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HAWAII OCEAN AND MARINE RESOURCES COUNCIL JANUARY 1991 HAWAII OCEAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT PLAN TECHNICAL SUPPLEMENT PREFREE The Hawah Ocean Resources Management Plan sets forth Readers using the Technical Supplement should find the guiding principles and overall recommendations for the State to keyword index helpful when searching for themes or issues that achieve comprehensive and integrated ocean and coastal re- cut across sector-specific subject areas. The individual technical source, management, The Ilan is based on major public input papers should be consulted directly for those readers interested involving over 900 individuals statewide. The Plan was man- in specific resource sectors. Those with an eye towards program dated by Chapter 228, Hawaii Revised Statutes, and developed structure and budget allocabon should refer to the summary by the Hawaii Ocean and Marine Resources Council. matrices in the Appendices. The Technical Supplement provides detailed analyses and How the Technical Supplement is used, will be a matter of survey results that are the foundation of the Plan. In particular, need and purpose. The important emphasis here is on the the policies, implementing actions and overall recommenda- action-word "use". This document is intended to be used to tions contained within the Plan were derived from the technical help State government implement the Plan. The Plan is in- papers published here. The Technical Supplement and the Plan tended to be used to strengthen the management of Hawaii's were prepared by the same planning team. ocean and coastal resources. Together, the Hawaii Ocean Resources Management Plan and the Technical Supplement are The Technical Supplement is the most comprehensive important tools. They now need to be applied with commit- reference available on the current -status and assessment of ment and in earnest. ocean and coastal resources management in Hawaii. The tech- nical papers presented in this document were developed with the assistance of 170 subject-matter experts and community leaders. These individuals participated in ten facilitated work- shops for the specific resource sector' considered or otherwise provided critical input. Nine State departments worked coop- eratively to complete the survey of Hawaii's ocean and coastal pro-rams for the fiscal period 1988-1991. The survey results are reported in their entirety here. HH011 OCERH RHD MRRINE RESOURCES COUKIL The Council is composed of eleven voting members, including six ex-officio members and five members appointed by the Governor to represent commercial, recreational, environmen- Eal and research interests. The Council members are: Roger A. Ulveling, Chairperson Frank K. Goto Director, Department of Business, General Manager, United Fishing Agency Economic Development &-Tourism (commercial interest)' Murray E. Towiff, Vice-Chairperson David F. Padgett Deputy Director, Office of State Planning (commercial interest) Keith W. Ahue J. Dave Raney Deputy Director (environmental interest) Department of land and Natural Resources Richard S. Shomura Calvin M. Tsuda (research interest) Deputy Director for Harbors Department of Transportation Council Staff- Bruce S. Anderson Craig D. MacDonald, Project Manager Deputy Director for Environmental Programs Affifine M. Clark Department of Health Sequoia Shannon C. Barry Raleigh Dean, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology University of Hawaii at Manoa Terry G. O'Halloran President, The Ocean Recreation council of Hawaii (recreational interest) The following individuals made up the technical team respon- sible for developing the Hawaii Ocean Resources Management Plan and Technical Supplement for the Hawaii Ocean and Marine Resources Council. Team members were from the Department of Business, Economic Development & Tourism; the University of Hawaii Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Social Science Research Institute, William S. Richardson School of Law, and Sea Grant Extension Service; he State judiciary Center for Alternative Dispute Resolution; and the private sector. Council Staff. Public Meeting Facilitation and Coordination: Craig D. MacDonald, Project Manager Dee Dee Letts Athline M. Clark John Barkai Sequoia Shannon Kathy Bryan Linda M. Colburn Keith Hunter Consultants: Neil Milner G. Kem Lowry, Principal Investigator Ray Tabata Michael Hamnett Karen Takahashi M. Casey Jarman Howard Takata Christopher B. Jones Marsha Wright Kenn Kassman Janet Yamamoto Susan J. Mad-dda Michael K. Orbach OtherAssistance: Wendy L. Schultz M. Carolyn Stewart Charles Keever, on the staff of the Chairman, Senate Agricul- David A. Tamas ture, Energy and Ocean Resources Committee, Hawaii State Legislature, prepared the keyword index for the Technical Supplement. TRBLE OF COMTEHTS PAGE L TECEMCAL PAPERS A. Ocean Research and Education 6 B. Ocean Recreation 16 C. Harbors 29 D. Fisheries 38 E. Marine Ecosystem Protection 49 F. Beaches and Coastal Erosion 60 G. Waste Management 73 H. Aquaculture 84 I. Energy 93 J. Marine Minerals 107 IJ. APPMI(TS Appendix 1: Acronyms and Abbreviations 118 Appendix 11: Workshop Participants and Subject Matter Experts 121 Appendix UI: Hawaii's Exclusive Economic Zone 126 Appendix IV: State Ocean Programs 127 A. By Activity and Government Agency 128 B. Summary by Funding and Staff Resources 133 C. Details by Authority, Funding and Staff Resources 134 Appendix V: Ocean-Related Councils, Boards and Committees 145 HL KEWORD MEX 147 TECHHUL PRPERS The technical papers presented in this section are based, on extensive review of published documents and numerous inter- views with relevant government, industry and research experts. In addition, ten facilitated workshops were held to collect feedback on drafts of the papers from 170 subject-matter experts and community leaders statewide. The final policies and recommended actions for each sector paper were then submitted to the Council for their review and revision. Each technical paper describes the existing resource or activity, reviews related Federal, State and County regulatory regimes, and identifies current management issues. Each paper concludes with a statement of the management objective and a List of policies and implementing actions responding to the issues identified. The policies and actions presented in tl@iis section are the revised versions approved by the Council. The Council did not attempt to set priorities among these policies and actions, nor had sufficient time to determine if they were mutually exclusive or in conflict with one another. It would become the responsibility of the Office of Marine and Coastal Affairs, proposed by the Council in the Hawaii Ocean Resources Management Plan, to evaluate and prioritize the policies and actions in conjunction with the designated agen- cies. The f6flowing is a list of the sector-specific technical papers in the order in which they appear in this section: Ocean Research and Education Ocean Recreation Harbor, Fisheries Marine Ecosystem Protection Beaches and Coastal Erosion Waste Management Tj P 0 Aquaculture & Energy 0 Marine Minerals Craig D. MacDonald Ocean Resources Branch State of Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development & Tourism P. 0. Box 2359 Honolulu, H[ 9&W4 OCEPH RESERCH RHD EDUCHT10H Ocean research and education will be major cleterniinants of PAGE the long-term success of the Hawaii Ocean ResourcesManage- ment Plan. The public has to understand the need for the Plan TIE RESOURCE 6 and why the policies and recommendations are proposed, in Ocean Research and Development 7 order to give its support. A inarine-literate public is most likely Marine Education 7 to embrace the guiding principles of conservation and inte- grated management and collectively act as responsible stew- RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 8 ards of Hawaii's ocean and coastal resources. Regulation and Enforcement 8 in the most general terms, research is the acquisition of Scientific Coftecting Permit 8 knowledge; education is the conveyance of knowledge. Each Ent?y Permits 8 derives from the other in cyclical fashion such that research and Endangered Species Protection 8 education are hinctionally related. This interrelationship is Water Quality Standards 9 most frequently reflected in the organization of our higher Research and Education 9 academic institutions. Coordination 9 As a practical matter of resource management, the two sets General Infrastructure Support 10 of activities are more discrete. Each is associated with its own set Industry Marketing and Promotion 10 of impacts and issues requiring separate policies and actions; MANAGEMEM ISSUES 10 each is associated with its own set of constituencies. This Prioritization and Funding Allocation 10 general dichotomy is reflected in the following treatment of Market Diversification I I ocean research and education in Hawaii. user Conflict 11 While most of the research and education activities in Researcb-Related 11 Hawaii are centered on Oahu, this sector plan has broad Education-Relxed 11 relevance statewide. New marine resource centers and re- Definition of "Marine Education" 12 search facilities are being established on or are planned for the Attitudinal Behavior 12 Neighbor Islands. Neighbor Island populations are increasing, Cam and of Marine Animals and Habim 12 and there is greater demand and need for more broadly distrib- Water Safety and Uability 13 uting the benefits derived from such program. Ocean and Coastal Interpretive Education 13 RECOMMENDA71ONS 13 M RESOURCEI Objective 13 The Hawaiian Islands are an unequalled natural labor-atory for Policies and Implementing Actions 13 ocean research and education. Research professionals and educators from many countries pursue a multitude of projects year-round here. And, Hawaii's public schools and resource centers have formal programs in marine education that have the potential to rival similar such programs anywhere. The volcanic origin of the Islands and the absence of a continental shelf give immediate access to an abundance of ocean resources from warm surface waters to the cold deep Hawaii ($16.0 million), and nonprofit organizations ($11.4 seafloor. Untouched coral reefs and deep ocean seamounts are million). This amounts to 98 percent of the total ocean R&D near at hand as are a wide range of intermediate habitat types. revenues for that year. Even an active underwater volcano, Loihi, lies within a day's sail Ocean R&D in Hawaii is heavily supported by the of the Big Island. Hawaii's tidal benches and reef flats are Federal government, which provided 83 percent of the excellent field laboratories for general education. There is lack revenues between 1980 and 1989. All of the major perform- of neither potential research sites nor educational opportunities. ers in Hawaii rely heavily on Federal sources for research Complementing Hawaii's rich natural resource base are revenues: Federal agencies (100 percent), University of superior support facilities and personnel. Researchers perform Hawaii (88 percent), private businesses (69 percent) and competitively here, drawing upon an extensive infrastructure nonprofit organizations (68 percent). Ninety percent of these for such services as satellite communications and tracking, funds come from three principal agencies: U.S. Navy, U.S. electronics design and maintenance, engineering design and Department of Commerce - National Oceanic and Atmo- manufacturing, marine laboratory analyses, marine surveying spheric Administration and the National Science Foundation and brokering, and ship maintenance, dry-docking and supply. (Gopalakrishnan and Sisson 1987; MacDonald et al 1990). The University of Hawaii is recognized nationally and intema- Hawaii ranks high nationally in terms of Federal receipts of tionally for its distinguished ocean faculty, and its solid offering ocean R&D dollars. of manne programs is a strong draw for students from around Ocean R&D revenues for the decade (1980-1989) in the world. Dedicated marine professionals staff Hawaii's edu- Hawaii were $395 million (MacDonald and LaBarge 1990). cational and public information institutions statewide. The total economic impact of these revenues was about half Hawaii enjoys one of the strongest institutional infrastruc- a billion dollars. Projected revenues for the industry in 1996 tures in the country in support of ocean research and education. range between $87 and $147 million. Although Federal To mention just a few, the U.S. Navy operates a major branch of support is expected to continue fueling growth, foreign its Naval Ocean Systems Center here. The University of Hawaii spending for ocean R&D in Hawaii (primarily from Japan administers the School of Ocean and Earth Science and Tech- and Singapore) is increasing. The outlook for ocean R&D in nology. The Law of the Sea institute resides in Hawaii. And there Hawaii is favorable but management of emerging issues will are several national ocean research centers here such as, the need to be carefully considered to accommodate further Marine Minerals Technology Center (U.S. Department of the expansion and ensure continued growth and economic vi- Interior), the Pacific Mapping Center (U.S. Departments of ability. Commerce and Interior jointly) and the Center for Tropical and Subtropical Aquaculture (U.S. Department of Agriculture), that MarineEducation provide support for a range of academic and commercial Hawaii's ocean is a stimulating place to study and learn and activities. The list is equally long for general educational organi- offers exciting opportunities for experiential education. Ma- zations offering manne related courses and public information. rine education as a profession is also a significant source of With a powerful combination of natural, physical and employment. Course offerings and informational seminars human resources, research and education in Hawaii takes place on ocean-related topics are numerous and diverse and are in virtually every ocean-related field, including: aquaculture, provided by a broad spectrum of organizations (e.g., Federal, biology, energy, engineering, fisheries, geophysics, law and State and County government agencies, nonprofit organiza- policy, mining and minerals, oceanography, recreation, re- tions and businesses). source economics, surveying and mapping, transportation and The possibilities for pursuing formal education in ma- water quality. Hawaii enjoys strategic advantages in many of rine-related fields in Hawaii are exceptional. At the Univer- these areas, and is attracting increasing attention as opportuni- sity of Hawaii at Manoa, seven colleges, five schools plus ties afforded by Hawaii's Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) one major interdisciplinary program offer a total of 205 become recognized. marine-related courses (UH 1989). All University of Hawaii OceanResearch and Development campuses, including community colleges (except West Oahu), offer at least one such course. So do Brigham Young Among Hawaii's ocean industries, ocean research and de- University, Chaminade University and Hawaii Pacific Uni- velopment (R&D) is growing rapidly in importance versity. Hawaii Loa University has an undergraduate degree (MacDonald and LaBarge 1990). The research includes both program in marine science. The East-West Center offers asic and applied. Ocean R&D revenues in Hawaii were $62 fellowships for foreign students to pursue graduate degrees million in 1989, having grown at 13 percent per year since in ocean-related work. 1980, and direct employment was about 1,500. The total The State Department of Education (DOE) introduces employment impact resulting from these revenues is twice public school students (K-12) to the ocean through formal this number. The major performers of this work and the classwork and field trips. An expanded marine science program research funds received were: private businesses ($16.7 for elementary and secondary schools is proposed (Hawaii million), Federal agencies ($16.3 million), the University of Natural Energy Institute, 1990). "At-sea" teaming experience is Although a scientific collecting pemiit may not be re- provided to students through the Blue Water Marine Laboratory quired of field trips for educational purposes, State laws and Program administered by the Waikiki Aquarium in cooperation administrative rules remain applicable. Minimum sizes, dosed with DOE. The Hawaiian Academy of Science assists DOE in seasons, restricted area conditions, etc. apply. Collection with conducting the annual Student Symposium on Marine Affairs. small nets (less than two inches across the 'eye") requires an The Hawaii State Teachers Association conducts supplemental aquarium fish permit issued by DOCARE. Collection is prohib- marine science workshops and field trips for its members. DOE ited in any Natural Area Reserve (e.g., Ahihi-Kinau) and Wildlife also works cooperatively with other marine-related organiza- Sanctuary (e.g., Paiko Lagoon). Collection of endangered and tons and agencies that provide enrichment/complementary threatened species, even for education purposes, is strictly teaming opportunities. prohibited by State (and Federal) law. The marine education needs of a wider segment of Hawaii's Entry Permits population are being met by an equally diverse array of pro- So me of Hawaii's State wildlife refuges have an ocean compo- Fams. The Waikiki Aquarium and Sea Life Park both have nent, such as the Kure Atoll Wildlife Refuge in the Northwestern education departments that serve the general public of all ages Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Entry clearance and permits detail- from both the resident and visitor markets and provide exten- ing the proposed study plan are issued by the State Division of sive community outreach for residents. The Bishop Museum, Forestry and Wildlife (DLNR). Permits can only be obtained for Hawaii Maritime Center, Pacific Whale Foundation and Friends educational and scientific purposes of a nature that will not of Heeia State Park also serve a marine-related public education disturb wildlife occupying the refuge. function. Additionally, Hawaii is host to numerous national and international conferences that promote manne research and Access to Federal wildlife refuges, such as the Hawaiian education and is headquarters for PACON International (orga- Islands National Wildlife Refuge, which has an extensive ocean nizer of the biennial Pacific Congress on Marine Science and component, is restricted by authority granted through the Technology) and the Pacific Science Association. Wildlife Refuge Administration Act. Entry is limited to approved Public information on marine-related matters in Hawaii is research personnel and is by Special Use Permit issued by the provided by diverse Federal, State and County agencies such as: Refuge Manager, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, in response to National Marine Fisheries Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Ser- written requests outlining the specific research study plan. The vice, U.S. Coast Guard, State Departments of Health, Transpor- Wildlife Refuge consists of most of the islands and lagoon and tation and Land and Natural Resources, various County parks shoal waters located to the northwest of Kauai and Niihau and extends over an expanse of 1,600 km. Kure Atoll (State refuge and recreation departments, and Richardson Ocean Center. as noted) and Midway Islands are not part of the refuge. Environmental organizations including Greenpeace, the Na- Research logistics in the NWI-11 are compley, based in part upon ture Conservancy, Sierra Club and Audubon Society also offer management concerns (Dollar 1978). public information regarding Hawah's marine resources. And, a growmg number of visitor-onented pnvate businesses are mcor Midway Islands are possessions of the United States ad- porating trdormation on marine resources in their tour packages. ministered under the Jurisdiction of the U.S. Navy and are not legally part of the State of Hawaii. Midway is a defense installation and security clearance is required by the Secretary RESOURCE KANAGEAUM of the Navy. A letter of intent identifying the research project RepWonandEnfm,cement must be submitted including purpose, sponsoring agency and reasons why entrance to Midway is necessary. The Navy also Four sets of conditions generally apply to ocean research and maintains a Naval Defense at Sea Area, which encompasses all education in Hawaii: 1) scientific collecting permit, 2) entry permits, the waters within an 8-km boundary of Midway Islands. Re- 3) endangered species protection, and 4) water quality standards. search vessels are allowed to pass through this area with Scientift Cbfiecting Permit permission from the Navy. A Scientific Collecting Permit is required to take, possess or sell U.S. Coast Guard approval is required for access to areas certain species of manne fife using certain kinds of restricted where it operates and maintains facilities, such as Molokini Islet. gear or in restricted areas. The uses covered by this permit Research vessels towing or lowering gear in or near submarine include scientific research and study and evend to endangered transit lanes or the Barking Sands Missile Range are well advised .species under State law. Examples of restricted areas include to dear their activities with the military. Marine Life Conservation Districts, Underwater Parks, Fishery Endangered Species Protection Management Areas, Natural Area Reserves, Wildlife Refuges Federally funded or permitted research and educational acdvi- and Sanctuaries, etc. The Scientific Collecting Permit is issued ties that potentially would impact critical habitat of an endan- by the Division of Aquatic Resources, Department of Land . an .d gered species require at least informal consultation under Natural Resources (DLNR). Compliance with this permit is Section 7 of the Federal Endangered Species Act. If determina- enforced by the Department's Division of Conservation and tion of adverse impact is found, formal consultation is required. Resources Enforcement (DOCARE). Also, permits are required under this Act to conduct research and education-related activities on all listed species, which neering, College of Languages, Linguistics and Literature, School otherwise cannot be disturbed, harassed or collected. Similar of Travel Industry Management, College of Natural Sciences, permits are required to conduct research and associated activi- College of Social Sciences, College of Tropical Agriculture and, ties involving marine mammals pursuant to the federal Marine Human Resources, School of 12w, School of Medicine, School Mammals Protection Act. Consultation and permitting under of Public Health, and the School of Hawaiian, Asian and Pacific both of these acts are conducted by the Pacific Area Office, Studies. Other campuses such as the University of Hawaii at National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). Hilo have marine-related education programs including the By cooperative agreement, the NMFS shares jurisdiction Marine Option Program, Summer Marine Studies Program, the and authority with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) for proposed Kalakaua Undergraduate Marine Center and a pro- management of marine turtles in Hawaii. Protection of endan- posed marine laboratory at Puako. Windward Community gered or threatened seabirds is provided by cooperative agree- College operates the Hawaii Backyard Aquaculture Program ment between FWS and the DINR's Division of Forestry and and both Windward and Maui Community Colleges operate Wildlife under the Federal Migratory Bird Treaty Act. There is no Marine Option Programs. similar cooperative agreement between NMFS and DINR for Cuniculum development and general support for State protection of other marine endangered species, Such coopera- programs in marine education are provided by the Office of tive agreements are provided for under Section 6 of the Federal Instructional Services, Department of Education (DOE), and Endangered Species Act. Anyone conducting research or edu- the University of Hawaii Curriculum Research and Develop- cational activities involving these species is required to seek merit Group. Within the Office of Instructional Services, there is approval from the respective agencies. one resource teacher to help support marine and other aquatic Water Quality Standards education for grades K-12 statewide. Additionally, there are a total of eight environmental education specialists, one for each For all State waters, standards for water quality established by of the seven school districts and one with statewide responsi- the Department of Health (Chapter 11-54, HAR), must not be bilities. The environmental education specialists cover marine exceeded (directly or inclirectly) by any research or educational education as well as terrestrial, space, resource management activity. These standards pertain to activities on ships at sea as and energy education. To varying degrees, marine education well as to activities at shore-based facilities such as the Waikiki also is being delivered through other subject areas such as Aquarium and Sea Life Park, Natural Energy Laboratory of science and social studies. The University of Hawaii Curriculum Hawaii (NELH), and Hawaii Ocean Science and Technology Research and Development Group has two staff specialists (HOST) Park. The standards stipulate basic water quality crite- dedicated to marine education. The group is highly interdisci- ria applicable to all waters 'which cover floating debris (espe- plinary in its composition and works cooperatively with numer- cially plastics), thermal pollution, turbidity and nearly 100 toxic ous schools and colleges within UH and DOE. substances including radioactive isotopes. The University of Hawaii Sea Grant Extension Service Research and Education (SGES) promotes wise use of ocean resources through educa- bon and outreach. SGES operates programs of statewide scope Primary support for ocean research and associated academic and importance and has agents on Oahu and the Big Island affairs at the University of Hawaii at Manoa is provided by the (Hawaii). There also is a cadre of education specialists in State School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology. The government active in marine programs e.g., Division of Aquatic School is composed of four departments (oceanography, Ge- Resources, Department of Land and Natural Resources (DLNR), ology and Geophysics, Meteorology and Ocean Engineering) Energy Division, Department of Business, Economic Develop- and three research institutes (the Hawaii Institute of Geophys- ment and Tourism (DBED) and Litter Control Office, Depart- ics, Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology and Hawaii Natural ment of Health (DOH). Energy Institute). The School administers three shared Federal/ university research programs (the joint Institute for Marine and Coordination Atmospheric Research, Hawaii Undersea Research laboratory, As noted, there is a varied array of programs and facilities and the Sea Grant College Program). The School administers serving marine education and research functions in Hawaii. the undergraduate Marine Option Program and the graduate Many of these programs receive direct or indirect funding from Ocean Policy Certificate Program. It also administers the Uni- the State, or the facilities are on property owned by or ]eased versity Marine Center and is responsible for research vessel from the State. Most are operated independently of the others operations. Interdisciplinary divisions and centers within the and to a degree compete among themselves for their clientele. school are being considered that can be more clearly identified The Legislature has long recognized the need for some form of with federally sponsored research programs (e.g. global climate coordination among these interests to promote greater aware- change) than can the individual departments and institutes. ness, understanding and appreciation of the ocean. Other schools and colleges at the University of Hawau" The 1987 Legislature established the Hawaii Ocean Center having ocean-related course offerings and/or supporting gradu- Planning Council to assist the Office of State Planning (OSP) in ate research in marine-related subjects include: the College of achieving this objective. The Hawaii Ocean Center (HOC) Arts and Humanities, College of Education, College of Engi- Planning Council is an advisory body appointed by the Gover- promotion (Chapter 201-13, HRS). ORB has completed mar- nor consisting of 15 members including representatives from ket analyses, developed a marketing strategy and is conduct- the University of Hawaii; the State Departments of Land and ing a major campaign for promoting Hawaii's ocean R&D Natural Resources, Business, Economic Development and Tour- industry. Hawaii is the only State to operate such a program. ism, Education, Transportation, Accounting and General Ser- An industry advisory group is an important component of vices, and Health; the City Department of General Planning, the the program. Hawaii Visitors Bureau; the Waikiki Aquariurn; and members of the Other agencies in DBED provide additional support for public with a strong interest in Hawaiis ocean and its resources. The ocean R&D industry development. The Business Development HOC Planning Council has recommended that its composition be and Marketing Division supplements Federal Phase I SBIR amended to include representatives of each of the Neighbor (Small Business Innovative Research) grants with funds of Island Counties and the Hawaiian community (OSP 1990). $25,000 per grant and runs the Hawaii Trade Program, which The HOC Planning Council also has recommended that a identifies and announces worldwide funding opportunities in Hawaii Ocean Center be established as a network of satellite ocean R&D and aquaculture for Hawaii businesses and re- centers and ocean-related prog= throughout the State. Exist- searchers. The Business Services Division operates a Capital ing facilities and programs, as well as new ones, should have an Loan Program with a revolving fund of about $2.5 rnillion. The opportunity to join the network. The HOC Network could High Technology Development Corporation (HTDC) sponsors facilitate coordination without the need for authority over numerous incubation facilities and innovation centers to en- management and operation of member centers and programs. courage promising marine-retated research and commercial Work on further developing and operationalizing this concept activities. Such centers include, for example, the Kaimuki is continuing. Technology Enterprise Center and the Manoa Innovation Cen- ter. The Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority oper- General Infrastructure Support ates the Natural Energy laboratory of Hawaii, which supports The Department of Transportation (DOT) Harbors Division is ocean research leading to commercialization, and the Hawaii involved in inf:rastructure development through harbor expan- Ocean Science and Technology (HOST) Park, Hawaii's first sion, management and maintenance in support of research ocean science industrial park. vessels horneported here as well as research vessels transiting The Pacific Basin Development Council (PBDC), an eco- Hawaii from other locations. In 1989, Harbors Division had notriic development organization made up of the Governors of responsibility for ten major commercial harbors, 18 small boat American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northem Marianas, harbors and 50 boat ramps (see Harbors Technical Paper). Guam and Hawaii, is looking at ways to support and encourage These facilities, together with Snug Harbor from which most of ocean R&D in these areas and to.forge cooperative working the University of Hawaii's and the National Marine Fisheries relationships between Hawaii and these Amefican Flag Pacific Service's research vessels operate, form an intricate network of Islands. surface support enabling statewide and Pacific-wide opera- tional capabilities. MANAGEMENTISSUES Complementing Hawaii's modem ports are highly devel- oped aviation and telecommunication links. More than 30 Management issues associated with the ocean research and major air caniers fly more than 100 scheduled, daily passenger education sector in Hawaii fall into eight major categories: 1) and cargo routes to national and international destinations. prioritization and funding allocabon, 2) market diversification, Scores of flights connect the State's major islands. DOTs Air- 3) user conflicts, 4) definition of "marine education," 5) attitudi- ports Division is responsible for airport operation, maintenance nal behavior, 6) care and handling of marine animals and and expansion. Hawaii's telecommunications capabilities are habitats, 7) water safety and liability, and 8) ocean and coastal state-of-the-art, offering a recently completed 40,000-circuit interpretive education. Additional issues related to research fibei@opbc cable linking Hawaii with the U.S. Mainland, Japan, and education are presented in vktually all of the other tedini- Korea and Australia. Additional telecommunications infrastruc- cat papers where they can best be incorporated into resource- ture expansion and upgrades are being sought by the High or activity-specific management strategies. Technology Development Corporation attached administra- Prioritization and Funding Allocation tively to DBED. Ocean research and education are labor inten- sive and information driven. A high capacity for rapid exchange In this age of increasing economic competitiveness, State spend- of people and data is crucial to competitive performance and ing patterns for ocean R&D need to be viewed as strategic productivity. components of State policy. State matching funds could be used to attract large Federal research contracts. This form of leverag- Industry Marketing and Promotion ing results in high economic impact. State investment in this manner has a history of generating short-term returns of two to The Ocean Resources Branch (ORB) of DBED is the lead four Federal dollars for every State dollar spent for ocean R&D State agency responsible for ocean R&D marketing and (DOE 1988) and in the long-term has increased business oppor- tunities in the private sector (e.g., Fast and Tanoue 1988). Opportunities afforded by these and other candidate countries Substantial capital inputs also could result from using State need to be identified and aggressively pursued. funds in this way to attract Federal Centers of Excel.lence which would contribute greatly to Hawaii building a more nationafly User Conflicts competitive infrastructure for ocean R&D. User conflicts within and between ocean recreation and fishing Hawaii relies on the Federal government for 83 percent of activities are now legend in Hawaii. There is a growing inci- its ocean R&D revenues. The environment in which Federal dence of conflicts involving these activities and research and funding decisions are made is highly pofitical; competition education activities in the nearshore environments of the popu- between states for Federal support is especiafly keen. Federal lated main islands. Ocean research and education need to be spending for ocean R&D is projected to remain essentially level recognized as legitimate ocean uses on par with and deserving in real terms through 1996 1 not over the entire decade the same considerations afforded any other ocean use activity (MacDonald et a] 1990). Hawaii will have to be strongly in Hawaii. competitive with other states to increase its proportional share Research-Related of these funds. To be most effective econornicaUy, there needs to be a The problem is particularly acute where disturbance of care- formal fi-amework to guide State ocean research prioritization My controlled experiments and interruption of long-terin and funding aHocation. State appropriations to match and studies diminishes or jeopardizes the integrity and complete- attract federally funded research doffars need to be purpose- ness of the research results. That possibifity is especially likely fufly based on a program's economic impact as well as on its in the case of artificial reef-related work and where extensive intrinsic merit. Some balance between economic leveraging floating or submerged instrumentation and samphng arrays are power and program appropriateness would have to be devised, involved. The result could be an undetected bias leading to faulty conclusions or premature termination of the project if as would a mechanism to centralize decision making and advise the Legislature. There also would have to be a plurality of interference were overt. Both results damage Hawaii's reputa- interests represented in the process to accommodate all of the tion as a major center for credible research resulting in reduced major categories of performers (e.g. government agencies, possibility of continued funding and serious damage to the businesses, nonprofit organizations and the University of Ha- professional reputations of the researchers involved. A related waii) involved in ocean R&D in Hawaii. threat derives from the potential impacts of coastal develop- ment on critical or unique research areas that may inadvertently The State Marine Affairs Coordinator onginafly served this be degraded or destroyed. function for ocean R&D. The 1982 Legislature abolished the position and Office of the Marine Affairs Coordinator and Expansion of the ocean R&D industry and strengthened transferred the powers and duties of that Office to DBED marine research curricula in Hawaii's universities and Depart- (Legislative Reference Bureau 1982). ment of Education ultimately will lead to increased use of the ocean for research and education and to heightened conflicts Market Diversffication with other ocean users, unless appropriate management mea- sures are devised and taken. Most recently, the 1988 Legisliture As noted, Hawaii's ocean R&D industry is heavily dependent requested that an artificial reef zone be established for research upon Federal spending. The general outlook is favorable, but and other nonconsumptive uses (H.C.R. No. 207, H.D. 1), but no the U.S. budget and trade deficits and the pending "peace law was enacted. The only legal mechanism currently enabling dividend" are major uncertainties facing this industry. Hawaii exclusive use of the ocean for research and education purposes needs to distribute its risk by establishing new markets in other is Chapter 190D, Hawaii Revised Statutes. This law provides for countries around the Pacific Rim. leasing the ocean within State waters but is narrowly framed Foreign spending for ocean R&D in Hawaii increased by and so restrictive that it is of limited applicability. 46 percent between 1987 and 1989, totalling $6.5 million Education-Related (MacDonald and LaBarge 1990). Annual foreign spending dur- User conflicts also occur during field trips for educational ing this period was 2.5 times greater than in any prior recorded purposes, most notably at such popular tide pool locations as year (1980-1986). This amount is not great compared to Federal Made Reef, Makapuu and Pordock. These conflicts generally sources. However, foreign spending has the potential to become the largest nonfederal source of ocean R&D funds for involve shoreline fishermen or occur between the different Hawaii. field trip groups themselves. Field trips are conducted by virtuafly all grade levels in public and private schools, by Foreign spending during this period chiefly involved two nonprofit groups such as Sea We Park and the Waikiki Aquarium countries: Japan (61 percent) and Singapore (15 percent). and by a variety of undergraduate and graduate programs in all Fourteen other countries contributed in lesser amounts but of Hawaii's colleges and universities. demonstrated client interest and market possibilities around the Conflicts involving multiple field trips at a single tide pool Pacific Rim (e.g. Canada, El Salvador, Ecuador, Venezuela, or reef flat site are perhaps the most troublesome kind. The Australia, Taiwan, Korea and a variety of Pacific Island nations). educational opportunity being offered is diminished. The re- sulting congestion contributes to overuse of the site and to and organizations that are catering to this market segment. As resource degradation, which hirther reduces the educational noted above, this is a desirable trend but there are associated value of the experience. This problem is greatly aggravated by impacts that cannot be ignored and which will have tobe two factors: 1) the convergence of users at preferred locations carefully managed. at the same time because of favorable conditions caused by the tides, and 2) the small number of appropriate sites that can serve AtdnxUtW Behavior as alternatives to disperse and distribute the effort. The reduction in educational value visited upon popular tide The matter of access is also an issue in this case because pool and other coastal field trip sites derives as much from of the limited extent of protected shoreline suitable for field trip "misuse" as from "overuse." The behavior of educators intent use, especially by elementary school grades. Access is restricted on providing specimens for demonstration purposes may fall primarily by home owners at such preferred study locations as short of what is required to maintain the sustained viability of Kawela Bay and the Portlock area and by the military at certain the marine community they so routinely sample. For example, bases where the physical conditions for reef and tide pool study care must be provided and survivorship should be highly are exceptional. Little can be done to control the timing of the considered in holding and returning five specimens to the fide fides, but. conflicts could be reduced among the educational pool or reef environment after the class or field trip is over. groups involved by more tightly organizing the user schedules The teaching should be to understand and appreciate the and by seeking additional access to new sites from the proper ocean system. Students of all ages should first be taught to care military authorities. The matter of access being restricted by in order that they may validate the diversity of Hawaiis marine home owners is addressed more thoroughly elsewhere for fife. Informed attitude is the key to developing a conservation beaches and coastal erosion (see Beaches and Coastal Erosion ediic and practicing responsible ocean and coastal steward- Technical Paper) and ocean recreation (see Ocean Recreation ship. Educators and all environmental interpreters are role Technical Paper). models for students and the general public and they need to Definition of "Marine Education" manifest this caring attitude in their behavior. There is growing interest among the general public for interpre- Care and Handilting of Marine Aninials and Habitats tation and display at popular resource sites (e.g. Hanaurm Bay) Nationally, there is mounting interest in assuring that marine and growing demand for general information on manine-re- animals held captive for educational and research purposes be lated matters. In response, an array of governmental, nonprofit properly and considerately cared for and maintained. This has and volunteer organizations as well as businesses are offering been especially true for marine mammals, but it is expected to a wide range of information services and products. This is a apply more forcefully in the hiture to fish and invertebrates as desirable trend which ultimately will lead to a more sophisti- well. A number of professional societies are establishing stan- cated body politic and marine constituency in Hawaii and dards and guidelines for their memberships to follow. These should be encouraged. However, management problems are organizations include, for example, the American Association arising in regard to the interpretation of what constitutes "ma- of Zoological Parks and Aquariums, American Society of Zoolo- rine education." The concept of quality control needs to be 9 .Ists, Animal Behavior Society, Ecological Society of America introduced in relation to the educational programs offered. and International Union for the Conservation of Nature and For example, the Department of Parks and Recreation, Natural Resources. City and County of Honolulu, has adopted administrative rules In any set of guidelines it would be necessary to differen- intended to reduce use of Hanauma Bay Beach Park to a level tiate between care and handling: 1) while in the field, 2) while that is less damaging to the bays environinent. The regulations in trarisport, 3) while in the controlled, monitored classroom adopted also are intended to reduce the commercial use of environment (temporary), 4) while in zoos, aquariums, oceana- public facilities and increase the educational value of the riums or related facilities (permanent), and 5) in the use of resource. But, some tour operators provide "educational" ac- prepared specimens. These guidelines should be extended to tivities as a part of their package and seek continued commer- include the treatment of marine and coastal habitats. It also cial access on that basis. For this reason, the City and County of would be desirable that commercial operators engaged in Honolulu has had to rethink its administrative rules. "ecotounsm" be involved in this process and abide by the The number of accessible major and unique ocean and guidelines as well. coastal resource sites statewide are relatively few. Ahnost cer- The Department of Education has on hand a set of general tainly public use of them will exceed their environmental guidelines urging that thoughtful consideration be given by capacities, as occurred at Hanauma Bay, if limits are not set on teachers and students when using the various marine environ- the kinds and levels of activities that are to be permitted. As part ments for educational purposes (DOE 1983). The Waikild of the process that establishes such limits, marine education will Aquanurn has adopted specific animal handling instructions for have to be clearly defined to prevent unintended uses. This their docents and interpreters as have several other such marine precaution is especially important in the face of growing de- resource centers in Hawaii. However, with the growing power mand for "ecotourism' and the rise in the number of businesses and popularity of national animal rights groups Re the 300,000- There are no statewide or regional ocean and coastal member People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, the State interpretive plans in Hawaii, only some for specific sites. A few needs to consider a more formal position statement supporting of Hawaii's coastal attractions have interpretive signs (e.g., responsible research and education, as much to protect re- Kahaluu Beach Park, Richardson Ocean Center, Wahaula Visi- search and education and their contribution to the State as to tor Center). Most only identify the name of the site, with little or protect the organisms and their habitats. no additional information provided. Often, the signs are too brief and printed only in English. A relatively cost-effective Water Safety and Liability means of educating very large numbers of people, including school Water safety and Liability are contentious issues of notable students, about Hawaii's ocean resources is being underutilized. importance. The personal welfare of students must be provided for in balancing potential risks against the benefits of hands-on RECOMMENDATIONS experience and field observation. Course work and visual aids are fine, but true literacy in marine-related fields requires direct Objective exposure to foster full understanding and appreciation. Develop a supportive State management system that encour- Regulations regarding planning, authorization and safety ages and promotes marine education and that fosters the provisions for water-related field trips in natural environments growth, continued economic viability and effectiveness of are stipulated in Section 2250.1, DOE Policies and Regulations. ocean research and development in Hawaii. It is recommended by the districts that approval of a water- Policy A related field trip request submitted by a teacher be made by the district superintendent rather than the school principal, as Strengthen Hawafi's national and international competitiveness otherwise would be the case. Risk and liability are deemed in attracting funds for ocean research and education. higher for such field trips and requires a higher level of autho- Implementing Actions: rization than usual. The general safety guidelines and provi- sions for water-related field trips adhered to by DOE are DBED sbould. included in the publication A Compendium: Coastal Field Sites 1. Continue to implement its marketing and promotional in the State of Hawaii Obid). strategy to increase Federal spending for ocean research In order to make wise decisions, there is a need for and development (R&D) in Hawaii. administrators to personally experience the same kind of field 2. Conduct a market analysis and develop and implement trip conditions as their students. The administrator's informed a marketing and promotional strategy to diversify and farniharity with marine educational programs, including actual expand Hawaii's ocean R&D opportunities in Pacific field site visitation, seems crucial if the administrators are to Basin countries. thoroughly and properly assess matters of student safety and 3. Extend the funding source listings in the Hawaii Trade liablty. Program to include regional consulting opportunities in The matter of water safety on field trips relates broadly to marine education as well as ocean R&D. other DOE policies. Ultimately at issue is whether or not Policy B Hawaffs children have been instructed in water safety and can swim. DOE does provide formal water safety and swimming Mitigate user conflicts between research and non-compatible instruction for its students. Yet, many students are not making ocean use activities so that ocean research projects are not full use of this program because of a need for more facilities, jeopardized. staffing and funding. The lack of water safety and education Implementing Actions: programs in Hawaii is also an issue for the ocean recreation sector (see Ocean Recreation Technical Paper). DLNR sbould: Ocean and Coastal interpretive Education 1. Amend theocean leasuig law(Chapter 190D, HRS) to make As part of the overall effort to raise the level of marine literacy it a more effective mechanism in support of ocean R&D. in Hawaii and to generate responsible stewardship, there is a 2. Establish an artificial reef zone for research and other need for greater public awareness of HawaH's scenic, natural nonconsumptive uses at an appropriate site on a "pilot' and cultural/historic ocean and coastal resources. ocean and basis. After a reasonable time period, assess the utilization coastal interpretive education can help residents and tourists and effectiveness of he zone to decide on the continu- (including in-state travelers) better appreciate and understand ance of this site designation and possible extension of the what these resources have to offer in regards to their beauty, zoning concept to other areas and research uses. qualities and special meaning (DBED 1988). This appreciation Policy C in turn instills a heightened sense of value which leads to increased care and concern that these resources be wisely Reduce user conflicts among manne-related groups and pre- managed. vent overuse of the most preferred coastal field trip sites. Implementing Actions: jurisdiction so that the intent and meaning of the term is DM in consultation u4tb DOE and affected man .ne precise and unequivocal. [See Policy C, Action 1.1 resource centers and programs, should.- 2. Coordinate the formulation of this definition with the 1. Designate and manage the most suitable coastal field Counties and Federal government where overlapping trip sites as Marine Life Conservation Districts or as other jurisdictions and shared boundaries occur. kinds of management areas to enhance and provide for 3. When formulating this definition, give credence to the their greatest educational value. ocean recreation/tour industry as an educational source DOE should.. which can supplement government resources. 2. Make greater programmatic use of Hawaii's marine Policy F resource centers as substitutes for field trip visitation Ensure that Hawaii's school students are safe around the water whenever appropriate. and derive maximum benefit from ocean-related field trips and nen established, the HOC should. excursions. 3. Coordinate regular scheduling for coastal field trips to Implementing Actions: reduce congestion and disperse use. DOE should. 4. Seek additional access to new field trip sites from the 1. Require students to participate in a water safety/leam- proper military authorities. to-swim program. Seek mandatory funding to support this Policy D program. Ensure that proper stewardship attitudes are rmnifested among 2. Require administrators and teachers to participate in educators and other interpreters and students. water safety workshops. Implementing Actions: 3. Complement coastal-site visits with carefully coordi- nated excursions to marine resource centers. [This has UH and DOE together sbould- the added benefit of not contributing to overuse of 1. Collaborate, draft and adopt a formal position state- field-trip sites (see Policy C, Action 2).1 Additional ment that sets guidelines for the conduct of responsible staffing is needed to provide specialized instructions to resear6 and education activities including that marine ani students. ma]s and their habitats are properly cued for and respected. 4. Coordinate/collaborate field trip objectives at the school 2. Directly involve and coordinate this effort with Hawaii's level to avoid duplication in learning experiences. marine resource centers, schools and other appropriate 5. Secure new funding for "in-the-envirorunent" experi- government agencies and user groups. ences which are more costly to provide than shore-based 3. Provide teacher training to develop marine literacy and excursions. to foster positive stewamLship for the marine environment Policy G 4. Coordinate partnerships with governmental, commu- increase public awareness of Hawaii's scenic natural and cul- nity and business agencies to provide supplemental in- tural/historic ocean and coastal resources through interpretive struction in stewardship. education. DOE should.- Implementing Actions: 5. Provide teacher resource positions in each school dis- DUR should.- trict to assist with teacher training and direct services to 1. Develop and implement statewide and regional ocean students (in class and in the field environment). [Currently, and coastal interpretive plans, including recommended there is one resource teacher to help support marine and other sites, resource information, facilities, staffing, funding and aquatic education for grades K-12 statewide.] programmatic needs. Policy E 2. Develop multilingual signs (especially Japanese) 10 Prevent unintended activities from occurring in Hawaii's ma- help visitors and Hawaii's multi-ethnic population to rine and coastal protected areas. better appreciate sites. Implementing Actions: 3. Work collaboratively and coordinate interpretive pro- DLNR should. grams with the Counties and Federal government to encourage opportunities for joint agreements and shared 1. Clearly define 'marine education" in whatever formal resources and expertise. process is adopted to manage the resources under its NOTES University of Hawaii, Hawaii Natural Energy Institute. 1990. A Cur7iculum Outline andRelatedResource Requiremerttsforan 1. This section is drawn largely from "A rising ticle of invest- Expanded Marine Science Program for Elementary and Sec- mentopportunities: Hawaii's ocean industries." State of Hawaii ondary Schools.- A Report to the Hawaii State Legislature Re- Department of Business and Economic Development 1989. p.5. garding H.R. No. 244, H.D.1 and H.CR. 230, H.D.1, S.D. I. Honolulu. REFERENCES University of Hawaii, Marine Option Program. 1989. Marine Dollar, Sj- 1978. Guide to Research Logistics in the Northwest_ and Aquatic-Related Courses at UH Manoa. Honolulu. ern Hawaiian Islands. Working Paper No. 33. University of Hawaii, Sea Grant College Program. Honolulu. Fast, A.W. and K.Y. Tanoue, eds. 1988. 07ECAquaculture in Hawaii. UNH-SEAGRANT-MR-89-01. University of Hawaii, Sea Grant College Program. Honolulu. Gopalakrishnan, C. and J.S. Sisson. 1987. Economic Impact of Ocean Research Funding on the State of Hawaii. UNIHI- SEAGRANT-ME-88-01. University of Hawaii, Sea Grant College Program. Honolulu. MacDonald, C.D.and.A.L.LaBarge. 1990. Ocean R&D Spending Patterns in Hawaii: Analysis and Outlook. Proceedings of the Fourth Pacific Congress on Marine Science and Technology, PACON'90. Vol. H, pp. 65-72. Honolulu:PACON International. MacDonald, C.D., C.F. Keown, A.L. LaBarge and H.E. Deese. 1990. U.S, Funding Patterns for Ocean R&D: Critical Assess- ment and Commentary, M7S '90 Proceedings. Vol. 1. pp. 226- 232. Washington: Marine Technology Society. State of Hawaii, Department of Business and Economic Devel- opment. 1988. Enbance, Preserzt@ Restore: An Interim Report on The Wise Use of Hawaii @ Coastal and Nearsbore Resources for the Promotion and Development of the Ocean Recreation and Tourism Industries. By the Governor's Ocean Resources Tourism Development Task Force. Honolulu. State of Hawaii, Department of Education, Office of Instruc- tional Services. 1983. A Compendium: Coastal Field Sites in the State ofHawaii. RS 83-4146. Honolulu. State of Hawaii, Department of Education. 1988. What is Being Done to Stimulate Industry Involvement in Ocean-Related Fields. OceanlIndustryl Education Conference Proceedings. March 18, 1988. pp. 33-46. By C.D. MacDonald. Honolulu. State of Hawaii, Legislative Reference Bureau. 1982. Marine Resources and Aquaculture ftgrams in the State of Hawaii. Report No. 3. By A.M. Ogata. Honolulu. State of Hawaii, Office of State Planning. 1990. Hawaii Ocean Center Recommendations and Implementation Pmposals. By the Hawaii Ocean Center Planning Council. Honolulu. Athline M. Clark Ocean Resources Branch State of Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development & Tourism P. 0. Box 2359 Honolulu, M 968" OCERH RECKER M HSOURCI PAGE Hawaii's ocean and shoreline areas offer residents and visitors TIE RESOURCE year-round opportunities to engage in a diverse array of recre- M ational and commercial Activities. Coastal areas offer both a RESOURCE MANAGENM 17 range of passive activities from sunbathing and walking to Regulation and Enforcement 17 shoreline fishing, and more acitive pursuits, such as swimming, On the Water 17 scuba diving, surfing, paddling, windsurfing, boating and On Land 18 water skiing. In addition to these independent recreational MMAGF39M ISSUES 19 opportunities, a wide array of commercial activities is avail- able, including dive tours, boat tours, interisland cruise ships, Lack of Resources for Recreational 19 parasailing and jetskiing. One of the newest is commercial Opportunities submarine tours. Parks and Recreation Areas 19 For Hawaii's residents, going to the shoreline is a favorite Support F"ilities 19 leisure activity. Passive enjoyment of coastal areas is popular Public Access 20 with residents and tourists alike. Based on 1985 State Compre- Safety and Education Programs 20 hensive Outdoor Recreation Plan (SCORP) statistics, at least Supportfor Ocean Recreation Industry 21 170,000 people swim or sunbathe at beaches or shorelines, on User Conflicts 21 a typically busy day. Seaward of the shoreline, other forms of Incompatible Uses 21 ocean recreation are being enjoyed. Some 23,000 people are Commercial v& Non-commercial Uses 22 surfing. Almost 25,000 others are fishing either ashore or afloat. Natur-A Resource Suswina@ 22 Some 3,000 people are paddling canoes or kayaks, while more Degradation of Natural Resources 22 than 18,000 are enjoying other kinds of boating. Beneath the Quality of Experience 23 surface, some 21,000 people are diving. Ineffective Management and Coortlination 23 Hawaii has always promoted its tourism industry on the Lack of Enforcement 23 basis of the islands' natural beauty. This is especially true of Lack of Coordination, Cooperation Hawaii's coastal areas, beaches, shorelines and nearshore Among Agencies 23 waters, which are considered vital to the State's ocean recre- Lack ofAdequate Funding 24 ation and tourism industries (DBED 1988). Hawaii has devel- oped its diverse opportunities for ocean recreation into a major RECON31MAlIONS 24 industry with annual revenues that are projected to approach Objective 24 $500 million in 1990 (MacDonald and Deese 1989). An impor- Policies and implementing Actions 24 tant factor in this success is the increase in the number of tourists, who cite ocean recreation activities as one of the main reasons they come to Hawaii. The Hawaii Visitors Bureau estimates that total visitor expenditures in 1988 were $9.2 billion (DBED 1989). Sporting events such as surfing, bodyboarding and windsurfmg contests, major yacht races, competitive ocean swims and endurance events, fishing tour- naments and canoe and kayak races are also a major source of ocean recreation revenues. The 1990 SCORP provides updated information on Ha- operations: however, due to a lack of manpower and equip- waii visitor and resident recreation patterns. According to ment, this function liesmainlywith the Coast Guard. Underthe SCORP statistics, 85 percent of visitors to Hawaii participate in National Recreational Boating Safety Program (46 USC 13102)@ some form of ocean recreation. Residents also listed going to the State is eligible for Federal financial assistance for vessel the shoreline as one of their favorite leisure activities. registration and a marine casualties reporting system, coopera- It is expected that ocean recreation activities will become tive boating safety assistance, patrol and enforcement, boating increasingly important, both socially and economically, to safety education, aids to navigation, and public facilities built Hawaii. Innovations in designs and materials will provide after 1986 (U.S. Coast Guard 1987). additional opportunities for expanding the ocean recreation The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) and DOT also .ndustry. The overall growth of the ocean recreation industry develop and maintain all State harbor facilities. There are also between 1981 and 1986 was dramatic, averaging revenue a few privately owned and operated facilities as well as military C, 'increases of 16 percent per year compared to 11 percent per marinas (see Harbors Technical Paper). year for tourism. Growth from 1986 to 1990 was projected to Offshore mooring activities are under joint jurisdiction. bring a 74 percent increase in revenues and a 47 percent Commercial offshore mooring permit applications are coordi- increase in employment. If realized, the ocean recreation nated by COE. A thorough review by all agencies charged with industry would reap the greatest economic gains among all of Hawaii:s ocean industries (ibid). managing marine resources is required, often through the development of an Environmental Assessment or an Environ- mental Impact Statement. Since DOT has jurisdiction over State RESOURCE MANAGEMENT waters, it must review applications for the impact a mooring buoy will have on other water-related uses. The Board of Land Regulation and Enforcement and Natural Resources is statutorily mandated to manage all There are many Federal, State and County laws and regulations conservation lands. The Board is chaired and staffed by DLNR, pertaining to the use of recreational resources. The enforce- which has jurisdiction over all conservation lands including ment of these rules and regulations is carried out by the U S submerged lands within the State's waters. DLNR requires all Coast Guard, Department of Land and Natural Resources mooring applicants to submit a Conservation District Use (DLNR), Department of Transportation (DOT), Department of Application (CDUA) and obtain approval from the Board. A Health (DOH), and County parks and police departments. The disposition by the Land Manangement Division also is needed. rules not only define the enforcement responsibilities for each DLNR reviews both its CDUA and COE permit for impacts on agency but also delineate the boundaries of each agency's marine resources on submerged lands. DLNR's Aquatic Re- jurisdiction. sources Division also has statutory authority to regulate the use of moorings in Marine Life Conservation Districts. The National On the Water Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) reviews mooring applications Most water-related activities are jointly managed by the Federal for effects on marine protected species. government and the State of Hawaii. All water-related activities that occur in areas frequented by rotected marine species (sea turtles and whales) are I p FederalAutbority. The Federal government and the State subject to restrictions established by NMFS. NMFS enforces the have joint management responsibilities for water-related ac- regulations with the assistance of DLNR's Division of Conser- tivities. The State DOT and the Coast Guard exercise concur- vation and Resource Enforcement (DOCARE) and to a lesser rent authority over those waters within the State's jurisdiction. extent, DOTs marine patrol officers (see Marine Ecosystem Outside the limit of the State's jurisdiction the Coast Guard has Protection Technical Paper). authority to the limit of the Exclusive Economic Zone. Hawaii's DOT has exclusive jurisdiction over inland waters and those StateAuthority. Within the State, DOT's Boating Branch waters not under Federal jurisdiction. DOT and the Coast issues rules for the "...operation, use and equipment of vessels Guard coordinate law enforcement patrols on all waters sub- on or in the waters of the State..."