At the same time, the described in this section are taken largely from HOGAN, Harry J (1972). The Acreage Limitation in the Federal Reclamation Program, prepared for'the National Water HOGAN. p. 24 et seq. Commission. National Technical Information Service, 93 Reclamation Act of 1902, P.L. 161, June 17, 1902, Springfield, Va., Accession No. PB 211840. This study is Sections 3, 5, 57th Congress, 32 Stat. 388, 389, 43 USCA referred to hereafter as HOGAN. 431,434. 142 reclamation farmer remained subject to market 3. By a 1956 amendment to Section 46 of the forces, which over the years have led him to enlarge 1926 Act, excess lands acquired by mortgage fore- his farm and, therefore, to seek means of avoiding the closure, inheritance, or devise may receive reclama- acreage limitation. tion water for 5 years.99 4. Some landowners and districts obtained ex- PRESENT STATUS OF ACREAGE LIMITATIONS emption when water under U.S. Bureau of Reclama- The original acreage limitation appeared in Section tion (Bureau) control is declared to be natural flow, 5 of the 1902 Act, but the currently prevailing in which the landowners or districts had rights general rule was adopted in the 1926 Omnibus antedating the construction of the project. The most Adjustment Act, Section 46, which provided that notable example of this exemption is found in the water delivery contracts, which formerly had been Sacramento River Diverter contracts executed in connection with the Shasta Dam project in Northern entered into with individual farmers, would be California.'00 executed only with public irrigation districts. The 5. Similarly, land irrigated by reclamation water statute then stated, in effect, that the owners of percolating to ground water aquifers may be exempt, irrigable lands in excess of 160 acres were required to on the theory that the delivery of such water is dispose of these lands before they could receive water "unavoidable." "Unavoidable delivery" clauses now from a Federal project." appear in the California Central Valley Project con- By later amendment of this general provision, by tracts.' 0 1 special legislation for specific projects, and by admin- 6. The Bureau may not seek to trace reclamation istrative action, the acreage limitation now has the water through the wholesaler to the ultimate user, following status: who can thereby avoid the acreage limitation. This is 1. Some districts are completely exempted from the case with the Metropolitan Water District (MWD) the limitation. The Northern Colorado Water Con- of Southern California, whose reclamation water servancy District, which embraces six counties and supply is described as municipal and industrial water. receives 230,000 acre-feet per year of supplemental In fact, however, some of the water is used directly water, obtained its exemption by legislation." The for agriculture and some replaces wat'er that is used Imperial Irrigation District in southeastern California for agriculture. 102 obtained exemption by a ruling of the Secretary of 96 7. Irrigators may receive a de facto exemption the Interior, later confirmed in court. for protracted periods of time during contract nego- 2. The Small Reclamation Projects Act of tiations. In the Sacramento Diverter situation, Shasta 19569'7 has been construed to grant an exemption. Dam went into operation in 1944, but the contracts On irrigation projects qualifying for Federal loans were not signed until 1963 and did not take effect interest is payable on construction costs allocable to until 1964, 20 years after the project went into excess acreage, hence the acreage limitation was 98 operation."' Under the 1926 Omnibus Act, the thought not to be applicable. acreage limitation does not take effect for another 10 94 Act of May 24, 1926, P.L. 284, Section 46, 69th years, that is, until 1974. (In connection with the Congress, 44 Stat. 636, 649, as amended, 43 USCA 423e. Shasta Dam project, the Bureau has yet to reach "'Act ofJune 16, 1938, P.L. 665, 75th Congress, 52 Stat. agreement with Delta water users further downstream 764, 43 USCA 386. on the Sacramento River.) '6Letter dated February 24, 1933, from the Secretary of 8. It has been recently suggested by a Federal the Interior to the Imperial Irrigation District, conferred District Court that the acreage limitation expires the immunity. In an opinion dated December 31, 1964 (M-36657), (71 S.D. 496), the Solicitor of the- Depart- 9 9Act of July 11, 1956, P.L. 690, 84th Congress, 70 Stat. ment of the Interior overturned the ruling and held that 524, 43 USCA 423e. the acreage limitation applied. In subsequent litigation, the U.S. District Court, So. District, California, ruled on "'HOGAN. pp. 72, 130-136. January 5, 1971, that the limitation did not apply. The "' HOGAN. p. 72. Department did not appeal. United States v. Imperial 102HOGAN. p. 73. It should be noted, however, that the Irrigation Dist., 322 F. Supp. 11 (S.D.Cal. 197 1). price of MDW's municipal and industrial water is higher "'P.L. 984, August 6, 1956, 84th Congress, 70 Stat. 1044, than that of water identified as irrigation water in other as amended, 43 USCA 422a to 422k-1. Bureau contracts. 9'HOGAN. p. 76 11 3 HOGAN. p. 7 4. 143 V-5 7,3 'q@-g7 44 Siphon tubes take waterfrom farm ditch into crop rows in California's Central Valley when the contracting irrigation district makes full family operation. By 1926, family residence was payment of its contractual repayment obligation for dropped from the statutory law, leaving ownership as reimbursable capital costs allocable to irrigation.' 04 the only element that mattered. The excess land law The case is now on appeal, and the issues are quite has come to mean that no single individual can have complex, involving the interpretation of a succession beneficial ownership of more than 160 acres of of reclamation- laws and a number of conflicting irrigated land in any given reclamation project. Thus, opinions by Interior Department Solicitors. The trial a husband and wife with two "nor children can court found it to be a fact, however, that the operate 640 acres-the parents' 320 acres in coten- Department had an administrative practice of releas- ancy or community property and the children's ing the limitation upon payment of the contract interest in individual ownership (outright or in trust) obligation. in 160 acres each. A farmer and his wife may own 9. By administrative regulation, the 1926 Act has 320 acres in every irrigation district in the West. A been interpreted to give owners of excess irrigation corporation may own 160 acres in each reclamation project lands 10 years in which to sell excess land (or project. A joint venture may own and operate as a to suffer exercise of the power of sale conferred on single unit a farm composed of as many 160-acre the Secretary). parcels as there are partners in the firm: 10 part- The foregoing list enumerates exceptions to the ners-1,600 acres irrigated by reclamation water. The limitation, either temporary or permanent. In addi- farm family of four described above may add as much tion, there are techniques available to ameliorate the land as it wishes to its 640 acres by leasing from effects of the limitation when it has been applied. neighbors, so long as no single ownership exceeds 160 The Agrarian Myth hypothesized a family farm acres. A corporation may operate as many acres as it that was (a) family owned, (b) family run, and wishes, so long as it does not own more than 160.' 06 (c) family occupied.' 0 5 The 1902 Act required own- In short, where the acreage limitation has not been ership and (somewhat loosely) residence but not lifted by exemption, its effect is not to control the size of farm operating units but to regulate the "'United States P. Tulare Lake Canal Co., No. 2483-Civil, benefits accruing from subsidized irrigation by limit- Federal District Court, Eastern Dist., Calif. Opinion ing beneficial ownership to 160 acres. entered and judgment filed March 15, 1972. See the memorandum and order in United States v. Tulare Lake Canal Co., 340 F. Supp. 1185 (E.D.Cal. 1972) (alterna- tive holding). The foregoing description of the operation of the acreage 'HOGAN. pp. 6-7. limitation is taken from HOGAN, pp. 77-97. 