(Title 15, Chapter 266, HRS). ject to concurrent jurisdiction. This coordination avoids dupli- The rules are designed to promote the full use and enjoyment cation of efforts and provides the most effective law enforce- of the waters of the State while ensuring the safety of persons ment possible with the vessels and personnel available. and the protection of property. The Boating Branch also regulates all water-related activities including swimming, surf- DOT has primary law enforcement responsibility r ing, sailing and boating. All water-related activities are en- recreational vessels within the waters under t 'he joint jurisd c- forced by Harbors Division's marine and harbor patrol officers tion of the State and Federal governments. The Coast Guard has (Title 15, Chapter 266 and 267, HRS; Chapter 19-86, HAR). exclusive responsibility for the enforcement of vessel inspec- tion and related Federal statutes applicable to non-recreational DOT's Boating Branch also issues permits for all commercial vessels. Whenever possible, DOT and the Coast Guard c ocean recreation activities originating at State harbors and boat 00P_ launching ramps. In addition DOT's Ocean Recreation Man- erate in developing public boating safety education programs. agement Rules restrict certain commercial and non-commer- DOT and the Coast Guard also coordinate search and rescue cial uses to specific sites, and require permits for all commercial ocean recreation activities within established Ocean Recre- Division also issues beach concession leases for Duke ation Areas. Due to concerns expressed by residents, the 1990 Kahanamoku Beach in Waikiki. State Parks also manages and Legislature adopted Act 313, which limits the operation of maintains two recreational fishing piers on Kauai. commercial thrillcraft, parasailing, water sledding, or high- The Federal Land and Water Conservation Fund Act speed boating to cerw areas during certain days and times of year. (LWCF ) was enacted in 1965 by the Federal government to Recreational fishing activities are regulated by DLNR's assist states in acquisition and/or development of outdoor Division of Aquatic Resources (DAR). Regulations pertaining recreation resources. As part of the requirement to participate to catch limits, gear restrictions, etc., are established by DAR in the LWCF, states are required to prepare State Comprehen- and enforced by DOCARE (see Fisheries Technical Paper). sive Outdoor Recreation Plans (SCORP). SCORP provides an DAR receives funds from the Federal government for sport inventory of all existing Federal, State, County and private fishing under the Federal Aid in Sport Fish Restoration Act (16 recreational facilities statewide. Under the Hawaii State Plan- USC 777). These funds are currently utilized for a number of ning Act (Act 236), DLNR is charged with preparing and activities including aquatic education programs. At least 10 implementing Hawaii's Recreation Functional Plan as part of percent of the funds are required to be used to provide Pr the State's Functional Planning process. The State Recreation improve recreational boating access (Federal Register 1990) Functional Plan and SCORP address the recreational needs of and are transferred to DOT for this purpose. Hawaii and provide recommended actions to increase oppor- The Department of Health (DOH) monitors water quality tunities for recreation. Both SCORP and the Recreational Func- in all coastal waters. The frequency of monitoring is deter- tional Plan are being updated. The State Recreation Functional mined in part by the level of recreational use in a given area. Plan technical document also qualifies as SCORP. Areas with high recreational use are monitored once per week All lands seaward of the shoreline to the limit of the State's to ensure that health and safety water quality standards are jurisdiction are managed by DLNR's Division of Land Manage- being met (see Waste Management Technical Paper). ment and Office of Conservation and Environmental Affairs. DOH also runs a Honolulu Aquatic Safery Intervention Ocean recreation businesses wishing to operate in this area must submit a Conservation District Use Application (CDUA) to Project at Hanauma Bay with a Federal grant from the Center DLNR's Office of Conservation and Environmental Affairs and for Disease Control. The project will provide findings about the impact and effectiveness of testing aquatic safety interventions obtain a lease permit from the Land Management Division once the CDUA has been granted. Commercial operators are issued such as signs and educational handouts. There is potential to permits for their activities on a case-by-case basis. These apply these findings and successful intervention methods to permits are subject to interpretation by the Board of Land and heavily used beaches statewide; although project funding expires in 1991. Natural Resources, which considers whether the commercial operator is "staging" its activities in the conservation district or OuLand is "transiting"through conservation lands. A CDUA permit may Access to ocean recreational activities is provided through be granted if it is determined that the proposed activity will harbors and boat launch ramps. Additional access is provided have limited environmental impact and a.negative environ- through Federal, State and County parks, private property mental declaration is issued. (resorts), public rights-of-way, and along stretches of open County Authoilty. The Counties have by far the largest shoreline. role in providing access, facilities and services to non-boating Federal Authority The federal government's National ocean recreational users. Restroom and parking facilities are Parks Service is responsible for providing access through pro.vided at most County and State parks. Hawaii has seven coastal national parks. It also has authority to manage adjacent national parks, 66 State parks and 569 County parks (DBED coastal waters throuch the Hawaii National Parks Act. Hawaii 1989). In addition, the Counties maintain a few boat launch also has one National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR) at ramps. The Counties also provide lifeguard services at several Waimanu, Hawaii, which is administered through the National County and a selected few State parks. Legislation enacted in oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) under the 1990 will allow the Counties to provide lifeguard services at Department of Commerce. The funding to administer the NERR several State beaches. The Counties also provide permits for is allocated through the National Coastal Zone Act (see Marine commercial ocean recreation activities at specific beach park Ecosystem Protection Technical Paper). areas. Permits are issued subject to County ordinances or through the Special Management Area (SMA) permit process StateAutbo?Ity. DLNR's State Parks Division regulates all mandated under the Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Law State parks, recreation areas and activities under Tide 12, (Tide 13, Chapter 205A, HRS). The Counties must coordinate Chapter 194, FIRS. Although the Division generally doesn't the issuing of permits with DLNR for County parks that are in issue permits for commercial ocean recreation activities, three conservation districts. temporary permits to commercial boat operators for landing at The majority of access to the State's waters is managed Na Pali Coast, Kauai, and one permit for a commercial beach under the jurisdiction of the Counties' parks and planning concession to rent recreational equipment at Hapuna Beach departments. In addition to beach parks, the Counties also are Park, Hawaii, have been issued. DLNR's Land Management wlel with providing and maintaining public rights-of-way to The design of these facilities may limit the actual number of the shoreline. Developers wishing to build along the shoreline possible users, such as lack of access for the handicapped. The must apply for an SMA permit prior to construction and are number of parking spaces, the distance from the parking area required under CZM Law to provide public access. However, to the ocean, and special conditions, such as night-use prohi- the type of access that is required varies from County to County bitions, are also examples of factors that may limit use. and is subject to interpretation. Specialized Support Facilities,. Inadequate facilities and In 1988, the Hawaii State Legislature enacted the Hawaii programs constrain recreational opportunities. For example, Statewide Trail and Access System Act (Act 236). This Act, there is general consensus that the availability of berths and which is referred to as Na Ala Hele, assigned DLNR's Division designated mooring areas for small boats is inadequate. There of Forestry and Wildlife to work with the Counties to inventory are approximately 2,600 recreational boats on a waiting list for existing trails and shoreline access and propose recommenda- slips at small boat harbors throughout the State (DOT 1990). tions for additional needed access routes and trails. Several Support facilities, such as boat launching ramps, ice houses, years ago, the Counties developed shoreline access plans, fuel sources, on-land dry storage sites and dry docks also are which may be updated in response to this law. insufficient (DLNR 1990). In addition, only a few sewage pump-out facilities are available at small boat harbors, al- though a sewage improvement plan for small boat harbors MANAGEMENT ISSUES slowly is being implemented (see Waste Management Techni- lack of Resources for Recreational Opportunities cal Paper). Some of the older launch sites are inadequate and do not effectively protect boats from strong ocean surges. Parks and Recreation Areas Launching from these facilities can be extremely difficult. Z) The 1990 Draft Recreational Functional Plan states that the There is also a severe lack of harbors of refuge for small boats capacity of beach parks and shoreline areas is rapidly diminish- to seek shelter in inclement weather. A number of resorts and other private parties are considering constructing private ma- ing, especially on Oahu, due to the significant number of resident and visitor users. The saturation of beach park capac- nnas. In addition, the State has been exploring options for ity is considered a top priority issue in the Recreation Func- additional small boat harbors (see Harbors Technical Paper). tional Plan. Additional public parks have to be planned and It is estimated that there are over 2,000 vessels moored or developed to meet the growing demand. anchored offshore in State waters (Parsons 1990), because of Camping along the shoreline is affected by several fac- the lack of harbor facilities. Lack of shoreside facilities for tors. Traditional undeveloped sites are being lost, or access is access to and from these vessels is also a problem. As the being limited, because of development. Shoreline camping by boating population increases, these problems wi.11 increase. the homeless is impacting both designated and non-desig- The current mooring permit system is complex and lengthy, nated sites. Traditional shoreline camping grounds outside of resulting in the installation of a significant number of illegal park areas lack basic facilities, such as rest,oom and litter moorings. Boats currently moor in a haphazard manner wher- disposal services. Additional camping sities, especiaHy in tradi- ever a somewhat safe anchorage is available. DOT is in the tional camping areas, are needed. process of obtaining management authority from COE and DLNR to establish offshore mooring regulations, to include Support Facilities designated offshore mooring areas and day-use mooring sites. However, discussions to develop these regulations have con- Basic Support facilities@ Many recreation activities, including tinued for at least three years without any significant strides windsurfing, kayaking, surfing and swimming benefit from toward establishment of offshore mooring areas. park support facilities. Basic facilities include parking areas, restrooms and showers. Generally, the need for shoreline park The diving industry and others have been lobbying for areas and basic support facilities will continue to increase with installation of day-use moorings to eliminate some of the population growth. The high volume of use at many recre- damage to coral caused by anchoring. However, moorings fall ational areas is taxing the capacity of the related support under the jurisdiction of both DOT and DLNR and must be facilities. In addition, the State and Counties have expressed approved by both agencies. Although day-use moorings were concerns about their ability to maintain current facilities as installed at Molokini because of coral damage and safety funding generally has been directed towards acquisition and concerns, no additional day-use moorings were approved until development of new facdities. Funding for maintenance has recently. After three years of attempts to get a day-use program not kept pace with the high levels of use, and in some areas has established, frustrated divers and others in West Hawaii in- caused deterioration of facilities (DLNR 1990). stalled day-use moorings along the entire Kona coast to save The State and the Counties maintain a number of beach the coral and force the State to act. DLNR does not feel that the parks and many shoreline resorts have developed public paths user groups acted in good faith as mooring system negotiations to the shoreline, which include comfort stations and parking were ongoing: however, DLNR recently gave DOT approval to areas. However, it is uncertain whether these facilities ad- allow the temporary use of these moorings to evaluate their equately fulfill the needs of the general public (DLNR 1990). design as a prototype for statewide application. There are two fishing piers on Kauai maintained by of use and traditional users, e.g. swimmers and shoreline DLNWs State Parks Division. There is also a Fishing pier at fishermen, may have to compete with other ocean users who Hanalei, Kauai, which is under the jursidiction. of DOT; how- were once unable to obtain access. Planning to rnitigate or ever, it is in disrepair. Funds have been allocated to DLNR for minirnize additional impacts is a necessary part of any access its restoration and DOT plans to turn the pier over to DLNR plan. once restoration has begun. DOT is proposing that Mala Wharf Public access on military lands also is often restricted. In in Lahaina also be turned over to State Parks. It is also in several instances, however, the military has cooperated with disrepair. No new capital improvement money has beed bud- State and County agencies to allow controlled access to popu- geted in recent years for these DOT piers. Funds should be lar recreational areas through memoranda of agreement. How- allocated for their repair and maintenance. ever, the military has not taken an active role in implementing Specialized facilities, such as launching areas and storage these agreements. Current access to military lands and recre- facilities for outrigger canoes, kayaks, surfboards and adonal facilities is limited and expanded access is needed. windsurfers, are needed in any program supporting ocean It may be desirable to maintain limited access to certain recreation. The American Canoe Association, Hawaii Division, conservatively estimates that there are 10,000 canoers in the locations to preserve wilderness qualities or to prevent over- State. Outrigger canoeing, kayaking and other ocean sports use, especially in areas with threatened or endangered species. have grown significantly in recent years (DLNR 1990). Storage The north shores of Molokai, Hawaii and Kauai are examples facilities are needed, especially for those individuals living in of areas that could be designated as wilderness areas where apartment complexes who have no place to store their recre- access should continue to be limited (see Marine Ecosystem ational equipment. Protection Technical Paper). Lirniting certain types of commer- cial activities to certain shoreline areas is another access issue. Public Access Maintenance, liability and vandalism are also important issues Actual physical access to and along the shoreline is another with regard to public access. In many instances, private prop- recreational issue. Problems related to this issue include the erty owners are unwilling to provide public access because of loss of shoreline recreational areas and restriction of public the fear of litigation if someone is injured while crossing their access due to new development. These access issues will property. Relief of the burden of liability to allow public access become critical as more lands are developed for resorts, houses through government and private property without fear of and golf courses (DLNR 1990). There is no plan for access in as being sued is needed. yet undeveloped areas. Access Along the Sboreline., Physical access along the Access to Sborefine Areas: In some areas, private prop- shoreline is not always continuous. In many areas around the Islands, maninade structures (including seawalls, revetments, erty and private developments block access from the nearest groins, and canal or drainage outlets) and natural features developed public roadway to the shoreline or, as in some (such as cliffs, vegetation and rocky outcroppings) restrict coastal resort arm, public rights-of-way are provided but access to potential recreational resources (see Beaches and there is no parking. In these cases, public access agreements Coastal Erosion Technical Paper). with landowners or acquisition of public rights-of-way from inland areas to the shoreline may be necessary to provide Safety and Education Programs access. in other areas, access is poorly marked or public rights- The safety of people engaged in ocean recreation activities is of-way have been absorbed by the adjacent private property of major concern. In 1989, there were 705 water rescues on owner, thus eliminating access. The 1990 Draft Recreation beaches guarded by City and County of Honolulu lifeguards Functional Plan indicates that access paths have been fenced or (DBED 1989). The Department of Health has stated that blocked illegally, signs indicating public access have been torn drownings are the second leading cause of accidental death in 1k down and access ways have become impassable due to uncon- Hawaii (DLNR 1990). Safety-oriented programs involve both trolled weeds and brush. Access can be ftirther limited by conventional fife-saving activities such as lifeguarding and providing only a few parking stalls for general public use and preventive activities such as training in recreation activity skills not allowing any additional public entry once these few stalls and education about ocean resources, hazards and regula- are filled. Any leasing of property from DOT must have a tions. Planning for water-safety concerns among residents and provision for access but the type of access va ties. The Cound es visitors is fragmented and diffused across multiple agencies on each island and the State Parks Division have various plans including the Counties, DOH, DOT, DLNR, DOE and the viskor to obtain additional lands for public access and shoreline industry. parks, but the rate of implementation varies from County to County and has been constrained by a lack of resources. Lifeguards are stationed at many County beach parks, but it should be noted that providing additional public access many popular beaches including most State beach parks are to the ocean creates additional impacts and sometimes in- unattended. In an effort to resolve the issue of unguarded creases the potential for conflicts. As additional access is beaches, the 1990 Legislature passed enabling legislation which opened, low impact sites are confronted with increased levels allows the Statetoworkwith the Counties toprovide lifeguarding services at selected State beach parks. Before the State and the Counties implement this legislation, there are still some serious try has expressed frustration with not knowing where to go to issues to be resolved, mainly stemming from concerns about obtain the proper permits for sporting events and the number which agency is liable once the lifeguarding services are of agencies that are involved in the permit process (Allara provided. In addition, the need to broaden the legislation to 1990). Plans for an international event, the Hawaii Pacific include all State beaches instead of just State beach parks was games, were put on hold because of the lack of major sporting expressed by the State Parks Division (Nagata. 1990). facilities to provide venues for teams from 30 different coun- In a State surrounded by water, it is estimated that many tries (ibid). Major sporting events are telecast worldwide and residents do not know how to swim (Sullivan 1990). Water- provide excellent exposure of the types and variety of ocean re.lated accidents among residents and visitors are numerous, recreational opportunities available in a scenic Hawaiian set- with more fatalities involving residents than visitors. Education ting. and training programs can help reduce safety problems. These Commercial ocean recreation activities provide opportu- range from training for first-time users on the proper use of nities for both visitors and residents to participate in activities equipment, and interpretive programs about the resources, to that would otherwise be unavailable. In addition, a number of providing infonnation on regulations. Instruction in general commercial vendors provide instructional programs to both water-safery principles and basic swimming skills are impor- residents and visitors. Often, commercial operators provide tant components of safety intervention as are the posting of rescue services to all ocean users in areas where the services 0 warning signs and development of informational brochures. would not otherwise be provided. It is generally felt that Z) 0 Very few, 9 any, of these types of programs exist. In addition, patrons will use the equipment regardless of whether there are on some Islands, there are very few shoreline areas with qualified and trained personnel to supervise the activity and beaches safe for swimn-dng, especially for fan-dlies with small the commercial vendors provide a safety factor by being on the children. Often children swim in the calm waters surrounding site to supervise the activity. boat launch ramps, even though it is illegal, because there are no other safe places to swim. The majority of visitors to Hawaii come in part to partici- pate in some form of ocean recreational activity. Promoting DOE has a strict policy on ocean recreation activities. tourism while not supporting the types of activities tourists There are no ocean activities allowed in school districts, except seek to participate in, indicates a conflict. Although the indus- when they are approved by the district superintendent. It is left try provides numerous benefits, its large size and rapid growth up to individual principals to decide where their priority funds have increased conflicts among users. Public policy, expressed are to be spent. Not many principals are willing to fund water- by Legislative initiative, acknowledges a lack of support for the safety programs with priority funds as there are so many other ocean recreation industry. Act 313, SLH 1990, states that "...the projects for which the funds are needed. There is, therefore, no State is mindful that in managing and regulating ocean use, formal water-safety education in the public schools. An island- priority should be given to those seeking non-commercial wide program did exist for a few years, but it was cancelled by recreational opportunities as opposed to those seeking com- the Board of Education due to liability concerns (Sullivan mercial recreational opportunities. To be a commercial opera- 1990). tor is a privilege and not an exclusive right." As the tourism There is no comprehensive program within the visitor industry continues to grow, demand for more commercial industry to inforin visitors of water-safety concerns, but some ocean recreation opportunities also will continue to increase. individual companies offer information to theirclients. Liability Greater support for this industry is needed to provide the is the main concern cited as the reason that no comprehensive infrastructure necessary to reduce conflicts at areas heavily approach to water-safety information has been developed. It is used by both commercial and non-commercial users. generally assumed that by taking responsibility for informing clients of water-safety concerns, a business or organization User Conflicts thereby assumes liability for the individual. However, in a Incompatible Uses recent court case in Kaanapali, Maui, a hotel was found liable Competition among recreational users for limited ocean recre- for not adequately informing a guest about the rough surf at the ational resources and the accompanying support facilities is a hotel's beachfront. The liability issue needs to be resolved so growing concern. The problems range from inconveniences, that safety information can be prepared and presented. such as limited parking spaces, crowded beaches and reduced Supportfor Ocean Recreation Industry fish catches, toswirnmers orsnorkelers being injured byboats, As previously noted, the ocean recreation industry was headed etc. Boating in swimming areas and jetskiing in surfing areas toward $500 million in annual revenues in 1990. Yet improve- are examples of incompatible activities that involve serious ments to harbor facilities and supporting infrastructure for the safety concerns. Traditional uses, such as recreational fishing, ocean recreation industry and sporting events have not kept often compete for the same resource area as users of new pace with the growth of the industry. The processes for obtain- equipment, such as windsurfers. There is also competition ing permits for commercial ocean recreation ventures and among recreational groups, such as shoreline fishermen and major sporting events can be complex and lengthy. The indus- gflI net fishermen, or recreational trollers; and deep-sea charter boats, or recreational fishermen and the commercial longline fishery (see Fisheries Technical Paper). Non-consumptive, the tour industry continues to grow, pressure to use these other users such as scuba dive operators, compete for the same sites open shoreline areas and small coastal parks is going to as consumptive users, such as spear fishermen or aquarium fish increase and the need to strike a balance between commercial collectors. Habitats, such as sunken ships, service the tour and public use of recreational resources becomes increasingly industry. They are also ideal habitats for fish propagation and difficult. As the competition for space between commercial are therefore sought as desirable fishing locations. Fishing operators and the general public increases, the larger concern depletes the stocks that enhance the visitors' experience. of the appropriateness of commercial activities occurring 'in it should be noted that although numerous conflicts have residential neighborhoods also needs to be addressed. arisen, as the numbers and types of ocean recreation users Commercialism can easily lead to overuse. It is part of the increase, there also have been significant strides made to nature of the business. Without any bounds being placed on mitigate some of them in a few select locations. Two of the most the growth of commercial ocean recreation businesses, espe- noteworthy involve the agreements reached between the scuba cially in popular sites, existing operators expand their busi- diving industry and the tropical fish collectors off of Kona and nesses and new operators enter the market as it ?n be a the agreements reached between the windsurfers and other lucrative business and is basically a free resource. This expan- ocean recreation users along the north shore of Maui. As sion can eventually squeeze out the local populace and nega- enforcement capabilities are lacking in a number of locations, tively impact the ocean resource the businesses are marketing. the commercial industry also has had to assume self-policing of This leads residents to question commercial operations, as their activities. This works to a large extent in most locations, unbounded expansion can have detrimental impacts on the but as the industry grows the sheer numbers of users often in recreational resource. Governmental agencies need to recog- and of itself adversely impacts the resource. nize that the nature of a commercial business is to make money The recently adopted Ocean Recreation Management from the resource and that businesses will continue to expand Area Rules have reduced commercial vs non-commercial in- while there is money to be made. A systematic approach, compatible use conflicts and ocean-safety hazards by separat- which defines and enforces limits on commercial growth, is ing various recreational uses into designated areas, such as needed. Under the present management system, agencies seek delineating thrillcraft zones. In addition, other management to limit the amount of commercial activity after detrimental areas have been designated as swimming areas where boating effects already have occurred. This approach has not proved is restricted; However, these rules do not cover conflicts satisfactory for commercial operators, who may actually lose their livelihood, or residents who have been so adversely sternming from limited facilities or overcrowding, Additional management of mixed but incompatible recreational activities affected that they are against any commercial operations. isneeded. Natural Resource Sustainability Gommerdal vs Non-contmerdal Uses Degradation of Natural Resources In some areas commercial activities, such as guided tours, Recreational activities can generate adverse impacts on ocean lessons and equipment rentals, increase recreational use. Com- resources. For example, coral reef communities can be dam- mercial use of public areas, especially parking lots, beaches aged by anchoring of boats, such as has occurred at Molokini, and boat launching ramps, continues to generate controversy, or trampling by snorkelers. Strand vegetation, valuable in especially when it is deemed excessive and interferes with public enjoyment. Competition between commercial minimizing beach erosion, and in maintaining native ecosys- windsurfing operations and individual users at Oahu's Kailua tems, often is destroyed by pedestrians and all-terrain vehicles. Monitoring of resources and management of uses to prevent Beach Park has resulted in regulation of commercial activities, overuse can have multiple benefits to the resource and the Of further concern is the competition between commercial activities. Although SCORP provides statistics on the numbers uses and public use of ocean areas. For example, commercial and types of recreational facilities available statewide, veryfew activities in a public area effectively may prohibit public use recreational sites have been studied to determine the actual because of competition for space and because of safety consid- number of users in a given location. Quantifiable data are erations. lacking on the level of use at particular sites, types of activities The use of public beach parks for commercial activities occurring there, or impacts that activities have on the resource. occurs statewide and ranges from the already high intensity of Without accurate data, it is difficult to properly manage recre- use noted at places like Hanauma Bay, to tour buses and vans ational resources. There is a need to monitor use and make beginning to stop for picnic lunches and dropping off clients at adjustments to management practices based upon quantifiable a variety of other open shoreline areas. This issue involves not data, at least in some of the more heavily used sites. only State and County parks but also open shoreline areas Commercial ocean recreation activities can blossom into outside of park boundaries and in proximity to residential major commercial ventures with potentially significant envi- neighborhoods, The commercial use of parks and shoreline ronmental and social impacts. However, an environmental areas is becon-drig pervasive and needs to be critically exam- impact analysis is not required when an individual company or ined. As additional restrictions are imposed on park use and as an entire industry is growing. In addition, DOT's Ocean Recre- ation Management regulations do not address the cumulative the primary reasons that management is often ineffective. The impacts that can occur as more and more people use the public generally feels that there are sufficient regulations to resource. Currently, there is no way to adequately examine manage the resources; however, these regulations are not cumulative impacts. There is also a lack of data or agreed upon adequately enforced (Aotani and Associates 1988). methodolog@ to determine social or environmental carrying Although Ocean Recreation Management Rules were capacities for heavily impacted recreational sites. promulgated in 1988, DOT has had difficulty enforcing many Marketing campaigns have designated some areas such of the new restrictions due to legal constraints and lack of as Molokini and Hanauma Bay as"must-.see" destinations and resources. A campaign to educate the public on the new rules in so doing have contributed to their overuse (DBED 1988). has not been undertaken. Installation of signs and/or buoys to There is a lack of comparable sites for people to use as demarcate restricted zones has not been done in most areas. alternatives to those that are so heavily used and marketed and Implementing the 1988 Ocean Recreation Management Rules resource managers have not attempted to establish user carry- and the new statutory restrictions mandated under Act 313 has ing capacities. meant a doubling in the types of operator permits and equip- Quality of Experience ment registrations that are required. Although the number of Given the numerous opportunities for ocean recreation enforcement personnel has increased, the number of adn-:iinis- in trative staff to process the permits has not. Effective implemen- Hawaii, it is understandable that residents and tourists come to tation of the rules will require additional administrative and expect a high-quality recreational experience. Unfulfilled ex- enforcement personnel, plus additional equipment. pectations, a complex concept which involves individual per- Lack of Coordination, Cooperation Among Agencies ceptions of the availability and qualiryof recreational resources as well as individual preferences based on past experiences, Current management of coastal and ocean resources is charac- can lead to dissatisfaction with recreational resources. Because terized by multiple responsibilities diffused across multiple individual preferences are involved, an area may be consid- agencies. This situation has made it difficult to coordinate and ered to be at a medium-use level by one person and over- effectively implement the specific responsibilities of each crowded to another. Hanauma Bay is one area which is agency. DOT and DLNR are empowered to enforce each considered to be overcrowded by many residents. Residents other's' rules but this does not regularly occur. Until enforce- confronted with increasing use of recreational resources can ment officers are effectively trained in their own department's be more affected than visitors with no previous experience rules, no cross-training can occur. Enforcement capabilities are with Hawaii's coastal resources. limited both by manpower and equipment shortages. There Increased numbers of tourists and activities are putting are 21 marine patrol officers statewide. DLNR's 80 DOCARE increasing pressures on coastal recreation resources. Twenty- officers, who must enforce all DLNR's land and water-related regulations, are hampered in enforcing water-related regula- eight permits were issued for hotel construction in 1987, nine tions by a lack of boats. in 1988 and three in 1989. Prior to this period, the State's average rate of construction for most of the past two decades DOT's marine and harbor patrol officers are scheduled to had been just under two projects per year. Although the brunt be transferred to the newly created Department of Public Safety of this hotel construction was felt mainly in Maui County and in 1991 (Chapter 26-14.6, HRS). The new Department of Public Kauai, the increase in the number of visitors to the Islands as a Safety was established in an effort to formulate and implement whole has outpaced the needed infrastructure improvements all State policies and objectives for corrections, security, law that should have accompanied such rapid growth. Over the enforcement and public safety. The Department will combine next few years, several new construction permits for resort the functions of the former Department of Corrections with the projects planned on the west and north shores of Oahu and on sheriffs office, narcotics enforcement, and the marine and the Big Island may be issued. These hotel construction permits harbor police. Concerns have been expressed about this trans- also represent a new wave of destination resort construction fer, mainly due to the fact that the philosophy of resource that will provide the foundation for tourism growth in the 1990s enforcement is completely different from the philosophy of (Bank of Hawaii 1990). Most of these resorts will be opening for penal code regulatory enforcement. Since the general public is business in the next few years. Planning to alleviate the impacts not required to know the rules before using a piece of recre- of rapid development on local residents should have been ational equipment, a large part of the marine patrol officer's job anticipated or at the very least should be initiated now. is educating the public about boating safety rules. It is uncertain how this role may change under the new department. ineffective Management and Coorduiation Gaps and overlaps in existing management authority Lack of Enforcement consistently have frustrated users. People who request infor- Since 1988, several plans and surveys have been developed mation complain of being referred back and forth between 7 agencies. Primary access to marine resources occurs largely and public hearings have been held to address the growing 0 concern of management of recreational resources. In almost all through County lands to State-managed resources. The State cases, lack of adequate enforcement has been cited as one of and Counties have not established mutually acceptable guide- lines to manage these resources. The State can designate Implementing Actions: nearshore waters for specific activities without coordinating DOT, DM DBED and the Counties sbould.. with the Counties to assess the impact on adjacent County- managed lands. 1. Identify and prioritize ocean and coastal recreational Agencies charged with issuing commercial permits must facilities needing improvements through the State Com- later assume a reactive role to mitigate negative impacts. As prehensive Ocean Recreation Plan (SCORP) and develop noted, permits for commercial activities are issued by the a plan to implement the necessary improvements which Counties, DLNR and DOT, depending on where the commer- complements but is more detailed than the State Recre- cial activity originates and which agency has management ation Functional Plan. authority. Under existing circumstances, State agencies can 2. Allocate additional funds needed to maintain current individually issue commercial permits for the same water area facilities properly. without checking with each other. Often, it is only when the 3. Work with community groups to develop voluntary cumulative impacts increase that agencies make an effort to maintenance assistance programs to maintain recreational coordinate. facilities. Commercial ocean recreation businesses that originate a. Setup a community "Adopt-a-Park" program. from a private marina or from private property are not always required to obtain a commercial permit to operate. There is also b. Clarify possible liability concerns so volunteers a problem with Special Management Area (SMA) permits. can actively participate in maintenance programs. Under Hawaii CZM law, a change in the intensity of use is part c. Develop a maintenance hotline for users to report of the definition used to define a "development". The County needed repairs. of Kauai has used this definition to require commercial boaters in Hanalei to obtain an Environmental Impact Statement prior d. Develop a community liaison program that pro- to being issued an SMA permit to operate. The question of vides volunteer maintenance groups access to needed whether intensification of use constitutes "development" has funds or supplies to maintain facilities. not been adequately answered and is currently under litiga- 4. Identify and prioritize additional site-specific recre- tion. ational facilities needed for coastal and ocean recreation L"k ofAdequXe Fun&ng activities and develop them. Growth in the visitor industry is straining recreational re- 5. Utilize a long-range planning strategy to: sources which need to be better managed and protected. a. Determine which underdeveloped or undevel- Because funds have not been made available to expand their oped recreation areas should be set aside now to staff, management and enforcement branches are overwhelmed. ensure their development as recreational sites in the DOT's Harbors Division Boating Fund is the only fund desig- future as opposed to being slated for possible resort nated to maintain recreational resources and provide a small development. number of marine patrol officers. At a time when demands on the resource are growing at an alarming rate, there is insuffi- b. Develop methods to set aside these areas such as cient funding or manpower to designate specific staff to ocean land banking or private/public land exchange. resource enforcement. The need to generate revenues to be 6. Encourage alternative development and funding used specifically for the management and enforcement of the options to develop needed recreational facilities. ocean resources is critical. a. Develop provisions for government incentives to induce private-sector investment in infrastructure de- RECOMAUMA11ONS velopment of marinas; shore-based, small boat stor- age facilities; shoreline parks and park facilities. Objective b. Require resort marina developers to develop pub- Promote the development of safe ocean recreation opportuni- lic boat launch ramps, boat storage facilities, parking, des which are socially and environmentally acceptable and etc., or to develop other provisions of significant compatible with other ocean and coastal resource uses and public benefit. available to all residents. c. Upgrade and maintain boat launch ramps then PolicyA charge user fees for all users (commercial and non- Maintain existing recreation facilities and provide needed commercial) using these facilities. additional recreation facilities especially in under-developed 7. Establish a program to coordinate the acquisition areas. and/or use of Federal lands, recreational facilities and waters for recreational resource development and sup- port areas for coastal and ocean recreation activities. DLNR and the Counties should: 6. Develop legislation to resolve liability concerns re- 8. Ensure coordination in implementing the recom- garding access to the shoreline on government lands. mendations developed in SCORP, the State Recreation Policy C Functional Ilan and State or County parks development Reserve certain areas as traditional wilderness or low impact plans. areas. DOTsbould: Implementing Actions: 9. Immediately implement offshore mooring areas regu- DLIVR should: lations and plans for establishment of offshore mooring and day-use mooring sites, as well as onshore support identify and designate wilderness and protected areas facilities. where access should remain limited, and determine ac- a. Develop a one-step permit process at DOT to ceptable levels and means of access to wilderness areas. eliminate jurisdictional overlaps and a complex re- Acceptable levels of means of access should include view of offshore mooring permits. determination of the amount, if any, of commercial activ- ity that should be allowed and the types of recreational b. Encourage commercial participation in the devel- equipment that may be utilized, e.g., motorized vs. non- opment of day-use moorings. motorized equipment. [See Marine Ecosystem Protection Policy B section.] Maintain and expand access to and along the shoreline where Policy D needed. Develop and support a comprehensive and coordinated water safety program which clarifies liability concerns and includes Implementing Actions: training and education. DLNR and the Counties should.. implementing Actions: 1. Coordinate implementation of the Statewide Trail DLNR and the Counties sbou&.- and Access System recommendations with implementa- don of recommendations developed in SCORP, the State 1. Encourage legislation to resolve the liability concerns Recreation Functional Plan, County parks development of DLNR's State Parks Division and the Counties regard- plans and shoreline access plans. ing County lifeguard services at State beach parks. 1. Ensure continued funding of he Statewide Trail and 1. leek to expand current enabling legislation that al- Access System. lows the State to contract with the Counties for lifeguard 3. Ensure that expanded access does not adversely services to include not only State beach parks but all State impact other ocean and coastal resources since expanded beaches. access generally means increased use of an area. 3. Continue to identify and prioritize beaches where 4. Maintain current access and public rights-of-way to lifeguard services are most needed. the shoreline by: 4. Establish minimum lifeguard training standards and a. Opening public access routes currently blocked provide a central location for data on all wacer.-related by adjacent property owners or clogged by weeds. accidents. b. Clearly mark all shoreline access and public rights- DOH, in cooperation udtb DOT DLAW and the Counties of-way and install garbage receptacles. should. c. Publish guides (brochures, maps) to shoreline 5. Seek the necessary funding to expand the water access locations. safety intervention methods program in DOH to include d. Develop strict guidelines for private shoreline all heavily impacted beaches statewide. developers to ensure adequate access by developing DLAW, DOT, DOE, DEED and the Counties should- a formula that mandates a required number of park- 6. Develop informational and training programs for the ing spaces and ancillary recreational facilities adja- general public to educate users on water safety and cent to access nodes. swimming skills, resource use restrictions, boating and 5. Formulate a cooperative Federal, State and County water safety regulations, proper and safe use of equip- ment, cultural and traditional uses and conflict avoid- strategy to expand public access through public and ance. Use existing Federal, State, County and private- private lands to recreational areas, or expand the State- sector programs to coordinate and enhance water safety wide Trail and Access System to include Federal involve- training and education. [See Research and Education ment. section.] 7. Establish a task force of Federal, State and County used areas and potentially impacted areas that ensures agencies and the visitor and ocean recreation industries monitoring of the impacts and limits use as needed. to develop a comprehensive, systematic approach to a. Ensure that the methodology established is used implementing a successful water safety information pro- by all agencies tasked with managing the recreational gram. resource so that data are consistent. a. Review current liability concerns expressed by b. Consider the "Limits to Acceptable Change Plan- the visitor industry regarding provision of safety ning System" as one method of determining impacts information to visitors and the assumption of liability and managing resources. that incurs. b. Enact legislation or other means necessary to c. Organize a workshop of agency personnel to train resolve these liability concerns. all resource managers in the chosen methodology- c. Develop brochures and other media techniques, d. Assess impacts of current activities and set limits in a variety of languages, to inform visitors of water based on analysis of data and implementation of the safety hazards. methodology. d. Develop a comprehensive signage program to e. Ensure that the methodology can accurately de- post needed warning signs. in hazardous beach and termine current impacts and assess cumulative im- shoreline locations statewide. pacts as commercial activities grow. DOT, DLNR and the Counties should: f. Conduct an environmental assessment ora similar assessment on proposed new economic activities, in 8. Work with community groups to develop a coordi- cooperation with the commercial enterprise. nated volunteer search and rescue program to supple- 4. Explore and develop options for limiting access to ment USCG and County fire department rescue efforts. heavily impacted recreational sites, e.g., permits, en- DOE should.. trance fees, etc. Develop several options for hn-6ting 9. Resolve current liability concerns regarding the teach- access by commercial operators instead of just relying on a bidding process. ing of swimming and consider the need to develop 0 mandatory swimming lessons in schools. [See Ocean OSP, DBF-D, DLIW DOT and the Counties should- Research and Education section] 5. Work with the ocean recreation and visitor industries DLNR, DBED, DOT and the Counties should: to develop a cooperative planning effort to disperse 10. Promote development of statewide volunteer surf/ recreational use. Such an effort should: lifesaving clubs patterned after Australian clubs to work a. identify the needs of residents and visitors in with lifeguards and commercial operators who provide determining dispersion patterns. rescue services. b. Identify and develop alternative sites that offer Policy E similar or comparable experiences to heavily used Maintain the environmental and social quality of recreational areas. resources by limiting use. c. Analyze dispersion of use so that no single area is implementing Actions: too heavily affected, unless it is designated for high use, e.g., Waikiki Beach. OSP, DLAR DOTand the Counties should.- d. Establish an effective marketing strategy to mar- 1. Develop a comprehensive inventory of nearshore ket alternative destinations to disperse use. and coastal resources and activities. Use this inventory to Poficy F determine site-specific allocations based on quantifiable data. Make the inventory available for use by all resource Determine current and anticipated impacts of ocean recreation managers statewide. activities on residents and develop plans to assure that both 2. Develop a comprehensive use-level management land and sea activities are compatible with one another. process that requires all commercial ocean recreation Implementing Actions: ventures to obtain perrnits prior to being allowed to OSP, DLNR and the Counties should. operate and require agencies to control the issuance of commercial permits once limits of use have been deter- 1. Develop clearly defined policies for the commercial mined. use of open shoreline and public beach parks in residen- 3. Determine the appropriate methodology to identify tial neighborhoods and beach parks or shoreline areas social and environmental carrying capacities for heavily intensely used by residents. and DBED sbould: 6. Educate users on resource restrictions. 2. Detennine impacts from new hotel construction and DOTsbould- 0`P develop plans to minimize these impacts. 7. Implement the Ocean Recreation Management Rules 3. Consider limiting the size of future hotel develop- by installing buoys, posting signs and educating users ments allowed outside specified resort nodes in order to about regulations. alleviate additional impacts. Policy I Policy G Develop a coordinated strategy of resource management that Develop methodology to mitigate conflicts between various eliminates current jurisdictional overlaps or gaps. ocean recreational activities where he parties to the conflict implementing Actions: can be identified. Implementing Actions: DURandDOTshould- DOTsbould. 1. Support the transfer of the Boating Branch from DOT 1. Hire or contract the services of mediation profession- to DLNR. als to provide a process for conflict resolution or work 2. Re-evaluate the transfer of boating enforcement func- with the judiciary's Center for Alternative Dispute Reso- tions to the Department of Public Safety in favor of lution. keeping these enforcement activities with the Boating Branch and transferring the Branch intact to DLNR. 2. Develop a public information campaign on "rules of Policyi the road" and traditional uses for water-related activities to promote proper use of equipment and understanding Develop agency advocacy for the marketing and promotional of rights-of-way. support of desirable ocean recreation industry sectors. 3. Work with the ocean recreation industry to inform Implementing Actions: visitors of use restrictions and traditional rights-of-way. DBED sbould.. 4. Encourage the ocean recreation industry to develop 1. Clarify the state's goals regarding tourism promotion methods to address community concerns. and the support for the ocean recreation industry that 5. Identify additional areas where conflicts are occur- services the tourist. ring and develop restrictions to mitigate potentially haz- 2. Develop a central permit process and work with ardous conditions. other agencies to coordinate and expedite the commer- cial permit process ensuring that resource impacts are Policy H considered. Maintain resource quality and expand programs for enforce- 3. Identify desirable ocean recreation industry sectors. ment of recreational resource use regulations. 4. Promote ocean recreation and sports industries Implementing Actions: through industry development and marketing support with emphasis on providing infrastructure for existing DOT, DLNR and DOH sbould.. business. 1. Seek additional funding to increase enforcement ca- a. identify sources of funding and other legal re- pabilities of agencies involved in recreational resource quirements necessary to start a business. management, including manpower, equipment, training b. Determine infrastructure needs, identify available and salaries. infrastructure and work with agencies to increase 2. Provide cross-training to ensure that each agency can infrastructure to meet demands. enforce the other's regulations. 3. Clarify jurisdictional constraints to effective enforce- ment. 4. Develop a hotline for users to report violations of regulations and ensure timely response to complaints. 5. Analyze current hiring practices of enforcement per- sonnel to ensure that DOT, DOH and DLNR officers are receiving similar training, pay and opportunities for ad- vancement. REFERENCES State of Hawaii, Department of Transportation, Harbors Divi- Allara, Mitch. 1990. Personal communication, August, 1990. sion. 1990. Small Craft Mooring Facilities Utilizzation Report - Honolulu. Quarter Ending March 31, 1990. Honolulu. Sullivan, Dan. 1990. Personal communication, August, 1990. Aotani and Associates. 1988. A Statewide Ocean Recreation Honolulu. Management Plan. Honolulu. U.S. Coast Guard, 14th Disthct. 1987. Statement of agreement Bank of Hawaii. 1990. Construction in Hawaii, 1990. Hono- and understandina on boating safety between the State of lulu. t' I Hawaii and U.S. Coast Guard. Honolulu. Community Resources Inc.1990. Results of 1989 Update Survey U.S. Federal Register. 1990. Proposed rules for U.S. Depart- for the Hawaii Statewide Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation ment of Interior, Fish and Wildge Service, 50 CFR Part 80, Plan (SCORP) - Volume 1: Visitors (August). Honolulu. 5580.27. Monday, April 9,1990. Vol. 55. No. 68. Community Resources Inc. 1990. Results of 1989 Update Sur- vey for the Hawaii Statewide Comprehensive Outdoor Recre- ation Plan (SCORP) - Volume 2: Residents (November). Hono- lulu. MacDonald, C.D. and H.E. Deese. 1989. A Comprehensive Analysis and Overview of Hawaii's Ocean Industries. Coastal Zone '89 Proceedings, 6tb Symposium on Coastal and Ocean Management, CZ89.july 11-14,1989. Vol. IV. pp. 3481-3493. New York:American Society of Engineers. Nagata, Ralston. 1990. Personal communication, July, 1990. Honolulu. Parsons, David. 1990. Personal communication, July, 1990. Honolulu. State of Hawaii, Department of Business and Economic Devel- opment. 1988. Enhance, Preserve, Restore. An Interim Report on the Wise Use of the Hawaii's Coastal and Nearsbore Re- sourcesfor the Promotion and Development ofOcean Recre- ation and Tourism Industries. By the Govemor's Ocean Re- sources Tourism Development Task Force. Honolulu. State of Hawaii, Department of Business and Economic Devel- opment. 1989. 7he State ofHawaii Data Book - 1-989. Hono- lulu. State of Hawaii, Department of Business and Economic Devel- opment. 1990. Report tothe Fifteenth State Legislature Regular Session of 1990 on Chapter 228, Hawaii Revised Statutes, Ocean Resources Management. State of Hawaii, Department of Land and Natural Resources. 1990. Draft Hawaii State Recreation Plan, 1990. Honolulu. David A. Tarnas and M. Carolyn Stewart Marine and Coastal Resources Consultants P.O. Box 2523 Kailua-Kona, M 96745 PAGE PAGE COMMERCIAL HAMRS 29 MANAGEMENT MUES 34 THE RESOURCE 29 Inadequate Supply of Small Boat Harbor Facilities 34 Maintenance of Existing Harbor Facilities 34 RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 30 Conflicts Among Harbor Users 34 Harbor Management 30 Small Boat Harbor Funding 34 Harbor Planning 30 Potential Environmental impacts of Harbor Construction and Maintenance Financing 31 Harbor Construction 35 Harbor Construction Permitting 31 Potential Environmental impacts of Enforcement Responsibilities 31 Harbor Operations 35 Coordinated Planning for Harbor Development 35 MANAGEMENT ISSUES 31 Capacity of Commercial Harbors 31 Areal Constraints on Development 35 Potential Environmental Impacts Restrictions on Harbor Construction in of Harbor Construction 31 Class AA Waters 35 Potential Environmental Impacts RECOMMENDATIONS 35 of Harbor Operations 31 Objective 35 Areal Constraints on Development 32 Policies and Implementing Actions 36 Restrictions on Harbor Construction in Class AA Waters 32 RECOMMENDATIONS 32 Objective 32 Policies and Implementing Actions 32 COMMERCIRL HUBORS SMALL BOAT HARBORS 32 TBI RESOURCE THE RESOURCE 32 Hawaii is completely dependent on its commercial harbor system for maintaining its economy and life-style. The State's RESOURCE MANAGMENT 33 heavy reliance on imported goods makes it imperative that the Harbor Management 33 harbor system be maintained and improved. Nearly 98 percent Harbor Planning 33 of the goods imported into the State enter through the commer- Harbor Construction and Maintenance Financing 33 cial harbor system, a statistic that has not changed significantly Harbor Construction Permitting 33 over time. The harbors are also the main distribution points for interisland shipping and commodity export. There are I I Enforcement Responsibilities 34 commercial harbors operating throughout the Islands (ten State-operated and one privately-operated). There are also two offshore mooring sites for the off-loading of petroleum prod- ucts for the oil refineries located at Barbers Point on Oahu. Maritime pursuits have long been the largest and most Over 2,500 foreign-flag fishing vessels called at the Port of stable of Hawaii's ocean industries. The industry posted rev- Honolulu between 1986 and 1988 to purchase fuel, provisions enues of $400 million in 1986 and employed @_,500 people, and other goods and services. The economic impact of these excluding n-fflitary employment. Revenues were projected to calls amounted to S46 million annually in direct expenditures. grow by 34 percent to $534 million by 1990, while employing About half the amount came from tuna longlihers and half from 2,750 people (MacDonald and Deese 1989). The two major tuna motherships. These expenditures multiplied in the local sectors of the maritime industry are ocean transportation, and economy to generate over $93 million in income annually shipbuilding and repair. Ocean transportation includes ship- (DBED/Sea Grant Program 1990a). merit of cargo and petroleum products as well as passenger service. The volume of cargo entering the Islands also contin- ues to grow. In 1988, 23.7 million tons of cargo - including RESOURCE MANAGEMM foreign, domestic and interisland cargo - were handled at Hawaii's ports (COE 1988). Hawaii is primarily a destination Harbor Management point, where virtually all materials shipped into ports are for The Department of Transportation (DOT) is the lead agency for Hawaii itself; therefore, the volume of cargo will continue to all harbor-related activities in the State. it is responsible for increase as a function of increased population and economic management of harbor operations. Chapter 266, HRS, gives growth. The rate of increase in imported cargo is estimated at DOT jurisdiction over harbor facilities owned or controlled by two percent to three percent annually (DOT 1986). the State, and ocean waters and navigable streams. Chapter The popularity of cruise ships as an alternative to the 267, HRS, covers boating matters such as vessel registration, traditional resort vacation has continued to grow (DOT 1986). equipment requirements and navigation safety. The cruise ship industry grew at an annual rate of 24 percent A special fund (Harbors Special Fund), financed by har- from 1981 to 1986, posting revenues of $59 million in 1986 bor user fees, supports commercial harbor operations. Chap- (DBED 1989). Hawaii currently has two cruise ships home- ters 1941 to 19-44 of the Hawaii Administrative Rules (HAR) ported in the State and serve the Islands on a weekly basis. In apply to operations of commercial boat harbor facilities, in- addition, several trans-Pacific cruise ships make infrequent cluding provisions concerning use and charges for facilities. calls to the Islands and were expected to spend an estimated 20 Provisions on permits, small-craft owner responsibilities, safety, boat-days in port during 1990 (DOT 1990a). control of explosives and pollution also are included. While there are no facilities in Hawaii capable of building The U.S. Coast Guard, DOT Harbors Division, and De- large oceangoing ships, there are several private shipyards partment of Health, Office of Hazard Evaluation and Emer- capable of providing maintenance and repair services. There gency Response (HEER) are responsible for emergency re- are major marine repair plants at both Honolulu Harbor and sponse to oil and chemical spill incidences in harbors (see Barbers Point. There are also major facilities at the Pearl Harbor Waste Manaoement Technical Paper). Naval Shipyard. All of the private repair operations, except one, have waterfront facilities for the construction, repair and Harbor Planning conversion of oceangoing vessels, tugs, towboats, dredges, For planning of commercial harbor development, responsibility lies barges and other vessels. At least two shipyards can handle with DOTs Statewide Transportation Plannirig Office. DOT is vessels of 500-feet. The lift capacities of the floating dry- responsible for preparing a Statewide Transportation Plan, which docks range from 2,280 tons to 8,000 tons. The haul-out includes harbors (Chapters 7279A-2, 279A-3, HRS). A Statewide capacity of the marine railways ranges from 150 to 1,400 tons Transportation Planning Council has been established to coordinate (COE 1987). the development of the Plan. It has the authority to approve for Economists project that United States trade among the submission to the L-gislature any project exclusively involving State Pacific nations will surpass trans-Atlantic trade by $40 billion in harbors (Chapter 279A-7, HRS). Its membership includes represen- the year 2000 (DBED 1989). Many of these billions will be tauves from State government agencies and each of the Counties carried as marine cargo. Hawaii is poised to play a key role in (Chapter 279A-1, 279A4, HRS). The Council, which meets quar- handling this flood of trans-Pacific cargo. One strategic use of terly, has the authority to deternitne the numbers and kinds of Hawaii's harbor resources is the State's bunkering facilities, harbors in the State, in consideration of the following needs: which allow ships to refuel en route. Hawaii's Foreign Trade Zone is advantageous to shippers, who can save by only 1) The preservation, safeguarding and enhancement of paying duty on theirgoods once they are moved from the zone the physical and mental health of State residents, and the into the United States. Hawaii is the only port equally acces- ecology and environmental quality of the State. sible to all major markets on the Pacific Rim. It is equipped with 2) The need for high priority and vital movement of a skilled labor force and terminal pier facilities that rank among people and goods (Chapter 279A-9, HRS). the finest in the Pacific. It also has a growing ship repair A master plan is prepared for each commercial harbor by DOT, industry. These factors point toward continued growth of the Harbors Division, with projections to the year 2010. These State's maritime industry (ibid). have been prepared for Hilo, Kawaihae, Kaunakakai, Kahului, Kaurnalapau, lort Allen, Nawiliwili, Barbers Point Harbor and With Ile increase in cargo coming into Hawaii's commer- Honolulu Harbor. A master plan is in preparation for Kalaupapa. cial harbors, the infrastructure at several harbors is inadequate During the preparation of these plans, an ad hoc harbor to handle the added volumes. While the number of harbors is advisory committee, consisting of harbor users, meets with the adequate, existing harbors need to be enlarged. DOT is cur- district manager and Harbors Division planning staff. Overlap- rently engaged in a program of harbor facility expansion and ping plans, such as the Honolulu Waterfront Master Plan, may improvements in accordance with the 2010 master plans for be used for guidance. These master plans are updated on a various harbors. continuous basis, and meetings of the harbor advisory commit- The revitalization of the cruise ship industry has added to tee take place at least once a year. this infrastructure overload, as cruise ships must compete with Harbor Construction and Maintenance Financing cargo vessels forwharf space at several of the smaller commer- cial harbors. Repair facilities for pleasure and cruise ships also For the most part, the State finances commercial harbor con- are needed. struction, either through the Commercial Harbors Special Fund The rapidly growing local offshore longhne fishing fleet is or the General Fund. Hawaii also may float revenue bonds to in need of increased dockage and pier space. Furthermore, support commercial harbor financing. The State must pay for basic dockside amenities - such as shower and sleeping all costs of shoreside facilities at commercial harbors, including facilities for the crews of foreign tuna longline-vessels finger piers, wharfs and other necessary shoreline construction. reprovisioning in Hawaii - are not available in Honolulu Federal funds are available for dredging harbor entrance Harbor. Development of such facilities by the private sector channels, turning basins and access channels and the construc- should be encouraged by the State in accord with the Honolulu tion of protective structures. These funds are administered Waterfront Master Plan. Opportunities for Hawaii's economic through the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE). Cost-sharing growth across multiple industries - including tourism, con- for these projects is approximately one-third State and two- struction and agriculture - will be lost if the existing harbor thirds Federal. COE also maintains major navigation facilities, system does not keep pace with changing and expanding such as ship canals. Federal funds only are available for needs. harbors that can be justified by commercial usage. Potential Environawntal Impacts of Harbor Construction Harbor Construction Permitting Hawaii has only one natural harbor, Honolulu Harbor. Dredg- While commercial harbors are, for the most part, located within ing, blasting and other physical alterations are necessary for the Special Management Areas (SMAs), they are exempt from construction of any new facility. Most harbor dredging is County SMA requirements. DOT's authority over the planning, accomplished through use of cutter-head or suction dredges, construction, operation and maintenance of harbor facilities and use of silt curtains is a standard practice for dredging does not require County approval for such projects (Chapters operations. Blasting is used only as a last resort. Such activities 266-2,266-7,205A47, FIRS). Nonetheless, environmental and associated with harbor development and maintenance can social concerns are addressed through the coastal zone man- cause environmental degradation. There are short and long- agement (CZM) consistency review process. term environmental effects that must be considered in harbor construction. The siltation caused by dredging and blasting Enforcement Responsibilities may affect the water quality, flora and fauna of the nearshore State DOT exercises primary enforcement authority over use of marine environment. In some coastal areas, construction ac- tivities have been linked, albeit tenuously, to the increase in the harbor facilities and shipping operations within commercial presence of ciguatera toxins in marine organisms. harbors. The Coast Guard retains primary enforcement author- ity for commercial vessel inspection and other regulations Such alterations also may affect freshwater drainage pat- governing non-recreational vessels. terns along coastlines. Depending on siting, harbor basins may require the destruction of some anchialine pools, wetlands or MANAGEMENT ISSUES other habitats, thereby displacing species. Harbor construction may affect protected marine animals such as humpback whales Capacity of Commercial Harbors and sea turtles. Development of Hawaii's commercial harbor resources gener- Potential Environmental impacts ofHarbor Operations ally has been concentrated on landward infrastructure for Over time, harbor operations may impact the coastal and cargo receipt, storage and transportation. Modernized cargo marine environments because of increases in noise, traffic and handling techniques and facilities have been helpful in manag- pollution. Marine mammals, sea turtles and adjacent reef flora ing the ever-increasing volumes of cargo at existing harbors. and fauna may all be affected. Potential pollution problems are Adequate harbor facilities are critical to enable the increased exacerbated by inadequate solid waste, oil and sewage dis- import and export of cargo, to support currently expanding posal facilities in many harbors. industries and to develop new industries. Accidental and operational releases of oil and other 6. Work with the private sector and labor organizations hazardous substances can threaten human health and the to develop an expanded ship repair industry in Honolulu environment. Vessels calling on Hawaii's commercial harbors Harbor. carry such substances as fuel and may also carry them as cargo. DOT, in cooperation witb OSP, DBED, DB&F and the Emergency response and contingency plans and programs are Counties. sbould.. needed for all commercial harbors. 7. Acquire areas needed for expansion and develop- Areal Constraints on Development ment of harbors, and designate other areas for future Harbor expansion and new harbor development can be impeded acquisition, particularly under-utilized areas. when appropriate lands have already been developed or are in Policy B private ownership. Desii-able lands may also be desigriated for other Minimize and mitigate impacts of harbor development and uses, such as resort hotels, or classified as conservation areas and operations on ecological and cultural resources. thus ciluently unavailable for harbor development. Implementing Actions: Restrictions on Harbor Construction in Class AAWaters DOT, DOH and DUR, in cooperation witb, UH, COE, New water-quality standards established by DOH are an addi- and the Counties sbould.. tional constraint to harbor development. It is unclear if any 1. Seek to instate comprehensive and on-going water commercial harbor construction will be allowed in Class AA quality and marine life monitoring programs for all exist- waters, which include large sections of several Islands' coastal ing and proposed commercial harbors in order to assess waters and virtually all of the Kona-Kohala coastline on Hawaii the environmental impact of harbor development and (Chapter 11-54, HAR). operations. DOT in cooperation tvitb DOH, DLAW, NMFS, and COE, RECOMMENDA11ONS sbould: Objective 2. Provide funding for research on the potential envi- Develop and maintain the State's commercial harbor system in ronmental impacts of commercial harbor development, including impacts on marine mammals and sea turtles, order to meet both the needs of commercial users, and foreign and the linkage between harbor construction and and domestic commerce; and ensure that significant environ- ciguatera poisoning in the area. mental and social impacts will be mitigated. DOTsbould.. Policy A 3. Improve dissemination of research and monitoring Expand and improve the capacity of the State's commercial findings to the public so that community members can harbor system. have a greater understanding and awareness of the im- Implementing Actions: pacts of commercial harbor development on the marine DOTsbould: ecosystem. 1. Expedite the implementation of the 2010 Master Plan for each commercial harbor in cooperation with each harboes advisory committee. SEL BORT HHHORS 2. Incorporate mitigation plans for environmental and social impacts into the master plans for each commercial harbor IM RESOURCE 3. Evaluate the effectiveness of the Statewide Transpor- There are 18 small boat harbors and 50 boat launching ramps tation Planning Council in providing adequate inter- throughout the State which cater to recreational public and agency - in particular, effective County - participation small commercial ocean recreation operators (DOT 1990a). and recommend any improvements. Most of these small boat harbors are operated by the State. 4. Expand container facilities at Honolulu Harbor and On Oahu ', there are also small boat harbors operated by other commercial harbors by rebuilding piers or building private groups and the military. Private boat harbors are new piers, so they are able to accommodate in ern being proposed as part of resort developments on most cargo-handling facilities. Islands. The unprecedented growth of the commercial ocean recreation sector and the number of personal boats have 5. Encourage the private sectorto develop basic dockside significantly increased the demand for additional small boat amenities for the crews of foreign tuna long-liners during harbor facilities. re-provisioning stop-overs in Honolulu Harbor. There are four repair facilities in the State which cater to Harbor Construction and Maintenance Financing small boats. These facilities, located at Honokohau, Keehi, Small boat harbor construction and maintenance are financed, Kewalo Basin and Ala Wai, have haul-out capabilities ranging to a large extent, by the Boating Special Fund. As with commer- from 35 to 70 tons. As a whole, the direct gross revenue cial harbors, the State must pay all costs for shoreside facilities. generated by the different subsectors servicing recreational boaters in 1989 was estimated at approximately $58 million Other Federal funds that are available for boating pro- (DBED/Sea Grant Program 1990b). grams and facilities come through mechanisms put in place by the Wallops-Breaux Act. The Aquatic Resources Trust Fund established by the Wallops-Breaux Act consists of the Boating RBOURCE MANAGMM Safety Account and the Sport Fish Restoration Account. The Harbor Management Boating Safety Account receives the initial deposit of Federal marine fuel taxes as appropriated by Congress each year ($70 DOT is the lead agency for all harbor-related activities in the million for FY 199 1); the next $I million goes to the Land and State. It is responsible for management of harbor operations. Water Conservation Fund; and the balance is deposited to the Chapter 266, HRS, gives DOT jurisdiction over harbor facilities Sport Fish Restoration Account. Of the $70 million, half goes owned or controlled by the State, and ocean waters and directly to the Coast Guard to help defray expenses incurred in navigable streams. Chapter 267, HRS, covers boating matters support of boating safety efforts, and the other half is distrib- such as vessel registration, equipment requirements and navi- uted to individual states to augment their boating safety efforts. gation safety. DOT, Harbors Division, issues commercial per- The Sport Fish Restoration Account also receives all the mits for use of boat ramps and small boat harbor facilities, and revenue formerlv derived through the Dingell-Johnson Act assesses fees of 2 percent of gross revenues for their use. (including the excise taxes on fishing equipment). A minimum The Boating Special Fund finances management opera- of ten percent of each State's allocation is mandated to be used tions for small boat harbors and launching ramps. its sources of for boating access construction. DLN11R is the recipient of revenue include harbor user fees, the State marine fuel tax and Hawaii's allocation of Sport Fish Restoration funds, and DOT income from leases of boat harbor properties. Other financial applies for use of these funds through DLNR. Each project must assistance for boating safety equipment and programs is avail- be approved on a case-by-case basis by the U.S. Fish and able from the Federal government. DOT manages most boat Wildlife Service (FWS). launching ramps, and recreational boaters use these ramps free of charge. In a few cases, such as the Laupahoehoe boat ramp Harbor Construction Permitting on Hawaii, the County Parks and Recreation Department Small boat harbors that are DOT public facilities are exempt manages the ramps. Operation of boats within small boat from County SMA requirements. COE is the primary pen-nit- harbors is regulated by Chapters 19-61 to 19-66 of the Hawaii granting agency at the Federal level, and DLNR is the primary Administrative Rules. permitting authority at the State level through the Conservation Harbor Planning District Use Application (CDUA) process. COE and DLNR circulate permit applications to respective Federal and State Planning for small boat harbors is done primarily by DOT, agencies for review and comment: DOH for impacts on water Harbors Division. For the most part, it is done on a near-term quality; U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) for basis, rather than long-range. Until 1976, there was a Governor's impacts on marine mammals and fisheries; FWS for impacts on Advisory Committee on Harbors and Ramps, which was in- turtles and seabirds; and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency volved in small boat harbor planning. A Governor's Ad Hoc (EPA), if a Federal Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is Boating Task Force was established in 1981 to advise DOT on required. The State Coastal Zone Management Program is priorities for boating facility expansion and construction. The responsible for detem-iining whether proposals are consistent Task Force was disbanded in 1983 after the recommendations with the State Coastal Zone Management Act. In this way, were submitted to the Governor. These recommendations permit application reviews may proceed concurrently. have been used as the basis for small boat harbor project DOT generally supports proposals for the construction of development ever since, subject to Legislative appropriations private small boat harbors. A streamlined permit system has to implement these projects. been established through Chapter 171-60, HRS, for joint public- For private marina proposals, the permit process includes private ventures. Public land leases have been issued in the approvals from Office of State Planning (OSP), DOT and DLNR, past to private individuals or interests for the development and among others. DOT recently has prepared a planning report on operation of private marinas on State lands (DOT 1989a). recreational marinas to assist in the planning efforts (DOT 1989a). This report covers DOT, Harbors Division, policies and Enforcement Responsibilities practices, required permits, an overview of demand for marina DOT exercises primary enforcement authority for boating safety facilities, and an inventory of public and private marina facili- over non-commercial vessels (Chapters 26-19, 266-1, HRS). des. OSP has drafted a policy on marina development. State and the Coast Guard have joint enforcement responsibili- ties for all charter and tour boat operations. The State considers harbors throughout the State, docks are broken, cracked or these recreational although they are subject to commercial sinking, and cleats are broken. Solid waste, oil and sewage licensing, The Coast Guard considers them commercial be- disposal facilities need to be improved, and public education cause they provide services for hire. programs regarding their use developed. Improved tender facilities and dinghy docks also are needed on the Neighbor Islands. Because harbor user fees are low and ramp user fees MANAGEMENT ISSUES nonexistent, the maintenance budget for small boat harbors Inadequate Supply of Small Boat Harbor Facilities and ramps is relatively small in terms of total dollars spent. ve v Howe r, the budget is relative] ' big, considering its per- Existing small boat harbor slips in Hawaii only accommodate centag of the overall operating budget for the boating a small percentage of the demand for such slips. According to program. the waiting lists maintained by DOT (which officials agree under-represent actual need), existing slips meet approxi- Conflicts Among Harbor Users mately 44 percent of the need. As of March 31 @ 1990, there were The growth of the commercial recreation industry, especially approximately 2,600 recreational vessels statewide on waiting the tour boat industry, has resulted in increased shortages of lists for slips at small boat harbors (DOT 1990b). There is also harbor space. It also has brought about long lines to launch a proliferation of offshore moorings and anchorages for the both private and commercial recreational boats at popular boat estimated 2,000 or more boats that cannot get slips in harbors. launching ramps. Commercial tour boats operate out of com- Some of these moorings and anchorages are illegal. These mercial and small boat harbors alike, depending on size and statistics are evidence of an inadequate supply of slips in small location. The public has expressed concern about the use of boat harbors. small boat harbors forcommercial recreation activities, and the There were approximately 14,857 boats registered in the lack of available slips has exacerbated this issue. 0 State as of March 1990 (DOT 1990b). Of 2,075 slips existing in The construction of small boat harbors and the increase the State, 1,802 are in use (DOT 1990b). Vacant slips are empty for only a s.hort time and often are filled by transient vessels in in boat traffic from new harbors may cause conflict between the interim between long term moorages. boaters and other users of these areas, such as fishermen, 0- divers, swimmers and surfers. Harbors can also impede lateral The demand for additional harbor facilities is growing coastal public access along the shoreline, or provide increased because of an expanding commercial ocean recreation indus- access. These issues usually are addressed during the SMA try and an increased interest in boating by the general public. permit process. However, since DOT harbor construction is The inadequate supply of harbor facilities and launching ramps exempt from this County requirement, the issues are addressed has fostered competition between individual ocean recreation in other forums. users and commercial recreation operations for the limited spaces available. While dry-stack storage facilities provide a Small, Boat Harbor Funding useful alternative to permanent Slips, there is only one such Inadequate funding for harbor development is the biggest facility in the State. hurdle to development of small boat harbors in the State. In addition to increasing the number of ramps, slips and Harbor development is very costly. Estimates for construction dry-stack storage and associated facilities, the harbors' costs of building one small boat harbor slip are in the range of restrooms, showers, wash-down facilities, trash collection cans, $70,000. Since COE only covers the cost of dredging and and facilities for disposal of oil and sewage also should be breakwater construction, the remaining financial burden falls improved. The development of more small boat harbor facili- on the State. Also, Federal matching funds to develop harbor ties is needed if opportunities for growth in the ocean recre- facilities are not available for strictly recreational harbor fadi- ation industry are to be realized. ties. Other financing arrangements are needed, such as a ublic modified user-fee structure. In addition, when funds are Another difficulty which must be addressed is p available, it is often on a phased basis, so that small boat opposition to many small boat harbor developments. Plans for harbor construction is not completed in an expeditious new boat harbors at Lahaina, Heeia Kea and Hanalei were manner. defeated by opposition from the local communities. The "Not in My Back Yard' (NIMBY) syndrome also applies to plans for The State has a policy that facilitates privatization of small new launching ramps at various locations throughout the boat harbor development (Chapter 171-60, FIRS). Under this State. statute, negotiated leases of public lands are feasible. Chapter 171-59(b), FIRS, requires that the disposition of submerged Maintenance of Existing Harbor Facifities lands by negotiation be for the purposes of: 1) encouraging In some small boat harbors, facilities such as restrooms, ramps competition in maritime industries and 2) limited to a period of and waste receptacles are not well-maintained. Without proper 35 years (DOT 1989a). Legal review of each lease proposal is cleaning, ramps can become extremely slippery. In some conducted before final determination is made regarding method of disposition. Basic policy dictates that teases should be offered for public auction to avoid giving any specific party Interagency efforts to evaluate harbor proposals also are preferential consideration. DOT also is pursuing the Request not well coordinated. Such coordination is essential because of For Proposal (RFP) method for disposal of the lease of the Pier its potential to diffuse conflicts that occur during, or as a result 60 area in Keehi Lagoon for private development. This method of, harbor development. Cooperation affords improved plan- may be selected for proposed leases for private marina devel- ning and management opportunities for the involved govern- opment on State lands in the future. ment agencies and communities. Community involvement If private marina developers cannot negotiate with the may make residents more receptive to harbor development State and be assured of the rights to development, they have projects. Cooperation also enables the agencies to identify and Me incentive to spend the necessary capital to piepare the appro- address the many overlapping impacts of harbor development, priate proposals to meet the various requirements for the project. including potential conflicts with other coastal uses, such as fishing, surfing and diving. Potential Lwhwiniental Impacts of Harbor Cmwwucdm There is no clear overall State policy on private marina Hawaii has only one natural harbor, Honolulu Harbor. Dredg- development at this time, though OSP is formulating one. ing, blasting and other physical alterations are necessary for the Currently, each marina proposal is handled on an ad hoc basis, construction of any new facility. Most harbor dredging is without any guidance from a comprehensive plan. DOT has accomplished through use of cutter-head or suction dredges, emphasized the need for a general plan outlining the location, Z) development and prioritization of marinas and launching ramps and use of silt curtains is a standard practice for dredging (DOT 1989a). Public use of private ramps and slips must be operations. Blasting is used only as a last resort. Such activities Z, considered during this planning process. associated with harbor development and maintenance can cause environmental degradation. There are short and long- Areal Constraints on Development term environmental effects that must be considered in harbor construction. The siltation caused by dredging and blasting Harbor expansion and new harbor development can be im- may affect the water quality, flora and fauna of the nearshore peded when appropriate lands already have been developed marine environment. In some coastal areas, construction activi- or are in private ownership. Desirable lands also may be ties have been linked, albeit tenuously, to the increase in the designated for other uses, such as resort hotels, or classified as presence of ciguatera toxins in marine organisms. conservation areas and thus currently unavailable for harbor Such alterations may also affect freshwater drainage pat- development. terns along coastlines. Depending on their site, harbor basins While there is a push to build new harbors and expand may require the destruction of some anchialine pools, wet- existing ones, the potential for overcrowding must be consid- lands or other habitats, thereby displacing species, Harbor ered. Already, crowded conditions exist in some harbors. Due construction may affect protected marine animals, such as to Hawaii's strong winds, large open ocean swells and rough humpback whales and sea turtles. waters, areas along the leeward coasts and in more protected nearshore waters and bays traditionally have been the focus for Potential Environmental Impacts of Harbor Operations harbor development. More recently, resort areas also have Over time, harbor operations may impact the coastal and been a focus for harbor development. There is a need to marine environments because of increases in noise, traffic and consider innovative ways to develop coastal areas where little pollution. Marine mammals, sea turtles and adjacent reef flora boating occurs. and fauna may be affected. Potential pollution problems are Restrictions on Harbor Construction in Class AA Waters exacerbated by inadequate solid waste, oil and sewage dis- posal facilities in many harbors. Water-qualiry standards established by DOH are an additional Accidental and operational releases of oil and other constraint to harbor development. It is unclear if any small boat hazardous substances can threaten human health and the harbor construction will be allowed in Class AA waters, which environment. Many fuel docks in small boat harbors do not include large sections of several Islands' coastal waters and have adequate equipment for spill prevention and dinn-up. virtually all of the Kona-Kohala coastline on Hawaii (Chapter 11-54, HAR). Coordinated Planning for Harbor Development Since the Governor's Advisory Committee on Harbors and RECOMMENDAMNS Ramps is no longer in existence and the Statewide Transporta- tion Planning Council is not responsible for small boat harbor Objective planning, there is no State interagency planning body focusing Develop and maintain the State's small boat harbor system in on small boat harbor issues. In addition, there is no comprehen- order to meet the needs of recreational and small commercial sive plan for public and private small boat harbor development in vessel users in ways that ensure significant environmental and Hawaii. Consequently, statewide planning for expansion and social impacts will be mitigated and local carrying capacities development of small boat harbors is poorly coordinated. will not be exceeded. Policy A 10. Provide more launching ramps and parking areas for Expand the State's small boat harborsystem, including launch- commercial recreational boat users within the metropoh- ing ramps, taking into account analyses ofthe areas'carrying Ean Honolulu area. capacities and the economic efficiency of proposed harbors. 11. Work with the private sector to expand facilities for Implementing Actions: ocean yacht racing. DOTsbould- Policy B 1. Request that the Governor revive the Governor's Minimize the conflicts between harbor development and other Advisory Committee on Harbors and Ramps and charge ocean and coastal activities. them with providing recommendations for a statewide Implementing Action: master plan for small boat harbors and private marinas. DOTsbould.. Membership on this committee should be limited to those with direct interest in the boating industry and commu- Increase the use of existing harbor advisory panels and nity. establish such panels in harbors where they do not 2. Based on recommendations of the Govemor'sAdvi- currently exist. (These panels are in addition to the sory Committee on Harbors and Ramps, prepare a state- Governor's Advisory Committee on Harbors and Ramps wide comprehensive plan for recreational public boat [see Policy A, Action 11.) harbors, and private resort-based marinas. This plan Policy C should include: assessment of the requirements of private Facilitate public-private partnerships and other alternative recreational boaters and the commercial recreation in- means for financing harbor development. dustry; comparison of benefits between clustering and dispersing marinas along coastlines; statewide survey of Implementing Actions: possible sites on public shorelines and private property, DOTsbould- and identification of possible locations for harbors of refuge. 1. Develop provisions for government incentives to 3. As part of this planning process, encourage work- induce private-sector investment in: marina irifrastruc- ture developmem shore-based small boat storage facili- shops with the local user communities and studies of the ties; and shoreline parks and park facilities. area's environmental and social characteristics, including carrying capacities of the surrounding areas. 2. Expedite development of the boat slips and offshore 4. Formulate a comprehensive State policy regarding mooring areas currently proposed and critically needed. development of private marinas. [OSP is currently devel- DOT, in cooperation witb OSP, DBED@ andDB&F, sbould: oping such a policy and this should be done in coopera- 3. Formulate strategies to finance facilities that support tion with DOT, DBED, Counties and the Governor's economically valuable ocean-related or harbor industries Advisory Committee, on Harbors and Ramps.] (e.g., ship repair and construction, and small boat indus- 5. Consider public need through the allocation of a tries). Possible funding sources include the Federal certain number of slips to the public, or allow public use government, the State General Fund, and the private of the launch ramps and parking within or near private sector. resort marinas. Policy D 6. Consider increasing the maintenance budget for small Minirnize and m@itigate impacts of harbor development and boat harbors, and consider financing this through an operations on ecological and cultural resources. increase in user fees. 7. Establish an equitable user fee structure for all users Implementing Actions: of public small boat facilities. This may include charging DOT, DOH andDLNR, in cooperation witb UH, COE, the fees to all users, including those using the launching Counties, andp?lvate ma?lna developm, sbould: ramps. The money from these users would continue to go 1. Seek to instate comprehensive and on-going water directly to small boat harbor improvements. quality and marine life monitoring programs for all exist- 8. Organize harbor user groups to clean up harbor ing and proposed small boat harbors in order to assess the facilities on a periodic basis. This would include boaters environmental impact of such harbor development and and private operators of harbor concessions. operations. 9. Promote the development of more launching ramps DOT, in cooperation udtb DOH, DUR WS, and COE, and dry-stack storage units with public funds and in sbould.. partnership with private companies. 2. Provide funding for research on the potential envi- ronmental impacts of small boat harbor development, State of Hawaii, Department of Transportation, Harbors Divi- including impacts on marine mammals and sea turtles, sion. 1989b. Report of Undocumented Vessel Registration. and the linkage between harbor construction and Honolulu. ciguatera poisoning in the area. DOTsbould.- State of Hawaii, Department of Transportation, Harbors Divi- sion. 1990a. Statistics provided by Paul Dolan, July 1990. 3. Clarify with DOH the specific requirements for con- Honolulu. structing marinas in Class AA waters. State of Hawaii, Department of Transportation, Harbors Divi- 4. Improve dissemination of research and monitoring findings to the public so that communitv members can sion. 1990b. Small Craft Mooring Facilities Utilization Report Quarter Ending: Marcb 31, 1990. Honolulu. have a greater understanding and awareness of impacts of small boat harbor development on the manne ecosystem U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. 1987. Ports of Hawaii, Port 5. Require that all private and public small boat harbors Series #50. Washington, D.C. have facilities for disposal of sewage and oil, and that small boat harbors and launching ramps have receptacles U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. 1988. WaterBorneCommerceof for solid waste disposal, including separate receptacles the United States. Part 4; Pacific Coast, Alaska, and Hawaii. for recyclable materials. Educational materials should be Washington, D.C. developed and disseminated. [See Waste Management section.] 6. Establish a comprehensive education program to make boaters aware of the importance of using disposal facilities for sewage and oil, and of bringing solid waste including plastics - back to shore for proper disposal. REFERENCES: MacDonald, C.D. and H.E. Deese. 1989. A Comprehensive Analysis and Overview of Hawaii's Ocean Industries. Coastal Zone '89 Proceedings. Vol. IV. pp. 3481-3493. New York: American Society of Engineers. State of Hawaii, Department of Business and Economic Devel- pment, Ocean Resources Branch. 1989. A Rising Tide of Investment Opponundies HawausOmanlndustw Honolulu. 0 State of Hawaii, Department of Business, Economic Develop- ment & Tourism, and University of Hawaii, Sea Grant Program. 1990a. Foreign Flag Fisbing Vessel EVeriditures in the Port of Honolulu, 1986-1988. Draft. By L.L. Hudgins and R.T.B Iversen. Honolulu. State of Hawaii, Department of Business, Economic Develop- ment & Tourism, and University of Hawaii., Sea Grant Program. 1990b. Pmonal Recreational Boating Industry in Hawaii., Pbysical Cbaracteristics and Economic Contribution, Draft. By P. L. Lal and A. M. Clark. Honolulu. State of Hawaii, Department of Transportation, Harbors Divi- sion. 1986. 201 OMasterPlanforHonolulu Harbor. Honolulu. State of Hawaii, Department of Transportation, Harbors Divi- sion. 1989a. Statewide PlanningforMarina Facilities. Hono- lulu. Michael P. Hamnett Center for Development Studies Social Science Research institute, University of Hawaii 2424 Maile Way Honolulu, in 96822 FISHERIES 111E RESOURCE PAGE Hawaii has a wide range of fisheries resources that are ex- TIE RESOURCE 38 ploited for subsistence, recreational, and cornmercial pur- poses. These include reef and nearshore species, bottom fish, RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 39 lobsters and other crustaceans, and pelagic fish including Regulation and Enforcement 39 several species oftuna. There are two principal fishing regimes FederalAutbority 39 in the State: 1) inshore and nearshore fisheries and 2) offshore State Autbority 40 fisheries. The two regimes have markedly different resource Monitoring and Research 40 characteristics, levels ofabundance and potential for increased Federal Support 40 exploitation. State Support 40 Hawah's inshore and nearshore fisheries resources are infrastructure Development 40 very limited compared to offshore resources. They include a Federal Programs 40 wide variety of marine organisms that are exploited largely for State Programs 41 subsistence and recreational use in the main Hawaiian Islands. Trade and investment Promotion 41 Although there are very limited data on these resources, it is Federal Support 41 widely recognized that inshore resources in the main Hawaiian State Support 41 Islands have been in decline for many years (NMFS 1987, Lee 1990). MANAGEMENT ISSUES 41 Inshore resources are harvested using nets, spears, and Resource Sustainability 41 pole-and-line. However, data on the number of individuals User Conflicts 43 using thesefishing methods, the amount of effort they expend lack of Resources for Fisheries Development 43 and the amount of fish caught are not available for the State as Native Hawaiian Rights 43 a whole. Nevertheless, it is widely recognized that the number ineffective Management of people participating in the inshore and neai-shore fisheries and Interagency Coordination 44 is very large compared to the offshore fisherim One estimate Lack ofEnforcement ofExisting indicates that in 1980, recreational shore fishermen made 1.4 Regulations 44 million fishing "trips," roughly twice the number of 'trips" inadequate Statisticsfor Fisberies made by private boats and charter vessels (NMFS 1990a). Management 44 While the total extent of Hawaii's offshore fisheries re- Lack ofa Consolidated Regime and sources is difficult to assess, annual sustainable yields offish in Consistent Goals 44 Hawaii's waters could be as high as 43 mflhon pounds per year, Lack ofAdequate Marme Safety a substantial resource for the State (PBDC 1983). Reliable data Requirements 44 on the current level of fishing are not available. However, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) estimates that ap- RECOMMENDATIONS 44 proximately 20 million pounds of locally caught fish were Objective 44 marketed in Hawaii in 1988 and valued at $42 million. There Policies and implementing Actions 45 were approximately 1,896 registered fishing vessels in Hawaii; 1, 156 are State-registered and the balance are Federally docu- mented vessels. It is estimated that 525 ofthe 1,896 total are full- time commercial vessels. The latter includes boats used by a Six beds of precious corals have been identified in the percentage of the 2,770 registered fishermen who fish on a Hawaiian Islands: one off Makapuu Point, one off Kaena Point, part-time basis (Bourke and Markrich 1990). In addition, an one off Keahole Point, and three in the NWHI. The Makapuu estimated 1,156 of the 14,250 "non-documented" vessels were bed is the only one of the six that has been studied systemati- used for commercial fishing in Hawaii as of January 1, 1989 cally. During a six-year period in the 1970s, approximately (Bourke and Markrich 1990) - 17,500 kilograms or almost 8,000 pounds of pink, gold or Hawaii's commercial fleet has experienced considerable bamboo coral were harvested (WESTPAC 1990h). It is esti- growth in the past two years. The major component of that mated that this was about 40 percent (by weight) of the growth is the longline fleet, which increased from about 50 standing stock (WESTPAC 1990h; 1990i). Between 1983 and vessels at the end of 1988 to about 100 during the second 1987, divers reported harvesting 11,000 pounds of black coral, quarter of 1990. Catch statistics indicate that landings of pelagic although this is probably much less than the amount actually fish (tuna, billfish, mahimabi and ono) increased from an taken (WESTPAC 1989b). Moreover, there also have been estimated 12.8 million pounds in 1987, to 16.3 million pounds allegations of poaching of precious corals by foreign fishing in 1989 (NMFS 1990b). The major landings in 1989 included vessels in the NWHI. 10.5 million pounds of tuna, 5.4 million pounds of bilifish, The State's recreational fisheries have an estimated intrin- mabimabi, ono, and other species, and 275,000 pounds of sic value of over $200 million (NMFS 1990a). Approximately, other pelagics (NMFS 1990b). The most dramatic increase in 2,627 people were employed in commercial fishing in 1988 catch since 1988 has been in swordfish. Swordfish landings (Shannon 1990). Although no recent statistics are available on have increased from 50,000 pounds in 1988 to over 2.5 million revenues and employment in seafood marketing associated pounds during the first five months of 1990 (WESTPAC 1990e). with commercial fishing, retail sales of fish (locally caught and The Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council imported) in the State totaled approximately $116 million in estimates that without some limit on the number of boats 1986 over and above the ex-vessel value of the fish. Inaddition, entering the Fishery, the longline fleet could grow to as many seafood marketing employed approximately 2,100 people as 150 vessels in the near future (WESTPAC 1990j). (MacDonald and Deese 1989). Seafood sales are expected to In 1988, an estimated 2.28 million pounds of bottomfish reach $176 million in 1990 and provide employment of about worth $6 million were landed (WESTPAC 1989h). The majority 2,700 people (ibid). Revenues in charter boat fishing and of the 1988 catch of 1.7 million pounds was in the main international fishing tournaments alone total an estimated $ 10 Hawaiian Islands where NMFS estimates a maximum sustain- Million to $12 million (ibid). able yield of only 627,000 pounds (WESTPAC 1989b). The latest information available indicates 1,050 vessels sold a por- RESOURCE MANAGEMENT don of their bottomfish catch in 1989: the main Hawaiian Islands fleet harvested approximately 1.2 n-dllion pounds of Regulation and Enfoircement bottomfish valued at almost $3.9 million in 1989. A total of 10 Hawaii's fisheries are managed by both the Federal govern- boats participated in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) bottom fishery in the same year. Landings totaled 303,000 ment and the State of Hawaii. Fisheries within State waters of pounds and yielded an ex-vessel revenue of about $756,000 the main Hawaiian Islands are managed by the State Depart- (WESTPAC 1990g). ment of Land and Natural Resources (DLNR) through its Divi- sion of Aquatic Resources (DAR). Enforcement of State fishing The size of Hawah's lobster fleet has varied considerably regulations is provided by the Division of Conservation and since 1980. As many as 16 and as few as three vessels have Resources Enforcement (DOCARE) with 72 officers (1989). participated in the NWHI's lobster fishery. In 1989, a total of 1.2 Fisheries resources surrounding the NWHI are managed by million pounds of spiny lobster and 184,000 pounds of slipper DAR and the Federal government through NMFS and the lobster were caught by 11 vessels. The combined value of Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council the NWHI lobster catch in 1989 was $6.3 million (NMFS (WESTPAQ. A State Commercial Marine license with a North- 1990c). western Hawaiian Islands Taking Permit is required to take, The number of vessels harvesting deep sea shrimp also catch, possess, sell or offer for sale certain marine life or use has fluctuated in the last decade. Currently, one vessel is certain gear in the NWHI. Enforcement of Federal fisheries actively fishing for ono shrimp on a full-time basis. Catch regulations as well as the Marine Mammal Protection Act and statistics are not available from that boat. However, industry the Endangered Species Act arie the responsibility of NMFS, the sources indicate that several thousands of pounds of shrimp U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), and U.S. Coast Guard. have been harvested in single trips of a month or so. There are Federal Autbority several smaller boats landing both ono and spotted shrimp. Federal regulation and management of fisheries in Hawaii are The estimated landings for these boats in 1987 include 10,000 conducted under the authority of several Federal statutes. The pounds of shrimp worth $42,000 and 800 pounds of spotted Magnuson Fisheries Conservation and Management Act (FCMA) shrimp valued at $2,000 (WESTPAC 1989b). charges WESTPAC, and seven other regional councils around the country, with the responsibility of developing fisheries People also may apply for permits to take, possess or sell management plans. WESTPAC and NMFS are required, under certain species of oyster and clam as well as top shell, abalone, Federal statute, to develop management plans and regulate or quahog. Freshwater game fish licenses are required by the fishing within the 200-nautical mile Exclusive Economic Zone State for recreational fishing in lakes, streams and rivers, Pemiz also (EEZ) surrounding the U.S. islands in the Pacific. Enforcement are required for use of small mesh nets and traps to stock home of Federal fisheries regulations is provided by NMFS' South- aquariums with marine tropical fish ftom Hawaiian waters. west Enforcement Office and the Coast Guard. There are four management plans for the WESTPAC Monitoring and Ressearch region, which includes Hawaii, American Samoa, Common- Federal Support wealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and Guam. WESTPAC NNMFS has compiled and analyzed fisheries statistics of the has developed regional plans for lobster, bottomflish, pelagic western Pacific, including Hawaii, on an annual basis. These species (except for tuna), and precious corals. Lobster fishing statistics are based on the commercial fisheries catch data regulations require permits and catch, fish processing, and gathered by DAR. In addition, NMFS and DAR gather whole- sales reports. They also restrict catch area, minimum size, daily sale marketing statistics which are used in part to monitor catch, trips, processing, sales and gear. Federal regulations for fishing activity in the State. NMFS has also gathered vessel cost bottomfish limit entry into certain areas of the NWHI and data on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands lobster and prohibit the use of trawl nets, bottom gill nets, explosives and bottomfish fisheries for economic analysis. NMFS provides poisons. The limited access program was instituted by WESTPAC reports on its studies to WESTPAC to meet its responsibility for for the NWHI bottom fishery in 1989 because there was review of fisheries it manages. evidence of over fishing (WESTPAC 1990g). Commercial catch of bottomfish in Federal waters also must be reported to the WESTPAC, as part of its regional fisheries management State. Federal regulations governing pelagic species place responsibility, commissions studies to facilitate the develop- geographic restrictions on foreign fishing in Hawaii, prohibit ment of fisheries management plans (FMPs), Studies also are the use of drift gill -nets, require permits and fishing logs for commissioned by WESTPAC, Re those conducted by NMFS, longlining, and reporting of incidental catches of turtles and to assess the status of fisheries resources for which the Council marine mammals. has developed plans. WESTPAC's annual reports are compiled State Autbority with reference to the FMPs for pelagic species, precious corals, bottomfish and lobster, and contain regional resource assess- State fisheries are regulated through both statutes and adrr:iin- ments for each FMP. istrative rules. State regulations impose minimum size, gear State Support type, bag limits, and/or fishing season restrictions on over 2 species of reef, lagoon, and bottonifish species as well as DAR gathers and compiles catch statistics for commercial octopus (tako), limpet (qpibi), and several varieties of crabs Fishing in the State. Commercial fishermen are required by and lobsters. These regulations prohibit the taking of live stony State law to report their catch to DAR. A standard Fish Catch corals, clams, oysters, and other shellfish, sea turtles, and monk Report, which includes information on the area fished, type of seals, and restrict fishing in 23 harbors and designated marine gear used, as well as species, number, weight, and sales of fish life conservation districts. The State prohibits the use of drift gill caugh@ is used to report catch Other fornis are used for specific nets, and fishing with explosives, electro-fishing devices, poi- fisheries, including tuna pole-and line fishery and longline fishery sons, intoxicants and chemicals (DLNR/DAR 1990). The State DAR, in cooperation with the NMFS, FWS and the Univer- also prohibits the possession of drift gill nets on boats calling sity of Hawaii Sea Grant College Program, has funded the at ports in Hawaii. Hawaii Cooperative Fisheries Research Unit, Oceanic Institute, State regulations require licenses for commercial fishing. Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, and other agencies to A total of 2,770 commercial fishing licenses was issued in 1989. conduct specific studies to address resource management Fishermen with commercial licenses are required to file monthly problems. In 1988, a five-year Main Hawaiian Islands Marine catch reports. Neither licenses nor catch reports are required Resources Investigation (MHI-MRI) was initiated involving for saltwater recreational fishing. Reporting requirements are most of these agencies and organizations. The purpose of the monitored by DAR. Marine safety regulation and enforcement study was to address increasing concerns over Hawaii's is vested with the Hawaii State Department of Transportation nearshore fisheries resources, the habitat and envirom-nent, (DOT) and the Coast Guard. and competing nearshore activities (DLNR/DAR 1989a; DLNR Hawaii requires a Special Marine Animal or Product 1989). Possession and Sale License for the commercial sale or serving InErastimcam Development of lobsters, Kona crabs, moi, and mullet during their respective closed season periods. A Scientific Collecting Permit is re- Federal Pftgrams quired to take, possess or sell certain species of aquatic life There are several Federal and Federally funded fisheries devel- using certain kinds of restricted gear or in restricted areas. opment programs that serve the State (Shannon 1990). The National Industrial Recovery Act, known as the Saltonstall- the principal agency responsible for ocean industry develop- Kennedy (SK) program, provides funding for fisheries devel- ment in Hawaii. ORB is involved in the promotion of invest- opment projects. The majority of SK funding has been chan- ment in commercial fisheries development. ORB runs the neled through the Pacific Fisheries Development Foundation, State's seafood marketing program to promote the develop- which supports fisheries development projects in Hawaii and ment of under-utilized fisheries resources and encourages the otherAmerican Flag Pacific Islands as well as the Federated substitution for high-demand species. ORB also conducts eco- States of Micronesia, Republic of the Marshall Islands, and noiriic assessments of fishery-related activities such as fishing Palau. However, the amount of SK funding available has tournaments, personal boating and provisioning by foreign declined significantly in recent years. In addition, the Commer- fishing fleets. It also promotes marine tourism development in cial Fisheries Research and Development Act and the Federal Hawaii. The Financial Services Branch of DBED administers a Aid in Sport Fish Restoration Act (Dingell-Johnson Act) provide large fishing vessel and a small fishing vessel loan program to Federal funding for fisheries management and projects. support the purchase, renovation, maintenance and repair of Coordination of local and regional efforts aimed at fisher- vessels. Currently, fishing boat loan funds are being used ies development and management is facilitated through the primarilyto purchase new longline gearand forvessel maintenance. Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee (MAFAQ. Changes in Federal legislation and regulations, as well as efforts aimed at MANAGEMENT ISSUES fisheries management and development, are facilitated though MAFAC, which has a representative from the Western Pacific Management issues associated with the fisheries sector in region. Hawaii fall into five major categories: 1) resource sustainability, State Programs 2) user conflict, 3) lack of financial resources for fisheries development; 4) Native Hawaiian rights; and 5) ineffective DOT's Harbors Division is involved in fisheries infrastructure management and inter-agency coordination. development through harbor development, management and maintenance in support of Hawaii's commercial and recre- Resource Sustainabflity ational fisheries. Harbors Division has responsibility for ten major commercial harbors and numerous small boat harbors Some of Hawaii's fisheries resources have declined in abun- dance, apparently as a result of over-exploitation and environ- and boat launching ramps. There were 18 small boat harbors menta .I degradation. The number of people who participate in and 50 boat launching ramps at the end of 1989 (see Harbors recreational and commercial fisheries in the State has increased Technical Paper). with the growth of the State's population (DLNR/DAR 1988a). DAR supports recreational fisheries through the deploy- The impact of increased exploitation has been particularly ment and maintenance of fish aggregation devices (FADs). As devastating for inshore and nearshore fisheries resources (Lee ofJune 1990, the FAD system consisted of 55 surface FADs and 1990). Although there are no comprehensive data on nearshore 22 mid-water FADs in waters surrounding the main Hawaiian fisheries for the State as a whole, most fishermen and scientists Islands (DLNR/DAR 1990). The statewide FAD system resulted agree that the inshore areas around the main Hawaiian Islands in catches totaling 904,667 pounds in 1989 (Shannon 1990). have been seriously "over-fished." Some would argue that environmental pollution has contributed to the decline of in- Trade and investment Promotion and nearshore fisheries resources. However, the recovery of Federal Support reef fisheries in marine life conservation districts that have been closed to fishing indicates that restricting fishing can In the past, the Pacific Basin Development Council (PBDC), an greatly help to restore depleted resources (Lee 1990; NMFS economic development organization made up of the Gover- 1987). nors of American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas, Guam and Hawaii, has assisted the American Flag Corals in specific locations around the main Hawaiian Pacific Islands (AFPI) with fisheries infrastructure planning. Islands have suffered considerably from habitat degradation Currently, PBDC is assisting AFPI in assessing trude policies (United Nations Environmental Programme 1988). Channel that may inhibit trade and investment in fisheries and other blasting, siltation and other forms of pollution have resulted in sectors. declines of coral populations on reefs in Waikiki, Honolulu Harbor, parts of Lanai and Molokai, and other locations in the The International Trade Administration (ITA) of the U.S. State (ibid). Coral populations in Kaneohe Bay also suffered Department of Commerce supports the export of products, decline from pollution but are recovering after new pollution including seafood, from the United States. The ITA and NMFS controls and management measures were instituted. Illegal provide market information to assist the development of fish- harvesting of reef corals for souvenirs and use in aquariums eries exports in the State. probably has had an impact on coral populations in certain State Support areas. And, the use of anchors by fishing and pleasure boats has The Ocean Resources Branch (ORB) of the State Department of damaged coral reefs in certain areas. Declines in cor-al popula- Business and Economic Development and Tourism (DBED) is tions resulting from pollution and these other activities prob- ably have had an impact on reef fish populations that depend undermines the economic self-regulation characteristic of the directly or indirectly on coral for food and shelter. commercial bottom fishery of the NWHI. Precious corals, including pink, gold or bamboo coral, Several of Hawaii's pelagic resources are far more abun- have been found in deep water in several locations throughout dant and under-exploited than other fisheries. However, there the Hawaiian archipelago. Precious corals have been subject to are no credible estimates of the sustainable yields of pelagic poaching by foreign vessels within the 200-naudcal mile EEZ of species within Hawaii's waters. There are indications that, from the NWHI. The only regular commercial exploitation of pre- a Pacific-wide perspective, blue and striped marlin have shown cious coral run by a domestic operator lasted for six years a general decline in number and size. There are also indications during the 1970s. However, high operating costs and foreign that swordfish, sailfish and shortbill spearfish stocks could competition resulted in the ten-nination of this operation. sustain some increased effort. However, there are not sufficient Research indicates that despite the slow growth of precious data available to determine that any pelagic stocks are in corals, limited commercial exploitation could be sustained if it decline. were economically feasible (WESTPAC 1990i). Some commercial catch statistics are available for Hawaii. There are no systematic studies of the status of black coral The longline fleet harvested an estimated 1. 2 million pounds of populations in Hawaiian waters. Black coral harvested be- marlin, other billfish, mahimabi, ono, swordfish, spearfish and tween 1983 and 1987 was in excess of 11,000 pounds. More- sailfish in 1987. Longline catches of these species increased to over, there are reports of divers taking small colonies for sale almost 4 nifflion pounds in 1989. Trolling and handline boats to curio dealers and interior decorators (WESTPAC 1989b). caught about 5.3 million pounds in 1987 and only about 3.4 There are no regulations restricting harvests of black corals. million pounds in 1989 (WESTPAC 1990j; 19900. However, According to State officials, black coral populations are cur- data on changes in fishing effort over this time period are rently not over-exploited. However, there are some people unavailable. who think black corals are being over-exploited. As indicated, Hawaii's swordfish fishery has experienced Lobster and bottomfish fisheries are particularly suscep- a tremendous increase in landings since 1988. In 1988, sword- tible to over-exploitation because of their limited habitats in fish landings totaled 50,000 pounds. In 1989, an estimated Hawaii. Commercial exploitation of both fisheries can lead to 500,000 pounds of swordfish were harvested by 10 vessels. In significant declines in catches, and, if not properly managed, the first half of 1990, about 40 boats were targeting swordfish, can cripple them (WESTPAC 1988). Because both are exploited and landings were five times those reported in 1989. There is commercially in the NWHI at considerable distance from as yet no indication that this increase is having a negative centers of population, they are to some degree self-regulating. impact on the stocks. However, there is considerable concern When catch-per-unit-of-effort drops below a certain point, about continued expansion of this fishery in the absence of any fishermen find it no longer profitable to participate in these management controls (WESTPAC 1990d; 1990e). fisheries because of high operating costs. However, this "eco- There are significantly fewer data available on tuna than nomic" regulation of the lobster and botton-Sish fisheries does other pelagic species because there has been no statutory or not maximize the value of the resources and causes hardship regulatory requirements for reporting catch aside from Hawaii to individual fishermen. A limited-entiy program is in effect to State commercial fishing reports. Data available on skipjack address this problem for bottornfish for a portion of the NWHI (aku) catches from these reports indicate that in 1971 , approxi- An assessment is being conducted by WESTPAC to determine mately 16 million pounds were harvested. In 1988, aku catches the need to limit effort in the NWHI lobster fishery (WESTPAC totaled only 4 million pounds. The decline in catch appears to 1990b). In 1989, the NWHI lobster fishery experienced a be a result of economic and market factors, as well as the significant increase in fishing effort, and the catch-per-unit-o - closing of the tuna cannery, rather than over-exploitation. effort declined (NMFS 1990c). Therefore, there may be scope for the expansion of the aku There is concern that the maximum sustainable yield fishery. The same may be true for surface yellowfin stocks and (MSY) for bottomfish species in the main Hawaiian Islands is for the distant albacore stocks fished by Hawaii-based vessels. seriously being exceeded. As indicated, NMFS estimates that Statistics on commercial landings of tuna show an in- the MSY for bottomfish in the main Hawaiian Islands is ap- crease in the catch by Hawaii's longline fleet of from 2.7 million proximately 627,000 pounds per year. The 1988 catch was pounds in 1987, to almost 5.9 million pounds in 1989. The reportedly 1.7 million pounds, more than 2.5 times the MSY. majority of this increase was in yellowfin and big-eye. The Moreover, much of the opakapaka, onaga, ebuand white ulua trolling and longline fleet tuna catch declined from an esti- catch was composed of juveniles, and there is concern that mated 3.1 million pounds in 1987, to about 1.6 million pounds overfishing may have had an impact on spawning stocks (WESTPAC 1989b). Unlike the fishery in the NWHI, bottomfish how fishing effort was distributed among the various fleets in 1989 (WESTPAC 1990j). Again, there are no data to indicate stocks in the main Hawaiian Islands are being exploited by over this period, and it is not possible to cletennine that there both commercial and recreational fishermen. The close prox- is any relationship between increases in longline catches and imity of this fishery to the main population centers in the State, decreases in catches by other fleets. combined with the involvement of recreational fishermen, Some fishermen claim that catches of larger yellowfin and boating slips. Moreover, commercial fishing boats are not the big-eye tuna as well as other sport fish have declined as a result major focus of the State s harbor development efforts. While of increased, exploitation by longline boats. However, there there are plans to expand harbor facilities in Honolulu and has been no systematic study of catch rates for these species, other parts of the State, it appears that this expansion will not and size reduction usually occurs as stocks are fished down to meet the needs of Hawaii's commercial fishing fleet and sea- the maximum sustainable yield. food marketing businesses. Without additional pier and dock- ing facilities for commercial fishing boats and provisions for User Confficts shoreside marketing and processing facilities, opportunities for maximizing the value of Hawaii's fisheries resources will be User conflicts have plagued fisheries development and man- severely hampered. agement in Hawaii just as they have in other parts of the world. In Hawaii, user conflicts include: conflicts between longline There are currently 2,600 recreational boats on waiting boats using near-surface gear and small trolling boats in lists for small boat harbor slips in the State (see Harbors nearshore areas and around FADS; perceived competition Technical Paper). At least some are part-time commercial or between commercial fishermen and sport fishermen for recreational fishing boats, and the lack of adequate infrastruc- pelagic stocks; conflicts between fishermen using spears, ture for them will inhibit the growth of both recreational fishing hook and line, and nets to exploit reef and nearshore spe- and part-time commercial fishing. cies; and conflicts between fishermen and other ocean The growth of recreational and commercial fishing as recreation users including surfers, swimmers, divers and well as other boating activity has resulted in a shortage of pleasure boaters. docking facilities as well as boat ramps, refueling docks and The most volatile conflict among fishermen in recent other boating infrastructure. While the demand for support years involved newly arrived longhe fishermen unfamiliar services and dockside amenities continues lo grow, the supply with local fishing conditions and customs. The recent arrivals is diminishing, and boats must wait longer and longer to use were accustomed to using near-surface set longlines. Use of facilities (see Harbors Technical Paper; DBED/Sea Grant Pro- this gear in nearshore areas and around FADs resulted in gram 1990). considerable unrest among operators of small trolling boats. Financial support is inadequate to stimulate the enhance- No Federal or State law provides a mechanism to resolve such ment of the State's commercial fishing industry to maximize the conflicts, but a gentleman's agreement was made with the value to fisheries resources. Moreover, insufficient support to newly arrived longline fishermen. Nevertheless, sports fisher- promote the marketing of Hawaii's commercial catch is result- men and participants in the traditional small boat commercial ing in less than optimal prices for more abundant stocks. An fishery feel that longline boats should be prohibited from expansion of the demand for under-exploited species of fish fishing within 75 miles of shore and that the expanded longline could make commercial fishing more profitable and minimize fleet has resulted in a decline in catches. the fluctuations in ex-vessel prices. Greater effort aimed at Although much less publicized, there are conflicts among encouraging commercial fishermen to target under-exploited fishermen using spears, hooks and lines, and nets in nearshore species and at discouraging increased harvests of over-ex- areas. Such conflicts are due to the inherent incompatibility of ploited stocks could reduce threats to the sustainability of the fishing gear used and the perception that certain types of Hawaii's fisheries resources. gear contribute more to over-exploitation than other types. Similar conflicts exist between fishermen and other ocean Native Hawaiian R4hts recreation users, including surfers, swimmers, pleasure boat- There is considerable archaeological, historical and ethno- ers and divers. Some of these conflicts result from the "con- graphic evidence that Native Hawaiian fishermen have been sumptive" nature of fishing as opposed to the "non-consump- dependent on the fishery resources in Hawaii for several tive" nature of snorkeling and scuba diving. centuries (WESTPAC 1989b). There is also evidence that tradi- One final user-conflict issue is the potential negative tional management methods, including a system of area clo- impact of commercial and recreational fishing on protected sures, were used effectively by Hawaiian people before Euro- and endangered species. There have been allegations of fish- pean contact. While traditional management methods are no ermen attacking monk seal, in the NWHL There is also some longer practiced and traditional fishing rights are not widely concern that monk seats may be caught on longline hooks and recognized, traditional Hawaiian rights of access may conflict that marine mammals and sea birds may get tangled in dis- with State and Federal regulations in the future. carded nets and other fishing gear. The pattern of long and continuous use of certain fishery lack of Resources for Fisheries Development resources and the recognition of special rights for Native Americans under Federal law may give Hawaiians special The development of harbors in Hawaii has not kept pace with rights of access to certain fisheries. These fisheries may include the growth of commercial shipping and fishing, nor the de- those that are restricted by the State and/or the Federal govern- mand for commercial boat launching ramps and recreational ment and those in need of further regulation. Conflicts between traditional Hawaiian access rights and Until 1990, the Fisheries Conservation and Management State and Federal regulations have not posed serious problems Act (FCMA) did not give the State or Federal government in Hawaii to date. However, as the need for ftirther regulation authority to manage or regulate tuna. Yet, commercial fisher- increases and if area closures become a more widespread men who market their fish in Hawaii are required to report tuna management method, conflicts may occur. catches. Neither WESTPAC nor the State can require catch reports from foreign fishermen or from boats marketing their ineffective management and interagency Coordination catch outside the state. Since Congress has removed the tuna exclusion clause in FCMA, this problem may be resolved to Lack of Enforcement of E=sting Regulations some degree. The decline in Hawaii's nearshore fisheries resources is attrib- Lack of a Consolidated Regime and Consistent Goals uted in part to the inadequacy of enforcement of existing fisheries regulations (DLNR/DAR 1988a; DLNR 1988b). Some DOCARE has the responsibility for the enforcement of existing members of the fishing cornmunity, as well as staff profession- fisheries regulations. DOT's Harbors Division has responsibil- als involved in fisheries research and management, have indi- ity for the enforcement of State boating regulations. Neither cated that Hawaii has more than enough fisheries regulations. Department has adequate resources to fulfill its statutory en- Others have indicated that existing fisheries regulations, par- forcement responsibilities. ticularly those governing nearshore and inshore fisheries, are Part of DBED's mission is to attract investment in Hawaii's overly complicated and unenforceable. It appears that the lack fishing industry. To that end, DBED is actively encouraging of eflective enforcement capacity is due in part to the tremen- investment in fishing and related industries. DLNR is attempt- dous amount of shoreline to patrol; the inability of DOCARE to ing to increase its effectiveness in fisheries management and in recruit and maintain qualified staff; and assignment of wildlife handling user conflicts in the fisheries sector. Greater coordi- enforcement and other responsibilities to DOCARE officers. nation of the investment promotion efforts of DBED and the Neither the State nor Federal government have adequate resource management efforts of DLNR will be needed if effec- resources to enforce regulations governing Hawaii's offshore tive fisheries management is to be achieved. fisheries resources. Again, a lack of personnel and infrastruc- Regional coordination between Federal and State fisher- ture hamper DLNR's ability to adequately enforce existing ies management activities are facilitated through the Hawaii regulations. NMFS and the Coast Guard are charged with the Fishery Coordinating Council and WESTPAC on which Hawaii surveillance and enforcement of fisheries regulations within is represented. Cooperation between WESTPAC, NMFS and Hawaii's 200-nautical mile Exclusive Economic Zone. Declin- DAR has increased significantly in recent years. However, ing financial and personnel resources available to the Coast Guard have resulted in cutbacks in air and surface enforcement increased cooperation among these three agencies and with missions Moreover, the Coast Guard has been given increased other marine research organizations could result in an im- responsibility for drug enforcement and hazardous materials and oil provement in the compilation and analysis of fisheries statistics spills management (Waihee 1990). This has further taxed resources for the State and in more effective fisheries management. that are needed for fisheries surveillance and enforcement. Lack of Adequate Manne Safety Requirements Inadequate Statistksfor FIshmies Management Serious injuries and deaths among fishermen from 147 accident Neither the Federal nor the State government can reliably cases involving fishing vessels from 1965 to 1985 in Hawaii assess the status of fish stocks or the adequacy of existing resulted in costs exceeding $6 million (Bourke and Markrich regulations because of inadequate statistics on fisheries in 1990). The financial and human costs of such accidents have Hawaii. There are no reporting requirements for recreational been recognized by the Federal government as a national fishermen. The vast majority of recreational fishermen are problem. In 1988, Congress promulgated the U.S. Fishing exploiting inshore and nearshore resources, those that have Vessel Safety Act, which calls for stricter controls and improved suffered most from over-exploitation. safety on fishing vessels. The Coast Guard is proposing safety regulations for commercial fishing vessels. However, the unique Assessing the status of offshore stocks in the main Hawai- nature of Hawaii's "commercial fleet" with its relatively large ian Islands also is hampered severely by the lack of reporting number of part-time commercial fishermen may require addi- requirements for recreational fishermen. Moreover, many of tional safety improvements. the data that are provided by commercial fishermen, who are required to report their catch, are incomplete and catch-per- unit-of-effort calculations cannot be made. There is also report- RECOMNMNDAIIONS edly gross "underreporting" of commercial catch data. State Objective officials indicate that this may be more a function of delinquent or non-reporting rather than falsification of catch reports. Provide a foundation for developing an integrated State fisher- Nevertheless, it is estimated that commercial catch reports ies management system that ensures: 1) depleted and over- account for only 10 percent to 90 percent of the actual cornmer- exploited stocks will be restored to sustainable levels; 2) cial catch, depending on the fishery. fisheries resources will be harvested at their optimum sustain- able yield; and 3) user conflicts will be minimized- [The most 3. Commission updates of the socio-economic analysis important feature of "optimum sustainable yield" is that it must as needed. be set at a level to prevent overfishing.] Policy C PolicyA Coordinate private-sector, State and Federal fisheries develop- Assess the status and population dynamics of fisheries stocks ment and management efforts. (on an ongoing basis) and develop effective management implementing Actions: regimes for inshore, nearshore and offshore resources. DLIW in cooperation with DBED, NMFSand WF-STPAC, Impkwenting Actions. should.. DLNR should.- 1. Evaluate the role and potential effectiveness of the 1. Develop a comprehensive plan for the assessment, Hawah fisheries Coordinating Council in light of changes monitoring and management of nearshore and inshore in fisheries management structure based on the Ocean stocks building on the Main Hawaiian Islands Marine Resources Management Plan. Resource Investigation. 2. Make such changes in the mandate of the Coordinat- a. Accelerate the Main Hawaiian Islands Marine Re- ing Council as may be required to fit into the new source Investigation focusing on clear management management structure and to improve coordination of ZD objectives. Federal, State, County and private-sector fisheries devel- b. Develop a feasible method for gathering catch opment and management. and effort data for inshore and nearshore fisheries. 3. In coordination with the State, develop recommen- c. Develop an integrated management plan for the dations for enhancing the role of WEST`PAC in the man- management of inshore and nearshore fisheries. agement of Hawaii's fisheries. 2. Work with the NMFS, WESTPAC and the commercial Policy D and recreational fishing communities to adequately moni- Ensure that native Hawaiian fishermen receive all the rights to tor the status of offshore fisheries resources. which they are entitled. a. Establish better coordination of State and Federal Implementing Actions: compilation and analysis of fisheries statistics. DLNR should.. b. Develop a feasible method for gathering catch 1. Evaluate the findings of the WESTPAC study "Native and effort data from recreational fishermen. Hawaiian Fishing Rights.' c. Develop a more effective mechanism for gather- 2. Review existing Federal and State regulations that ing commercial catch, effort and sales statistics. may pertain. d. Secure adequate resources to insure compliance 3. If the above evaluation and review indicates Hawai- with reporting requirements. ian fishermen should receive preferential rights in the 3. Establish a mechanism for evaluating and improving U.S. EEZ surrounding the State, recommend changes to 0 the compilation and analysis of fisheries statistics to existing State and Federal regulations to afford such improve fisheries management. rights. Policy B Policy E Assess the social and economic costs and benefits of a range of Maximize the use of scientific and management resources. commercial and recreational fisheries development options to implementing Actions: support the design of effective management and development regimes. DLAIR, with assistancefrom UH and other research and Impkmenting Actions. educational institutions, should- DLIVR should. 1. Develop (or enhance an existing) roster of fisheries research and management resources. 1. Comrr-@ssion a study of commercial and recreation 2. Establish a research coordinating committee for D1NR fisheries options to assess the social and economic costs or the participatory management body described above. and benefits of a range of development designs. 2. Use the findings of the study to make changes in the 3. Develop a long-range fisheries research plan consis- management plan and fisheries regulations based on the tent with the integrated fisheries management plan and plan. meet the needs of the fisheries management body to ensure more effective fisheries management. 4. Develop projects sin-dlar to the Main Hawaiian Is- Implementing Actions: lands Marine Resource Investigation to meet ongoing DBED, in cooperation zvitb DLIR sbould fisheries management needs. Policy F 1. Work with the commercial fishing community and seafood marketers to review existing trade and invest- Ensure reasonable access to fisheries resources for subsis- ment promotion activities and identify new opportunities tence, recreational and commercial fishermen as well as other for trade and investment promotion. recreational users (e.g., divers) and aquarium fish collectors. 2. Develop a long-range plan for trade and investment Implementing Actions: promotion that encourages the development of fisheries DLNR sbould: resources. 1. Through a participatory planning effort involving 3 Enhance existing trade and investment promotion representatives of various segments of the fishing com- efforts to encourage and expand commercial develop- munity and other marine users devise mamgement regimes ment of under-exploited species through commercial that provide reasonable access to fisheries resources. fishing, charter boat fishing and marine tourism. 2. Using such methods, conduct periodic reviews of Policy I fisheries management and regulatory mechanisms to Restore depleted stocks and enhance existing stocks by devel- ensure such mechanisms continue to meet Hawaii's fish- oping an effective management regime. eries management needs. Implementing Actions: Policy G DLNR sbould- Minimize and resolve user conflicts among fishermen and 1. Develop a long-range plan for stock restoration and between fishermen and other ocean resource users. enhancement including consideration of the construc- Implementing Actions: tion of artificial reefs and stocking of nearshore areas with DLATR sbould: cultured species. 1. Evaluate fisheries conflict resolution methods em- 2. Work with segments of the fishing community to ployed by other states and identify methods that might be develop a stock restoration and enhancement program. adapted for use in Hawaii. 3. Reevaluate existing fishing regulations with the goal 2. Develop a conflict resolution mechanism to resolve of developing an effective and enforceable management user conflicts among fishermen and between fishermen system. and other ocean users that enhances communication. 4. Develop an acceptable and enforceable system of closures to allow nearshore fisheries stocks to recover a. Formally establish such a mechanism through from over-exploitation. legislation or regulation. 5. Develop a public awareness campaign on fisheries b. Develop a screening system for use of such a regulations and the management of Hawaii's fisheries. mechanism. c. Lunt the time allowed for mediation or negotiation. 6. Develop a program for stock enhancement based on the plan. d. Ensure that the agreements resulting from nego- 7. Develop a public education program to encourage tiations or mediation are binding. exploitation of under-utilized species and improved man- e. Develop a public awareness program to encour- agement of over-exploited species. age the use of such a mechanism. Policyi 3. Review existing fisheries regulations and set up a Provide appropriate infrastructure for recreational and com- system to review proposed regulations to ensure that user mercial fisheries development. [See Harbors section.) conflicts are niinimized. 4. Evaluate the role and potential impacts of commer- Implementing Actions: cial fishing vessels, and regulate their influx if necessary. DOT, DLAq@ and DBED togetber sbould: Policy H 1. Review the comprehensive fisheries management Support trade and investment promotion, seafood marketing plan [see Policy A, Action 11 and existing harbor and support, and the promotion of sports fishing and fisheries- marina development plans to ensure the needs of various related tourism. segments of the fishing community are adequately met while Ile long-range fisheries development objectives National Marine Fisheries Service, Southwest Fisheries Center, can be achieved. Honolulu Laboratory. 1990c. Annual Report ofthe 1-989 West- 2. Develop a fisheries infrastructure development and ern PacificLobsterFishery. Administrative Report No. H-90-06. finance plan that incorporates existing plans and inte- By K.C. Landgraf, S.G. Pooley, and R.P. Clarke. Honolulu. grates the development of commercial harbors, marinas, National Marine Fisheries Service, Southwest Fisheries Center, boat ramps, artificial reefs, fish aggregating devices (FADS) Honolulu Laboratory. 1987. Hawaii Marine Fisheries Re- and other fisheries infrastructure. sources: Yesterday (1900) and Today (1986). Administrative 3. Develop proposals for State, Federal and private- Report H-87-21. By R.S. Shomura. Honolulu. sector funding to implement the plan. 4. Establish a mechanism for ensuring coordination of National Marine Fisheries Service, Southwest Fisheries Center, infrastructure management under existing agencies or Honolulu Laboratory. 1989. Fisheries Statistics of the Western designate a single lead management agency to assume Pacific. Vol. IV. By D.C. Hamm and M.M.C. Quach. Honolulu. that function . Pacific Basin Development Council. 1983. Central and West- Policy K ern Pacific Regional Fisheries Development Plan. Vol. IV. Evaluate marine safety needs of commercial and recreational Honolulu. fishermen and facilitate developing programs to reduce accidents. Shannon, S. 1990. Background paper on fisheries resources Implementing Actions: and resource management in the State of Hawaii for the State DOT and DLNR, in cooperation with the US, Coast of Hawaii, Department of Business, Economic Development & Tourism, Ocean Resources Bnanch. Honolulu. Guard, should- 1. Develop a voluntary marine safety training program State of Hawaii, Department of Business and Economic Devel- for commercial and recreational fishermen. opment. 1989. A Rising Tide of Investment Opportunities: 2. Evaluate licensing and other procedures to improve Hawaii's Ocean Industries, Honolulu. marine safety on commercial and recreational fishing State of Hawaii, Department of Business, Economic Develop- boats. ment & Tourism, and University of Hawaii, Sea Grant Program. 3. Develop public awareness programs to encourage 1990. Foreign Flag Fishing Vessel Expenditures in tbePort of participation in training programs and proper mainte- Honolulu: 1986-1988. Draft. By L.L. Hudgins and R.T.B. nance of equipment. Iversen. Honolulu. State of Hawaii, Department of Land and Natural Resources. REFEUNCES 1989. Minutes of the 33rd Hawaii Fisheries Coordinating Coun- Bourke, R.E. and M. Markrich. 1990. Fishing Boat Safety in cil Meeting, September 19, 1989. Honolulu. Hawaii. A Report to the Hawaii Fisheries Coordinating Coun- State of Hawaii, Department of Land and Natural Resources. cil. Honolulu. 1990. 715e Hawaii State Plan: Conservation Lands, Dral?. Lee, D. 1990. Controlled Fishing Practices Needed to Stabilize Honolulu. Inshore Resources. Makai. Vol, 11, No. 5. Honolulu. State of Hawaii, Department of Land and Natural Resources, DM- MacDonald, C.D. and H.E. Deese. 1989. A Comprehensive sion of Aquatic Resources. 1988a. Hattan Commmial Fishing Analysis and Overview of Hawaii's Ocean Industries. Coastal Surrey, 1987 By RE Hamm and A.Z. Katekaru. IHonolulu. Zone '89 Proceedings. Vol. IV. pp. 3481-3493. New State of Hawaii, Department of Land and Natural Resources, York:American Society of Engineers. Division of Aquatic Resources. 1988b. Main Hawaiian Islands National Marine Fisheries Service. 1990a. awaiis Marine Marine Resources Inventory 1988 Survey. Honolulu. Fisheries.- Long-term Trends and Recent Developments (Pre- State of Hawaii, Department of Land and Natural Resources, liminary Estimates). By S.G. Pooley. Honolu .lu. Division of Aquatic Resources. 1989a. FY 1988-89 Annual National Marine Fisheries Service. 1990b. Memorandum of Report. By Hawaii Fisheries Coordinating Council. Honolulu. statistics provided to the Department of Business and Eco- State of Hawaii, Department of Land and-Natural Resources, nomic Development. Division of Aquatic Resources. 1989b. HawaiiFisbingRegula- tions. By State of Hawaii, Board of Land and Natural Resources. Honolulu. State of Hawaii, Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Aquatic Resources.1990. Hawaii Fishing Regula- tions. By State of Hawaii, Board of Land and Natural Resources. Honolulu. United Nations Environment Programme, IUCN, Natural Re- sources Conservation Monitoring Center.1988. Coral Reefs of the World, Vol.III. pp. 143-169. By S.M. Wells (with contribu- tions from R. Grigg, P. Jokiel, and J.E. Maragos for the Hawaii secion). Honolulu. Waihee, J.D.1990. Testimony presented to the House Mer- chant Marine and Fisheries Committee hearings. Honolulu. Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council.1983. Fishery Management Plan for the Precious Corals Fisheries of the Western Pacific Region.Honolulu. Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council.1988. Fishery Management Plan for the Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fishery of the Western Pacific Region.Honolulu. Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council.1989a. Fact Shett: Fisheries Management Plan for the Precious Corals Fisheries of the Western Pacific Region, June 27, 1989. Hono- lulu. Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council.1989b. Rights of Native Hawaiian Fishermen with Specific Regard to Harvesting of Bottomfish in the Northwestern Hawaiian Is- lands and with regard to Harvesting of Bottomfish, Crusta- ceans, Precious Corals, and Open-Ocean Fish in Offshore Areas Surrounding the Entire Hawaiian Chain, Phase 1 and Phase 2. By R.T.B. Iversen, T. Dye and L.M. Paul. Honolulu. Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council. 1990a. Lobster Fishing Regulations, Western Pacific. Honolulu. Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council.1990b. Crustaceans Situation Report. Honolulu. Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council.1990c. Amendment 3 to the Fishery Management Plan for Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish of the Western Pacific. Draft, June 6, 1990. Honolulu. Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council.1990d. Commercial Pelagic Fisheries in Hawaii, June 11, 1990. Honolulu. Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council.1990e. Press release, June 17, 1990. Honolulu. Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council.1990f. Commercial Pelagic Fisheries in Hawaii. Honolulu. Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council.1990g. Recruitment Overfishing Definition. Honolulu. Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council.1990h. Amendment 2 and Environmental Assessment: Fishery Man- agement Plan for Precious Corals Fisheries of the Western Pacific Region, May 21, 1990. Working Draft #1. Honolulu. Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council.1990i. Precious Corals Situation Report, May 22, 1990. Honolulu. Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council.1990j. Pelagics Situation Report, June 12, 1990. Honolulu. M. Carolyn Stewart and David A. Tarnas Marine and Coastal Resources Consultants P.O. Box 5653 Kailua-Kona, M 96745 MRRINE ECOSYSTEM PROTECTION PAGE PAGE THE RESOURCE 49 Overuse of Certain Natural Resource Value 50 Resources and Areas 56 Economic Value 50 Inadequate Enforcement 56 Scientific and Educational Value 50 Inadequate Research and Monitoring Programs 56 Cultural and Historical Value 50 Inadequate Public Involvement 57 Recreational and Aesthetic Value 50 RECOMMENDATIONS 57 Ecological Value 51 Objective 57 RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 51 Policies and Implementing Actions 57 Protection of Overall Marme and Coastal Environments 51 Federal Authority 51 State Authority 51 M RMURCE County Authority 52 Protection of Ecosystems and Habitats 53 Hawaii's marine and coastal environments are the backbone of Federal Protected Areas 53 its economy and integral to its history and culture. Historically, State Protected Areas 53 these environments defined communities and provided many State Enforcement ResponsiWity 54 of the resources upon which the traditional economy de- Private Protected Areas 54 pended. More recently, the tourism industry, which now con- Special Cases 54 tributes significantly to the State's economy, has become de- pendent upon quality marine and coastal environments. The Protection of Marine and Coastal Species 55 resources contained within these natural environments are Federal Authority 55 diverse and numerous: marine life, including marine mammals, State Authority 55 sea turtles, birds and fishes; endemic and exotic plant species; MANAGEMENT ISSIMS 55 cTitical and productive habitats such as coral reefs, estuaries, Continued Species and Habitat Loss wetlands, offshore islets and rocks, and anchialine pools; scenic and Damage 55 land and seascapes, including beaches, rugged shorelines and Ina&quate Management of Some Marine and underwater lava formations; and deep seabed minerals. Coastal Resources and Areas 56 A host of people, organizations and ocean industries utilize Lack of integrated Marine and or are dependent on Hawaii's coastal and marine resources. Coastal Management Plans 56 These users include: aquaculturists, fishermen, education and Lack of Site-SpeciJic Management Plans 56 research institutions, shipping and related industries, tourists Lack of Coordination in Management and outdoor enthusiasts, tourism industry, and ocean technol- qfProtectedAreas 56 ogy research and development programs. Inadequate Management of On one hand, these ocean industries benefit Hawaii's Important Marine Species 56 economy and enhance people's understanding of ocean and coastal processes. on the other hand, these user groups and an Scientific and Educational Value expanding human population can negatively impact these ic study natural environments upon which they depend. Growth and Marine ecosystems provide important sites for scientif and education. Preserves that are relatively unmodified or tourism-related development onshore can result in: loss of ,pristine" can generate important geologic, oceanographic and critical marine habitats; siltation from urban and agricultural ecological data. The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. for ex- runoff; and decreasing nearshore water quality from inad- ample, provide a unique window on species evoludon'because equate waste disposal capabilities. Fishing, aquarium an .d sou- of their geographic isolation and are preserved as the Hawaiian venir collection can deplete unique or important marine re- islands National Wildlife Refuge. Marine protected areas, which sources. The maritime industry can contribute to reduced water protect habitats, nesting, nursery and feeding grounds of threat- quality through operational and accidental discharges of oil and ened and endangered species, provide uriique scientific and fuel. Boat anchoring, seabed mining operations and bottom educational opportunities. Ecosystems in which human activi- trawling can disturb coral reefs and other underwater forma- ties can be controlled also provide baseline data from which to tions. evaluate the impacts of such activities. Clearly, the issue of protecting marine and coastal environ- The ocean research and development industry also values a ments against degradation merits attention. Hawaii State policy thriving marine environment. Research and development incorporates a conservation ethic in resource management, projects can translate into technological innovations that may which includes both elements of environmental protection and generate new economic opportunities in the State. In 1989, the resource use (Chapter 228-1, HRS). However, due to the oppor- tunifies presented for economic development, resource use, in economic value of ocean research and development was S62 many cases, has been emphasized more than environmental million. The projected value for 1992 ranges between S87 and protection. Enhanced ecosystem protection requires a shift in $147 million (MacDonald and LaBarge 1990). this balance. In addition, marine ecosystems function as learning centers The existing system of marine and coastal protected areas, for public education programs. Environmental organizations and the existence of ordinances regulating types and levels of and schools use field trips to coastal lands and nearshore waters resource use within the State provide some marine and coastal to cultivate heightened environmental awareness. Designating environments with varying degrees of protection. The levels of underwater parks and trail systems can make marine resources protection afforded these environments range, in theory, from more accessible to the public for study. Educating and exposing strict preservation to promotion of multiple uses. In practice, people to resource values and the environmental effects of however, there is a tendency towards leniency in use restric- human impacts can reduce the need for enforcement by help- dons. It seems apparent that there is room for improvement ing to alter environmentally damaging practices (See Ocean with regard to ecosystem protection in Hawaii. Furthermore, Research and Education Technical Paper). given the large percentage of coastal lands owned by the State, Cultural and Historical Value Hawaii has ample opportunity to increase resource protection to benefit current and future users. Resources also are valued for their role in ancient culture. Areas used by ancient Hawaiians - including fish ponds, traps, Resource Value anchialine pools and whole fishing villages - provide valuable While marine and coastal resources are essential to the success cultural resources to both residents and visitors. Fish ponds, for of Hawaii's ocean industries and overall economy, they are also example, were constructed by the Hawaiians from embayments valuable in ways not easily quantifiable and, until recently, and naturally forming anchialine pools. Anchialine pools also ignored. Engendering support for better and more comprehen- were modified to facilitate the catching of natural stocks of sive protection of the marine ecosystem requires a broadening opae'ula (red shrimp) to be used as fish bait. Pipiwai snails and of perceptions regarding resource value. hibiwai snails (nerifies) were gathered from anchialine pools, These food and water resources helped sustain the ancient Economic Value Hawaiian communities that colonized and settled around the pools. Proper interpretation of these areas is important to Hawaii's economy is intricately linked to its surrounding ocean. cultivate in today's society the same sense of malama aina or Economic diversification is a constant theme and one of the protecting the land" that existed in early Hawaiian culture. As major forces motivating Hawaii's interest in the ocean with other important historical and cultural resources, these (MacDonald and Deese 1989). The tourism industry, the State's pools need specific protection from development pressures. economic mainstay, is almost entirely dependent on excellent water quality and a healthy environment. The commercial Recreational and Aesthetic Value fishing industry, which landed approximately 20 million pounds People are drawn to natural environments for recreation be- of locally-caught fish valued at $42 million in 1988, depends on cause of the natural amenities such environments provide, the maintenance of abundant and healthy fish stocks (see Which kind of environment a person chooses to visit depends Fisheries Technical Paper). Marine pollution and habitat de- in part on the nature of the recreation experience the person struction reduce these fish stocks, seeks. A person pursuing an isolated wilderness experience Engineers (COE) under Section 10, Rivers and Harbors Act. Any values the relative absence of urban concentrations, freedom discharge of dredge or fill material into waters of the United from evidence of human alteration, the absence of pollution, States, which includes wetlands, anchialine pools, rivers, streams the presence of appealing vistas, and relative peace and quiet. and coastal waters, requires a permit from the COE under On the other hand, a person wishing to sunbathe on a popular Section 404, Clean Water Act. Permit applicants are required to beach considers the beach's proximity to home, opportunities obtain State of Hawaii Coastal Zone Management Federal for particular recreational activities, safety, cleanliness and Consistency Determinations and Section 401, Clean Water Act, facilities. The marine and coastal environments provide oppor- Water Quality Certifications, prior to being issued a permit by tunities for this range of recreational experiences (See Ocean the COE. The decision to authorize a proposed action is based Recreation Technical Paper), on public interest evaluation and evaluations in compliance Resources also have "existence" value, which is largely with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), Endan- unquantifiable. This describes the value that people place on gered Species Act and National Historic Preservation Act. natural resources and environments simply because they exist. State Autbority Many people are content to know that certain species (e.g., Water Qualqy Standards Hawaiian monk seal), ecosystems (e.g., coral reefs) and natural features (e.g,, underwater lava tubes and arches) exist, even if The Department of Health (DOH) has established water quality they will not personally observe them. standards (Chapter 11, Hawaii Administrative Rules, [HARI) based on Federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Ecological Value water quality standards established under the Clean Water Act. DOH water quality standards classify all State waters as either Every coastal and marine resource contains an ecological value because of its crucial role in maintaining the overall balance of marine or inland waters. These waters are further classified by ecological processes. Marine ecosystems depend heavily on use for the purpose of applying standards. properly functioning ecological processes. Energy and nutrient Marine waters are divided into Class AA and Class A waters. flows are critical to species survival. Estuaries such as Pearl Marine bottom ecosystems are divided into Class I and Class 11. Harbor and Kaneohe Bay, for example, function as nutrient and There are basic water quality criteria applicable to all waters that sediment traps. They also serve as nurseries for a variety of fish address floating debris, thermal pollution, turbidity, and nearly and invertebrates, as well as habitats for endangered species. 