144 SUBSIDY IN RECLAMATION PROGRAMS interest, the irrigator in Ainsworth is repaying about 12 percent of the irrigation cost allocation and in Irrigation subsidy is the difference between the Angostura less than 3 percent, costs of irrigation projects, including irrigation com- Table 5-10 also suggests the magnitude of the ponents of multipurpose projects, and the amount subsidy reclamation farmers receive from power that beneficiaries repay. The principal elements of the revenues, sales of municipal and industrial water, and subsidy are (1) interest-free, long-term loans, (2) pay- other assistance. The difference between the figures ment of irrigation costs by electric power revenues in the column headed "Project Construction Cost and by revenues from the sale of municipal and Allocated to Irrigation" and the column headed industrial water, and (3) allocation, to an unwar- "Irrigation Repayment Obligation" is made up by ranted extent, of joint costs of multiple -purpose nonirrigation revenues assigned to assist payment of projects to nonirrigation features. the irrigation component of project costs. It will be The interest-free loan is the largest component of noted that in the Angostura unit the ratio of irrigator the subsidy. Reclamation farmers are allowed an payments to total project costs allocated to irrigation initial development period of 10 years in which no is about 1 to 9. In the aggregate, as of 1970, power capital charges are payable; thereafter, they are payments alone are expected to account for $5 supposed to repay the capital charges in annual billion of the $7.9 billion reimbursable by irriga- installments spread over 40 years, at no interest tion.' 0 9 charge. The magnitude of the subsidy can be ex- Another practice which may contribute to the pressed in several ways. For example, if the irrigation subsidy is the allocation of multipurpose project costs cost per acre (i.e., the part of project costs allocated to such nonreimbursable features as flood control and to irrigation) is treated as a capital obligation that recreation. There is room for debate on the extent of never has to be repaid, and if the farmer's annual the subsidy, for it can be contended that present repayment charge is regarded as a perpetual return on allocations of joint and separable costs properly that investment, the rate of return on the Govern- represent the benefits generated or costs incurred by ment's investment will be extraordinarily low. In 22 each of the several purposes of any given project. The units of the Missouri River Basin Project, the return Comptroller General, however, has been critical of rate by such calculation exceeds 1 percent in the case cost allocations on a number of Bureau of Reclama- of only one unit (where the rate is 1.65 percent). The tion and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers projects.' '0 other 21 units have rates ranging from a low of zero Suffice it to say that since irrigation, municipal, and percent (five units) to a high of 0.90 percent. Table industrial water supplies are at least partially re- 5 -10 presents data for 22 units. 107 imbursable and since navigation, flood control, recre- Another way of describing the interest subsidy is ation, and water quality improvement features are to suppose that the annual repayment charge is paid not, there is some incentive for beneficiaries who to retire a fixed-term obligation at the end of a must pay to exaggerate the benefits of nonreimburs- 40-year period at a given rate of interest. If the rate able components of projects. of interest is fixed at 6 percent,' 08 the arnount of principal thus repaid is also very small. In Table 5-10, THE PROBLEM for example, the first unit (Ainsworth) has an annual irrigation charge of $5.77 per acre, which is to be The acreage limitation of the reclamation program paid for 40 years (disregarding the 10-year develop- has served two basic purposes: (1) to justify Federal ment period). Such a payment at 6 percent interest support of subsidized irrigated agriculture as a means would repay a principal amount of $86.84 per acre of promoting the "family farm" and (2) to apportion when the cost allocated to irrigation is $753 per acre ' to some degree the windfall gains from the subsidies Similarly, in the Angostura unit, the annual irrigation among a larger number of beneficiaries. The Nation charge of $1.84 per acre would repay a principal faces two questions: (1) whether to continue the amount of $27.69, when the amount allocated to subsidized support of irrigation in future programs irrigation is $1,174. In other words, at 6 percent and (2) whether to lift the acreage limitation as applied to present subsidized irrigation programs. "'HOGAN, pp. 240-242. Six percent interest is about the middle of the range of 10 9 HOGAN. p. 2 34. rates that public and private utilities have been paying in recent years. See HOGAN, pp. 245-247. HOGAN. p. 232. 145 TABLE 5-IO.-Irrigation cost and annual repayment charge per acre, Missouri River Basin Project Annual Irrigator Project Construction Irrigation Construction Cost Allocated to a Repayment 0%ligation Repayment Charge Rate of Irrigation Per Acre Per Acre Per Acre Return Project Units (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (percent) Ainsworth 7S3 286 $5.77 0.77 Almena 1,213 183 4.20 0.35 Angostura 1,174 132 1.84 0.16 Bostwick 748 221 4.62 0.62 Cedar Bluff 1,267 189 4.09 0.32 Crow Creek Pump 362 62 0 0 Dickinson 656 15 0 0 East Bench 401 96 0 0 Farwell 693 237 4.38 0.63 Fort Clark 603 52 1.48 0.25 Frenchman-Cambridge 921 162 3.71 0.40 Garrison Diversion 959 77 1.20 0.13 Glen Elder 258 0 0 0 Glendo 109 79 1.80 1.65 Hanover Bluff 885 153 1.10 0.12 Heart Butte 162 91 1.45 0.90 Kirwin 1,052 179 5.12 0.49 Oahe 1,083 176 3.20 0.30 Rapid Valley 192 0 0 0 Sargent 561 205 4.73 0.84 Savage 451 101 3.00 0.67 Webster 1,209 228 4.78 0.40 a These figures are the construction costs per acre allocated to the irrigation component of the project. Interest is not payable on these costs allocated to irrigation, even though other sources of revenue than irrigators' payments are used to discharge much Wf the obligation (e.g., power revenues). These figures are the repayment obligation per acre that the contracting irrigation district assumes in the water delivery contract. The difference between costs allocated to irrigation and the district's repayment obligation is made up from other revenues (e.g., power revenues). Source: U.S. BUREAU OF RECLAMATION (1971). Summary Report of the Commissioner, Bureau of Reclamation 1970, Statistical & Financial Appendix, Part IV. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. pp. 159-227. The Commission takes the position generally that "No," then reclamation farmers, like other water direct beneficiaries should ordinarily pay the full users, should be required to pay their full share of the costs of water development projects, including pay- costs of a water development project. If those costs ment of interest on capital invested.' 1 1 The question are paid, there will be no private windfall gains and then arises whether or not irrigated agriculture should therefore no need to impose an acreage limitation to be excepted from that recommendation, To state the achieve their wider distribution. question in a different form: Can subsidies to A conclusion that the Nation should not subsidize irrigated farms be justified either on the historic basis reclamation programs in the future and therefore of promoting the family farm or on the basis of should abandon the acreage limitation in reclamation modern circumstances? If the answer generally is projects built hereafter does not answer the question of what should be done with existing projects, where See Chapter 15. a subsidy has already been granted on a contractual 146 basis-and the acreage limitation imposed. Even if the In summary, the Commission finds no evidence family farm rationale for subsidization of irrigation that Federal support of the subsidized reclamation can no longer be supported, the question remains of farm and imposition of the acreage limitation have the windfall gains that might be conferred if the produced cultural patterns any different from those limitation were lifted on existing projects. found in comparable nonreclamation farming com- DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS munities. The Commission finds, on the other hand, that to Future Reclamation Programs continue subsidization of new irrigation projects does have disadvantages for the Nation." 5 The most The Federal reclamation program has by no means serious is the expansion of the productive capacity of guaranteed family farms owned, operated, and oc- the Nation's agricultural plant when there is a surplus cupied by farm families. In fact, family occupancy of many crops-a surplus that is expected to continue was an ambiguous requirement at best, early erased in the future. 