100 toxic substances. These standards also describe certain uses Furthermore, they help reduce the effects of erosion from and specific criteria applicable to inland and marine waters. storm-induced wave surges and flooding, The continued exist- In addition, these water quality regulations include some ence of any species depends directly on the preservation of its level of natural resource protection, demonstrated by the objec- habitat. Although the value of tl-@s preservation may not be tive for Class AA waters, which specifies that "...to the extent quantifiable or even identifiable, a specie's demise or extinction practicable, the wilderness character of these areas shall be because of habitat loss eventually affects the overall balance of protected" [Chapter 11-54-03(c)(1), HARI. These waters include natural systems. @pristine" areas along Hawaii's coastline, and "...all embayments in preserves, reserves, sanctuaries and refuges" (Chapter 11-54- RESOURCE MANAGF39M 06(a)(2), HARI. No effluent discharge is allowed in these waters in depths less than 10 fathoms. Controlled allowable uses It is Hawaii's policy to preserve, protect and, where possible, include "oceanographic research, the support and propagation restore the natural resources of the State's coastal zone (Chapter of shellfish and other marine life, conservation of coral reefs and 176, Hawaii Revised Statutes [HRSI). An array of management wilderness areas, compatible recreation and aesthetic enjoy- systems exists in Hawaii at the Federal, State and County levels, ment" [Chapter 11-54-03(cXl), HARI. Class A waters are to be and within the private sector, designed to preserve coastal protected for recreational purposes and aesthetic enjoyment. water quality and protect fauna, flora and their habitats from Activities are perntted provided they are compatible with pollution, human and development pressures. Some manage- protection and propagation of fish, shellfish and wildlife [Chap- ment systems aim to broadly protect Hawaii's coastal and ter 11-54-03(eX2), HARI. There are specific standards for each marine environments; others target specific ecosystems, habi- classification of waters. tats and species. Natural resource protection is also evident in the classifica- tion of bottom environments given in DOH water quality Protection of OveraH Marine and Coastal Environments regulations. Class I bottom environments are protected so that Federal Aidbority they "remain as nearly as possible in their natural pristine state US. Army Corps of Engineers Permit P@nocess with an absolute minimum of pollution from any human- induced source. Allowable uses of marine bottom ecosystems Any construction in coastal, tidal waters below the mean high in this class are passive human uses without intervention or water mark requires a permit from the U.S. Army Corps of alteration, allowing the perpetuation and preservation of the marine bottom in a most natural state, such as for non-con- sumptive scientific research, non-consumptive education, aes- Hawaii's CZM Law and State programs in the CZM area for thetic enjoyment, passive activities and preservation" [Chapter consistency with the CZM Program. 11-54-03(d)(1), HARI. The management objective of Class 11 within this same State statute, the designation of Special bottom environments is that 'their use for protection including Management Areas (SMAs) provides a method for special propagation of fish, shellfish, and wildlife, and for recreational controls over coastal development. The Legislature found that purposes not be limited in any way." Any action that may these controls wm "...necessary to avoid permanent losses Of permanently mcddy the bottom environment is allowed only valuable resources and the foreclosure of management op- with approval of the DOH director, after consideration of tions, and to ensure that adequate access, by dedication or other environmental impact and public interest (Chapter 11-54- means, to public owned or used beaches, recreational areas 04(dX2), HARI. There are specific regulations for each classifi- and natural reserves is provided' (Chapter 205A-21, HRS). cation of bottom environments. Soil Erosion Control Permit Process. Sod erosion is a major Finally, State water. quality standards contain specific rules nonpoint source pollution problem. To control this, agricultural regarding discharges *in and water quality parameters for operations are to use "best management practices" as described anchialine pools and wetlands. in Hawaii's Nonpoint Source Water Pollutwn Management Hawaii Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Law. The Plan (DOH 1989). Construction operations must obtain a Hawaii Environmental Impact Statement law (Chapter 343, grading permit from the County. This permit system is being BRS) grew out of the need to identify and mitigate potential evaluated for its effectiveness in controlling sod erosion by the environmental impacts from activities undertaken or approved State's Nonpoint Source Pollution Program (See Waste Manage- by State and County governments. This law is Hawaii's State ment Technical Paper). environmental policy act, modeled after the National Environ- Conservation District Permit Process: Conservation District mental Policy Act (NEPA). The EIS Law requires that Environ- Use Applications (CDUAs) must be filed by those proposing to mental Assessments (EAs) be prepared for actions that propose engage in any activities not fisted in the Hawaii Administrative any of a list of uses or amendments to certain plans (Chapter Rules for Conservation Areas (Tide 13, Chapter 2, HAR). Activi- 343-5, HRS). If a "negative declaration" (i.e., there will be no des requiring CDUIA permits include constniction of park infm- impact) is made, then no further environmental impact analysis structure, commercial operations and installation of moorings. is required. A Department of Transportation (DOT) use permit also is If the State agency preparing the EA detennines that a required for installation of moorings. DINR Conservation and proposed activity may significantly affect the environment, an Environmental Affairs Division oversees the CDUA process. Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is required. When the County Autbority EIS is completed, it is made available for public comment. Depending on whether the activity anticipates use of State or Special Management Area Perniit Process: Within each County, County resources, the Governor or the mayor has the authority Special Management Areas (SMAs) are designated for areas to accept the EIS (Callies 1984). Developments proposed for requiring special management attention. SMAs extend inland State conservation districts and shoreline setback coastal areas a minimum of 100 yards and, in undeveloped areas, often are are two of several uses that require an assessment (Chapter 343- extended further inland. Specific management authority rests 5, HE). with the City Council on Oahu and the planning commissions Hawaii Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Program: Under on the Neighbor Islands. The Counties define the types of Hawaii's CZM Law (Chapter 205A, fIRS), all State and County activities that constitute development, and establish SMA bound- actions within the CZM area must comply with the CZM objec- anes. SMAguidehnes are outlined in Chapter 205A, HRS (Hawaii's fives and policies. In addition, since the State's CZM Program CZM Law), and include the following requirements: adequate has been officially approved by the Federal government the public access to shoreline areas; adequate public recreation national CZM Act (CZMA [P.L. No. 92-5831) requires all i@@eml areas and wildlife preserves; waste management; water re- activities undertaken in or affecting Hawaii's coastal zone to be sources management; no substantial adverse environmental or consistent with Hawaii's CZM Program. Where national de- ecological impacts; and consistency with State and County fense or other overriding national interests are concerned, planning and zoning. Federal activities must at least be consistent to the "maximum The Counties are to "seek to minimize, where reasonable" extent practicable." As the lead agency for CZM in Hawaii, the dredging, filling, or other alteration of bays, estuaries, salt Office of State Planning (OSP) is responsible for reviewing and marshes, river mouths, sloughs and lagoons; reduction in size deciding the consistency of Federal activities with the State's of beaches or other public recreation areas; developments that CZM Program. These include direct Federal activities, outer would restrict access to coastal areas; developments that would continental shelf activities, Federal funding, and Federal per- substantially interfere with or detract from the line of sight mks and licenses. toward the sea from the State highway nearest the coast"; and, The CZM Program also is responsible for reviewing the "any development which would adversely affect water quality, actions of State and County agencies for compliance with existing areas of open water free of visible structures, existing and potential fisheries and fishing grounds, wildlife habitats, or potential or existing agricultural uses of land" [Chapter 205A- Coastal National Parks: In some marine areas adjacent to 266)(AXE), HRS1. coastal national parks, the National Park Service (NPS) seeks to Special Management Area use permits are required for the regulate activities. Under the Hawaii National Parks Act, NPS coastal developments listed above. DOT has an exemption can extend its jurisdiction over adjacent marine areas and from this requirement for the construction of public harborS. develop rules regulating fishing and taking of other marine life Permits are issued by Counties after environmental analyses (Sections 1,4). However, since these marine areas are State and public hearings are conducted. Any rules and regulations waters, their management requires a joint Federal-State plan. adopted by the Counties for the SMA process must be consistent Efforts are currently underway to develop such a Federal-State with Hawaii's CZM Law. Action on SMA use permits is final management plan for waters off Kaloko-Honokohau National unless otherwise mandated by court order (Chapter 205A-29, Historic Park in Kona. HRS). There are also provisions for emergency and minor Otber Federal Marine Protected Areas.. Designating critical permits (Chapter 205A-30, HRS). habitat areas for threatened and endangered species is another mechanism for providing recognition and protection of essen- Protection of Ecmyste@s and Habitats dal habitats. In addition, development proposals for projects in Certain marine and coastal areas are protected under Federal or or adjacent to anchialine pools, fishponds and wetlands are State law. The federal government has institutional and regu- reviewed by COE, FWS and EPA. Though President George latory mechanisms with which to confer a degree of protection Bush has announced his intention to adopt a policy of "no net on unique or significant ecosystems and habitats. it is the State's loss of wetlands," no implementing rules have been adopted. policy to establish and maintain natural area preserves, wildlife Pools and wetlands are protected under the Clean Water Act. preserves, marine preserves, and unique ecological preserves State Pmtected Areas (Chapter 3444, HRS). Many of these areas are considered Areas Marine Life Conservation Districts (MLCDs): The State estab- of Particular Concern (APCs) under Hawaii's CZM Law and lished MLCDs to protect unique areas of the marine environ- require special management attention. ment (Chapter 190, HRS). The State Department of Land and Federal V@rotected Areas Natural Resources (DLNR), Division of Aquatic Resources, is National Marine Sanctuaries (AMSs): The NMS Program is responsible for establishing, managing and regulating uses in administered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric these MLCDs (Chapter 190-15, HRS). Within each MLCD, the Administration (NOAA), Marine and Estuarine Management DLNR develops administrative rules and monitors the resources Division. The primary purpose of the program is resource annually. These rules may prohibit the taking of marine life protection. It enables the Federal government to manage except by permit for scientific, educational or other purposes, designated marine environments as ecosystems.' The under conditions that cause minimal environmental impacts program's mission also allows for the facilitation of multiple (Chapter 1904, HRS). Rules generally prohibit taking of marine uses within designated NMSs. In the early 1980s, the national life in MLCDs, emphasizing preservation of the areas' marine government proposed to create an NMS for the waters off flora and fauna, and their habitats (Chapters 13-28 to 13-35, Maui in order to protect humpback whale breeding grounds. HAR). MLCDs have been designated at Hanauma Bay, Oahu; However, the proposal died because it did not garner ad- Kealakekua Bay, Hawaii; Manele-Hulopoe, Lanai; Molokini equate State support. Shoal, Maui; Honolua-Mokuleia, Maui; Lapakahi, Hawaii; Pupukea, Oahu; Wailea Bay, Hawaii, and Waikiki, Oahu. National Wildlife Refuges (NWR:s)- In designating National FisheryManagenientAreas(FAMs).- State regulations restrict Wildlife Refuges, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) seeks fishing activities within FMAs (Chapters 1347 to 13-54, HAR). to protect bird, and to a lesser extent, marine mammal habitats. DLNR's Division of Aquatic Resources is responsible for estab- The Hawaiian Islands NWR was created in 1909 for the protec- lishing and managing FMAs, and regulating activities (Chapter tion of numerous sea and shore birds. It is managed by FWS 187-2, HRS). These FMAs include the Northwestern Hawaiian with strict controls on human interactions with the wildlife. Islands; Waikiki-Diamond Head Shoreline, Oahu; Hanamaulu Even scientific and educational visits are extremely limited and Bay and Ahukini Recreational Pier, Kauai; Waimea Bay and closely supervised. The islands and offshore waters prov .ide Waimea Recreational Pier, Kauai; Kahului Harbor, Maui; Kailua habitats for over five million seabirds of 18 different species, Bay, Hawaii; Manele Harbor, Lanai; Puako Bay and Puako Reef, including albatross, boobies, frigate birds, petrels, shearwaters, Hawaii; and Kawaihae Harbor, Hawaii. storm-petrels, tems and tropic birds. Natural Area Resew Sjstem NARS). The goal of NARS is National Estuarine Research Reserves, Waimanu Valley on to protect unique natural areas from loss due to population Hawaii is designated as a National Estuarine Research Reserve, growth and technological advances (Chapter 195, HRS). NARS under NOAA, Office of Coastal Resources Management. While is administered by DLNR's, Natural Area Reserve System Com- it is a Federal reserve, the protected area itself is managed by the mission (Chapter 195-6, HRS). The Natural Area Reserve System State. The goal of such designations is long-term habitat protec- Commission is responsible for recommending criteria, evaluat- don for research and educational purposes. ing potential sires and recommending specific areas for inclu- sion in the NARS (Chapter 195:3-7, HRS). There is one NAR, HRS). However, within MLCDs, DLNR has the authority to located at Ahihi-Kinau, Maui, that includes a marine compo- regulate moorings (Chapter 190, M). nent; Kaena Point on Oahu is a coastal NAR but does not extend DOH is responsible for monitoring water quality in nearshore into the water. Rules have been adopted governing activities in waters, including marine-protected areas, and enforcing com- these protected areas, including prohibitions on operation of pliance with EPA and State water quality standards (Chapter motorized vehicles. 342-31, HRS). Underwater Rarks., Two MLCDs, Hanauma Bay and Private Pmtected Areas Kealakekua Bay, also are designated State Underwater Parks. DLNR, State Parks, Outdoor Recreation and Historic Sites Divi- Private organizations are beginning to increase their involve- sion, has the authority to manage the parks (Chapter 184, HRS). ment in the purchase and/or management of marine and However, they do not currently do so, relying instead upon coastal areas. The Nature Conservancy, for example, owns and DLNR, Division of Aquatic Resources, to manage these areas as manages two preserves with significant coastal resources: MLCDs. Moomomi and Pelekunu Preserves on Molokai. The Conservation Land Use Llistrict Protective Subzone Within Conservancy's mission in Hawaii is to protect the fuU range of the State's Conservation Land Use Districts, Protective Subzones indigenous species and ecosystems. can be created to include shorelines and parts of the adjacent SPecial Cases ocean. Protective Subzones help preserve natural ecosystems Anchialine pools are protected as unique ecosystems only in necessary to native fish species, particularly endangered spe- the Cape Kinau Natural Am Reserve, Volcanoes National Pask cies. All of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, excluding and Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park. The remain- Midway, are a Conservation Land Use District Protective ing anchialine pools are located mostly on private lands and are Subzone. Hunting and fishing may be allowed to control subject to protection only to the extent that Federal, State and populations (Chapter 13-2, HAR). County permits are applicable to private development of those Otber State Manne Protected Areas There are other State- lands and to the extent provided by permit conditions. For the designated areas that restrict, to varying degrees, consumptive most part, anchialine pools are located within County Special uses of the marine environment. A Marine Laboratory Refuge is Management Areas. DOH water quality regulations state that all located at Coconut island in Kaneohe Bay on Oahu. Several anchialir@e pools shall be maintained 'in their natural state with boat harbors and canals have restrictions on fishing, including no discharges allowed (Chapter 11-54-05.2, HAR). The pools Honolulu Harbor, Ala Wai Canal, Kapalania Canal, Heeia Kea also are protected by COE under the CWA. COE has a memo- Wharf, Pakai Bay and Waialua Bay, Oahu; and Hilo Harbor, randum of agreement with EPA and FWS to attempt to protect Hawaii. Fishing and some other activities are regulated within the pools to the extent reasonable within EPA guidelines. such areas as: Alakai Wilderness Preserve, Kauai; Paiko Lagoon Anchialine pools are not considered wetlands (except perhaps Wildlife Sanctuary, Oahu; and many Hawaii State Seabird some parts of the shoreline in the pools). Sanctuaries on various islands and islets throughout the State. The public is responsible for the introduction of exotic fish State seabird sanctuaries are managed by DLNR, Forestry and and trash into anchialine pools. Private development offers Wildlife Division. partial protection in that private developers are not fi[ling Ocean Recreation Management Areas (ORM,4s). Some anchialirie pools in order to avoid Federal or State regulatory ORMAs are designated to prohibit operation of certain types of intervention in their projects. Developers are willing to provide watercraft during the winter season when humpback whales some protection only to the extent that their projects can are present. Other areas are dosed for protection of sea turtle proceed in consideration of costs for providing the protection. habitats. These closures reduce the potential for harassment of Some wetlands are protected and managed to the extent that these species. ORMAs are managed by DOT, Harbors Division. they are included as preservation or conservation areas in State State Enforcement Respo=Wility and County land-use plans and to the extent that they are Enforcement within MLCDs, FMAs, NARs and'Underwater included in existing Federal and State waterbird wildlife ref- Parks is conducted by DLNR, Division of Conservation and uges. Other wetlands are protected to the extent that they Resources Enforcement (DOCARE), in cooperation with other require pennits from COE. Federal, State and County agencies. DOCARE has a limited Several problems are associated with wetland protection in number of enforcement personnel on each island - 21 on Hawaii, First, the emphasis on wetland protection is relatively Oahu, 15 on Maui, 11 on Kauai, and 15 on Hawaii - covering new and many wetland areas are zoned for development in both terrestrial and marine-protected areas. None are specifi- State and County land-use plans. Second, there is a lack of a cally assigned to manne-protected areas. common Federal and State definition for wetlands, lack of Within most manne-protected areas, DOT, Boating Branch, regulatory jurisdictional wedand maps, and lack of State or has jurisdiction over vessels (or buoys) on the water's surface County statutes, strategies and initiatives for wetland protec- (Chapter 261-1, HRS). DOT, Office of Safety and Law Enforce- Jon. DOH has a wedand definition in regards to discharges into State waters, and the State Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation ment, is responsible for ergorcing boating laws (Chapter 267, Plan (SCORP) has included a wetland strategy. The City and species designated "endangered" or "threatened" under the County of Honolulu is working on wetland legislation and the federal Endangered Species Act the same status under State State is attempting to develop a resource plan that includes law. DLNR also may designate other species by administrative wetlands. rule (Chapter 195D4, HRS). A list of endangered and threat- Oil and chen-kal spill response in Hawaii waters is con- ened species appears in Chapter 124, HAR. DOCARE enforces ducted by the DOT, DOH and U.S. Coast Guard to minimize the State regulations concerning protected species, in cooperation damage caused to coastal and marine environments in the with other Federal, State and County agencies. event of a spill or discharge (See Waste Management Technical Paper). KANAGENIENT ISSUS Protection ol Marine and Coastal Species At a time when coastal development and marine resource use Federal Autbority are occurring at a rapid rate, the management and protection of significant marine and coastal areas and resources have not Several marine species are protected under the Federal Endan- kept pace. A number of management issues and sub-issues gered Species and the Marine Mammal Protection Acts. Hawai- must be addressed before the marine and coastal resources of ian monk seals, sea turtles and humpback whales are consid- Hawaii will realize their full economic, education, scientific, ered protected marine species. Hawaiian monk seals are found recreational, cultural and ecological values. primarily in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Occasionally, they are found on the main Hawaiian Islands. Their population Continued Species and Habitat Loss and Damage has halved since the 1950s. Estimates made in 1987 placed their increasing coastal development and marine activities already population between 1,111 and 1,700 individuals, Human ha- have impacted many natural environments. Before the taking of rassment contributed to their earlier derriise, but the present coral was made illegal, this activity had a significant and population appears stable. cumulatively adverse effect on Hawaii's reefs. Still, many tour- For the most part, these species are managed by the National ists are not aware of the restrictions on this kind of souvenir Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). FWS shares with NMFS juris- collection. Coral reefs also have been affected by freshwater diction for listed sea turtles, and responsibility for management runoff and sedimentation associated with urbanization. De- and protection of Hawaiian monk seals because most of the creased salinity kills coral polyps and other marine life; sedi- monk seal habitat is within the FWS Hawaiian Islands National mentation smothers corals; turbidity from silt-laden runoff Wildlife Refuge in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. There reduces light availability vital to the reefs. Boat anchors also are strict regulations on human interactions with these animals. damage coral. Two endangered species of sea turtles, the leatherback and in the past, anchialine pools and wetlands, now recognized hawksbffl, and a threatened species, the green sea turtle, inhabit as unique and irreplaceable natural resources, have been filled coastal waters of Hawaii. Two other turtle species, the olive or drained for coastal developments. In other cases, the ecology Ridley and loggerhead, are rare visitors to Hawaii's waters. The of some anchialine pools and fishponds has been dramatically green sea turtle is the most common species. Although the altered by the introduction of alien species of fish, which population was declining, it now appears stable. Over 90 compete with the indigenous species for dominance over the percent of its mating activities occurs at French Fhgate Shoals. habitat. Hawaiis estuaiies are also especially sensitive to envi- In the main Hawaiian Islands, its nesting beaches are limited to ronmental insults. Contamination from point and nonpoint Mdomcimi on Molokai and other unnamed sites on Oahu and sources may exceed the assimilative capacity of the estuaries, Kauai. Hawksbill nesting beaches are located at Orr's Beach, thmtening the integrity of their resources. As habitats, feeding Punalu'u, Kamehame, and formerly at Kalapana on Hawaii, and and breeding grounds degrade or are lost, populations, indud- at Halawa on Molokai. ing those of threatened and endangered species, decrease. The humpback whale, the State's designated marine mam- Coastal vegetation has been destroyed by the development mal, is one of the most severely depleted of all whale species. of shoreline structures and the increasing use of off-road ve- Rough estimates place Hawaii's population at approximately hicles, exacerbating coastal erosion problems in many areas. 1,200-1,500 individuals. From December through May, hump- Shoreline construction also may disturb nearshore resident backs migrate to Hawaii's waters to mate and give birth. Each species sensitive to siltation and noise, and disrupt critical summer, they return to their feeding grounds along the Alaskan behavioral patterns. Peninsula or elsewhere in the northern regions of the Pacific. Human-induced pressures have contributed to a significant SWe Autborby decline in coastal fishery resources during the 20th Century It is the State's policy to protect endangered species of indig- (NMFS 1987), through overfishing and habitat degradation. Oil enous plants and animals and introduce new plants and animals and hazardous chemicals affect both individual organisms and only after ensuring that such introductioa@ will pose negligible whole ecosystem assemblages through asphyxiation and poi- ecological hazard (Chapter 344-4, FIRS). DLNR accords those soning. These losses have both ecological and economic reper- cu,,,ions. Plastic debris - in the form of nets, lines, food Within the State park system, two Underwater Parks have packaging, and other items - found in the oceans and along been named. However, since they are also MLCDs, they are not the coasts increasingly threatens marine life. Smaller pieces of managed as State parks. There has been no attempt to expand plastic are ingested causing death through blocked passages, mariagement and enforcement of these areas by combining the ulcerations, toxic accumulation and starvation. Entanglement efforts of DMs Divisions of Aquatic Resources, and State Parks. from discarded or lost fishing gear, such as drift nets, causes Inadequate Management of Important Marine Species death through drowning. Coastal developments often compete for the use of important Inadequate Management of Some Marine and Coastal resource habitats. However, without data on the locations of Resources and Areas "critical habitats' for endangered or threatened species, restric- Lack of IntTrated Marme ad Coastal Management A%ns tions on coastal developments often are not considered justifi- able. There is growing recognition of the need to protect the Currently, management of marine and coastal areas is done on habitats of these unique resources, such as humpback whales a piecemeal basis. While many individual areas are protected to and sea turtles. There is also an increasing awareness of the varying degrees, there is no comprehensive management plan need to regulate activities on land that affect, directly and for Hawaii's coastline and nearshore waters. Individual re- indirectly, critical marine habitats. Though current laws discuss sources and areas, which may be linked ecologically, often are the need for habitat protection, complete data regarding habitat managed without coordination by different agencies. As hu- locations are lacking. man, technological and development pressures continue to Other marine species, which are not protected under natural increase, protection of resources and open space will necmi- resource laws, are being harvested at a growing rate. For rate their comprehensive management in a coordinated man- example, the collection of finfish, shellfish and mollusks for the ner by Federal, State and County authorities. aquarium industry is a flourishing activity, risking the depletion Furthermore, there is a lack of integration in present plan- of these important species. The protection of these unprotected ning regarding terrestrial and marine resource management. It species and their habitats is a growing public concern in many is important to recognize the connection between the wet and areas of Hawaii. dry sides of the coastal zone. In fact, in Hawaii, the inland boundary of the coastal zone stretches, with the exception of Overuse of Certain Natural Resources and Areas forest reserves, across all land masses. Obviously, the land Many of Hawaii's marine protected areas, such as Molokini environment cannot be managed in isolation of coastal and NECD and Hanauma Bay MLCD, are over-used (DBED 1990). marine environments. Land use on Hawaii's mountains affects While the goal of the Marine life Conservation Program is nearshore waters through erosion, runoff and sedimentation; resource protection (Chapter 190, HRS), some of these areas therefore, it is important to consider resource protection in have become tourist destinations promoted by private interests. terms of linked ecosystems rather than political boundaries. There has been little effort to reduce use-levels because of Lack of Site-Spedjflk Management Plans DLNR's support for the public use of these MLCDs. Typically, DlNR has been reactive, as in the case of Molokini MLCD, Effective protection of Hawaii's unique and/or significant natu- where blocks for mooring buoys were dropped to eliminate ral areas - including estuaries, anchialine pools, wetlands, safety hazards only after the situation became a crisis. beaches, corals and unique shorelines and underwater geo- logic formations - requires site-specific management plans, Inadequate Worcement tailored to address the specific concerns of individual areas. The number of personnel available for enforcing regulations in Without clear management policies at the State and County existing protected areas is inadequate. The National Marine levels and without site-specific plans, many of Hawaii's unique Fisheries Service has four people available for the entire Pacific and significant resources of aesthetic, recreational and eco- area, including Hawaii. As already noted, DLNR, Division of norrk value are being degraded at the public's long-term Conservation and Resource Enforcement, has a limited number expense. of enforcement personnel on each of the main Islands (21 on Lack of Coordination in Management ofPmtectedAreas Oahu, 15 on Maui, 11 on Kauai, 15 on Hawaii). DOCARE Federal, State and County agencies have management authority personnel are responsible for enforcement in both marine and over individual areas and resources of Hawaii's marine and terrestrial areas; none are specifically assigned to marine pro- coastal environments. Despite the natural linkages, there has tected areas. been little effort, until recently, to coordinate their manage- Inadequate RL-@ and Monitoring Program ment. For example, the nearshore waters adjacent to coastal County parks are not protected by the State. At Kaloko- Given continuing or increasing levels of development, moni- Honokohau National Historical Park, Federal and State officials toring the effects of such development on the nearshore envi- are attempting to develop a coordinated management system roment is essential..Current water quality monitoring efforts for adjacent nearshore waters. However, this process is slow; by DOH provide useful, but not comprehensive, information. management jurisdiction and regulations are not settled Also, DOH monitoring is not site-specific to protected areas. implementing Actions: While general government funding for monitoring programs is DLNR and OSP sbould- limited, there are private programs - such as at resorts - and specific governmental programs - such as at the Natural 1. Prepare a comprehensive and cohesive statewide Energy Laboratory of Hawaii - which do monitor water qual- master plan for marine and coastal protected areas which ity. However, these programs are not coordinated and an can be incorporated into an overall management plan in overall water quality picture is not available (see Waste Man- order to balance protection and use of marine and coastal agement Technical Paper). resources. The master plan should both expand upon the Marine-life monitoring programs also are limited. DLNR, existing system and incorporate new types of marine protected areas which will protect such features as unique Division of Aquatic Resources, only conducts annual surveys underwater geological formations and archaeological on fish biomass in marine protected areas. More frequent and sites, as well as coastal areas from which whale-watching regular monitoring of marine resources within protected areas and other coastal-recreation activities can occur. This is needed. Monitoring parameters such as coral growth and planning process should include at least the following extent of coral cover also is essential in determining the health actions: of a marine ecosystem. Currently, this type of monitoring is not done on a regular basis in any protected area. a. Convene a State policy and management work- Complementing the monitoring programs, specific research shop to establish criteria for selecting marine and topics need to be addressed, including the identification of coastal protected areas. critical habitats for endangered and threatened species and b. Identify areas of exceptional resource value which pinpointing of the cause of ciguatera poisoning in fish. While should be considered for protected area status. This several university research projects are underway, more studies inventory of unique and representative examples of are needed to focus on meeting specific management objec- natural ecosystems and resources found in Hawaii's dves. Furthermore, research on the impacts of coastal develop- marine and coastal environments can be prepared as ment on nearshore ecosystems must be expanded. part of the overall coastal resources inventory within the State's Geographic Information System (GIS) pro- hmdequate Public Involvement gram. Identify natural areas in need of restoration, prion- Though there are means for the public to comment on the State tize these areas, and implement restoration prop-arns. EIS process, SMA permit requests and the Conservation District c. Establish a system of marine and coastal protected permit-granting process, the public does not have an effective areas throughout the State to protect the best ex- means for commenting on Environmental Assessments or Nega- amples of these natural ecosystems and resources on tive Declarations. Likewise, while the public has an opportunity each island. to comment on NARS site selections, the means is not effective. At this time, communitv education programs aimed at in- d. Establish site-specific management plans, within creasing public awareness'of and participation in marine and the framework of the statewide master plan, for each coastal resource issues are few in number. The development of marine and coastal protected area, using a methodol- such programs to expand the public's role in marine conserva- ogy such as "Limits to Acceptable Change" to estab- tion would nurture a respect for the natural environments of lish appropriate carrying capacities. Include within Hawaii and, thus enhance resource protection. these plans descriptions of allowed commercial and recreational uses. e. Uphold the original goal of the Marine Life Con- RIECOMMNIDAMNS servation District (MLCD) program, which is resource Objective protection, by establishing use-lintations so that marine resources within these districts are adequately Provide for protection of marine and coastal ecosystems, and protected. Those current MLCDs that are intensely establish a comprehensive system of marine and coastal pro- used are more appropriately managed as underwater tected areas within an integrated program which protects, parks; new MLCI)s should be designated for protec- preserves and enhances marine species and areas of excep- tion of marine resources. The original goals of the tional resource value on each main island, representing each of Natural Area Reserve System (NARS) and Fisheries the natural ecosystems and resources found in the marine and Management Area (FMA) programs should also be coastal environment of the State. upheld. Policy A f. Review the existing State Seabird Sanctuary sys- Expand protection of species, natural habitats and other re- tem to determine appropriateness of rules and man- sources of exceptional value, thereby rr-@nirnizing environmen- agement policies and feasibility of adding new units tal degradation from marine and coastal activities and uses. to the system to protect seabird and other wildlife resources. g. Establish a statewide system of day-use mooring d. Evaluate development along entire river water- buoys to protect reefs from anchor damage. DOT is sheds to ensure that estuaries will not be receiving presentlyworking with The Ocean Recreation Coun- large amounts of cumulative pollutants. cil of Hawaii (TORCH) and the Mooring Pin Advisory 6. Evaluate the feasibility of leasing submerged lands to Committee on this project, as required by House private, non-governmental organizations (eg., the Nature Concurrent Resolution No. 21, 1990. [See Ocean Conservancy) for management as a marine protected Recreation section] area. h. Identify species of high commercial and recre- Policy B ational values and provide these species and their habitats with adequate protection to ensure the contin- Facilitate coordinated and comprehensive inter-agency man- ued economic viability of their dependent industries. agement where jurisdictional overlaps exist between Federal, i. Continue working with the aquarium fish collect- State and County governments in marine and coastal protected ing industry to develop a management plan which areas. establishes guidelines and regulations of collection at Implementing Actions a given site and limits to collection of certain species. DLA(Rand CSP, in conjunction udib appropilatefederal, 2. Request the Legislature to increase funding to: DNU State and County agencies, sbould: State Parks Division in order to improve the management 1. Coordinate with Counties in designating and manag- of underwater parks; and DLNR Division of Forestry and ing marine protected areas adjacent to coastal County Wildlife in order to improve management and enforce- parks, coordinate with NSP and FWS in designating and ment of the State Seabird Sanctuary system. managing marine protected areas adjacent to coastal 3. Work with the Counties planning commissions, and National Parks and National Wildlife Refuges, and coor- planning departments (City Council and DLU for the City dinate with other State agencies in designating and man- and County of Honolulu), to establish coordinated ma- aging marine protected areas adjacent to coastal State rine fife and water quality monitoring programs to pro- parks. vide a comprehensive data base regarding the quality of 2. Facilitate and coordinate Federal, State, and private- Hawaii's marine and coastal resources. As part of these cooperative research and monitoring efforts at develop- programs: ing baseline information regarding the locations of crifi- a. Require monitoring before, during and after can- cal habitats of endangered and threatened species. En- struction of coastal developments in order to obtain courage the designation of these critical habitats as pro- a better data base for understanding the numerous tected areas. and cumulative impacts of these coastal develop- 3. Encourage joint efforts of Federal, State, County, ments on fringing reefs, anchialine pools and other private and community involvement in marine life and natural resources. water quality monitoring programs. b. Support research into the effects of coastal devel- 4. Organize statewide management workshops with opment on the quality of nearshore waters and ma- Federal, State, County and private managers to address rine life. significant issues and develop improved management 4, Establish an effective program for handling spills of tools such as: C oil and other hazardous substances in order to minimize a. A policy for protecting wetlands from develop- damage to the marine and coastal environments. [See ment Waste Management Section.] 5. Coordinate with and encourage Counties planning b. A strategy for maintaining open ocean space. departments (DLU for the City and County of Honolulu) to, c. Other policies governing the uses of resources of a. Establish appropriate development controls for shared interest. areas inland of marine and coastal protected areas to Policy C prevent non-point source pollution through ninoff or Improve the enforcement of regulations protecting marine and groundwater contamination. coastal protected areas and species. b. Incorporate habitat protection of endangered and Implementing Actions threatened coastal and marine flora and fauna into County planning efforts. DLNR sbould. c. Ensure that protection of open coastal spaces is 1. Request the Legislature to increase funding for en- included in County plans. forcement of marine conservation and preservation regu- lalion, to provide more personnel and equipment for 1, Encoura,epullici,,volvemeri,in,lelevelopmen,oI more comprehensive enforcement. overall and regional ocean and coastal management 2. Request the Legislature to increase funding for man- plans. a,emen, and educational programs addressing marine 8. Support the development of interpretive centers, and coastal protected areas and species; and encourage especially at protected areas, to educate the public on the Z) Federal and private funding of such efforts. uniqueness of Hawaii's marine resources. [See Research 3. Establish Memoranda of Understanding (MOU's) and Education section.] between Federal and State agencies to enable personnel from these agencies to enforce both State and Federal regulations. REFERENCES 4. Coordinate community and private-sector involve- Arakaki, S.T. 1990. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Letter of ment in monitoring and enforcement of regulations. November 21, 1990. Honolulu. 5. Budget funds to staff and publicize the toll-free num- ber available to the public to report sighted violations of Callies, D.L. 1984. Regulating Paradise- Land Use Controls in regulations. This should be done in cooperation with the Hawaii. Honolulu:University of Hawaii Press. existing NMFS program for reporting violations of regula- tions concerning marine mammals and sea turtles. Holt, A. 1990. Letter of September 3, 1990. Honolulu. 6. Identify remote areas in need of more frequent pa- trolling. Kramer, W. 1990. Personal communication, July 1990. Honolulu. 7. Review penalties for adequacy and appropriateness. MacDonald, C.D. and H.E. Deese. 1990. A Comprehensive Policy D Analysis and Overview of Hawaii's Ocean Industries. Coastal Zone '89 Proceedings. Vol. IV. pp. 3481-3493. New Enhance local community awareness, appreciation, and par- York:American Society of Engineers. ticipation in marine conservation and preservation efforts. Implementing Actions: MacDonald, C.D. and A.L. LaBarge. 1990. Ocean R&D Spending D,LVR should.. Patterns in Hawaii: Analysis and Outlook. Proceedings of the Fourth Pacific Congress on Marine Science and Technology, 1. Request the Legislature to appropriate funds for im- PACON'90. Vol. 11. pp. 65-72. Honolulu:PACON International. proving public education programs in schools and else- where, to increase public awareness and appreciation of National Marine Fisheries Service, Southwest Fisheries Center, marine resources and conservation. [See Ocean Research Honolulu Laboratory. 1987. Hawaii@ Marine Fishery Re- and Education section.] sources., Yesterday (1900) and Today (1986). Adrr-@nistrative 2. Encourage public participation programs such as Report H-87-21. By R.S. Shomura. Honolulu. "Coast Watch" or"Adopt-a-Shoreline" as ways to enhance National Marine Fisheries Service, Southwest Fisheries Center, public understanding of marine conservation and en- Honolulu Laboratory. 1988. Ybe Hawaiian Monk Seal.. Popu- forcement of rules. lation StatusandCurrentResearchActidties. By W.G. Gilmartin. 3. Encourage programs which emphasize the cultural Honolulu. and historical values of Hawaii's marine and coastal resources. For example, seek programs which revitalize Naughton, J.J. 1990. Personal communication, July 1990. Hono- ancient Hawaiian fishponds to grow opae `ula (red shrimp) lulu. using traditional methods as a means of historical preser- vation. This must include solving siltation and runoff Nitta, E.T. 1990. Personal communication, July 1990. Honolulu. problems, and could be a part of interpretive programs at parks or resorts, rather than as commercial ventures. State of Hawaii, Department of Business and Economic Devel- 4. facilitate the process for public comment on the opment. 1990, Report to the Fifteenth State Legislature Regular adequacy of Environmental Assessments and on Nega- Session of 1990 on Chapter 228, Hawaii Revised Statutes, tive Declarations. Ocean Resources Management. 5. Facilitate the process for public comment on adding State of Hawaii, Department of Health. 1989. Hawaff'sNonpoint to or removing lands from the Natural Area Reserve Source Water Pollution Management Plan. Honolulu. System. 6. Change the administrative procedure to allow for a State of Hawaii, Legislative Reference Bureau. 1987. Compen- public comment period for species recovery plans. dium of State Ocean and Marine Related Policies. By T.S. Brennen and K.H. Takayama. Honolulu. Christopher B. Jones Center for Development Studies Social Science Research Institute, University of Hawaii 2424 Mae Way Honolulu, HI 96822 BERCHES RHD CORSTRL EROS10H nm "SOURCE PAGE Worldwide, the typical image of Hawaii is of beautiful white TIk1E RESOURCE 60 sand beaches lined with palm trees. Hawaii has majestic Physical Processes as Resources 61 mountains and famous volcanos, but the areas most valued - Long-Term Erosion Trends 61 treasured by visitors and residents alike - are coastlines. Ironically, the very desirability of those coastlines for recre- RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 62 ation, vacationing and residence has resulted in human activi- Federal Authority 62 ties that threaten future enjoyment of them. State Authority 62 The threat in a word, is erosion. Whereas erosion is a natural County Authority 63 process, and not usually a problem in the absence of human MANAGEMEENT ISSUES 64 development, human development along the coastline has Resource Sustainabifity 64 increased both erosion and the risks to life and property as a Hardening 64 result. So .ft Approacbes 64 Many people now recognize the resource value of beaches User Conflicts 65 and shoreline property.-Millions of tourists come to the Islands ineffective Management and Coordination 65 every year just to enjoy the beaches. Residents, as well as Resource Issues 65 visitors, use Hawaii's beaches for recreation. On an average Enforcement Issues 66 day, at least 170,000 people swim or sunbathe at beaches in Researcb Issues 66 Hawaii (see Ocean Recreation Technical Paper). Shoreline Sboreline Boundary Issues 66 residences are among the most prized real estate in the nation. Coordination Issues 66 Hotels, condominiums, apartments and homes on the shore- he, and especially close to beaches, are of preirdurn value. A Participation and Education 67 home or condo on the beach is considered by many to be a RECOMNMATIONS 67 luxury because of the proximity to this resource. Objective 67 Not often considered is the importance of beaches as a Policiesand implementing Actions 67 resource for other purposes, such as wildlife habitats, energy buffers, and as a source of sand. Ecologically, beaches and nearshore marine waters are habitats for many seabirds, turtles and other animals that nest or breed on beaches or dunes. Communities of crustaceans inhabit certain beaches and attract shorebirds. Sea turtles come ashore to lay their eggs above the high water line on a few remote beaches, primarily in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. The Hawaiian coastline also supports unique beach ecosystems, called "strand" ecosys- tems, which contain rare endemic and indigenous forms of plant life. Most people are unaware of the critical role that coral reefsl and beaches play as energy buffers. Sandy beaches are particu- larly important for protecting inland areas from storm flooding the shorehe.8 The winter storms of 1968 and 1969 are ex- and damage from wave run-up. Sandy beaches have a dynarnic amples of this type of storm (Hwang 1981). relationship with wave energy levels: sand can be both depos- ited (e.g., during the relatively calm summer) and eroded (e.g., Long-Term Erosion Trends during winter storms). This suggests the importance of sand in Beach sand in Hawaii originates from three sources: erosion of nearshore areas. Nearshore sand is an integral part of a beach volcanic rock on land, fragmentation of coral reef materials and system, with sand moving on- and offshore depending on associated shells of organisms, and, rarely, fragmentation of wave action and currents. lava flowing into the ocean. The primary source of beach sand Historically, beaches also have been a source of sand for on the older Islands is from the fringing coral reef (COE 1979). human activity, mainly construction. Removing sand from one While the composition of typical beach sand includes both area of a beach system, as is done in sand mining, can cause calcareous and basaltic materials, the predominant compo- erosion problems in other areas of that system. Shoreline sand nents are fragments of skeletal parts of marine invertebrate mining occurred for many years, for example at Waimea Bay animals and algae. The most common skeleton fragments on Oahu and Papohaku Beach on Molokai, but removal of belong toforaminifera, followed by mollusks, red algae, and sand from beaches now is severely restricted, echinoids (Moberly and Chamberlain 1964). Coral fragments have been found to be fifth in order of prominence in calcar- Physical Processes as Resources eous sands and are thought to be declining as a source of sand The Hawaiian chain generally is believed to have been formed due to overfishing of parrotfish and other grazing fish that by the tectonic movement of the Pacific plate over a "hot spot" bioerode coral skeletons (OSP 1989). The other major source in the Earth's crust. This hot spot created a succession of of beach sand is eroded basaltic material frorn the land surface, volcanos as the plate moved toward the northwest. Thus, the which are either fragments of bedrock or minerals.9 oldest of the eight major islands is Kauai and Hawaii is the Human intervention in the coastal zone clearly has had a youngest. Correlated with age, Kauai has the most extensive major impact on the natural processes of erosion and accretion. beaches and Hawaii has the least. The "hardening" of the shoreline, 10 particularly on Oahu (e.g., Coastlines consist of sea cliffs (e.g., Na Pali Coast), sandy the shoreline fronting the Diamond Head end of KaJakaua beaches, mud flats, raised coral reefs, and some areas of Avenue in Waikiki), has had such a critical effect that some mangrove. Bay formations are generally the result of river beaches may never recover. As previously mentioned, over- valleys drowned by post-glacial sea-level rise or embayments fishing of coral grazers may have a long-temi negative impact between adjacent volcanos (OSP 1989). Long stretches of on the generation of sand. @he smothering of coral reefs by silt sandy beaches are found on all the major islands, except for and other kinds of nonpoint source pollution also has a Kahoolawe and Hawaii, Pocket beaches formed between detrimental effect on the long-term health of coral reef commu- rocky headlands or sea cliffs are the most common type of nities, and thus their sand-production abilities. Navigation beach found on the islands of Kahoolawe and Hawaii. Pocket channels cut through reefs not only destroy sections of the reef, beaches are found on all Hawaiian islands. but also act as sediment traps, which remove sand from the active littoral zone (Moberly and Chamberlain 1964; COE Erosion and accretion are natural processes. In many areas, 1979). sand is moved from place to place2 along the shore and within Sand mining also has been an historical activity which has the nearshore area by wave action and coastal currents as part contributed to erosion. Although sand mining is now restricted of an annual cycle of erosion and accretion. This type of to beach replenishment efforts, the removal for personal use is erosion is especially noticeable at north shore beaches because still allowed (up to one gallon per person per day). Stream of large seasonal differences in wave action. Hawaiian coast- mouths occasionally, often seasonally, become clogged with lines also experience cyclical erosion,3 in which an area may sand and detritus. Stream and channel mouths are cleared of erode for a number of years and then accrete for a number of sand periodically. Generally, the material is placed on adjacent years. shoreline areas although sometimes it is removed from the The key processes that drive littoral changes include winds, littoral cell entirely. currents, waves,4 tsunamis,5 hurricanes6 and seasonal stonns. At a global level, human interventions in natural processes Storms can produce the most profound and dramatic erosion may have an even more profound impact on Hawaii's coast- and damage effects. Large storms that coincide with high tides line. Global climate change may have a range of possible long- often do the greatest damage. Storm waves under these condi- term consequences including: altered precipitation patterns, 11 tions are able to strike the coastline at greater heights and with altered winds and currents,12 air and water temperatures;13 greater energy.7 Not only are these types of storms a threat to increased frequency and intensity of storms and hurricanes; 24 buildings and other coastal developments, but they also have and an accelerated sea-level rise. 15 great potential to carry large volumes of sand offshore and along the shore (COE 1979). Such storms, although they may While there is still considerable uncertainty about the extent only occur once a decade, can have significant impacts along of possible global warming due to the doubling of carbon dioxide and increasing amounts of other "greenhouse" gases in Amendment to the NFIP (PL 100-242,5544), which encourages the atmosphere, there is widespread consensus that the atmo- retreat from eroding coastlines by providing advance pay- sphere is warming. A similar consensus is growing that global ments of certain insurance benefits. [County flood ordinances warming will result in an acceleration of global sea-level rise. presently complement certain FEMA-identified flood zone Both developments, fortunately, are gradual, can be moni- controls, such as guidelines on ground-level construction to tored and responded to before their effects have serious allow flood waters to flow beneath elevated houses and to impacts on life and property. restrict emplacement of flood-deflecting fill (Kanuha 1990).] Sea-level rise itself is still a controversial topic. There is not COE has jurisdiction in the coastal zone from the mean high much doubt that the sea level will rise. The disagreements are water mark seaward to the 3-mile limit. COE permits are about the extent of the global sea-level rise. Sea-level research required for dredging, mooring buoys, discharge of fill materi- has shown that in the last century, the global rise has been als, and erosion-control structures, such as revetments, groins, somewhere between 8 and 20 centimeters. An average figure breakwaters and levees. Any individual or entity who plans to many scientists would agree on for the global sea-level rise in do work 'in, under, across, or on the banks of navigable the last 100 years is about 15 cm (6 inches). waters" must obtain a COE permit. Its regulatory mandate is The threat which sea-level rise poses to coastal erosion is not established in at least nine laws including: the Rivers and a direct one, such as coastal inundation, but rather secondary Harbors Act of 1899; Fish and Wildlife Act of M8; Environ- effects that could enhance the worst effects of storm surges, mental Policy Act of 1969; CZM Act of 1972. While major projects in its jurisdiction require regular COE permits, a normal winter storms and seasonal ocean wave swells. How- @nationwide" permit program is in effect for projects of limited ever, one direct effect of sea4evel rise to be considered is what scope. The nationwide program is intended to reduce delay is known as the Bruun rule. According to the Bruun rule for and paperwork for small projects. Between 10 and 30 activities sandy shorelines (on moderate slopes), for every unit up, the are undertaken annually in Hawaii under COE nationwide sea moves inland 100 units. Thus, even for a one-inch rise in sea permits (OSP 1989). level, the high-fide mark moves roughly three yards inland (National Research Council 1987). COE will build erosion-control structures when the long- Regardless of the uncertainties involved in projecting the term benefits over a 50-year period can be justified. COE acts extent of possible sea-level rise and effects of global warming, on requests from projects at a local level, but will not develop planners cannot avoid taking these long-term factors into such structures for purely private interests. Approval forprojects account. Over the long-haul, the costs of doing otherwise generally is not granted until all State and County permits are would be self-defeating. granted. COE is responsible for an environmental assessment (EA) and, 9 necessary, an environmental impact statement (EIS) for projects with significant environmental impacts under RESOURCE MANAGEMENT the Environmental Policy Act of 1969. Permit issuance is de- pendent upon a review of the EA or EIS, if deemed necessary. Federal Authority Federal authority related to erosion control and management is State Authority embodied in the Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Act of 1972 State Authority rests in two major pieces of legislation, the State (CZMA), national flood insurance programs administered un- Land Use Law (Chapter 205, HRS) as amended, and Hawaii der the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), and CZM Law (Chapter 205A, FIRS). The State Land Use Law is the mndates of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE). cornerstone legislation which, among other things, establishes The CZM Act (P.L. 92-583) was created to provide assistance the four major land-use classifications (urban, rural, agricul- to and support states in developing programs for managing tural and conservation), and divides the jurisdiction over these coastal zones. Shoreline erosion is an explicit issue mentioned lands among State and County governments. Urban districts in the CZM Act as an area of concern to be addressed by state are under the control of the four County governments. Parcels CZM Program policy. In addition, the Federal CZM office of 15 acres or less in agricultural and rural districts come under encourages greater levels of cooperation among all levels of County control. Larger parcels are under State control. Conser- government in planning for and management of hazard-prone vation lands are under State, control. areas (OSP 1989). The Department of Land and Natural Resources (DlNR) has FEMA's mandate is to provide leadership in flood p ain jurisdiction over conservation district lands, some of which are management and the protection of wetlands. Congress has shorefront. All submerged lands seaward of the shoreline, out acted to mandate FEMA to implement a coastal erosion man- to the limit of the State's jurisdiction, are in the conservation agement program. FEMA has not yet fully exercised its legisla- district and thus fall under DLNR jurisdiction. The shoreline is five authority in the area, but is exploring erosion management defined "as the upper reaches of the wash of the waves, other options to be administered through the National Flood Insur- than storm and seismic waves, at high tide during the season of ance Program (NFIP). Worthy of mention is the Upton-Jones the year in which the highest wash of the waves occurs, usually evidenced by the edge of vegetation growth, or the upper limit oldelris left I, the wash of the waves (Chapter 205A-1, HRS)." Act 356 of the 1989 Legislature, relating to CZM, was enacted DLNR reviews Conservation District Use Applications (CDUAs) to strengthen Chapter 205A. Major amendments included a to allow construction or activities in conservation lands (e.g., provision to bring unauthorized seawalls into government seawalls and revetments), although the Board of Land and shoreline jurisdiction - even if a part is on private land; Natural Resources can deny permit applications or attach expansion of the "cause of action provision" (right of individu- conditions to them. als to file suit) to include all coastal areas (within the State's The certified shoreline is a critical boundary for the determi- jurisdiction) outside of the Special Management Area (SMA nation of the various jurisdictions. The procedures for certifica- extension of and increase in civil penalties for SMA and shoreline tion are specified in Chapter 91, HRS, which determine where setback area violations; and, extension of County Jurisdiction over the State's jurisdiction begins. Chapter 13-222, Hawaii Admin- the area between the mean sea level and the shoreline (OSP 1989). istrative Rules, "Shoreline Certifications," was adopted in 1988, The Hawaii Environmental Impact Statement Law of 1974 to standardize the shoreline certification application proce- applies to all State, County and private developments within dure. These rules and regulations administered by the Board the shoreline setback area. The EA/EIS requirements are trig- were promulgated to implement the shoreline setback law and gered when any water or land-use permit applications are other related laws. deemed to have significant environmental impact, defined as The Department of Transportation (DOT) has authority over "the sum of those effects that affect the quality of the environ- activities within State waters (Chapter 266, HRS). Ocean dredg- ment, including actions that irrevocably commit a natural ing, filling, construction and dumping materials below the resource, or adversely affect the economic or social welfare" mean high water mark (or in any navigable waters) require a (Chapter 343, HRS). The first agency receiving an application DOT permit. A DOT Shorewaters Permit is processed and for project approval has the authority to make a negative issued concurrently with a CDUA. The Water Transportation declaration with respect to the EA, or call for a more detailed Facilities Division of DOT will provide a written statement EIS. When the EIS is submitted, the agency has the authority to concurring ordisagreeing with the CDUA/Shorewaters Permit. accept it or reject it as incomplete. The Department of Health If DOT does not concur with the CDUA permit approval, the (DOH) is responsible for environmental quality of State waters applicant must apply separately for a Shorewaters Permit (.Chapter 342, HRS). The National Pollution Discharge Elimina- (DPED 1979). tion System is a permit process designed to manage and regulate waste discharge into streams and coastal waters (un- Chapter 183, HRS, Part IV, Relating to Forest and Water der the Clean Water Act of 1977). It is administered by DOH. Reserve Zones, gives DLNR authority to establish forest and Thus, DOH could become involved in an erosion-control water reserve zones and to adopt regulations governing them. activity such as offshore sand mining for beach replenishment, n 1985, amendments to this law prohibited building structures which could affect water quality. or seawalls on accreted lands (except State and County prop- erties) and cletermined that all accreted lands should be consid- County Authority ered to be within the Conservation District. Landward of the shoreline, Counties have jurisdiction under Chapter 205A, HRS, the Hawaii CZM law, has set out State zoning, SMA and shoreline setback regulations. Under broad guidelines and objectives to regulate the State's coastal Chapter 205A, the four Counties are required to establish SMA zone. This law was the result of the authority delegated boundaries and an SMA permit process for lands extending through the National CZM Act of 1972 to the various coastal from the shoreline to no less than 100 yards inland. Develop- states, which in Hawaii is vested in the Hawaii CZM Program. merits within SMAs must conform to the objectives and provi- The program is administered by the Office of State Planning sions within the Hawaii CZM Law. The permit-granting au- (OSP), through a network of State agencies, and the County thorities are the planning commissions for Kauai, Maui, and governments (through the Special Management Areas/Shore- Hawaii Counties and the City Council for the City and County line Setbacks - discussed later). CZM objectives relevant to of Honolulu. Applicants for an SMA Use Permit must file a coastal erosion included provisions: to provide accessibility document that includes an identification of the property, plans, to recreational resources; protect, preserve and restore sce- description of the proposed development, shoreline survey (if nic and open space resources; protect or minimize disrup- on the shoreline), and a description of the environment af- tion of coastal ecosystems; protect life and property from fected. Evidence must be provided that there are no serious coastal hazards; and to improve the development process, environmental or ecological impacts. SMA permit application improve communications, and encourage public participa- triggers a review by the designated agency, based on its value tion. (major permits are required for projects over $65,000) and The Hawaii CZM Program also mandated OSP to reduce potential environmental impact. hazard to life and property from tsunami, storm waves, stream The Shoreline Setback Law (Chapter 205A, HRS, Part III) is flooding, erosion, and subsidence; and, control development most applicable to shoreline erosion impacts. Similar to the in areas subject to storm waves, tsunami, flood, erosion, and SMA process, authority is delegated to the Counties to establish subsidence hazard (Chapter 205A, Part 111). setbacks no less than 20 feet and no more than 40 feet inland from the shoreline (although counties may extend the setback wave energy, which causes sand scouring and carries sand further by County ordinance). The law is intended to control offshore. As a result, these structures may block lateral shore- development on the shoreline, maintain open space and pre- line access, and can create hazards for people swimming, serve public access to the shoreline. By restricting shoreline surfing or sailing. construction, the law reduces the long-term threat of erosion A similar cost is associated with the use of groins in some and allows for erosion-control structures when erosion threat- places. First, accretion up-drift and erosion down-drift of the ens private property. Administration and enforcement of the structures occurs. Second, the groins may reduce the strength shoreline setback requirements are the responsibility of the of the long-shore current. Finally, the groins have combined to County planning departments (Kauai, Maui, Hawaii) and the reduce or cut off the sand feeding the area. Dennis Hwang Department of Land Utilization (DLU) of the City and County (1981) pictorially illustrates how this has occurred at Kualoa of Honolulu. Variances for prohibited activities and structures Point on Oahu. Another cost may be the false sense of security may be issued following a review by the County authorities. that seawalls and revetments provide. While most stabilization Variances may be granted with conditions attached by the structures (e.g., on much of Oahu's North Shore) may handle responsible County planning department. The primary inten- normal winter waves, during large storms or tsunamis, the tion of the variance procedure is to minirnize the interference structures may be topped or damaged. The threat to life and with natural shoreline processes. However, this provision is property may be greater than if the structures had never been considered secondary to private property protection (DPED built. Over the long term, shoreline structures can be damaged 1979). "under normal conditions" simply by the incessant pounding of the sea. Major storms also can alter the offshore morphol- MANAGEMENT ISSUES ogy, thus changing coastal processes and rendering these protection structures ineffective. Management issues associated with the coastal erosion sector Even when people are committed to the construction of in Hawaii fall into four major categories: resource sustainability; erosion-control structures, there are some serious manage- use conflicts; ineffective management and coordination; and ment considerations. To address the structural and functional participation and education. requirements for erosion projects there should be adequate Resource Sustainability knowledge of the environmental site conditions; adequate knowledge of the short and long-term littoral processes; ad- There are two major approaches to dealing with erosion when equate design of the structure; proper construction and main- it becomes a problem. The first focuses on efforts to manage the tenance; and goals or priorities that may constrain the selection physical form of the shoreline. Shore stabilization structures of a particular measure or structure (OSP 1989). are designed to protect shorefront property and are referred to Soft Approacbes as "hardening." The other approach to erosion management recognizes the dynamics of natural shbrehe processes and is For the most part, these approaches are in the interest of referred to as the "soft" approach. This approach includes preserving the sandy beach resource, although private prop- planning efforts such as zoning, shoreline setbacks and special erty generally has higher precedence. Some of theapproaches, design requirements. Imbedded in these approaches is a such as beach fill and beach nourishment, border on the hard conflict: one emphasizes interference with natural processes side (as earthmoving processes), but are considered less dam- to protect private property, while the other emphasizes plan- aging (even supportive) of natural littoral processes. ning and design with nature in mind. Renourishment of eroding beaches with sand, construction of Hardening barrier dunes and planting vegetation along unstable beaches are other physical alternatives for controlling the effects of Physical techniques and structures widely used to control erosion. These approaches are less invasive, soft techniques erosion processes include: seawalls, groins, bulkheads, revet- for stabilizing beach processes. These nonstructural methods ments, detached breakwaters and sand-grabbers. The effect of have been under-utilized and beach replenishment projects hardening on an increasing percentage of state beaches (par- are impeded due to regulatory hurdles (DPED 1979). ticularly on Oahu) has been labelled "fortress-building" for Sand mining is clearly an issue related to both beaches and good reason. The trend can be seen clearly on aerial photo- shoreline erosion. Conceptually, sand from mining operations graphs. Future problems at current chronic erosion sites are can be removed from the littoral area or placed in it. For the Rely to continue to provoke proposals for more erosion- most part, sand has been mined for use as a construction control structure. The continuation of hardening overthe long- material. Sand for this purpose has come from beaches and run comes with considerable costs. One cost associated with sand deposits (e.g., "relic dunes") mauka of the shoreline stabilization structures is the possible transfer of erosion prob- boundary. More recently, sand from a third geographic area - lems to neighboring shoreline properties, resulting in the need offshore deposits -has been explored as a possible source for for similar measures by downshore property owners. The net beach replenishment (as well as for commercial purposes). effect of these structures (especially seawalls) is often to reflect Sand mining is restricted, but may now be authorized for public uses by a Shoreline Setback Variance. Relic dunes within the This may happen gradually, but once the beach is totally SMA (outside of the shoreline setback area), can be mined if an eroded at the toe of the structure, access is prevented. The SMA permit is obtained. The most critical issue facing the tendency toward hardening not only blocks lateral shoreline mining of off-shore sand for beach replenishment (other than access, but also creates hazards for recreational activities. One cost), is the plethora of regulatory hurdles. Among the hurdles factor that exacerbates the strength of public feeling about the that could be required to replenish an Oahu beach are: CDUA, issue is the perception (often true) that many structures are SMA, EIS, DOH Water Quality, COE and DOT permits; DLNR constructed improperly and/or illegally. Shoreline access is a Land Management Division approval, as well as approval of the critical issue. It is one of the key objectives of the CZM Act and City Council. it is a high profile issue for the general public. Shoreline setbacks are examples of soft regulation, yet the The loss of lateral access due to hardening is a serious issue setback variance process allows measures of the hard sort. highlighted at the time of this writing by a court case involving However, as Hwang pointed out a decade ago, 40 foot - let a seawall proposed for a stretch of Lanikai beach on Oahu. The alone 20 foot - setbacks in some areas are of little value in Lanikai case also reflects another conflict area, a private-private protecting against erosion. He pointed out that Counties have tension. Some Lanikai shoreline residents are concerned that the power under Chapter 205A to regulate new development seawall construction will accelerate erosion on neighboring within the 100-yard SMA. Rolling back the setback boundary properties. Thus, an example of private- private use conflict is for new developments could be carried out within the current where construction of a seawall or revetment by one owner can regulatory framework (Hwang 1981). A related set of issues result in loss of sand from neighbors' properties. pertains to the need for the State and Counties to act to create Larger private developments also may create erosion prob- special zones (i.e., hazard zones or coastal erosion districts) to lems resulting in both private-public and private-private con- vary setbacks in the absence of the political will to roll them flicts, although this appears to be less of a problem than back to a standard limit (e.g., 100 to 300 feet). haphazard residential seawall construction. Similarly, large Use Confficts public works projects, such as marina developments and/or entrance channel projects, may alter littoral sand cycles and As illustrated above, erosion problems often raise debates over thus have long-term consequences both for private and public public-versus-private property rights. This is the key issue that beach properties (see Harbors Technical Paper). poses one of the greatest challenges to erosion management. C, Thus, what might be considered a laissez-faire approach to For example, the legal issue of "taking" often arises when the structural stabilization conflicts with the "public trust". A list of government is perceived to be infringing on private property public trust concerns includes: governmental responsibility to rights or effecting property values. Use conflicts are not con- protect citizens from natural hazards; long-term erosion "exter- fined solely to tensions between public and private interests, nalities" (i. e., costs of property loss, construction and loss of tax and can include private-private and public- public conflicts as' revenues); uncoordinated individual actions with unintended well. consequences (e.g., physical impacts on public lands and Public-private tension is the central conflicting-use issue. resources); long time-horizons and a disproportionate share of Lands seaward of the shoreline (the vegetation line or upper costs transferred to future generations; and the public's "right wash of the waves evidenced by a debris he) are open, public- to know" in the case of proposed developments in erosion- use areas. As a result of erosion, the outer boundary of public- sensitive areas (OSP 1989). Noda points to the need to see use areas is pushed inland, thus shrinking that zone. The erosion management as part of a larger set of policy initiatives reasoning is that erosion-control structures built within the "involving open space preservation, beach access, shoreline shoreline setback establish a firm boundary for a private development and ocean resource management" (OSP 1989, 3-14) property parcel, while the shoreline - vegetation line and/or upper wash of waves - continues to move inland up to the toe ineffective Management and Coor(hnadon of the structure. If left to erode naturally, the beaches generally ResourceIssues maintain a normal profile. In these cases, the public-use area is maintained, but there is no compensation to the private owners The lack of financial and human resources has been identified for their loss of property. Clearly the inclination of property as a problem in the area of erosion management, particularly owners is not to abide the processes of nature, and shore in enforcement (OSP 1989). At the County level, there is protection structures are put in place to stabilize the shoreline insufficient budgetand personnel for adequate inspection and- and maintain the private, upland property. monitoring of erosion-control structures. Coastal engineering Given the general tendency towards shoreline hardening to expertise is needed within line agencies, not just through protect private property, it is usually public areas that are occasional consulting studies. There is also a clear need for reduced in size over time. The construction of erosion-control other technical specialists in the coastal zone management structures, such as seawalls and revetments tends to reduce the network or available to it. Hawaii is, in fact, the only coastal public" area. It may prevent lateral access altogether, as state without a state geological survey (Moberly 1990). There have been continuing problems in recruiting and retaining this mentioned earlier (see Ocean Recreation Technical Paper). type of specialist in government. This is by no means a problem tification is to define the shoreline to implement the shoreline unique to erosion management, but it is a problem that compli- setback law and other related laws. A number of problems cates effective shoreline management. remain: the issue of "ownership,' the accuracy and efficacy of Enforcement Issues the certification process, "emergency ordinances' following coastal erosion events, and subdivisions of accreted lands and Although it appears that enforcement is a statewide problem, within shoreline setbacks. In the first place, State certification the City and County of Honolulu has the largest problem one of the shoreline does not deal at all with the problem of of the more dramatic areas, which exemplifies this manage- ownership of the lands in question. Shoreline certification only ment problem, is Lanikai beach. On one stretch, there are 36 establishes (for one year) the boundary of the setback and lots, only three of which have not had seawalls built on them. SMA. Thus, while the consequences of certification generally Only two were built with the proper permits. Nine seawalls are mean that the makai side is public and the mauka. side is .non- conforming" and 22 are considered illegal (OSP 1989,3- private, it does not always establish the legality of "ownership." 