1 16 Reclamation projects add to that by an administrative ruling requiring only that the 12 surplus, to the detriment of farmers already in owner live within 50 miles of the farm,' hardly a business and at high cost to the taxpayer.' 17 Not commuting distance in 1910. Family operation was only must the taxpayer pay a large portion of the never required, although in 1902 it might have been costs of bringing new land into production, but he thought to be natural. In any event, at the present must also pay for farm price-support programs, the time a large amount of irrigated acreage in Bureau costs of which go up as farm production of supported projects is owned by persons who do not farm the 113 crops increases. Howe and Easter have estimated that land but lease it out for others to cultivate. What of the annual payments to farmers under the 1964 remains of the concept of the family farm is and 1966 price support program between $83 million ownership, and ownership only. Where the hinitat i.on and $179 million could be directly attributed to lands applies, it means that no one person may receive brought under Bureau of Reclamation wafer service reclamation water for more than 160 acres of land during the 1944-1964 period." 8 that he owns in any one irrigation district. It is doubtful that taxpayers as consumers benefit As thus construed and applied, the acreage limita- greatly from these price-support expenditures or from tion has little to do with the nature of rural life or the subsidizing irrigation projects. For those crops which mode of farming. Reclamation farm families seem to come under farm price-support programs, prices at adopt about the same lifestyle and farming patterns the food store will be as high as they would otherwise as nonreclarnation farm families. In California, the be. But with greater production from subsidized Commission was told many reclamation farmers as irrigation, more tax funds will be required (1) to well as nonreclarnation farmers tend to live in town and commute to the farms. Sizes of farms are about the same within any given irrigation district, whether See Chapter S, Section C. or not the farms are subject to the acreage limita- See Chapter 5, Section C. Fruits, nuts, and vegetables are tion. 114 When differences exist between reclamation not in surplus, but only 15 percent of reclamation land is and nonreclamation farms, they are found in the devoted to those crops. nature of the landholding patterns. The reclamation "'HOWE Charles W & EASTER, K William (1971). Inter- farmer must lease excess acreage; the nonreclamation basin Transfers of Water. Published for Resources for the farmer can buy as much land as he chooses. But in Future, Inc. by The John Hopkins Press, Baltimore, Md. scale of operations, capital investment, and all other pp. 140-141. The authors estimate that the 3.3 million acres of additional irrigated cropland developed by the aspects of farm operations, the reclamation farmer Bureau in the period 1944-1964 displaced from 5 to 18 and his nonreclamation counterpart are indistin- million acres elsewhere in the country. This amounts to guishable. something between 8 and 20 percent of the 66 million- acre decline in harvested cropland in the 20-year period. " 'Reclamation Service Regulations, May 31, 1910; 38 L.D. "'HOWE Charles W & EASTER, K William (1971). Inter- 637. basin Transfers of Water. Published for Resources for the " 'See HOGAN, pp, 110-122. Future, Inc. by The J6hns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, Md. 'In fact, in five counties of the California San Joaquin p. 143. Additional calculations for cotton indicate that Valley, the average size of a reclamation farm operation is price support and land retirement payments cost the larger than the average size of all farm operations, in Federal Treasury between $201 and $468 per year per some cases by sizable amounts. See HOGAN, pp. acre of reclamation irrigated cotton. See pp. 146,' 119-120. 148-154. 147 maintain price-support levels and (2) to underwrite industry. Accordingly, the Commission concludes the irrigation subsidy. that the 160-acre limitation should be eliminated in For crops which are not under price-support future reclamation programs if direct beneficiaries programs but which are gown on reclamation project pay in full the costs of projects allocated to irrigation. lands, food store prices will probably be lower, but n ot by much because the price received by farmers Existing Reclamation Programs represents only a fraction of the retail price of food The reasons for eliminating the acreage hinitation and subsidized irrigation accounts for only a fraction in future programs offer little guidance for handling of total agricultural production! 19 In many cases, the problem under present programs. There is little the combined social costs of producing subsidized evidence that farm efficiency now suffers from the products (i.e., the price paid by consumers plus the limitation, since various business arrangements allow subsidy paid by taxpayers) exceed the costs which the farming entrepreneur to put together an operating would otherwise prevail in the absence of the subsidy. farm of the size he deems optimal. Costs are incurred The Commission concludes that subsidization of (1) to set up arrangements satisfactory to the new irrigation projects is not justified on either social administrators in the Bureau of Reclamation and (2) or economic grounds. Reclamation farms differ little to litigate the legality of the arrangements. from nonreclarnation farms, but federally subsidized There are those who would urge that the 160-acre irrigation does increase farm surpluses, increasing the limitation be given real teeth as a means of restraining costs of price-support programs and disadvantaging large-scale corporate farming. The Commission does farmers in other parts of the country. Direct bene- not believe the acreage hmitation is adequate to the ficiaries of Federal irrigation developments should, job if indeed it is desirable to do such a job in the therefore, be compelled to pay in full the costs of first instance. The Bureau of Reclamation serves projects allocated to irrigation in conformity to the almost 9 million acres out of a harvested cropland general principle of full-cost repayment proposed for base of 273 million acres, and a significant part of the other water development projects elsewhere in this reclamation land is not subject to the acreage report. limitation. Even assuming the doubtful legality of If full repayment of irrigation costs is required of applying the limitation to operating size instead of benefited irrigators, no reason is perceived for subjec- applying it merely to ownership, the effect on land ting them to an acreage limitation. No subsidy has tenure and corporate farming would seem to be been conferred and no windfall gains will be ob- miniscule. tained. In fact, there appear to be good reasons not to There are others who would urge outright abolition impose a limitation. As a general proposition, re- of the limitation .12 ' They, however, have not always straints on citizen behavior should be avoided unless faced up to the question of the reclamation subsidy good cause is shown for limiting freedom of choice. and the relation of the limitation to it. It would not Moreover, arbitrary rules restricting economic choice do to abolish the limitation if the effect would be to are likely to cause misallocation of resources. The confer large windfall gains on reclamation farmers. average size of the American farm has been on the It is the Commission's opinion that any lifting of increase as economies of scale are achieved with improved technology. 12 0 An acreage limitation runs the acreage limitation on existing reclamation proj- counter to this trend and could produce one of two ects should be accompanied by an increase in the undesirable consequences: (1) Economic pressures price of reclamation water reflecting more accurately would be such that evasion of the law would occur or the real cost of obtaining the water and delivering it (2) the law would be enforced despite the economic to the farmer. pressures but at the cost of a less efficient irrigation RECOMMENDATIONS 'Thus a general change in technology affecting all farm 5-6. Subsidization of new irrigation projects should production could have a far greater impact on food prices be discontinued. Direct beneficiaries of Federal than will a change in output of irrigated agriculture which contributes only 20 percent of total farm output. 12 'GOVERNOR'S TASK FORCE ON THE ACREAGE LIMITATION PROBLEM (January 4, 1968). Report of 12 0 Between 1935 and 1972, average farm size in the United the Governor's Task Force on the Acreage Limitation States increased from 155 to 394 acres. This same trend Problem. Department of Water Resources and Depart- has occurred also in the 17 Western Reclamation States. ment of Agriculture, State of California, Sacramento. 148 irrigation developments should pay in full the making such lump-sum payment or by costs of new projects allocated to irrigation. paying such interest assigned to all the 5-7. Congress should abolish the 160-acre limitation land he owns within a project, including in reclamation projects constructed in the his original 160 acres. Project costs future; provided, however, that direct project should be apportioned on an acreage basis. beneficiaries pay the full costs of the projects d. Any landowner who wishes to acquire allocated to irrigation. excess acreage should be able to do so and 5-8. With respect to existing reclamation projects, receive reclamation water if he makes such Congress should enact legislation authorizing lump-sum payment or pays such interest as four distinct ways in which the acreage limita- is assigned to all the land he will own tion may be lifted. within a project, including his original 160 a. Any irrigation district should be able to acres. - make a lump-sum payment of the balance remaining due on a contractual obligation These four proposals would not fully recapture the incurred for irrigation and receive an subsidy granted to irrigation water. Those parts of the exemption from the acreage limitation. 122 subsidy consisting of assistance from power revenues b. Any irrigation district should be able to and from overallocation to such nonreimbursable pay interest on the balance remaining due benefits as flood control and recreation will not be on a contractual repayment obligation recaptured. But in view of the fact that under incurred for irrigation and receive an ex- existing, binding legal arrangements, operators of emption from the acreage limitation. farms containing excess acreage may receive reclama- c. Any landowner who has executed a record- tion water without recapture of the subsidy, the able contract to sell excess acreage should proposals are thought to go as far towards recapture be able to retain that excess acreage by as is practicable. Section E Programs for Reducing Flood Losses The annual flood damage in the United States has area. 12 1 During the period 1955 through 1969 the been roughly estimated to average $1 billion. 1 23 loss of life in the United States attributed to floods There is also a toll in human life, even though a high averaged 83 per year .126 Despite the more than $8 degree of flood protection has been provided, at great billion that the Federal Government has spent in its cost, for most cities located in major river valleys. attempt to reduce those losses, the total loss con- Relatively small cities, like Rapid City, South Dakota, tinues to grow. The conclusion is inescapable: the are, however, still vulnerable, as was demonstrated Nation should improve its programs for dealing with when a flood of great magnitude struck that com- flood problems. munity in June 1972, taking 237 lives and causing There are a number of measures that can be used damage estimated to be in excess of $1 billion .124 In to mitigate flood damages. Flood plain areas where that same month, Hurricane Agnes resulted in at least people and property are already concentrated may be 122 deaths at scattered points over a five-State given full or partial protection by construction of engineering works such as reservoirs, levees, channel 'A Federal district court has adopted this proposition as improvements, and bypasses. The Nation has invested the existing law, but the case has been appealed. 123 TASK FORCE ON FEDERAL FLOOD CONTROL '21GENERAL ADJUSTMENT BUREAU, INC (1972)' POLICY (August 1966). A Unified National Program for Nature's Destructive Forces. General Adjustment Bureau, Managing Flood Losses, House Document No. 465, 89th New York. Congress, 2d Session. U.S. Government Printing Office, 12 6U.S. NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC Washington, D.C. p. 3. ADMINISTRATION. Climatological Data, National Sum- Unpublished data compiled by the American Red Cro ss. mary, 1970. 149 billions of dollars in such works since the Federal economy and the human suffering that result from Government began its efforts to bring floods under floods are, in brief: control; first in the Lower Mississippi Valley in 1918 1 .The "flood control" activities of the Corps of and throughout the Nation in 1936. When it became Engineers of the United States Army which clear that new flood problems were being created are carried out primarily under the authorities faster than the old ones were being eliminated, other made available to that agency by the Flood 127 measures began to receive serious attention. These Control Act of 1936, and a great body of included the regulation of flood plain use to prevent additional amendatory and supplementary leg- their development in such a way that excessive islation. damage will occur when floods strike, and to require 2. The program of the Soil Conservation Service that any structures that are built on the flood plain of the U.S. Department of Agriculture under shall be designed so that they suffer little damage in the authorities of the Watershed Protection 128 time of flood. The latter measure, sometimes referred and Flood Prevention Act of 1954, as to as "flood-proofing," finds favor where lands amended, often informally referred to as the suitable for development are limited. "small watershed program." Flood losses can also be reduced by warning 3. The program of the Tennessee Valley Author- occupants of the threatened area of the flood wave ity, 129 one purpose of which is to reduce descending upon them and helping them to evacuate flood damages. the area expected to be inundated. The use of this 4. The Federal Reclamation Program admin- technique is dependent upon flood forecasting and istered by the Bureau of Reclamation of the the Federal Government provides a flood warning U.S. Department of the Interior pursuant to service through the National Weather Service. In legislation 130 which makes it possible to predicting flood stages on the major streams, a rather provide flood control capacity in the multiple- high degree of reriability has been attained and purpose reservoirs of Federal Reclamation warning times are long enough to permit removal of Projects. property to locations where it will not be damaged. 5. A flood insurance program 13 1 directed by the Flash floods from small drainage areas, particularly in Federal Insurance Administration of the U.S. mountainous areas, cannot always be predicted far Department of Housing and Urban Develop- enough in advance to make it possible to protect ment and carried out by a pool of insurance movable property. This can result in disasters such as companies. that visited upon Rapid City in 1972. Flash flood warnings can, at best, save lives if they are heeded. Program of the Corps of Engineers Rapid City, for example, had about 5 hours advance The legislative base for this program is a series of warning of the flood, but lacked an effective corn- "Flood Control Acts," the first of which was enacted munity action program. in 1936. Previous to that Act there was no nation- When floods occur, Federal, State, local, and wide flood control program, although the Federal private organizations cooperate in carrying out flood emergency programs. Overall coordination is provided 127 P.L. 738, June 22, 1936, 74th Congress, 49 Stat. 1570. by the Office of Emergency Preparedness, and tax 12 'P.L. 566, August 4, 1954, 83d Congress, 68 Stat. 666, as relief and disaster relief loans and grants are provided amended, 16 USCA 1001-1008. when the President declares the flooded area to be a 12 'Carried out under the Tennessee Valley Authority Act of disaster area. 1933, P.L. 17, May 18, 1933, 73d Congress, 48 Stat. 58, All of the measures rn@ntioned above should be as amended, 16 USCA 831 et seq. considered in developing a plan for mitigating