14). Studies have called for greater monitoring (e.g., from For example, if erosion or accretion occur, the State can oblique aerial photographs) to detect illegal structure and for recertify the shoreline, but cannot decide ownership ques- the need to take sanctions against violators. Whereas the tions. Counties now have greater jurisdiction, at the time of this Another problem is that when shorelines are surveyed report, violators are still not being fined for illegal seawall during calm weather, the shoreline certified usually does not construction. reflect the statutory "upper reaches of the waves ... at high tide Enforcement has been problematic because of the difficulty during the season of the year in which the highest wash of the in identifying illegal structures. Considerable energy is spent in waves occurs..."This is particularly true forthe Island of Hawaii the process of inventorying existing shore structures and in where wave wash-up is considerable, and evidence for the researching permit histories. Records need to be searched at all "upper reaches" is not as clear, given the generally younger three levels of government (Federal, State and County) be- geology of the shoreline (Kanuha 1990). In cases where the cause it may not be possible to tell what agency had jurisdiction shoreline is lost "due to subsidence due to earthquake, or at the time of construction. Clearly, the lack of funding and storm or tidal wave," the shoreline may be certified at or near staffing for enforcement are significant issues. High litigation the location of the earlier shoreline and the property owrer costs are another major contributing factor limiting the level of may apply to restore the shoreline at its previous location. enforcement. There is serious concern about this process on the part of Researcb Issues environmentalists and planners who think that it sets the stage for even more problems in the future, including pos- Enforcement is clearly linked with the need for more research sible loss of life. and better coordination of shoreline data and beach databases. Subdivisions of land within the shoreline setback area also In addition to monitoring shoreline lots on Oahu, statewide have become a problem. Some wide, shallow lots where monitoring and shoreline surveys and monitoring are needed. resulting subdivision means that there is little buffer between Baseline data are needed for offshore bathymetry and coastal structures and the shoreline. "Hardship" setback variances are morphology. Long-term time-series studies are needed to much easier to obtain for erosion-control structures when lots establish baseline erosion rates, including site evaluations as are shallow. well as fine-grained photographic and cartographic data- ga - ering. Risk assessments still are needed to isolate specific high- Coordination Issues risk erosion and hazard areas for site-specific time-senies re- The lack of interagency coordination of erosion management search. and permitting has had a number of consequences. For ex- Sboreftne Boundaty Issues ample, some property owners, faced with the possible red tape In 1989, legislation providing that the Counties may extend in dealing with three levels of government opt to build seawalls their shoreline jurisdiction seaward to the mean sea 1'evel was solely on their own property. Although they only have to get a an important step toward untangling the jumble of overlapping setback variance (and thus avoid Federal and State permits), jurisdictions, blurred jurisdictional boundaries and shifting the smaller space available for a structure favors the selection physical boundaries of the shoreline. One continual source of of a seawall, which is likely to lead to greater erosion. complications has been that natural boundaries shift and change, Physical boundaries can change to complicate matters fur- while the regulatory boundaries tend to stay the same. Histori- ther. Construction of shoreline-stabilization structures sea- cally, differing definitions of the shoreline have posed prob- ward of the shoreline may result in the movement of the lems, and have changed over time. For example, shoreline shoreline to the toes of the structures. Thus, a structure con- jurisdiction boundaries may be defined as the highest wash of structed in the jurisdiction of DLNR may eventually fall under the waves, the mean sea level or the vegetation line. County jurisdiction. This is one reason why a coordinated Shoreline certification has been one focal point of the State/County system for managing shoreline stabilization struc- erosion management problem. The purpose of shoreline cer- tures is needed. CO1', "nationwide" permit system has streamlineltle pro- example, K2ilua, Oahu residents might benefit from knowl- cess of obtaining a Federal permit for minor work in the coastal edge about tradewind patterns over the long-term. Evidence zone, and as a result is often considered the easiest permit to suggests that tradewinds shift direction from northeast to east obtain (OSP 1989). Because obtaining a nationwide permit is and back to the northeast over a period of 40 years. If this relatively easy, many people apparently believe it is the only periodicity continues, Kailua beach erosion/accretion also permit necessary. Despite the fact that COE informs permit may have a natural 40-year cycle (Hwang 1981). recipients to check with the local permit-granting agencies, Public education is intrinsic to public participation in the many people do not obtain the additional necessary permits. planning and management process (a CZM objective) and to COE forwards copies of its permits to local agencies, but there the cultivation of a future-oriented perspective. The low level is no formal inforination-sharing process. Similarly, State and r 01 public participation and public education, coupled with the County agencies do not consistently inform COE about pen-nits lack of a long-range planning component in policy and man- that also fall in COE jurisdiction. agement points to continued and escalating conflicts and costs. Coordination is also a problem at the neighborhood level. Unless Hawaii becomes more anticipatory, its people will be There has been a serious lack of coordination with or among unprepared to deal with the serious concerns that will be posed residents with respect to the alignment and littoral coordina- by global warming and sea-level rise over the next two de- tion of structures. Sea Engineering cites the Punaluu area (of cades. The absence of an engaging information and public Windward Oahu) as a good example, where erosion structures education program will allow widespread public apathy to- are well-constructed, generally of the same type, and have ward a number of ocean and coastal issues to continue. consistent alignment. By contrast, a section of Oahu's Laniloa Hawaii needs to stay on the "cutting edge" of national coastal beach has eight different types of structures, with varying zone management. Of the 29 states with CZM programs, only alignments, and the "overall appearance of the shoreline is 13 including Hawaii, have setback regulations specifically for poor" (DLU 1989, 23). erosion. Hawaii has been in the forefront of coastal manage- PaifWpation and Education mentin a numberofareas. However, otherstates, suchasNorth Carolina and Florida, have more aa ressive and larger erosion 09 The remaining, and perhaps most significant, management management programs. As a leading coastal state, Hawaii problems are all closely interconnected. Public participation in should provide an example of how to be forward-looking, the erosion planning and management process is virtually particularly with regard to erosion. As an island state, Hawaii has the 0 nonexistent. Public education on erosion is virtually nonexist- opportunity not only to influence the other coastal states, but also to ent. A perspective that looks to the future is lacking, as well, in serve as an example for island countries around the world the one area of ocean resources management where it is called for most. These factors are generally ignored, but together, would spell success in forging a proactive and cohesive alli- RECOMMENDA11ONS ance of interests to work with the shoreline instead of against it. Objective Public participation at a meaningful level is needed to Develop an integrated State erosion management system that overcome resistance to changes in shoreline erosion manage- ment, which may be required. Tough choices like "private ensures: 1) the preservation of sandy beaches and public access property versus public beaches" will have to be addressed to and along the shoreline; and 2) the protection of private and squarely. Broader public awareness, greater knowledge of public property from flood hazards and wave damage. coastal processes on the part of shore-dwellers, and legislative Policy A expertise are required if managers are to make headway Establish and maintain a comprehensive coastal shoreline against the loss of the coastline. Shoreline property owners survey, database, and other research. have to come to terms with the prospect of losing the "image of Hawaii" - permanently. This has to do with more than just implementing Actions: fewer beaches for residents to enjoy. The image - and the OSP, in cooperation witb DLAT, should. tourist industry that depends on it - relies on a continued future for abundant sandy beaches. 1. Give high priority to the identification and character- The myopia of the present is our biggest enemy in the ization of chronic erosion and inundation areas through- struggle to save our land and our beaches. A long-term per- out the State so that regulatory and structural mitigation spective of the future and the environment is absolutely neces- measures can be implemented as soon as possible. sary to the successful management of these resources. More 2. Establish and maintain a statewide database for aerial than any other section within the Ocean Resources Manage- photography and coastline studies, and classify each area ment area, coastline erosion requires a broad time frame of of the shoreline according to level of erosion and inunda- understanding. One must see the decades and centuries-long tion risks. processes at work, and appreciate the long-term costs (from 3. Set priorities for and monitor basic research on beach hardening) that are being passed to future generations. For processes, littoral cell sand production and movement, risk assessments [see Policy D1, and baseline coastal Implementing Actions: erosion and cartography. OSP, in cooperation witb DLIR DOTand the Counties, 4. Obtain standardized and digitized data from Uni- sbould. versity and other researchers for inclusion in *the state- wide ocean and coastal Geographic Information Sys- 1. Continue scientific research programs to explore the tem (GIS). mechanisms and to assess the current rates of sand production. 5. Provide for easy access to data and databases both for 2. Select non-rural hazard areas and chronic eroding resource managers and the general public. and unstable beaches forsand replenishment pilot projects 6. Further identify and inventory offshore sand resources. and monitor impacts on littoral cell dynamics. 7. Carefully examine the application of the Bruun rule 3. Establish projects to stabilize littoral cell sand balance (i.e., that sea-level moves inland up to one hundred units in hazard, chronic erosion, and unstable areas by: for every one unit of rise) to various shoreline types across a. Removing unsound erosion structures and/or the State based on a range of possible scenarios for sea- level rise. b. Importing sand of similar types from offshore Policy B sources. Coordinate County, State, and Federal erosion- and beach- 4. Restrict the taking of sand by individuals in sensitive management efforts. ecological and high use areas. Implementing Actions: 5. Prohibit the use of motorized off-road vehicles within the shoreline setback area. OSP sbould. Policy E 1. Work cooperatively with the Counties and other State Promote an erosion-control structure limitation strategy. agencies in establishing and implementing a consoli- dated permit application, review, and approval system Implementing Actions: for erosion-control structures and setback develop- OSP, in cooperation u@itb DLNR, DOTand the Counties, ments. sbould.- 2. Explore regulatory and economic incentives, includ- 1. Identify for management purposes, districts desig- ing strategies being used in other coastal states such as: nated as hazard, chronic erosion, unstable beach, accreting a. Tax incentives; beach, and stable beach areas. b. Insurance rates; 2. Establish "Special Improvement Districts" for the de- c. Hazard ratings. velopment of uniform (standardized and aligned) ero- sion structures for hazard, chronic erosion, and unstable Policy C beaches. Exercise greater enforcement of laws and regulations. 3. Establish a cooperative program with County and Implementing Actions: Federal authorities to restrict new physical erosion struc- tures except in designated hazard areas. DLAW sbould.- 4. With County lead agency cooperation, have all illegal 1. Work closely through their representatives to imple- erosion control structures modified to meet requirements ment a uniform permit system. (See Policy B, Action 1.1 or removed. 2. Collaborate with and act on recommendations to 5. Develop a management policy regarding offshore limit erosion-control structures. structures such as sand grabbers and artificial reefs. 3. Increase the level of negative sanctions to be applied Policy F against law and regulation violators (including structure Develop an active public participation and education program demolition, firies, and other civil penalties). to preserve and protect beaches. 4. Seek greater funding for personnel, site visits, and implementing .Actions: monitoring of shoreline alterations. [See Policy 1.1 Policy D OSP sbould.. Ensure the continued natural production of sand and assess the 1. Establish an advisory committee of public interest potential for using beach replenishment. groups, publiCand private school and university educators, and nonprofit agencies to help guide d-& education program. 2. Establish a public education program on beach and Po licy I erosion processes and issues including: Assure adequate funding resources and personnel. a. Flood and erosion hazard television spots and brochures; implementing Actions: b. District and neighborhood "Adopt-a-Beach" pro- OSP, in cooperation witb DLAIR and DOT, should- grams and activities. 1. Seek increased legislative funding for line manage- 3. Establish a public participation program for input ment functions. into erosion and beach programs planning through: 2. Seek funding specifically for shoreline erosion and a. Statewide participatory planning debates on spe- beach management, especially for enforcement. cific issues via newspapers, television, and radio 3. Seek legislation which would establish an account shows; separate from the State General Fund for fines and pen- b. Statewide public long-range planning work- alties which could then be used by the enforcement shops. agency. Policy G 4. Seek continued Federal funding for coastline research. Expand open space and shoreline setbacks. 5. Enroll in the FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) Flood Insurance relocation option program au- Implementing Actions: thorized by the Upton-Jones amendment or otherwise OSP, in cooperation u@tb DLNR and the Counties, should- develop incentives to relocate structures inland of chronic 1. Explore and evaluate options for expanding the shore- erosion zones. line setback in agricultural, rural, and conservation lands 6. Explore a range of other funding avenues including: for open space purposes. a. Beach maintenance taxes; 2. Explore and evaluate options for establishing an b. Impact fees; expanded variable setback based on annual erosion c. County and State cost-sharing; rates, coastal characteristics, and potential sea-level rise. d. Park user fees. 3. Seek legislative funding for strategic land acquisi- Polmicyi tions along the coastline where world-class resources Plan for climate change, sea-level rise, and emerging issues. exist. 4. Develop a disaster plan (and necessary legislation) Implementing Actions: which would call for acquisition of shoreline proper- OSPsbould: ties where improvements are destroyed by hurricane or 1. Identify agency personnel to monitor and track the tsunami. I scientific research on global climate change and sea-level 5. Work with the Counties to limit through regulation rise and emerging issues. (or legislation, if necessary) shoreline subdivision ac- 2. Engage in long-term planning exercises - with se- tivity. nior planners, planning staff, and scientific experts - Policy H which Lake into account a range of possible geological Maintain and develop access to beaches and along the shore- and climatic changes. line. 3. Involve the public in educational and participatory Implementing Actions: planning activities which explore the consequences of climate change and sea-level rise. OSP, in cooperation udtb DL;VR, DOTand the Counties, sbould. 1. Establish a statewide policy requiring new erosion- NOTES control structures (where possible) to provide means of 1. Coral reefs play a major role in the Hawaiian beach system lateral shoreline access (e.g., steps, walkways). (except, generally, the island of Hawaii) as a buffer for wave 2. Encourage through beach replenishment, sand pro- energy and as a source of beach material. Fringing reefs are duction, and structure abatement, natural means of lateral most common around the older Islands - the Island of Hawaii access to the shoreline. has a much younger reef system. The only barrier reef in Hawaii is at Kaneohe Bay on Oahu (Noda and DHM 1989,1-5). Coral reefs are composed of the skeletons of corals and seconds and heights of up to 15 feet. The North Pacific swell is coralline algae. Shells and other materials become cemented famous as the source of the large surf that has popularized into these structures to form a conglomerate reef (Moberly and surfing spots such as Waimea Bay, Pipeline and Sunset Beach. Chamberlain 1964; COE 1979,2). The more shallow and flatter These large waves are produced by storms in the Pacific 1,000 reefs usually are found on the leeward and protected coasts. to 2,000 miles to the northeast of Hawaii and usually arrive between October and April. These waves typically have peri- 2. The two major movements of sand are longshore transport ods of 15 to 20 seconds and heights exceeding 20 feet (Moberly and onshore-offshore exchanges. Waves striking the coastline and Chamberlain 1964; COE 1979). at an angle move material both by the skewed up-rush and backwash of waves and by longshore currents generated by 5. Tsunamis are seismic waves often generated in the Pacific this wave energy (Moberly and Chamberlain 1964; COE 1979). "Ring of Fire' , as well as within the Pacific basin. While tsunamis. Long shore transport is confined to the narrow area between are not significant factors in overall erosion processes, they the breakers and the limit of wave up-wash. Onshore-offshore have large a potential to do short-term damage. Coastline exchange occurs between the shore and the complex network damage includes erosion and scouring of shoreline and of channels, ridges and pockets within and around the fringing nearshore areas; movement of sand, basalt and reef material Hand reef. Steep, high energy waves tend to move material offshore or out to sea; arid, occasionally severe damage to structures. over the reef; low, long-period waves tend to move material shoreward (Moberly and Chamberlain 1964; COE 1979). Off- 6. Hurricanes in Hawaiian waters are rare, although several shore currents, called rip currents, occur when water piled up have come close to or passed over several of the Islands. against the shoreline seeks to flow seaward. Some rip currents Hurricanes Nina, in 1957, Dot in 1959, and lwa in 1982, caused can reach velocities high enough to scour and transport bottom severe shore damages. For umnple, Hurricane Iwa removed three sediments (Noda and DHM 1989,1-14). to five feet of sand from the reef fronting the Hawaiian Electric Company power plant on leeward Oahu and at least 11,000 cubic 3. The concept of a littoral sand budget can be used to quantify yards of sand was eroded from Kahe Beach (Noda and DHM 1989). sand inputs, transport and loss (Moberly and Chamberlain 1964; Noda and HDM 1989). If the rates of input and loss are 7. The Island of Hawaii has some special problems regarding balanced over time, the area in question can be said to be "in erosion and inundation. Hawaii, for the most part, lacks a reef equilibrium." When the dynamics of accretion are not in system to diffuse the energy of incoming waves and to moder- equilibrium with losses through erosion, then net erosion over ate seasonal extremes. With most of the wave energy unbuf- the long term will occur. A littoral cell is the name applied to a fered, coastal bluffs are subject to being overtopped and wave wash- section of coastline which is in equilibrium and where there is UP distances can be considerable during seasonal stormy months. little if any exchange of nearshore sand with adjacent areas. Littoral cells commonly are found in stretches of coastline 8. Large waves breaking over a reef also can raise the water isolated by rocky promontories or deepwater channels. level - called 'wave setup" when solely due to wave action. 4. Waves approach the Hawaiian islands from all parts of the This condition also allows waves to strike the shore at greater heights and energy intensities (COE 1979). Storms can result in Pacific Ocean and from some parts of the Indian Ocean (COE the build up of strong rip currents that can transport sand to 1979, 8). The waves reaching Hawaii, which tend to be sea- such depths that it becomes irretrievable. However, storms sonal in nature, are categorized in a few general types: the break down rocks and coral reefs and can produce large northeast tradewind waves, Kona storm waves, North Pacific quantities of sand to replace some lost to deep water sinks. swell, south swell, and tropical stomi/hurricane waves (Moberly and Chamberlain 1964). Northeast iradewind waves are most 9. Black sand and green sand beaches are of volcanic glass and common and prevail during summer months. These waves olivine origins, respectively. Black sand beaches are particu- typically have periods of 5 to 12 seconds and heights of four to larly vulnerable to erosion and short-lived if their scurce is eight feet (Moberly and Chamberlain 1964; COE 1979). The limited or terminated. Hawaii's sands are lighter by weight and south swell occurs during summer months and is generated by more quickly reduced in size by abrasion than the quartz and South Pacific and Indian Ocean storms as far as 5,000 miles eldspar sands commonly found elsewhere in the world (COE away. These waves arrive in distinct wave groups typified by 1979). According to one study, reduced production of calcar- long, uniform crests. South swell waves commonly have Pcil- eous sands =@ nake beach sands darker in color (due to the ods of 14 to 18 seconds and heights as great as 15 feet (Moberly greater proportion of detrital grains) and thus less desirable for and Chamberlain 1964; USCOE 1979). Kona storm waves recreation (Noda and DHM 1989). usually occur between November and April arriving from the south and southwest. These waves are driven by"Kona"winds 10. Shorelines become "hardened"when the gradual construc- which replace the prevailing northeast tradewinds; Kona winds tion of revetments and seawalls results in even greater erosion, can be strong when produced by local storm fronts and tropical which leads to further erosion-control structure construction storms. Kona storm waves usually have periods of six to ten and ultimately to a walled shoreline. 11. Decreases in precipitation, for example, could mean less Slumping occasionally has lowered small stretches of the weathering and erosion inland resulting in less cletrital sand coastline as much as one to two feet at once. Rapid slumping production. The other extreme, heavy precipitation, could of a portion of the south Kilauea flank from the Kapoho area mean greater inland erosion, and coupled with human devel- southwest into Hawaii Volcanoes National Park resulted in a opments (i.e., non-point source pollution from runoff) could lowering of about 15.5 miles of coastline up to 11 feet (Kanuha mean heavier siltation of coral reefs. 1990). 12. While there is at present no evidence that global warming has affected regional climate, scientists have suggested that El RIEFIERIENCES Nino-Southem Oscillation (ENSO) events, which can influ- Campbell, J.F. and R. Moberly. 1978. Ala Moana Beacb Ero- ence weather patterns throughout the Pacific, might be altered. sion: Monitoring and Recommendations. HIG Technical The areas directly affected by ENSO events (e.g., upwelling Report 78-10. University of Hawaii, Hawaii Institute of Geo- and ocean temperatures), may be expanded and/or shifted in I location which could have an impact on currents, winds and physics, Honolulu. waves throughout the region. Even small changes in the Casciano, F.M. 1973. Development ofa SubmarineSandRecov- current and wind patterns impinging on Hawaii could alter ery SystemforHawaii. UNIHI-SEAGRANT-AR-73-04. Univer- erosion and accretion patterns. sity of Hawaii, Sea Grant College Program, Honolulu. 13. Air and water temperature changes also could have an Casciano, F.M. and R.Q. Palmer. 1969. Potential of Offsbore impact on the production of reef and terrestrial sand. On the I Sandasan Exploitable Resource in Hawaii. SEAGRANT-69-4. positive side, warmer ocean waters might promote greater University of Hawaii, Sea Grant College Program, Honolulu. biological activity in reef areas resulting in greater sand production. 14. The specter of more frequent and perhaps more violent City and County of Honolulu, Department of Land Utilization. storms rank near the top - with sea-level rise - as the largest 1989. Oabu Shoreline Study, Pan 1: Data on Beacb Changes threats of global warming to the Hawaiian coastline. More (1988). By Sea Engineering, Inc. Honolulu. violent stomis are even more of a threat to human life and City and County of Honolulu, Department of Land Utiliiation. property than higher ocean levels. Combined with the effeccs n.d. Oabu Shoreline Study, Part 2: Management Strategies. of higher water levels, storm surges and nin-up could reach Honolulu. much farther inland. Greater frequencies of major storms could also mean that recovery periods after storms rarely are com- Hwang, D. 1981. Beacb Changes on Oabu as Revealed by pleted. AerialPbotograpbs. UNIHI-SEAGRANT-CR-81-077. University 15. The consensus among climate researchers is that the of Hawaii, Sea Grant College Program, Honolulu. doubling Of C02 and increases in other greenhouse gases will Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 1990. cause an increase in atmospheric temperature of around 2' Centigrade (3.6'F) by as early as 2030. This in turn is expected Policymakers Summary oftbe Scienti(icAssessment ofClimate to raise the sea level (due to glacial melting and ocean thermal Change -Working Group 1. Bracknell, UK. expansion) at least eight inches by 2030 and 24 inches by 2100 Kanuha, D. 1990. Letter of August 21, 1990 to Craig MacDonald, (IPCC 1990). These estimates, however, are considered by Honolulu. some to be conservative. Some modeling results indicate a . worst case" scenario sea-level rise of 11 feet bv 2 100. Even the "business-as-usual" scenario of eight inches b Iy 2030 suggests Moberly, R., Jr. 1990. Letter to Craig MacDonald. Honolulu. over a foot of sea-level rise for the Island of Hawaii and slightly Moberly, R., Jr. and T. Chamberlain. 1964. Hawaiian Beacb less for the older Islands in a little more than a generation. Systems. Hawaii Institute of Geophysics Report 64-2. University At the same time that the oceans are rising, many places in of Hawaii, Honolulu. the world (including much of Hawaii) are sinking. Due to the immense weight of the shield volcanos which comprise the Moberly, R, Jr., J.F. Campbell and W.T. Couiboum. 1975. Hawaiian Islands, the Islands are actually subsiding into the Offsboreand OtberSandResourcesfor0abu, Hawaii. UNIHI- Earth's mande. Honolulu is "sinking" (relative to mean sea SEAGRANT-TR-75-10. University of Hawaii, Sea Grant College level) at the rate of 1.5 mrn a yearwhile Hilo is sinking at a faster Program, Honolulu. rate of 3.8 mm year. In other words, some sections of Hawaii's coastline already are experiencing a relative sea-level rise of 6 National Research Council. 1987. Responding to Changes in to 15 inches per century. It should be pointed out that due to Sea Level.-Enginee7ingImplications. Washington, D.C.:National active faulting and volcanic activity on the Island of Hawaii, Academy Press. parts of its southeast coast experience "slumping." State of Hawaii, Department of Planning and Economic Devel- opment. 1979. Beach Erosion: Technical Findings and Rec- ommendations. Draft issuepaper. Honolulu. State of Hawaii, Office of State Planning, Hawaii Coastal Zone Management Program. 1989. Hawaii Shoreline Erosion Man- agement Study, Volume 1: Ovendew and Case Study Sites. By Edward K. Noda and Associates, Inc. and DHM, Inc. Honolulu. United States Army Corps of Engineers, Pacific Ocean Division. 1979. Heo Yoursetf- A Sbore Protection Guide For Hawaii. Honolulu. David A. Tarnas and M. Carolyn Stewart Marine and Coastal Resources Consultants P.O. Box 2523 Kailua-Kona, M 96745 ESTE MRHOGEMEHT PAGE PAGE THE RESOURCE 73 RECOMMENDATIONS 81 RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 73 Objective 81 Water Quality Standards 73 Policies and Implementing Actions 81 Wast,@_ Treatment 74 Spills of Oil and Other Hazardous Materials 74 Plastics 76 Hazardous Wastes 76 M RMOURCE Radioactive Wastes 76 To some extent, the ocean has the capacity to store, biode- Dredge Materials 77 grade, dilute or disperse various wastes without adverse'im- Nonpoint Source Pollution 78 pacts upon coastal communities and ocean resources. Treated MANAGEMENT ISSUES 78 municipal sewage effluent, oil, plastics, dredge spoils and Potential Social and Environmental Risks 78 radioactive wastes are types of wastes which have been or are Primary Wastewater Treatment 78 being disposed of in the ocean surrounding Hawaii. The nearshore waters receive pollutants from point sources, such Msmicipal Waste Indwation 78 as sewage outfalls, and nonpoint sources, such as soil erosion Hazardous Waste incineration 78 and urban runoff. As Hawaii's population grows, the amount Maintenance of Existing Facilities 79 of waste produced increases. At the same time, the State's Support for Treatment Facility Operations 79 disposal capacity is decreasing - landfills are filling up and Facilities and Inhwhucture sewage treatment plants are reaching their design-capacity for Municipal Wastewater Treatment 79 limits. Collection System for Hmsehold Hazardous Waste 79 In general, waste management practices involve disposing Funding 79 wastes in a place so as to minirnize harm to the environment Hazardous Waste Management PrWum 79 and to human health, or, if possible, benefit the environment. Nonpoint Source Pollution Pr@ram 79 Protecting the environmental quality of Hawaii's nearshore Oil and Chemical Spill Response Capabilities so waters is essential to maintaining the economic health of the Comprehensiveness 80 State and its standard of living. Tourism, ocean recreation, Marine Phtstic Pollution 80 fisheries, aquaculture, ocean thermal energy conversion, and Water Quality monaoring 80 ocean research and development all depend on clear, pollu- Legal Authority 80 tion-free waters. Hazardous Spills so Afternative Sewage Treatment Metbods 80 MOURCE MANAGEMM Coordination 80 Hazardous Waste Management on Water Quality Standards Federal Instaffations 80 For all State waters, standards for water quality have been Oil Spfil Response 80 established by the Department of Health (DOH) under Chapter Public information and Involvement 81 11-54, Hawaii Administrative Rules (HAR). These arebased on the Federal Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) water Wastewater Treatment quality criteria promulgated under the Clean Water Act (CWA). Most effluent from sewage treatment facilities in Hawaii is State waters are classified as either marine or inland waters. treated and discharged into the ocean. Of increasing concern These waters are further classified by their uses for the pur- to residents is the daily discharge of municipal sewage treat- poses of applying standards. ment wastes into the marine environment. With a growing Marine waters are divided into Class AA and Class A waters. population, the volume of wastewater will only continue to The objective of Class AA waters is to preserve them "in their grow. The capability of existing treatment facilities to handle natural pristine state as nearly as possible with an absolute this increasing volume of wastes is an important consideration. minimum of pollution or alteration of water quality from any There are 11 major wastewater treatment facilities discharg- human-caused source or actions." The objective of Class A ing 143-32 million gallons of treated effluent into the ocean per waters is to ensure that their use for recreational and aesthetic enjoyment is protected (Chapter 11-54-03, HAR). Marine day. As with any point source of discharge, a National Pollution bottom environments are divided into two classes. Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) discharge permit is required from DOH. There are a total of 15 wastewater facilities Standards are established for numerous pollutants, as de- with NPDES permits. Four normally do not discharge into the tailed in Chapter 11-54-04, HAR. There are basic water quality sea. They use injection wells or reuse the effluent by watering criteria applicable to all waters which cover floating debris, cane fields or golf courses. The Counties manage municipal thermal pollution, turbidity and specific criteria for nearly 100 wastewater treatment facilities. Some private developers of toxic substances. The standards also describe certain uses and resorts or housing projects are required to build their own specific criteria applicable to inland and marine waters. sewage treatment facilities, which must meet the same NPDES DOH is responsible for monitoring and enforcing these regulations as municipalities. regulations. A statewide monitoring program is carried out by The impact of sewage effluent on the marine environment DOH, with periodic samples taken at numerous stations depends on its content and on the rate, location, depth and throughout the State with continuous data analysis. For recre- quantity of discharge. Most effluent discharges have low levels ation areas with intensive use, the water is sampled weekly. For of dissolved solids, very low levels of suspended solids and all other areas, sampling is done on a monthly, serni-annual or high nutrient values. Pathogenic bacteria and viruses also may annual basis, depending on the amount of recreational use be present. If an outfall is properly located, high initial dilutions and contribution of pollution sources. These samples are and strong currents will cause immediate dispersion, so that analyzed at the DOH laboratory on Oahu, and at support accumulation of sediment on the ocean bottom is negligible. labs on each Island. The lab receives no direct Federal funds, As long as they are located in deep water and are designed to but it receives indirect funds through Federal support for withstand storm surge and tsunami events, deep ocean outfalls monitoring programs. are not known to cause serious environmental problems. For all point sources of pollution, a discharge permit is Individual wastewater treatment systems, such as cesspools required from DOH. These include, among others, wastewater and septic tanks, are regulated by DOH. Cesspools that are treatment facilities, electric generating facilities, industries and constructed in permeable solid or rock formations may leach agricultural facihties. These National Pollution Discharge Efirrii- nutrients and bacteria into the groundwater and nearshore nation System pen-nits are required under the CWA. This EPA environment. In order to address this potential problem, the pollution-control program is administered in the State by DOH. DOH director has stated a goal of banning all cesspools by For the discharge permit, there are conditions concerning 1991. To make this transition, DOH is promulgating amend- monitoring requirements and submission of data to DOH on a ments to Chapter 11-62, HAR, on wastewater systems. These periodic basis. Permits are classified as either major or minor, amendments will severely restrict the areas where cesspools depending on the size of the facility and nature of the dis- will be allowed. County Wastewater Advisory Committees charge. There are also continuous or interniittent flow permits, formed on each Island selected those areas in which cesspools depending on the frequency of discharge. DOH requires should not be allowed. These areas are called the proposed dischargers to monitor themselves and submit results on a Critical Wastewater Disposal Areas. Throughout the State, this regular basis. Once a year, DOH conducts site inspections to includes all areas within the 100-year flood range and ground- assure sampling techniques and obtains "split samples" to water recharge areas, where defiried. Each County has recom- detennine analytical accurateness. mended additional areas requiring protection. There are specific management practices for certain types of Spills of 09 and Other Hazardous Materials wastes, such as effluent from wastewater treatment plants, oil, plastics, hazardous wastes, radioactive wastes, dredge Petroleum supplied over 91 percent of the State's primary material and nonpoint source pollution. The significance of energy needs in 1988. AD of it was shipped into the State. There and management system for each type of waste are de- are two oil refineries in the State, both on Oahu. To supply scribed below. them at full capacity; approximately ten tanker deliveries are needed every month. The tankers load and unload at mooring buoys situated off Barbers Point. The closest of these facilities In the event of an oil or chemical spill, both Federal and State is only 1.5 miles offshore. The loading cycle may Lake as long agencies respond. Under Chapter 342D-50, Hawaii Revised as two days to complete. Statutes (HRS), DOH monitors State waters forwater-pollution About 60 percent of the crude oil unloaded in Hawaii violations. They may cite, fine and suspend operations of originates in Alaska. Tankers usually approach Barbers Point projects or activities in violation of Federal or State water- via the Kauai channel. Kaiwi Channel is used on occasion by quality standards. Under Chapter 342D-51, HRS, responsible vessels coming from Alaska, but the channel is more often the parties must report all discharges of oil, petroleum products approach of choice for vessels coming from the West Coast. and other hazardous substances within 24 hours of a spill. This approach puts the entire south sho"re of Oahu at risk from Failure to report or to initiate corrective action can result in a crude oil spills. Tankers call at the other Islands as well. These. fine of $10,000 per day. DOH also may evaluate adequacy of ships are usually product tankers, delivering fuel oil, motor corrective responses and prescribe additional actions. During gasoline or jet fuel. just under half the products delivered are oil spills, DOH, Office of Hazard Evaluation and Emergency light distillates; over half are heavy oils. In the case of Maui Response (HEER), serves as the State on-scene coordinator to tankers approach from the north, and moor to the north o@ the U.S. Coast Guard. Chapter 342D-52, HRS, grants DOH Kahului. This puts not only the north shore of Maui at risk from authority to test water quality and effects on aquatic and other spills, but also Molokai, Lanai and Oahu, as winds and currents life after a spill. In the face of sufficient hazards, it may close would move a spill west and south. beaches, suspend fishing and issue public health warnings about the hazards of consuming polluted fish and other marine Petroleum and petroleum products released into marine life. environments are responsible for the deaths of organisms The State's Environmental Response Law, recently signed through coating and asphyxiation, contact poisoning, expo- into law, gives DOH additional powers concerning oil and sure to water-soluble toxic compounds and destruction of 0 sensitive juvenile life forms. Oil also can generate indirect or chemical spill clean-up. Administrative rules will be developed long-term effects, such as the destruction of food sources for over the next year to clarify these powers and responsibilities. higher trophic level species. Ingestion and incorporation of HEER is heavily dependent on Federal funds for its operation. sublethal amounts of oil and oil products into body tissues can The Department of Transportation (DOT), Harbors Divi- result in infection, reduced resistance and other stresses. Chronic sion, also is authorized to regulate and control polluting dis- low-level concentrations in the water may interrupt normal charges in State waters. Chapter 266-3, HRS, specifically autho- physiological and behavioral responses, thus affecting survival. rizes DOT to promote regulations necessary "to prevent the Severe environmental impacts would result from accidental escape of fuel or other oils onto the harbors, ocean waters, and spills associated with the ocean transport of hazardous materi- streams, either from any vessel or from pipes or storage tanks als. For most hazardous materials, a significant spill in almost upon the land." any location would result in the loss of a large proportion of the The Coast Guard is the primary Federal agency involved in marine life in the immediate area, Chronic effects would be the management of spills of oil and hazardous materials, Under widespread and long-lasting, particularly for toxic and persis- the CWA, a national contingency plan was developed which tent chlorinated hydrocarbons, which are among the most provided for a national response team and center, and 13 likely candidates for ocean incineration. There is general regional response teams, which, in turn, develop regional and consensus that under most circumstances, spilled material Federal local contingency plans. The Federal local contin- would be impractical or impossible to clean up. gency plan is developed by the"federal on-scene coordinator" Oil and chemical spills in the marine and coastal environ- in consultation with the regional team. The plan identifies: 1) ments, the loci of Hawaii's tourism, could have major impacts probable locations of discharges or releases; 2) available re- on the State's economy. An uncontained oil spill at Barber's sources; 3) disposal methods and facilities consistent with State Point could impact the southern coast of Oahu, including the and local plans; and 4) a local structure for responding to Nin-dtz Beach, Ewa Beach, Sand Island, Honolulu and Waikiki discharges or releases. areas. Poorly handled spill incidences, whether or not they The Coast Guard provides on-scene coordinators for coastal ultimately impact the natural environments, can lead to public zone spills, while the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or visitor misperception about the quality of these environ- provides them for inland spills. The boundary definitions for ments. Such misperceptions could compromise the tourism 'coastal" and "inland" are designated in the regional plans by industry. agreement between the two agencies. With very few excep- Handling of oil and hazardous materials at harbors' icreases tions, the owners and operators of vessels that discharge oil in 'r violation of the Clean Water Act are liable for removal costs up the likelihood of an accidental spill in and contamination of to a statutorily established ceiling. The Petroleum Industry these areas. However, accidents occurring outside harbor Response Organization is the oil industry's national coordinat- areas, although less frequent, can cause greater damage. Oil ing body for oil spill management. The local industry coopera- slicks, for example, can sometimes stretch for hundreds of tive is the Clean Islands Council. These organizations assist the miles. responsible parties and coordinate with Federal coordinators. Federal on-scene coordinators monitor removal and clean- Hazardous Wastes up operations to ensure that they are conducted properly. There are many types of hazardous waste. Some come from When the polluter is unknown, not acting responsibly or the households, others from industry. Household hazardous clean-up effort is insufficient, the on-scene coordinator may wastes include insecticides, paints, cleaning agents and exert partial or total control of spill response. The Coast Guard acids. There have been a few state-sponsored collection can direct the mobilization of oil-spill control equipment within programs for household hazardous wastes in the past. A the State and request additional equipment from the Mainland. three-month program in 1989 consisted of a one-day pick- "Federalizing" a spill activates a Federal clean-up fund, which up on the Neighbor Islands and a two-day pickup period on supports whatever actions are requred to ensure proper dean-up. Oahu. There is no collection program currently planned due In this area of the Pacific, Hawaii is a member of a regional to lack of State funds. Hence, household hazardous wastes response team made up of representatives from 13 Federal often are discarded and sent to landfills. This unregulated agencies and governments of Guam, American Samoa and the disposal can lead to groundwater contamination. DOH has Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana islands. This re- begun efforts to establish a permanent household hazardous sponse team is co-chaired by EPA and the Coast Guard. In waste collection system in Hawaii. addition, the Federal government will establish a regional Industrial hazardous wastes - such as paints, hydraulic strike team within the State, associated with the Coast Guard. fluid and solvents -also are produced in Hawaii. Some data Plastics are available on the amount of hazardous wastes produced and stored on the numerous military installations around the Plastics have become an integral part of the world economy. Islands. There are a few private operations that recycle They are used for packaging, containers, household goods, solvents, but most of Hawaii's industrial hazardous wastes furnishings, equipment and machines. However, the charac- are exported to the Mainland for disposal. teristics which make plastics so durable and convenient for use Management of all industrial hazardous wastes is done by also make them noribiodegradable and hazardous to the envi- EPA and DOH under the Resources Conservation and Re- ronment. When discharged, lost or abandoned in the marine covery Act (40 CFR 260-270). EPA has primary responsibility environment, plastic debris can generate serious problems. for issuing hazardous waste permits, while DOH helps EPA Entanglement of marine animals in six-pack rings, plastic inspect operations involving hazardous materials. DOH will strapping bands and fishing gear is one problem associated submit an application to EPA requesting authorization as the with plastic debris. The term "ghost fishing" has been coined to primary hazardous waste management authority in the State. describe the death caused by lost or discarded fishing gear that The State also is drafting its own hazardous waste regula- continues to trap marine life. ingestion of plastics and styrofoam tions. also can adversely impact marine species. Human safety can be A registration system exists to regulate the transport of threatened if divers become entangled in fishing lines and nets. hazardous wastes. EPA gives identification numbers to the Plastic items, including synthetic ropes and netting, can also shippers, who must comply with specific Federal and State interfere with vessel operation, fouling propellers and clog- ging cooling-water intake systems. The disposal of I large rul.es. DOH has not yet imposed hazardous waste transpor- amounts of debris has the potential to adversely impact the tation regulations. aesthetic quality of beach areas. Radioactive Wastes Accidental disposal of plastic items at sea and littering from Low-level wastes (LLW) are generated in all activities involv- land account for some of the debris, but deliberate disposal is ing radioactive isotopes. LLW constitute the bulk of all a much larger problem. Major sources of marine plastics nuclear wastes generated, including contaminated clothing, pollution include commercial fishing vessels, merchant ships, equipment and other medical and research nuclear waste U.S. naval and research vessels, passenger vessels and pri- products. Between 1957 and 1968, solid radioactive wastes vately owned recreational vessels. were disposed of in Hawaii's waters by the U.S. Navy and National legislation was recently enacted to adopt Annex V University of Hawaii. In addition, liquid waste, resulting of the Protocol of 1978 relating to the International Convention from maintenance and repair of submarines and ships, was for the Prevention of Pollution by Ships, 1973 @MARPOL 73/78). discharged into Pearl Harbor until 1973. LLW must now be Under this law, no plastics can be dumped at sea. As a result, transported to Mainland sites for burial (DBED 1990). the Coast Guard has adopted regulations designed to reduce In the future, Hawaii may be required to dispose of its the incidence of discharges of plastics and other ship-gener- own LLW. Mainland states currently providing this service ated garbage into the marine environment. The Department of may be closing their doors to wastes from other states, in Land and Natural Resources (DLNR) and DOT, as well as order to accommodate their own waste disposal needs. The numerous public and private institutions - including the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in cooperation with University of Hawaii Sea Grant and Sea Life Park - are relevant state agehcies, is responsible for managing educating the public about regulations prohibiting marine LLW. disposal of plastics and their effects on the marine environment High-level wastes (HL\X7) are generated in the processing of neers (COE) under Section 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act of spent fuel from nuclear power plants or nuclear submarine and 1899 (dredging) and by EPA and COE under Section 404 ship reactors, Currently, HLW generated in Hawaii (virtually all (discharge of dredge materials) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) by the military) are transported to the Mainland for disposal. and Section 103 (ocean disposal of dredge materials) of the DOE also monitors civilian HLW: however, Hawaii has no Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA). nuclear reactor sites, which serve as storage sites elsewhere. Military Under Section 103, MPRSA, EPA has designated several dredge- HLW is stored in various DOE reservations throughout the country. material ocean dump sites in Hawaii. These sites are located off An issue relevant to Hawaii is the proposal for subseabed Nawiliwili, Kauai, about 3.3 nautical miles (nm) at 1, 120 meters disposal of HLW. The difficulty in locating and managing safe (in) depth; off Port Allen, Kauai, about 3.2 run at 1,610 m depth; land-based storage sites spurred an examination of at-sea and off south Oahu, about 3.3 nm at 475 m depth; off Kahului, Maui ' seabed disposal of HLW. Subseabed disposal would involve about 5 nm at 365 in depth. and off Hilo, Hawaii, about 4 nm placing HLW into canisters, which would be imbedded into the at 340 in depth (Arakaki 1990). COE records indicate that more sediment of the deep mid-ocean abyssal plains. This sediment than nine million cubic yards of dredge materials have been has physical and chemical properties that help to isolate highly dumped at the South Oahu Dump Site since the 1960s, in radioactive wastes from ocean waters. The U.S. Subseabed conformance with Federal testing requirements. Disposal Program, administered by DOE, was established to Under the MPRSA, commonly known as the Ocean Dump- assess the feasibility of using subseabed disposal methods for ing Act, EPA designated ocean dump sites and, in cooperation high-level nuclear wastes. More than 200 holes have been with COE, established test procedures to determine the accept- tested in the Pacific basin about 2,500 miles northwest of ability of dredge materials for ocean dumping. COE imple- Hawaii (DBED 1990). However, funding for this program has ments dredge-materials testing requirements, determines the been decreased substantially in recent years due to conflicts acceptability of dredge materials for ocean disposal and issues with international law, international political opposition to the permits to transport dredge materials for ocean dumping after proposal and serious environmental concerns. consideration of EPA opinions. EPA, which oversees the The effect of radionuclides on the marine environment is program, may find materials unacceptable for ocean disposal. dependent on a number of factors, including the physical state COE may request an economic waiver in response to EPA of the discharged waste, the method of waste discharge, wind objections. In Hawaii, COE does not require perniit applicants and wave action, and other oceanographic and biological to obtain a Water Quality Certification (Section 401, CWA) for processes. Due to the many factors involved, the nature and the ocean disposal of dredge materials, because Section 103, levels of impacts these materials may have are difficult to MPRSA, does not require permit applicants to acquire such estimate. Contamination of seafoods and impacts to marine certification. Furthermore, the designated ocean disposal sites ecosystems are of particular concern. are located outside State waters (beyond the three-mile limit, the demarcation of State jurisdiction for these purposes). Dredge Materials The resuspension of dredge materials and probable impact 0 Hawaii's economic health, viability and the safety of its people of the resuspended materials on marine life and water qualiq, are dependent upon shipping, which emphasizes the impor- currmtly cannot be judged as a significant public concern. Most tance of maintaining Hawaii's harbors. Similarly, maintenance maintenance activities are located within previously disturbed and of flood control channels is required for the protection and developed areas, where marine life abundance and productivity are safety of human life and property. Hence, periodic mainte- sharply depressed in comparison to preclevelopment conditions. In nance dredging is necessary to maintain operating depths in contrast to daily resuspension of bottom sediments by ship traffic harbors and navigation channels, and to maintain flood protec- and frequent occurrence of storm rurioff, maintenance dredging is tion capacity in flood control channels. a single, short-term (five to ten days), highly localized occurrence that happens on a frequency of once in five to ten years Oess Dredge materials are composed of terrestrial silts and clays, fiequently for flood control channels). Based on DOE and EPA mixed with sand, basalt or coral cobbles. Contaminants from research on the environmental. effects of dredging, rnispension of urban, commercial and industrial areas surrounding harbors dredge materials does not result in any immediate or long-term and flood control channels may be washed or discharged into degradation of water quality except in very unusual circumstances these water bodies, where the contaminants may bind to the such as the presence of significant concentrations of water-soluble silts and clays. Consequently, the public is concerned about the contaminants from industrial sources being discharged into a water probable impacts of dredging and dredge-material disposal way (Arakaki 1990). Based on, and within the limitations of, activities on marine life. The impacts may result from smother- bioassayandbioaccumuladonteststodate, dredge materials dumped ing, settling of resuspended dredge sediments, potential toxic- at ocean disposal dump sites were not found to have toxic or ity and bioaccumulation of contan-driants in dredge materials, unacceptable bioaccumulation effects on test organisms. Be- and potential release of contaminants into the water column. cause ocean disposal sites are located far offshore, removed Dredging activities and their impacts on navigation and the from human activities, no significant adverse effect on nearshore environment are regulated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engi- fisheries, water supplies, recreation, human health, safety or welfare are expected. DOH surveys have found traces of contaminants in edible tion and educational campaigns, including a public volunteer marine life found in Hawaiian harbors and flood control water-quality monitoring effort. The current NPS Program is channels, as a result of contaminant discharges into these water dependent on Federal operational funds from EPA, which will bodies and runoff from commercial and industrial upland be phased out in 1991. DOH wffl submit funding proposals to areas. These findings attest to the need to regulate and control the 1991 Legislature in order to obtain permanent State funding contaminant sources, both point and nonpoint, rather than for the program. Without such funding, it is conceivable that focusing on the symptoms (e.g., contaminated dredge materi- the NPS program will cease to exist. als). Contaminated dredge materials only can result from the introduction of contaminants into harbors and flood control channels by point and nonpoint sources. Regulating contan-d- MANAGEMENT ISSUES nant sources should, in turn, reduce contaminant levels in Potential Social and Environmental Risks marine organisms caught for human consumption in harbors and flood control channels. Primary Wastewater Treatment Nonpoint Source Pollution The question of whether secondary treatment of municipal wastewater is necessary has been hody debated in Hawaii. The Pollution can reach the marine environment from a variety of City and County of Honolulu has sought a waiver from the EPA nonpoint sources. Sedimentation from sod erosion causes requirement for secondary treatment of sewage by virtue of its significant siltation problems for the nearshore environment. deep ocean wastewater outfalls. Unlike continental areas, Sources include agricultural and urban storm water runoff. The areas off of the Hawaiian Islands slope rapidly into deep ocean, use of agricultural chemicals in the State may contribute to the where currents can actively dilute and disperse effluent. As a increase in residues found in runoff entering the nearshore result, some believe that secondary treatment in Hawaii does waters. In rural areas, waste ninoff from poultry, cattle and pig not markedly improve water quality or reduce environmental farms also enters the nearshore waters, increasing nutrient impacts. Others speculate that the discharge of dissolved levels. nutrients associated with secondary treatment may have even Golf courses are a common use of coastal land. Fertilizers more serious environmental consequences than discharges of and pesticides applied to these golf courses may find their way primary-treated wastewater. into coastal waters, potentially affecting water quality. The In general, secondary treatment removes dissolved and cumulative effects of these agrochernicals are difficult to as- colloidal organics by using microorganisms, which assimi- sess. Goff courses also can contribute to sedimentation during late them. In the ocean, there are microorganisms that the construction stage, if not adequately managed. accomplish the same function. With good dilution and dis- In many areas, storm water runoff into drainage ditches, persion, and an almost unlimited supply of dissolved oxy- canals and streams carries significant amounts of pollutants gen, no problems should occur. This concern is primarily a into nearshore waters, including pesticide and fertilizer runoff problem of social and political perception, rather than of from yards, and petrochemical and heavy metal runoff from technical feasibility. industrial parks and roads. Little effort is being made to inter- Municipal Waste Incineration cept the contaminants in these streams; consequently, they end The city's HPOWER plant at Barber's Point is designed to bum up in the nearshore water. municipal solid waste. The environmental and human health There are efforts to collect oily wastewater from service effects of the plant emissions and ash disposal are community stations, car washes and maintenance shops. This wastewater concerns. There also is disagreement over the completeness of contains oil, brake fluid, solvents, anti-freeze, grit, metal par- combustion and the effectiveness of emission control at the ticles, fuel and other contaminants. Though such wastewater is plant. At this time, there is no plan for at-sea incineration of pumped out frequently, its collection, transport and disposal is solid wastes. not monitored by the State. Some of this wastewater can Hazardous Waste Incineration conceivably end up back in storm drains. DOH has prepared an assessment report and mariagement Hazardous waste incineration is very controversial. Ten to plan on Hawaii's nonpoint source pollution (DOH 1989a; twenty percent of all hazardous wastes are amenable to incin- 1989b). The assessment report outlines the State's nonpoint eration (DBED 1990). Although they comprise a relatively source pollution problems. Sedimentation has been identified small portion of all hazardous wastes, they are among the most in the report as the primary nonpoint source pollution problem toxic. Because of their characteristics - such as their organic, in the State. The management plan discusses those tasks which chemical and energy content - they remain potentially haz- will be part of the Nonpoint Source (NPS) Pollution Control ardous for long periods of time. other methods of storage and Program. As part of its first phase, the NPS Program is evaluat- disposal are not effective management alternatives. Incinera- ing County grading ordinance effectiveness in controlling tion can reduce the volume of hazardous waste by more than sedimentation. The program also is initiating public informa- 99 percent (DBED f990). However, many incinerable hazard- ous wastes contain high amounts of organically bound chlo- ride, which generates highly corrosive and toxic hydrogen facilities are now being operated close to their design capacity. chloride gas when burned. The formation and release of The question is whether to build additions to these facilities, or products of incomplete combustion during incinerafion also stop growth in the housing developments that connect to them. may pose a significant risk to the public. Human health risks Unfortunately, the planning for housing developments is not from incineration of carcinogenic heavy metals, such as chro- well coordinated with planning for infrastructure develop- mium, cadmium and beryflium, can be significant. Potentially ment, resulting in overworked treatment facilities. hazardous ash also is produced. The disposal of this ash is an important issue. Collection System for Household Hazardous Wastes Land-based facilities are required to have air pollution There is no program for the collection and disposal of house- control equipment, such as scrubbers, capable of removing hold hazardous wastes in the State. Thus, household hazard- acid gases from the smoke. However, these toxic emissions are ous wastes are dumped at landfills. This can pose a potential then disposed of either in ponds, in the case of scrubber water, contairdnation. threat to groundwater. or landfills, in the case of solid filters. A private company may propose a hazardous waste incinerator for Oahu's Campbell Funding Industrial Park. This site is being considered with the intention Hazardous Waste Management Program that this facility's smokestack emissions would be dispersed in the waters off Barbers Point by the tradewinds. The DOH Hazardous Waste Section is developing its capability The incineration of liquid hazardous wastes at sea also has to manage the State's hazardous waste stream. It soon will been proposed. However, the use of scrubbers on ocean request authorization from EPA to perrnit hazardous waste incinerator vessels is not easily feasible because of the unstable transfer and disposal facilities. However, this effort is being platform. Some argue that scrubbers are not entirely necessary hampered by lack of funds and limited personnel (four inspec- because of the seawater's natural capacity to neutralize hydro- tors, one permit person, one planner, and a part-time man- gen chloride gas, and because the vessels operate far from ager). Consequently, DOH lacks adequate enforcement capa- human populafions. At this time, ocean incineration has not bilities. been approved by the EPA as an appropriate method of waste The establishment of HEER is an important first step for the disposal. There is considerable public opposition because of State to deal with the problems of hazardous waste and oil the significant contaminabon of the surface ocean layers by the spills. However, it also is significantly underfunded and under- emissions, and the danger of catastrophic spills. staffed. There are seven staff members - three of whom are on loan from EPA - and two clerical workers. Federal funding Maintenance of Existing Facilities and "loaned" personnel are intended only to assist the State Problems have occurred at some sewage treatment facilities 'in with the planning phase of its program and provide some the State as a result of equipment failures. in these cases, emergency response clean-up assistance. These funds, which sewage was released in a less-treated form. The effluent quality are provided through an EPA Superfund core grant, are to be was lower than allowed by NPDES permits and the plant phased out within two or three years. To date, the State has not managers, either the Counties or private developers, were supplied adequate funding for the program to stand on its own. fined for discharge violations. In some cases, plant operators Nonpoint Source Poflution Program have received repeated citations for violations. These viola- The State's Nonpoint Source Pollution Program is very new. tions point to the need to improve the maintenance of sewage Consequently, it is difficult to assess its success. However, it can treatment facilities. Many existing facilities are being used be said that since there is virtually no State funding for the beyond their design capacity limits. This indicates an entirely program and no full-time State employee working in it, there is different problem. an apparent deficiency in State financial commitment to this Support for Treatment Facility Operators program. The two staff assigned to the program are on loan from Federal agencies, one from the Soil Conservation Service Control technology for wastewater treatment is becoming and one from EPA. The program has just recently hired five, more sophisticated. More effective and efficient performance temporary field technicians, who are responsible for evaluat- is expected from these technologies, As a result, more training ing the effectiveness of County grading ordinances. opportunities and career advancement incentives are needed Since it is just getting started, the program has not yet begun for treatment facility operators. to deal with the other nonpoint source pollution problems, Facffities and Infi-astructure for Municipal Wastewater such as cesspool leaching, storm drains, golf course runoff and Treatment other forms of agrochemical pollution, it also is hampered by a lack of baseline data. Although a coastal water quality When existing wastewater treatment facilities were built, they monitoring program exists, there is no such program to address were designed to handle waste volumes from the community nonpoint source pollution concerns. for 20 years. Less than 20 years later, many of these treatment Oil and Chemical Spill Response Capabilities from hazardous spills if there is no clear threat to human health Oil and chemical spills are potentially catastrophic to the State's or welfare. The rule-making procedure for enforcing the law marine and coastal ecosystems and economy, Rapid and effec- offers the opportunity to clarify this shortcoming. Furthermore, tive response to spills is essential. However, since the State in terms of administrative capability, DOH does not have depends heavily on the Coast Guard to respond to oil and sufficient trained personnel to assess the damage to natural chemical spills, the State's capability to assist in response resources resulting from a spill. It is also not clear whether HEER has the authority to hire staff on a contractual basis to efforts or handle spills independently is extremely limited. provide this service. Hawaii has an oil spill contingency plan and response inven- tory, which the Coast Guard Marine Safety Office recently Alternative Sewage Treatment Methods updated. It highlighted several inadequacies, some A variety of alternative methods for treating human wastes infrastructural and others institutional. Hawaii has too little such as composting toilets and leaching systems using water equipment to respond to a major spill effectively. Furthermore, hyacinths, sedges and lemongrass - are not approved by the recent Coast Guard staff and budget cuts have resulted in State and Counties for residential use. Leaching systems re- limited planning and preparedness capabilities. quire a large space and could be restricted to low-density Comprehensiveness residential developments if they are to be included in building codes. Marine Plastk Pollution Marine pollution from plastics is a significant problem that the Coordination State needs to address in a more comprehensive fashion. Hazardous Waste Management on Fedeml hatafladons Educational efforts by DLNR, DOT and University of Hawaii The Federal government is a major land owner in Hawaii. On Sea Grant are beginning to reach ocean users. However, many some lands, there are facilities for aircraft and ships, and coastal recreation areas do not have any informational flyers or storage for munitions, fuels and chemicals. These installations posters on the issue. In addition, these recreation facilities do are required to provide information on quantities and types of not always have solid waste receptacles on site. Ocean recre- wastes on hand. These military wastes are subject to the same ation events, including fishing touirriaments, do not regularly regulations as civilian hazardous wastes. Since there have been provide incentive programs for boaters to bring their garbage problems in other states with the management of hazardous back to shore for proper disposal. Recycling programs for wastes on Federal installations, it is important for Hawaii to plastics are limited. ensure that these wastes are properly managed. Some informa- Water Quality Monitoring don is available on the amounts of hazardous waste generated Comprehensive statewide water quality monitoring programs by Federal facilities. COE is well-funded to manage these are needed. The current State program is insufficient, espe- hazardous wastes. The problem, however, lies in inadequate cially in temis of sampling frequency and number of sampling coordination between Federal and State management efforts. sites. Three factors contribute to these deficiencies: 1) lack of Oil Spill Response funding to expand the program; 2) DOH water quality labora- The recent update of the State's oil spill contingency plan tory is operating at full capacity and having problems with lack pointed to several areas where improved coordination is needed. of space and qualified personnel; and 3) DOH field personnel are also fully occupied. Current State efforts to control nonpoint Currently, the on-scene coordinator has the responsibility to source pollution are hampered by the lack of baseline data on ensure adequate clean-up of a spill, yet incomplete authority to water quality. Federal funds for water quality monitoring direct it. Granting greater authority to the on-scene coordinator programs are dwindling. would expedite decision-making, particularly if contingency plans incorporate preapproval for any actions requiring per- Federal, State and private monitoring programs exist but are mits, such as for use of chemical dispersants. not coordinated. Existing data from these programs are not Private ciean-up organizations exist, such as the Clean analyzed on a comprehensive or comparative basis to provide Island Council and Petroleum industry Response Organiza- an overall water quality picture. Marine life monitoring is not tion; however, it is essential that their capabilities be effectively required as a means to assess potential impacts of pollution on utilized in coordination with Federal and State efforts. The the marine environment. Standard quality assurance and qual- ity control programs must be agreed upon and implemented by availability of emergency response equipment and personnel all monitoring programs. is limited. On some Islands, equipment and personnel are not available at all. if all agencies and organizations potentially Legal Authority involved in spill management would confer to predetermine an array of appropriate actions to take under particular circum- Hazardous Spills stances, the on-scene coordinator could exert on-scene com- In Hawaii's new Emergency Response Law, it is not clearly mand without causing undue controversy. If effective, such a articulated that the DOH may act to protect natural resources decision model might transfer useftilly to other environmental disaster response plans. Public Information and Involvement 3. Fully implement the water quality monitoring pro- When an Environmental Assessment (EA) is prepared for a gram in the Clean Water Branch. This would require additional funding from the Legislature. proposed project, the State agency responsible for the area or resource determines whether the proposed activity has the Municipal Sewage Treatment potential to cause significant environmental impacts. If it is 4. 