flood "Reclamation Project Act of 1939, P.L. 260, August 4, losses in a particular area, and the plan should be 1939, Section 9, 76th Congress, 53 Stat. 1187, 1193-1196, as amended, 43 USCA 485h. tailored to the unique needs of that area. In general, 13'Authorized by the National Flood Insurance Act of the objective should be to arrive at the best combina- 1968, P.L. 90448 Title X111, 82 Stat. 476, 572 (codified, tion of measures. as amended, in pertinent part at 42 USCA 4001 et seq.). The earlier Federal Flood Insurance Act of 19.56, P.L. THEPROGRAMS 1016, August 7, 1956, 84th Congress, 70 Stat. 1078, was not utilized because of difficulties foreseen and the The principal programs through which the Federal burden that it would have placed on the Federal Government -attempts to reduce the Arain on the Treasury, 150 Government had, under legislation enacted in Since the beginning of the flood control program 1917 132 and 1928 133 accepted responsibility for of the Corps of Engineers in 1918, the Congress has controlling floods of the Lower Mississippi River, and appropriated a total of more than $8 billion 1311 for had also undertaken some flood control work on the the construction of engineering works such as dams, Sacramento River 132 and in the Florida Ever- levees, and enlarged channels. 134 Oades. The 1936 Act was the first of a series and The cost-sharing policies applicable to this program the resulting body of legislation is known collectively are discussed in Chapter 15 of this report. In brief, as the "Flood Control Acts." The designation can be the Federal Government assumes the full cost- misleading to the uninitiated because this large body construction and operation and maintenance-of pro- of law makes it possible for the Corps of Engineers viding protection by major reservoirs, while for local (Corps) to undertake projects and activities serving a protection projects, such as levees and channel multiplicity of purposes other than flood control, improvements, non-Federal interests must provide including-but not limited to-the drainage of wet- lands, easements, and rights-of-way, and must also 135 lands, the generation of power, and the provision maintain and operate the works after completion. On of water supply. Of particular importance from the the average, the value of lands, easements, and standpoint of reducing future flood losses is the rights-of-way amount to about 20 percent of the first Flood Control Act of 1960, Section 206 of which cost of the local protection projects that have been authorized the Corps to provide the States and local installed. For hurricane protection projects, non- governmental entities with the information they need Federal interests are required to assume at least 30 to regulate the use of flood plain lands. This percent of the first cost and all of the cost of authorization made it possible for the Corps to operation and maintenance. establish a Flood Plain Management Service, and in Since the authorization of the flood plain manage- this way to give impetus to the use of nonstructural ment program by the Flood Control Act of 1960 a measures for dealing with the Nation's flood prob- slow, but continuous, trend toward greater reliance leMS.1 3 6 on flood plain regulation has become evident. By the The authorities provided the Corps by the earlier end of Fiscal Year 1970, flood plain information had Flood Control Acts enabled it to propose projects for been furnished some 1,300 communities. The number protecting against floods in rivers and streams, but of communities taking any positive action as a result not against overflows resulting from abnormally high of receiving flood plain information is not known. levels of the oceans or lakes. As damages caused by such overflows increased, the Congress broadened the Program of the Soil Conservation Service flood control legislation to make it possible for the The enactment of the Watershed Protection and Corps to provide protection against floods induced by hurricanes. 137 Flood Prevention Act of 1954139 and subsequent amendments thereto has enabled the Soil Conserva- tion Service (SCS) to carry out, within headwater 112Act ofMarch 1, 1917, P.L. 367, 64th Congress, 39 Stat. watersheds, a program of flood damage reduction by 948. the construction of engineering works similar to, but 133Act ofMay 15, 1928, P.L. 391, 70th Congress, 45 Stat. smaller than, those installed by the Corps of Engi- 534. neers to reduce flood damages in downstream valleys. '34Act of July 3, 1930, P.L. 520, 71st Congress, 46 Stat. Although similar in nature to the flood control 918,925. See Section C of this chapter. Actual appropriations, not converted to present dollars. This is an updating of the cost figure appearing in House "P.L. 86-645, July 14, 1960, Section 206, 74 Stat. 480, Document No. 465, 89th Congress, 2d Session. 500, as amended, 33 USCA 709a. "P.L. 566, August 4, 1954, 83d Congress, 68 Stat. 666, as 137 In the Act ofJune 15, 1955, P.L. 71, 84th Congress, 69 amended, 16 USCA 1001 et seq. The Flood Control Act Stat. 132, Congress authorized a survey of the Eastern of 1936 had authorized the Department of Agriculture to and Southern seaboard to determine methods of prevent- propose land treatment plans for the reduction of floods ing and mitigating harm from hurricanes. Subsequently in major river basins, but the surveys made pursuant to Congress adopted the procedure of authorizing individual this authority revealed that land treatment alone does not projects for hurricane protection. Earlier Congress had substantially reduce large floods on major rivers, and this directed the Corps to undertake shore protection works, finding led the, Soil Conservation Service to seek authority but these works are not elements of the flood control to deal with floods in upstream valleys by the construc- program. tion of engineering works. 151 -max &7- Oro-, ........ .. io- Development on flood plains invites flood damages program of the Corps, the Public Law 566 program As of the end of Fiscal Year 1972, the engineering differs in that local organizations, such as Soil works installed, or to be installed, under approved Conservation Districts, sponsor the construction of watershed plans included some 7,000 reservoirs and the works and agree to assume responsibility for them 21,000 miles of improved channel .14 " The total after they are constructed. estimated cost of these structures will amount to Although initiated as a program to reduce flood approximately $2 billion. An inventory 142 made by damages along headwater streams, amendments to the SCS has led it to conclude that the work Public Law 566 make it possible for "watershed accomplished or planned to date meets about 10 projects" to serve a multiplicity of purposes, includ- ing reclamation by irrigation and drainage '140 munic- 14'The channel improvement work under this program ipal and industrial water supply, recreation, stream- constitutes the major component of the work discussed flow regulation, and fish and wildlife enhancement. on channelization in Chapter 2 of this report. 142U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (1967). Sta- "See Section C of this chapter. tistical Bulletin No. 461, 1967. 152 percent of the total "needs" of the United States. Program of the Bureau of Reclamation This would indicate that the Public Law 566 program The Reclamation Project Act of 1939 14 ' author- might ultimately result in an expenditure of S20 ized the inclusion in Bureau of Reclamation reservoirs billion for the construction of headwater engineering of capacity to be used for the reduction of flood works. To date, about three-fourths of the cost of flows. About $700 million of construction costs have such structures has been borne by the Federal been tentatively allocated to flood control under this Government. authority, all of which is borne by the Federal In 1968, the Sod Conservation Service initiated a 146 program under which it provides for headwater Government. streams reports similar to those provided by the ne Flood Insurance Program of the U.S. Department Flood Plain Information Service of the Corps of of Housing and Urban Development Engineers. Reports for 18 communities are expected to be completed by the end of Fiscal Year 1972. The Under the National Flood Insurance Program 141 recently enacted Rural Development Act of 1972 143 authorized in 1968, the Federal Insurance Admin provides specific authority for this activity. istration of the Department of Housing and Urban In compliance with provisions of Public Law 566, Development (HUD) can make available, through the the Soil Conservation Service pays 100 percent of in ,surance industry, subsidized flood insurance for any that part of the construction cost of works which is properties that are in existence at the time that the allocable to flood control, but the non-Federal Administration delineates the flood hazard area in organizations provide lands, casements, and rights-of- which they are located. Properties built subsequently way and agree to operate the works. are required to pay "actuarial" rates; that is, rates high enough to cover the average loss that might be Program of the Tennessee Valley Authority expected over a long period of time. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) was created in 1933 as a regional resource development Other Programs agency. 144 Among its assignments was the construc- Other programs intended to result in reductions in tion of dams and reservoirs in the Tennessee River flood losses are: and its tributaries to promote navigation and to 1 . A cooperative program of the Corps of Engi- control destructive flood waters in the Tennessee and neers, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the lower Ohio and Mississippi Basins. In addition to National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminis- achieving the above benefits, all the major dams in tration (NOAA) through which maps of flood the Tennessee River and its tributaries contain power- plains are prepared for inclusion in Flood Plain houses and produce electricity. Tributary storage is Information Reports prepared by the Corps of primarily responsible for reducing flood levels up- Engineers, and which are also used by the SCS, stream from Chattanooga in the eastern part of the the TVA, and the Federal Insurance Adminis- basin. The lower and western end of the basin is tration. connected to the Cumberland River at Barkley Canal 2.' The National Weather Service of NOAA oper- which permits combined use of both reservoir sys- ates 12 River Forecast Centers that issue flood tems for control of releases during flood stages on the warnings that have been of great value to cities lower Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. Significant flood located on larger streams, but of limited value control contributions to localized areas in the Tennes- to communities or areas subject to flash floods see Valley are made by smaller TVA dams and on small streams. reservoirs and by urban channel improvements. 3. Flood emergency programs to minimize losses A community flood damage prevention program, of life and property when major floods occur. begun by TVA in 1953, outlines local flood situations "'Reclamation Project Act of 1939, P.L. 260, August 4, and assists communities in preparing new or revised 1939, Section 9, 76th Congress, 53 Stat. 1187, flood plain provisions for inclusion in zoning ordi- 1193-1196, as amended, 43 USCA 485h. nances and subdivision regulations. 146 U.S. BUREAU OF RECLAMATION (1972.). Statistical 14 3P.L. 92-419, August 30, 1972, 75 Stat. 307. Report of the Commissioner. Appendix II, p. 8 1. 1 4'Tennessee Valley Authority Act of 1933, P.L. 17, May 147 National 1,7ood Insurance Act of 1968, P.L. 90-448, 18, 1933, 73d Congress, 48 Star, 58, as amended, 16 August 1, 1968, Title X111, 82 Stat. 476, S72 (codified, USCA 831 et seq. as amended, in pertinent part at 42 USCA 4001 et seq.). 153 Through these programs the Corps of Engi- In the mid-1940's, the more perceptive observers neers and the Department of Agriculture work of the situation began to call attention to the fact with local authorities, the American Red that protecting people and property already in the Cross, and other organizations to reduce the flood plains was not enough, that something must be impact of such floods, under the overall coor- done to stop the rapid development of flood plain dination of the Office of Emergency Prepared- land and the consequent creation of additional flood ness. The latter organization also encourages problems. 149 This obviously sensible notion even- communities to develop flood emergency tually gained supporters and Section 206 of the Flood plans so that they will be prepared to act Control Act of 1960 referred to earlier made it quickly and efficiently in the event a flood possible for the Corps of Engineers to establish its emergency should arise. It has also encouraged Flood Plain Management Service.' sc' This was an States to enact "Disaster Acts" that will important step forward. But other steps must follow improve the machinery available when any until there is a fundamental reorientation in the way type of disaster strikes. the people of the United States think about their flood problem, and until the Congress, the agencies APPRAISAL OF PROGRAMS responsible for programs affecting the Nation's flood The National Water Commission has made a plains, and the public at large agree that the goal to be attained is the best use of flood plain lands. One of systematic effort to appraise the programs previously the steps in this direction inust, of course, be the described, giving special attention to the possibilities attainment of a consensus on what is meant by "best for, improving them. Its principal findings are briefly use." It is the view of this Commission that from the presented in the following paragraphs. standpoint of the Nation the best use of any parcel of There is need for a change in the way the Nation flood plain land is that which makes the greatest net looks at its flood problem. It is natural for the general contribution to the welfare of the people of the public to think that the way to solve the flood United States, taking into account intangible, as well problem is to build levees, reservoirs, and other as material, contributions. engineering works. This was particularly true after the More attention should be given alternatives and to series of spectacular floods such as those that finding the best combination thereof Although plan- preceded the eriactment of the Flood Control Act of ners. generally accept the idea that all feasible 1936. Moreover, it is natural for Congress, in the alternatives should be given full and equitable con- aftermath of 'such disasters, to turn to 'such visible sideration, and that their objective should be to find means of control. Undoubtedly, the construction of the best combination of measures, the Federal engineering works has greatly reduced the flood losses agencies have not been particularly successful in that the Nation would otherwise have suffered, and it putting the concept into effect. This is especially true is certain that many such works have resulted in when a group of agencies attempts to formulate a benefits far exceeding their costs. -As many have comprehensive regional plan and finds that the inclu- pointed out, however, the flood problem has grown despite the billions spent for protective measures.' 48 sion therein of measures that one agency would The extensive damages, from the 1972 Hurricane install would require omission of those that another Agnes floods in communities such as Wilkes-Barre, agency would like to carry out. Too often the final Pennsylvania, already -having Federal flood control plan turns out to be no more than a poorly projects suggests that such projects give occupants of coordinated conglomerate of the plans favored by the flood plains a false sense of security, since no flood individual agencies. The Water Resources Council is control project can prevent damages from the maxi- making a serious attempt to improve Federal planning mum possible flood. procedures to alleviate this problem. The Council is "'For a brief history of the Nation's eff Iorts to solve the 14 9WHITE, Gilbert Fowler (1945). Human Adjustment to flood problem, see AREY, David F & BAUMANN, Duane Floods. University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. D, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa. (1971). "'P.L. 86-645, Section 206, July 14, 1960, 74 Stat. 480, Alternative Adjustments to Natural Hazards, prepared for 500, as amended, 33 USCA 709a. Even earlier, the the National Water Commission. National Technical Tennessee Valley Authority and the U.S. Geological Information Service, Springfield, Va., Accession No. PB Survey had assisted local entities with arrangements for 211922. regulating the use of flood plain lands. 