1Work with the Counties to upgrade sewage treatment determined affirmatively, then an Environmental Impact State- facilities and build new facilities. This may require addi- ment (EIS) is prepared. The public can comment on the EIS and tional funding from the Legislature. thereby Lake part in ensuring its adequacy. However, when a @negative declaration" is made, stating that the project will have 5. Convene a statewide policy and management work- no significant environmental effects, the public has no means shop on the relative costs and benefits of primary and to comment on the decision. If individuals or groups disagree fertilizer. with the negative declaration, or feel the EA is inadequate, they 6. Work with Counties to develop alternative funding must file a lawsuit. mechanisms for constructing additional sewage treat- Results from water quality monitoring programs are not ment facilities as building development. continues. readily available to the public in an understandable format 7. Increase training and career advancement incentives that analyzes trends and current status of sites. Public under- for treatment facilities operators. standing of oil spills and their potential impacts on the marine environment must be improved. The public is not 8. Implement the revised Chapter 11-62 Hawaii Admin- actively involved in marine life monitoring programs and is istrative Rules (HAR) which describes the boundaries of not fully aware of any standard procedure for reporting Critical Wastewater Discharge Areas on each island. spills. 9. Encourage each County to maintain adequately trained Recycling, source reduction and anti-littering programs de- environmental engineers to evaluate proposed individual pend on public awareness and involvement for success. How- wastewater treatment systems. ever, many of these programs do not receive adequate support OSP should: from the State. The success of nonpoint source pollution control is especially dependent on public awareness and 10. Work with the Counties to ensure that sewage treat- involvement since no Federal regulations exist, and controls ment facilities have adequate capacities to handle incom- are voluntary. ing waste volumes in order to prevent discharges of untreated sewage into nearshore waters. Thiswill require coordination of planning for housing development with RECONMENDA17ONS planning for infrastructure development. Objective DOHsbould. Ensure that the State is capable of effectively regulating waste Individual Wastewater Treatment Systems disposal, and accidental oil and chemical spills, while protect- 11. Work with the Counties to support the use of non- ing human health and minimizing environmental degradation. cesspool alternative methods of domestic sewage treat- Policy A ment. This would need to be accomplished through the implementation of wasiewater rules which allow for Minimize point and non-point source pollution and its accom- these types of systems. panying impacts on the ocean and coastlines by developing appropriate regulatory controls, incentives, monitoring, and Municipal Solid Waste research programs. 12. Establish solid waste management standards that Implementing Actions: Counties would be expected to meet in developing their solid waste management plans, including site selection DOHsbould: and closing criteria for landfills. Water Quality 13. Ensure that municipal solid waste incineration - in- 1. Monitor and provide input on proposed changes to cluding smokestack emissions and ash disposal - is fully Federal statutes and regulations regarding water quality monitored and monitoring information is readily avail- and waste disposal. able to the public. 2. Sponsor regional. and State workshops to review Hazardous Waste existing DOH and other monitoring programs in order to 14. Establish an effective monitoring prograrn for all establish a comprehensive water quality and marine life hazardous or toxic wastes. To do this the Legislature monitoring program for all coastal waters. should increase funding and staffing for DOH programs. [This would enable DOH to increase its monitoring of all 4. Work with the Counties to provide incentives for hazardous was*e treatment/storage/disposal centers and recycling and composting. ensure proper treatment, storage and disposal of wastes.] 5. Coordinate regulatory controls and incentive pro- 15. Work with industry to develop incentive programs to grams to discourage illegal dumping of oil, sewage from minirnize hazardous or toxic wastes and to develop spill vessels, plastics and other waste into ocean and coastal prevention, preparedness and response capabilities. waters. 16. Develop an effective enforcement program for haz- DOTshould: ardous waste regulations. 6. Provide incentive programs to encourage commer- 17. In the event of hazardous waste incineration, ensure cial and recreational vessels to bring plastic wastes and that plants - including smokestack emissions and ash sewage back to port for proper disposal. disposal - are fully monitored and monitoring informa- 7. Require the establishment of facilities for sewage and don is readily available to the public. used oil, along with receptacles for solid waste, separated Radioactive Wastes into plastic, paper, aluminum, and glass, at all small boat 18. Establish a management program for overseeing the harbors and boat ramps. At the same time, develop collection, transportation, disposal and monitoring of a educational programs for boaters about the benefits of radioactive wastes. utilizing these facilities. [See Harbors section.) Non-point Source Poffution DOHsbould: 19. Improve the effectiveness of the non-point source Hazardous Waste pollution control program. To do this, the Legislature 8. Support programs to reduce the production of haz- should increase funding to DOH: to prioritize and ad- ardous wastes in the State's industries. Use waste audits to dress non-point source pollution issues; for State person- pinpoint the sources of hazardous waste in different nel for the program; and for research into the impacts of industries. Offer incentives for industries to take preven- various land uses on nearshore habitats, tive steps such as raw material substitution, process Litter Control redesign, product redesign, in situ recycling, and en- 20. Establish a program to identify and regulate sources of hanced containment during transfer and processing. unregulated waste disposal, including fishing gear, mass 9. Establish a free and convenient collection system for release of helium filled balloons, and onshore and off- household hazardous wastes, such as pesticides, paints, shore littering. and solvents. Policy B Policy C Promote waste minimization through source reduction, recy- Be prepared to -respond effectively to spills and other dis- cling, and other alternative methods of waste management as charges involving oil and other hazardous materials in the part of the State's regulatory programs. State's waters. Implementing Actions: Implementing Actions: DOHsbould: DOHsbould: Wastewater Treatment 1. Increase staffmg for the department's Office of Haz- 1. Support water reclamation through a variety of meth- ard Evaluation and Emergency Response (HEER). Ibis would require additional funding. ods, including artificial marshes, sedges, water hyacinths 2. Arrange for HEER to contract services for natural and other plants as means of absorbing nutrients con- resources damage assessment from spills. tained in primary treatment effluent, in addition to the current practice of using this effluent in golf course 3. Clearly articulate in the rule-making procedure for irrigation. the State Emergency Response Law that the department 2. Support the utilization of sewage sludge, after proper has the,authority and responsibility to respond to spills or treatment, as composted fertilizer. releases that may harm natural areas without clear threat to human health. [These rules and responsibilities for Munkspal SoUd Waste protection of natural resources also need to be integrated 3. Work with the Counties to establish redemption cen- with the existing authority of DLNRJ ters for recyclable materials, including plastic, paper, 4. Initiate a program to evaluate and take action on the glass, aluminum, and used motor oil. hazardous waste problems in all Federal facilities in Hawaii in cooperation with the COE. 5. Identify those hazardous waste cleanup sites that 4. Establish a toll-free number for citizens to report should be included in the State and National Priority List violations of waste disposal regulations. for Superfund sites. 5. Incorporate public comment into the preparation of 6. Conduct an economic impact assessment study to long-term toxic waste clean-up plans. cletennine the impact of an oil spill in specific areas, such Policy E as Waikiki. This would help the State determine how much money it is willing to pay for prevention. Ensure cooperation among regulatory and management agen- 7. Conduct a study with Federal, State and County cies within the State, and among Federal, State, and County agencies, and petroleum shippers Iand refiners to ap- agencies. proximate the probable risks of various categories of oil Implementing Action: spills. This would require close and candid cooperation DOH should: between industry representatives, the USCG and State representatives. Conduct a comprehensive review of waste management 8. Review existing response plans and approved strate- regulations, procedures, and programs at the County, gies for oil spill response. This should include an ongoing State, and Federal levels to identify the gaps and overlaps effort to monitor technical literature for innovations in as well as opportunities for improved cooperation and coping with monitoring, containment, recovery and clean- information-sharing among the agencies. up of oil spins. 9. Evaluate actual oil spill response capacity in the State REFERENCES or available to the State on short (12 hour) notice. Alloca- Arakaki, S.T. 1990. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Letter of tions to upgrade capacity in either State or Federal agen- August 29,1990. Honolulu. cies, or in the private sector must be based on a realistic appraisal of what already exists, its suitability for Hawaii State of Hawaii, Department of Business and Economic Devel- and the probabilities that it might be needed. opment. 1990. Report to tb e Fifteenth State Leg islatu re Regula r 10. Work with Federal agencies to devise incentives for Session of 1990 on Chapter 228, Hawaii Revised Statutes, the oil industry to enhance the procedural safety of oil Ocean Resources Management. shipments, and to ensure immediate reporting not merely of spills, but of high-spill-risk situations. State of Hawaii, Department of Health. 1989a. Hawaii'sAssess- 11. Work with the U.S. Coast Guard to expedite the ment of Norpoint Source Pollution Water Quality Problems. sampling process for idenfifying spill sources. Honolulu. Z) 12. Establish a grievance mechanism to provide a forum State of Hawaii, Department of Health. 1989b. Hawaii's for citizens to seek compensation when they are affected Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Management Plan. Hono- by spills. lulu. Policy D State of Hawaii, Legislative Reference Bureau. 1987. Compen- Enhance public awareness and participation with regard to dium of State Ocean and Marine Related Policies. By T.S. sources and effects of marine pollution, as well as methods and Brennen and K.H. Takayama. Honolulu. programs for waste disposal and cleanup. Implementing Actions: DOHshould.- 1. Seek increased funding from the Legislature for its public education program to enhance public awareness of wastewater disposal facilities and environmental pro- grams and the effects of marine pollution on the environ- ment. Such programs should also encourage public par- ticipation in clean-up activities. 2. Increase support of community programs such as "Adopt-a-Beach" (e.g., trail, storm drain, etc.). 3. Make water quality monitoring information, which analyzes trends and identifies problem areas, readily available to the public in an easily understandable form. Ken Kassman Center for Development Studies Social Science Research institute, University of Hawaii 2424 Maile Way HonoW H[ 96822 ROURCULTURE nffi MOTWE PAGE Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic organisms on land or in n1E RESOURCE 84 the ocean, including fish, molluscs, crustaceans and aquatic Physical Enviroriment 85 plants in salt, brackish or fresh water. Although the Hawaii Cultural Environment 85 Oce an Resources Management Plan is primarily concerned Production Facilities 86 with ocean-related impacts of aquaculture, it is important for a comprehensive management plan to view this sector in its RESOURCE MANAGEMM 86 totality. Information and issues concerning freshwater aquac- Regulation 87 ulture are thus included in this technical paper. Federal Autbority 87 Aquaculture is currently one of th@ fastest growing indus- State Autbority 87 tries in Hawaii with an average annual growth rate in revenues County Autbority 88 of 13 percent and an estimated income of over $21 million in support 88 1989 (DLNR 1989). Technical support and consulting services Federal Autbority 88 (the service sector) brought in the bulk of revenue for the Swe Autbority 88 industry with over $14 million in sales. In 1989, 22 Hawaii- County Autbority 89 based firms were involved in this sector, providing research, training, conference, education and consulting services. Prod- MANAGEMIM ISSUES 89 uct sales (the commercial production sector) are estimated to Imd Availability and Expense 89 furnish another $7 million, primarily from the sale offreshwater Water Availability prawns and marine shrimp. Although the commercial produc- Public Access and User Conflicts tion sector currently represents half the dollar volume of the Environmental Concerns service sector, its importance should not be overlooked. It is Regulatory Constraints and lack of Coordination 90 estimated that aquaculture furnishes from two percent of the Economic Viability 91 total fisheries production ofthe State. Because ofthe highvalue of its produce, aquaculture comprises 13 percent of the total RECONMEMAnONS 91 value of all seafood produced commercially in Hawaii (DLNR Objective 91 1990). Policies and Implementing Actions 91 Although the present growth of aquaculture seems to indi- cate stability, in the recent past large scale private investment in the production sector and subsequent withdrawal of said investment, a serious disease epidemic in the marine shrimp production sector, and a lack of available seed stock in other sectors has shown aquaculture in Hawaii to be an economi- cally cyclical, but growing, industry. In 1979, less than $2 rnillion in production sales and no service sales were reported. While 1979 revenue was related primarily to a single species, freshwater prawns, the variety of aquacultured species has now expanded to aver 35 different products including marine shrimp, Chinese catfish, tilapia, carp, rainbow trout, abalone, nori, ogo, spirulina, oysters, salmon and lobster. in addition several species of ornamental aquatic plant and animal species aquacultural development. Primary lands are those lands out- are being cultured along with juvenile shrimp and prawns for side of urban zoning districts and below 3,000 feet elevation stocking. Futurespecies prospects include mabimabi, japanese that have less than a five percent slope, fresh, brackish or salt flounder, baitfish, giant clams, limpets, pearl oysters and sea water potentially available, average air temperatures above 20 cucumbers. This infant industry could grow to play an impor- degrees centigrade and clay, loamy or clay-loam soil, which tant role in an economically diversified and more self-sufficient can be compacted into ponds. Secondary lands have the above Hawaii and expand the State's export market as well (DLNR characteristics but have less suitable soils. These include lava 1989; 1990). lands. Despite the large amount of potentially available acre- Aquaculture resources are based largely on the technical age, zoning, land ownership, prior pesticide use, the proximity support and food production sectors of the industry. Advances and availability of water resources and other factors greatly in marine biotechnology and research indicate that equally limit the actual availability of the land base. User conflicts and valuable returns may lie in new aquacultural areas such as untested legal questions also may limit the availability of marine industrial chemicals, marine pharmaceuticals and bio- offshore aquaculture development. medical research models. In recent years, aquaculture re- Cultural Environment searchers have begun to investigate the feasibility of mass aquaculture for a variety of invertebrate species. Marine bio- The aquaculture industry in Hawaii is blessed by many unique technology shows great potential for expanding the opportu- cultural factors, both traditional and modem. The Hawaiian nities in commercial aquaculture (Main et at 1987). The aquac- lifestyle has always relied upon ocean resources. Ancient ultural resources in Hawaii can be broken down into three Hawaiians made abundant use of the sea and utilized the ocean main subgroups: environmental resources, cultural resources for their major source of protein. Although the introduction of and current production facilities. Understanding each of these cattle and other animals has reduced this reliance on marine resource sectors is important in developing a comprehensive produce, Hawaii is still the largest per capita seafood consumer public policy and maintaining the viability of aquaculture in in the United States. Much of this owes to the State's unique Hawaii. ethnic and cultural make-up. Over half of the population now comes from Pacific Island and Asian cultures in which seafood Physical Environment is a major dietary component. Hawaii's environmental resources have been a major factor in The traditional/historical role of aquaculturect seafood in the growth of the aquaculture industry. Hawaii is the only state ancient Hawaiian culture is a major factor, which should be which has year-round temperatures suitable for growing tropi- considered a resource to the modem aquaculture industry. As cal, sub-tropical and temperate aquatic species. Solar intensity early as 1901, observers noted that over 104 manmade fish- in certain parts of Hawaii is among the highest in the world. The ponds actively were involved in the farming of marine species, warm climate and solar intensity play a major role in minimiz- including the fast-growing grey mullet or ama, milkfish or ing the energy costs involved in temperature regulation. Ha- awa, and the abolebole and oopu (gobies). These ponds waii also has some of the purest water in the world. One of covered almost 3,000 acres and produced 680,000 pounds of Hawaii's leading aquacultural crops takes advantage of this fish annually. Although this seems substantial compared to situation in the raising of high quality, freshwater prawns Hawaii's modem aquaculture industry, it is estimated that there IDLNR 11111, were more than 340 fishponds when aquaculture production The ocean surrounding Hawaii provides a virtually unlim- was at its pre-European contact peak. ited supply of relatively clean, free, salt water. Salt water With the decline of the Hawaiian population following (18,000+ ppm of chloride) and brackish water (250 - 18,000 Western contact and the rise of a plantation economy, many of pprn of chloride) also are available from various limestone and these fishponds fell into disrepair and disuse. Recent studies volcanic aquifers. Both brackish water and salt water are show that several of these ponds could be renewed for present- underutilized resources at this time. Emphasis on saltwater day aquacultural production. In a recent study, six of 67 ancient aquaculture development could relieve pressure on limited fishponds studied were found to have excellent potential for freshwater supplies while utilizing semi-neglected resources. mullet and milkfish production, and 15 ponds were found to As a byproduct of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion have good potential with minor repair or improvements (DPED (OTEC) experiments on the Island of Hawaii, researchers have 1977). successfully used cold, nutrient rich, pathogen-free, deep sea The rise of the plantation economy early in this century also water for aquaculture. OTEC could provide aquaculture with marked an era of important reliance on agriculture. For de- fresh water as well, although the relative cost may be detrimen- Z> tal (DLNR 1984; 1990; Fast and Tanoue 1988). cades, sugar and pineapple were major economic forces in the islands. With the decline of these industries, water and land will Hawaii has a large ocean and land base suitable and poten- become available for other uses. As a sub-industry of agricul- ally available for aquaculture use. The aquaculture develop- cure, aquaculture could use these resources while continuing ment report for the State (1978) identified 135,000 acres of the cultural connection to the land and diversified economy 'primary lands and 500,000 acres of secondary lands suitable for now associated with agriculture. The aquaculture industry thus has a substantial advantage in company continued its support of Hawaii aquaculture with a that a cultural/historical base of familiarity and acceptance has $20 million expansion program. Partial funding of this expan- already been laid both for the consumption and culturing of sion program came from Japanese investment (ibid). aquatic resources. The resurgence of aquaculture in Hawaii Another California-based company operates the largest presents a viable means to produce traditionally accepted shrimp farm in Hawaii, comprised of over 153 acres of aquac- protein sources and an opportunity to connect that production ulture ponds. It has a well-known roadside stand, which offers to the reemergence of Hawaiian culture and community self- freshly cultured shrimp and prawns to seafood-hungry resi- sufficiency. For the people who work on such projects, aquac- dents and tourists alike. It also raises and sells several species ulture is more than a commercial activity. It is a way of life that of fish. The company recently opened a processing plant in the links traditional heritage to the modem world. Few other Mapunapuna area of Oahu (ibid). industries in Hawaii can make this claim. Kahuku Aquacultural Park on Oahu is a privately owned Production Facilities and independently operated park with both fresh and saltwa- Aquaculture has played a significant rol@ in bringing diversified ter aquaculture. Its six private farms, on land owned by Campbell investment to Hawaii. There are 50 seafood farms in operation, Estate, are involved in shrimp and fish production (ibid). employing more than 500 people and growing 35 different Production from government-funded aquaculture facilities species of aquatic resources in production facilities that range is usually a byproduct of research. There is commercial pro- widely in technical sophistication and complexity. Most are on duction from private firms operating in government-spon- Oahu (DLNR 1988; 1989; 1990). sored aquaculture parks, but production is not directly funded by the public sector. Natural Energy Laboratory Hawaii Author- Small scale "cottage" farms are the dominant organizational ity (NELHA) aquac .ultural park is an example of this form in Hawaii, accounting for 63 percent of total aquaculture type of production organizations. These farms are fairly stable (8.5 government facility, which encourages commercial produc- years of average operation), farnily-oriented businesses with tion and provides research and technical support services to one or two employees. Many of these families own their own commercial producers Gbid). land and are thus able to keep one of the primary operating The Anuenue Fisheries Research Center (AFRC) is an ex- expenses for aquaculture in Hawaii relatively low. These ample of a government-owned production facility. AFRC, cottage famis account for much of the production of operated by the Department of Land and Natural Resources aquacultured species in Hawaii. Six@-six percent of Hawaii's (DLNR) Division of Aquatic Resources (DAR), has a 1.6 hectare prawn production and all of its freshwater and ornamental fish (ha) facility that conducts research and produces fresh and production come from cottage farms (Main and Deupree saltwater aquaculture species. It has been providing freshwa- 1986). ter prawn seed stock to local aquaculturists for more than a Ten percent of Hawaii's 50 aquaculture farms are incorpo- decade. It is now conducting research into seaweed projects as rated. Due to the larger size of corporate operations, these well as larval culture of marine shrimp, mahimahi and crabs operations accounted for about 70 percent of total dollar (Main et al 1987). Maui County also has supported the culturing volume in the aquaculture production sector in 1989. In 1986, of marine shrimp seed stock for commercial production sup- one-half of all shrimp and algae production facilities and one- port on Molokai (ibid). third of the prawn farms in the State were corporate-owned. Although there has been interest in government-supported Small-business accounted for the other 50 percent of shrimp aquaculture restoration and enhancement of depleted marine and algae farms (ibid). fisheries, only recreational freshwater stock enhancement (cat- Although the majority of aquaculture production in Hawaii fish and trout) is being undertaken at this time. is sold locally and directly by the producer, international companies from several continents are becoming an increas- RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ingly important part of the industry. International investment in the aquaculture industry includes investment from countries as A range of Federal, State and County regulatory regimes and diverse as Norway and Japan. Recent foreign investment in agencies manage aquaculture activities in Hawaii. Access to aquaculture production in Hawaii is estimated to be as much as water (fresh and salt), siting, species choice, system design, $15 million, with millions more being brought into the State effluent discharge, financial aid, and research and extension through international consulting by Hawaii-based firms (DLNR services are overseen by different agencies operating on differ- 1989). ent governmental levels with different regulatory responsibili- Mainland companies also have found it advantageous to ties and legislative mandates. These areas of responsibility fall locate aquaculture facilities in Hawaii. One company, origi- into two main categories: regulation and support. nally established in California, now raises abalone, oysters, sea Federal, State and County regulatory and support regimes urchins and salmon on the Kona Coast of Hawaii (Islands, shape aquaculture in Hawaii. Attempts are being made to March/April 1989, Santa Barbara, California). In 1989, this coordinate these diverse agencies and their programs as well as to provide linkages between the various sectors of the aquac- aquaculture effluent discharges from facilities producing less ulture industry. In 1985, the Hawaii Aquaculture Advisory than 100,000 pounds of aquatic animals per year and for Council was authorized by the the State Legislature to promote facilities that discharge less than 30 days a year. DOH also may communication between private industry and State govem- grant Zones of Mixing to allow effluent discharges that have ment agencies. A Memorandum of Understanding formalized implemented the "best degree of control" even though they are linkages between the University, State agencies and the Oce- unable to meet the WQS. Limited zones are intended to place anic Institute. The Mariculture Research and Training Center, controls on discharges in order to attain the highest level of the State Aquaculture Development Program and the UH Sea water quality and minimize environmental impacts on re- Grant Extension Service jointly sponsor an annual series of ceiving waters. Anyone who proposes a discharge that workshops on topics pertinent to local aquaculturists (Main et results in a change in water quality must demonstrate impor- al 1987). tant economic or social benefit and show that it will not interfere or adversely impact the intended beneficial uses of Regulation any State waters. Federal Authority Under Chapters 328-9 and 321-11, HRS, Chapter 11-35, 11- The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) has jurisdiction over 29 and others, HAR, and the National Shellfish Sanitation structures placed in waters from the shoreline seaward. COE Program (Pub. No. 33 U.S. Public Health Services), DOH is generally requires a permit for projects involving dredging or responsible for the inspection and regulation of shellfish in- filling-in navigable waters, stream diversion or impoundment cluding the growing, harvesting, packing and shipping of and for projects affecting swamps, marshes and wetlands. Any oysters, clams and mussels. individual who wants to do work "in, under, across, or on the The Department of Land and Natural Resources (DLNR) is banks of navigable waters" must first obtain a pen-nit from COE. the lead agency for aquaculture development and for land-use Its regulatory mandate stems from several laws including the decisions involving conservation lands in Hawaii. The State Rivers and Harbors Act of 1191, Clean Water Act, National land Use Law (Chapter 115, HRS), the Coastal Zone Manage- Marine Protection and Research Act, and the Coastal Zone ment Act (Chapter 205A, HRS) and several similar mandates Management Act of 1972. COE is responsible for an Environ- provide the basis for State land-use management in Hawaii. mental Assessment and if necessary an Environmental Impact Land-use law establishes four major land use classifications: Statement for projects with significant environmental impacts urban, rural, agricultural and conservation. The Land Use Law under the Environmental Policy Act of 1969. Permit issuance is establishes jurisdiction between the State and the four County generally undertaken after all State and County permits are govemments. Most urban land is under County control, as is granted. agricultural land in parcels under 15 acres. Conservation land Another Federal agency involved in Hawaii aquaculture is and large agricultural tracts are under DLNR jurisdiction. Aquac- the Department of Interior, which interacts with local authori- ulture/mariculEure is defined as a permitted use in both the ties on endangered species issues. agricultural and conservation classifications. State Conserva- tion Land Use Penriits generally are required by DLNR for State Authority projects within areas zoned as conservation lands. On the State level, the Department of Health (DOH) is a Along with DOH, DLNR oversees groundwater allocation primary regulatory agency. DOH is charged with enforcing the decisions and the withdrawal of water from streams. DLNR also National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Hawaii oversees modification of stream channels on windward Oahu Environmental Impact Statement Law of 1974. The Environ- and use of groundwater in Oahu's Ewa and Wahiawa. DLNR is mental Assessment/Environmental Impact Statement require- further responsible for historic site review of projects affecting ments are triggered whenever public projects or coastal zone designated or potential Federal and State Historic Sites, includ- area projects requiring water or land-use permits are deemed ing many ancient Hawaiian fishponds. to have significant environmental impact; defined as "the sum The Hawaii Coastal Zone Management Law (Chapter 205A, of those effects that affect the quality of the environment, HRS) requires State agency permit decisions to be consistent including actions that irrevocably commit a natural resource, or 0 adversely affect the economic or social welfare" (Chapter 343, with the objectives and policies in the Law. The law sets broad Hawaii Revised Statutes [HRSD. policy regarding the use of coastal resources. It is administered by the Hawaii Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Program, DOH also is the lead agency in the issuance of the National Office of State Plannm*g. Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit man- The Department of Agriculture (DOA) requires perrnits for dated by Congress through the Clean Water Act of 1977 the importation of non-indigenous species of aquatic animals. (Chapter 342D, HRS). Dischargers of aquaculture effluent are required to meet applicable NPDES effluent guidelines and Certain species, commonly aquacultured on the Mainland, State Water Quality Standards (WQS). Implementation ofWQS such as striped bass, some species of tilapia and freshwater is through Hawaii Administrative Rules, Tide 11, Chapter 54 eels, are not permitted for importation into Hawaii due to (Chapter 11-54, HAR). Federal exemptions are available for concern over unknown environmental impacts. The Department of Transportation (DOT) has authority over aquaculture development. One of those centers, the Center for activities within State waters (Chapter 266, HRS) and requires Tropical and Subtropical Aquaculture (CTSA), is in Hawaii. permits for filling/dredging, construction and placement of jointly administered by the University of Hawaii and the structures in shorewatersJoint processing of DOT Shorewaters Oceanic Institute, CTSA is a programmatic center that funds Permits with Conservation District Use Permits may be allowed. and administers research, development and demonstration County Autbority projects throughout the U.S.-affiliated Pacific Islands (DLNR 1987; 1988; Main eE al 1987). Landward of the shoreline, Counties have jurisdiction under in addition, USDA provides nationwide aquaculture sup- the State Land Use Law, Special Management Area (SMA) and port through matching grants to States through its Agricultural Shoreline Setback regulations, and County planning, zoning Marketing Service; extension services through State Coopera- and subdivision laws. Under Chapter 205A, HRS, the four Counties are required to establish SMA boundaries and an SMA t1ve Extension offices; Farmers Home Administration loans; Federal permit process for lands extending from the shoreline to no less crop insurance; National Agricultural Library Service; statistical than 100 yards inland. Developments within the SMA must reporting services and purchase of aquaculture overproduction. conform to the objectives and provisions within the Hawaii Other Federal agencies, including the Department of Inte- Coastal Zone Management Law. The permit-granting authori- rior (DOI) and DOC support research, development, extension ties are the planning commissions for Kauai, Maui and Hawaii and training for aquaculture activities. DOI works primarily Counties and the City Council for the City and County of through the US Fish and Wildlife Service. DOC supports aquac- Honolulu. Applicants for an SMA pen-nit must file a document ulture research and development activity through the Eco- that includes an identification of the property, plans, a descrip- nomic Development Administration (EDA) and National Oce- Jon of the proposed development, a shoreline survey (if on the anic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). NOAA con- shoreline), and a description of the environment affected. ducts its research and development programs pdmffly through Evidence must be provided that no serious environmental or the National Marine Fisheries Service and Sea Grant College ecological impacts will occur. Act 200 adopted by the 1979 Program. Additional Federal support for aquaculture, primarily State Legislature amends Chapter 205A, HRS, to allow exemp- financial aid, is available through loans from the Farmers Home tion from SMA pen-nits for aquaculture activities which are not Administration and the Small Business Administration, and or may not become 'part of a larger project, the cumulative grants from the National Science Foundation. impact of which may or may not have a significant envionmental Federal and State grants to fund aquaculture research have or ecological effect" on the SMA. been rising since 1980, when support totaled about $2 million. Chapter 205A, HRS, Part II and III, require that the Counties In 1985 State and Federal aquaculture grants exceeded $6 establish shoreline setbacks no less than 20 feet and no more million. State funds are primarily administered by DLNR's than 40 feet inland from the shoreline (although Counties may Aquaculture Development Program and are often matched by mend the setback further by County ordinance). The law is UH Sea Grant College Program and occasionally by private intended to control development on the shoreline, prevent sources. Hawaii also has received recognition from the Federal erosion, maintain open space, and preserve public access to government for its leadership role in aquaculture develop- the shoreline. Administration and enforcement of shoreline ment. The State was selected in 1987 by Congress as the site of setbacks are the responsibility of the County planning depart- the Center for Applied Aquaculture (CAA). CAA will serve ments (Kauai, Maui and Hawaii) and the Department of Land national aquaculture research needs. it is expected to employ Utilization of the City and County of Honolulu. Variances may 300 persons and be a foundation for approximately $40 million be issued following a review by the appropriate County au- to $60 million in research contracts annually Obid). thorities. Other general building permits also may be needed. State Autbority County public works departments generally require grading, grubbing and stockpiling permits for major land clearing devel- In 1978, Hawaii became the first state to issue a comprehensive opments. The City and County of Honolulu also requires a well aquaculture development plan (DPED 1978). The State has permit for the construction of or modification to fresh, brackish long had a commitment to developing an aquaculture industry. or saltwater wells. As early as 1961, the Honolulu Bait Station (later consolidated into the Anuenue Fisheries Research Center, AFRQ began support State-funded research into culturing tilapia. for use as baitfish. Federal Autbority In 1965, the State pioneered freshwater prawn aquaculture and for over a decade has provided postlarval prawn stock to local On the Federal level, the Department of Agriculture (USDA) aquaculturisEs. The AFRC continues to provide extension and Department of Commerce (DOC) have been major sup- services regarding a variety of marine and freshwater species porters of aquaculture in Hawaii, providing over $6.4 million in (Main et al 1987). grant funding in 1987 alone. In addition, USDA made a substan- In 1977, the State Aquaculture Development Program (ADP) tial commitment to aquaculture on a national level in 1985 with was established in the Department of Planning and Economic the establishment of four (now five) regional centers to support Development (now the Department of Business, Econornic Development & Tourism, DBED). ADP is the lead agency for: In addition, the State has provided significant financial 1) statewide planning, coordination and communication; 2) support for development of the aquaculture industry. DOA providing inforimation-related support services, permit acqui- administers the Aquaculture Revolving Loan Fund (ARLF) to sition, species and site selection, marketing and economics, help finance commercial aquaculture activities. By taw, ARLF and disease diagnosis and prevention projects; and 3) funding can loan up to $100,000 for real estate and improvements and and co-funding research, development and demonstration up to $75,000 for operating capital. Since its establishment in projects. In 1981, ADP was transferred to DLNR to consolidate 1972,38 loans totalincy $1,670,000 have been made. Loans from resources under one lead agency. the ARLF are not available to aquaculturists involved in the The Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority (NELHA) production of ornamental fish (ibid). was created from the separate entities of the Natural Energy County Autbor*'y Laboratory of Hawaii and the Hawaii Ocean Science and Maui County, long a leader among the Counties in aquaculture Technology Park. NELHA has used the deep seawater byproduct research, is the only County supporting aquaculture develop- of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) projects it ment. The Maui County Baitfish Facility, founded in 1978, oversees to support aquacultural research and production. investigated developme'nt of top minnows for use as bait for NELHA comprises over 870 acres reserved for high technology skipjack tuna fishing. Tilapia and catfish also were being ocean-related research, development and commercial activi- 0 ties. Staff, expertise, equipment and utilities are available for investigated for human consumption. Facilities include six .2- aquacultural support. In 1989, eight companies produced 13 ha ponds and three .05-ha broodstock ponds. There are four different aquacultural products (some sold to Mainland mar- full-time County employees (Main et at 1987). In 1988, Maui kets) and employed 140 people (DLNR 1989). County also funded the first cottage4evel aquaculture project in the State. Managed by Maui Economic Opportunity, Inc., Besides ADP, the Division of Aquatic Resources (DAR) has senior citizen participants cooperatively marketed Chinese aquaculture responsibilities which include hatchery opera- catfish, snails and tropical fish grown in backyard fish farms. tions, research, stock enhancement and development activi- Maui is now looking into establishment of a 107-acre re- ties. Through its AFRC facility, DAR became the main supplier search facility called the Kealia Aquatech and Renewable of prawn post-larvae seed stock on an emergency basis after Resources Park (KARRP) as a technology incubator focusing private hatcheries closed down. on renovation, pilot testing or pre-commercial development In 1985, the Legislature authorized the establishment of the phases of projects. The County also has funded a marine Hawaii Aquaculture Advisory Council (HAAC) to advise DLNR shrimp hatchery on Molokai to provide post-larvae seed stock on aquaculture development in the State. The Council is to the two marine shrimp farms there. Maui County also is composed of 16 ex-officio members from key State agencies joining various State and private agencies in funding a project and County governments and seven aquaculture industry to use a traditional Hawaiian fishpond in the culturing of mullet representatives (DLNR 1984). and milkfish (DLNR 1989). The University of Hawaii offers training and research facili- des through 13 of its departments or programs including: the MANAGEMENT ISSUES College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources; College oINatural Iciences; Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology; Hawaii Management issues associated with aquaculture in Hawaii fall Backyard Aquacultural Program; Mariculture Research and into six major categories: land availability and expense; water Training Center; the Snug Harbor Algal Mass Culture Facility availability; public access and user conflicts; environmental and Waikiki Aquarium. The University has an aquaculture concerns; regulatory constraints and lack of coordination among coordinator who emphasizes development for research and management agencies; and economic viability concerns. mention outreach to industry. The UH Sea Grant program funds innovative research and development projects and of- Land Ava&blhty and Expense fers extension help throughout the Islands. The University Although the Aquaculture Development Plan WED 1978) has offers degree programs related to aquaculture through its 0 Marine Options Program and the Hilo campus has a degree identified 135,000 acres as suitable for aquaculture and an program offering an aquaculture major (DLNR 1984; Main et a] additional 500,000 acres as having potential for aquaculture, 1987). land ownership, development conflicts and the high cost of land for purchase or lease seriously restrict this ideal. Only a The State has recognized the need for a large-scale aquacul- fraction of that acreage is currently available for aquaculture ture pond research and training facility to simulate the environ- development. Government support of aquaculture, such as the ment in which most commercial aquaculture is produced. The aquaculture park at NELHA on the Island of Hawaii, can help University of Hawaii's Mariculture Research and Training Cen- alleviate this situation. Some suggest expanding the aquacul- ter (MRTC) at Hakipuu, Oahu, was selected as the site for Phase ture park system to other Islands. Offshore aquaculture devel- 1 of this facility, with satellite facilities to be built on one or more opment also could alleviate some of the cost associated with of the Neighbor Islands (DLNR 1989). land acquisition and the unavailabity of suitable land. Water Availability environmental effects of aquaculture effluent discharge into Water availability may be broken down into three categories: coastal waters. brackish, salt and fresh. There are substantial brackish water The construction of shoreline and offshore aquaculture and almost unlimited saltwater resources available for aquac- facilities may further complicate issues. Construction along ulture today and in the future. The supply of fresh water is shoreline areas could conflict with the Special Management adequate for current aquaculture production. Although the Area (SMA) mandate to protect, preserve, develop and restore visitor industry, golf courses, diversified agriculture, a growing Hawaii's coastal zone resources. However, aquaculture may population and new industrial development put pressures on be able to further the SMA mandate by utilizing restored freshwater supplies, it is important to note that fresh water used traditional fishponds, restocking depleted fisheries and, effect- for aquaculture often can be integrated into agriculture as ing positive effluent discharge-related biostimulation. irrigation water and thus "used" more than once. The decline The inadvertant importation of exotic species to Hawaii has of other agriculture sectors, such as sugar and pineapple, may caused the endangerment or extinction of many indigenous free some fresh water for the aquaculture sector. This issue is plant and aninial species. Although this is not primarily an likely to become more heated as competition for fresh water ocean concern, there are known cases of marine species increases. Setting priorities for water use and reuse and encour- importation and spread. Eucbema, a seaweed, has "escaped" aging brackish and saltwater aquaculture development may outside enclosures and spread throughout Kaneohe Bay. Tila- help rnitigate future problems. pia has spread to most brackish water areas in the state. There Public Access and User Conflicts is concern that a more predatory species, such as an eel, could do long-term or permanent damage to the ecosystem. Since Aquaculture farms and research facilities have reported serious most of the species which have proven to be viable for economic losses due to theft in recent years. Shoreline fish- aquaculture are nonindigenous to Hawaii, responsible, ponds seem particularly vulnerable to losses from theft. Enrich- proactive management in this area is important. ment of the natural environment from aquaculture effluent and nutrients may increase fisheries around offshore aquaculture Regulatory Constraints and Lack of Coordination structures, thus attracting fishermen and poachers as well as Myriad agencies on all levels of government regulate and fish. control aquaculture in Hawaii. Many of these agencies or Aquaculture is primarily located along shoreline, near-coastal governing bodies have limited knowledge of aquaculture, that or coastal water areas. Expansion of the industry could restrict is a unique industry. Restrictions and regulations which may access to these areas and raise the question of traditional access seem valuable to the regulatory agency may not in fact be versus property rights. View planes and view obstruction may relevant, and thus, may make public participation in aquacul- occur because of offshore aquaculture structures, pens and ture development more difficult (DLNR 1989). cages. Traditional public rights, such as access to the shoreline Restrictive policies and a complicated perrnit-granting pro- from the land or the sea and the public use of fisheries as cess also hinder the start-up and expansion of new aquaculture common resource, including traditional native tenants rights, businesses. This is especially true for small businesses lacking make user conflicts likely. financial and in-house technical resources. The current permit Environmental Concerns process is thought to limit the development of farms, impede lender or investor financing at the early stages of development, As aquaculture in Hawaii is still a relatively small and environ- require costly legal, engineering and environmental expenses; mentally benign industry, there is little evidence of adverse commit technical and mangement people to nonproductive environmental effects. As the industry expands there may arise time-consuming meetings, strategy sessions, public hearings, environmental concerns that might be better addressed sooner and coordination with consulcants; add to construction costs; than later. Among them are effluent discharge and the acciden- and impose significant and long-term costs for monitoring and tal release of imported species into the ecosystem. reporting to government agencies (DLNR 1987; 1988). Effluent discharges from aquaculture facilities generally Given the range of goals and objectives that governmental contain a high amount of nutrients due to uneaten feed, agencies seek to follow, it is inevitable that some conflicts unabsorbed fertilizers and/or waste elimination from the ani- among development and resource protection policies will mal stock. Chemical agents used to prevent disease may be occur. Coordinating bodies such as ADP and HAAC help unify present in the discharge, as well as hormone additives that on a Statewide level the various approachs to aquaculture might be used to accelerate growth. Such nutrient enhance- development now undertaken by Federal, State and County ment of the natural environment could stimulate the growth of governing agencies. Recent steps have been taken in this plankton and neritic and benthic biota. The effecLs of such direction. This increased coordination among government biostimulation may be viewed as positive, neutral or negative, agencies should be encouraged along with increased input depending upon the specific results and biases of the inter- from the private and research-oriented sectors. ADP has been preter. Additional assessment needs to be done concerning the helpful in obtaining permits and is currently -working on methods to further facilitate proactive coordination beteween nomic, social, and environmental well-being of Hawaii. permitt-granting agencies. 4. Consider the needs of the aquaculture industry for Economic Viability fresh water in relation to competing water uses. Lack of capital is perhaps the biggest constraint to start-up or Policy B expansion of commercial aquaculture production facilities in Mitigate user conflicts between the aquaculture industry, fish- Hawaii. Private lenders are unwilling to risk capital on a new ermen, and the public at large. industry, which they may not understand and may correctly implementing Actions: perceive as high-risk. Bankruptcies and the withdrawal of support by several large corporate aquaculture operators in the DLAW sbould.. State have furthered apprehension. Start-up costs are especially 1. Investigate alternative means to resolve disputes be- high for small-scale and community-onented ventures. Suitable tween these communities. seed stock often is unavailable and feed expenses are high. Despite the above, the future for aquaculture in Hawaii 2. Investigate the feasibility and desirability of expand- could be very bright. Federal and State programs are encour- ing the Ocean Leasing Law to allow commercial aquacul- aging increased participation. More people are eating fish at a ture facilities in nearshore waters. time when traditional fisheries are approaching their optimal 3. Encourage new aquaculture famis and facilities to level of production. Hawaii already has played a major role in begin a dialogue with affected community groups early in the culturing of freshwater prawns worldwide. Expansion of the development process. Hawaii's expertise into other areas, such as the production of Policy C further food species, culturing stock for depleted ocean fisher- ies, and exploration into biotechnology, medicine and indus- Assess the impacts of aquaculture on the Hawaiian ecosystem. trial products could help Hawaii diversify its economy and implementing Actions: adapt to environmental and economic situations. A diversified, small-scale, locally oriented production sector could help DLNR, in cooperation witb DOH, sbould.. increase Hawaii's self-sufficiency and provide the beginnings 1. Investigate the environmental effects of aquaculture of a stable economic and food production base for the State. effluent discharge now occurring in Hawaiian waters. Continued concentration on basic and applied research can further export earnings as the service and consulting sector 2. Evaluate State regulations governing discharges and gains prominence on the Mainland and worldwide. Large- suggest possible changes to Federal and County regimes. scale operations, if proven viable, also can increase export 3. Develop a strategic and coordinated management earnings and provide needed jobs in a diversified economy. plan to prevent adverse environmental impacts from aquaculture discharges, such as the identification and RECOMMENDA11ONS development of suitable sites around the State. Objective REFERENCES Develop an integrated approach to manage the impacts asso- ciated with an expanded aquaculture industry in Hawaii, while Choy, S. and D. H. Kondo, M. H. Maruyama, N.K. Nakamura, maintainina the viability and integrity of the environment. S. D. Maynard. 1981. The MokaueaFisbpond Project. Univer- Policy A z@ sity of Hawaii, Marine Option Program. Honolulu. Assess the economic, social, and environmental costs and Coleman D.E. and R.L. Buettner. 1989. Union List ofAquacul- benefits of expansion in the various sectors of the aquaculture turejournals in Hawaii. Center for Tropical and Subtropical industry. Aquaculture. Honolulu. Implementing Actions: Cooperative State Research Service/U.S. Department of Agri- DLAW sbould: culture. 1987. 1. Identify the positive and negative impacts of expand- Fassler, R. 1990, Hawaii, Prawns, Shrimp and Salmon. Aquac- ing the various sectors of the aquaculture industry. ulture Today. Spring. Honolulu. 2. Establish priorities for support of the various industry sectors. Fast A.W. and K.Y. Tanoue (eds). 1988. OTECAquaculture in 3. Create a coordinated development strategy to direct Hawaii. Working Paper Number 33. University of Hawaii, Sea the industry along the path most beneficial to the eco- Grant College Program. Honolulu. joint Subcommittee on Aquaculture of the Federal Coordinat- State of Hawaii, Department of Land and Natural Resources, ing Council on Science, Engineering, and Technology. 1983. Aquaculture Development Progarm, Aquaculture Advisory NationalAquaculture Development Plan. Washington, D.C. Council. Hawaii Aquaculture Advisory Council Reports, 1986 to 1989. Honolulu. Main, K. L. and R. H.Deupreejr. 1986. CommercialAquacul- ture in Hawaii. University of Hawaii, CoBege of Tropical State of Hawaii, Department of Land and Natural Resources, Agriculture and Human Resources. Honolulu. Aquaculture Development Program. 1988. Hawaii Aquacul- ture. Honolulu. Main, K. L. and J. K. Wang, R. H. Deupree, Jr., S. Higa. 1987. Aquaculture Planning in Hawaii. Report submitted to the State of Hawaii, Department of Agriculture. 1990. YbeHawaff U. S. Department of Agriculture Cooperative State Research State PlanforAgriculture. Draft. Honolulu. Service. State of Hawaii, Department of Land and Natural Resources, Office of Technology Assessment/U.S. Congress. 1987. Inte- Aquaculture Development Program. 1990. Aquaculture in grated Renewable Resource Management for U.S. Insular Hawaii. Honolulu. Areas. Washington D.C.:U.S. Government Printing Office. Yim, T.C. 1977. Senate Aquaculture Report. Honolulu. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. 1989. Aquaculture, Developing a New Industry. Paris. State of Hawaii, Department of Planning and Economic Devel- opment, Aquaculture Development Program. 1976. Aquacul- ture in Hawaii. Honolulu. State of Hawaii, Department of Planning and Economic Devel- opment, Aquaculture Development Program. 1977. ThePoten- tialfo r Mu Ilet a nd Milkjtsb Cultu re in Ha wa i ia n Fisbpo n ds. By W. D. Madden and C. L. Paulsen. Honolulu. State of Hawaii, Department of Planning and Economic Devel- opment, Aquaculture Planning Program. 1978. Aquaculture Development for Hawaii- Assessments and Recommenda- tions. By Center for Science Policy and Technology Assess- ment. Honolulu. State of Hawaii, Department of Planning and Economic Devel- opment, Aquaculture Development Program. 1981. Ocean LeasingforHawaii. By G. S. Clay, S. Broder, R. Turner, D. S. Kataoka, G. L. Rhodes, and D. K. Yamase. Honolulu. State of Hawaii, Department of Land and Natural Resources, Aquaculture Development Program. 1981. Mariculture and Ocean 7bermal Energy Conversion, State of the A71 Assess- ments. Honolulu. State of Hawaii, Legislative Reference Bureau. 1982. Marine Resources and Aquaculture Programs in the State of Hawaii. By A. Ogata. Honolulu. State of Hawaii, Department of Land and Natural Resources, Governor's Aquaculture Industry Development Committee. 