154 handicapped by the fact that the legislative author- ment is able to provide flood hazard maps only the ities under which the various Federal agencies work States, or governmental subdivisions thereof, can constitute a poorly coordinated assemblage of laws exercise the police power required to control land enacted at intervals over a long period of years during use. It is becoming increasingly evident that if flood which planning concepts changed radically. hazard maps for all flood plains in the Nation must be There is a need for strengthening programs that made by the Federal agencies presently engaged in promote better use of flood plain lands. Response to that activity, progress in bringing the Nation's flood Section 206 of the Flood Control Act of 1960, under plains under regulation will be disastrously slow. which the Corps of Engineers established its Flood Moreover, if flood insurance is to be made available' Plain Management Service, has exceeded in both to flood plain occupants throughout the Nation, and magnitude and public approbation that expected by if the agencies responsible for the administration of the supporters of the legislation. Because it was Federal grant, loan, or mortgage insurance programs viewed as an experiment, Section 206 placed a limit are to comply with Executive Order No. 11296,'" upon the amount that could be spent in any one year. the agencies concerned must have early access to at Although this limit has since been increased, the least preliminary flood hazard determinations in all requests for services have continued to outrun the flood plain areas in which their services are de- capacity of the Corps of Engineers to meet the manded. For all of these reasons, it is essential, in the demand. In view of the general approval of the opinion of the Commission, that all States develop program, and since small expenditures for this service effective organizations and programs, either statewide may obviate great expenditures for flood protection or regional, to promote wise use of flood plain lands. in the future, it would appear desirable to remove The Federal Government should assist the States in this limitation. The Appropriations Committees will, this because the savings, in the form of reductions in of course, see to it that the appropriation for any future flood damages and expenditures for flood particular year does not exceed a justifiable level. protection measures and disaster relief, will far exceed Another retarding factor is the insufficiency of the cost of establishing and maintaining such non- funds for the preparation of flood plain maps through Federal organizations and programs. the joint program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the There is a needfor public acquisition offlobd plain National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, land to control flood plain use. It has been declared and the Corps of Engineers. This deficiency also holds by some that the present programs for controlling back the Flood Insurance Programs of HUD. flood plain use are deficient in that they make no f7ood plain management plans should be broad- provision for public acquisition of lands subject to ened The flood plain management plans being frequent overflow. They point out that in some provided under the authorities of Section 206 are of instances the Federal -Government would, in the long great value to communities wishing to regulate the run, save money were it to acquire guch lands. While use of their flood plain lands. The Commission is of an economically valid argument might be made that the opinion, however, that they would be of still Federal acquisition of certain flobd plain lands would greater value if they were accompanied by the results be justified, the establishment of a program for this' of a study of both the lands subject to flooding and purpose could lead to Ia gr Ieat increase in the the surrounding uplands. Among other things, this landholdings of the Federal Government. This'Com- study should provide a comparison of the cost to the mission doubts the'wisdom of,adding to the already Nation of using the flood plain lands for various large proportion of the Nation's lands that is owned purposes, with the cost of using, for those same by the Federal Government. Yet, it cannot be denied purposes, alternative lands not subject to overflow. In that certain flood plain areas, particularly areas of addition, the reports on such studies should provide critical environmental concern, would be of greater information on the environmental and social implica- value to the Nation if they were used for parks or tions of developing, or not developing, such lands. Progress toward the goal of making optimum use This Executive'Order requires these' agenIcies to evaluate of flood plain regulation should be speeded up by flood hazards in connection with grants, , loans, or offeringfinancial assistance to the States. The cooper- mortgage insurance for buildings, structures, roa6, or ation of the@ States is, absolutely essential if the other facilities 'in order to minimize future flood dam- objectives of the Flood Plain Management Program agesi or Federal expenditures for flood protection and I disaster relief. Federal Register 31(15S):10663-10664. are to be achieved. Even where the Federal Govern- August 11, 1966. 155 similar purposes. Where this is found to be the case, it flood plain management plan has been developed for would be consistent with good public policy for the any area, and this plan has been approved by both the States, or other non-Federal entities, to acquire the State and the Federal Government, then all Federal land and for the Federal Government to assume a agencies should be required to comply with it. part of the acquisition cost. Federal contributions Aere is a need for improvement in the procedures toward such acquisition should be made through for preparing plans for flood loss reduction and flood programs other than those established to develop plain management. Soon after the release of the water resources. For example, assistance in acquiring Report of the Task Force on Federal Flood Control lands for recreational purposes could appropriately be Policy, the Bureau of the Budget called upon the Water made available from the Land and Water Conserva- Resources Council to develop procedures for imple- tion Fund.' 52 menting the recommendations of the Task Force. Federal agencies fail to give adequate consideration This, and several other developments, led the Council to the flood hazard in canying out programs affecting to undertake a number of studies. As a result of these the flood plain. When, in 1966, President Johnson studies, the Council has issued several documents transmitted to Congress the Report of a Task Force having important implications for plan formulation. on Federal Flood Control Policy 153 he also issued One of these sets forth proposed "Principles and Executive Order No. 11290 54 This Order requires Standards for Planning Water and Land Resources." the agenci es responsible for a wide range of Federal Another outlines a "Unified National Program for programs affecting, or capable of affecting, the use of Flood Plain Management." Neither of these reports flood plain lands, to take the flood hazard into has been placed in final form. Both will have account in their administration of those programs. important implications for future plan formulation. Unfortunately, this is not being done. At the Wash- The National Water Commission is of the opinion ington conference on the review draft of this report, that, when completed, these reports will help to representatives of the State of Pennsylvania pointed improve plans and correct some of the deficiencies out that Small Business Administration loans had mentioned above. Nevertheless, it believes that been made for rebuilding on the flood plains. Since further work is necessary and that in the course of Executive Order No. 11296 did not achieve the this work the recommendations at the end of this results expected of it, the Bureau of the Budget in section should be given full consideration. 1968 requested the Water Resources Council to assist There is a need for considerable strengthening of in the development of guidelines for the application the present program for providing flood forecasts. A of the Executive Order. This resulted in the prepara- recent report by the Office of Emergency Prepared- tion of "Proposed Flood Hazard Evaluation Guide- ness (OEP) evaluates present provisions for the predic- lines for the Federal Executive Agencies." It was first tion of floods and the issuance of warnings. 155 issued in preliminary form and, after extensive Particular attention is called to the deficiencies of the review, issued in final form in April 1972 for the flash flood prediction and warning system. OEP also' guidance of the executive agencies. The guidelines offers recommendations for correcting present in- should make Executive Order No. 11296 more adequacies. As the recommendations to follow will effective, but until flood plain maps and management show, the National Water Commission agrees that the plans become available for all of the flood plain areas present system requires strengthening. in which agencies operate, a considerable degree of I There is need for intensification and unification of uncertainty will continue to exist as to the hazard on ' basic data collection. The Task Force on Federal any particular part of a particular flood plain. When a Flood Control Policy offered a number of recom- mendations on data collection designed to provide "'See Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965, P.L. better information on floods and flood problems. The 88-578, Section 5, September 3, 1964, 78 Stat. 897, 900 Water Resources Council has gone part of the way in as amended, 16 USCA 4601-8. implementing these recommendations, and the estab- "'Entitled "A Unified National Program for Managing lished basic data collection programs of the Federal Flood Losses" and printed as House Document No. 465, 89th Congress, 2d Session. 'Evaluation of Flood Hazard in Locating Federally Owned '"U.S. OFFICE OF EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS or Financed Buildings, Roads, and Other Facilities, and in (January 1972). Disaster Preparedness, Report to the Disposing of Federal Lands and Properties. Federal Congress. 3 volumes. U.S. Government Printing Office, Register 31(15S): 10663-10664. August 11, 1966. Washington, D.C. 156 and State agencies continue. Many of those re- the experience during recent floods, there would sponsible for planning and carrying out programs to appear to be an urgent need for the independent reduce flood losses have said that the existing data study recommended by this Commission. base is inadequate. On the credit side of the ledger, it must be said The role that flood insurance should play in a that the law authorizing the National Flood Insurance unified national program for reducing flood losses is Program requires that land-use regulations be put into not yet clear and there is need for an independent effect before flood insurance may be made available study of present flood insurance legislation and to those subject to damage. This feature of the activities. As indicated previously, this is a new program provides an effective incentive for better program authorized in 1968 by Public Law 90-448. utilization of flood plain lands. Wise use of flood- As of June 1972 when the Nation suffered a series of prone lands is also furthered by the fact that people disastrous floods about 93,000 policies had been sold are made aware of the flood hazard in areas in which to a potential market that had previously been flood insurance is offered. Some have expressed the estimated as 2 to 3 niillion property owners. 156 In view that if the flood insurance program is to become other words, less than 5 percent of those eligible had effective, the purchase of flood insurance must be purchRsed insurance. After the great floods caused by made mandatory, and the Department of Housing Hurricane Agnes it was discovered that an insignifi- and Urban Development has moved in this direction cant proportion of the losses suffered would be by proposing legislation that would prohibit financial covered by insurance payments. For example, in assistance in the acquisition of flood plain property Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, one of the hardest hit or for construction on flood plain lands-either communities, only two policies had been purchased. through Federal agencies or lending institutions over By December 1972, the number of policies in effect which the Federal Government has any supervisory had increased to 125,000.1 5 7 control-unless the property or the contemplated Considerable doubt has been expressed concerning improvement is covered by flood insurance. Others the wisdom of the high degree of subsidization that is propose abandonment of Federal programs under being used to develop a market for flood insurance, as which disaster relief is made available to victims of well as of the practicability of withholding, as major floods as a means of compelling flood plain required by present law, emergency relief from those occupants to buy flood insurance. who could have covered their losses by insurance. There is need for extensive reforms in the programs After the great floods of June 1972, the Federal under which engineering works are constructed for Government reduced further the already highly sub- the purpose of reducing flood losses. This Commis- sidized rates for flood insurance by 37-1/2 percent, sion's appraisal of the programs through which the and deferred the date at which it would make Corps of Engineers and the Soil Conservation Service available unsubsidized insurance. In addition, it has provide flood protection by means of reservoirs, been pointed out that insurance can do nothing to levees, and other engineering works has revealed the reduce damages to existing property, and thus cannot same deficiencies found by earlier Commissions.' 59 stop this large and continuing drain upon the Nation's Needed reforms of special importance are: economy. I . A change in the basic cost-sharing policies to When the Task Force on Federal Flood Control (a) eliminate the unconscionable windfall gains Policy considered flood insurance as one of the accruing to some landowners when protection alternative means of coping with the flood problem, provided at no expense to them results in large it pointed out that " . . . if misapplied an insurance increases in the value of their lands, program could aggravate rather than ameliorate the (b) provide for uniforinity in the policies flood problem."' ' 8 In the light of this danger, and of governing the programs of different agencies, 116GENERAL ADJUSTMENT BUREAU, INC (1972). Destruction and Devastation: The Floods of June 1972. '"Information provided by the Federal Insurance Admin- For example, see TASK GROUP ON FLOOD CONTROL istration. (1955). Report of the Task Group on Flood Control, in TASK FORCE ON FEDERAL FLOOD CONTROL TASK FORCE ON WATER RESOURCES AND POWER, POLICY (August 1966). A Unified National Program for Report on Water Resources and Power, volume 11, Managing Flood Losses, House Document No. 465, 89th prepared for the Commission on Organization of the Congress, 2d Session. U.S. Government Printing Office, Executive Branch of the Government. U.S. Government Washington, D.C. p. 38. Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 157 and (c) equalize cost-sharing for the different reduce losses resulting from flood runoff originating means of providing protection! 60 wholly, or largely, within an urban area should be 2. Improvement in the economic evaluation of designed, constructed, and maintained by a local proposed flood control projects and programs, entity. However, to the extent that flood plain maps including elimination of the practice of includ- delineating flood hazard zones are required by the ing in the benefit-cost analysis benefits for local entity to enable it to regulate the use of lands protection of improvements not yet con- subject to flooding, the agencies-Federal, State, or structed. regional-that prepare such maps elsewhere in the 3. The addition to the conditions that must be region should have the authority to assist the local met by local interests of a requirement that entity in those instances in which this would reduce they agree to regulate the use of flood plain the cost of the work. lands to the extent necessary (a) to obviate the In many instances, the flood losses occasioned by need for additional protective works and urban storm runoff result in large part from the (b) to minimize losses in the event of a flood deposition of eroded material. There is, therefore, an larger than that which the proposed works can intimate relationship between the problem dealt with control. here and