1984. Report oftbe Governor'sAquaculture Industry Develop- ment Committee. Honolulu. Wendy L Schultz Center for Development Studies Social Science Research Institute, University of Hawaii 2424 N[aile Way Honolul% 111 91%22 ENERGY TBE RESOURCE PAGE Hawaii's ocean waters are a major energy resource, particularly THE RESOURCE 93 important in a State whose relative isolation renders it hostage Demand 93 to imported oil, While the State supports many forms of Supplies 94 alternative energy research and development, it has focused implications for Ocean Resource Management 94 undeniably on the ocean. During the 1980s, Hawaii became Ocean and Energy Production 94 the premier site for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Energy Sources in Ocean Waters 94 research and implementation. OTEC facilities are designed to replace fossil fuel electrical generation capacity. In a State Ocean-Based Energy Distr*ution 97 where the greatest energy demand lies in the transportation RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 98 sector, OTEC's capacity to displace fossil fuel use will be Regulation and Enforcement 98 limited for the next decade. Nonetheless, the ocean has much Electricity Generatiow OTEC 98 to offer in alternative sources of energy for the future, through Electricity Transmission 100 OTEC and other marine energy technologies. Monitoring and Res@ 100 In addition, the conventional energy facilities already in State 100 place in the State affect the ocean directly in a number of ways. Federal 101 Oil-buming electrical generation plants are sited near the infiaswucture Development 101 oc .ean and use ocean water for cooling systems. Hawaii's State 101 primary energy source, crude oil, arrives entirely by tanker. Federal 101 Statewide use of geothermal energy resources is technically Education and Public Awareness 101 feasible given advanced transport systems - either design and deployment of what will be the world's deepest underwater State 101 power transmission cable, or the production and shipping of MANAGEMENT ISSUES 101 hydrogen throughout the State. Appropriate ocean manage- Site and Use Conflicts 102 ment policies and appropriate energy strategies must recog- Environmental impacts of Energy Facilities 102 nize the ocean's potential as an energy resource as well as its Energy Production 102 present relation to existing energy facilities. Inaderluate Data Coordination 103 Demand Overlapping jurisdictions and Authorities 103 Site4 Development Permits and Plans 103 In 1988, Hawaii's resident population totaled over 1,098,000, Limited Funds, labor and Equipment 103 with a de facto population of approximately 1,219,0001. Energy consumption for that year totalled almost 313 trillion Btu; this RECOMMENDATIONS 104 equals approximately 285 million Btu per capita for the resi- Objective 104 dent population, or approximately 45 barrels of oil per person I Policies and Implementing Actions 104 (barrels of oil equivalent, total energy use)2. Looking at State consumption patterns by sector, 1987 figures show that of a total 234.6 trillion Btu of energy consumed, 9.4 percent was residential use; 12.5 percent was commercial use; 24.5 percent was industrial use; and the remaining 53.6 percent was used in the transportation sector. Hawaii's energy demand pattern is unique among the 50 cal plants the output of which exceeds one-third of baseload states, and with respect to the nation as a whole. With the State's demand. The recycling and burning of garbage, while using an economy dependent on the tourist industry, jet fuel use is indigenous energy "resource," also raised some ire among comparatively high, with air transport the primary consumer in voters. Public sentiment is untested with regard to nuclear the transportation sector. In the rest of the country, ground fusion, but history suggests feelings would run high on that transport is the primary consumer in the transportation sector. issue as well. However, should commercial nuclear fusion As virtually no consumer demand for heating exists in Hawaii, become possible, Hawaii at least can claim abundant supplies residential energy use is comparatively low. The State's relative of "heavy water"for deuterium in the surrounding oceans. The lack of heavy industries also reduces its total demand for fuel only indigenous sources of energy available to the State are oil and electricity. solar power, wind power, geothermal power, biomass and the In 1987, almost 45 million barrels of oil or equivalent in various "water powers:" hydropower, OTEC, and tidal and products were consumed in Hawaii. The State's transportation wave generators. sector alone accounted for 60 percent of oil demand. The total implications for Ocean Resource Management 1988 liquid fuel tax base equalled 1.22 billion gallons, of which over 701 million gallons were aviation fuel. Electric utilities are Given Hawaii's lack of conventional energy resources and the second-largest users of oil, at 26 percent of total State heavy reliance on imported petroleum, development of all demand. in contrast, transport for the country as a whole practical alternative energy systems is a necessity. This in- equals only 27 percent of total energy consumption, and cludes continued research and development in energy systems electricity generation over 35 percent. In the future, fresh water that may not be viable at the present. First among the alterna- production may become another energy sink in Hawaii's tives is energy conservation. The State mandates not only energy demand pattern. The State's new desalinization plant at integrated resource planning by electrical utilities, but also Barbers Point focuses on a new, potentially very large energy demand-side management and conservation programs. As demand sector. statistics indicate, Hawaii already strongly supports alternative energy use: 9.2 percent of its primary energy needs are met by SupplieS3 non-conventional sources, compared to only 3.5 percent for Hawaii's energy supply picture is also unique. In 1988, Petro- the United States as a whole. leum supplied over 91 percent of the State's primary energy The ocean resource management program should encour- needs. All of that petroleum was shipped to the State. About 60 age optimal development and use of the State's ocean energy percent of it originated within the United States (primarily from resources. The primary ocean and ocean-related energy re- Alaska's North Slope fields). Biomass (principaBy sugar cane sources to consider currently are OTEC, tidal and wave power bagasse) supplied 8 percent of Hawaii's primary energy needs, generators, and marine biomass. Where to put energy facilities and solar water heating, hydroelectricity, wind power and raises both social and environmental issues, which must jointly geothermal power together provided only 1.2 percent. In be addressed by ocean resource management and energy contrast, in 1988, the nation as a whole depended upon plans. Finally, both underwater electrical transmission cables petroleum for only 43 percent of its total energy needs; upon and surface transport for conventional fuels should be man- coal and gas for 23.5 percent and 23.1 percent, respectively; aged to balance efficiency of delivery with safety. Optimal nuclear power accounted for 7.1 percent; hydroelectricity for development and use of these ocean resources should not 3.3 percent; and all others for 0.3 percent. preclude maintaining and enhancing marine environmental Looking at electricity generation alone, petroleum fueled 91 quality. percent of Hawaii's electricity generation in 1988, with biomass ocean and Energy Production generating seven percent, and the remaining two percent or so generated by hydropower, wind power and geothermal power EnerV Sources in Ocean Waters combined. The utilities generated about 89 percent of Hawaii's The Pacific Ocean is one of the planet's primary energy en- electrical demand. Plantations and other private companies gines. As it absorbs sunlight, the subsequent temperature shifts generated the other 11 percent, most of which was sold to in the water drive not only cloud formation but the flow of electrical utilities under contract. winds and the generation of storms. This thermal energy can be Of the conventional energy sources - petroleum, natural tapped indirectly, as wind power, marine biomass fuel, and gas, coal - Hawaii has absolutely no reserves to answer its wave power, or directly as OTEC. The ocean is not merely a energy demand. Even if construction of nuclear fission plants planetary, but an interplanetary energy sink: the gravitic forces in the State were not against the law, Hawaii's electricity generated among the sun, the moon, and Earth generate tides, demand would be insufficient for fission's economies of scale. and this energy also may be captured for use. Hawaii's wind Average plant size for nuclear fission electrical generation is generators are all land-based, so ocean energy management is approximately 1000 MW. Oahu's peak demand is about 1000 currently limited to marine biomass, wave power, OTEC and MW, with baseload requirements of about 600 MW. Given any tidal power. On a worldwide scale, however, these sources generating plant's downtimes, it is impractical to build electri- alone could meet planetary power needs (Table 1).4 Table I on the Big Island.6 Designated as the primary site for OTEC research in the United States, OTEC-related experiments have Estimted Technically Feasible been ongoing since it opened. Applied research began in 1979, with the construction of "Mini-OTEC," a pilot closed-cycle Ocean EneW Resource Potentials OTEC plant build on a converted Navy barge. This plant (in MV) produced a 52-kw gross output of energy, and a 15-kw net output of energy. It was the first closed-cycle plant to produce Thermal conversion 10,000,000 a net output of electrical power. Wave power 500,000 OTEC is a method of converting the renewable solar energy stored in the ocean into electrical energy. Two main compo- Tidal power 200,000 nents comprise the system: warm and cold seawater intake and Salinity gradients 3,540,000 discharge pipes; and the power plant itself, consisting of pumps, turbine generators and heat exchangers. Warm surface Bioconversion 770,000 seawater and cold deep seawater are piped separately to a Currents 50,000 power plant where the temperature differential, which must be at least 200C, is utilized in either closed-cycle or open-cycle *megawatts thermal energy conversion. In a closed-cycle plant, the warm Source: Riva et al. [16:231, cited in Pryde, Philip R., NonconventionalEnergy sea water vaporizes a working fluid, such as ammonia, which Sources, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1983. p-101. drives a turbine generator; the cold seawater then condenses the working fluid to produce a continuous cycle. in an open- Marine biomass can generate methane for a variety of cycle plant, warm surface seawater is vaporized in a depressur- energy end-uses. Conceptual designs to date have suggested ized chamber, producing low-pressure steam for power gen- cultivating both giant kelp and red seaweed, grown in planta- eration. The cold water is used to condense the steam: this ons fertilized by nutrient-rich deep seawater. This deep sea- process incidentally produces large quantities of desalinated water would be pumped to the near-surface waters in a form of water as a byproduct. The cost effectiveness of the open-cycle artificial, mechanically assisted upwelling. As the pumps for plant is enhanced by the production credit from this byproduct. upwelling would themselves consume energy, these designs Fresh water also can be produced through closed-cycle OTEC are most viable when linked to wave energy or OTEC plants. with the addition of a conventional desalination unit or a However, yields under experimental conditions have con- second stage consisting of a flash evaporator and a surface finned that seaweed plantations could easily be 15 tons dry condenser (ie., an open-cycle OTEC system without a turbine). weight per acre per year, which is comparable to the best land- This system is referred to as an hybrid OTEC plant. based biomass production. As supplementary products, the More exciting than the ocean energy research itself is the rich plantations also would produce animal food and fish. basket of commercial opportunities that have resulted from Every surfer knows that ocean waves are power. Mechani- innovations based on the cold seawater pumped to condense cally, the trick is converting the multidirectional, varying power the working fluid in an OTEC plant. This cold, nutrient-rich of the wave into unidirectional mechanical energy and thence deep seawater can be applied innovatively to air-conditioning, to electrical power. Hundreds of designs exist to do so, includ- agriculture and aquaculture. NELHA has installed an ing hydraulic pumps, pneumatic pumps, rotation vanes and airconditioning system using chilled-water coils in one of its hinged rafts. While fuel costs for these technologies are nonex- laboratory buildings, resulting in considerable energy savings. istent, and operating costs low, capital costs would be very Research projects cultivating temperate zone fruits and veg- high for any installation large enough to provide community etables have produced lettuce and strawberries in gardens power. As long as oil prices remain below $50 per barrel, none cooled and irrigated with the fresh water condensing on the of these designs will be economically viable. external surfaces of the cold seawater pipes. As for aquacul- Tidal power generators require a tidal range of at least five ture, the cold seawater not only allows means of fine-tuning meters to be economically viable using conventional technol- tank and pond temperatures for thermally sensitive fish, shell- ogy. Only shallow estuaries and embayments, which concen- fish, mollusks and seaweeds, but it is nearly pathogen-free and trate tidal forces, see such high tidal ranges. Relatively few very nutrient-rich. This enables aquaculture projects to pro- suitable sites exist on the planet; and none of them are in Hawaii. ce premium rrticroalgae, nori, abalone, oysters, giant dams, lobsters, salmon and trout. However, at present there are no Marine biomass plantations, wave power generators and commercially viable species for cost-effective, OTEC-based tidal power generators have not generated great interest in mariculture operations. OTEC mariculture is in its formative Hawaii. But OTEC research in the State has continuously years and not ready for commercialization. With the exception expanded since 1975, supported by Federal, State, private and of the relatively small use of the cold seawater as air-condition- international sponsors. In 1975, the Natural Energy Laboratory ing chiller fluid, OTEC should be considered for its potential of Hawaii Authority5 (NELHA) established the Kona Seacoast production of electricity and desalinized water. Test Facility on 328 acres of oceanfront land at Keahole Point In the decade between 1979 and 1989, steadily growing One can envision 40-MW hybrid plants for the Islands of interest in OTEC research and related activities transformed the Hawaii and Kauai meeting all water and electricy needs under land surrounding the Seacoast Test Facility at Keahole Point the scenario provided in Table 2. Likewise, smaller (10-MW) into the Hawaii Ocean Science and Technology (HOST) Park. plants can be considered for Molokai. In the case of Oahu, the It has seven cold-water pipes in place, and 14 tenant projects. population is too large to meet all electrical needs with OTEC. Of these, four are OTEC energy research projects, six are However, all water needs can be met with hybrid OTEC plants. aquaculture research projects and four are commercial aquac- The hybrid OTEC plants considered above would have the ulture ventures. Of the 869 acres at HOST Park, 416 are following production rates: committed to ongoing or proposed projects. OTEC demonstra- don projects are planned for the near future. A 210-kw (gross) Plant Size Electricity Water Production land-based, open-cycle plant is under design and scheduled Production forconstruction at NELHA in mid-1991, with operadonssched- 10-MW 70 X 106 kWh 4 to 8 million gpd uled for July 1992. This plant is a joint project of the U.S. 40-MW 280 X 1011 kWh 16 million gpd Department of Energy, the State and the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR). The plant is The cost per kWh (expressed in current dollars), including designed to produce net power and is therefore referred to as a credit for freshwater production, would be 0. 10 $/kWh for the the Net Power Producing Experiment (NPPE). Several propos- 10-MW plant, 0.09 $/kWh for the 40-MW plant. These plants als for closed and hybrid-cycle plants ranging from 160 to 500- could be commercially available before the turn of the century kw (gross) are being pursued by Hawaiian outfits. if some of the demonstration projects under consideration The cost of electricity produced with OTEC plants has been come to fruition. The financial community will not invest in compared to that of electricity produced via petroleum or coal- new technology without an operational record. fired plants (Vega 1991). Two generalized markets were con- As a point of comparison, consider that in 1988 residential sidered: industrialized nations with land-based or floating electricity costs were almost 0.08 $/kWh for Oahu; 0. 11 $/kWh plants and smaller, less-developed island nations with modest for Hawaii; 0. 12 $/kWh for Kauai; almost 0. 10 $/kWh for Maui; needs and therefore, small, land-based plants. The model is almost 0.16 $/kWh for Lanai; and almost 0.20 $/kWh for used to establish scenarios under which OTEC could be com- Molokai. Therefore, OTEC for the State is promising, pending petitive. The scenarios are defined by two parameters - fuel the construction and operations of demonstration plants. cost and cost of freshwater production. The results of the analysis are summarized in Table 2. Table 2 OTEC Market Penetration Scenarios NOMPM NU POWIM SCROMO SCENAZO Nff ]POWIM (MW) nw REQUREMEM AVAUMUXrY I Land-Based OC OTEC * $45/barrel of diesel South Pacific with 2nd-Stage additional - $1.6/m3 water Island Nations Water Production by Year 1995 10 Land-Based $25/barrel of fuel oil American Island (as above) $0.85/m3 water Territories and -or- other Pacific $22/barrel Islands by Year $0.8/m3 water 2000 40 Land-Based Hybrid - $44/barrel of fuel oil Hawaii, if fuel (ammonia power cycle - $0.4/m3 water or water cost with flash evaporator -or- doubles by Year downstream) * $22/barrel 2000 * $0.8/m3 water 40 * Closed-Cycle Land-Based - $36fbarrel by Year 2M * Closed-Cycle Plant ship e $23/barrel NoLe OC-OTEC limited by turbine tedmolgy to 2.5 MW modules or 10 MW plant (with four modules). CC-OTEC or Hybrid (water production downstream of closed-cycle, plant flash evaporator). Ocean-Based Energv Distribution order to prove technical capability of cable installation and UnderwaterElecoical Transmission Cables7: In October 1981, maintenance. To further link all the State's customers into a the State initiated the Hawaii Deep Water Electrical Transmis- baseload power grid, Maui Electric Company (MECO) initiated sion Cable Demonstration (HDWQ Program in conjunction feasibility studies to test the economics of installing submarine with the Federal government and in cooperation with Hawai- transmission cables between Maui, Molokai and Lanai. ian Electric Company. Its purpose was to research and develop The cable project will be implemented in conjunction with a deep water electrical transmission cable and support system the development o1a 511-MW geothermal generation plant on to deliver electricity from renewable energy sources on the Big the Big Island in a joint effort called the Hawaii Geothermal/ Island to consumers on Oahu. The State's largest energy Interisland Transmission Project. In May 1989, Hawaiian Elec- market, Oahu, has no large-scale indigenous firm power sources. tric sent out a Request for Proposals to 33 organizations to The undersea cable could transmit up to 500 megawatts of finance, design, construct, install, operate and maintain a 500- electrical power, almost half of Oahu's current demand. This MW geothermal generation/interisland transmission project. system also could provide back-up electrical power to other Also that year, the State awarded a major contract to ERC islands should power emergencies arise (Sumida and Hills Environmental and Energy Services Company to prepare the 1984). project@s masterplan and environmental impact statement, and By 1988, sonar surveys and unmanned submarine surveil- to analyze overland electric transmission corridors. lance determined the selection of a preferred undersea cable Petroleum Transport and Storage: Oahu has two oil refin- route between Hawaii and Oahu from nine suggested routes. eries, both in Campbell Industrial Park near Ewa Beach. The This route begins at Puna on the Big Island, moves north and older of the two is owned by Chevron. The Hawaii Indepen- west to Waimea over land, than crosses the Alenuihaha Chan- dent Refinery, Inc. (HIRI), owned by Pacific Resources, Inc. nel to Maui at a depth of 6,350 feet. On Maui, the cable comes (PRI), is newer and more sophisticated. Their total combined onto land at Huakini, crossing the southern tip of the island to processing capacity is approximately 135,000 barrels per cal- submerge again at Ahihi. From there, it runs northwest past endar day (Table 3). Supplying this capacity with crude oil Lanai and Molokai, through the Auau Channel at a depth of requires about ten tanker deliveries every month. The tankers only 410 feet, before heading across the Kaiwi Channel under load and unload at mooring buoys situated in waters off 2,240 feet of water to Waimanalo on Oahu. Barbers Point. The closest of these facilities is 1.5 miles off- In 1989, the project had progressed to successful laboratory shore. The loading cycle may take as long as two days. testing of a 300-kv DC self-contained oil-filled cable. As the About 60 percent of the crude oil landing in Hawaii origi- final phase of the feasibility study, the 273-foot vessel Flexservice nates in Alaska. Tankers from Alaska usually approach Barbers 3 laid and retrieved a 26,000-foot, non-electrical test cable in Point via the Kauai Channel. Kaiwi Channel is used on occasion Table 3 Hawaii's Refineries REFINERY CAPACITY BIM CEMON (barrels/day) 80,000 55,000 STORAGE CAPACITY in million barrels (no. of tanks) CRUDE OIL 1.8 (6) 1.6 (7) PRODUCTS 2.4 (50+) TANKER SIZE (median) in deadweight tons 35,000 97,000 deliveries/month 8 3 LOADINGAJNLOADING* mooring buoy type monobuoy fixed-point miles offshore 2 1.5 loading cycle (days) 1.5-2 1-1.5 Chevron only unloads. Sources: Conversations with PRI and Chevron staff, January 1990. by vessels coming from Alaska, but Kaiwi is more often the Electricity also is produced in the state by small diesel approach of choice for vessels from the West Coast. This generators; small hydroelectric plants, found on Maui, Kauai approach puts the entire south shore of Oahu at risk from crude and Hawaii; wind famis, primarily on Oahu and Hawaii; and oil spills. Tankers call at the other islands as well. These ships the burning of bagasse, on Hawaii as well as on Kauai, Maui are most often product tankers, fffled with fuel oil, motor and Oahu. Diesel, hydroelectric and wind farm facilities have gasoline, or jet fuel. just under half of the products delivered very little impact on ocean waters. Sugar factories, however, do are light distillates, while more than half are heavy oils (Table add significant amounts of pollutants to the ocean in the form 4). In the case of Maui, tankers approach from the north, and of mill water waste discharge. moor to the north, at Kahului. The north shore of Maui is at risk of spills, as are Molokai, Lanai and Oahu, as winds and currents would move the spill west and south. RESOURCE MANAGEMM Utilities operate 13 ofl-fired electrical generating plants in Regubtion and Enforcenient the State, with plantations operating a dozen more electrical Elearkily Getwatioir OTEC plants,which bum either oil or bagasse. Of the oil-fired power plants, three are on Oahu, five on the Big Island, two on Maui, State. All ocean energy development will occur under the and one each on Kauai, Molokai and Lanai. The three Oahu authority of the State Department of Business, Economic De- plants are all near the ocean - at Kahe Point, Waiau on Pearl velopment & Tourism (DBED), according to Tide 12, Conser- Harbor, and Honolulu's waterfront near Pier 7. The Maui vation and Resources, Chapter 196-4, HRS. This statute ap- power plants are in Kahului on Hobron Point, and at Maalaea, points the Director of DBED as State energy resources coordi- with capacities of 34.9 MW and 96.1 MW respectively. The nator, and charges DBED with the following mandates: Kauai power station at Port Allen has a total generating capacity 1. Develop Hawaii's energy resources at optimurn levels. of over 65 MW. Lanai and Molokai's plants have total capacities of 10.76 MW and 5 MW, respectively. 2. Recommend to the Governor and Legislature, which At least nine of these plants are situated within one-half mile programs represent best allocation of resources. of the shoreline. Whether they use well water or seawater as a 3. Develop programs to encourage public and private steam source, these nine plants subsequently pipe the con- exploration of alternative energy'sources. densed but still warm water into the ocean. Maui's Kahului 4. Organize public education progarns regarding energy plant illustrates the relative amount of seawater return for a given capacity. The Kahului plant has four generator units that 5. Advise government, public and private sector on en- jointly produce almost 35 MW of power. The pumps on those ergy resource acquisition, utilization and conservation. four units each push between 3,700 - 4,000 gallons per minute 6. Contract for services to develop energy sources and (gpm) of condensed steam into the ocean, for a plant total of resources. 37,900 gpm. - or a little over 1,000 gpm per MW of plant capacity. The water is cooled before discharge to a federally 7. Report to the Governor and Legislature annually on regulated maximum temperature of 36.70C, or 780F. energy. 8. Adopt rules as needed to implement Chapter 196-3;4, HRS. Table 4 Hawalirs Petroleum Imports and Exports UOORTS 0a"ORTS [in 11000 barrels] [in 1,000 barrels] Product Total//Domesfic//Foreign Total//Domestic//Foreign CRUDE OIL 41,218 20,755 20,463 - - - REFINED PRODUCTS 6,651 3,353 3,298 6,829 3,331 3,498 Motor gasohne 193 193 - 187 187 - Distillates 217 217 - 1,658 i,o67 591 jet fuel 2,677 1,119 1,559 2,160 104 2,056 Rsd. fuel oil 3,563 1,824 1,739 2,524 1,673 851 Other - - - 300 300 - Note: "Jet fuel" excludes imports of 3,686,500 barrels of unknown origin. Source: Department of Business and Economic Development, Energy Division, records: Section 17, Table 504. 1. These are primarily research and development, monitoring DOH is directly responsible for maintaining environmental C, and planning activities. DBED issues no permits for energy quality in general and that of State waters in particular, under development. Rather, it applies to other agencies for permits Chapter 342, HRS. DOH defines State water quality standards for its energy development projects. and monitors compliance with Federal and State water quality Permits for all ocean energy projects generally involve the standards. Because OTEC technology requires upwelling and following agencies: the Department of Land and Natural discharge of deep seawater, development must abide by Fed- Resources (DLNR); Department of Transportation, Harbors eral and State water regulations. Division (DOT/Harbors); Department of Health (DOH); Public The State Environmental Policy Act, Chapter 343, HRS7 Utilities Commission (PUC); and relevant County planning mandates procedures to identify and mitigate impacts on comm@ission (or, in the case of the City and County of Honolulu, marine and coastal ecosystems, among others. Any agency the City Council). Ocean energy projects also fall into the action or development activity requiring a CDUA, an SMA purview of the State's Coastal Zone Management (CZAI) Pro- permit, or a Federal permit triggers an environmental assess- gram. CZM objectives primarily are realized through the per- ment. Environmental assessments determine whether the ac- mit-granting, regulatory and management authority of those tion or activity may generate significant environmental im- five agencies, with the Counties exercising the most authority pacts. If the permit-granting agency concludes that impacts will via Special Management Area (SMA) zoning regulations. The be significant, the agency or organization submitting the appli- CZM Program has responsibility for ensuring that federally cation must prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS), funded or permitted projects are consistent with State and which will be subject to public review. The Department of County coastal zone regulations. Health's Office of Environmental Quality Control acts as the clearinghouse for dissemination and archiving of completed Under Chapter 205, HRS, Hawaii's Land Use Law, DLNR is responsible for land-use regulations in Conservation Districts and Forest Reserves, including the Conservation District Use The production and sale of electricity from a commercial- Application (CDUA) permit process; Marine Life Conservation scale OTEC plant, or any other commercial-scale ocean energy Districts (Chapter 100-15, HRS); Fishery Management Areas project, would require review by the Public Utilities Commis- (Chapter 187A-2, HRS); Natural Area Reserves (Chapter 171-3, sion (PUC). PUC oversees, among other things, all persons or HRS); and State parks (Chapter 184, HRS). As any "land" organizations involved in the "production, conveyance, trans- seaward of the shoreline (underwater) is classified as conser- Mission, delivery, or furnishing of light, power, heat, cold, vation district, all ocean energy projects anchored within 12 water, gas, or oil" (Chapter 269-1, HRS). It is quite possible that miles require a CDUA permit. Chapter 190D, HRS, Ocean and commercial OTEC plants would furnish power, cold, and Submerged Lands Leasing, specifically addresses the proce- water. PUC reviews utility rate schedules to ensure that they are dures for issuing CDUA permits for OTEC project construction "just and reasonable." in State marine waters and submerged lands. Furthermore, PUC has the specific mandate (Chapter 269- In addition, the Board of Land and Natural Resources also is 27.2@ HRS) to direct public utilities "to arrange for the acquisi- granted authority under Chapter 171, HRS, Public Lands, Man- tion of and to acquire electricity generated nonfossil fuel agement and Disposition, to sell or lease public lands to sources as is available ... to maximize the reduction in consump- government agencies or public utilities, and to grant licenses or tion of fossil fuels in the generation of electricity.` in the easements for use of public lands. The board is not permitted process of assuring that just and reasonable rates are charged to do so in cases where the public utility has suitable lands of for nonfossil fuel-generated electricity, PUC may set the rate its own. This could apply to public utility-sponsored OTEC paid by the public utility for electricity generated from altema- projects requiring shoreline land parcels for plant construction. tive energy as not less than 100 percent of the cost the utility In Chapter 266, HRS, the Legislature grants DOT authority to avoids by not having to produce the electricity itself. This manage all ocean uses seaward of the shoreline, shore waters particular regulation is in direct accord with the Federal utility regulations. and navigable streams. Section 3 of that chapter specifies that DOT's jurisdiction pertinent to ocean energy projects, such as The Counties also have jurisdiction over OTEC and similar OTEC, includes: Licensing and registration of persons or energy projects, through two statutes. The first, Chapter 46- organizations engaged in commercial activities in or on the 19,HRS, grants Counties the power to develop alternative shore waters or shores of the State; and licensing and regulation energy resources themselves in joint ventures with public of equipment utilized for commercial activities in or on the utilities. The second is the State Coastal Zone Management Law shore waters or shores of the State. In practical terms, this (Chapter 205A, HRS). This law grants each County authority to means that any construction, dredging, or filling in or near define Special Management Areas (SMAs) extending from shore requires a DOT Shorewaters Permit. This may be pro- shoreline inland not less than 100 yards. Within the SMA, cessed simultaneously with a CDUA permit. In cases where Counties manage a permit process that ensures that all devel- DOT does no, concur with CDUA approval, it may request a opments conform to the objectives of the State Coastal Zone separate Shorewaters Permit application. Management Law. Permit applications must include a survey of the property Legislature designed a unique, streamlined permit process and shoreline, description and plans for the project, and a specifically for the HDWC, codified as Tide 12, Chapter 196D, description of the affected environment. If the project cost HRS, Geothermal and Cable System Development. This statute exceeds $65,000, a review for a major SMA permit is triggered. cites the need "to develop a consolidated permit application If the reviewing agency's environmental assessment deter- and review process to provide for and facilitate the firm mines that the project will have serious environmental impacts, assurances that companies will require.. .' in order to complete a formal environmental impact statement is required. The a project requiring such heavy capital investment. permit-granting agencies are the planning commissions of Thus, according to Section 6: all Federal and State agencies each County, with the exception of the City and County of with permit-granting authority join in a single review process, Honolulu, where the authority rests with the City Council. and "...shall cooperate ... to minimize duplication between and, Tederah The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) also has where possible, promote consolidation of Federal and State jurisdiction over waters and submerged lands from the shore- requirements. ...this ... shall include, among other things, joint he three miles seaward. This authority stems from Federal environmental impact statements with concurrent public re- legislation including, but not limited to, the Rivers and Harbors view and processing at both levels of government" This Act of 1899; National Environmental Policy Act of 1969; and consolidated review is facilitated by DLNR. Federal Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 (P.L. No. 92- FederaL As currently designed, the deepwater cable would 583). The Department of the Army permits cover construction cross out of State waters and into Federal jurisdiction. The in, under, or across navigable waters within the three-mile Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act of 1953 affirms Federal limit. These would apply to any land-based OTEC pipelines, or jurisdiction and control over the subsoil and seabed of all a moored, offshore OTEC facility. submerged lands beyond the State's three-mile limit. Other The Public Utility Regulatory Act of 1978 (PURPA), requires Federal laws applicable to this project will be the Submerged electric utilities to buy electricity from qualifying facilities at the Lands Act of 1953; Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972; utility's "avoided cost." Thus PURPA both opened the market Rivers and Harbors Appropriation Act of 1899; Federal Water and established the price level for renewable power produc- Pollution Control Act; Marine Protection, Research, and Sanc- don. tuaries Act of 1972; National Environmental Policy Act of 1969; The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) has and Federal Power Act. Both the Law-of the Sea Convention issued three notices of proposed rule-making under PURPA to and the Continental Shelf Convention specifically grant states more clearly define market access and pricing for independent the rights to lay submarine cables on the marine bed. Most of power: these laws relate to COE's authority over construction in navigable waters. Regulations Governing Independent Power Produc- ers, 53 Federal Register 9327 (March 22, 1988), Docket Monitoring and Research No. RM88-4-000. State 0 Regulations Governing Bidding Programs, 53 Fed- As has been pointed out, the Department of Health has primary eral Register 9324 (March 22, 1988), Docket No. RM88-5- responsibility for monitoring State environmental quality, es- 000. pecialty with respect to ocean waters and ecosystems. The 0 Administrative Determination of Full Avoided Costs, Office of Environmental Quality Control acts, to a limited Sales of Power to Qualifying Facilities, and Interconnec- extent, as a clearinghouse on environmental impact state- bon Facilities, 53 Federal Register 9331 (March 22, 1988), ments, updating other State agencies on new activities and Docket No. RM6-000. projects, and their possible effects. These proposed regulations would streamline rate approval In addition to general ocean research performed by various for independent power producers by local public utility com- departments and institutes within the University of Hawaii, the missions; authorize states to institute a program of competitive State has established three research organizations which con- bidding to meet utility need for new generation capacity; duct research on ocean energy resources and related topics. establish new guidelines to deten-nine avoided costs; and The Hawaii Natural Energy institute (HNED, created by Act permit qualified facilities to build and own interconnection 235, SLH 1974, is charged with research and development of facilities.8 alternative energy sources for Hawaii. Along with their in- EleaYkity Transmission volvement in OTEC development, HNEI staff also are respon- sible for the geothermal pilot well, photovoltaic energy devel- State. In ordinary circumstances, projects such as the Hawaii opment, and altemative transportation -fuels research. Deep Water Cable (HDWC) would pass through the same The Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii (NELH) was estab- pen-nit process specified for OTEC projects. HDWC also would lished primarily to further OTEC research. Section 26-18, HRS require County right-of-way and easement permit, as it would gives DBED the mahdate for energy research, especially re- pass overland on the Big Island and Maui. However, the garding ocean resources and control of NELH. The director of DBID it, on Ile board of NEIH, as does the chair of the Infiwtrucwm Development Board of Land and Natural Resources. Chapter 227, HRS State establishes NELH to "manage and operate research facilities [to] provide sites for research, development, demonstration, Hawaii has three organizations devoted to commercial infm- and commercialization of natural energy resources and other structure development for ocean energy technologies and compatible scientific and technological investigations". As related activities. The High Technology Development Corpora- of July 1, 1990, the State consolidated NELH and the HOST don (HTDQ is established by HRS 206M to develop projects Park into the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority. and industrial parks encouraging commercial high technology This restructuring is expected to enhance administrative and ventures in Hawaii. In addition to pure research, PICHTR is operational efficiency on site. mandated to "assist the State's high technology development Finally, the Pacific International Center for High Technol- corporation in its efforts, [by promoting] educational, scientific, ogy Research (PICHTR) was established in 1983 by the technological, and literary pum& in the area of high technology...". Legislature (Chapter 304-65, HRS) as an educational and The site of the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii has been research institution with a mission to promote education, expanded to incorporate the Hawaii Ocean Sciences and Tech- scientific, technological and literary pursuits in the areas of nology (HOST) industrial park. This venture was an initiative of high technology, and to support high technology industry in HTDC. HOST provides the infmstructure for ongoing OTEC Hawaii. In 1985, PICHTR was incorporated as a private, non- experiments, and for commercial aquaculture ventures made profit education and research corporation. possible by OTEC's cold, nutrient-rich, deep seawater. The two PICHTR has identified three technology research and organizations have been merged under DBED. development niches in which Hawaii has a comparative Federal advantage: information technology, specifically focusing on In 1980, the Federal Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Act, PL undersea robotics research; energy and resources technol- 96-320 (later modified by PL 98-623) established licensing ogy, specifically focusing on undersea robotics research, procedures and authorized loan guarantees for OTEC facilities; energy and ocean resources technology, specifically focus- while PL 96-310 supports the commercial establishment of ing on OTEC, geothermal, hybrids, integrated electric utility, OTEC generating plants. wind, hydrogen and bioengineering. In support of its efforts, PICHTR looks to the Federal and Education and Public Awareness State governments and to foreign nations for funding sup- State port. It has successfully solicited major grants from the Government ofJapan to develop OTEC technologies. PICHTR Legislation mandates that all State departments mentioned also solicits funding from the private sector. educate the public regarding their areas of responsibility. The Federal directors of business, economic development and tourism, land and natural resources, transportation and health are all directed The Federal government contributes directly to many of the to organize public education programs, publish annual reports, research projects connected with these organizations. As an and make all ongoing research available to the general public. example, the Federal contribution to the Hawaii Deep Water Furthermore, each agency issuing permits requires public hear- Cable feasibility project totals more than S22 million. The ings as part of the process. Public hearings also are required to State contributed only $5 million. Total Federal support for review environmental impact statements. State energy projects outlined in the 1990 State Energy Functional Plan exceeds $23 million (although not all of the Federal grants outlined have been confirmed). MANAGFMM MUFS9 Federal legislation also supports involvement in ocean During the late 1980s, oil prices were tow. This condition has energy research. Recently, the Internal Revenue Service not endured. Indeed, if all externalized social and environmen- (IRS) was petitioned by GenOtec of Washington, D.C. and tal costs were considered, the condition would not exist todav. the State for tax credits to permit more rapid cost recovery for The use of fossil fuels carries a number of negative extemalitie's: OTEC properties. The Internal Revenue Code was modified carbon dioxide and monoxide and sulphur dioxide are all by the Energy Tax Act of 1978 and amended by the Crude Oil airborne health hazards; carbon dioxide contributes to global Windfall Profit Tax Act of 1980 to qualify OTEC property for wam-@ing; ocean transport of petroleum and its products risks energy tax credits. GenOtec applied for the credits in the ocean health; the number of cars steadily increases and so does Caribbean. The State applied for credits in Hawaii and the the amount of land devoted to roads; etc. Ocean energy U.S. Trust Territories. Both GenOtec and the State were technologies could provide the State with comparatively clean, notified that their requests had been approved. renewable energy. But in Hawaii, it will be some time before the ocean plays a some ocean recreational activities, and possibly fishing as well. significant role in the State's energy supply. Overall, a research However, these plants can also be shore-based, or designed to and development strategy that actively explores all alternative serve as ocean breakwaters. Marine biomass plantations energy sources, coupled with enthusiastic campaigns for con- constitute by their very nature a massive disruption of normal servation, energy efficiency, and recycling, will work to ensure marine ecosystems. reduced dependence on oil. The State Energy Functional Plan It is certain that commercial-scale development of any ocean maps out just such an approach. With regard to ocean energy, this would mean balancing the heavy investment in OTEC energy resource will generate use conflicts. There are few development with appropriate support for such technologies mechanisms to negotiate those conflicts, or compensate co - as wave energy research as well. munities for use sacrifices they may be forced to accept "for tmhe common good." In fact, courts provide the only recourse. Development of ocean energy resources, and the State's While case law offers numerous examples of compensation for energy sector generally, faces five major issues: site and use loss of coastal property, it has few regarding compensation for conflicts; environmental impacts inadequate coordination of data loss of coastal use. acquisition, consolidation and dissemination; overlapping Junsdic- dons and authorities; and limited -funds, labor and equipment Environmental Impacts of Energy FacHities Site and Use Confficts Energy Producdon Existing electrical generation plants have two major negative The possible environmental and social trade-offs in ocean impacts on residents use of the shoreline and ocean. They energy development need quantification. The public recog- nizes, and wishes the State to recognize, that each type of disrupt viewplanes within the coastal area. A particularly good example of this is the HECO Kahe Point plant overlooking Ko energy production has quantifiable economic and environ- Olina. In addition, residents have expressed concern regarding mental impacts. Therefore, Hawaii, like New York and Califor- the possible effects of effluent discharge and thermal pollution. nia, should include in its energy planning process the explicit These latter two disrupt offshore fishing grounds. comparison of costs and benefits of renewable energy altema- Some people have complained that shore-based commer- tives with conventional energy (e.g., fossil fuel, coat, nuclear). cial-scale OTEC plants will disrupt prime surfing locales. New For example, the long-term benefit-of a plentiful supply of slant drilling techniques will ameliorate this problem by bury- drinking water could be compared with the short-term impact ing seawater pipes beneath the shoreline on their way out to of construction activities to build the OTEC plant and seawater sea, but the impacts of this need clarification. Environmental- system. Platforms and underwater subsystems are artificial ists and marine mammal devotees suggest that the deep water reefs, attracting fish and other species, a positive impact; but cable will conflict with the use of that ocean space by whales, intake pipes may redistribute ocean nutrients, a potential dolphins and sharks, and that electromagnetic frequency leak- environmental cost. age generated by the cable will disrupt the animals' breeding Even within technologies, there may be more beneficial and feeding grounds. For the most part, however, ocean alternatives. For example, open-cycle OTEC, with ocean water as its energy issues have generated little controversy at public meet- working fluid, could be cortipared with the closed-cycle plant with ings, due perhaps to insufficient inforination. its potentially hazardous working fluid of ammonia or Freon. In order to diversify Hawaii's energy sector, the State will ask Finally, consideration could be given to comparing the costs residents to judge the trade-offs involved in adopting one of outgassing of dissolved carbon dioxide into the environ- source of energy over another, and decide which they prefer. ment of conventional and OTEC power plants. Recent experi- To do this, people will need to understand these energy ments have shown that the carbon dioxide release from a fossil- projects in immediate terms. They will require the kind of fueled power plant of comparable size is 15 to 25 times larger information that makes it possible for them to envision a than that of an OTEC plant. project's impact on their day-to-day ocean activities. Because Public concerns echo these forecasted impacts. At public people know little about how OTEC works, or about the meetings, people wanted to know more about the potential potential for wave energy generators or marine biomass plan- impacts on the marine environment due to large commercial tations, use conflicts exist primarily in theory. seawater discharge flows from OTEC and related mariculture Few studies, for example, convey to the public any sense of developments, including positive aspects of "seawater return." how much a shore-based, commercial-scale OTEC plant could In addition, people felt that they had insufficient information disrupt the local marine environment and disturb other com- on several issues: the severity of thermal pollution from OTEC mercial or recreational activities nearby. An offshore OTEC plants; potential impact to the marine environment and marine plant would act much like an artificial reef, and would affect biota resulting from the proposed deepwater cable; potential fishing in its vicinity. Wave generation plants can be large-scale impact of the undersea cable on the natural area reserve on constructions, stretching great distances through ocean waters. Maui; and effects of-pollution on marine mammals caused by Such plants would constrain any ocean transport and certainly ocean energy activity. Inadequate Data Coordination ized into the planning and permit process, and actively and aggressively sought. Many ocean-related Federal and State agencies are collecting Z) and compiling data on the coastal and ocean environment. The lack of public awareness about the public planning and These data are useful as a historical record indicating environ- management process for ocean energy resources can be fatal mental trends, providing baseline information with which to to the process. Public meetings conducted by the Ocean and assess the impact of development activities, and as a founda- Marine Resources Council in June 1990 revealed disaffection tion for establishing a fiscal evaluation o1botl the tangible and and frustration with what people perceived as fragmented and intangible characteristics of the State's marine environment. confusing bureaucracies that seem to excel at referring com- Currently, this information is scattered throughout the files p .laints elsewhere. While political despair may distort this 73 view, it nonetheless indicates that people want to participate in and libraries of those diverse agencies. It would increase the decision-making but cannot figure out how. Not only do efficiency and effectiveness of ocean energy development people perceive the system of public hearings as difficult to specifically and ocean management generally if a central clear- Z@ track, they feel that opinions expressed at them have no effect inghouse existed to organize and update such data. Further- on the end results of planning,, and in any case no one reports more, an inventory of work done to date will reveal areas that results back to the community. The need exists for a concen- require greater research. This will be particularly critical in trated and neighborly oceans outreach program. Such a pro- establishing the extent of destruction and environmental deg- Z@ gram should include the means for communities to develop radation in the aftermath of oil spills, when the State will want common goals and visions for integrated ocean use, and meet to define liabilities. community needs, such as secure energy supplies. Public meetings also revealed that the public perceives a lack of reliable data on environmental impacts. This may Limited Funds, Labor and Equipment indicate that the available information is not being effectively Supporting in-depth research on the full range of potential disseminated. At least one person commented that even though 0 ocean energy technologies will require greater levels of fund- he was interested in reports on coastal environment impacts, ing. In the 1980s, Federal funding was reduced from $841 he found the language of the technical reports daunting. A 0 million annually to a low of $4.2 million. Although availability more straightforward, vividly worded summary of impact as- of Federal, international, and private sector funds has in- sessments might be an answer to this problem. This is a critical creased in the last few years, an aggressive, creative approach information need. to ensure meaningful public participation in to research fundraising and solicitation of venture capital permit hearings 'and environmental impact assessments, as would speed appropriate ocean energy development. Both well as the overall planning process. pure and applied research on ocean energy inventories, appli- cability of other ocean energy technologies, and the coastal Overlappingjurisdictions and Authorities and marine environment will be needed before the State Sites, Development Permits and Plans decides on either the optimal use of its ocean resources, or the Diversifying Hawaii's energy sector will require the develop- optimal structure of its energy supplies. ment of large-scale projects, whether based on conventional Most State agencies also lack staff resources to devote at least energy, or renewable energy. Existing Hawaii statutes will one person at each branch level to community outreach, impose conditions on those development plans in order to education, and relations. Yet that is a critical need, particularly mitigate adverse environmental impacts. People will no doubt given the complexity of ocean energy development, which is raise additional objections or questions as they learn about equalled by the complexity of the regulatory system that exists each new project. Thus the relevant State agencies have two to administer the coast and oceans. State agencies would be tasks in regulating ocean energy developments: incorporating aided greatly by additional staff charged entirely with fielding public opinion regarding costs and benefits to the community, community questions, composing information modules on and expecliting the development of a needed resource after it ocean resources, and compiling integrated ocean environmen- has earned public approval. The existing system of zoning, tal databases. With regard to ocean energy outreach, DBED permit-granting and conducting environmental reviews can be could institute joint programs with other government agencies, problematic on both fronts. and with the utility companies and research organizations to As many as five agencies exercise authority over the State's support school science projects, solicit participation on possi- shores and nearshore waters. This results in duplication of bilities and plans to community interest groups, and inforin the efforts and public confusion over administrative and regula- local business community on prospects and opportunities in tory accountability. Some beneficial side effects do emerge ocean energy development frorri the multiplication of jurisdictions and perinit require- Finally, optimizing Hawaii's use of ocean energy resources, ments: project development is slowed sufficiently to allow and ocean resources overall, requires long-term thinking, public consideration and debate, and opposition is mustered foresight, monitoring of emerging trends and technological to question expert opinions. If, however, those are judged to be innovations, and design of visions that capture the community's positive, they should be explicitly and formally institutional- preferences for its daily interactions with the ocean as a whole. This in itself calls for a research and planning team focused on the magnitude of potential financial loss of both tangible scanning technical literature for the emergence of innovative and intangible resources in those areas at risk. [See Waste technologies, composing alternative scenarios for ocean en- Management section.] ergy development and its possible byproducts, and organizing Policy C workshops to allow the public to participate in designing and reviewing those alternative development scenarios. The goal Increase public knowledge regarding ocean energy technolo- should be ocean energy development based on the communitys gies. needs and environmental preferences. This deserves the in- Implementing Actions: vestment of funds and staff. DBED, in cooperation udth DOE. should. 1. Solicit Federal and private-sector funds to expand its RECOMWNI)ATIONS educational campaign on ocean energy resources for use Objective in schools, including information on relevant ocean- Balance optimal, cost-effective development of the State's related State and County programs. ocean energy resources, as well as the State's other energy 2. Develop informative, multimedia presentations for sources, with the preservation of Hawaii's coastal and marine public dissemination on different ocean energy tech- environments. nologies. Policy A DBED should.- Actively encourage alternative ocean energy use as well as the 3. Update financial and investment data on ocean en- development of integrated energy resources and the use of ergy technologies developed elsewhere, as background hydrogen as a medium of energy transfer, as an alternative to infortnatidn for potential commercial ocean energy pri- fossil fuel dependence. vate-public partnerships. Impkinenting Actions. 4. Research or model the costs of electricity production and potential co-products for all.potential ocean energy DBED should. sources. 1. Support establishment of a commercial-scale OTEC Policy D plant at the earliest possible date. Mediate conflicts of use between ocean energy programs and 2. Expand funding support to ocean energy research other ocean uses, and compensate communities of interest and development, including but not limited to OTEC, when other uses are limited or curtailed by State-mandated wave energy capture, marine biomass, and the explora- ocean energy activities. tion of ocean energy innovations. Implementing Actions: Policy B DBED should.- Conduct an inventory of Hawaii's ocean energy resources and the coastal and manne environments that their development affects. 1. Establish a program offering facilitated negotiation Implementing Actions: on ocean energy-related conflicts. 2. As a means to preempt potential conflicts, investigate DBED, in cooperation with OSP, should.- innovative approaches to facilitate goal-setting within 1. Design a coastal and marine environmental database, Hawaii's communities with regard to energy develop- in conjunction with other related agencies, to consolidate ment and ocean management, such that agreed-upon government, university, and private research, which would goals could be incorporated into an ongoing ocean plan- be updated continuously and publicly accessible. ning process. 2. Update ocean energy resource inventories completed 3. Investigate means to compensate communities for to date, and expand them where necessary to include loss of coastal and ocean use due to ocean energy data on wave, tidal, marine biomass, salinity gradient, or developments, and to establish rates and ki .nds of com- other prospective energy resources. pensation. 3. Assess the relative degree of impact on the marine Policy E and coastal environment of the complete array of poten- Enhance coordination and cooperation among State, County, tial energy sources available for State use, in order to and Federal agencies responsible for permitting ocean energy establish a cost/benefits matrix for public consideration. activities, to reduce duplication of effort, simplify the pennit- 4. Identify shore areas most at risk from potential oil ting process and increase public involvement in ocean energy spills, inventory their plant and animal life, and evaluate management. Implementing Actions: 8. This section on PURPA and proposed corollary regulations DBED, in cooperation with DLNR and DOT, sbould. was drawn from Edwin T.C. Ing, President, American Wind Energy Association, "Regulatory and Legal Issues," presented 1. Develop means to increase the opportunities for at the "Enhancing Renewable Energy Development in Hawaii public notification and review of proposed projects, Workshop," sponsored by the State of Hawaii, Department of including instituting a public hearing explaining the project Business and Economic Development, Energy Division, July and inviting comments at the time the application for 26 & 27,1989, in Honolulu, Hawaii. permit is first filed. 2. Evaluate the Federal, State, and County regulatory 9. Most of the issues presented in this section are drawn from regimes applicable to energy activities and suggest ap- public meetings sponsored by the Ocean and Marine Re- proaches to coordinating the pern-litting process. sources Council cluringJune, 1990, and from the "Workshop on Enhancing Renewable Energy Development in Hawaii,"spon- sored by DBED in July, 1989. NOTES 1. This section owes much to the draft HawaiiStateFunctional REFERENCES Plan: Energy, particularly pages 6-8, and the State ofHawaii Pryde, P.R. 1983. Nonconventional Energy Resources. New Databook.. 1989. YorkJohn Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2. The Btu equivalent of barrel of oil will vary depending upon Solar Energy Research Institute. 1989. Ocean Ybermal Energy its quality, but an "average" barrel of oil is equivalent to Conversion: An Overview. Washington, D.C.:Government approximately 6 million Btus. Printing Office. 3. The following section draws heavily on data presented in State of Hawaii, Department of Business, Economic Develop- the State Energy Resource Coordinator's Annual Report: July ment & Tourism, Energy Resources Coordinator. 1988. State 1, 1W -June 30, 1989, particularly pages 5, and 96-99. Energy Resource Coordinator-@ Annual Repon, Fiscal Year 4. Salinity gradient power derives from the osmotic pressure 1987- 1988. Honolulu. difference between fresh and saltwater. The world's resources State of Hawaii, Department of Business, Economic Develop- of this power generally he where large freshwater streams meet ment & Tourism, Energy Resources Coordinator. 1989. State either the ocean or landlocked saline lakes such as the Dead Energy Resource Coordinator's Annual Report, Fiscal Year Sea. The power potential is greater in the latter instance, due to 1988 - 1989. Honolulu. higher salinity. Hawaii simply lacks any major instance of this freshwater-saltwater interface. State of Hawaii, Department of Business, Economic Develop- 5. At the time this site was developed, NELHA was the Natural ment & Tourism. 1988. 7be State ofHawaiiDatabook 1988.. A Energy Laboratory of Hawaii (NELH). As ofJuly 1, 1990, NELH Statistical Abstract. Honolulu. merged with the Hawaii Ocean Science andTechnology (HOST) State of Hawaii, Department of Business, Economic Develop- Park, forming the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Author- ment & Tourism. 1989. TheState ofHawaii Databook 1989: A ity. Increasing overlaps between the two agencies in terms of Statistical Abstract. Honolulu. infrastructure, operations, and services suggested consolida- tion for administrative efficiency. Like its parent organizations State of Hawaii, Department of Business, Economic Develop- the new organization is administratively attached to DBED. ment & Tourism. 1990. Regulatory and Legal Issues. Enbanc- 6. The Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority also ing Renewa ble En ergy Developmen t in Ha wa ii Wo rksh op, Ju ly manages the State's experimental geothermal power plant, the 26-27, 1990. By T.C. Ing. Honolulu. Puna Geothermal Facility, which includes the HGP-A geother- State of Hawaii, Department of Business, Economic Develop- mal well, the I MW wellhead generator plan,, and Noii 0 Puna, ment & Tourism. 1990. Ybe Hawaii State PLan: Energy (Draft the Puna Research Center. Functional Plan). Honolulu. 7. This section derives much of its information from the mono- State of Hawaii, Department of Planning and Economic Devel- graph by Sumida and Hills on legal, institutional and financial opment. 1984. Legal, InstitutionalandFinancialAspects ofan aspects of the cleepwater cable project, with updates elicited Inter-IslandElectrical Transmission Cable. PreliminaryAnaly- from the State Energy Resource Coordinatof s report for fiscal sl.s - Executive Summary. By G.A. Sumida and A.L. Hills. year 1988-1989. Honolulu. Vega, L.A. 1991. Economics of Ocean Thermal Energy Conver- sion (OTEC). Ocean Energy Recovery. American Society of Civil Engineers. In press. Vega, L.A. and A.R. Trenka. 1990. Near Term Market Potential for OTEC in the Pacific Basin. Proceedings oftheFourtb Pacific Congress on Marine Science and Tecbnolog, PACON90. Vol. 1. pp. 491-498. Honolulu: PACON International. Sequoia Shannon Ocean Resources Branch State of Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development & Tourism P.O. Box 2359 Honolulu, M 96804 MORIME MIHEROLS THE RESOURCE PAGE Hawaii is developing strategies to develop its ocean resources THE RESOURCE 107 for diversifying its economic base. Mineral deposits, ranging Offshore Resources 107 from sand to cobalt-rich manganese crusts, are resourcesfound Location and Value 107 within Hawaii's territorial sea and Exclusive Economic Zone Nearshore Resources 109 (EEZ). The mineral deposits in the Hawaiian EEZ merit inves- Location and Type 109 tigation in the light of future projections indicating that 25 percent of the world's mineral supply will ultimately be derived RESOURCE MANAGEWBT 110 by ocean mining (Waihee 1990). The marine mineral resources Federal Authority 110 of the EEZ could be an important part of Hawaifs econornic future. Offsbore Resources 110 In an effort to diversify its economy, provide jobs and Nearsbore Resources 110 develop new marine industry, Hawaii actively has considered State Authority 110 ocean mining since 1972 (DOI 1990). Such an industry would Offsbore Resources 110 provide an economic boost that would carry beyond the initial Nearsbore Resources ill mining endeavor to new spin-off industries, such as marine County Authority ill research, exploration electronics, submersibles, marine engi- OffsborelNearsbore Resources ill neering and technology-transfer opportunities for an interna- tional market. The potential to develop a marine minerals MANAGEMENT ISSUES ill industry is being considered both for offshore manganese Revenue Sharing ill resources as well as nearshore sandAimestone resources. Offsbore Resources ill Federal-State Relations 112 Offshore Resources Offsbore Resources 112 The most valuable offshore marine minerals resources are Technology and Research actmues 112 cobalt-rich manganese crusts and manganese nodules. Tecinsology 112 Location and Value Researcl; Activities 113 Public Awareness 113 Manganese deposits contain varying combinations and per- Environmental Considerations 114 centages of metals such as iron, manganese, cobalt, copper, Exploration 114 nickel and platinum, with cobalt being by far the most eco- Mining 114 no.mically valuable. Cobalt-rich manganese crusts, associated Transportation 115 primarily with seamounts and guyots over areas sufficiently Processing 115 large enough to support possible ocean mining ventures, are found within the EEZ adjacent to Hawaii and Johnston Island RECOMM(ENDA11ONS 115 (See figure on page 108). The best resources are located at Objective 115 depths between 800 and 2,400 meters (DOI 1990). Policies and implementing Actions 115 Manganese nodules, which are relatively rich in manganese, cobalt, iron, nickel, and copper, are abundant over vast areas of the deep seabed at depths of 4,000-5,000 meters. Nodules are usually potato-shaped, three to six cm in diameter, and lie 180* - 11 @._ - - -- I POTENTIAL MARINE MINING LEASE TRACTS P IN THE EEZ ADJACENT TO HAWAII AND JOHNSTON ISLANDS 30- 30* (N LatRude) 170*(W Longftude) _U 160* 34, P P P AREAS EXCLUDED FOR 170* ENVIRONMENTAL A", REASONS AREAS EXCLUDED FOR MILITARY REASONS 17* 17* 100 200 km 0 170* scattered on the ocean floor. Crusts occur as thin blankets and Second, rich crust deposits are located at shallower depths encrustations on sediment-free areas of the seafloor and sea- and in closer proximity to potential operation bases than mounts. They range from thin films to thicknesses of more than nodules. The water depths of optimum crust deposits vary ten centimeters. It is not known presently which of these from 800 to 2,400 meters and crusts are much more accessible deposit types will be first to provide commercial minerals for than the 4,000-5,000-meter-deep nodule fields. For example, U.S. or intemational markets. Hundreds of millions of dollars shallow depths present fewer handling problems in raising already have been comrr:iitted to the exploration and technol- niined ores to the surface (Wiltshire 1990a). In addition, the ogy development by industry and several national govern- closer proximity of potential mining enterprises to centers of ments for deep seabed nodules. Present knowledge concern- commerce likely would result in lower costs for supplies, ing the crust deposits is very preliminary. Nevertheless, several transportation and repairs for a crust mining operation. factors related to the crust deposits warrant continued efforts to learn more about them. Crusts are different than nodules in a Third, existence of manganese crusts within the legal regime number of ways Qohnson and Clark 1988). of .a domestic EEZ may facilitate development of a marine minerals industry. The richest-known nodule deposits, on the First, cobalt concentrations in crusts are four times those of other hand, are on the deep seabed outside the EEZ, an area of nodules, contain a higher total value of metals than nodules, disputed jurisdiction. A more attractive regime for mining and have a much higher value per square meter in place. Some manganese crusts likely would occur within the EEZ of Hawaii. crusts also contain potentially economic grades of platinum. A marine minerals industry in Hawaii potentially would Recent studies show that the crusts may carry up to $350/ton of offer the United States a domestic source of important strategic contained metals, whereas nodules may carry only about $200/ materials. Currently, over 95 percent of the cobalt used in the ton (Wiltshire 1990a). Of these metals, cobalt is one of the most United States is imported. A domestic source of strategic critical in supply because domestic reserves are inadequate marine minerals could alleviate the problem of dependence on and cobalt is of strategic importance to the United States. The foreign importation ofsuch strategic minerals. Cobalt, manga- United States accounts for about one-third of the world's b nese and platinum -metals critical to U.S. industry - are consumption of cobalt, yet produces none of it (five percent is imported from countries with unstable political conditions or recycled). Its special properties are ideal for producing power- where other supply disruptions could occur for geopolitical ful permanent magnets and corrosion and high temperature reasons, e.g., South Africa, Zaire and Zambia. Of the principal resistant super-alloys. In addition, crust metals act as catalysts mineral resources found in the EEZ (crusts, polymetallic for a variety of chemical processes and are important to the sulphides and nodules) the United States impm the following: nation's industries. TRBLE I impetus to the State to investigate the feasibility of mining nearshore sand resources to meet these pressing needs. METAIS OF U.S. CONSUMPflON E@WRTED Location and Type Manganese 99% Sand for beach enhancement and construction comes from a Cobalt 95% variety of sources. Materials for concrete are made with crushed limestone deposits from raised reefs or lithified dunes. crushed Platinum 92% basalt from quarries, or crushed dredge spoils. Sand for other Nickel 741/o construction needs comes from inactive dunes or beach Zinc 67,/,o ridges (inland), or is imported silica sand from Australia or Cadmium 66% Canada. Imported sand, (approximately 100,000 tons a year), at $65 - $95 per ton, is reserved for specialized uses, such as Source. Adapledfrom "Advanced Technology and Science: A Key to tournament-quality golf courses or high-quality Portland Oceanic Development " (1987) MTSjournal, Vol. 220) cement. While crushed basalt and limestone aggregate may be ac- ceptable (though expensive) for the construction industry, An additional political dimension for the United States to they are not acceptable for beach replenishment. Basalt is too consider is the possibility that the first crust mining operation dark in color and limestone hardens over time. eventualiv in the sea mav be the only one to be developed anywhere as the leaving a beach denuded of sand. Crush a , ed rock is' naularan@ investment costs are so high and the available sites so few. uncomfortable to walk and lie on. It contains adhering rock Foreign producers, including State-owned or State-controlled powder which washes out into nearshore waters, creating companies, are likely to continue to be the measure of compe- turbid water and smothering coral reefs. Crushed quarry sand tition that must be met by both domestic onshore and offshore (lithified sand dunes) and inactive inland dunes serve as the producers (U.S. Conaress 1987). The cobalt market is a limited primary source of sand for State as well as County beaches. one. Should it aggressively pursue mining exploration and Sand for beach replenishment is obtained from graded on- development, the United States could preclude other entries in shore, inland sand dunes located on Kauai, Maui and Oahu. the market, Lherebv securing a domestic source of a strategic Inland sand dunes on Oahu are expected to be depleted within mineral in an unstable and limited world market. ten years (Griffin 1990). Importing sand from the Neighbor A recent study estimates that offshore crust mining, com- islands is very expensive to meet the needs of Oahu's recre- bined with onshore processing in Hawaii, would generate ational beaches. annual sales of about S540 million statewide and lead directly All of the previously described terrestrial, natural sand and indirectly to more than 3,000 new jobs (Morgan 1990). sources are of very limited quantity, rapidly dwindling, or About half of these sales and jobs would be generated in the production cost-pro'hibitive. Dwindling onshore reserves and State if only mining occurred and the ore were transported restrictive State legislation and administrative rules have pro- elsewhere for processing. Such an industry in Hawaii, with or hibited the harvesting of sand deposits. Concern for future without processing, would diversify the economy and increase shortfalls of sand supplies have prompted studies to prospect commerce independent of tourism, government and the con- for offshore deposits (Coulboum et al 1988). struction industry. While large deposits of sand with the requisite grain size, Nearshore Resources distribution and color suitable for beach replenishment occur at a number of sites nearshore, they have not yet been used for Sand is the most valuable nearshore marine mineral. As one of this purpose. "Nearshore" is here defined to mean within three the seemingly unlimited products of the sea, it is of vital miles of the shoreline. Geophysical and geological research importance to everyone in Hawaii, residents and visitors alike. completed during the last 20 years has iden"tified several As such, sand mining may be the marine mineral to come under deposit sites, which appear to be the most likely candidates for development in the State in the near-term. The worth of supplying beach sand for Oahu beaches (Cruickshank 1990). Hawaii's beaches as a recreational focus for residents and visitors goes beyond any dollar value. Millions of visitors (6.6 The economic and technical feasibility of offshore sand million in 1989) journey to Hawaii, drawn in large part by the recovery depends to a great extent upon the size and location beauty of the beaches. Several of the State's most popular of the particular deposit to be mined. The size (volume) of the beaches, including Waikiki and Ala Moana, are sustained by deposit determines, in part, how profitable the venture will be. man or are influenced by the activities ofhuman beings. These For a large deposit, the expense of deploying dredge equip- areas have histories of net erosion and sand loss (Dollar 1979). ment and possible delivery pipe could likely be offset by Beaches, especially man-made ones, must periodically be volume of production (Casciano and Palmer 1969). Some sites replenished with quantities of clean, white beach sand. Main- are excellent in volume and proximity to the shore. It is tenance of white sandy beaches, coupled with the potential estimated, for example, that approximately six million cubic need to compensate beaches for rising sea levels, provides yards of sand occur off the Reef Runway at Honolulu Interna- tional Airport (Griffin 1990). Proximity to the beaches reduces extent of the U.S. territorial sea), COE must be consulted. if transportation and other costs for needed replenishment en- dredging or discharge activities occur within the three-mile deavors. limit, a COE permit is required under the Rivers and Harbors Act. In addition, under the Federal Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act, a permit is required from the COE for the RESOURCE MANAGEMINT transportation of dredged material for the purpose of dumping Federa Authority within the navigable waters. COE also issues a permit under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act for placement of dredged or Offshore Resources fill materials. Most minerals of economic interest, while within the 200-mile State Authority EEZ, lie in waters beyond the State's territorial sea. By Presiden- tial Proclamation (1983), the United States claimed sovereign Offshore Resources rights and jurisdiction for exploring, conserving and managing 0 In early 1984, in anticipation of proposed exploratory lease the natural resources within the EEZ. 200 nautical miles sea- sales in Hawaii's EEZ, MMS and the State established a joint ward of the coast. The primary purpose for establishing the EEZ Federal/State Manganese Crust Task Force composed of Fed- was to bring mineral deposits within this area under U.S. eral and State agencies and technical experts. The Task Force control (Saiki 1990). is co-chaired by the State Department of Business, Economic While the U.S. Congress has not yet enacted comprehensive Development and Tourism (DBED) and MMS. Staffing was legislation to implement the EEZ Proclamation, certain re- provided by DBED. The Task Force was assigned to oversee source-specific laws essentially cover the same area of the EEZ. preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) and The Federal Outer Continental Shelf 12nds Act (OCSLA), for associated research for the proposed exploratory lease sale example, is the domestic law covering the exploration and and to act as a forum for the ongoing consideration of ocean development of oil and gas reserves from an area similar but mining issues. not identical to the EEZ. The work of the Task Force led to a joint Federal-State Under the OCSLA, the U.S. Department of the Interior cooperative agreement for Marine MineralsJoint Planning and Minerals Management Service (MMS) controls mineral mining Review signed in December 1988. Thisjoint Planning Arrange- activities on the outer continental shelf. The MMS Office of ment UPA) gives Hawaii an active role in planning and review- Strategic and International Minerals (OSIM) develops policy ing offshore mineral development activities and coordinating and implements a program to promote the exploration, devel- program and policy issues of mutual interest. TheJPA includes opment and recovery of hard minerals. OSIM provides overall two committees: the Cooperative Steering Committee (CSQ programmatic direction for offshore hard minerals activities and the Coordination Committee (CC). Both Committees are and facilitates coordination among headquarters and its re- co-chaired by DBED and MMS and staffed by DBED. The CC is gional offices, adjacent coastal states, local governments and responsible for working with citizen groups, Federal and State the public sector. decision-makers on planning, program and policy issues; co- ordinating project activities; and providing technical support to Although MMS has primary authority over marine mining activities in the EEZ, NOAA, National Marine Fisheries Service CSC. The JPA, a landmark agreement that creates a unique (NMFS), and the eight regional fisheries councils, play impor- Federal-State partnership in managing offshore mineral re- tant consultative roles. In addition, the U.S. Army Corps o sources, serves as the prototype for joint Federal/State EEZ Engineers (COE) is responsible for g .ranting permits for harbor management efforts. facilities to accommodate ocean mineral processing, transpor- The final EIS was released in October 1990. The Department tation or other services. The U.S. Environmental Protection of Interior is considering preparing a Secretarial Issue Docu- Agency (EPA) has jurisdiction over water quality and benthos ment (SID) to analyze the EIS. The SID will recommend protection beyond the State's territorial sea limit. whether, when, and under what conditions to hold a marine Nearsbore Resources minerals lease sale. From the beginning of the the SID process through a lease sale and the exploration phase, it will probably Nearshore sand deposits he entirely within the State's marine take at least 15 to 20 years before any mining occurs, given the jurisdiction, but the State must comply with specific Federal discovery of mineable deposits. regulations. The NOAA Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource The lead agency for the State's coastal zone management Management administers the Coastal Zone Management (CZM) program is the Office of State Planning (OSP). The Hawaii CZM Act of 1972, which was enacted primarily to provide assistance Program, a Federally approved program, began in 1977 to carry to States in developing programs for the management of lands and resources within the coastal zone. out the goals and objectives of the national CZM Act of 1972, as amended. The CZM Act requires that Federal activities and For activities that occur within the navigable waters of the development projects directly affecting a state's coastal zone United States (from the mean hiah water mark seaward to the be consistent with approved state coastal programs "to the maximum extent rac,ical'(15 CFR 930-32). This"consistency" process. In addition to a CDUA, an Environmental Assessment provision has been particularly effective for reviewing Federal would be required. If the CDUA was for commercial purposes, activities that would not otherwise be subject to State laws and a public hearing would be held. policies. Presently, OCS lease sales and leasing activities, are Ocean dredging or sand recovery projects in nearshore not subject to Federal consistency. In the leasing regulations, waters within three miles of the mean high water mark would IMMS stated that "coastal zone consistency concurrence is not necessitate an application to determine whether a DOT permit required prior to a lease sale of OCS minerals" (54 Federal was required. DOH establishes and enforces environmental Register, pp. 20427 2046, Jan. 18, 1989). However, all Federal quality standards for State waters. activities, including OCS leases, are subject to Federal consis- tency requirements if they affect natural resources, land uses or County Authority water uses in the coastal zone. Support activities, such as transportation, storage or processing of recovered minerals, OffsborelNearsbore Resources would occur within the state coastal zone and be subject to The Counties would be involved in land-based activities and state program permits and other requirements (DOI 1990). developments associated with offshore activities that have Other State agencies that potentially would be involved if an direct impact upon the use of local infrastructure within State ore processing facility were to be established in Hawaii would urban land-use districts. Under Hawaii's CZM program man- include the Departments of Transportation (DOT), Health agement, permits for activities within the shoreline area of the (DOH), and'Land and Natural Resources (DLNR). Develop- coastal zone are administered by County governments. ment activity within State waters requires a written perinit from All four Counties have General Plans, some form of develop- DLNR as well as other appropriate permits from DOT. DOT has ment plans, and zoning and subdivision ordinances. These authority within State waters and over activities at State harbor Plans encompass the whole County, and lay out general facilities. DOH is primarily responsible for pollution control, to objectives and polices for directing growth and development. include maintaining an ambient water quality monitoring pro- The Counties share direct land-use control within State urban ,gram to deterinine water quality trends and comply with I land-use districts and partial control within State agricultural Federal and State regulations. In addition, DOH issues operat- A - ing permits for industries that discharge wastewater into coastal o1stricts. waters of the State. County authorities would primarily include the parks and Nearsbore Resources recreation departments for beach replenishment and the plan- ning departments (Department of Land Utilization, City and The Hawaii CZM Program sets basic State policy to guide State County of Honolulu) under the Special Management Area agencies and County governments in all actions affecting the (SMA) and the Shoreline Setback Area provisions of Hawaii's State's coastal zone. Hawaii's coastal zone includes the waters CZM Program. from the shoreline to the seaward limit of the State's jurisdiction SMAs and Shoreline Setback Areas were created by the and all lands excluding those lands designated as State forest Legislature to provide added controls on activities in shoreline reserves (Chapter 205A, HRS). In addition, on the landward areas. The SMA system is the permit process for County side of the coastal zone, two "belts" circling the Islands - the implementation of coastal zone management objectives and Special Management Area and the Shoreline Setback Area - policies. Each County has devised its own rules and system are established for more intensive management by the four following State guidelines. Counties (OSP 1990). Activities involving sand mining would come under the purview of CZM, DLNR and County govem- ments, MANAGEMEW ISSUES Sand mining has been effectively banned since 1978. The Revenue Sharing mining ortaking of sandseaward of the shoreline is prohibited with some exception,; including permitted replenishment or offsbore Resources protection of public lands (Chapter 171-58.5, HRS), or where The U.S. Department of the Interior and Congress have long the mining ortaking is authorized by a variance (Chapter 205A- debated whether the OCSLA provides a sufficient basis for 44, HRS). regulating the exploration and development of hard mineral All land is designated at the State level into one of four use resources of the U.S. EEZ. Several shortcomings limit OCSIA's classifications (conservation, agricultural, rural or urban). All suitability for managing hard minerals: State waters are classified within the conservation district. The 1. The OCSLA is primarily designed to meet the needs of the State retains control over all land classifications except urban, offshore oil and gas industry, not the needs of a potential which is under County jurisdiction. If sand mining were to marine minerals industry. The extensive regulatory guidelines occur on conservation district use lands, which could include and procedures for OCS oil and gas development do not exist submerged lands, DLNR would retain jurisdiction and issue r hard minerals mining. Section 8(k) of OCSIA gives discre- perTnits through a Conservation District Use Application (CDUA) tion to the Secretary of the Interior, thus there are noassurances to the mining industry that a stable, predictable leasing pro- Technology and Research Activities gram will be maintained by subsequent administrations. Bonus The development of Hawaii as a marine minerals center re- bid competitive leasing requirements (money paid to the quires that industries are made aware of the technological and government before exploration or development begins) set research capabilities and concomitant opportunities available. forth in Section 7(k) of the OCSLA are not well suited for stimulating exploration and development of seabed hard min- Tecbnology erals by the private sector. opportunities for development of a marine minerals industry 2. The economic investment necessary to successfully explore hinge upon jurisdictional concerns and constraints imposed by and develop a hard minerals industry requires a public-private the present limits of marine technology. In some cases, the partnership. Private industry will need leases of submerged technology for development is state-of-the-art, while in others, areas for this purpose. The only existing law that could allow it is no better developed than technology for mining on the. a leasing process is the OCSLA. One major constraint, however, Moon (UH 1988). is that all revenue from a mining venture must be deposited in Technological and environmental systems development the national treasury. Under the OCSLA, the Federal govern- (systems for exploration, mining, mineral extraction, environ- ment cannot grant revenue sharing. Until suitable mining mental mitigation and protection) are at various levels of legislation is enacted to provide for revenue sharing, there is development. The goal of mineral exploration is to locate, little prospect that industry will substantially invest in expen- identify and quantify mineral deposits for potential commer- sive minerals exploration and development (Wiltshire, 1990b). cial exploitation. Detailed sampling of promising sites is Because of these OCSLA limitations, representatives from coastal necessary to assess the commercial value of these deposits. states, the U.S. mining industry and environmental special interest groups have been working together for several years to While the immediate challenge is to gain a better under- develop a new legal regime to encourage the development of standing of the physiography and geology of the seafloor and commercially successful and environmentally acceptable ma- its environment, and to inventory minerals occurrence, the rine mining in the EEZ. To date, these efforts have not resulted potential value of developing and marketing technology for in specific legislation which can survive the gauntlet of the seabed mining and processing systems should not and cannot Federal legislative process. However, the American Mining be ignored. The exploration tools, mining system components, Congress and the Oceanic Society have provided joint tesd- system optimization processes and associated waste manage- mony in support of the major provisions of existing draft ment techniques, all require technology for ocean mining. For legislation Uones Bill, H.R. 2440). Continued efforts on the part sand mining, the technology is essentially at hand. For deep- of the State are needed to ensure that the final law to emerge water deposits however, there are significant constraints to from this process does indeed foster such development. development as follows: Federal State Relations 1. Because offshore marine mining is an emerging industry for which technology is only partially developed, an immense Offsbore Resources amount of initial capital is required for the research, survey and Federal-State conflicts over offshore oil and gas leasing and technical development that must precede a mining and pro- development activities on the U.S. Mainland offer valuable cessing operation. lessons in how to avoid the problems that can arise when 2. Marine mining presents a variety of challenges to the design, Federal and State agendas differ and the Federal government development, and operation of marine mining systems. Devel- pays only lip service to State concerns. More effective partner- opment and capital costs for vessels and marine systems can be ship arrangements, such as those represented by the Manga- high. Profitability of offshore mining ventures will begin only nese Crust Task Force and JPA, need to be ensured by legisla- when safe and efficient mining systems can be built and tion. Although the Task Force option is encouraged in MMS operated at reasonable costs. mineral mining regulations, no legislation or regulation man- 3. All known cobalt-rich manganese crust deposits occur dates such cooperation, making these arrangements more deep waters, beyond the range of present technological capa- tenuous than is desired. bility. Before mining equipment can be designed, more tech- Among the State's objectives for a marine minerals industry nical and engineering data must be developed. As part of the is the pursuit of a legal framework that assures the State's final EIS produced for MMS by the joint Federal-State Task continued involvement and participation in the development Force, a mining development scenario was formulated to and management of hard mineral resources in the EEZ adjacent consider the technical details of mining, transportation and to Hawaii. The State believes that such exploratory and devel- metallurgical processing. Although the technologies for trans- opment activities will cause significant impacts on the interests porting and processing are fairly well developed, those for and rights of its citizens. Accordingly, the State will seek new mining are not. Nothing equivalent to manganese crusts has regulatory or, if necessary, statutory arrangements to give ever been mined under water (Morgan et al 1988). Hawaii an assured voice in joint management of marine min- 4. A relatively detailed mining development scenario which erals resources. describes and evaluates the various subsystems required to mine crusts has been prepared as part of he EIS. A number of (HIG), Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory (HURL) and approaches are possible for each subsystem, but the basic casks East-West Center Resources Systems Institute (EWC/RSI). A are the same. Subsystems would be required to fragment, number of research projects are underway, including an inves- collect and crush crust and probably to partially separate crust tigation of alternative mining targets associated with manga- from substrate before conveying ore to the surface. Manganese nese crusts that have provided useful information on by- crust mining is uneconomical with existing technology (Clark products such as platinum and phosphorite. Much of that 1990). research is cofunded by DBED, University of Hawaii Sea Grant 5. The future of deep-sea mining may be determined by major College Program, and U.S. Minerals Management Service technological breakthroughs. Among the more significant of (Cruickshank and Woolsey 1989; Olson and Cruickshank 1989). these would be technologies involving robotics and artificial Studies to determine potential nearshore sand resources are intelligence, computer-assisted mining tools, new lighter and being conducted by MMTC. MMTC, together with the Depart- stronger materials and in situ processing (Clark 1990). Al- ment of Ocean Engineering, University of Hawaii, has resumed though future technologies hold great promise for deep-sea a long-dormant research effort to identify Hawaii's nearshore mining activities, such mining operations are still a high-ri,k sand deposits. venture. Yet, this is a field that will generate innovative re- A considerable amount of research has been conducted to search and technology-transfer opportunities. identify, map and determine the volume and type of sand in Nearshore mining, the most near-term mining venture for nearsh@o,re areas (Dollar 1979). Some of the earliest studies on Hawaii, is feasible with current technology. Dredge-mining the utilization of offshore sand deposits were done in the 1960s technology has been used extensively for harbor and channel by the University of Hawaii. Two components of these early dredging. studies involved an inventory of offshore sand deposits through- The dredge is the standard technology for excavating un- out the Hawaiian Islands, while another part involved the consolidated materials from the seafloor. Existing or modified feasibility of exploiting these deposits (Casciano and Palmer dredge-mining systems could place many nearshore deposits 1969). The sand inventory and recovery projects are now being in the range of technical exploitability (U.S. Congress 1987). continued at MMTC under the Sand for Hawaiian Beaches The main dredging techniques that can be used are bucketline, Study. suction and grab. For sand mining, suction devices are most Flublic Awareness widely used forrecovery operations. Suction dredges, using an airlift system, or suction probes, using a jet pump, have suc- A most important issue for marine mining in Hawaii is the need cessfully been used to recover sand deposits. Field tests con- to dispel the public perception that mining is by definition an ducted near Keauhou Bay in 1111 demonstrated the feasibility unnecessary activity, engaged in only for profit , and highly of using the jet pump (Discussion of the economic and engi- destructive to the environment. There is a need for factual neering aspects of the Submarine Sand Recovery System can be information to better inform people so they can understand the found in Casciano 1973a: 1976). potential economic importance of marine minerals mining, as Researcb Activities well as its potential impacts. A major effort has been made to I establish a solid base for public information on the possibilities The Marine Minerals Technology Center (MMTC) was estab- associated with a marine minerals industry in Hawaii in this lished by Congress in 1988 as a generic research center within regard: the Mineral Institutes Program at the U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1. Since 1972, the State has produced a lengthy series of Department of the Interior (Cruickshank and Woolsev 1989). publications assessing the potential impacts and establishing The center was created to facilitate the development of a environmental baseline conditions (See Note'). In 1987 for domestic technological capability needed for the efficient and example, the State published three documents that addressed environmentally compatible exploitation of the mineral re- various aspects of offshore marine mining for manganese sources. MMTC also functions as a training center and an crusts. One volume envisioned a mining development sce- information and reference center, particularly with regard to nario for crusts and another assessed infrastructure require- the transfer of technological developments to industry and the ments. The third, a draft environmental impact statement. public. analyzed the environmental impacts of such an industry. I MMTC is composed of separate divisions for nearshore and 2. During a four-year period, a series of well-attended public deep ocean research. The Ocean Basins Division (OBD) is hearings and meetings were held on the potential of develop- administered by the Center for Ocean Resources Technology ing a marine minerals industry in Hawaii. These meetings (CORT) at the University of Hawaii with operational facilities provided the public with an opportunity to identify a variety of located at theJames K.K. Look Laboratory of Ocean Engineer- concerns that were addressed in the final EIS. ina in Honolulu. 0 The research programs at OBD complement the ongoing 3. In October 1990, the final EIS was released for the Proposed marine minerals activities at the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics Marine Mineral Lease Sale: Exclusive Economic Zone Adjacent to Hawaii andjohnston Island, jointly prepared and published by the State and DOI's Minerals Management Service. The Exploration may help to respond to technical and environmen- purpose of the proposed action is to offer for lease portions of tal considerations. The effects on the surrounding ocean envi- the seafloor in the EEZ for mine site delineation, development ronment would be monitored before, during, and after explo- and production of cobalt-rich manganese crust minerals. No ration and exploitation operations. date has been set for a lease sale. Three alternatives to the Nearsbore Resources. The environmental impacts Of proposed action also were assessed in the EIS. They were to: 1) nearshore exploration can be preliminarily assessed from the modify the proposed lease sale by omitting certain deposit sites EIS conducted at Keauhou. Environmental surveys conducted in the southwest portion of the EEZ adjacent to Hawaii; 2) delay before, during and after a two-month field test of the offshore the sale for five years; and 3) permit no lease sales. sand mining and delivery system demonstrated that the Nearshore sand mining activities in the early 1970s resulted generation of turbidity and suspended sediment attributed in the publication of a environmental statement for a proposed to sand recovery operations was negligible and caused no sand mining test at Keauhou Bay. A final EIS was released in adverse impact to nearby coral reefs or other marine life (UH 1974 (Casciano 1973b). The EIS analyzed the proposed action 1977). of the full-scale, long-endurance field test of the prototype of Mining an unique system for mining bottom sand. Alternatives to the proposed action also were considered. OffsboreResources.. The manganese crust EIS mining analysis scenario represents the most likely description of the develop- Environmental Considerations ment activities possiblc with available information and current Little direct experience exists with commercial marine mining expertise in the relevant technical disciplines (DOI 1990). in terms of estimating the potential for environmental harm. The area to be mined in one year could be as small as one Even dredging operations or recovery of sand for beach en- square mile. Mining would not be pennitted within 50 mi.1es of hancement, which has been studied in some detail, are spo- any Hawaiian Island. Extensive recreational and commercial radic operations that do not reflect the impacts that could result fishing in these areas, the existence of precious corals, and the from long-term operations. Careful consideration in the pro- proximity to heavily used shorelines all pose potential mul- posed actions was the goal of the EISs for sand recovery tiple-use conflicts for such development. In addition, the projects and mining of manganese crusts. tourism industry would not be adversely impacted by mining Exploration operations. The most promising sites are in the EEZ around Johnston Island, more than 700 miles from Hawaii. Marine Offsbore Resources.- Exploration, which will precede actual mining impacts depend on a variety of factors, such as size and mining, is necessary to design and refirie mining systems as location of operations, dynamics of the ocean operations area, well as provide information in response to technical and and physical setting of the minerals themselves. environmental considerations. During exploration and exploi- The mining system would include a crust pick-up mecha- tation, the effects on the surrounding ocean environment nism which dislodges the crust from its substrate, crushes the would need to be monitored. recovered material and transfers it onto a lift pipe to the mining In order to provide a baseline characterization of a represen- ship. The most significant impact concerns from this operation tative seamount, a detailed site-specific survey was under- are associated with the suspended particulate matterproduced taken. Cross Searnount, 170 miles south of Honolulu, was near the seafloor and at the surface lift-pipe overflow. A selected because it is an environmentally sensitive area; it potential mitigation measure discussed in the EIS would re- supports a fishery and at the same time, it has well-developed quire the subsurface discharge of these suspended particles to manganese crusts. Data collected from this survey is presented whatever depth necessary if any significant adverse impacts in the final EIS to provide a realistic assessment of a Hawaiian are identified through testing activities. seamount benthic environment. Generally, very low and low impacts are predicted for the The proposed action would offer for lease portions of the 2.2 activities at the mine site except in the case of mine-site benthic million square kilometers within the EEZ adjacent to Hawaii fauna. Benthic fauna in the path of the mining device would andjohnston Island. Within this area, only the seafloor in water suffer a high impact while fauna in the range of sedimentation depths between 800 and 2,400 meters is proposed for inclusion (particles suspended by the mining operation) would suffer in the initial lease area. This included area (termed "permissive low to moderate impacts (DOI 1990) area" in the EIS) is approximately 1.2 percent of the entire lease Nearsbore Resources- Physical disturbance from dredge- sale area (DOI 1990). mining operations would consist of removing a layer of the The scope of the EIS is limited by the overall lack of data on seafloor, conveying it to the surface and reinjecting the material manganese crusts in general. These limitations result because into a barge for transport. The mining operation would gener- only limited research has been completed within the study ate a transient "plume" of sediment that would affect the area. A test mine site is therefore needed, to complete further surface, water column and adjacent areas of the oceanfloor for analysis of the commercial potential and test new technology. a period of time. Ben,li, communities will be disturbed in areas mined. may elect site, outside Hawaii. The key potential impacts a, Mollusks inhabiting the sand and echinoderms migrating across the process plant sites are those of land-use and air quality the sand deposits would be affected. These impacts can be (ibid). mitigated or largely avoided by conducting adequate field surveys before selecting a site (UH 1977). Recolonization is expected to take place quickly in high-energy, shallow water RECOMWNDATIONS communities (U.S. Congress 1987). Objective An important concern is the impact on the beach itself as a E lore the establishment of a marine minerals industry which result of nearshore sand mining. The removal of sand from any . xp part of the littoral sand budget system can affect all other parts is economically beneficial, environmentally sound, and so- (for further discussion of the littoral sand budget, see Beaches cially acceptable to the people of Hawaii. and Coastal Erosion Technical Paper). Offshore deposits of Policy A sand, in quantities suitable for mining operations, most likely would be found 3,000 to 6,000 feet ?-I offshore (Griffin 1990). Assert the State's interest in a full partnership with the Federal These sand resources lie outside of the littoral sand budget and, government in managing marine minerals activities, including therefore, are already "lost" to the system, i.e., the sand would the equitable sharing of any revenues derived from the mining of manganese crusts. neither be redeposited onto the beach over time nor would its removal adversely affect the beach. Implementing Actions: Transportation DBED@ in cooperation with OSP. should: OffsboreResources: The recovered ore would be transferred to 1. Continue to encourage Hawaii's congressional del- bulk cargo vessels in a slurry, transported to docking facilities egation to amend the OCSLA or create new minerals near the processing plant site, and then transferred again in legislation giving the State equitable revenue-sharing slurry to the plant itself. Of major concern during these activi- benefits from EEZ marine mining and leasing activities. des are accidental discharges of ore and the impacts on vessel Such legislation should grant coastal states a meaningful lanes, harbor traffic and docking space (see Harbors Technical role in offshore mining decision-making without com- Paper). promising other interests of the State of Hawaii. C, M Nearsbore Resources: Sand transported to the surface is in 2. Continue to pursue full partnership with the Federal the form of a slurry consisting of approximately 75 percent government by using the successful implementation of water and 25 percent sand. The slurry is placed either in a the Federal/State joint Planning Arrangement as partial barge, which transports the sand to the shore, or it is piped to justification for joint management of Hawaii's EEZ. shore for placement in a deposition basin. Either method of Policy B transport could result in an accidental discharge, resulting in siltation being deposited on adjacent marine biota (Casciano Encourage and support appropriate research activities that will 1973b). help to determine what types of marine minerals industry can Frocessing be established within Hawaii's EEZ without incurring unac- ceptable environmental or social costs. Offshore Resources: Onshore processing of mineral crusts Implementing Actions: involves other kinds of effects apart from those associated with mining. A processing facility within the State could play a DBED, in cooperation with OSP, DLA7@ DOH, UH and significant role in diversifying the economy. If it is not environ- appropriate Federal agencies, should- mentally or socially acceptable, or if it cannot become so 1. Provide for monitoring the environmental effects of without considerable costs to other areas of the economy such offshore marine minerals development, mining and pro- as,ourism, however, processing might not provide net benefits cessing on marine biota and the ocean/atmospheric sys- to the State. The resolution of the impacts of this final phase are tem by conducting studies of the ocean environment integrally linked to the economics of the industry and the before, during and after the undertaking of these activi- impacts on the environment. ties through the Federal/State joint Planning Arrange- To allow analysis of the various possible impacts to process- ment. Because of the newness of the technology and lack ing plant sites in Hawaii, three general locations are examined of comprehensive data regarding the environmental ef- in the EIS. They were selected to embrace a range of environ- fects of such mining, consideration should be given to mental analyses and include a site representing the wet side of establishing an experimental industry/FederaVState mine an Island (Puna), the dry side of an island (Kohala) and an site prior to embarking on large-scale development ac- industrial park setting (Ewa). These sites do not represent land- tivities. Information gained from the experimental site use alternatives favored by Federal, State, or County govern- should be used in developing a permanent regulatory ments or any individual landowners (DOI 1990). Processors regime. DBF-D sbould: implementing Actions: 2. Coordinate any onshore activities with DOT and DBFED should: other appropriate State and County agencies in antici- 1. Identify existing experts and help to develop new pation of any infrastructure needs relating to process- local expertise in offshore minerals and mining by run- ing or transshipment of marine minerals. ning serninars on scientific findings and technology de- DLIVR, in cooperation witb UH and DOH sbould.. velopments related to marine minerals. 3. Monitor the environmental effects of nearshore 2. Establish Hawaii as a center for coordination of rine minerals development in the Pacific and as a sit(17 exploratory and sand recovery projects on marine biota . for by conducting studies on the ocean environment be- research and development for technology transfer appli- fore, during and after the undertaking of these activi- cations. ties. Policy C NOTB Foster public awareness and facilitate informed public input 1. For publications representative of the State's efforts to regarding the development of marine minerals mining, pro- increase public awareness regarding marine minerals devel- cessing and related efforts in the State. opment see: The feasibility and potential impact of manga- Implementing Actions: nese nodule processing in Hawaii. Honolulu, February 1978; DB,ED sbould: Feasibility and potential impact of manganese nodule pro- cessing in the Puna and Kohala districts of Hawaii, DPED 1. Ensure that the public is informed as to the efforts and U.S. Office of Ocean Minerals and Energy, NOAA, 1981, taken by the State to explore developing an offshore Honolulu; Marine mining: a new beginning, Conference marine minerals industry and onshore support net- Proceedings, DPED, July 1982, Hilo, Peter B. Humphey work. (ed.); Potential fiscal impacts of manganese nodule process- DLNR sbould: ing in the Puna and Kohala Districts of Hawaii, D. M. Blood 2. Follow a similar action to keep the public informed and J. R. Davidson, UH-Sea Grant, May 1984, Honolulu; A baseline study of soil geochemistry in selected areas on the as to the efforts taken to address the potential develop- island of Hawaii, J. B. Halbig, et al, 1985, Honolulu; A ment of nearshore sand recovery. baseline study of ground water geochernistry in the Kawaihae DBF-D and DLNR should.- and Hilo areas on the island of Hawaii, J. B. Halbig, et al., 1986, Honolulu; A baseline study of the geochernistry and 3. Achieve these goals by providing informational sedimentology of nearshore marine sediments in sele( materials and conducting public workshops. areas off the island of Hawaii, W. C. Dudley, 1986, Honolulu; Policy D Infrastructure requirements for a marine minerals process- Promote appropriate environmentally sound and socia. ly ing industry, R. W. Jenkins and F. C. Brown, 1987, Honolulu; acceptable private-sector development in the area of marine The predicted effects of dissolved manganese in the photic mining, processing and related efforts in the State. zone, C. W. Rice, 1987, Honolulu. (DBED was formerly the Department of Planning and Economic Development - Implementing Actions: DPED.] DBED sbould: 1. Consider the use of economic and other incentives REFEMCES that would encourage exploration of an economically viable, environmentally sound, and socially acceptable Casciano, F.M.1973a. Development of a Submarine Sand Re- marine minerals industry in Hawaii. cove?ySjstemforHawaii. UNIHI-SEAGRANT-AR-73-04. Uni- 2. Review the State and Federal regulatory systems as versity of Hawaii, Sea Grant College Program, Honolulu. they apply to offshore minerals mining to determine Casciano, F.M. 1973b. Environmental5tatement: Ocean Sand what, if any, unnecessary impediments exist to devel- Recovery Test at Keaubou, Kona, Hawaii. University of Ha- oping a viable industry. waii, Department of Oceanography, Honolulu. Policy E Establish local expertise in marine mining and make indus- Casciano, F.M. 1976. Submarine Sand Recovery System: try aware of Hawaii as a marine minerals center, Keaubou Bay Field Test. UNIIil-SEAGRANT-TR-77-02. Uni- versity of Hawaii, Sea Grant College Program, Honolulu. Casciano, 1-M, and R,Q. Palmer. 1969. Potential of Offshore U.S. Congress, office of Technology Assessment. 1987. Marine SandasanfxploitableResourceinHawaii.UNH-SEAGRANT- Minerals: Exploring Our New Ocean Frontier, OTA-0-342. 69-4. University of Hawaii, Sea Grant College Program, Hono- Washington, D.C.:Govemment Printing Office. lulu. U.S. Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service Clark, A. 1990. Personal communication, September 1990. and the State of Hawaii. 1990. PrqposedMarineMineralLease Honolulu. Sale. FxclusiveEconomicZoneAdjacenttoHawaiiandjobnston Island. Final Environmental Impact Statement, Vols 1 and 2. Coulbourn, W.T.,J.F. Campbell, P.N. Anderson, P.M. Daugherty, By U.S. Minerals Management Service and State of Hawaii, et al. 1988. Sand Deposits Offshore Oahu, Hawaii. Pacific Department of Business and Economic Development, Ocean Science. July/October 1988. Vol. 42 (3,4):267-299. Resources Branch. Honolulu. Cruickshank, MJ. andj.R. Woolsey. 1989. The Marine Minerals University of Hawaii, Pacific Business Center Program. 1988. Technology Center: A New Beginning. Proceedings of the Ocean Minerals. Technical Resource Document, opinion pa- Conference on Resources and the Environment. March 5-10, pers prepared by experts in ten key ocean research and 1989. pp. )(1-21. National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, technology areas (Attached to Market Analysis and Proposed Taiwan, ROC. Strategy for Promoting Hawaii's Ocean Research and Develop- ment Industry, prepared for the Ocean Resources Branch, State Cruickshank, Mj. Personal communication, October 1990. of Hawaii Department of Business and Economic Develop- Honolulu. ment.) pp. II-E-1. By Mj. Cruickshank. Honolulu. Dollar, Sj., 1979. Sand Mining in Hawaii- Research, Restric- University of Hawaii, Sea Grant College Program. 1977. Envi- lions, and Choicesfor the Future. UNHI-SEAGRANT-TP-79- ronmental Surveys Before, During, andAfter0ffsboreMarine 01. University of Hawaii, Sea Grant College Program, Hono- Sand Mining Operations at Keaubou Bay, Hawaii. Working lulu. Paper No. 28. By J.E. Maragos, J. Roach, R.L. Bowers, D.E. Griffin, D. 1990. Personal communication, September 1990. Hernmes, et al. Honolulu. Honolulu. Waihee,J.D. 1990. Testimony presented at hearing on National Ocean and Coastal Policy-Hawaii and the Pacific Island States Johnson, C. and A. Clark. 1988. Expanding Horizons of Pacific before the U.S. House Committee on Merchant Marine and Minerals. Ocean Yearbook 7. E.M. Borgese, N. Ginsburg, J. Fisheries, January 8, 1990. Honolulu. Morgan (eds.). pp. 145-158. Chicago:University of Chicago Press. Wiltshire, J.C. 1990a. Platinum Accumulation in Cobalt-Rich Ferromanganese Crusts. Proceedings of the Fourth Pacific Morgan, C.L. 1990. Personal communication, September 1990. Congress on Marine Science and Technology, PACON 90. Vol. Honolulu 1, pp.405-412. Honolulu:PACON International. Morgan, CL, R.D. Mahan, A. Mahaloff andj.C. Wiltshire. 1988. Wiltshire, J.C. 1990b. Personal communication, October 1990. Microtopography of a Cross Seamount. MarineMining. Vol. 7. Honolulu. pp. 249-269. Olson, H.J. and Mj. Cruickshank. 1989. Marine Minerals and Mining Engineering Technology Research and Development at the University of Hawaii. Proceedings of the First Interna- tional Ocean Technology Congress.January 22-26,1989. IOTC. Honolulu. Saiki, P. 1990. Committee Staff background memo note for meeting of U.S. House Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, January 1990. State of Hawaii, Office of State Planning, Hawaii Coastal Zone Management Program. 1990. Hawaii Coastal Zone Manage- ment Program Document. Honolulu. RPPEHDIX I HEROHYMS HHD HBREUIRTIONS COE (Army) Corps of Engineers CZMA Coastal Zone Management Act DOC Department of Commerce DOE Department of Energy DOI Department of Interior EDA Economic Development Administration (DOC) EPA Environmental Protection Agency FCMA Fisheries Conservation and Management Act FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency FERC Federal Energy Regulatory Commission IMP Fisheries Management Plan FWS Fish and Wildlife Service (DOI) IRS Internal Revenue Service ITA International Trade Administration (DOC) MAFAC Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee (NOAA) MMS Minerals Management Service (DOI) MPRSA Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act NERR National Estuarine Research Reserve (NOAA) NMFS National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA) NMS National Marine Sanctuary (NOAA) NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC) NPDES, National Pollution Discharge Elimiriation System (EPA) NPS National Park Service (DOI) NSF National Science Foundation NWR National Wildlife Refuge (DOI) OCRM Office of Coastal Resources Management (NOAA) OCSLA Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act 0SIM Office of Strategic and International Minerals (MMS) OTA Office of Technology Assessment (U. S. Congress) PFDF Pacific Fisheries Development Foundation PURPA Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act SBA Small Business Administration SBIR Small Business Innovative Research Grants SID Secretarial Issue Document USCG U.S. Coast Guard USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture USN U.S. Navy WESTPAC Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council (NOAA) ADP Aquaculture Development Program (DLNR) AFRC Anuenue Fisheries Research Center (DLNR) ARLF Aquaculture Revolving Loan Fund (DOA) BLNR Board of Land and Natural Resources (DLNR) CDUA Conservation District Use Application (DLNR) CORT Center for Ocean Resources Technology (UH) CZM Coastal Zone Management Program (OSP) DAGS Department of Accounting and Geneml Services DAR Division of Aquatic Resources (DLNR) DB&F Department of Budget and Finance DBED Department of Business, Economic Development &Tourism DCCA Department of Commerce and Consumer Affairs DLNR Department of Land and Natural Resources DOA Department of Agriculture DOCARE Division of Conservation and Resources Enforcement (DLNR) DOE Department of Education DOH Department of Health DOT Department of Transportation FMA Fishery Management Area (DLNR) HAR Hawaii Administrative Rules HAAC Hawaii Aquaculture Advisory Council HCDA Hawaii Community Development Authority (DBED) HEER Hazard Evaluation and Emergency Response Office (DOH) HEIS Hawaii Environmental Impact Statement Law (HRS) HIG Hawaii Institute of Geophysics (UH) HIMB Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology (UH) HNEI Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (UH) HOC Hawaii Ocean Center HOST Hawaii Ocean Science and Technology Park (NELHA) HRS Hawaii Revised Statutes HTDC High Technology Development Corporation (DBED) HURL Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory (UH) JIMAR joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research (UH) LUC Land Use Commission MH1-MRI Main Hawaiian Islands Marine Resources Investigation (DLNR) MLCD Marine Life Conservation District (DLNR) MMTC Marine Minerals Technology Center (UH) MRTC Mariculture Research and Training Center (UH) NARS Natural Area Reserve System (DLNR) NELH Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii (NTLHA) NELHA Natur-al Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority (DBED) NWHI Northwestern Hawaiian Islands OBD Ocean Basins Division (MMTC) OMPO Oahu Metropolitan Planning Organization OEQC Office. of Environmental Quality Control (DOH) ORB Ocean Resources Branch (DBED) ORMA Ocean Recreation Management Arm (DOT) OSP Office of State Planning PUC Public Utilities Commission (DCCA) SG Sea Grant College Program (UH) SGES Sea Grant Extension Service (UH) SCORP State (of Hawaii) Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan UH University of Hawaii WQS Water Quality Standards (DOH) COUNTY C&C City and County DLU Department of Land Utilization (City & County of Honolulu) KARRP Kealia Aquatech and Renewable Resources Park (Maui) PUC Public Utilities Commission SMA Special Management Area OTHER ACA American Canoe Association, Hawaii Division AFPI American Flag Pacific Islands cc Coordinating Cominitee (TPA) CSC Cooperative Steering Committee UPA) EA Environmental Assessment EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone EIS Environmental Impact Statement EWC/EAPI East-West Center/Environment and Policy Institute EWC/RSI East-West Center/Resource Systems Institute FADs Fish Aggregating Devices GIS Geographic Information System HDWC Hawaii Deep-Water Cable HECO Hawaiian Electric Company HLW High Level Wastes IUCN Int'l. Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources JPA Federal/State joint Planning Arrangement (Marine Minerals) LLW Low Level Wastes MSY Maximum Sustainable Yield NPS Nonpoint Source Pollution 0I Oceanic Institute OTEC Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion PICHTR Pacific International Center for High Technology Research PIRO Petroleum Industry Response Organization R&D Research and Development RFP Request for Proposal TORCH The Ocean Recreation Council of Hawaii I RPPEHDIH 11 SUBJECT MOTTER EXPERTS The following is a list of people who participated in Ile preparation of the technical papers. Their broad range of expertise and critical opinion is greatly appreciated.Their contribution to preparation of the Hawaii Ocean Resources Management Plan and the Technical Supplement is gratefully acknowledged. FEDERRI Arakaki, Stanley Mosher, Lt. Eric Simonds, Kitty U. S. Army Corps of Engineers 14th Coast Guard District National Oceanic and Atmospheric Operations Division Marine and Environmental Protection Administration Branch Western Pacific Regional Fishery Harman, Robert Management Council National Oceanic and Atmospheric Naughton, John Administration National Marine Fisheries Service Swenson, David Western Pacific Regional Fishery Pacific Area Office U. S. Army Corps of Engineers Management Council Planning Division Nitta, Eugene Kubo, Susan National Marine Fisheries Service Takemoto, Helene U. S. Soil Conservation Service Pacific Area Office U. S. Army Corps of Engineers Nonpoint Source Pollution Program Polovina, Jeffery Military Division Lee, Michael National Marine Fisheries Service Witham, Gene U. S. Army Corps of Engineers Honolulu Laboratory National Marine Fisheries Service Operations Division Enforcement Office Pooley, Sam Lennan, William National Marine Fisheries Service Yamamoto, Larry U. S. Army Corps of Engineers Fisheries Research Program U. S. Soil Conservation Service Planning Division Shimoda, Jerry Nonpoint Source Pollution Program Mitchell, Cdr. John National Park Service 14th Coast Guard District Pu'uhonua o Honaunau National Boating Safety Division Historic Park STRTE Anderson, Bruce Chang, Steven Cruickshank, Michael Department of Health Department of Health University of Hawaii Environmental Programs Clean Water Branch Marine Minerals Technology Center Brock, Richard Corbin, Jqhn University of Hawaii Depaimient of Land and Natural Rmurces Sea Grant Extension Service - Fisheries Aquaculture Development Program STRTE cont. Daniel, Thomas Kawamoto, Paul Maynard, Sherwood Department of Business, Economic Department of Land and Natural University of Hawaii Development & Tourism Resources Marine Option Program Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Aquatic Resources and Environmental Authority Protection Branch McKinley, Kelton University of Hawaii Fast, Arlo Kay, E. Allison Hawaii Natural Energy Institute University of Hawaii University of Hawaii Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology Department of Zoology Miller, Jacquelin University of Hawaii Fujikawa, Thomas Klemm, Barbara Environmental Center Department of Transportation University of Hawaii Engineering Branch Curriculum Research and Develop- Miura, Howard ment Group Department of Transportation Fujimoto. Michael Harbors Division Department of Land and Natural Koehler, Robert Engineering Branch Resources University of Hawaii Commercial Fisheries and Aquaculture Hawaii Natural Energy Institute Mizurnoto, Gary Department of Agriculture Fujioka, Roger Lau, Denis Agriculture Loan Division University of Hawaii Department of Health Water Resources Research Center Clean Water Branch Morgan, Charles University of Hawaii Grace, Robert Lee,Lynn Marine Minerali Technology Center University of Hawaii Office of Hawaiian Affairs Department of Civil Engineering Land and Natural Resources Division Murakarr* Colleen Department of Education Harrison, John Leong,Randall Evironmental Division University of Hawaii Department of Transportation Environmental Center Harbors Division Nagata, Ralston Engineering Branch Department of Land and Natural Heacock, Donald Resources Department of Land and Natural L'Orange, H. Peter State Parks Division Resources (Kauai) Hawaii Coastal Zone Management Aquatic Resources and Environmental Advisory Council Nakagawa, John Protection Branch Office of State Planning MacDonald, Craig Hawaii Ocean Center Advisory Hendricks, Peter Department of Business, Economic Council Department of Land and Natural Development & Tourism Resources (Hawaii) Ocean Resources Branch Oishi, Francis Aquatic Resources and Environmental Department of Land and Natural Protection Branch Magaard, Lorenz Resources University of Hawaii Recreational Fisheries Branch Hopper, Carol Department of Oceanography Waikiki Aquarium Oh, Paul Education Department Masutomi, Eric University of Hawaii Office of State Planning Sea Grant Extension Service - Hunter, Cindy State Plan Branch Aquaculture University of Hawaii Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology Maxey, Homer Paglinawan, Richard Department of Business, Economic Office of Hawaiian Affairs Ingoglia, Mark Development & Tourism Department of Health Foreign-Trade Zone Hazard Evaluation and Emergency Response Office Parsons, David Shang, Yung Verlaan, Philomene Department of Transportation University of Hawaii University of Hawaii Harbors Division Department of Agriculture and Law of the Sea Institute Boating Branch Economics Walker, Ronald Pennington, Howard Smith, Kimberly Department of Land and Natural Department of Business, Economic Department of Land and Natural Resources Development & Tourism Resources Division of Foresty and Wildlife Ocean Resources Branch Main Hawaiian Islands Marine Resources Investigation Project War, Jan Poirier, Richard Department of Business, Economic Office of State Planning Takata, Howard Development & Tourism Special Plans Branch University of Hawaii-Hilo Hawaii Natural Energy Laboratory Sea Grant Extension Service Authority Rezaclel, David Department of Business, Economic Teves, Mary Rose Wiltshire, John Development & Tourism Department of Health University of Hawaii Alternative Energy Branch Environmental Planning Office Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory Rohan,Shane Thompson, Carolyn Woolaway, Chris Department of Business, Economic Department of Health University of Hawaii Development & Tourism Nonpoint Source Pollution Control Sea Grant Extension Service - Ocean Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Program Recreation and Tourism Authority Tom,Doug Yatogo, Koji Sakuda, Henry Office of State Planning Department of Agriculture Department of Land and Natural Coastal Zone Management Program Agriculture Loan Division Resources Division of Aquatic Resources Tsuda, Calvin Yung, Margaret Department of Transportation Department of Health Schoocraft, James Harbors Division Environmental Health Services Department of Transportation Division Harbors Division Boating Branch Agres, Robert Deloso, Al Ho, Alex County of Maui County of Maui City and County of Honolulu Department of Human Concerns Recreation Division Water Safety Division Bond, Robin Goto, Ralph Hong, Alan City and County of Honolulu City and County of Honolulu City and County of Honolulu Park Maintenance and Recreational Water Safety Division Park Maintenance and Recreational Services Division Services Division Griffin, Don Bums, Steve City and County of Honolulu Kanuha,Duane County of Hawaii Facilities Development Division County of Hawaii Energy Program Planning Department Hart, Christopher Callejo, Sam County of Maui Kobayashi, Kalvin City and County of Honolulu Planning Department County of Maui Department of Public Works Division of Economic Development cont. Lee, Benjamin Osawa, Walter Yukimura, JoAnn City and County of Honolulu City and County of Honolulu County of Kauai Department of General Planning Department of Parks and Recreation office of the Mayor Marshall, Mark Robeson, Barabara County of Hawaii County of Kauai Aquatics Office Planning Commission Nishihara, Mel Sato, Glenn County of Kauai County of Kauai Division of Parks and Recreation Energy Branch BUSIHESSES Arapoff, Peter Dashiell, Eugene McHale, Frank Ala Wai Marine, Ltd. Eugene P. Dashiell AICP Planning Hawaii Dredging and Construction Co. Bartholomew, Ed Services Parke, Michael Maui Economic Opportunity, Inc. Frame, Robert DHM, Inc. Alcantara & Frame Bolten, Alexander Parnell, Jacqueline Matson Navigation Co. Foster, Robin KRP Information Services Lacayo Architects, Inc. Bonnet, William Pickard, Joe Hawaiian Electric Co., Inc. Greff III, Clancy Ko Olina Resort Captain Zodiac Raft Expeditions Bourke, Robert Roberts, Blain Oceanit Laboratories, Inc. Guinther, Eric Lahaina Divers, Inc. AECOS, Inc. Brock, James Schreiner, Herbert Seaculture, Inc. Hanohano,Robert Paradise Cruises, Ltd. Hanohano Enterprises Brooks, Mark Smith, Bruce Hawaii SeaFarms, Inc. Iverson, Robert Kahuku Prawn Co. Pacific Fisheries Consultants Burzell, Linden Sprague, John Amorient Aquafarms, Inc. Kumagai, James Seaculture, Inc. M & E Pacific, Inc. Casciano, Fred Stevenson, Marty Ocean Innovators Loui, Steve Kinnetic Laboratories, Inc. Chapman, Gordon Pacific Marine Sullivan, Patrick Mauna Lani Resort Lozano, Victor Oceanit Laboratories, Inc. Clark, John North Bay Boating Club Willers, Jon Sea Notes Hawaii Mansur,julianne Seaculture, Inc. Leo A. Daly, Alfred A. Yee Division KOH-PROFIT ORGRNIZRTIONS Barclach, John Dorian, James Losey, George East-West Center (EAPI) East-West Center (RSI) Kaneohe Yacht Club Sea Level Rise Program Minerals Policy Program Maragos, James Bienfang, Paul Ellis,jack East-West Center (EAPI) Oceanic Institute Hawaiian International Billfish Land, Air, Water Program Association Bowman, Scott Morgan, Joseph Waikiki Improvement Association Forestell, Paul East-West Center (EAPI) Pacific Whale Foundation Ports and Harbors Program Cappejen Maui Boardsailing: Association Goody, John Morrison, Ken American Canoe Association Royal Hawaii Ocean Racing Club Carpenter, Richard Hawaii Division East-West Center (EAPI) Saxena, Narendra Risk, Resources and Development Hinz, Earl PACON International Program Ala Wai Boat Harbor Committee Takahashi, Pat Clark, Allen Kernmer, Cristina Pacific International Center for High East-West Center (RSI) Waikiki Improvement Association Technology Research Minerals Policy Program Development Division King, William Clark, Asa Atlapac Fishing Club Trenka, Andrew The Chamber of Commerce of Hawaii Pacific International Center for High Lee, Marilyn Technology Research Sea Life Park Marine and Education Energy and Resources Division Foundation CONSIRURTION GROUPS Cassidy, Annette Leaman, Denver Rothstein, Jerry 1001 Friends of Kauai Greenpeace Hawaii Public Access Shoreline Hawaii Freedman, Carl Markrich, Michael Wilcox, Carol Blue Ocean Preservation Society Malama Na I'a Hawaii Stream Assessment Gilmartin, William Meller, Doug Withington, Toni Kilauea Point Group Life of the Land North Kohala Coast Preservation Jarman, Casey Mench, Lola Kilauea Point Group Sierra Club, Hawaii Chapter PRIURTE CITIZENS Clothier, Tina Shomura, Richard Berg, Jr., Carl Smales, Fred Higgins, E. C. RPPEHDIH III HER11,FS EXCLUSIUE ECONOMIC ZONE SIZE OF HAWAII'S EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE IN RELATION TO THE U.S. MAINLAND The Hawaiian archipelago extends 1,523 miles NW to SE and is surrounded by an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) encom- passing an area of 922,967 square miles. With the addition of the EEZ in 1983, Hawaii became the second largest state in the nation. As can be seen by the accompanying illustration, Hawaii's vast EEZ is nearly one third the size of the contiguous United States and stretches two-thirds the distance between Seattle, Washington and Charleston, South Carolina. As stated in the Hawaii Ocean Resources Management Plan, Hawaii's current challenge is to acknowledge and fully comprehend the enormity of its ocean and coastal resources, and to develop an effective management regime to care for them. APPEHDIHIU STRTE OCERH PROURMS The matricies in Appendix IV A, B and C are based on survey data provided by the individual departmenis of the State administration. For the most part, the departments defined for themselves: (1) what they considered to be ocean and marine programs, (2) how they categorized their programmatic activi- ties, and (3) how they allocated staff and programmatic re- sources within these categories. Responsibility for accuracy and completeness of this information lies largely with the respective agencies and programs. In some cases it was diffi- cult to discern ocean and marine components from overall programmatic responsibilities; these cases are noted and briefly explained, For these latter reasons in particular, the level of precision is low and the estimates are conservative. This information should be viewed only as a first approximation. Note: FrE positions as reflected in Appendix IVC represent only full-time equivalent civil service positions. Counts of other positions (exempt or contractual) are not provided. However, the monies for these other positions are included under oper- ating funds. STATE OCEAN PROGRkNIS - by Activity and Government Agency RREEHIUR BIGUIRTED RITUTY OND OLHB DOB 001 DOH COT OP HO COUHTY Recreation BOATING � Statewide boat Harbors launch.ing facilities Division - program Boating and Engineering � Statewide Branches improvements and boating facifities � Boating Safety Office of (marine casualty Safety and and investrgation) -------- ent HarborS commucIAL HARBORS � Harbor facilites Harbors improvements Division- and expansions Engineering Branch � Statewide harbor planning - Harbor Safety Office of (marine casualty Safety and and investigation) Enforcement FERRIESNASS TRANSIT � Molokai-Maui Industry commuter ferry Promotion DiviLsion - Ocean Resources Branch � Intra-island ferry system Harbors Division - Engineering Branch fisberieS FISHING VESSEL LOANS Financial Services Branch SEAFOOD PROMOTIONS Industry Marketing Promotion Division - Division - Market Ocean Development Resources Branch Branch FISHERIES FWS RESOURCE WESTPAC DEVELOPMENT NMFS PFDF � Artificial habitat for Aquatic bortomfish Resources Division- Admmmatron � Fish catch statistics ONE IN STATE OMAN PROGMAIS - by Activitv and Government Ageno P(GULRTIO RITUTY 061D BE 009 001 BCH BOT OSP 11D CUM Recreational Recreational fishing rule, Fisheries Mahimahi culture Branch Artificial reef enhancement Buoys/trolhng alleys Commercial Fisheries and - Fish aggregating devices Aquaculture Branch - Fish toxicity tests - New fishing grounds survey - Deepwater habitat enhancement Automated fisheries information Main Hawaiian Islands marine Aquatic resources investigation Resources and information and Education Environment Protection Branch COM3MCIAL Harbors FISHERIES Division 51TRASTRUCTURE DEVEIOPMENr SUFOOD INSPECnONS Environ- mental Health Services Division - Food and Drug Branch Mariiiw ECOSyStem Pfttection WnDLIFE FWS and HAHrrAT NMFS MANAGENEW OCRM Wildlife sancruahes Division of Forestry & Annual sea-bird Wildlife surveys Annual waterbird suve" RREHE IN STATE OCE.VN PROGR.JLN-IS - by Activitv and Government Agency MULOTED PITIURY OBID ON BOA 001 BOH 001 OSP FIB COUHTY WILDLIFE and HABITAT MANAGEMM 001110 1 Manage freshwater Division streams & resources of water (except fish) Development Manage underwater State Parks parks (Hanaunia Bay Division and Kealakekua Bay) � Surveys of potential Aquatic Marine Ue Resources Conservation Division Districts (MLCDs) and Environ- mental � Monitoring MLCDs Protection Branch � Hawaiian sea turde and monk sea] recovery program NATURAL AREA Natural OCRM RESERVES Arm Reserve System Commission REGULATORY � Conservation Conservation District Use and Environ- Application Reviews mental Affairs Office � Enforcement Conservation and Resources Enforcement Division Be"bes and Coastal Erosion BEACH EROSION coastal Coastal Zone OCRM Planning ]PROTECTION Areas Management Departments Program Program Parks and Recreation Departments Waste Managenwnt WATER QUALITY EPA � Water quality State labor2tory analysis Laboratories � Water quality Environ- Monitoring mental Management Division STATE OCE.VN, PROGKkNIS - by Activin, and Government Agenq, FROM RGETEC RUNITT DB[5 DLHR OCR 001 BCH 00T OSP [GUHR Waste Management (cont.) HARBOR SEWER/ WASTE FACHITIES Statewide commercial Harbors harbor sewer system Division- improvements Engineering Branch Statewide sewage system improvements Boating to boaiting facilities Branch EneW RESOURCE DEVE]LOPMENr Geothermal energy Energy cable transfer system Division Wave energy resource assessment Ocean Thermal Natural i Energy Conversion Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority Aquacufture OTEC Natural AQUACULTM Energy Laboratory Of Hawaii Authority AQUACULTURE Aquaculture J DEVELOPMM Development Program Center for Applied Aquaculture at Oceanic Institute Kauai Shrimp Pond Study Small and large scale pond facilities Extension services Marine Shrimp Project Finfish ftject Marine Biotechnology STATF OCEkN PROGRkNIS - by Activity and Government Agency OPPENDIXTR P[GURB ACTIUITY DIED OUP BOR 901 BON BOT OSP FIB COUNTY Aquacufture (cont.) FAC1011M Environ RWECT70N mental Management Division LOANSPROGRAM Agriculture Loan Division FROMOTIONS Industry Aquaculture Marketing and MAREEMG Promotion Develqxrient Division - Division - Program Market Ocean Development Resources Branch Branch Marine Minerals MARINE M01NIUMIS Ocean Exclusive MMS MUSM Resources Economic NOAA DEVEWPHW Branch Zone Program RPPEH91H IUB SUNINURY OF STATE OCEAIN PROGRAINIS - by Funding and -Staff Resources OPERATING BUDGET CIP op"UP110HONS RGINI? PROBT10 10TOLS FY 89 [y go ly gi 1987 IgOB IgBq Department of Business, 22 FrE 27 27 Economic Development $2,581,692 3,854,37/2 4,339722 125,000 2,100,000 1,213,DDO & Tourism 86,000 161,000 161,000 0 0 0 Department of Land 80 FrE 80 so and Natural Resources 4,769,336 5,190,283 5,174,786 0 1,000.000 4,525.000 619,996 1,042,410 890,955 0 1,000,000 500,000 Department of Agriculture <1 <1 <1 175.000 80,000 80,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Department of Education I FrE 1 1 83,362 57,000 57,700 0 0 52.000 0 0 0 0 0 0 Department of Health 27.80 FrE 28.75 14.15 9.01 nz 9.55 -25 881,952 915,275 710,136 0 0 0 1,16.1673 968,460 87,000 0 0 0 Department of Transportation 300.50 FrE 321 316 35,333,812 38,634,821 41.018,313 28,246,oDo 19 762,000 59,539,000 0 0 0 9,Z73,500 18,965,000 6,313,480 Office of State Planning 2 FrE 2 7 212,834 66,612 173,992 3,500,000 0 19,293,000 135,000 221,000 KOOO 3J66,ooo 0 45,000 433 FrE 460 445 S44,197,988 48,798,363 51,403,949 31,873,000 22,862,000 84,622,ODO RMRT-ED TOTAIS Z004,669 Z49ZS70 1,204,955 7,439,500 9,965,000 05smo bohl CEP allotinents bold Uakr federatfunds DETAILS OF STATE OCEIN PROGPWIS - b%7 Authorit-v, hinding and Staff Resources RPPENDIX IN RG[HEY RHO RITIUITY HES BONIN [En [UNDIHE FY Bq FY 90 fY 91 1q67 1980 IqBq Mus RGEHEY Depan'ment of Business, Economic Development & Tourism (DBED) OCEAN RESOURCES Ch. 201 personnel: BRANCH 4 FTE 4 4 $117,000 117,000 117,000 operating: 19,000 14,000 14,000 Projem/Prograims: General ocean industry 38,OW 20,000 71,OW Ocean recreation industry 40,000 35,000 0 Marine minerals industry 83-000 90,000 88,000 MMS- 86,000 161,000 161,000 .Molokai-Maui ferry OSIM 300,000 300,000 300,000 Seafood promotion 176,000 170,000 190,000 Ocean RID promotion 70,DDO 142.000 144,000 Governor's Ocean Resources Act 324, 10,000 0 0 Tourism Dvmt Task Force SLH 1988 Hyperbanc treatment center 285,000 285,000 285,000 1,750,000 Special project management 45,000 48,000 51,000 Hawaii Ocean & Marine Ch. 228 150,DDO 150.000 150,000 Resources Council BUSINESS SERVICES Ch. 199 �15-3 DIVISION FnktncLat Assistance Branch Proj"/Programs:, Large fishing vessel loans program Small fishing vessel loans program HIGH TECHNOLOGY Ch. 206M 015-30; DVMr CORPORATION- 15-31 NATURAL ENERGY Ch. 227 LABORATORY OF HAWAII AUTHORITY- (NELHA) Natural EneW Laboratory personnel: of Hawaii 15 FrE 20 20 420,000 600,000 64o,ooo operating: 40,000 60,0W 64,ow facililties: 351,000 824,000 873,000 AbLe Since 1986 h5e prug-f- purribase and corustruct- of commercialfibing vini-ek b- b- "rorardy -Wrided Loans f- miovatim mamienance and ripair are stig being mai@. 7he mmm auz1aL* m rachvigfunds as qfDa=iber 31, 1999 am $.@ OX978for the Large Fuhnng Vwd Loan Pm8ram and $918,8Wfor & Smaff Fairing Vewd Loan Prcgnanz "hom H7DCprovtdes support tri/hastruciurefor ocean R&D actrwies. -Note In 1990 HOSTand AELH wm combined toform AVA4 bollik CIP allotments bold litali=Jederaffkaids DET.AJLS OF STATE OCEINI PROGRAMS - by Authority, Funding and Staff Resources OVEIRTING BUDGIT UP RPHOP11011ORS RGHEY RHO RMUITY HES ROMIR FED FUNDINE FY 89 fy 99 fy 91 1987 1988 1989 PULIS RG[HCY NATUAL ENERGY ]LABORATORY OF HAWAU AUTHORM (NELHA) (COOL) Hawaii Ocean Science personnel: Technology (HOST) Park' 3 FrE 3 3 $95,530 100.497 105,722 operating: 492J62 890,8775 1,097,000 Warm H20 Pipe 830,000 Ocean Outfall 350,000 On-Site Building 383,OW ENERGY DWISION- Ch. 196 projects/progrants: Ocean Thermal Energy 125,000 Conversion (OTEC) Demi Wave energy resource assessment 8,000 Geothermal Energy Chs. i96D; 513-183 DOE... Cable Transfer System 199 (DLNE) 2,581,692 3,854,372 4,339,722 125,000 2,100.000 1.213,000 DBED Reported Total 84000 161,000 161,000 0 0 0 'No,, HOST. prmous@y maraged ly be High T,,b,,,,Ibgy Demlopme", Co"ration "Note: EneVDivi5ionfunds only reflect ocean-reWedprojects. -Note Funding wasprimanlyfederal but aporclonatedpriorto 1987 Departmmt ofLand and Natural Resources (DLNR) AQUAnc RESOURCES Chs. 187A; �S13-46 personnel: D"10N (DAR) 188:188E; 13-54; to 8 FrE 7 7 Adminismon 1W 197 3-61 to 64: $220.303 SIK179 S208,196 1 13-71 to 73; DOI-FWS 41,572 25,444 2@175 13-83 to 93; 1 3-99@ 15-3 operating 55.99, 116.052 54.492 projec-ts/prow- DOI-FWS 4,750 21016 4,750 kr0cial habitats for bortomfish 50,OW 60,000 60.000 Aquatic Enviromenit and personnel: Resources Protection Branch 9 FTE 9 9 S197,599 223,939 226,658 DOI-FW,S 31088 44091 49668 Other projects and operating costs 182.903 113,063 11,415 projects/programs: 5@405 _Wo 0 Main Hwn Islands marine operating: resources investigation 0 366,7io 389.721 Marine Life Conservation Districts, Ch. 190 %13-2& DOI-FWS 0 21a000 =000 13-36 'Note: Monies included under operating evpenses andpersonnei ofibese multiple DARprograins. DETAILS OF STATE OCEkN PROGRAMS - by Authority, Fundingaild Staff Resource's MENPIKIR OFEIRTING BUDGET rip 11PPIORIATIONS Mhcy Rho RMITY HRS RONIH f F0 ImIRS ly 8q fy q6 FY qI NO? AN Iq8q Has RGINCY Aquatic Effirment and Resources Protection Branch (cont.) Hawaiian sea turtle and monk seal recovery' Information and Education Unit pemnnel: 7 FrE 8 8 $106,955 12608 135,053 DOI-FWS 0 39,954 4-%054 operating: 61,086 128,104 67,2oo DOI-FWS 0 0 4995 Commercial Fisheries and Aquanikare Minch Commercial Fisheries Program personnel: 4 FrE 4 4 $99,953 121,042 107,980 DOI-FWS 3;940 V04 55M Other projects and operatmg costs 178,789 46,461 18,651 Projects/progranis: Fish Catch Report booklets 14,075 14,807 15,577 Fish aggregating devices, 76,000 76,000 76,ODO buoys/trolling alleys DOI-FWS 125,000 125@000 12--sOOO Fish toxicity tests 50,DDO 31,689 41,123 New fishing grounds survey 82,300 45,300 78,3DO Deepwater habitat enhancement 40,000 30,000 47,DDO Automated fisheries information 0 262,811 130,242 Aquaculture Program personnel: (not part of ADP) 7 FrE 7 7 $338,513 346,712 382,331 operating: 157,712 173,409 309,150 DOI-FWS 3-5,OW 0 0 Recreation-9 Fisheries Branch Sport Fishing Program- personnel: 8 8 8 $12o,6os 85,424 109,293 DOI-FWS 134132 15Z 691 164,583 Oil= projects and operating costs 235,129 A044 250.369 DCII-FWS 17J676 191067 176,019 projCCIS/Prograrns: Mahimahj culture $22,096 25,0D0 25,000 Artificial reef enhancement 5,875 12,500 12,500 DOI-FWS 17625 37,WD 37,500 NATLIRAL AREA, RESERVE Ch. 195 SS13-208 to personnel: SYSTEW COMMMON 1@-209 $18,200 prolects/progra- Ahb-Kinau Reserve 0 Waimami National 3100 Estuarine Research Reserve NOAA 50,000 'Note- Monies included under openuing epense; andpersonnel ofthese rnuhipLe DARprograins. "Note.- Includesfundingforsaftwaterandfresbwaterjisb.Propoitimvaryfmm)wr-to-)tw. DETAILS OF STATE OCEAN PROGRAJIS - by Authority, Funding and Staff Resources OPEIRTING BUDGET CIF RPROPRIATIONS HENCY AND AMUR 00NIH HD FUHDIHG f Y 89 H q] 1987 1908 1909 @ WIS RGENCY HRS STATE PMW DIVISION Ch. 198D projects/program: manage underwater parks nofunds allocated CONSERVATION AND 198; 205 13-121; ENVIRONMENTAL AFFAIRS 13-183; OFFICE 15-15 projectslprosr-* Conservation district use application reviews FORESTRY AND Chs. 1831); S134; personnel: WULDLIFF DIVISION 195D; 197 13-1211o I F11 I I 13-125 $2,003 2,123 2,2219 DOI-FWS 61008 6,368 6,686 projects/program: Wildlife sanctuaries 6,475 7,150 (marine components) DOI-FWS 19,425 20,400 21,430 Annual seabird surveys 3,075 3,@25 3,375 DOI-FWS 9,225 9,675 IaI25 Annual wa,ebird surveys 1,050 1,100 1,150 DOI-FWS A150 33W A450 AQUACULTURE Chs. 189G; personnel: DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM 197A 10 FrE 10 10 s262,191 264,422 2(4,422 operating: 55,511 59,028 61,8W Svcs on fee projects: 643,509 561,651 561,651 prolects/progr_ Center for Applied Aquaculture at the Act 360, 1,000,000 4,000,000 Oceanic Institute SLH 1988 1,000,00 0 Kauai Shrimp Pond Study Act 314, 25.000 sui 1989 0 Large-scale pond fficilities Act N6, 500,000 SLH 1989, 500,000 A-11 Small-scale pond aquaculcure 36,s7o 34.965 34,985 Extension and development activities 152,632 218,910 218,910 Marine Shrimp Project 220,586 73,960 73,96o Finfish Project 183,179 158,769 158,769 Marine Biotechnology 46,271 41,649 41,649 DIVISION OF CONSERVATION AND Ch. 199 personnel; RESOURCES ENFORCEMENT- 26 FTE 26 26 $698,940 780,450 785,730 operating: 161,161 196,697 202,656 $4,769,3M 5,190,283 5,174,786 0 1,000,000 4,525,000 DLNR Reported Total 619,"6 1,14Z410 M955 0 1,000,000 500,000 'Note.. "Ocean"and "coastal" components are not differentiatedftom "land" in record-keeping. "Note- Duision corpers bolb terrestrial and marine reponsibilums.7befigurespromded bere represent one-lbird oftbe totalpersonnel and operating costs and area ruugb &timate for ocean resources enforcement. DETAILS OF STATE OCEAN PROGRAIMS - by Authority. Fundinu and Staff Resources OFEIRTING BUDGET UP UPIOPIRTIONS RGINCY RHO RETIUITY HPS ROM 110 FUNDS f Y B 9 fY 90 FY 91 ]go? IgOB Ign RES 001Y DepartnwW of Agrkulture (DOA) AGUCULTLJRE LOANS DIVISION projects/prog- Aquaculture loan program Ch. 219 0-9 personnel: <1 <1 <1 operating: S175,000 80,000 80,000 MARKETING DrvWC1N - MARKET DEVELOPMENT BRANCH proj"/Prograt-, Seafood and aquaculture promodon PLANT INDUSTRY DIVISION - PLANT QUARANnNE BRANCH projects/Prow-" Manne plant and animal species 0spemons $175,000 80,000 80,000 0 0 0 DOA Reported Total 0 0 0 0 0 0 Note, Not budgetedfor specifically but done cooperxitiely untb DBED (ORB) and DLNR (ADP). -Note, marine component is undifferentiated in quarantine inspections. DepantwW of EducaUon (DOE) OFFICE OF INSrRucnONAL personnel: SERVICES - MARINE I FrE 1 1 EDWATION PROGRAMS $38,282 39,000 39,700 operating: 37,206 10,000 10,000 projects/progamis: Marine Symposium 7,874 8.000 8,000 Marine Science Learning Center Two aquaculture ponds - Waianae 52,000 0 $83,362 57,ODO 57,700 0 0 52,ODO DOE Reported Total 0 0 0 0 0 0 DETAILS OF STATE OCE.VN, PROGRAMS - bN, Authority, Funding and Staff Resources OPER11TING BUDGET lip OPPROPHINTIORS RGHEY RHD RETIUITY ns RON HFUHNS -"D FY q1 1q07 IM A89 @,,Hus 001Y DepantwW of Heaftb (DOH) ENVIRONMENTAL HMTH ADMINISTRATION Environmental Management Division Chs. 128D 911-59; 174C; 18OC: 11-60 342B;344 projects/prog- Water quality monitoring program Chs. 342D: S�11-54: personnel: 342H; 342J 11-55@ 11-58 EPA .92 FfE .92 1]-61; Ila $W50 40,707 planning: EPA z 6 FrE 2 $419,673 352,737 68,250 permitting: 6.6 FrE 6.6 S203,002 218.985 EPA Z,9 RE 3 V9025 199,002 monitoring and analysis: 10.7 5 FrE 12 5 $372,521 386,069 479,729 EPA .75 FrE .5 $22Z977 I 7W3 enforcement: 3.3 FrE @ 3 $152J65 148,310 EPA I FrE I $SZ605 4a103 training and technical assistance: EPA .125 FTE @ .083 $A890 A120 public participation and ecation: EPA ,71 FTE '75 .25 $105,062 40,590 FOOD & DRUG BRANCH P-i"/P-g-: Seafood inspections* Chs. 321; %11-29; 328 11-34; 11-35 STATE LABORATORIES projects/programs: Water quality laboratory analysis Chs. 342D, 5511-54; personnel: 342H, 342J 11-55,,11-58 5 FrE 5 5 il-6i: Ila S120,000 125,000 125,000 operating: 30,000 32,000 32,000 'Note. Costs andpersonnelfor seafood inspections are lumped among allfood inspections. FINE K DETAILS OF STATE OCEAN PROGRAINVIS - by Authority, Funding and Staff Resources OPFIRTING BUDGET CIP OPPROP118TIONS RGINEY RHO ACTMITY HRS ROMIN fig FUNDIHG f y [Y go FY q] 1987 1988 1989 RULES RUM Dqpwftwnt0fHea&h(DW (Cont) SANITATION MUNCH projem/progratms@, Aquaculrure fficilities inspections BMTH PROMOTION AND DISEASE PREVENTION DIMON projecits/programs: Honolulu aquatic safiny personnel: intervention program .15 FTE .15 .15 S4.264 4,911 5,157 Centers for operating: Disease 2 FrE 2 2 Control $64,291 skm 87,000 OFFICE OF ENVIRONNMAL Ch. 341 ill-201 QUALnY CONTROL projects/programs:- Environmental impact statements Ch. 343 SS11-200 $881,952 915,215 710,136 %9460 87,000 0 0 0 DOR Total Z,Z63,673 Vote.. Undifferentiated among aR inspectionfunctions. "Note: Not categorized 1.7y "wean"and "coastal Department of Transportation (DOT) Chs. 1901); 277; 279 COMMERCIAL HARBORS Ch. 266 SS19-61 to personnel: 19-65; 229 FrE 235 236 19-81 to 85 $6,280,391 6,199,376 6,199,376 other: 23,571,930 25,626,042 27,576,112 equipment: 59,902 507,730 268,357 vehicle: projects/programs: 60,792 163,320 148,750 Harbor facilities improvements & expansions 80,000 110.000 80,000 60,000 300,000 370,000 135,000 0 1,235,000 8,425,000 225,000 0 3,613,000 10,500,000 3,012,500 0 430,ODO 575,000 50,000 0 RPPEHPIX TE DET.ULS OF STATE OCEAN PROGRA-N-1S - by Authority. Funding and Staff Resources OPERATING BUOGIT CIP UPPOPMATIONS RGEM RHO RMUITY HIRS ROMIN FID NHOING [Y 89 fy go [Y 91 1907 19B8 1989 PUZ RGIHIY COMMMCUL IUMRS prq-lpror-: Harbor facilities improvements & expansions (cont.) 18,100-000 3,300-000 17,656,ooo 0 300.000 300,000 5,175,000 5,000,000 300,000 30i,ooo 310,000 310,000 140,000 150,000 1,200,000 130,000 150,000 566,480 1,100,000 500,000 11100,000 0 985.000 900,000 14.500,000 85,000 900,000 0 3,250,000 343,000 95,000 95,000 600,000 175,000 100,000 25,000 27000 75,0DO Z-000 25,000 600.000 6oo,ooo 1.490.000 625,00 Misc improvements to 255,000 400,000 neighbor island harbors 155,000 5,000 Statewide harbor planning 135,000 300,ODO 135,000 130,000 Intra-island ferry system Ch. 268 1,580,000 9800 Inter-island mass transit 1,000,000 Statewide harbor sewer 1.375-000 system improvements 485,000 Commercial fisherie 500,000 pier reconstruction 130,000 RPPEKBIHIUC DUMB OF STATE OCEAN PROGRAMS - by Authority. Fundingand StatTResources OPROTING BUDGET UP FIRM IONS RGENCY ONO Haluily HRS RUMIR Flo FUROING Fy og [y q0 Fy qj A87 goo jg8q RULES RGEHIY OCEAN-BASED CH. 267 Sl@-71 to personnel: RECREA71ON (BOATING) 19-76 17.0 FrE 17.0 17.0 54.5 FIF 62.0' 63.0' $1,593,ODO 1,767,000 1,784,000 other: 3,745,0W 4,30DMO 4,988,Wo equipment: 7,500 14,133 4,950 Vehicle: 0 41,410 32,135 projects/progra= Statewide improvements MARMMMIRn@ to boating facilities 130,000 40,ODD 92,000 0 100.000 150,ODO 10,000 0 50,000 3,ODO 5,000 3,000 207,000 0 200,000 75,000 500,000 200,000 65,ooo 107,000 71,000 64,000 80,000 0 MIMMMIL- 310,000 3,550,000 25,000 105,000 100,000 20,000 355,0DO 50,000 90,0D0 50,WO KON 5000 90,WO KON 15,000 '0,000 MMMEMSE- 1 115,000 15,000 200,000 'Nole- Persomidjunded through DOTSpectdFunds. 20,000 DETAILS OF STATE OCEAN PROGRANIS - by Authority. Funding and Staff Resources RPHRIX IUI UPEIRTING BUDGET CIP RPHOMIRTIONS RGEHEY ONO h[TIUITY HPS ROMIN FED f HING ly og fy go fy g] Iqq7 Ig88 jq8q RULIS RGI Statewide improvements to boating facilities (cont.) 90,000 0 700,000 1,150,000 70,000 350,000 150,000 20,000 430,000 550,000 6o,ooo 50,000 1,250,000 775,000 50,000 200,000 4,884,000 885,000 300,000 156000 79,000 11,'000 15,000 6,000 25.000 25,000 250,000 250,000 5,000 1,000 210,000 110,000 70,000 0 Statewide boat launching 50,000 facilities program 50,000 Statewide Planning 75,ODO 0 Statewide sewage system 180,000 improve to boating facilities 90,000 Statewide waste oil Ikilifies 140,000 West Maui Ocean 140,000 11,000 Ocean Recreation Management Plan 0 Of DETAILS OF STATE OCEAN PROGRAINIS - by Authority, Funding and Staff Resources OPERATING BUDGET CIP APPROMIRTIONS RGENCY RHO RITIUITY RES ROMIN FED FUROING FY 89 fy gg gI Igo? Iq88 lqog US RGINCY DepanmM of Transportation (DO7) (Cont) COASTAL ARLAS CH. 266 S19-8110 S15.29ri 15,810 16.633 PROGRAM projects/progra-: Erosion control programs Ala Wai: Kuhio Beach: 50,000 45,000 280,000 0 SAFFIV & ENFORCEMENT' projects/prow- Marine casuair v and investigation program 1$35.333,812 38,634,821 41,018,313 28,246 000 19,762,000 59,539.000 DOT Repofted Total 0 0 0 9,273,';00 18,965,000 6,313,480 'Note. Moniesforpersonnei and operating costs already are represented under both The commenctal barbors and ocean-based recreation categorfesforl)Uin ibis matrix. QBke of State P14nning Ch. 225M (OSP) Hawaii Ocean Center Program personnel: I FTE